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Sample records for adequate stability margins

  1. On the Marginal Stability of Glassy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Le; Baity-Jesi, Marco; Müller, Markus; Wyart, Matthieu

    2015-03-01

    In various glassy systems that are out of equilibrium, like spin glasses and granular packings, the dynamics appears to be critical: avalanches involving almost the whole system could happen. A recent conceptual breakthrough argues that such glassy systems sample the ensemble of marginal stable states, which inevitably results into critical dynamics. However, it is unclear how the marginal stability is dynamically guaranteed. We investigate this marginal stability assumption by studying specifically the critical athermal dynamics of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model. We discuss how a pseudo-gap in the density distribution of local fields characterizing the marginal stability arises dynamically.

  2. Storm tracks near marginal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaum, Maarten; Novak, Lenka

    2015-04-01

    The variance of atmospheric storm tracks is characterised by intermittent bursts of activity interspersed with relatively quiescent periods. Most of the poleward heat transport by storm tracks is due to a limited number of strong heat flux events, which occur in a quasi-periodic fashion. This behaviour is in contradiction with the usual conceptual model of the storm tracks, which relies on high growth rate background flows which then spawn weather systems that grow in an exponential or non-normal fashion. Here we present a different conceptual model of the atmospheric storm tracks which is built on the observation that, when including diabatic and other dissipative effects, the storm track region is in fact most of the time marginally stable. The ensuing model is a nonlinear oscillator, very similar to Volterra-Lotka predator-prey models. We demonstrate the extensions of this model to a stochastically driven nonlinear oscillator. The model produces quasi-periodic behaviour dominated by intermittent heat flux events. Perhaps most surprisingly, we will show strong evidence from re-analysis data for our conceptual model: the re-analysis data produces a phase-space plot that is very similar indeed to the phase-space plot for our nonlinear oscillator model.

  3. Time-Domain Stability Margin Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  4. Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Keith

    2017-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  5. Bounded Linear Stability Margin Analysis of Nonlinear Hybrid Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Boskovic, Jovan D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a bounded linear stability analysis for a hybrid adaptive control that blends both direct and indirect adaptive control. Stability and convergence of nonlinear adaptive control are analyzed using an approximate linear equivalent system. A stability margin analysis shows that a large adaptive gain can lead to a reduced phase margin. This method can enable metrics-driven adaptive control whereby the adaptive gain is adjusted to meet stability margin requirements.

  6. Study to Determine Adequate Margins in Radiotherapy Planning for Esophageal Carcinoma by Detailing Patterns of Recurrence After Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Button, Michael R. Morgan, Carys A.; Croydon, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, S. Ashley; Crosby, Thomas D.L.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the adequacy of radiotherapy (RT) margins by studying the relapse patterns after definitive chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study assessing the first site of disease relapse after definitive chemoradiotherapy that included four 3-weekly cycles of cisplatin and continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil, with conformal RT (50 Gy in 25 fractions) concurrent with Cycles 3 and 4. The RT planning target volume was the endoscopic ultrasonography/computed tomography-defined gross tumor volume with 1.5-cm lateral and 3-cm superoinferior margins. Results: A total of 145 patients were included. Their average age was 65.4 years, 45% had adenocarcinoma, 61% had lower third esophageal tumors, and 75% had Stage III-IVA disease. After RT, of 142 patients, 85 (60%) had evidence of relapse at a median follow-up of 18 months. The relapse was local (within the RT field) in 55; distant (metastatic) in 13, and a combination of local and distant in 14. The local relapse rates were not influenced by tumor stage, lymph node status, or disease length. Three patients developed a relapse in regions adjacent to the RT fields; however, it is unlikely that larger field margins would have been clinically acceptable or effective in these cases. The median overall survival was 15 months. Conclusion: The gross tumor volume-planning target volume margins in this study appeared adequate. Future efforts to improve outcomes using definitive chemoradiotherapy should be directed toward reducing the high rates of in-field and distant relapses.

  7. Wavelet Filtering to Reduce Conservatism in Aeroservoelastic Robust Stability Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Marty; Lind, Rick

    1998-01-01

    Wavelet analysis for filtering and system identification was used to improve the estimation of aeroservoelastic stability margins. The conservatism of the robust stability margins was reduced with parametric and nonparametric time-frequency analysis of flight data in the model validation process. Nonparametric wavelet processing of data was used to reduce the effects of external desirableness and unmodeled dynamics. Parametric estimates of modal stability were also extracted using the wavelet transform. Computation of robust stability margins for stability boundary prediction depends on uncertainty descriptions derived from the data for model validation. F-18 high Alpha Research Vehicle aeroservoelastic flight test data demonstrated improved robust stability prediction by extension of the stability boundary beyond the flight regime.

  8. Perceived Marginalization and the Prediction of Romantic Relationship Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmiller, Justin J.; Agnew, Christopher R.

    2007-01-01

    The present research examined how perceived marginalization of one's romantic relationship is associated with level of future commitment to and stability of that involvement. Results from a 7-month longitudinal study of romantically involved individuals (N = 215) revealed that perceived social network marginalization at Time 1 predicted breakup…

  9. Evidence for Marginal Stability in Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jie; Jorjadze, Ivane; Pontani, Lea-Laetitia; Wyart, Matthieu; Brujic, Jasna

    2016-11-01

    We report the first measurements of the effect of pressure on vibrational modes in emulsions, which serve as a model for soft frictionless spheres at zero temperature. As a function of the applied pressure, we find that the density of states D (ω ) exhibits a low-frequency cutoff ω*, which scales linearly with the number of extra contacts per particle δ z . Moreover, for ω <ω*, our results are consistent with D (ω )˜ω2/ω*2, a quadratic behavior whose prefactor is larger than what is expected from Debye theory. This surprising result agrees with recent theoretical findings [E. DeGiuli, A. Laversanne-Finot, G. A. Düring, E. Lerner, and M. Wyart, Soft Matter 10, 5628 (2014); S. Franz, G. Parisi, P. Urbani, and F. Zamponi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14539 (2015)]. Finally, the degree of localization of the softest low frequency modes increases with compression, as shown by the participation ratio as well as their spatial configurations. Overall, our observations show that emulsions are marginally stable and display non-plane-wave modes up to vanishing frequencies.

  10. Robust stabilization of marginally stable positive-real systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh M.; Gupta, Sandeep

    1994-01-01

    This paper investigates the stability of the negative feedback interconnection to two positive-real systems which have poles in the closed left-half of the complex plane. A new definition of marginally strict positive real systems is introduced, and sufficient conditions are obtained for the stability of the feedback interconnection of such systems, using the Lyapunov method. The conditions obtained have direct applications to dynamic dissipative controllers for flexible spacecraft and are the least restrictive ones published to date.

  11. Evaluation of overall setup accuracy and adequate setup margins in pelvic image-guided radiotherapy: Comparison of the male and female patients

    SciTech Connect

    Laaksomaa, Marko; Kapanen, Mika; Tulijoki, Tapio; Peltola, Seppo; Hyödynmaa, Simo; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated adequate setup margins for the radiotherapy (RT) of pelvic tumors based on overall position errors of bony landmarks. We also estimated the difference in setup accuracy between the male and female patients. Finally, we compared the patient rotation for 2 immobilization devices. The study cohort included consecutive 64 male and 64 female patients. Altogether, 1794 orthogonal setup images were analyzed. Observer-related deviation in image matching and the effect of patient rotation were explicitly determined. Overall systematic and random errors were calculated in 3 orthogonal directions. Anisotropic setup margins were evaluated based on residual errors after weekly image guidance. The van Herk formula was used to calculate the margins. Overall, 100 patients were immobilized with a house-made device. The patient rotation was compared against 28 patients immobilized with CIVCO's Kneefix and Feetfix. We found that the usually applied isotropic setup margin of 8 mm covered all the uncertainties related to patient setup for most RT treatments of the pelvis. However, margins of even 10.3 mm were needed for the female patients with very large pelvic target volumes centered either in the symphysis or in the sacrum containing both of these structures. This was because the effect of rotation (p ≤ 0.02) and the observer variation in image matching (p ≤ 0.04) were significantly larger for the female patients than for the male patients. Even with daily image guidance, the required margins remained larger for the women. Patient rotations were largest about the lateral axes. The difference between the required margins was only 1 mm for the 2 immobilization devices. The largest component of overall systematic position error came from patient rotation. This emphasizes the need for rotation correction. Overall, larger position errors and setup margins were observed for the female patients with pelvic cancer than for the male patients.

  12. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-04-01

    Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

  13. Black Hole Entropy, Marginal Stability and Mirror Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Aspinwall, Paul S.; Maloney, Alexander; Simons, Aaron

    2006-10-06

    We consider the superconformal quantum mechanics associated to BPS black holes in type IIB Calabi-Yau compactifications. This quantum mechanics describes the dynamics of D-branes in the near-horizon attractor geometry of the black hole. In many cases, the black hole entropy can be found by counting the number of chiral primaries in this quantum mechanics. Both the attractor mechanism and notions of marginal stability play important roles in generating the large number of microstates required to explain this entropy. We compute the microscopic entropy explicitly in a few different cases, where the theory reduces to quantum mechanics on the moduli space of special Lagrangians. Under certain assumptions, the problem may be solved by implementing mirror symmetry as three T-dualities: this is essentially the mirror of a calculation by Gaiotto, Strominger and Yin. In some simple cases, the calculation may be done in greater generality without resorting to conjectures about mirror symmetry. For example, the K3 x T{sub 2} case may be studied precisely using the Fourier-Mukai transform.

  14. Applied Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment for Nonlinear Time-Varying Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, J. M.; Johnson, M. D.; Wall, J. H.; Dominguez, A.

    2016-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation. This technique was implemented by using the Stability Aerospace Vehicle Analysis Tool (SAVANT) computer simulation to evaluate the stability of the SLS system with the Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) active and inactive along its ascent trajectory. The gains for which the vehicle maintains apparent time-domain stability defines the gain margins, and the time delay similarly defines the phase margin. This method of extracting the control stability margins from the time-domain simulation is relatively straightforward and the resultant margins can be compared to the linearized system results. The sections herein describe the techniques employed to extract the time-domain margins, compare the results between these nonlinear and the linear methods, and provide explanations for observed discrepancies. The SLS ascent trajectory was simulated with SAVANT and the classical linear stability margins were evaluated at one second intervals. The linear analysis was performed with the AAC algorithm disabled to attain baseline stability

  15. A multiloop generalization of the circle criterion for stability margin analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safonov, M. G.; Athans, M.

    1979-01-01

    In order to provide a theoretical tool suited for characterizing the stability margins of multiloop feedback systems, multiloop input-output stability results generalizing the circle stability criterion are considered. Generalized conic sectors with 'centers' and 'radii' determined by linear dynamical operators are employed to specify the stability margins as a frequency dependent convex set of modeling errors (including nonlinearities, gain variations and phase variations) which the system must be able to tolerate in each feedback loop without instability. The resulting stability criterion gives sufficient conditions for closed loop stability in the presence of frequency dependent modeling errors, even when the modeling errors occur simultaneously in all loops. The stability conditions yield an easily interpreted scalar measure of the amount by which a multiloop system exceeds, or falls short of, its stability margin specifications.

  16. Dynamic stability margin using a marker based system and Tekscan: a comparison of four gait conditions.

    PubMed

    Lugade, Vipul; Kaufman, Kenton

    2014-01-01

    Stability during gait is maintained through control of the center of mass (CoM) position and velocity in relation to the base of support (BoS). The dynamic stability margin, or the interaction of the extrapolated center of mass with the closest boundary of the BoS, can reveal possible control errors during gait. The purpose of this study was to investigate a marker based method for defining the BoS, and compare the dynamic stability margin throughout gait in comparison to a BoS defined from foot pressure sensors. The root mean squared difference between these two methodologies ranged from 0.9 cm to 3.5 cm, when walking under four conditions: plantigrade, equinus, everted, and inverted. As the stability margin approaches -35 cm prior to contralateral heel strike, there was approximately 90% agreement between the two systems at this time point. Underestimation of the marker based dynamic stability margin or overestimation of the pressure based dynamic stability margin was due to inaccuracies in defining the medial boundary of the BoS. Overall, care must be taken to ensure similar definitions of the BoS are utilized when comparing the dynamic stability margin between participants and gait conditions.

  17. A multiloop generalization of the circle criterion for stability margin analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safonov, M. G.; Athans, M.

    1981-01-01

    In order to provide a theoretical tool well suited for use in characterizing the stability margins (e.g., gain and phase margins) of multiloop feedback systems, multiloop input-output stability results generalizing the circle stability criterion are considered. Generalized conic sectors with 'centers' and 'radii' determined by linear dynamical operators are employed to enable an engineer to specify the stability margins which he desires as a frequency-dependent convex set of modeling errors (including nonlinearities, gain variations, and phase variations) which the system must be able to tolerate in each feedback loop without instability. The resulting stability criterion gives sufficient conditions for closed-loop stability in the presence of such frequency-dependent modeling errors, even when the modeling errors occur simultaneously in all loops.

  18. Stability margins for multilinear interval systems by way of phase conditions: A unified approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, L. H.; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    A simple way of checking the stability with respect to an arbitrary stability region of a family of polynomials containing a vector of parameters varying within prescribed intervals is discussed. It is assumed that the parameters appear affine multilinearly in the characteristic polynomial coefficients. The condition proposed is simply to check the phase difference of the vertex polynomials. This test based on the mapping theorem significantly reduces computational complexity. Mathematical proofs are omitted. The results can be used to determine various stability margins of control systems containing interconnected interval subsystems. These include the gain, phase, time-delay, H(sup infinity), and nonlinear sector bounded stability margins of multilinear interval systems.

  19. Bounded Linear Stability Analysis - A Time Delay Margin Estimation Approach for Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinlvas; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating time delay margin for model-reference adaptive control of systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent the conventional model-reference adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window using the comparison lemma. The locally bounded linear approximation of the combined adaptive system is cast in a form of an input-time-delay differential equation over a small time window. The time delay margin of this system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by a matrix measure method, which provides a simple analytical technique for estimating an upper bound of time delay margin. Based on simulation results for a scalar model-reference adaptive control system, both the bounded linear stability method and the matrix measure method are seen to provide a reasonably accurate and yet not too conservative time delay margin estimation.

  20. Application of matrix singular value properties for evaluating gain and phase margins of multiloop systems. [stability margins for wing flutter suppression and drone lateral attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Newsom, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A stability margin evaluation method in terms of simultaneous gain and phase changes in all loops of a multiloop system is presented. A universal gain-phase margin evaluation diagram is constructed by generalizing an existing method using matrix singular value properties. Using this diagram and computing the minimum singular value of the system return difference matrix over the operating frequency range, regions of guaranteed stability margins can be obtained. Singular values are computed for a wing flutter suppression and a drone lateral attitude control problem. The numerical results indicate that this method predicts quite conservative stability margins. In the second example if the eigenvalue magnitude is used instead of the singular value, as a measure of nearness to singularity, more realistic stability margins are obtained. However, this relaxed measure generally cannot guarantee global stability.

  1. Controller certification: The generalized stability margin inference for a large number of MIMO controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jisang

    In this dissertation, we investigate MIMO stability margin inference of a large number of controllers using pre-established stability margins of a small number of nu-gap-wise adjacent controllers. The generalized stability margin and the nu-gap metric are inherently able to handle MIMO system analysis without the necessity of repeating multiple channel-by-channel SISO analyses. This research consists of three parts: (i) development of a decision support tool for inference of the stability margin, (ii) computational considerations for yielding the maximal stability margin with the minimal nu-gap metric in a less conservative manner, and (iii) experiment design for estimating the generalized stability margin with an assured error bound. A modern problem from aerospace control involves the certification of a large set of potential controllers with either a single plant or a fleet of potential plant systems, with both plants and controllers being MIMO and, for the moment, linear. Experiments on a limited number of controller/plant pairs should establish the stability and a certain level of margin of the complete set. We consider this certification problem for a set of controllers and provide algorithms for selecting an efficient subset for testing. This is done for a finite set of candidate controllers and, at least for SISO plants, for an infinite set. In doing this, the nu-gap metric will be the main tool. We provide a theorem restricting a radius of a ball in the parameter space so that the controller can guarantee a prescribed level of stability and performance if parameters of the controllers are contained in the ball. Computational examples are given, including one of certification of an aircraft engine controller. The overarching aim is to introduce truly MIMO margin calculations and to understand their efficacy in certifying stability over a set of controllers and in replacing legacy single-loop gain and phase margin calculations. We consider methods for the

  2. Angular Stability Margins for the Remote Fusion Cutting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Kristiansen, Morten

    The set of incident angles, that yields stable cuts when conducting remote fusion cutting (RFC), is of great importance when scheduling multiple cuts on a work piece. This is due to their ability to determine how much the laser beam can be moved by angling the cutting head instead of translating it. This paper investigates how the stability of the RFC process is affected by changing the incident angle when processing stainless steel sheets. This investigation was conducted as an experimental study in which the angle of incidence was decomposed into a work angle and a travel angle. The stability was evaluated by an automatic procedure based on images acquired by a programmable microscope and a computer vision algorithm developed in MATLAB. The results showed that the stability of the RFC process was dependent on the work and the travel angle. It was also seen that a coherent region of stable incident angles could be found. All experiments were conducted with a 3 kW single mode fiber laser at the laser processing laboratory at Aalborg University.

  3. Asymptotic Linearity of Optimal Control Modification Adaptive Law with Analytical Stability Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2010-01-01

    Optimal control modification has been developed to improve robustness to model-reference adaptive control. For systems with linear matched uncertainty, optimal control modification adaptive law can be shown by a singular perturbation argument to possess an outer solution that exhibits a linear asymptotic property. Analytical expressions of phase and time delay margins for the outer solution can be obtained. Using the gradient projection operator, a free design parameter of the adaptive law can be selected to satisfy stability margins.

  4. Rotor Design Options for Improving XV-15 Whirl-Flutter Stability Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.; Peyran, R. J.; Johnson, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Rotor design changes intended to improve tiltrotor whirl-flutter stability margins were analyzed. A baseline analytical model of the XV-15 was established, and then a thinner, composite wing was designed to be representative of a high-speed tiltrotor. The rotor blade design was modified to increase the stability speed margin for the thin-wing design. Small rearward offsets of the aerodynamic-center locus with respect to the blade elastic axis created large increases in the stability boundary. The effect was strongest for offsets at the outboard part of the blade, where an offset of the aerodynamic center by 10% of tip chord improved the stability margin by over 100 knots. Forward offsets of the blade center of gravity had similar but less pronounced effects. Equivalent results were seen for swept-tip blades. Appropriate combinations of sweep and pitch stiffness completely eliminated whirl flutter within the speed range examined; alternatively, they allowed large increases in pitch-flap coupling (delta-three) for a given stability margin. A limited investigation of the rotor loads in helicopter and airplane configuration showed only minor increases in loads.

  5. Verifiable Adaptive Control with Analytical Stability Margins by Optimal Control Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a verifiable model-reference adaptive control method based on an optimal control formulation for linear uncertain systems. A predictor model is formulated to enable a parameter estimation of the system parametric uncertainty. The adaptation is based on both the tracking error and predictor error. Using a singular perturbation argument, it can be shown that the closed-loop system tends to a linear time invariant model asymptotically under an assumption of fast adaptation. A stability margin analysis is given to estimate a lower bound of the time delay margin using a matrix measure method. Using this analytical method, the free design parameter n of the optimal control modification adaptive law can be determined to meet a specification of stability margin for verification purposes.

  6. Implications of marginal weakening for grounding line migration and marine ice sheet (in)stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borstad, C. P.; Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.; Larour, E. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The stability of a grounding line on reverse-sloping bedrock has been the subject of much attention and debate. In the absence of ice shelf buttressing or lateral flow variations, such a marine ice sheet configuration has been shown to be unconditionally unstable. Numerous studies have speculated that recent grounding line retreat in West Antarctica indicates that a runaway instability is already underway for this portion of the ice sheet. However, modeling studies have shown that a grounding line can be stabilized on a reverse-sloping bed in the case of strong lateral flow convergence. One factor that has not been addressed in modeling studies of the marine ice sheet stability is fracturing and weakening of ice stream and ice shelf shear margins, processes that are known to be operating in many places. It has been speculated that marginal weakening should reduce the stress carried across shear margins, leading to reduced buttressing and thus allowing accelerated flow and grounding line retreat. Here, we test this hypothesis using an ice sheet model and a previously-used, idealized marine ice sheet configuration with strong lateral flow convergence. We first confirm earlier modeling studies that a stable grounding line position can be found on reverse-sloping bedrock. We then explore perturbations of this stable position caused by allowing the shear margins to damage according to a new, generalized constitutive framework for ice deformation and weakening. Constitutive parameters for marginal weakening are taken from assimilated velocity observations for several different ice shelves. We demonstrate that marginal weakening is at least as important as basal lubrication or ice shelf thinning for perturbing the grounding line. Model projections of marine ice sheet evolution that do not account for marginal weakening are therefore likely to underestimate both the rate of grounding line retreat and ice flux.

  7. Real-Time Stability Margin Measurements for X-38 Robustness Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2005-01-01

    A method has been developed for real-time stability margin measurement calculations. The method relies on a tailored-forced excitation targeted to a specific frequency range. Computation of the frequency response is matched to the specific frequencies contained in the excitation. A recursive Fourier transformation is used to make the method compatible with real-time calculation. The method was incorporated into the X-38 nonlinear simulation and applied to an X-38 robustness test. X-38 stability margins were calculated for different variations in aerodynamic and mass properties over the vehicle flight trajectory. The new method showed results comparable to more traditional stability analysis techniques, and at the same time, this new method provided coverage that is more complete and increased efficiency.

  8. An Investigation of Rotorcraft Stability-Phase Margin Requirements in Hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanken, Chris L.; Lusardi, Jeff A.; Ivler, Christina M.; Tischler, Mark B.; Hoefinger, Marc T.; Decker, William A.; Malpica, Carlos A.; Berger, Tom; Tucker, George E.

    2009-01-01

    A cooperative study was performed to investigate the handling quality effects from reduced flight control system stability margins, and the trade-offs with higher disturbance rejection bandwidth (DRB). The piloted simulation study, perform on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, included three classes of rotorcraft in four configurations: a utility-class helicopter; a medium-lift helicopter evaluated with and without an external slung load; and a large (heavy-lift) civil tiltrotor aircraft. This large aircraft also allowed an initial assessment of ADS-33 handling quality requirements for an aircraft of this size. Ten experimental test pilots representing the U.S. Army, Marine Corps, NASA, rotorcraft industry, and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), evaluated the four aircraft configurations, for a range of flight control stability-margins and turbulence levels, while primarily performing the ADS-33 Hover and Lateral Reposition MTEs. Pilot comments and aircraft-task performance data were analyzed. The preliminary stability margin results suggest higher DRB and less phase margin cases are preferred as the aircraft increases in size. Extra care will need to be taken to assess the influence of variability when nominal flight control gains start with reduced margins. Phase margins as low as 20-23 degrees resulted in low disturbance-response damping ratios, objectionable oscillations, PIO tendencies, and a perception of an incipient handling qualities cliff. Pilot comments on the disturbance response of the aircraft correlated well to the DRB guidelines provided in the ADS-33 Test Guide. The A D-3S3 mid-term response-to-control damping ratio metrics can be measured and applied to the disturbance-response damping ratio. An initial assessment of LCTR yaw bandwidth shows the current Level 1 boundary needs to be relaxed to help account for a large pilot off-set from the c.g. Future efforts should continue to investigate the applicability/refinement of the current ADS-33

  9. Targeting adequate thermal stability and fire safety in selecting ionic liquid-based electrolytes for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Chancelier, L; Diallo, A O; Santini, C C; Marlair, G; Gutel, T; Mailley, S; Len, C

    2014-02-07

    The energy storage market relating to lithium based systems regularly grows in size and expands in terms of a portfolio of energy and power demanding applications. Thus safety focused research must more than ever accompany related technological breakthroughs regarding performance of cells, resulting in intensive research on the chemistry and materials science to design more reliable batteries. Formulating electrolyte solutions with nonvolatile and hardly flammable ionic liquids instead of actual carbonate mixtures could be safer. However, few definitions of thermal stability of electrolytes based on ionic liquids have been reported in the case of abuse conditions (fire, shortcut, overcharge or overdischarge). This work investigates thermal stability up to combustion of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C1C4Im][NTf2]) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([PYR14][NTf2]) ionic liquids, and their corresponding electrolytes containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide LiNTf2. Their possible routes of degradation during thermal abuse testings were investigated by thermodynamic studies under several experimental conditions. Their behaviours under fire were also tested, including the analysis of emitted compounds.

  10. Computational analysis of a stability robustness margin for structured real-parameter perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedell, Evan; Chuang, C.-H.; Wie, Bong

    1989-01-01

    An efficient computational method is presented for stability robustness analysis with structured real-parameter perturbations. A generic model of a class of uncertain dynamical systems is used as an example. The parameter uncertainty is characterized by a real scalar, epsilon. Multilinearity of the closed-loop characteristic polynomial is exploited to permit application of the mapping theorem to calculate the stability robustness margin. It is found that sensitive geometry of the stability boundary in the epsilon, omega-plane renders problematic the calculation of the minimum epsilon as a function of omega. This difficulty is avoided by calculating the minimum distance to the image of the uncertainty domain over omega as a function of epsilon. It is also shown that a certain class of uncertain dynamical systems has the required multilinearity property and are thus amenable to the proposed technique.

  11. Fast prediction of transient stability margin in systems with SVC control and HVDC link

    SciTech Connect

    Tso, S.K.; Cheung, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    Recent developments in transient stability margin (TSM) prediction using the energy-based direct method have included excitation controllers, power system stabilizers (PSSs) and/or static VAr compensators (SVCs). These devices can be represented in their detailed dynamic models to desired degrees of complexity while the proposed extended equal-area criterion can still be effectively applied. This paper describes further development of this technique to incorporate an HVDC transmission into the test network for TSM prediction. The method is examined with a practical 17-machine power network representing the South China/Hong Kong system. An SVC control scheme is also installed in a weak bus of the test network for transient stability improvement. The results obtained show that there is no sacrifice in accuracy, speed or reliability of the TSM method with SVC and HVDC realistically incorporated into the study.

  12. Estimation of Aerodynamic Stability Derivatives for Space Launch System and Impact on Stability Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pei, Jing; Wall, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques involved in determining the aerodynamic stability derivatives for the frequency domain analysis of the Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. Generally for launch vehicles, determination of the derivatives is fairly straightforward since the aerodynamic data is usually linear through a moderate range of angle of attack. However, if the wind tunnel data lacks proper corrections then nonlinearities and asymmetric behavior may appear in the aerodynamic database coefficients. In this case, computing the derivatives becomes a non-trivial task. Errors in computing the nominal derivatives could lead to improper interpretation regarding the natural stability of the system and tuning of the controller parameters, which would impact both stability and performance. The aerodynamic derivatives are also provided at off nominal operating conditions used for dispersed frequency domain Monte Carlo analysis. Finally, results are shown to illustrate that the effects of aerodynamic cross axis coupling can be neglected for the SLS configuration studied

  13. Assessment of marginal stability and permeability of an interim restorative endodontic material.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, R B; Safavi, K E; Spångberg, L S

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the marginal stability and permeability of a new interim restorative endodontic material, Tempit (Centrix Inc., Milford, Conn.), and to compare the findings with the results of two commonly used restorative endodontic materials, Cavit (Premier Dental Products Co., Philadelphia, Pa.) and IRM (Intermediate Restorative Material Capsules, The Caulk Co., Division of Dentsply International Inc., Milford, Del.) This study was performed in several steps. First, the endodontic access cavities were prepared and restored on 80 extracted mandibular molars. The samples were exposed to methylene blue dye solution for 6 days, thermocycled, and sectioned; the dye penetration and diffusion were measured along the margins and into the body of the materials. The second experiment was a special study performed in standardized glass tubes to better evaluate the marginal and body dye penetration into the materials by increasing the length of the fillings. To eliminate the possibility of hygroscopic setting mechanisms of materials, samples were first allowed to set under water before dye was introduced. Cavit and Tempit showed a substantial amount of dye diffusion into the body of the materials. Cavit exhibited the best sealing ability at all times. The marginal and body dye penetration were significantly different for the Tempit material in all experiments than Cavit (p < 0.001). IRM demonstrated the least body penetration of all three materials (p < 0.001) but had a substantial marginal leakage not significantly different from the results of the Tempit material (p = 0.6 and p = 0.1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Tailored Excitation for Multivariable Stability-Margin Measurement Applied to the X-31A Nonlinear Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.

    1997-01-01

    Safety and productivity of the initial flight test phase of a new vehicle have been enhanced by developing the ability to measure the stability margins of the combined control system and vehicle in flight. One shortcoming of performing this analysis is the long duration of the excitation signal required to provide results over a wide frequency range. For flight regimes such as high angle of attack or hypersonic flight, the ability to maintain flight condition for this time duration is difficult. Significantly reducing the required duration of the excitation input is possible by tailoring the input to excite only the frequency range where the lowest stability margin is expected. For a multiple-input/multiple-output system, the inputs can be simultaneously applied to the control effectors by creating each excitation input with a unique set of frequency components. Chirp-Z transformation algorithms can be used to match the analysis of the results to the specific frequencies used in the excitation input. This report discusses the application of a tailored excitation input to a high-fidelity X-31A linear model and nonlinear simulation. Depending on the frequency range, the results indicate the potential to significantly reduce the time required for stability measurement.

  15. Assessing Geotechnical Parameters and Slope Stability on the Architecture of Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, E. W.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2001-12-01

    slope. As kinematic viscosity increases a debris flow deposit shorten up and become more blocky deposits. Most parameters controlling slope stability appear to affect the internal character of the margin deposits, rather than the gross shape of the continental margin.

  16. A cautionary note concerning the use of stabilized weights in marginal structural models.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Denis; Atherton, Juli; Rossi, Amanda M; Bacon, Simon L; Lefebvre, Geneviève

    2015-02-28

    Marginal structural models are commonly used to estimate the causal effect of a time-varying treatment in presence of time-dependent confounding. When fitting an MSM to data, the analyst must specify both the structural model for the outcome and the treatment models for the inverse-probability-of-treatment weights. The use of stabilized weights is recommended because they are generally less variable than the standard weights. In this paper, we are concerned with the use of the common stabilized weights when the structural model is specified to only consider partial treatment history, such as the current or most recent treatments. We present various examples of settings where these stabilized weights yield biased inferences while the standard weights do not. These issues are first investigated on the basis of simulated data and subsequently exemplified using data from the Honolulu Heart Program. Unlike common stabilized weights, we find that basic stabilized weights offer some protection against bias in structural models designed to estimate current or most recent treatment effects.

  17. Regional variability of slope stability: Application to the Eel margin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.; Locat, J.; Dartnell, P.; Israel, K.; Florence, Wong

    1999-01-01

    Relative values of downslope driving forces and sediment resisting forces determine the locations of submarine slope failures. Both of these vary regionally, and their impact can be addressed when the data are organized in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The study area on the continental margin near the Eel River provides an excellent opportunity to apply GIS spatial analysis techniques for evaluation of slope stability. In this area, swath bathymetric mapping shows seafloor morphology and distribution of slope steepness in fine detail, and sediment analysis of over 70 box cores delineates the variability of sediment density near the seafloor surface. Based on the results of ten geotechnical studies of submarine study areas, we developed an algorithm that relates surface sediment density to the shear strength appropriate to the type of cyclic loading produced by an earthquake. Strength and stress normalization procedures provide results that are conceptually independent of subbottom depth. Results at depth are rigorously applicable if sediment lithology does not vary significantly and consolidation state can be estimated. Otherwise, the method applies only to shallow-seated slope failure. Regional density, slope, and level of anticipated seismic shaking information were combined in a GIS framework to yield a map that illustrates the relative stability of slopes in the face of seismically induced failure. When a measure of predicted relative slope stability is draped on an oblique view of swath bathymetry, a variation in this slope stability is observed on an otherwise smooth slope along the mid-slope region north of a plunging anticline. The section of slope containing diffuse, pockmarked gullies has a lower measure of stability than a separate section containing gullies that have sharper boundaries and somewhat steeper sides. Such an association suggests that our slope-stability analysis relates to the stability of the gully sides. The remainder of the

  18. The role of ocean circulation on methane hydrate stability and margin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbach, M. J.; Phrampus, B. J.; Ruppel, C. D.; Hart, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    hydrate destabilization at these sites and that this destabilization could continue for centuries. The results have significant implications for the global carbon budget, ocean acidification, ocean circulation, and the evolution of continental margins. The analysis presented here also provides a new method for constraining Holocene changes in intermediate ocean temperatures and demonstrates that only slight shifts in ocean current flow direction have a profound impact on both margin stability and the ocean carbon budget.

  19. A new approach to computing steady-state geotherms: The marginal stability condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryasova, O. V.; Khazan, Y. M.

    2016-12-01

    A necessary physical condition for steady-state mantle convection is the marginal stability of convective boundary layer (CBL) accommodating the transition from conductive lithosphere to convective mantle. We incorporate the marginal stability condition (MSC) of the CBL into the lithosphere thermal modeling using it instead of the heat flow boundary condition specified on the surface. For the oceanic region, the MSC-based approach allows to calculate rather than postulate the thickness of the oceanic lithosphere beneath old oceanic crust areas. The model allows to estimate the potential temperature and to predict the depth at which the suboceanic CBL base occurs. The latter agrees well with the seismologically observed lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. In the continental region, the CBL is immediately adjacent to the base of the chemical boundary layer comprising a crust and a melt-depleted continental keel. A deep segment of the MSC-based continental geotherm is almost independent of the uncertainty of the crustal heat production in the sense that two geotherms corresponding to the same lithosphere thickness and potential temperature but different crustal heat production converge at depth. Besides, the solution may be additionally adjusted so that the calculated surface heat flow matches observations without affecting the properties of the deeper geotherm segment. The model predicts quantitative relations between the chemical boundary layer thickness, the potential temperature of convecting mantle, and the lithospheric geotherm. The predictions correlate with the lithospheric geotherms documented using the kimberlite xenolith/xenocryst thermobarometry.

  20. New results on the robust stability of PID controllers with gain and phase margins for UFOPTD processes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Q B; Liu, Q; Huang, B

    2016-03-01

    This paper considers the problem of determining all the robust PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controllers in terms of the gain and phase margins (GPM) for open-loop unstable first order plus time delay (UFOPTD) processes. It is the first time that the feasible ranges of the GPM specifications provided by a PID controller are given for UFOPTD processes. A gain and phase margin tester is used to modify the original model, and the ranges of the margin specifications are derived such that the modified model can be stabilized by a stabilizing PID controller based on Hermite-Biehlers Theorem. Furthermore, we obtain all the controllers satisfying a given margin specification. Simulation studies show how to use the results to design a robust PID controller.

  1. The role of zinc in the stability of the marginally stable IscU scaffold protein

    PubMed Central

    Iannuzzi, Clara; Adrover, Miquel; Puglisi, Rita; Yan, Robert; Temussi, Piero Andrea; Pastore, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors that determine protein stability is interesting because it directly reflects the evolutionary pressure coming from function and environment. Here, we have combined experimental and computational methods to study the stability of IscU, a bacterial scaffold protein highly conserved in most organisms and an essential component of the iron–sulfur cluster biogenesis pathway. We demonstrate that the effect of zinc and its consequence strongly depend on the sample history. IscU is a marginally stable protein at low ionic strength to the point that undergoes cold denaturation at around −8°C with a corresponding dramatic decrease of enthalpy, which is consistent with the fluxional nature of the protein. Presence of constitutively bound zinc appreciably stabilizes the IscU fold, whereas it may cause protein aggregation when zinc is added back posthumously. We discuss how zinc coordination can be achieved by different side chains spatially available and all competent for tetrahedral coordination. The individual absence of some of these residues can be largely compensated by small local rearrangements of the others. We discuss the potential importance of our findings in vitro for the function in vivo of the protein. PMID:24917298

  2. Cellular and dendritic growth in a binary melt - A marginal stability approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laxmanan, V.

    1986-01-01

    A simple model for the constrained growth of an array of cells or dendrites in a binary alloy in the presence of an imposed positive temperature gradient in the liquid is proposed, with the dendritic or cell tip radius calculated using the marginal stability criterion of Langer and Muller-Krumbhaar (1977). This approach, an approach adopting the ad hoc assumption of minimum undercooling at the cell or dendrite tip, and an approach based on the stability criterion of Trivedi (1980) all predict tip radii to within 30 percent of each other, and yield a simple relationship between the tip radius and the growth conditions. Good agreement is found between predictions and data obtained in a succinonitrile-acetone system, and under the present experimental conditions, the dendritic tip stability parameter value is found to be twice that obtained previously, possibly due to a transition in morphology from a cellular structure with just a few side branches, to a more fully developed dendritic structure.

  3. Marginal Stability Studies of Microturbulence Near ITB Onset on Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertel, J.; Redi, M.H.; Budny, R.V.; McCune, D.C.; Dorland, W.; Fiore, C.L.

    2005-01-01

    Insight into microturbulence and transport in tokamak plasmas is being sought using linear simulations of drift waves near the onset time of an internal transport barrier (ITB) on Alcator C-Mod. Microturbulence is likely generated by instabilities of drift waves and causes transport of heat and particles. This transport is studied because the containment of heat and particles is important for the achievement of practical nuclear fusion. We investigate nearness to marginal stability of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes for conditions in the ITB region at the trigger time for ITB formation. Data from C-Mod, analyzed by TRANSP (a time dependent transport analysis code), is read by the code TRXPL and made into input files for the parallel gyrokinetic model code GS2. Temperature and density gradients in these input files are modified to produce new input files. Results from these simulations show a weak ITG instability in the barrier region at the time of onset, above marginal stability; the normalized critical temperature gradient is 80% of the experimental temperature gradient. The growth rate increases linearly above the critical value, with the spectrum of ITG modes remaining parabolic up to a multiplicative factor of 2. The effect of varying density gradients is found to be much weaker and causes the fastest growing drift mode to change from ITG to trapped electron mode character. Simulations were carried out on the NERSC IBM 6000 SP using 4 nodes, 16 processors per node. Predictive simulations were examined for converged instability after 10,000-50,000 timesteps in each case. Each simulation took approximately 30 minutes to complete on the IBM SP.

  4. Marginal Stability of Microturbulence near ITB Onset on Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Baumgaertel; M.H. Redi; R.V. Budny; D.C. McCune; W. Dorland; C.L. Fiore

    2004-08-23

    Insight into microturbulence and transport in tokamak plasmas is being sought using linear simulations of drift waves near the onset time of an internal transport barrier (ITB) on Alcator C-Mod. Microturbulence is likely generated by instabilities of drift waves and causes transport of heat and particles. This transport is studied because the containment of heat and particles is important for the achievement of practical nuclear fusion. We investigate nearness to marginal stability of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) modes for conditions in the ITB region at the trigger time for ITB formation. Data from C-Mod, analyzed by TRANSP (a time-dependent transport analysis code), is read by the code TRXPL and made into input files for the parallel gyrokinetic model code GS2. Temperature and density gradients in these input files are modified to produce new input files. Results from these simulations show a weak ITG instability in the barrier region at the time of onset, above marginal stability; the normalized critical temperature gradient is 80% of the experimental temperature gradient. The growth rate increases linearly above the critical value, with the spectrum of ITG modes remaining parabolic up to a multiplicative factor of 2. The effect of varying density gradients is found to be much weaker and causes the fastest growing drift mode to change from ITG to trapped-electron mode character. Simulations were carried out on the NERSC [National Energy Research Supercomputer Center] IBM 6000 SP using 4 nodes, 16 processors per node. Predictive simulations were examined for converged instability after 10,000-50,000 time-steps in each case. Each simulation took approximately 30 minutes to complete on the IBM SP.

  5. Geotechnical characteristics and slope stability on the Ebro margin, western Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baraza, J.; Lee, H.J.; Kayen, R.E.; Hampton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Sedimentological and geotechnical analyses of core samples from the Ebro continental slope define two distinct areas on the basis of sediment type, physical properties and geotechnical behavior. The first area is the upper slope area (water depths of 200-500 m), which consists of upper Pleistocene prodeltaic silty clay with a low water content (34% dry weight average), low plasticity, and high overconsolidation near the seafloor. The second area, the middle and lower slope (water depths greater than 500 m), contains clay- and silt-size hemipelagic deposits with a high water content (90% average), high plasticity, and a low to moderate degree of overconsolidation near the sediment surface. Results from geotechnical tests show that the upper slope has a relatively high degree of stability under relatively rapid (undrained) static loading conditions, compared with the middle and lower slopes, which have a higher degree of stability under long-term (drained) static loading conditions. Under cyclic loading, which occurs during earthquakes, the upper slope has a higher degree of stability than the middle and lower slopes. For the surface of the seafloor, calculated critical earthquake accelerations that can trigger slope failures range from 0.73 g on the upper slope to 0.23 g on the lower slope. Sediment buried well below the seafloor may have a critical acceleration as low as 0.09 g on the upper slope and 0.17 g on the lower slope. Seismically induced instability of most of the Ebro slope seems unlikely given that an earthquake shaking of at least intensity VI would be needed, and such strong intensities have never been recorded in the last 70 years. Other cyclic loading events, such as storms or internal waves, do not appear to be direct causes of instability at present. Infrequent, particularly strong earthquakes could cause landslides on the Ebro margin slope. The Columbretes slide on the southwestern Ebro margin may have been caused by intense earthquake shaking

  6. Quaternary tectonic stability of the Bahamian archipelago: evidence from fossil coral reefs and flank margin caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carew, James L.; Mylroie, John E.

    Throughout the islands of the Bahamian archipelago fossil coral reefs are found from current sea level up to a maximum elevation of +4 m. {234U}/{230Th} radiometric dates obtained from in situ corals from these reefs, by both alpha-count and mass-spectrometric techniques, indicates that they were all formed during Oxygen Isotope Substage 5e (ca. 125,000 years ago). Those data are consistent with a maximum sea-level highstand of +6 m during Substage 5e, and either no vertical motion of the Bahamas, or possible isostatic subsidence of up to 2 m during the past 120,000 years. No older in situ fossil corals, or other subtidal deposits, have been found subaerially exposed anywhere in the Bahamas. That finding suggests that late Quaternary (at least the past 300,000 years) isostatic subsidence has occurred at a rate of 1-2 m per hundred thousand years, and/or no pre-5e highstands were above modern sea level. An independent corroboration of the conclusions drawn about sea level amplitude and tectonic stability of the Bahamas from the coral reef data is available from examination of abundant flank margin caves (horizontal, phreatic dissolution caves) found above modern sea level throughout the Bahamas. These horizontally extensive air-filled caves have dissolutional ceilings with elevations that are restricted to +1 to +7 m, which is consistent with formation at the margin of a thin freshwater lens elevated by a past +6 m sea-level highstand. The restricted cave elevations, and the lack of stalagmites in these caves that are older than 100,000 years, are also consistent with cave formation during Substage 5e, and possible subsequent isostatic subsidence of a few metres. The subsurface geology of the southeastern Bahamas contains a long-term record (millions of years) that has been attributed to past tectonic activity along the North American/Caribbean plate boundary. While that record suggests differential subsidence across the Bahamas in the Tertiary Period, the data from

  7. Marginal stability and the metamorphosis of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield states

    SciTech Connect

    Ritz, Adam; Shifman, Mikhail; Vainshtein, Arkady; Voloshin, Mikhail

    2001-03-15

    We discuss the restructuring of the BPS spectrum which occurs on certain submanifolds of the moduli or parameter space -- the curves of the marginal stability (CMS) -- using quasiclassical methods. We argue that in general a ''composite'' BPS soliton swells in coordinate space as one approaches the CMS and that, as a bound state of two ''primary'' solitons, its dynamics in this region is determined by nonrelativistic supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Near the CMS the bound state has a wave function which is highly spread out. Precisely on the CMS the bound state level reaches the continuum, the composite state delocalizes in coordinate space, and restructuring of the spectrum can occur. We present a detailed analysis of this behavior in a two-dimensional N=2 Wess-Zumino model with two chiral fields, and then discuss how it arises in the context of ''composite'' dyons near weak coupling CMS curves in N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories. We also consider cases where some states become massless on the CMS.

  8. Analysis of slope stability, Wilmington to Lindenkohl Canyons, US mid-Atlantic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Almagor, G.; Bennett, R.H.; Lambert, D.N.; Forde, E.B.; Shephard, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    The continental slope gradient in the study area averages 7 to 8/sup 0/. Many valleys, canyons, and occasionally large sediment slumped masses occur. Moderate to steep slopes (19 to 27/sup 0/) as well as very steep to precipitous slopes (> 27/sup 0/) are abundant and occupy about 7% of the investigated area. The surficial sediments are predominantly terrigenous silty clays of medium to high plasticity (I/sub p/ = 10 to 35% w/sub L/ = 30 to 70%), but contain varying quantities of sands. Angles of internal friction are anti phi/sub d/ = 27 to 32/sup 0/, anti phi/sub cu/ = 30 to 33/sup 0/, and phi/sub cu/ = 14 to 17/sup 0/. The sediments are normally to slightly overconsolidated, but some unconsolidated sediments also were identified. c/sub u//anti p/sub 0/ values range from 0.12 to 0.78. An analysis of force equilibrium within the sediments reveals that (a) the gentle slopes in the study area are mostly stable; (b) that the stability of some steep slopes (19 to 27/sup 0/) is marginal; and (c) that on precipitous slopes (> 27/sup 0/) only a thin veneer of sediments can exist. Observations of these slopes during steep dives support these results. The analysis shows that additional accumulation of sediments and small shocks caused by earthquakes or internal waves can cause the slopes to fail. Collapse resulting from liquefaction in the uppermost slope along the canyons and valley axes, where fine sands and silt accumulate, also is likely. 22 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment of the NS Space Launch System GN&C Design for Exploration Mission One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Keith; Wall, John

    2017-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  10. Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment of the NASA Space Launch System GN&C Design for Exploration Mission One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Keith; Wall, John

    2017-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  11. Stability studies of surficial sediments in the Wilmington-Lindenkohl Canyons area, eastern U.S. margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almagor, G.; Bennett, R.H.; Mc Gregor, B.A.; Shephard, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Stability analysis, based on infinite slope analysis and geotechnical data from a suite of 34 cores collected from the continental slope between Wilmington and Lindenkohl Canyons, indicates that the Quaternary surficial silty clay sediments on gentle slopes are stable; that sediment stability on steeper slopes (14??-19??) is marginal; and that on precipitous slopes (>50??) only a thin veneer of unconsolidated sediments can exist. Small earthquake-induced accelerations or the effects of internal waves can result in slope sediment instabilities. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  12. Increasing the Margin of Stability of Arbitrarily Finite Modes of Flexible Large Space Structures with Damping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    problems: (i) exact boundary controllability for waves and plates: (ii) uniform stabilization ( linear case) and strong stabilization (nonlinear case) by a...investigators in [L- T.10). (ii) Boundary feedback stabilization Linear case: uniform stabilization The principal investigators results on uniform

  13. Effect of Artificial Pitch Damping on the Longitudinal and Rolling Stability of Aircraft with Negative Static Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moul, Martin T.; Brown, Lawrence W.

    1959-01-01

    A preliminary theoretical investigation has been made of the short-period longitudinal and steady-rolling (inertia coupling) stability of a hypersonic glider configuration for center-of-gravity locations rear-ward of the airplane neutral point. Such center-of-gravity positions for subsonic flight would improve performance by reducing supersonic and hypersonic static margins and trim drag. Results are presented of stability calculations and a simulator study for a velocity of 700 ft/sec and an altitude of 401,000 feet. With no augmentation, the airplane was rapidly divergent and was considered unsatisfactory in the simulator study. When a pitch damper was employed as a stability augmenter, the short-period mode became overdamped, and the airplane was easily controlled on the simulator. A steady-rolling analysis showed that the airplane can be made free of rolling divergence for all roll rates with an appropriate damper gain.

  14. Generalized Edwards thermodynamics and marginal stability in a driven system with dry and viscous friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradenigo, Giacomo; Bertin, Eric

    2017-03-01

    We consider a spring-block model with both dry and viscous frictions, subjected to a periodic driving allowing mechanically stable configurations to be sampled. We show that under strong driving, the scaling of the correlation length with the energy density is incompatible with the prediction of the Edwards statistical approach, which assumes a uniform sampling of mechanically stable configurations. A crossover between the Edwards scaling and nonstandard high-energy scaling is observed at energy scales that depend on the viscous friction coefficient. Generalizing Edwards thermodynamics, we propose a statistical framework, based on a sampling of marginally stable states, that is able to describe the scaling of the correlation length in the highly viscous regime.

  15. Exceptionality and Peer Victimization Involvement in Late Childhood: Subtypes, Stability, and Social Marginalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chin-Chih; Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Lambert, Kerrylin; Mehtaji, Meera

    2015-01-01

    This study examined subtypes and stability/change in peer victimization involvement among students with exceptionalities. Data were collected over spring of fifth grade and fall/spring of sixth grade with 1,861 students in 36 rural schools as part of a cluster randomized trial of a context-based intervention (Supporting Early Adolescent Learning…

  16. Structural design/margin assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    Determining structural design inputs and the structural margins following design completion is one of the major activities in space exploration. The end result is a statement of these margins as stability, safety factors on ultimate and yield stresses, fracture limits (fracture control), fatigue lifetime, reuse criteria, operational criteria and procedures, stability factors, deflections, clearance, handling criteria, etc. The process is normally called a load cycle and is time consuming, very complex, and involves much more than structures. The key to successful structural design is the proper implementation of the process. It depends on many factors: leadership and management of the process, adequate analysis and testing tools, data basing, communications, people skills, and training. This process and the various factors involved are discussed.

  17. A new technique for marginal linear stability analysis of thermal convection using propagator matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zhong, S.

    2011-12-01

    Critical Rayleigh number, Ra_c, is the Rayleigh number at the onset of thermal convection. Classic linear analysis provides a way to solve for Ra_c, but this method is mostly used for incompressible fluid with uniform properties. Here we report a new technique for linear stability analysis using propagator matrix method. This new technique can solve for Ra_c for both incompressible and compressible fluids, with depth dependent viscosity, thermal expansion and thermal diffusivity. This technique determines Ra_c for fundamental mode as well as higher modes. We found that results from this new technique agree well with those from the classic analysis for incompressible fluid with uniform properties. We have compared results of Ra_c from the new method with that of finite element code Citcom( Leng and Zhong, 2008 ). For incompressible fluid, they agree with each other very well, including fundamental and higher modes. For compressible fluid, the agreement is not as good, but relative difference remains less than a couple of percent, especially for fundamental mode at small dissipation number Di (e.g., less than 1). Our results show that Ra_c for compressible fluid are similar to that of incompressible fluid, but are significantly different from that of Jarvis & Mckenzie (1981). Given that much higher Rayleigh number is needed in compressible fluid to generate a given heat flux, our results from the new method have implications for the Nusselt-Rayleigh number relation for compressible thermal convection.

  18. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  19. Adjustment of Adaptive Gain with Bounded Linear Stability Analysis to Improve Time-Delay Margin for Metrics-Driven Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinvas

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the application of Bounded Linear Stability Analysis (BLSA) method for metrics driven adaptive control. The bounded linear stability analysis method is used for analyzing stability of adaptive control models, without linearizing the adaptive laws. Metrics-driven adaptive control introduces a notion that adaptation should be driven by some stability metrics to achieve robustness. By the application of bounded linear stability analysis method the adaptive gain is adjusted during the adaptation in order to meet certain phase margin requirements. Analysis of metrics-driven adaptive control is evaluated for a linear damaged twin-engine generic transport model of aircraft. The analysis shows that the system with the adjusted adaptive gain becomes more robust to unmodeled dynamics or time delay.

  20. The CO2 laser frequency stability measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Carbon dioxide laser frequency stability data are considered for a receiver design that relates to maximum Doppler frequency and its rate of change. Results show that an adequate margin exists in terms of data acquisition, Doppler tracking, and bit error rate as they relate to laser stability and transmitter power.

  1. Comparative evaluation of effects of bleaching on color stability and marginal adaptation of discolored direct and indirect composite laminate veneers under in vivo conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Veena; Das, Taposh K.; Pruthi, Gunjan; Shah, Naseem; Rajendiran, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    CLV's showed significant color change at CE and IE regions when ΔE was compared at 180 days and 284 days (CE 10 vs. CE 30, P = 0.008, IE 10 vs. IE 30, P = 0.003). No significant differences were found when within group comparison was made for indirect laminates. Intergroup comparison between the groups showed significant difference in marginal adaptation at CE margin at all.time points (at baseline, P = 0.005; at 180 days, P = 0.007; 194 days, P = 0.025; at 284 days, P = 0.067). Conclusion: After bleaching, indirect CLVs performed better in terms of color stability whereas direct CLVs performed better in terms of marginal adaptation. Clinical Significance: Indirect composites should be preferred to direct composites as veneering materials as they have better color stability. Special attention should be given to their marginal adaptation especially in the CE region. Bleaching should be avoided in patients with composite restorations in the mouth. PMID:26929486

  2. [Marginalization and health. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Yunes, J

    1992-06-01

    sanitation. The concept of "epidemiologic heterogeneity" characterizes a pathological structure in which the poor suffer from illnesses transmitted in the air, contamination by human wastes, and malnutrition, and the wealthy suffer from disorders typical of the western industrialized countries. The poor also suffer from limited accessibility and poor quality of health care. In both Latin America and Europe, the groups most in need of adequate services have the least probability of receiving them. In most Latin American countries, the institutional configuration of health services reinforces the inequities and constitutes a mechanism of marginalization. The solution to the problem of marginalization i health and access to services will require political action, which in turn will need to be specifically adapted to the circumstances of each marginal group.

  3. Maintaining plant safety margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report Forms the basis of demonstrating that the plant can operate safely and meet all applicable acceptance criteria. In order to assure that this continues through each operating cycle, the safety analysis is reexamined for each reload core. Operating limits are set for each reload core to assure that safety limits and applicable acceptance criteria are not exceeded for postulated events within the design basis. These operating limits form the basis for plant operation, providing barriers on various measurable parameters. The barriers are refereed to as limiting conditions for operation (LCO). The operating limits, being influenced by many factors, can change significantly from cycle to cycle. In order to be successful in demonstrating safe operation for each reload core (with adequate operating margin), it is necessary to continue to focus on ways to maintain/improve existing safety margins. Existing safety margins are a function of the plant type (boiling water reactor/pressurized water reactor (BWR/PWR)), nuclear system supply (NSSS) vendor, operating license date, core design features, plant design features, licensing history, and analytical methods used in the safety analysis. This paper summarizes the experience at Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in its efforts to provide adequate operating margin for the plants that it supports.

  4. Most blood biomarkers related to vitamin status, one-carbon metabolism, and the kynurenine pathway show adequate preanalytical stability and within-person reproducibility to allow assessment of exposure or nutritional status in healthy women and cardiovascular patients.

    PubMed

    Midttun, Oivind; Townsend, Mary K; Nygård, Ottar; Tworoger, Shelley S; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ueland, Per Magne

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of stability during sample transportation and changes in biomarker concentrations within person over time are paramount for proper design and interpretation of epidemiologic studies based on a single measurement of biomarker status. Therefore, we investigated stability and intraindividual vs. interindividual variation in blood concentrations of biomarkers related to vitamin status, one-carbon metabolism, and the kynurenine pathway. Whole blood (EDTA and heparin, n = 12) was stored with an icepack for 24 or 48 h, and plasma concentrations of 38 biomarkers were determined. Stability was calculated as change per hour, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and simple Spearman correlation. Within-person reproducibility of biomarkers was expressed as ICC in samples collected 1-2 y apart from 40 postmenopausal women and in samples collected up to 3 y apart from 551 patients with stable angina pectoris. Biomarker stability was similar in EDTA and heparin blood. Most biomarkers were essentially stable, except for choline and total homocysteine (tHcy), which increased markedly. Within-person reproducibility in postmenopausal women was excellent (ICC > 0.75) for cotinine, all-trans retinol, cobalamin, riboflavin, α-tocopherol, Gly, pyridoxal, methylmalonic acid, creatinine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and Ser; was good to fair (ICC of 0.74-0.40) for pyridoxic acid, kynurenine, tHcy, cholecalciferol, flavin mononucleotide, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, sarcosine, anthranilic acid, cystathionine, homoarginine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, betaine, Arg, folate, total cysteine, dimethylglycine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, neopterin, symmetric dimethylarginine, and Trp; and poor (ICC of 0.39-0.15) for methionine sulfoxide, Met, choline, and trimethyllysine. Similar reproducibilities were observed in patients with coronary heart disease. Thus, most biomarkers investigated were essentially stable in cooled whole blood for up to 48 h and had a

  5. Marginal Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin

    2013-03-01

    All around us, things are falling apart. The foam on our cappuccinos appears solid, but gentle stirring irreversibly changes its shape. Skin, a biological fiber network, is firm when you pinch it, but soft under light touch. Sand mimics a solid when we walk on the beach but a liquid when we pour it out of our shoes. Crucially, a marginal point separates the rigid or jammed state from the mechanical vacuum (freely flowing) state - at their marginal points, soft materials are neither solid nor liquid. Here I will show how the marginal point gives birth to a third sector of soft matter physics: intrinsically nonlinear mechanics. I will illustrate this with shock waves in weakly compressed granular media, the nonlinear rheology of foams, and the nonlinear mechanics of weakly connected elastic networks.

  6. Surgical margins in breast conservation.

    PubMed

    Chiappa, Corrado; Rovera, Francesca; Corben, Adriana Dionigi; Fachinetti, Anna; De Berardinis, Valentina; Marchionini, Valentina; Rausei, Stefano; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Dionigi, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common tumor affecting women worldwide. Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) followed by irradiation nowadays is the treatment of choice for early-stage disease; there is no difference in long-term survival between mastectomy and BCT combined with external radiotherapy. A positive margin is associated with increased risk of local recurrences after BCT for invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ. The exact definition of an adequate surgical margin after breast cancer resection has long been debated among physicians and represents an area of considerable variation in clinical practice. There is a lack of standardization in the pathology methods of margin evaluation, which yields little consensus regarding what constitutes an adequate negative margin. As a consequence, patient management varies widely based on the threshold that surgeons accept for adequate margins and the subsequent need for re-excision. We analyze and discuss recent literature about this topic both from the pathological and from the surgical point of view.

  7. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  8. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  9. Marginality principle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is a fragile resource supplying many goods and services. Given the diversity of soil across the world and within a landscape, there are many different capacities among soils to provide the basic soil functions. Marginality of soils is a difficult process to define because the metrics to define ...

  10. Actively stressed marginal networks.

    PubMed

    Sheinman, M; Broedersz, C P; MacKintosh, F C

    2012-12-07

    We study the effects of motor-generated stresses in disordered three-dimensional fiber networks using a combination of a mean-field theory, scaling analysis, and a computational model. We find that motor activity controls the elasticity in an anomalous fashion close to the point of marginal stability by coupling to critical network fluctuations. We also show that motor stresses can stabilize initially floppy networks, extending the range of critical behavior to a broad regime of network connectivities below the marginal point. Away from this regime, or at high stress, motors give rise to a linear increase in stiffness with stress. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are captured by a simple, constitutive scaling relation highlighting the important role of nonaffine strain fluctuations as a susceptibility to motor stress.

  11. Frequency stabilization for mobile satellite terminals via LORAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, Gregory J.; Kee, Steven M.; Marquart, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    Digital satellite communication systems require careful management of frequency stability. Historically, frequency stability has been accomplished by continuously powered, high cost, high performance reference oscillators. Today's low cost mobile satellite communication equipment must operate under wide ranging environmental conditions, stabilize quickly after application of power, and provide adequate performance margin to overcome RF link impairments unique to the land mobile environment. Methods for frequency stabilization in land mobile applications must meet these objectives without incurring excessive performance degradation. A frequency stabilization scheme utilizing the LORAN (Long Range Navigation) system is presented.

  12. Mechanical stability model of progradational carbonate platform margins under tectonic loads: Deformation of Cretaceous carbonate platforms in the Sierra Madre Oriental fold-thrust belt (east central Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Juan; Suter, Max

    2015-02-01

    Shortening in the Sierra Madre Oriental fold-thrust belt (east central Mexico) is localized along the margins of Cretaceous carbonate platforms and controlled by mechanical stratigraphy. The platform margins are deformed by imbricate series of thrust ramps, whereas the coeval basins and platform interiors are deformed by map-scale detachment folds. Here we present a finite element model to evaluate the influence of the boundary geometry and boundary conditions on the style of deformation observed at these basinward progradational platform margins. We calculate the stress distribution in a linearly elastic platform-basin transition zone under the action of horizontal tectonic stress, taking into account changes of rock mechanical properties across the platform margin, as well as their dependence on direction, and infer the resulting fracture patterns based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. Stress concentrations are predicted at the contacts between the massive rocks of the platform margin and the well-layered rocks of both, the platform interior and the adjacent basin. Brittle failure of the platform border can be mostly attributed to three effects: mechanical coupling between the carbonate platform and a substratum of moderate to low viscosity, variations in layering and texture that governed the mechanical properties of the involved carbonates as well as their dependence on direction, and the development of sharp domain boundary corners associated with progradational facies changes. In contrast, the dip of the basement and a possible taper of the overlying Upper Cretaceous shale toward the basin appear to have little influence on the mechanical failure of the platform margin.

  13. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate...

  14. Optimizing Surgical Margins in Breast Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ananthakrishnan, Preya; Balci, Fatih Levent; Crowe, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Adequate surgical margins in breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer have traditionally been viewed as a predictor of local recurrence rates. There is still no consensus on what constitutes an adequate surgical margin, however it is clear that there is a trade-off between widely clear margins and acceptable cosmesis. Preoperative approaches to plan extent of resection with appropriate margins (in the setting of surgery first as well as after neoadjuvant chemotherapy,) include mammography, US, and MRI. Improvements have been made in preoperative lesion localization strategies for surgery, as well as intraoperative specimen assessment, in order to ensure complete removal of imaging findings and facilitate margin clearance. Intraoperative strategies to accurately assess tumor and cavity margins include cavity shave techniques, as well as novel technologies for margin probes. Ablative techniques, including radiofrequency ablation as well as intraoperative radiation, may be used to extend tumor-free margins without resecting additional tissue. Oncoplastic techniques allow for wider resections while maintaining cosmesis and have acceptable local recurrence rates, however often involve surgery on the contralateral breast. As systemic therapy for breast cancer continues to improve, it is unclear what the importance of surgical margins on local control rates will be in the future. PMID:23304479

  15. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  16. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  17. Monazite stability, composition and geochronology as tracers of Paleoproterozoic events at the eastern margin of the East European Craton (Taratash complex, Middle Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindern, Sven; Gerdes, Axel; Ronkin, Yuri L.; Dziggel, Annika; Hetzel, Ralf; Schulte, Bernd Aloys

    2012-02-01

    The Precambrian Taratash complex (Middle Urals) is one of the rare windows into the Palaeoproterozoic and earlier history of the eastern margin of the East European Craton. Monazite from intensively deformed rocks within a major amphibolite-facies shear zone in the Taratash complex has been investigated by means of electron-probe microanalysis and laser-ablation SF-ICP-MS. Metamorphic and magmatic cores of monazite from metasedimentary and metagranitoid rocks yield U-Pb ages of 2244 ± 19 and 2230 ± 22 Ma (± 2 σ) and record a previously unknown pre-deformational HT-metamorphic event in the Taratash complex. Subsequent dissolution-reprecipitation of monazite, during shear zone formation under amphibolite-facies conditions, caused patchy zonation and chemical alteration of the recrystallised monazite domains, leading to higher cheralite and huttonite components. This process, which was mediated by a probable (alkali + OH)-bearing metamorphic fluid also caused a total resetting of the U-Pb-system. The patchy domains yield concordant U-Pb-ages between 2052 ± 16 and 2066 ± 22 Ma, interpreted as the age of the shear zone. In line with previously published ages of high grade metamorphism and migmatisation, the data may point to a Palaeoproterozoic orogenic event at the eastern margin of the East European Craton. Post-deformational fluid-induced greenschist-facies retrogression caused partial to complete breakdown of monazite to fluorapatite, REE + Y-rich epidote, allanite and Th-orthosilicate.The retrograde assemblages either form coronas around monazite, or occur as dispersed reaction zones, indicating that the REE, Y, and Th were mobile at least on the thin section scale. The greenschist-facies metamorphic fluid was aqueous and rich in Ca. Monazite affected by advanced breakdown responded to the retrogression by incorporating the cheralite or huttonite components during a fluid-induced dissolution-reprecipitation process. This event did not reset the U

  18. Stability Analysis of a High-Speed Seal Test Rotor With Marginal and Extended Squeeze-Film Dampers: Theoretical and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Gunter, Edgar J.

    2007-01-01

    A case study of a high-speed seal test rotor shows how rotor dynamic analysis can be used to diagnose the source of high vibrations and evaluate a proposed remedy. Experimental results are compared with the synchronous and non-synchronous whirl response analysis of a double overhung, high-speed seal test rotor with ball bearings supported in 5.84- and 12.7-mm-long, un-centered squeeze-film oil dampers. Test performance with the original damper of length 5.84 mm was marginal. Non-synchronous whirling occurred at the overhung seal test disk and there was a high amplitude synchronous response near the drive spline above 32,000 rpm. Nonlinear synchronous unbalance and time transient whirl studies were conducted on the seal test rotor with the original and extended damper lengths. With the original damper design, the nonlinear synchronous response showed that unbalance could cause damper lockup at 33,000 rpm. Alford cross-coupling forces were also included at the overhung seal test disk for the whirl analysis. Sub-synchronous whirling at the seal test disk was observed in the nonlinear time transient analysis. With the extended damper length of 12.7 mm, the sub-synchronous motion was eliminated and the rotor unbalance response was acceptable to 45,000 rpm with moderate rotor unbalance. Seal test rotor orbits and vibration levels with the extended squeeze film dampers showed smooth operation to 40,444 rpm.

  19. Robust Flutter Margin Analysis that Incorporates Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick; Brenner, Martin J.

    1998-01-01

    An approach for computing worst-case flutter margins has been formulated in a robust stability framework. Uncertainty operators are included with a linear model to describe modeling errors and flight variations. The structured singular value, mu, computes a stability margin that directly accounts for these uncertainties. This approach introduces a new method of computing flutter margins and an associated new parameter for describing these margins. The mu margins are robust margins that indicate worst-case stability estimates with respect to the defined uncertainty. Worst-case flutter margins are computed for the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft using uncertainty sets generated by flight data analysis. The robust margins demonstrate flight conditions for flutter may lie closer to the flight envelope than previously estimated by p-k analysis.

  20. The link between bottom-simulating reflections and methane flux into the gas hydrate stability zone - new evidence from Lima Basin, Peru Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecher, Ingo A.; Kukowski, Nina; Huebscher, Christian; Greinert, Jens; Bialas, Joerg; Geopeco Working Group

    2001-02-01

    Bottom-simulating reflections (BSRs) are probably the most commonly used indicators for gas hydrates in marine sediments. It is now widely accepted that BSRs are primarily caused by free gas beneath gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. However, our insight into BSR formation to date is mostly limited to theoretical studies. Two endmember processes have been suggested to supply free gas for BSR formation: (i) dissociation of gas hydrates and (ii) migration of methane from below. During a recent campaign of the German Research Vessel Sonne off the shore of Peru, we detected BSRs at locations undergoing both tectonic subsidence and non-sedimentation or seafloor erosion. Tectonic subsidence (and additionally perhaps seafloor erosion) causes the base of gas hydrate stability to migrate downward with respect to gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. This process rules out dissociation of gas hydrates as a source of free gas for BSRs at these locations. Instead, free gas at BSRs is predicted to be absorbed into the gas hydrate stability zone. BSRs appear to be confined to locations where the subsurface structure suggests focusing of fluid flow. We investigated the seafloor at one of these locations with a TV sled and observed fields of rounded boulders and slab-like rocks, which we interpreted as authigenic carbonates. Authigenic carbonates are precipitations typically found at cold vents with methane expulsion. We retrieved a small carbonate-cemented sediment sample from the seafloor above a BSR about 20 km away. This supported our interpretation that the observed slabs and boulders were carbonates. All these observations suggest that BSRs in Lima Basin are maintained predominantly by gas that is supplied from below, demonstrating that this endmember process for BSR formation exists in nature. Results from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 112 showed that methane for gas hydrate formation on the Peru lower slope and the methane in hydrocarbon gases on the upper slope is mostly of biogenic

  1. The link between bottom-simulating reflections and methane flux into the gas hydrate stability zone - new evidence from Lima Basin, Peru Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GEOPECO Working Group

    2001-02-01

    Bottom-simulating reflections (BSRs) are probably the most commonly used indicators for gas hydrates in marine sediments. It is now widely accepted that BSRs are primarily caused by free gas beneath gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. However, our insight into BSR formation to date is mostly limited to theoretical studies. Two endmember processes have been suggested to supply free gas for BSR formation: (i) dissociation of gas hydrates and (ii) migration of methane from below. During a recent campaign of the German Research Vessel Sonne off the shore of Peru, we detected BSRs at locations undergoing both tectonic subsidence and non-sedimentation or seafloor erosion. Tectonic subsidence (and additionally perhaps seafloor erosion) causes the base of gas hydrate stability to migrate downward with respect to gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. This process rules out dissociation of gas hydrates as a source of free gas for BSRs at these locations. Instead, free gas at BSRs is predicted to be absorbed into the gas hydrate stability zone. BSRs appear to be confined to locations where the subsurface structure suggests focusing of fluid flow. We investigated the seafloor at one of these locations with a TV sled and observed fields of rounded boulders and slab-like rocks, which we interpreted as authigenic carbonates. Authigenic carbonates are precipitations typically found at cold vents with methane expulsion. We retrieved a small carbonate-cemented sediment sample from the seafloor above a BSR about 20 km away. This supported our interpretation that the observed slabs and boulders were carbonates. All these observations suggest that BSRs in Lima Basin are maintained predominantly by gas that is supplied from below, demonstrating that this endmember process for BSR formation exists in nature. Results from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 112 showed that methane for gas hydrate formation on the Peru lower slope and the methane in hydrocarbon gases on the upper slope is mostly of biogenic

  2. Centrifugal Compressor Surge Margin Improved With Diffuser Hub Surface Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Aerodynamic stability is an important parameter in the design of compressors for aircraft gas turbine engines. Compression system instabilities can cause compressor surge, which may lead to the loss of an aircraft. As a result, engine designers include a margin of safety between the operating line of the engine and the stability limit line of the compressor. The margin of safety is typically referred to as "surge margin." Achieving the highest possible level of surge margin while meeting design point performance objectives is the goal of the compressor designer. However, performance goals often must be compromised in order to achieve adequate levels of surge margin. Techniques to improve surge margin will permit more aggressive compressor designs. Centrifugal compressor surge margin improvement was demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center by injecting air into the vaned diffuser of a 4:1-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor. Tests were performed using injector nozzles located on the diffuser hub surface of a vane-island diffuser in the vaneless region between the impeller trailing edge and the diffuser-vane leading edge. The nozzle flow path and discharge shape were designed to produce an air stream that remained tangent to the hub surface as it traveled into the diffuser passage. Injector nozzles were located near the leading edge of 23 of the 24 diffuser vanes. One passage did not contain an injector so that instrumentation located in that passage would be preserved. Several orientations of the injected stream relative to the diffuser vane leading edge were tested over a range of injected flow rates. Only steady flow (nonpulsed) air injection was tested. At 100 percent of the design speed, a 15-percent improvement in the baseline surge margin was achieved with a nozzle orientation that produced a jet that was bisected by the diffuser vane leading edge. Other orientations also improved the baseline surge margin. Tests were conducted at speeds below the

  3. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.

  4. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589

  5. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  6. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  7. [Clinical to planning target volume margins in prostate cancer radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ramiandrisoa, F; Duvergé, L; Castelli, J; Nguyen, T D; Servagi-Vernat, S; de Crevoisier, R

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge of inter- and intrafraction motion and deformations of the intrapelvic target volumes (prostate, seminal vesicles, prostatectomy bed and lymph nodes) as well as the main organs at risk (bladder and rectum) allow to define rational clinical to planning target volume margins, depending on the different radiotherapy techniques and their uncertainties. In case of image-guided radiotherapy, prostate margins and seminal vesicles margins can be between 5 and 10mm. The margins around the prostatectomy bed vary from 10 to 15mm and those around the lymph node clinical target volume between 7 and 10mm. Stereotactic body radiotherapy allows lower margins, which are 3 to 5mm around the prostate. Image-guided and stereotactic body radiotherapy with adequate margins allow finally moderate or extreme hypofractionation.

  8. Ocean margins workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the refocusing of its marine research program to emphasize the study of ocean margins and their role in modulating, controlling, and driving Global Change phenomena. This is a proposal to conduct a workshop that will establish priorities and an implementation plan for a new research initiative by the Department of Energy on the ocean margins. The workshop will be attended by about 70 scientists who specialize in ocean margin research. The workshop will be held in the Norfolk, Virginia area in late June 1990.

  9. The basins on the Argentine continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Urien, C.M.

    1996-08-01

    After the stabilization of the central Gondwana Craton, orogenic belts were accreted, as a result of convergence events and an extensive passive margin developed in southwestern Gondwana. Thermal subsidence in Parana, Karoo-Ventania basins and the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic rifts, were modified by the Gondwana breakup and the South Atlantic opening. Early Paleozoic marine transgressions deposited the Table Mountain Group in Ventania. In southwestern Patagonia foreland clastics were deposited. Magmatic arcs and marine units indicate a tectonic trough was formed, alternating with continental sequences, over Late Paleozoic metamorphics and intrusives, resulting from plastered terrains along the Gondwana margin. In Patagonia, Permo-Carboniferous continental and glacio marine clastics infill the basins, while in Ventania, paralic sequences, grade from neritic to continental to the northeast, extending beneath the continental margin. The Triassic-Jurassic rift basins progressed onto regional widespread acid lavas and were infilled by lagoonal organic-rich sequences. Early drift phase built basins transverse to the margin, with fluvio-lacustrine sequences: Salado, Colorado, Valdes-Rawson, San Julian and North Malvinas intracratonic basins, which underwent transtensional faulting. Post-Oxfordian to Neocomian brackish sequences, onlapped the conjugate basins during the margin`s drift, with petroleum systems, as in Austral and Malvinas. In the Valanginian, basic extrusions commenced to form on the continental border, heralding the oceanic phase. Due to thermal subsidence, offlaping sediments prograded onto the remaining half-grabens. Several petroleum systems, proven and hypothetical, are identified in this region.

  10. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  11. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  12. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  13. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  14. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  15. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  16. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  17. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  18. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  19. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  20. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  1. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  2. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  3. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  4. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  5. Worst-Case Flutter Margins from F/A-18 Aircraft Aeroelastic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick; Brenner, Marty

    1997-01-01

    An approach for computing worst-case flutter margins has been formulated in a robust stability framework. Uncertainty operators are included with a linear model to describe modeling errors and flight variations. The structured singular value, micron, computes a stability margin which directly accounts for these uncertainties. This approach introduces a new method of computing flutter margins and an associated new parameter for describing these margins. The micron margins are robust margins which indicate worst-case stability estimates with respect to the defined uncertainty. Worst-case flutter margins are computed for the F/A-18 SRA using uncertainty sets generated by flight data analysis. The robust margins demonstrate flight conditions for flutter may lie closer to the flight envelope than previously estimated by p-k analysis.

  6. RISK-INFORMED SAFETY MARGIN CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nam Dinh; Ronaldo Szilard

    2009-07-01

    The concept of safety margins has served as a fundamental principle in the design and operation of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). Defined as the minimum distance between a system’s “loading” and its “capacity”, plant design and operation is predicated on ensuring an adequate safety margin for safety-significant parameters (e.g., fuel cladding temperature, containment pressure, etc.) is provided over the spectrum of anticipated plant operating, transient and accident conditions. To meet the anticipated challenges associated with extending the operational lifetimes of the current fleet of operating NPPs, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have developed a collaboration to conduct coordinated research to identify and address the technological challenges and opportunities that likely would affect the safe and economic operation of the existing NPP fleet over the postulated long-term time horizons. In this paper we describe a framework for developing and implementing a Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach to evaluate and manage changes in plant safety margins over long time horizons.

  7. Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... zone lymphomas are a group of indolent (slow-growing) NHL B-cell lymphomas, which account for approximately 12 percent of all B-cell lymphomas. The median age for diagnosis is 65 years old. There are three types of marginal zone lymphoma: ...

  8. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning.

  9. Predicting service life margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    Margins are developed for equipment susceptible to malfunction due to excessive time or operation cycles, and for identifying limited life equipment so monitoring and replacing is accomplished before hardware failure. Method applies to hardware where design service is established and where reasonable expected usage prediction is made.

  10. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (10/14/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadben,. Director, to Nancy Wrona and Dennis Smith informing them that Maricopa County's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2003 MAGCO Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  11. Region 6: Texas Adequate Letter (4/16/2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality determined 2021 motor vehicle emission budgets for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Beaumont/Port Arthur area adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  12. Region 2: New Jersey Adequate Letter (5/23/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This April 22, 2002 letter from EPA to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection determined 2007 and 2014 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mobile Source Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal

  13. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (10/29/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Denvers' particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  14. Region 1: New Hampshire Adequate Letter (8/12/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 9, 2008 letter from EPA to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, determined the 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal Register (FR).

  15. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (1/20/2004)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Greeleys' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the FR.

  16. Region 8: Utah Adequate Letter (6/10/2005)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Utah Department of Environmental Quality determined Salt Lake Citys' and Ogdens' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  17. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  18. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  19. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  20. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  1. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  2. Region 6: New Mexico Adequate Letter (8/21/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Carl Edlund, Director, to Alfredo Santistevan regarding MVEB's contained in the latest revision to the Albuquerque Carbon Monoxide State Implementation Plan (SIP) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  3. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  4. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  5. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  6. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  8. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  9. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  10. Region 9: Nevada Adequate Letter (3/30/2006)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Deborah Jordan, Director, to Leo M. Drozdoff regarding Nevada's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2005 Truckee Meadows CO Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity decisions.

  11. Surgical Margins and Its Evaluation in Oral Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Annavajjula, Saileela

    2014-01-01

    The main surgical goal while treating cancer is to remove all local malignant disease with no residual malignant cells left. Overall benefits of achieving negative resection margins in terms of disease free local recurrence and overall survival has been discussed in many studies. The quantity of normal tissue to be removed during surgical procedure has not been standardised. Local recurrence can also occur among tumours with extensive histological demonstration of adequate resection margins. Oral cavity, submandibular region, tonsil and pharynx are the sites which have high chances of recurrence, even after showing negative margins. Therefore, the current approaches for histological risk assessment and various methods of evaluation of the surgical margins with their limitations are briefed in the present article. PMID:25386547

  12. Regulatory requirements for providing adequate veterinary care to research animals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2013-09-01

    Provision of adequate veterinary care is a required component of animal care and use programs in the United States. Program participants other than veterinarians, including non-medically trained research personnel and technicians, also provide veterinary care to animals, and administrators are responsible for assuring compliance with federal mandates regarding adequate veterinary care. All program participants therefore should understand the regulatory requirements for providing such care. The author provides a training primer on the US regulatory requirements for the provision of veterinary care to research animals. Understanding the legal basis and conditions of a program of veterinary care will help program participants to meet the requirements advanced in the laws and policies.

  13. Marginality of Transfer Commuter Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa

    2002-01-01

    Examines marginality issues facing transfer commuter students attending a mid-Atlantic university and what student characteristics relate to their sense of marginality. Results showed that transfer students have few sources of on-campus support, which may lead to their feelings of marginality. Results were particularly true for woman and Asian…

  14. Dynamic stability control in younger and older adults during stair descent.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Iris; Oberländer, Kai Daniel; Savelberg, Hans Hubert; Meijer, Kenneth; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine dynamic stability control in older and younger adults while descending stairs. Thirteen older (aged 64-77 years) and 13 younger (aged 22-29 years) adults descended a staircase at their preferred speed. A motion capture system and three force plates were used to determine locomotion mechanics. Dynamic stability was investigated by using the margin of stability, calculated as the instantaneous difference between anterior boundary of the base of support and extrapolated centre of mass. At the initiation of the single support phase, older adults demonstrated a more negative (p<.05) margin of stability value. The component responsible for the lower margin of stability in the elderly was the higher velocity of the centre of mass (p<.05). Before the initiation of the single support phase, the older adults showed a lower (p<.05) ankle and knee joint angular impulse compared to the younger ones. We found a significant correlation (r=.729, p<.05) between centre of mass velocity and joint angular impulse. These results indicate that older adults are at greater risk of falls while descending stairs potentially due to a reduced ability to generate adequate leg-extensor muscular output to safely control the motion of the body's centre of mass while stepping down.

  15. Amphetamine margin in sports

    SciTech Connect

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1981-10-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seem clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both humans and rats. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogs of such performances have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  16. East Africa continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bosellini, A.

    1986-01-01

    New well data from Somalia, together with the history of sea-floor spreading in the Indian Ocean derived from magnetic anomalies, show that the East African margins from latitude 15/sup 0/S into the Gulf of Aden comprise four distinct segments that formed successively by the southward drift of Madagascar from Somalia during the Middle to Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, by the northeastward drift of India along the Owen Transform during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene, and by the opening of the Gulf of Aden during the Neogene.

  17. Pellucid marginal corneal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Krachmer, J H

    1978-07-01

    Pellucid marginal degeneration of the cornea is a bilateral, clear, inferior, peripheral corneal-thinning disorder. Protrusion of the cornea occurs above a band of thinning, which is located 1 to 2 mm from the limbus and measures 1 to 2 mm in width. American ophthalmologists are generally not familiar with the condition because most of the literature concerning pellucid degeneration is European. Four cases are described. This condition is differentiated from other noninflammatory cornel-thinning disorders such as keratoconus, keratoglobus, keratotorus, and posterior keratoconus. It is also differentiated from peripheral corneal disorders associated with inflammation such as Terrien's peripheral corneal degeneration, Mooren's ulcers, and ulcers from connective tissue disease.

  18. New sensitive marginal oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahf, L.

    1981-09-01

    A new type of a sensitive marginal oscillator has been developed for the determination of high magnetic inductions by means of nuclear magnetic resonance. Obtaining a high sensitivity with this measuring principle demands a soft behavior of the oscillator which is a particular feature of the circuit presented. It is shown that this behavior is due to the fact that a very weak positive feedback is established by the inner capacitances of the single field effect transistor used in the circuit. Optimal values for the operation parameters are calculated.

  19. Test to Determine Margin-to-Failure for Hy-100 Steel with Undermatched Welds

    SciTech Connect

    K.R. Arpin; T.F. Trimble

    2003-04-01

    This test program was undertaken to determine the flaw tolerance and to quantify the strength margin-to-failure of high yield strength steel fillet welded specimens. The tests demonstrate adequate margin-to-failure for HY-100 specimens fabricated with matched welding systems. In the use of high yield (HY) steel materials in designs required to accommodate rapidly applied dynamic loads, the concern was raised where the possibility of decreased flaw tolerance and premature failure by unstable ductile tearing could limit their use. Tests were developed and conducted to demonstrate adequate margin-to-failure in HY-100 fillet and partial penetration welded structures. In addition, inelastic analytical predictions were performed to assess the accuracy of such predictive tools compared to actual test data. Results showed that adequate margin-to-failure exists when using matched welding systems.

  20. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  1. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  2. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  3. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  4. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  5. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  6. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  7. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  8. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  9. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  10. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation…

  11. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  12. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  13. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (11/1/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadbent, Director, Air Division to Nancy Wrona and James Bourney informing them of the adequacy of Revised MAG 1999 Serious Area Carbon Monoxide Plan and that the MAG CO Plan is adequate for Maricopa County.

  14. Leukocyte Margination in a Model Microvessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Jonathan

    2006-11-01

    In the inflammation response, multi-body interactions of blood cells in the microcirculation bring leukocytes (white blood cells) to the vessel walls. We investigated the fluid mechanics of this using numerical simulations of 29 red blood cells and one leukocyte flowing in a two-dimensional microvessel. The cells are modeled as linearly elastic shell membranes. Though obviously simplified, this model reproduced the increasingly blunted velocity profiles and increased leukocyte margination observed at lower shear rates. To study its effect, we varied the relative stiffness of the red cells by over a factor of ten, but the margination was found to be much less correlated with this than to the bluntness of the mean velocity profile. The detailed velocity field around near-wall leukocyte was sensitive to the red cell stiffness, but it changed little for strongly versus weakly marginating cases. In the more strongly marginating cases, however, a red cell is typically leaning on the upstream side of the leukocyte and appears to stabilize it. A well-known feature of the microcirculation is a near-wall cell-free layer. We observed that the leukocyte's most probable position was at the edge of this layer, whose thickness increased following a lubrication scaling. The leukocyte's near-wall position is observed to be less stable with increasing mean stand-off distance, but this distance would have potentially greater effect on adhesion since the range of the molecular binding is so short.

  15. Iberian Atlantic Margins Group investigates deep structure of ocean margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Iberian Atlantic Margins Group; Banda, Enric; Torne, Montserrat

    With recent seismic reflection data in hand, investigators for the Iberian Atlantic Margins project are preparing images of the deep continental and oceanic margins of Iberia. In 1993, the IAM group collected near vertical incidence seismic reflection data over a total distance of 3500 km along the North and Western Iberian Margins, Gorringe Bank Region and Gulf of Cadiz (Figure 1). When combined with data on the conjugate margin off Canada, details of the Iberian margin's deep structure should aid in distinguishing rift models and improve understanding of the processes governing the formation of margins.The North Iberian passive continental margin was formed during a Permian to Triassic phase of extension and matured during the early Cretaceous by rotation of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to Eurasia. From the late Cretaceous to the early Oligocene period, Iberia rotated in a counterclockwise direction around an axis located west of Lisbon. The plate boundary between Iberia and Eurasia, which lies along the Pyrenees, follows the north Spanish marginal trough, trends obliquely in the direction of the fossil Bay of Biscay triple junction, and continues along the Azores-Biscay Rise [Sibuet et al., 1994]. Following the NE-SW convergence of Iberia and Eurasia, the reactivation of the North Iberian continental margin resulted in the formation of a marginal trough and accretionary prism [Boillot et al., 1971].

  16. Realistic respiratory motion margins for external beam partial breast irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Leigh; Quirk, Sarah; Smith, Wendy L.

    2015-09-15

    described. It was found that the currently used respiratory margin of 5 mm in partial breast irradiation may be overly conservative for many 3DCRT PBI patients. Amplitude alone was found to be insufficient to determine patient-specific margins: individual respiratory trace shape and baseline drift both contributed to the dosimetric target coverage. With respiratory coaching, individualized respiratory margins smaller than the full extent of motion could reduce planning target volumes while ensuring adequate coverage under respiratory motion.

  17. Flight Test Results on the Stability and Control of the F-15B Quiet Spike Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moua, Cheng; McWherter, Shaun H.; Cox, Timothy H.; Gera, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The Quiet Spike (QS) flight research program was an aerodynamic and structural proof-of-concept of a telescoping sonic-boom suppressing nose boom on an F-15 B aircraft. The program goal was to collect flight data for model validation up to 1.8 Mach. The primary test philosophy was maintaining safety of flight. In the area of stability and controls the primary concerns were to assess the potential destabilizing effect of the spike on the stability, controllability, and handling qualities of the aircraft and to ensure adequate stability margins across the entire QS flight envelop. This paper reports on the stability and control methods used for flight envelope clearance and flight test results of the F-15B Quiet Spike. Also discussed are the flight test approach, the criteria to proceed to the next flight condition, brief pilot commentary on typical piloting tasks, approach and landing, and refueling task, and air data sensitivity to the flight control system.

  18. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting...risk that AGF financial statements will be materially misstated and the Army will not achieve audit readiness by the congressionally mandated...and $6.5 trillion in yearend adjustments made to Army General Fund data during FY 2015 financial statement compilation. We conducted this audit in

  19. Evolution of Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, J.R.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    The north-trending, 550-km-long Nevada segment of the Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, which fringed western North America, evidences the complex interaction of paleotectonics, eustasy, biotic changes, and bolide impact-related influences. Margin reconstruction is complicated by mid-Paleozoic to Paleogene compressional tectonics and younger extensional and strike-slip faulting. Reports published during the past three decades identify 12 important events that influenced development of shelf-margin settings; in chronological order, these are: (1) Early Devonian inheritance of Silurian stable shelf inargin, (2) formation of Early to early Middle 'Devonian shelf-margin basins, (3) propradation of later Middle Devonian shelf margin, (4) late Middle Devonian Taghanic ondap and continuing long-term Frasnian transgression, (5) initiation of latest Middle Devonian to early Frasnian proto-Antler orogenic forebulge, (6) mid-Frasnian Alamo Impact, (7) accelerated development of proto-Antler forebulge and backbulge Pilot basin, (8) global late Frasnian sentichatovae sea-level rise, (9) end-Frasnian sea-level fluctuations and ensuing mass extinction, (10) long-term Famennian regression and continept-wide erosion, (11) late Famennian emergence: of Ahtler orogenic highlands, and (12) end-Devonian eustatic sea-level fall. Although of considerable value for understanding facies relationships and geometries, existing standard carbonate platform-margin models developed for passive settings else-where do not adequately describe the diverse depositional and, structural settings along the Nevada Devonian platform margin. Recent structural and geochemical studies suggest that the Early to Middle Devonian-shelf-margin basins may have been fault-bound and controlled by inherited Precambrian structure. Subsequently, the migrating latest Middle to Late Devonian Antler orogenic forebulge exerted a dominant control on shelf-margin position, morphology, and sedimentation. ??Geological Society of

  20. Leukocyte margination in a model microvessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Jonathan B.

    2007-02-01

    The physiological inflammation response depends upon the multibody interactions of blood cells in the microcirculation that bring leukocytes (white blood cells) to the vessel walls. We investigate the fluid mechanics of this using numerical simulations of 29 red blood cells and one leukocyte flowing in a two-dimensional microvessel, with the cells modeled as linearly elastic shell membranes. Despite its obvious simplifications, this model successfully reproduces the increasingly blunted velocity profiles and increased leukocyte margination observed at lower shear rates in actual microvessels. Red cell aggregation is shown to be unnecessary for margination. The relative stiffness of the red cells in our simulations is varied by over a factor of 10, but the margination is found to be much less correlated with this than it is to changes associated with the blunting of the mean velocity profile at lower shear rates. While velocity around the leukocyte when it is near the wall depends upon the red cell properties, it changes little for strongly versus weakly marginating cases. In the more strongly marginating cases, however, a red cell is frequently observed to be leaning on the upstream side of the leukocyte and appears to stabilize it, preventing other red cells from coming between it and the wall. A well-known feature of the microcirculation is a near-wall cell-free layer. In our simulations, it is observed that the leukocyte's most probable position is at the edge of this layer. This wall stand-off distance increases with velocity following a scaling that would be expected for a lubrication mechanism, assuming that there were a nearly constant force pushing the cells toward the wall. The leukocyte's near-wall position is observed to be less stable with increasing mean stand-off distance, but this distance would have potentially greater effect on adhesion since the range of the molecular binding is so short.

  1. On the Evolution of Glaciated Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverre Laberg, Jan; Rydningen, Tom Arne; Safronova, Polina A.; Forwick, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    has experienced a high sediment input from paleo-ice streams equal to an average erosion of 0.16 mm/yr in a source area dominated by crystalline rocks while the Troms margin experienced markedly lower input, ~0.03 mm/yr of erosion of crystalline rocks in an low-ice-flow sector of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. The slope gradient of the areas of high sediment input, the SW Barents Sea slope and the mid-Norwegian margin is mostly ~1 degree or less and dominated by large glacigenic debris flow deposits, outside Troms the slope is much steeper, up to 15 degrees. Here the relief includes gully-channel systems formed by turbidity currents. Off the western Barents Sea the development of large trough-mouth-fans is related to the spatial stability of paleo-ice streams over repeated peak glacials, offshore Troms smaller trough-mouth-fans implies spatially stable paleo-ice streams also here while more unstable paleo-ice streams was one of the main factors that led to the development of a prograding wedge offshore of mid-Norway. All areas have been affected by small- and large-scale submarine landslides. From a detailed study of the NW Barents Sea margin the deposits from these processes were found to represent up to one quarter of the total volume of sediments.

  2. Ivory Coast-Ghana margin: model of a transform margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mascle, J.; Blarez, E.

    1987-05-01

    The authors present a marine study of the eastern Ivory Coast-Ghana continental margins which they consider one of the most spectacular extinct transform margins. This margin has been created during Early-Lower Cretaceous time and has not been submitted to any major geodynamic reactivation since its fabric. Based on this example, they propose to consider during the evolution of the transform margin four main and successive stages. Shearing contact is first active between two probably thick continental crusts and then between progressively thinning continental crusts. This leads to the creation of specific geological structures such as pull-apart graben, elongated fault lineaments, major fault scarps, shear folds, and marginal ridges. After the final continental breakup, a hot center (the mid-oceanic ridge axis) is progressively drifting along the newly created margin. The contact between two lithospheres of different nature should necessarily induce, by thermal exchanges, vertical crustal readjustments. Finally, the transform margin remains directly adjacent to a hot but cooling oceanic lithosphere; its subsidence behavior should then progressively be comparable to the thermal subsidence of classic rifted margins.

  3. Planning 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) Cannot Adequately Represent Daily Intrafractional Motion of Abdominal Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Jiajia; Santanam, Lakshmi; Noel, Camille; Parikh, Parag J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether planning 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can adequately represent daily motion of abdominal tumors in regularly fractionated and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional tumor motion of 10 patients with abdominal tumors (4 pancreas-fractionated and 6 liver-stereotactic patients) with implanted fiducials was measured based on daily orthogonal fluoroscopic movies over 38 treatment fractions. The needed internal margin for at least 90% of tumor coverage was calculated based on a 95th and fifth percentile of daily 3-dimensional tumor motion. The planning internal margin was generated by fusing 4DCT motion from all phase bins. The disagreement between needed and planning internal margin was analyzed fraction by fraction in 3 motion axes (superior-inferior [SI], anterior-posterior [AP], and left-right [LR]). The 4DCT margin was considered as an overestimation/underestimation of daily motion when disagreement exceeded at least 3 mm in the SI axis and/or 1.2 mm in the AP and LR axes (4DCT image resolution). The underlying reasons for this disagreement were evaluated based on interfractional and intrafractional breathing variation. Results: The 4DCT overestimated daily 3-dimensional motion in 39% of the fractions in 7 of 10 patients and underestimated it in 53% of the fractions in 8 of 10 patients. Median underestimation was 3.9 mm, 3.0 mm, and 1.7 mm in the SI axis, AP axis, and LR axis, respectively. The 4DCT was found to capture irregular deep breaths in 3 of 10 patients, with 4DCT motion larger than mean daily amplitude by 18 to 21 mm. The breathing pattern varied from breath to breath and day to day. The intrafractional variation of amplitude was significantly larger than intrafractional variation (2.7 mm vs 1.3 mm) in the primary motion axis (ie, SI axis). The SBRT patients showed significantly larger intrafractional amplitude variation than fractionated patients (3.0 mm vs 2

  4. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  5. Elements for adequate informed consent in the surgical context.

    PubMed

    Abaunza, Hernando; Romero, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Given a history of atrocities and violations of ethical principles, several documents and regulations have been issued by a wide variety of organizations. They aim at ensuring that health care and clinical research adhere to defined ethical principles. A fundamental component was devised to ensure that the individual has been provided the necessary information to make an informed decision regarding health care or participation in clinical research. This article summarizes the history and regulations for informed consent and discusses suggested components for adequate consent forms for daily clinical practice in surgery as well as clinical research.

  6. Margins: a status report from the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Breast Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Harness, Jay K; Giuliano, Armando E; Pockaj, Barbara A; Downs-Kelly, Erinn

    2014-10-01

    Since the emergence of breast conserving surgery (BCS) as an alternative to mastectomy in the 1980's, there has been little consensus on what constitutes acceptable margins for cases of invasive breast cancer, how best to evaluate margins in the operating room, or an understanding of the challenging process of margin assessment by pathologists. The program committee for the 15th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Breast Surgeons organized a plenary session to discuss the latest thinking and guidelines for these important issues. The SSO/ASTRO Consensus Guideline on Margins for BCS was an important focus of discussion. The SSO/ASTRO consensus panelists concluded that "no ink on tumor" is an adequate surgical margin for BCS in patients with invasive breast cancers. Intraoperative strategies to decrease the incidence of positive margins include intraoperative localization techniques (wire-localization, ultrasound, radioactive seed) and intraoperative margin assessments with specimen radiography, imprint cytology, and frozen section. Studies also demonstrate the positive effect of shave margins with or without intraoperative margin assessment. The College of American Pathologists protocols for breast specimen margin evaluation consider multiple variables that can impact the proper assessment of margins. These variables include: tissue fixation time, specimen orientation, cold ischemia time, leaking ink, specimen pancaking and others that surgeons need to be aware of. Determining when "enough is enough" should not only be the application of guidelines and national standards, but also a multidisciplinary discussion between breast cancer specialists for what is right for the individual patient's unique circumstances.

  7. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  8. The Marginal Teacher: A Step-by-Step Guide to Fair Procedures for Identification and Dismissal. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, C. Edward; Vachon, Myra K.; Leake, Donald O.; Leake, Brenda H.

    This work provides sample letters, charts, timelines, and checklists, to help principals adequately prepare for possible teacher dismissal. Chapter 1, "Describing the Marginal Teacher," lists traits common to marginal teachers. Chapter 2, "Establishing the Teacher Evaluation Process," presents a monthly timeline for assessing…

  9. Thermal control of ice-stream margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, Charles F.

    1993-01-01

    The thermal balance at the base of an ice sheet near an ice-stream margin was investigated theoretically. Specifically, conditions such that the base of the ice sheet would be frozen in the absence of heat generated by the ice motion were investigated. The base of the ice stream is maintained at melting as a result of high dissipation of heat at the base associated with its fast motion over the bed. Heat dissipation in the inter-ice-stream ridge ice is presumed to be too small to maintain melting conditions on the bed there. Two opposing effects can be identified near the shear margin separating the fast and slow motions. Because the velocity of an ice stream falls off toward its margin, there is a near margin heat deficit zone where the heat generated at the bed is not, by itself, sufficient to maintain melting conditions. Without some counteracting process, the base could freeze inward toward the ice stream and cause it to narrow. The marginal shearing generates heat within the ice above the bed. This heat produces a thermal shielding effect that tends to warm the bed on both sides of the boundary between the fast and slow motion. This shielding effect, if strong enough, could produce a thawed zone beyond the fast/slow boundary. If melting at the bed by itself allows fast motion, then the ice stream would be free to widen. A coupled mass and heat flow model is being developed to examine these competing processes. Preliminary calculations using available information for boundary conditions appropriate for Ice Stream B predict that the shielding effect is most important. This tentative result suggests that thermal conditions are such that the ice stream could widen unstably. Other constraints would be required to stabilize the width. Possible factors could be bed morphology beneath ridges that does not allow fast motion even in thawed conditions, or inward advection of cold ice from the ridges across the margin and into the ice stream, which suppresses the

  10. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Krason, J.; Finley, P.

    1988-01-01

    The summaries of regional basin analyses document that potentially economic accumulations of gas hydrates can be formed in both active and passive margin settings. The principal requirement for gas hydrate formation in either setting is abundant methane. Passive margin sediments with high sedimentation rates and sufficient sedimentary organic carbon can generate large quantities of biogenic methane for hydrate formation. Similarly, active margin locations near a terrigenous sediment source can also have high methane generation potential due to rapid burial of adequate amounts of sedimentary organic matter. Many active margins with evidence of gas hydrate presence correspond to areas subject to upwelling. Upwelling currents can enhance methane generation by increasing primary productivity and thus sedimentary organic carbon. Structural deformation of the marginal sediments at both active and passive sites can enhance gas hydrate formation by providing pathways for migration of both biogenic and thermogenic gas to the shallow gas hydrate stability zone. Additionally, conventional hydrocarbon traps may initially concentrate sufficient amounts of hydrocarbons for subsequent gas hydrate formation.

  11. Prostate cancer between prognosis and adequate/proper therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grozescu, T; Popa, F

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the indolent, non-invasive nature of most types of prostate cancer, as well as the simple fact that the disease seems more likely to be associated with age rather than with other factors (50% of men at the age of 50 and 80% at the age of 80 have it [1], with or without presenting any symptom), the big challenge of this clinical entity was to determine severity indicators (so far insufficient) to guide the physician towards an adequate attitude in the clinical setting. The risk of over-diagnosing and over-treating many prostate cancer cases (indicated by all the major European and American studies) is real and poses many question marks. The present paper was meant to deliver new research data and to reset the clinical approach in prostate cancer cases. PMID:28255369

  12. The cerebellopontine angle: does the translabyrinthine approach give adequate access?

    PubMed

    Fagan, P A; Sheehy, J P; Chang, P; Doust, B D; Coakley, D; Atlas, M D

    1998-05-01

    A long-standing but unfounded criticism of the translabyrinthine approach is the misperception that this approach does not give adequate access to the cerebellopontine angle. Because of what is perceived as limited visualization and operating space within the cerebellopontine angle, some surgeons still believe that the translabyrinthine approach is inappropriate for large acoustic tumors. In this study, the surgical access to the cerebellopontine angle by virtue of the translabyrinthine approach is measured and analyzed. The parameters are compared with those measured for the retrosigmoid approach. This series objectively confirms that the translabyrinthine approach offers the neurotologic surgeon a shorter operative depth to the tumor, via a similar-sized craniotomy. This permits superior visualization by virtue of a wider angle of surgical access. Such access is achieved with the merit of minimal cerebellar retraction.

  13. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; P<0.01) and improved adequacy of received services (95.04% versus 83.8%; P=0.02). Conclusion The poor prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  14. Bioeconomic Sustainability of Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ponti, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The use of marginal land (ML) for lignocellulosic biofuel production is examined for system stability, resilience, and eco-social sustainability. A North American prairie grass system and its industrialization for maximum biomass production using biotechnology and agro-technical inputs is the focus of the analysis. Demographic models of ML biomass…

  15. A Nomogram to Predict Adequate Lymph Node Recovery before Resection of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-yu; Li, Cong; Gao, Wei; Yin, Xiao-wei; Luo, Qi-feng; Liu, Nan; Basnet, Shiva; Dai, Zhen-ling; Ge, Hai-yan

    2016-01-01

    Increased lymph node count (LNC) has been associated with prolonged survival in colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The study aims to identify new predictors and develop a preoperative nomogram for predicting the probability of adequate LNC (≥ 12). 501 eligible patients were retrospectively selected to identify clinical-pathological factors associated with LNC ≥ 12 through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The nomogram was built according to multivariate analyses of preoperative factors. Model performance was assessed with concordance index (c-index) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), followed by internal validation and calibration using 1000-resample bootstrapping. Clinical validity of the nomogram and LNC impact on stage migration were also evaluated. Multivariate analyses showed patient age, CA19-9, circulating lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, tumor diameter, histology and deposit significantly correlated with LNC (P < 0.05). The effects were marginal for CEA, anemia and CRC location (0.05 < P < 0.1). The multivariate analyses of preoperative factors suggested decreased age, CEA, CA19-9, neutrophils, proximal location, and increased platelets and diameter were significantly associated with increased probability of LNC ≥ 12 (P < 0.05). The nomogram achieved c-indexes of 0.75 and 0.73 before and after correction for overfitting. The AUC was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.70–0.79) and the clinically valid threshold probabilities were between 10% and 60% for the nomogram to predict LNC < 12. Additionally, increased probability of adequate LNC before surgery was associated with increased LNC and negative lymph nodes rather than increased positive lymph nodes, lymph node ratio, pN stages or AJCC stages. Collectively, the results indicate the LNC is multifactorial and irrelevant to stage migration. The significant correlations with preoperative circulating markers may

  16. [Health, marginality and regional development].

    PubMed

    Urbina-Fuentes, M; Narro-Robles, J; Wolpert-Barraza, E; Meljem-Moctezuma, J

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses the close link between marginality, regional development and health. In order to do so, reference is made to some health indicators like nutrition, causes of death and health infrastructure within the low as well as the high marginality areas. The paper also presents the strategies that the Ministry of Health has established to assist the population living in the high marginality areas. It specifies the related activities that are being carried out through the national institutes of health and the sanitary regulation offices.

  17. Marginalized Discourses and Scientific Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Obed

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the marginalized discourses that have arisen to oppose the racism, sexism, and classism espoused and advocated by mainstream science since its institutionalization up until the first half of the 20th century. Contains 39 references. (Author/PVD)

  18. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  19. Systemic Crisis of Civilization: In Search for Adequate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozin, Grigori

    In December 1972 a jumbo jet crashed in the Florida Everglades with the loss of 101 lives. The pilot, distracted by a minor malfunction, failed to note until too late the warning signal that - correctly - indicated an impending disaster. His sudden, astonished cry of Hey, what happening here? were his last words 1. Three decades after this tragic episode, as the Humankind approaches the threshold of the third Millennium, the problem of adequate reaction to warning signals of different nature and of distinguishing minor malfunctions in everyday life of society, in economy and technology as well as in evolution of biosphere from grave threats to the world community and the phenomenon of life on our planet remains crucial to human survival and the future of Civilization. Rational use of knowledge and technology available to the world community remains in this context the corner stone of discussions on the destiny of the intelligent life both on the planet Earth and in the Universe (the fact of intelligent life in the Universe is to be detected by the Humankind)…

  20. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  1. DARHT -- an adequate EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1996 the US District Court in Albuquerque ruled that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office, US Department of Energy (DOE), was adequate. The DARHT EIS had been prepared in the face of a lawsuit in only 10 months, a third of the time usually allotted for a DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS. It subject was the first major facility to be built in decades for the DOE nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. It was the first EIS to be prepared for a proposal at DOE`s Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1979, and the first ever prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office. Much of the subject matter was classified. The facility had been specially designed to minimize impacts to a nearby prehistoric Native American ruin, and extensive consultation with American Indian Pueblos was required. The week that the draft EIS was published Laboratory biologists identified a previously unknown pair of Mexican spotted owls in the immediate vicinity of the project, bringing into play the consultation requirements of the Endangered Species Act. In spite of these obstacles, the resultant DARHT EIS was reviewed by the court and found to meet all statutory and regulatory requirements; the court praised the treatment of the classified material which served as a basis for the environmental analysis.

  2. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  3. Adequate health literacy is associated with higher heart failure knowledge and self-care confidence in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Cheryl R; McEntee, Mindy L; Samuel, Laura; Johnson, Brandon J; Rotman, Stacey; Kielty, Alexandra; Russell, Stuart D

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients with inadequate health literacy are at increased risk for poor self-care and negative health outcomes such as hospital readmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of inadequate health literacy, the reliability of the Dutch HF Knowledge Scale (DHFKS) and the Self-care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI), and the differences in HF knowledge, HF self-care, and 30-day readmission rate by health literacy level among patients hospitalized with HF. The convenience sample included adults (n = 95) admitted to a large, urban, teaching hospital whose primary diagnosis was HF. Measures included the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, the DHFKS, the SCHFI, and readmission at 30 days after discharge. The sample was 59 ± 14 years in age, 51% male, and 67% African American; 35% had less than a high school education, 35% were employed, 73% lived with someone who helps with their HF care, and 16% were readmitted within 30 days of index admission. Health literacy was inadequate for 42%, marginal for 19%, and adequate for 39%. Reliability of the DHFKS and SCHFI scales was comparable to prior reports. Mean knowledge score was 11.43 ± 2.26; SCHFI subscale scores were 56.82 ± 17.12 for maintenance, 63.64 ± 18.29 for management, and 65.02 ± 16.34 for confidence. Those with adequate health literacy were younger and had higher education level, HF knowledge scores, and HF self-care confidence compared with those with marginal or inadequate health literacy. Self-care maintenance and management scores and 30-day readmission rate did not differ by health literacy level. These findings demonstrate the high prevalence of inadequate and marginal health literacy and that health literacy is an important consideration in promoting HF knowledge and confidence in self-care behaviors, particularly among older adults and those with less than a high school education.

  4. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  5. [Sinaloa: the geography of marginalization].

    PubMed

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1993-01-01

    Sinaloa's State Population Program for 1993-98 contains the objective of promoting integration of demographic criteria into the planning process. The action program calls for establishing indicators of economic and social inequality so that conditions of poverty and margination can be identified. To further these goals, the State Population Council used data from the National Population Council project on regional inequality and municipal margination in Mexico to analyze margination at the state level. Nine indicators of educational status, housing conditions, spatial distribution, and income provide information that allows the definition of municipios and regions that should receive priority in economic and social development programs. The index of municipal margination (IMM) is a statistical summary of the nine indicators, which are based on information in the 1990 census. As of March 1990, 9.9% of Sinaloa's population over age 15 was illiterate and 37.4% had incomplete primary education. 91.0% had electricity, but 18.7% lacked indoor toilet facilities and 19.4% had no piped water. 23.7% of houses had dirt floors. 60% of households were crowded, defined as having more than two persons per bedroom. 43.5% of the state population lived in localities with fewer than 5000 inhabitants, where service delivery is difficult and costly. 55.6% of the economically active population was judged to earn less than the amount needed to satisfy essential needs. All except one municipio bordering the Pacific ocean had low or very low indicators of margination, while all those in the sierra had a medium or high degree of margination. Sinaloa's statewide IMM was eighteenth among Mexico's 32 federal entities, with Chiapas showing the highest degree of margination and the Federal District the lowest.

  6. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P < 0.0001), respectively. In contrast, using the full model as a Bayesian prior with trough-only data allowed 97% (93 to 102%; P = 0.23) accurate AUC estimation. On the basis of 5,000 profiles simulated from the full model, among adults with normal renal function and a therapeutic AUC of ≥400 mg · h/liter for an organism for which the vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  7. Is clinical measurement of anatomic axis of the femur adequate?

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2017-03-23

    Background and purpose - The accuracy of using clinical measurement from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the center of the knee to determine an anatomic axis of the femur has rarely been studied. A radiographic technique with a full-length standing scanogram (FLSS) was used to assess the adequacy of the clinical measurement. Patients and methods - 100 consecutive young adult patients (mean age 34 (20-40) years) with chronic unilateral lower extremity injuries were studied. The pelvis and intact contralateral lower extremity images in the FLSS were selected for study. The angles between the tibial axis and the femoral shaft anatomic axis (S-AA), the piriformis anatomic axis (P-AA), the clinical anatomic axis (C-AA), and the mechanical axis (MA) were compared between sexes. Results - Only the S-AA and C-AA angles were statistically significantly different in the 100 patients (3.6° vs. 2.8°; p = 0.03). There was a strong correlation between S-AA, P-AA, and C-AA angles (r > 0.9). The average intersecting angle between MA and S-AA in the femur in the 100 patients was 5.5°, and it was 4.8° between MA and C-AA. Interpretation - Clinical measurement of an anatomic axis from the ASIS to the center of the knee may be an adequate and acceptable method to determine lower extremity alignment. The optimal inlet for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing may be the lateral edge of the piriformis fossa.

  8. Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.

    PubMed

    Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian

    2012-03-01

    We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.

  9. The northern Egyptian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Mohamed, Gad; Omar, Khaled; Farid, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Africa displays a variety of continental margin structures, tectonics and sedimentary records. The northern Egyptian continental margin represents the NE portion of the North African passive continental margin. Economically, this region is of great importance as a very rich and productive hydrocarbon zone in Egypt. Moreover, it is characterized by remarkable tectonic setting accompanied by active tectonic processes from the old Tethys to recent Mediterranean. In this article, seismicity of the northern Egyptian continental margin has been re-evaluated for more than 100-years and the source parameters of three recent earthquakes (October 2012, January 2013 and July 2013) have been estimated. Moment tensor inversions of 19th October 2012 and 17th January 2013 earthquakes reveal normal faulting mechanism with strike-slip component having seismic moment of 3.5E16 N m and 4.3E15 N m respectively. The operation of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) since the end of 1997 has significantly enhanced the old picture of earthquake activity across northern Egyptian continental margin whereas; the record-ability (annual rate) has changed from 2-events/year to 54-event/year before and after ENSN respectively. The spatial distribution of earthquakes foci indicated that the activity tends to cluster at three zones: Mediterranean Ridge (MR), Nile Cone (NC) and Eratosthenes Seamount (ERS). However, two seismic gaps are reported along Levant Basin (LEV) and Herodotus Basin (HER).

  10. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  11. Marginal Comment: Reservations about "Murder at the Margin."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimand, Mary Ann

    1991-01-01

    Reexamines the use of the novel, "Murder at the Margin," in college and high school economics instruction. Identifies errors in the book's application of economic principles. Explores the novel's approach to the "prisoner's dilemma" and the making of choices. Concludes that despite problems, the book remains valuable to…

  12. Dynamics and Correlations among Soft Excitations in Marginally Stable Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Le; Baity-Jesi, Marco; Müller, Markus; Wyart, Matthieu

    2015-06-01

    Marginal stability is the notion that stability is achieved, but only barely so. This property constrains the ensemble of configurations explored at low temperature in a variety of systems, including spin, electron, and structural glasses. A key feature of marginal states is a (saturated) pseudogap in the distribution of soft excitations. We examine how such pseudogaps appear dynamically by studying the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) spin glass. After revisiting and correcting the multi-spin-flip criterion for local stability, we show that stationarity along the hysteresis loop requires soft spins to be frustrated among each other, with a correlation diverging as C (λ )˜1 /λ , where λ is the stability of the more stable spin. We explain how this arises spontaneously in a marginal system and develop an analogy between the spin dynamics in the SK model and random walks in two dimensions. We discuss analogous frustrations among soft excitations in short range glasses and how to detect them experimentally. We also show how these findings apply to hard sphere packings.

  13. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability. Progress report, June 16--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Krason, J.; Finley, P.

    1988-12-31

    The summaries of regional basin analyses document that potentially economic accumulations of gas hydrates can be formed in both active and passive margin settings. The principal requirement for gas hydrate formation in either setting is abundant methane. Passive margin sediments with high sedimentation rates and sufficient sedimentary organic carbon can generate large quantities of biogenic methane for hydrate formation. Similarly, active margin locations near a terrigenous sediment source can also have high methane generation potential due to rapid burial of adequate amounts of sedimentary organic matter. Many active margins with evidence of gas hydrate presence correspond to areas subject to upwelling. Upwelling currents can enhance methane generation by increasing primary productivity and thus sedimentary organic carbon. Structural deformation of the marginal sediments at both active and passive sites can enhance gas hydrate formation by providing pathways for migration of both biogenic and thermogenic gas to the shallow gas hydrate stability zone. Additionally, conventional hydrocarbon traps may initially concentrate sufficient amounts of hydrocarbons for subsequent gas hydrate formation.

  14. Crustal thinning and tectonic geomorphology: redefining the passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, T.; Osmundsen, P. T.

    2012-04-01

    engendered by isostatically-induced flexure. Fault reactivation in the inner proximal margin may contribute to stabilize the location of the escarpment over time at sharply tapering margins. In this model the principal driver behind accomodation is the shifting of loads that commenced during the main phases of rifting and that has continued to present day.

  15. The Versatile Lid Crease Approach to Upper Eyelid Margin Rotation.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Antonio A V; Akaishi, Patricia M S; Al-Dufaileej, Mohammed; Galindo-Ferreiro, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Lid margin rotational procedures have been used to correct cicatricial trachomatous entropion since the 19(th) century. There are two basic types of surgeries used for lid margin rotation. The first type is based on through-and-through approach combining tarsotomy and the use of sutures on the anterior lamella. The second type of surgery was suggested by Trabut, who proposed a tarsal advancement by posterior approach. We demonstrate that using a lid crease incision combines the basic mechanisms of the anterior and posterior approaches and in addition, addresses a variety of lid problems commonly found in the aged population with cicatricial entropion. After tarsal plate exposure, a tarsotomy through conjunctiva is performed as described by Trabut. Then, instead of using external sutures secured by bolsters, internal absorbable sutures can be used to simultaneously advance the distal tarsal fragment and exert strong tension on the marginal orbicularis muscle. Sixty lids of 40 patients underwent surgery with a lid crease incision. The follow-up ranged from 1 to 12 months (mean 3.0 months ± 2.71). Forty percent of the patients (24 lids) had more than 3 months of follow-up. Adequate margin rotation was achieved in all lids but one that showed a medial eyelash touching the cornea.

  16. The Use of Rewards in Motivating Marginal Members of the Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lyman W.

    This paper deals with the use of rewards for on-the-job motivation toward better attendance and performance of marginal workers (those who have not been employed on a regular basis but who are presumed to be capable of becoming adequate workers). Possible rewards are 1) financial (wage increases and fringe benefits); 2) interpersonal (social…

  17. Estimation Of TMDLs And Margin Of Safety Under Conditions Of Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    In TMDL development, an adequate margin of safety (MOS) is required in the calculation process to provide a cushion needed because of uncertainties in the data and analysis. Current practices, however, rarely factor analysis' uncertainty in TMDL development and the MOS is largel...

  18. Stability and Controls Analysis and Flight Test Results of a 24-Foot Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moua, Cheng M.; Cox, Timothy H.; McWherter, Shaun C.

    2008-01-01

    The Quiet Spike(TradeMark) F-15B flight research program investigated supersonic shock reduction using a 24-ft telescoping nose boom on an F-15B airplane. The program goal was to collect flight data for model validation up to 1.8 Mach. In the area of stability and controls, the primary concerns were to assess the potential destabilizing effect of the oversized nose boom on the stability, controllability, and handling qualities of the airplane and to ensure adequate stability margins across the entire research flight envelope. This paper reports on the stability and control analytical methods, flight envelope clearance approach, and flight test results of the F-15B telescoping nose boom configuration. Also discussed are brief pilot commentary on typical piloting tasks and refueling tasks.

  19. Field grading in capacitor margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, T. E.; Sarjeant, W. J.; Nunnally, W. C.

    1981-06-01

    Some of the results of modeling electric fields in the margin of a bogey plastic film liquid impregnant capacitor are presented where effects of foil edge shape, different impregnants, and grading wires are examined. It is concluded that placement tolerance and connection problems make grading wires impractical and that folded foil edges are still the best solution to field grading.

  20. Fluctuation-stabilized marginal networks and anomalous entropic elasticity.

    PubMed

    Dennison, M; Sheinman, M; Storm, C; MacKintosh, F C

    2013-08-30

    We study the elastic properties of thermal networks of Hookean springs. In the purely mechanical limit, such systems are known to have a vanishing rigidity when their connectivity falls below a critical, isostatic value. In this work, we show that thermal networks exhibit a nonzero shear modulus G well below the isostatic point and that this modulus exhibits an anomalous, sublinear dependence on temperature T. At the isostatic point, G increases as the square root of T, while we find G∝Tα below the isostatic point, where α≃0.8. We show that this anomalous T dependence is entropic in origin.

  1. Defining an adequate sample of earlywood vessels for retrospective injury detection in diffuse-porous species.

    PubMed

    Arbellay, Estelle; Corona, Christophe; Stoffel, Markus; Fonti, Patrick; Decaulne, Armelle

    2012-01-01

    Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i) investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii) identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells) attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding.

  2. Defining an Adequate Sample of Earlywood Vessels for Retrospective Injury Detection in Diffuse-Porous Species

    PubMed Central

    Arbellay, Estelle; Corona, Christophe; Stoffel, Markus; Fonti, Patrick; Decaulne, Armelle

    2012-01-01

    Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i) investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii) identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells) attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding. PMID:22761707

  3. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  4. SU-E-J-188: Theoretical Estimation of Margin Necessary for Markerless Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R; Block, A; Harkenrider, M; Roeske, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate the margin necessary to adequately cover the target using markerless motion tracking (MMT) of lung lesions given the uncertainty in tracking and the size of the target. Methods: Simulations were developed in Matlab to determine the effect of tumor size and tracking uncertainty on the margin necessary to achieve adequate coverage of the target. For simplicity, the lung tumor was approximated by a circle on a 2D radiograph. The tumor was varied in size from a diameter of 0.1 − 30 mm in increments of 0.1 mm. From our previous studies using dual energy markerless motion tracking, we estimated tracking uncertainties in x and y to have a standard deviation of 2 mm. A Gaussian was used to simulate the deviation between the tracked location and true target location. For each size tumor, 100,000 deviations were randomly generated, the margin necessary to achieve at least 95% coverage 95% of the time was recorded. Additional simulations were run for varying uncertainties to demonstrate the effect of the tracking accuracy on the margin size. Results: The simulations showed an inverse relationship between tumor size and margin necessary to achieve 95% coverage 95% of the time using the MMT technique. The margin decreased exponentially with target size. An increase in tracking accuracy expectedly showed a decrease in margin size as well. Conclusion: In our clinic a 5 mm expansion of the internal target volume (ITV) is used to define the planning target volume (PTV). These simulations show that for tracking accuracies in x and y better than 2 mm, the margin required is less than 5 mm. This simple simulation can provide physicians with a guideline estimation for the margin necessary for use of MMT clinically based on the accuracy of their tracking and the size of the tumor.

  5. Method for Studying Helicopter Longitudinal Maneuver Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Kenneth B

    1954-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.

  6. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  7. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  8. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  9. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  10. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  11. [Marginality, ethnic groups and health].

    PubMed

    Corretger, J M; Fortuny, C; Botet, F; Valls, O

    1992-06-01

    Main marginated ethnic groups in Span are to be found among gypsies and 3rd world immigrants. The first group include about 250,000 persons and the second group more tan half a million people. Their origins and their being past of the less fortunate social layers made them a group of health risk. Pediatric pathologies are those favored by socio-economic shortcomings as well as hygienic-sanitary deficiencies. Imported pediatric pathologies have a small incident.

  12. Looking for chemical reaction networks exhibiting a drift along a manifold of marginally stable states.

    PubMed

    Brogioli, Doriano

    2013-02-07

    I recently reported some examples of mass-action equations that have a continuous manifold of marginally stable stationary states [Brogioli, D., 2010. Marginally stable chemical systems as precursors of life. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 058102; Brogioli, D., 2011. Marginal stability in chemical systems and its relevance in the origin of life. Phys. Rev. E 84, 031931]. The corresponding chemical reaction networks show nonclassical effects, i.e. a violation of the mass-action equations, under the effect of the concentration fluctuations: the chemical system drifts along the marginally stable states. I proposed that this effect is potentially involved in abiogenesis. In the present paper, I analyze the mathematical properties of mass-action equations of marginally stable chemical reaction networks. The marginal stability implies that the mass-action equations obey some conservation law; I show that the mathematical properties of the conserved quantity characterize the motion along the marginally stable stationary state manifold, i.e. they allow to predict if the fluctuations give rise to a random walk or a drift under the effect of concentration fluctuations. Moreover, I show that the presence of the drift along the manifold of marginally stable stationary-states is a critical property, i.e. at least one of the reaction constants must be fine tuned in order to obtain the drift.

  13. CTV to PTV in cervical cancer: From static margins to adaptive radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sun, R; Mazeron, R; Chargari, C; Barillot, I

    2016-10-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly used in order to minimize the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and hematological toxicity in cervical and uterine cancers. However, the benefit of this high-precision approach is detracted by the margins applied to the clinical target volume (CTV) to generate the planning tumor volume (PTV), taking into account tumor and surrounding organs movements, deformations, and volume changes. Adequate PTV margins should be large enough to prevent geographical misses, but not excessive, which might end the benefit from IMRT. The objectives of this review were: (a) to present the evidence available for the determination of CTV-PTV margin for uterine cancers; (b) to highlight the impact of these margins in the context of adaptive radiotherapy; and (c) to discuss the role of the PTV concept in intracavitary brachytherapy.

  14. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties.

  15. Silenced, Silence, Silent: Motherhood in the Margins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Lorelei; Austin, Helena

    2007-01-01

    This project explores the experiences of women who mother children with ADHD. The authors use the metaphor of the text and the margin. The text is the "motherhood myth" that describes a particular sort of "good" mothering. The margin is the space beyond that text. This marginal space is inhabited by some or all of the mothers they spoke with, some…

  16. [Erosive marginal keratitis due to pilocarpine allergy].

    PubMed

    Radian, A B

    1999-01-01

    In 3 patients under local pilocarpine medication, corneal marginal infiltration and limbic ulcerations were noted that were typical for allergic marginal keratitis. A classical allergic conjunctivitis was present in every case. They healed after pilocarpine instillations were suspended and local corticosteroids together with oral antihistaminic drugs were applied. Marginal allergic erosions of the cornea is another form of secondary complication in patients using pilocarpine.

  17. Marginal Costs and Formula-Based Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Ellen

    Marginal cost is the cost of producing an additional unit. In higher education, one marginal cost would be cost of educating an additional student. Formula-based budget determination for public higher education is usually based on average cost per student. This study estimates marginal cost and compares it with average cost. There are several…

  18. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Margin calls. 31.18 Section 31....18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of... after contact is effected in which to respond to a margin call. Twenty-four hours, excluding...

  19. Continental margin tectonics - Forearc processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, N.; Reed, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies of convergent plate margins and the structural development of forearc terranes are summarized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the geometry of accretionary prisms (Coulomb wedge taper and vertical motion in response to tectonic processes), offscraping vs underplating or subduction, the response to oblique convergence, fluids in forearc settings, the thermal framework and the effects of fluid advection, and serpentinite seamounts. Also included is a comprehensive bibliography for the period.

  20. Three-dimensional marginal separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    The three dimensional marginal separation of a boundary layer along a line of symmetry is considered. The key equation governing the displacement function is derived, and found to be a nonlinear integral equation in two space variables. This is solved iteratively using a pseudo-spectral approach, based partly in double Fourier space, and partly in physical space. Qualitatively, the results are similar to previously reported two dimensional results (which are also computed to test the accuracy of the numerical scheme); however quantitatively the three dimensional results are much different.

  1. Treatment of Pigmented Basal Cell Carcinoma with 3 mm Surgical Margin in Asians.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shang-Hung; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Yang, Yi-Chien; Ho, Ji-Chen; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background. In Asians, most basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are pigmented with clear borders. The consensus of 4 mm surgical margin for BCC largely depends on studies in nonpigmented BCCs in Caucasians. However, little is known about recurrences of pigmented BCCs with a narrower surgical margin. We aimed to investigate 5-year recurrence of BCCs, either pigmented or nonpigmented, in Taiwanese with 3 mm surgical margin. Materials and Methods. 143 patients with BCC (M/F = 66/77, average 64 years) were confirmed pathologically from 2002 to 2013. Based on the pathological margin (>1 mm, ≤1 mm, and involved), patients were categorized into the complete excision group (n = 77), histology with close proximity group (n = 43), and unclear surgical margin group (n = 23). Results. Among 143 cases, 105 were pigmented. With standard 3 mm excision, there were 7 recurrences, with 6 of them from nonpigmented BCC group. Logistic regression showed that pigmentation was associated with lower recurrence. Interestingly, 5-year recurrence of completely excised and histology with close proximity BCC (0/77 versus 1/43) was not different statistically. Conclusions. A 3 mm surgical margin is adequate for pigmented BCC. A "wait and see" approach rather than further wide excision is appropriate for BCC with <1 mm free margin.

  2. Marginal Lands: Concept, Assessment and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; West, Tristram O.; Bandaru, Vara Prasad; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A

    2013-01-01

    Marginal lands have received wide attention for their potential to improve food security and support bioenergy production. However, environmental, ecosystem service, and sustainability concerns have been widely raised over the use of marginal land. Knowledge of the extent, location, and quality of marginal lands as well as their assessment and management are limited and diverse. This paper provides a review of the historical development of marginal concept, its application and assessment. Limitations and priority research needs of marginal land assessment and management were discussed.

  3. LCL Current Control Loop Stability Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delepaut, Christophe; Kuremyr, Tobias; Martin, Manuel; Tonicello, Ferdinando

    2014-08-01

    Latching Current Limiters include a control loop meant at limiting the current in case of downstream failure. Such current control loop consists typically of a simple proportional feedback gain from a current measurement shunt resistance and may result in very limited phase margin for specified operating conditions. The present paper investigates the combination of a proportional and derivative feedback to mitigate the lack of stability margin, providing a comprehensive overview on designing Latching Current Limiters for stability. For illustration purpose, a LCL based on radiation hardened ITAR free components is considered. A breadboard has been manufactured and the reported phase margin measurements demonstrate performances in line with the analytic results.

  4. Dynamics of the continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    On 18--20 June 1990, over 70 oceanographers conducting research in the ocean margins of North America attended a workshop in Virginia Beach, Virginia. The purpose of the workshop was to provide the Department of Energy with recommendations for future research on the exchange of energy-related materials between the coastal and interior ocean and the relationship between the ocean margins and global change. The workshop was designed to optimize the interaction of scientists from specific research disciplines (biology, chemistry, physics and geology) as they developed hypotheses, research questions and topics and implementation plans. The participants were given few restraints on the research they proposed other than realistic time and monetary limits. The interdisciplinary structure of the meeting promoted lively discussion and creative research plans. The meeting was divided into four working groups based on lateral, vertical, air/sea and sediment/water processes. Working papers were prepared and distributed before the meeting. During the meeting the groups revised the papers and added recommendations that appear in this report, which was reviewed by an Executive Committee.

  5. System Guidelines for EMC Safety-Critical Circuits: Design, Selection, and Margin Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Demonstration of safety margins for critical points (circuits) has traditionally been required since it first became a part of systems-level Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements of MIL-E-6051C. The goal of this document is to present cost-effective guidelines for ensuring adequate Electromagnetic Effects (EME) safety margins on spacecraft critical circuits. It is for the use of NASA and other government agencies and their contractors to prevent loss of life, loss of spacecraft, or unacceptable degradation. This document provides practical definition and treatment guidance to contain costs within affordable limits.

  6. An Increase in Consuming Adequately Iodized Salt May Not Be Enough to Rectify Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy in an Iodine-Sufficient Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifang; Zhu, Wenming; Mo, Zhe; Wang, Yuanyang; Mao, Guangming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Universal salt iodization (USI) has been implemented for two decades in China. It is crucial to periodically monitor iodine status in the most vulnerable population, such as pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an evidence-proved iodine-sufficient province to evaluate iodine intake in pregnancy. According to the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation criteria of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy (150–249 µg/L), the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the total 8159 recruited pregnant women was 147.5 µg/L, which indicated pregnant women had iodine deficiency at the province level. Overall, 51.0% of the total study participants had iodine deficiency with a UIC < 150 µg/L and only 32.9% of them had adequate iodine. Participants living in coastal areas had iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 130.1 µg/L, while those in inland areas had marginally adequate iodine intake with a median UIC of 158.1 µg/L (p < 0.001). Among the total study participants, 450 pregnant women consuming non-iodized salt had mild-moderate iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 99.6 µg/L; 7363 pregnant women consuming adequately iodized salt had a lightly statistically higher median UIC of 151.9 µg/L, compared with the recommended adequate level by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (p < 0.001). Consuming adequately iodized salt seemed to lightly increase the median UIC level, but it may not be enough to correct iodine nutrition status to an optimum level as recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. We therefore suggest that, besides strengthening USI policy, additional interventive measure may be needed to improve iodine intake in pregnancy. PMID:28230748

  7. The Human Right to Adequate Housing: A Tool for Promoting and Protecting Individual and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-01-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health. PMID:11988432

  8. Estimation of Model's Marginal likelihood Using Adaptive Sparse Grid Surrogates in Bayesian Model Averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    A large number of model executions are required to obtain alternative conceptual models' predictions and their posterior probabilities in Bayesian model averaging (BMA). The posterior model probability is estimated through models' marginal likelihood and prior probability. The heavy computation burden hinders the implementation of BMA prediction, especially for the elaborated marginal likelihood estimator. For overcoming the computation burden of BMA, an adaptive sparse grid (SG) stochastic collocation method is used to build surrogates for alternative conceptual models through the numerical experiment of a synthetical groundwater model. BMA predictions depend on model posterior weights (or marginal likelihoods), and this study also evaluated four marginal likelihood estimators, including arithmetic mean estimator (AME), harmonic mean estimator (HME), stabilized harmonic mean estimator (SHME), and thermodynamic integration estimator (TIE). The results demonstrate that TIE is accurate in estimating conceptual models' marginal likelihoods. The BMA-TIE has better predictive performance than other BMA predictions. TIE has high stability for estimating conceptual model's marginal likelihood. The repeated estimated conceptual model's marginal likelihoods by TIE have significant less variability than that estimated by other estimators. In addition, the SG surrogates are efficient to facilitate BMA predictions, especially for BMA-TIE. The number of model executions needed for building surrogates is 4.13%, 6.89%, 3.44%, and 0.43% of the required model executions of BMA-AME, BMA-HME, BMA-SHME, and BMA-TIE, respectively.

  9. Signal transmissibility in marginal granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinson, Matthew B.; Witten, Thomas A.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the ‘transmissibility’ of a simulated two-dimensional pack of frictionless disks formed by confining dilute disks in a shrinking, periodic box to the point of mechanical stability. Two opposite boundaries are then removed, thus allowing a set of free motions. Small free displacements on one boundary then induce proportional displacements on the opposite boundary. Transmissibility is the ability to distinguish different perturbations by their distant responses. We assess transmissibility by successively identifying free orthonormal modes of motion that have the smallest distant responses. The last modes to be identified in this ‘pessimistic’ basis are the most transmissive. The transmitted amplitudes of these most transmissive modes fall off exponentially with mode number. Similar exponential falloff is seen in a simple elastic medium, though the responsible modes differ greatly in structure in the two systems. Thus the marginal pack’s transmissibility is qualitatively similar to that of a simple elastic medium. We compare our results with recent findings based on the projection of the space of free motion onto interior sites.

  10. Statistical mechanics of learning with soft margin classifiers.

    PubMed

    Risau-Gusman, S; Gordon, M B

    2001-09-01

    We study the typical learning properties of the recently introduced soft margin classifiers (SMCs), learning realizable and unrealizable tasks, with the tools of statistical mechanics. We derive analytically the behavior of the learning curves in the regime of very large training sets. We obtain exponential and power laws for the decay of the generalization error towards the asymptotic value, depending on the task and on general characteristics of the distribution of stabilities of the patterns to be learned. The optimal learning curves of the SMCs, which give the minimal generalization error, are obtained by tuning the coefficient controlling the trade-off between the error and the regularization terms in the cost function. If the task is realizable by the SMC, the optimal performance is better than that of a hard margin support vector machine and is very close to that of a Bayesian classifier.

  11. Basic principles of stability.

    PubMed

    Egan, William; Schofield, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    An understanding of the principles of degradation, as well as the statistical tools for measuring product stability, is essential to management of product quality. Key to this is management of vaccine potency. Vaccine shelf life is best managed through determination of a minimum potency release requirement, which helps assure adequate potency throughout expiry. Use of statistical tools such a least squares regression analysis should be employed to model potency decay. The use of such tools provides incentive to properly design vaccine stability studies, while holding stability measurements to specification presents a disincentive for collecting valuable data. The laws of kinetics such as Arrhenius behavior help practitioners design effective accelerated stability programs, which can be utilized to manage stability after a process change. Design of stability studies should be carefully considered, with an eye to minimizing the variability of the stability parameter. In the case of measuring the degradation rate, testing at the beginning and the end of the study improves the precision of this estimate. Additional design considerations such as bracketing and matrixing improve the efficiency of stability evaluation of vaccines.

  12. Marginally compact hyperbranched polymer trees.

    PubMed

    Dolgushev, M; Wittmer, J P; Johner, A; Benzerara, O; Meyer, H; Baschnagel, J

    2017-03-29

    Assuming Gaussian chain statistics along the chain contour, we generate by means of a proper fractal generator hyperbranched polymer trees which are marginally compact. Static and dynamical properties, such as the radial intrachain pair density distribution ρpair(r) or the shear-stress relaxation modulus G(t), are investigated theoretically and by means of computer simulations. We emphasize that albeit the self-contact density diverges logarithmically with the total mass N, this effect becomes rapidly irrelevant with increasing spacer length S. In addition to this it is seen that the standard Rouse analysis must necessarily become inappropriate for compact objects for which the relaxation time τp of mode p must scale as τp ∼ (N/p)(5/3) rather than the usual square power law for linear chains.

  13. Determination of all feasible robust PID controllers for open-loop unstable plus time delay processes with gain margin and phase margin specifications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Jay

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel alternative method to graphically compute all feasible gain and phase margin specifications-oriented robust PID controllers for open-loop unstable plus time delay (OLUPTD) processes. This method is applicable to general OLUPTD processes without constraint on system order. To retain robustness for OLUPTD processes subject to positive or negative gain variations, the downward gain margin (GM(down)), upward gain margin (GM(up)), and phase margin (PM) are considered. A virtual gain-phase margin tester compensator is incorporated to guarantee the concerned system satisfies certain robust safety margins. In addition, the stability equation method and the parameter plane method are exploited to portray the stability boundary and the constant gain margin (GM) boundary as well as the constant PM boundary. The overlapping region of these boundaries is graphically determined and denotes the GM and PM specifications-oriented region (GPMSOR). Alternatively, the GPMSOR characterizes all feasible robust PID controllers which achieve the pre-specified safety margins. In particular, to achieve optimal gain tuning, the controller gains are searched within the GPMSOR to minimize the integral of the absolute error (IAE) or the integral of the squared error (ISE) performance criterion. Thus, an optimal PID controller gain set is successfully found within the GPMSOR and guarantees the OLUPTD processes with a pre-specified GM and PM as well as a minimum IAE or ISE. Consequently, both robustness and performance can be simultaneously assured. Further, the design procedures are summarized as an algorithm to help rapidly locate the GPMSOR and search an optimal PID gain set. Finally, three highly cited examples are provided to illustrate the design process and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ...

  15. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  16. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  17. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  18. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  19. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  20. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  1. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  2. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  3. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  4. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  5. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  6. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  7. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  8. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  9. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  10. The feasibility of producing adequate feedstock for year–round cellulosic ethanol production in an intensive agricultural fuelshed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Allen, Craig R.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    To date, cellulosic ethanol production has not been commercialized in the United States. However, government mandates aimed at increasing second-generation biofuel production could spur exploratory development in the cellulosic ethanol industry. We conducted an in-depth analysis of the fuelshed surrounding a starch-based ethanol plant near York, Nebraska that has the potential for cellulosic ethanol production. To assess the feasibility of supplying adequate biomass for year-round cellulosic ethanol production from residual maize (Zea mays) stover and bioenergy switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) within a 40-km road network service area of the existing ethanol plant, we identified ∼14,000 ha of marginally productive cropland within the service area suitable for conversion from annual rowcrops to switchgrass and ∼132,000 ha of maize-enrolled cropland from which maize stover could be collected. Annual maize stover and switchgrass biomass supplies within the 40-km service area could range between 429,000 and 752,000 metric tons (mT). Approximately 140–250 million liters (l) of cellulosic ethanol could be produced, rivaling the current 208 million l annual starch-based ethanol production capacity of the plant. We conclude that sufficient quantities of biomass could be produced from maize stover and switchgrass near the plant to support year-round cellulosic ethanol production at current feedstock yields, sustainable removal rates and bioconversion efficiencies. Modifying existing starch-based ethanol plants in intensive agricultural fuelsheds could increase ethanol output, return marginally productive cropland to perennial vegetation, and remove maize stover from productive cropland to meet feedstock demand.

  11. Evaluating Marginal Policy Changes and the Average Effect of Treatment for Individuals at the Margin.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Pedro; Heckman, James J; Vytlacil, Edward

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops methods for evaluating marginal policy changes. We characterize how the effects of marginal policy changes depend on the direction of the policy change, and show that marginal policy effects are fundamentally easier to identify and to estimate than conventional treatment parameters. We develop the connection between marginal policy effects and the average effect of treatment for persons on the margin of indifference between participation in treatment and nonparticipation, and use this connection to analyze both parameters. We apply our analysis to estimate the effect of marginal changes in tuition on the return to going to college.

  12. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  13. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  14. The 5-year survival following the marginal resection of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the distal femur and a stump fracture.

    PubMed

    Plath, J; Gurk, S; Strophal, G; Johnson, M; Jansson, V

    2001-09-01

    In this case, we present a 5-year follow-up of a 3-fault-affected primary leiomyosarcoma of the distal femur (spontaneous fracture treated by osteosynthesis; marginal resection; stump fracture after adequate trauma) with an extended local recurrence but without metastasis.

  15. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  17. Using Multitheory Model of Health Behavior Change to Predict Adequate Sleep Behavior.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj; Nahar, Vinayak K

    The purpose of this article was to use the multitheory model of health behavior change in predicting adequate sleep behavior in college students. A valid and reliable survey was administered in a cross-sectional design (n = 151). For initiation of adequate sleep behavior, the construct of behavioral confidence (P < .001) was found to be significant and accounted for 24.4% of the variance. For sustenance of adequate sleep behavior, changes in social environment (P < .02), emotional transformation (P < .001), and practice for change (P < .001) were significant and accounted for 34.2% of the variance.

  18. High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Southwick, Robert D.; Gallops, George W.

    1996-01-01

    Future aircraft turbine engines, both commercial and military, must be able to successfully accommodate expected increased levels of steady-state and dynamic engine-face distortion. The current approach of incorporating a sufficient component design stall margin to tolerate these increased levels of distortion would significantly reduce performance. The objective of the High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC) program is to design, develop, and flight demonstrate an advanced, high-stability, integrated engine control system that uses measurement-based, real-time estimates of distortion to enhance engine stability. The resulting distortion tolerant control reduces the required design stall margin, with a corresponding increase in performance and decrease in fuel burn. The HISTEC concept, consisting of a Distortion Estimation System and a Stability Management Control, has been designed and developed. The Distortion Estimation System uses a small number of high-response pressure sensors at the engine face to calculate indicators of the type and extent of distortion in real time. The Stability Management Control, through direct control of the fan and compressor pressure ratio, accommodates the distortion by transiently increasing the amount of stall margin available based on information from the Distortion Estimation System. Simulation studies have shown the HISTEC distortion tolerant control is able to successfully estimate and accommodate time-varying distortion. Currently, hardware and software systems necessary for flight demonstration of the HISTEC concept are being designed and developed. The HISTEC concept will be flight tested in early 1997.

  19. Tumor margin detection using optical biopsy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Li, Jiyou; Li, Zhongwu; Zhou, Lixin; Chen, Ke; Pu, Yang; He, Yong; Zhu, Ke; Li, Qingbo; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to use the Resonance Raman (RR) and fluorescence spectroscopic technique for tumor margin detection with high accuracy based on native molecular fingerprints of breast and gastrointestinal (GI) tissues. This tumor margins detection method utilizes advantages of RR spectroscopic technique in situ and in real-time to diagnose tumor changes providing powerful tools for clinical guiding intraoperative margin assessments and postoperative treatments. The tumor margin detection procedures by RR spectroscopy were taken by scanning lesion from center or around tumor region in ex-vivo to find the changes in cancerous tissues with the rim of normal tissues using the native molecular fingerprints. The specimens used to analyze tumor margins include breast and GI carcinoma and normal tissues. The sharp margin of the tumor was found by the changes of RR spectral peaks within 2 mm distance. The result was verified using fluorescence spectra with 300 nm, 320 nm and 340 nm excitation, in a typical specimen of gastric cancerous tissue within a positive margin in comparison with normal gastric tissues. This study demonstrates the potential of RR and fluorescence spectroscopy as new approaches with labeling free to determine the intraoperative margin assessment.

  20. Marginalization in Random Nonlinear Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudeva Raju, Rajkumar; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Computations involved in tasks like causal reasoning in the brain require a type of probabilistic inference known as marginalization. Marginalization corresponds to averaging over irrelevant variables to obtain the probability of the variables of interest. This is a fundamental operation that arises whenever input stimuli depend on several variables, but only some are task-relevant. Animals often exhibit behavior consistent with marginalizing over some variables, but the neural substrate of this computation is unknown. It has been previously shown (Beck et al. 2011) that marginalization can be performed optimally by a deterministic nonlinear network that implements a quadratic interaction of neural activity with divisive normalization. We show that a simpler network can perform essentially the same computation. These Random Nonlinear Networks (RNN) are feedforward networks with one hidden layer, sigmoidal activation functions, and normally-distributed weights connecting the input and hidden layers. We train the output weights connecting the hidden units to an output population, such that the output model accurately represents a desired marginal probability distribution without significant information loss compared to optimal marginalization. Simulations for the case of linear coordinate transformations show that the RNN model has good marginalization performance, except for highly uncertain inputs that have low amplitude population responses. Behavioral experiments, based on these results, could then be used to identify if this model does indeed explain how the brain performs marginalization.

  1. 17 CFR 242.403 - Required margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Required margin. 242.403 Section 242.403 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer...

  2. 17 CFR 242.403 - Required margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required margin. 242.403 Section 242.403 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer...

  3. Dependency and Marginality in Kingston, Jamaica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Colin G.

    1983-01-01

    Kingston, capital of Jamaica, has been molded by three institutions: colonialism, the sugar plantation, and slavery. It has an enormous marginal population living in permanent poverty and not absorbable into the labor force. This marginality, fundamentally related to dependent capitalism, sustains itself by keeping wages low. (CS)

  4. Marginal Utility and Convex Indifference Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews discussion of the relationship between marginal utility and indifference curves which has been presented in recent issues of "Economics." Concludes that indifference analysis does not embody the assumptions of marginal utility theory and that there is no simple relationship between these concepts that does not entail unacceptable…

  5. Marginal Costing Techniques for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Richard; Brinkman, Paul

    The techniques for calculating marginal costs in higher education are examined in detail. Marginal costs, as defined in economics, is the change in total cost associated with producing one additional unit of output. In higher education, the most frequently selected unit of output is a full-time-equivalent student or, alternatively, a student…

  6. Marginal Ice Zone: Biogeochemical Sampling with Gliders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Figure 3. Map of 2014 IBRV Araon Arctic cruise study area, indicating CTD, XCTD, sea- ice caps , and helicopter...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marginal Ice Zone: Biogeochemical Sampling with Gliders...distribution of phytoplankton and particulate organic carbon in the Arctic under the ice and in the marginal ice zone, as well as to understand feedbacks

  7. Academic Prediction and the Marginal Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludenia, Krista

    This study tried to determine whether (1) the ACT composite score, (2) high school percentile rank (HSPR), or (3) a combination of these were good predictors of academic success in college for the marginal student. The marginal student was defined as one not meeting standard admission requirements, but one whose ACT scores indicated some…

  8. On Time Delay Margin Estimation for Adaptive Control and Optimal Control Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents methods for estimating time delay margin for adaptive control of input delay systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent an adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window. The time delay margin of this input delay system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by three methods: Pade approximation, Lyapunov-Krasovskii method, and the matrix measure method. These methods are applied to the standard model-reference adaptive control, s-modification adaptive law, and optimal control modification adaptive law. The windowing analysis results in non-unique estimates of the time delay margin since it is dependent on the length of a time window and parameters which vary from one time window to the next. The optimal control modification adaptive law overcomes this limitation in that, as the adaptive gain tends to infinity and if the matched uncertainty is linear, then the closed-loop input delay system tends to a LTI system. A lower bound of the time delay margin of this system can then be estimated uniquely without the need for the windowing analysis. Simulation results demonstrates the feasibility of the bounded linear stability method for time delay margin estimation.

  9. Region 8: Colorado Lamar and Steamboat Springs Adequate Letter (11/12/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Lamar and Steamboat Springs particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  10. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency... floodplain management regulations meeting minimum requirements under the National Flood Insurance Program... they have brought their floodplain management regulations into compliance with the NFIP...

  11. Region 9: California Adequate / Inadequate Letter Attachment (5/30/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a document that states that it has been found adequate for transportation conformitypurposes certain 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 motor vehicleemissions budgets in the 2007 South Coast StateImplementation Plan.

  12. On-Line Robust Modal Stability Prediction using Wavelet Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.; Lind, Rick

    1998-01-01

    Wavelet analysis for filtering and system identification has been used to improve the estimation of aeroservoelastic stability margins. The conservatism of the robust stability margins is reduced with parametric and nonparametric time- frequency analysis of flight data in the model validation process. Nonparametric wavelet processing of data is used to reduce the effects of external disturbances and unmodeled dynamics. Parametric estimates of modal stability are also extracted using the wavelet transform. Computation of robust stability margins for stability boundary prediction depends on uncertainty descriptions derived from the data for model validation. The F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle aeroservoelastic flight test data demonstrates improved robust stability prediction by extension of the stability boundary beyond the flight regime. Guidelines and computation times are presented to show the efficiency and practical aspects of these procedures for on-line implementation. Feasibility of the method is shown for processing flight data from time- varying nonstationary test points.

  13. Temporal and spatial instability in neutral and adaptive (MHC) genetic variation in marginal salmon populations

    PubMed Central

    Ciborowski, Kate; Jordan, William C; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Consuegra, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    The role of marginal populations for the long-term maintenance of species’ genetic diversity and evolutionary potential is particularly timely in view of the range shifts caused by climate change. The Centre-Periphery hypothesis predicts that marginal populations should bear reduced genetic diversity and have low evolutionary potential. We analysed temporal stability at neutral microsatellite and adaptive MHC genetic variation over five decades in four marginal Atlantic salmon populations located at the southern limit of the species’ distribution with a complicated demographic history, which includes stocking with foreign and native salmon for at least 2 decades. We found a temporal increase in neutral genetic variation, as well as temporal instability in population structuring, highlighting the importance of temporal analyses in studies that examine the genetic diversity of peripheral populations at the margins of the species’ range, particularly in face of climate change. PMID:28186200

  14. Individual and contextual determinants of adequate maternal health care services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O; Mageto, Lillian E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal antenatal health services in Kenya. Individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal health care (MHC) services were obtained from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data set. Multilevel partial-proportional odds logit models were fitted using STATA 13.0 to quantify the relations of the selected covariates to adequate MHC use, defined as a three-category ordinal variable. The sample consisted of 3,621 women who had at least one live birth in the five-year period preceding this survey. Only 18 percent of the women had adequate use of MHC services. Greater educational attainment by the woman or her partner, higher socioeconomic status, access to medical insurance coverage, and greater media exposure were the individual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC services. Greater community ethnic diversity, higher community-level socioeconomic status, and greater community-level health facility deliveries were the contextual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC. To improve the use of MHC services in Kenya, the government needs to design and implement programs that target underlying individual and community level factors, providing focused and sustained health education to promote the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care.

  15. Structural framework, stratigraphy, and evolution of Brazilian marginal basins

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, H.A.O.

    1982-06-01

    The structural framework of the Brazilian continental margin is basically composed of eight structural types: antithetic tilted step-fault blocks, synthetic untilted step-fault blocks, structural inversion axes, hinges with compensation grabens, homoclinal structures, growth faults with rollovers, diapirs, and igneous structures. The antithetic tilted and synthetic untilted step-fault blocks are considered as synchronous, complementary structural systems, separated by an inversion axis. Two evaporitic cycles (Paripueira and Ibura) were differentiated in the Sergipe-Alagoas type basin and tentatively correlated to the evaporitic section of other Brazilian marginal basis. Four phases are considered in the evolution of the Brazilian marginal basins: pre-rift, rift, transitional, and drift. During the pre-rift phase (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), continental sediments were deposited in peripheral intracratonic basins. In the rift phase (Early Cretaceous), the breakup of the continental crust of the Gondwana continent gave rise to a central graben and rift valleys where lacustrine sediments were deposited. The transitional phase (Aptian) developed under relative tectonic stability, when evaporitic and clastic lacustrine sequences were being deposited. In the drift phase (Albian to Holocene), a regionl homoclinal structure developed, consisting of two distinct sedimentary sequences, a lower clastic-carbonate and an upper clastic. From the Albian to the Holocene Epoch, structures associated to plastic displacement of salt or shale developed in many Brazilian marginal basins. Two phases of major igneous activity occurred: one in the Early Cretaceous associated with the rift phase of the Gondwana continent, and the other in the Tertiary during the migration phase of the South American and African plates.

  16. Marginal and happy? The need for uniqueness predicts the adjustment of marginal immigrants.

    PubMed

    Debrosse, Régine; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Rossignac-Milon, Maya

    2015-12-01

    Marginalization is often presented as the strategy associated with the worst adjustment for immigrants. This study identifies a critical variable that buffers marginal immigrants from the negative effects of marginalization on adjustment: The need for uniqueness. In three studies, we surveyed immigrants recruited on university campuses (n = 119, n = 116) and in the field (n = 61). Among marginal immigrants, a higher need for uniqueness predicted higher self-esteem (Study 1), affect (Study 2), and life satisfaction (Study 3), and marginally higher happiness (Study 2) and self-esteem (Study 3). No relationship between the need for uniqueness and adjustment was found among non-marginal immigrants. The adaptive value of the need for uniqueness for marginal immigrants is discussed.

  17. On Ideal Stability of Cylindrical Localized Interchange Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M V

    2007-05-15

    Stability of cylindrical localized ideal pressure-driven interchange plasma modes is revisited. Converting the underlying eigenvalue problem into the form of the Schroedinger equation gives a new simple way of deriving the Suydam stability criterion and calculating the growth rates of unstable modes. Near the marginal stability limit the growth rate is exponentially small and the mode has a double-peak structure.

  18. [Usage of marginal organs for liver transplantation: a way around the critical organ shortage?].

    PubMed

    Pratschke, S; Loehe, F; Graeb, C; Jauch, K W; Angele, M K

    2009-04-01

    The transplantation of marginal organs or those meeting the so-called extended donor criteria (EDC) is today a significant option to alleviate the low availability or organs and to increase the number of transplantation which in turn is -accompanied by a lower mortality among wait-ing-list patients. However such an extension of the spender pool carries the risks of an increased incidence of organ dysfuntions and a higher recipient mortality. This situation presents an ethical problem when marginal organs are accepted for transplantation because the anticipated mortality for the individual recipient cannot be determined. The transplantation of marginal organs from -donors with a high MELD score seems to be linked to a higher mortality. In particular, the combina-tions of high donor age and long ischaemic time or advanced donor age and hepatitis C infection in the recipient are definitively associated with a significantly poorer organ survival rate. In view of the serious lack of organs, efforts should be made, for example, by shortening of the is-chae-mic time and the development of therapeutic strategies, to improve the function and increase the number of usable marginal organs and thus to increase pool of donor organs. The refusal of marginal organs on the basis of individual EDC without consideration of the status of recipient does not seem to be adequate.

  19. Flight Test Results on the Stability and Control of the F-15 Quiet Spike(TradeMark) Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moua, Cheng M.; McWherter, Shaun C.; Cox, Timothy H.; Gera, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The Quiet Spike F-15B flight research program investigated supersonic shock reduction using a 24-ft sub-scale telescoping nose boom on an F-15B airplane. The program primary flight test objective was to collect flight data for aerodynamic and structural models validation up to 1.8 Mach. Other objectives were to validate the mechanical feasibility of a morphing fuselage at the operational conditions and determine the near-field shock wave characterization. The stability and controls objectives were to assess the effect of the spike on the stability, controllability, and handling qualities of the aircraft and to ensure adequate stability margins across the entire research flight envelop. The two main stability and controls issues were the effects of the telescoping nose boom influenced aerodynamics on the F-15B aircraft flight dynamics and air data and angle of attack sensors. This paper reports on the stability and controls flight envelope clearance methods and flight test analysis of the F-15B Quiet Spike. Brief pilot commentary on typical piloting tasks, approach and landing, refueling task, and air data sensitivity to the flight control system are also discussed in this report.

  20. Stability boundaries and sufficient stability conditions for stably stratified, monotonic shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Makoto; Morrison, Philip J.

    2016-05-01

    Linear stability of inviscid, parallel, and stably stratified shear flow is studied under the assumption of smooth strictly monotonic profiles of shear flow and density, so that the local Richardson number is positive everywhere. The marginally unstable modes are systematically found by solving a one-parameter family of regular Sturm-Liouville problems, which can determine the stability boundaries more efficiently than solving the Taylor-Goldstein equation directly. By arguing for the non-existence of a marginally unstable mode, we derive new sufficient conditions for stability, which generalize the Rayleigh-Fjørtoft criterion for unstratified shear flows.

  1. Wholesale marginal prices in competitive generation markets

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Arriaga, I.J.; Meseguer, C.

    1997-05-01

    Wholesale marginal electricity prices are being used in several actual competitive generation markets worldwide, both to remunerate generators and to charge consumption. These prices must account not only for energy, but also for guarantee of supply in the long and the short term. This paper: (a) provides a sound conceptual and quantitative foundation for wholesale pricing based on generation services, where any existing restrictions in operation or planning in real power markets are accounted for, (b) clearly establishes the relationship between short term marginal costs, long term marginal costs and optimal wholesale electricity prices, and (c) identifies the reasons for mismatches in cost recovery with marginal generation prices. The theoretical results are verified with a detailed realistic power system model.

  2. Mental Depreciation and Marginal Decision Making

    PubMed

    Heath; Fennema

    1996-11-01

    We propose that individuals practice "mental depreciation," that is, they implicitly spread the fixed costs of their expenses over time or use. Two studies explore how people spread fixed costs on durable goods. A third study shows that depreciation can lead to two distinct errors in marginal decisions: First, people sometimes invest too much effort to get their money's worth from an expense (e.g., they may use a product a lot to spread the fixed expense across more uses). Second, people sometimes invest too little effort to get their money's worth: When people add a portion of the fixed cost to the current costs, their perceived marginal (i.e., incremental) costs exceed their true marginal costs. In response, they may stop investing because their perceived costs surpass the marginal benefits they are receiving. The latter effect is supported by two field studies that explore real board plan decisions by university students.

  3. Energy margins in dynamic object manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tian; Sternad, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Many tasks require humans to manipulate dynamically complex objects and maintain appropriate safety margins, such as placing a cup of coffee on a coaster without spilling. This study examined how humans learn such safety margins and how they are shaped by task constraints and changing variability with improved skill. Eighteen subjects used a manipulandum to transport a shallow virtual cup containing a ball to a target without losing the ball. Half were to complete the cup transit in a comfortable target time of 2 s (a redundant task with infinitely many equivalent solutions), and the other half in minimum time (a nonredundant task with one explicit cost to optimize). The safety margin was defined as the ball energy relative to escape, i.e., as an energy margin. The first hypothesis, that subjects converge to a single strategy in the minimum-time task but choose different strategies in the less constrained target-time task, was not supported. Both groups developed individualized strategies with practice. The second hypothesis, that subjects decrease safety margins in the minimum-time task but increase them in the target-time task, was supported. The third hypothesis, that in both tasks subjects modulate energy margins according to their execution variability, was partially supported. In the target-time group, changes in energy margins correlated positively with changes in execution variability; in the minimum-time group, such a relation was observed only at the end of practice, not across practice. These results show that when learning a redundant object manipulation task, most subjects increase their safety margins and shape their movement strategies in accordance with their changing variability. PMID:22592302

  4. Geomorphology of the Iberian Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestro, Adolfo; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; Llave, Estefanía; Bohoyo, Fernando; Acosta, Juan; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Muñoz, Araceli; Jané, Gloria

    2013-08-01

    The submarine features and processes around the Iberian Peninsula are the result of a complex and diverse geological and oceanographical setting. This paper presents an overview of the seafloor geomorphology of the Iberian Continental Margin and the adjacent abyssal plains. The study covers an area of approximately 2.3 million km2, including a 50 to 400 km wide band adjacent to the coastline. The main morphological characteristics of the seafloor features on the Iberian continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise and the surrounding abyssal plains are described. Individual seafloor features existing on the Iberian Margin have been classified into three main groups according to their origin: tectonic and/or volcanic, depositional and erosional. Major depositional and erosional features around the Iberian Margin developed in late Pleistocene-Holocene times and have been controlled by tectonic movements and eustatic fluctuations. The distribution of the geomorphological features is discussed in relation to their genetic processes and the evolution of the margin. The prevalence of one or several specific processes in certain areas reflects the dominant morphotectonic and oceanographic controlling factors. Sedimentary processes and the resulting depositional products are dominant on the Valencia-Catalán Margin and in the northern part of the Balearic Promontory. Strong tectonic control is observed in the geomorphology of the Betic and the Gulf of Cádiz margins. The role of bottom currents is especially evident throughout the Iberian Margin. The Galicia, Portuguese and Cantabrian margins show a predominance of erosional features and tectonically-controlled linear features related to faults.

  5. The Continental Margins Program in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cocker, M.D.; Shapiro, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    From 1984 to 1993, the Georgia Geologic Survey (GGS) participated in the Minerals Management Service-funded Continental Margins Program. Geological and geophysical data acquisition focused on offshore stratigraphic framework studies, phosphate-bearing Miocene-age strata, distribution of heavy minerals, near-surface alternative sources of groundwater, and development of a PC-based Coastal Geographic Information System (GIS). Seven GGS publications document results of those investigations. In addition to those publications, direct benefits of the GGS's participation include an impetus to the GGS's investigations of economic minerals on the Georgia coast, establishment of a GIS that includes computer hardware and software, and seeds for additional investigations through the information and training acquired as a result of the Continental Margins Program. These addtional investigations are quite varied in scope, and many were made possible because of GIS expertise gained as a result of the Continental Margins Program. Future investigations will also reap the benefits of the Continental Margins Program.From 1984 to 1993, the Georgia Geologic Survey (GGS) participated in the Minerals Management Service-funded Continental Margins Program. Geological and geophysical data acquisition focused on offshore stratigraphic framework studies, phosphate-bearing Miocene-age strata, distribution of heavy minerals, near-surface alternative sources of groundwater, and development of a PC-based Coastal Geographic Information System (GIS). Seven GGS publications document results of those investigations. In addition to those publications, direct benefits of the GGS's participation include an impetus to the GGS's investigations of economic minerals on the Georgia coast, establishment of a GIS that includes computer hardware and software, and seeds for additional investigations through the information and training acquired as a result of the Continental Margins Program. These additional

  6. Importance of adequate exercise in the detection of coronary heart disease by radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Lo, K.; Pitt, B.

    1980-12-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained on 77 symptomatic patients without prior documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease was present by angiograms in 48. Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was abnormal in 41 patients (overall sensitivity 85%). In 29 patients with normal coronary arteries, RNV was normal in 24 (specificity 83%). To determine if the exercise level affects sensitivity, the studies were graded for adequacy of exercise. It was considered adequate if patients developed (a) chest pain, or (b) ST segment depression of at least 1 mm, or (c) if they achieved a pressure rate product greater than 250. Among the 48 patients with coronary artery disease, 35 achieved adequate exercise. Thirty-three had an abnormal RNV (sensitivity 94%). In 13 patients who failed to achieve adequate exercise, RNV was abnormal in eight (sensitivity of only 62%). Some patients with coronary artery disease may have a normal ventricular response at inadequate levels of stress.

  7. [Prevention of ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus by adequate treatment with acyclovir].

    PubMed

    Borruat, F X; Buechi, E R; Piguet, B; Fitting, P; Zografos, L; Herbort, C P

    1991-05-01

    We compared the frequency of severe ocular complications secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) in 232 patients. They were divided into three groups: 1) patients without treatment (n = 164); 2) patients treated adequately (n = 48) with acyclovir (ACV; 5 x 800 mg/d orally and ophthalmic ointment 5 x /d for a minimum of 7 days, given within three days after skin eruption); and, 3) patients treated inadequately (n = 20) with ACV (only topical treatment, insufficient doses, interrupted treatment, delayed treatment). Patients with no treatment or with inadequate treatments showed the same frequency of severe ocular complications (21% (34/164) and 25% (5/20), respectively). In contrast, when adequate treatment of ACV was given complications occurred in only 4% (2/48) of cases. This study emphasizes the need for prompt (within three days after skin eruption) and adequate (5 x 800 mg/d for at least 7 days) treatment of ACV to prevent the severe complications of HZO.

  8. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  9. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  10. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Darrell J.; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D.; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent’s race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth. PMID:22658579

  11. DYNAMIC NEUROMUSCULAR STABILIZATION & SPORTS REHABILITATION

    PubMed Central

    Kobesova, Alena; Kolar, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic neuromuscular (core) stability is necessary for optimal athletic performance and is not achieved purely by adequate strength of abdominals, spinal extensors, gluteals or any other musculature; rather, core stabilization is accomplished through precise coordination of these muscles and intra‐abdominal pressure regulation by the central nervous system. Understanding developmental kinesiology provides a framework to appreciate the regional interdependence and the inter‐linking of the skeleton, joints, musculature during movement and the importance of training both the dynamic and stabilizing function of muscles in the kinetic chain. The Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization (DNS) approach provides functional tools to assess and activate the intrinsic spinal stabilizers in order to optimize the movement system for both pre‐habilitation and rehabilitation of athletic injuries and performance. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:23439921

  12. The geodynamics of the Levant margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Avraham, Z.

    2006-12-01

    The Levant continental margin, offshore Israel, Lebanon and Syria, is usually defined as a passive margin that was formed through rifting processes. During the formation two major continental fragments are assumed to separate from the northern edge of the Afro-Arabian plate to form the Levant basin: the Tauride and Eratosthenes blocks. Today an oceanic crust and, in places, a very thin continental crust are present between the Levant margin and Eratosthenes seamount. The margin can be divided into two distinct provinces that are separated by the Carmel Structure, which extends from seawards to the northwest across the continental shelf and slope. The preservation of segmentation, both in the shallow and in the deep structure, insinuates that the two segments were formed through different continental breakup processes, which continue to dictate the style of sediment accumulation. The nature and development of the continental margin offshore Israel were the subject of numerous studies, which suggest that the southern Levant segment (south of the Carmel Structure) was formed through continental rifting processes. In contrast, the northern segment, from the Carmel structure northwards and offshore southern Lebanon, was hardly studied before. Recent studies however indicate that the northern segment shows a strong similarity to classical transform margins in the world. In view of the new classification of the northern Levant margin a modified scenario is suggested for: (a) the initial stages in which the Levant margin was formed; and (b) the present day structural differences between the two segments of the margin. At present, the northern Levant continental margin is being reactivated by transpressional faulting of the marine continuation of the Carmel fault which bends northward at the base of the continental slope due to the rheological discontinuity in this region. This fault system coincides with the sharp continental-oceanic crustal transition, and acts as an

  13. DC/DC Converter Stability Testing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents study results on hybrid DC/DC converter stability testing methods. An input impedance measurement method and a gain/phase margin measurement method were evaluated to be effective to determine front-end oscillation and feedback loop oscillation. In particular, certain channel power levels of converter input noises have been found to have high degree correlation with the gain/phase margins. It becomes a potential new method to evaluate stability levels of all type of DC/DC converters by utilizing the spectral analysis on converter input noises.

  14. Widespread methane leakage from the sea floor on the northern US Atlantic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarke, A.; Ruppel, C.; Kodis, M.; Brothers, D.; Lobecker, E.

    2014-09-01

    Methane emissions from the sea floor affect methane inputs into the atmosphere, ocean acidification and de-oxygenation, the distribution of chemosynthetic communities and energy resources. Global methane flux from seabed cold seeps has only been estimated for continental shelves, at 8 to 65 Tg CH4 yr-1, yet other parts of marine continental margins are also emitting methane. The US Atlantic margin has not been considered an area of widespread seepage, with only three methane seeps recognized seaward of the shelf break. However, massive upper-slope seepage related to gas hydrate degradation has been predicted for the southern part of this margin, even though this process has previously only been recognized in the Arctic. Here we use multibeam water-column backscatter data that cover 94,000 km2 of sea floor to identify about 570 gas plumes at water depths between 50 and 1,700 m between Cape Hatteras and Georges Bank on the northern US Atlantic passive margin. About 440 seeps originate at water depths that bracket the updip limit for methane hydrate stability. Contemporary upper-slope seepage there may be triggered by ongoing warming of intermediate waters, but authigenic carbonates observed imply that emissions have continued for more than 1,000 years at some seeps. Extrapolating the upper-slope seep density on this margin to the global passive margin system, we suggest that tens of thousands of seeps could be discoverable.

  15. Widespread methane leakage from the sea floor on the northern US Atlantic margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skarke, Adam; Ruppel, Carolyn; Kodis, Mali'o; Brothers, Daniel S.; Lobecker, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from the sea floor affect methane inputs into the atmosphere, ocean acidification and de-oxygenation, the distribution of chemosynthetic communities and energy resources. Global methane flux from seabed cold seeps has only been estimated for continental shelves, at 8 to 65 Tg CH4 yr−1, yet other parts of marine continental margins are also emitting methane. The US Atlantic margin has not been considered an area of widespread seepage, with only three methane seeps recognized seaward of the shelf break. However, massive upper-slope seepage related to gas hydrate degradation has been predicted for the southern part of this margin, even though this process has previously only been recognized in the Arctic. Here we use multibeam water-column backscatter data that cover 94,000 km2 of sea floor to identify about 570 gas plumes at water depths between 50 and 1,700 m between Cape Hatteras and Georges Bank on the northern US Atlantic passive margin. About 440 seeps originate at water depths that bracket the updip limit for methane hydrate stability. Contemporary upper-slope seepage there may be triggered by ongoing warming of intermediate waters, but authigenic carbonates observed imply that emissions have continued for more than 1,000 years at some seeps. Extrapolating the upper-slope seep density on this margin to the global passive margin system, we suggest that tens of thousands of seeps could be discoverable.

  16. Towards a personalized surgical margin for breast conserving surgery-Implications of field cancerization in local recurrence.

    PubMed

    Lebya, Katarina; Garcia-Smith, Randi; Swaminathan, Radha; Jones, Anna; Russell, John; Joste, Nancy; Bisoffi, Marco; Trujillo, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    The amount of normal tissue that should be excised during breast conserving surgery is widely debated. Tissue adjacent to breast tumors, although histologically normal, possesses many of the molecular abnormalities found in tumor tissues. Here, we propose that the ideal physical distance for a surgical margin may not be universal. Rather, an adequate surgical margin likely varies from patient to patient, depending on the biology of the tissue that remains after surgery. J. Surg. Oncol. 2017;115:109-115. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... designed to hold firmly in place. 10 CFR Part 830 imposes a requirement that a documented safety analysis... provide guidance on meeting the requirements imposed by DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis...

  18. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Adequate data capable of being audited is consistent with good business concepts and effective and efficient management of any organization, whether it is operated for profit or on a nonprofit basis. It is a... contract for services (for example, a management contract), directly assigning the costs to the...

  19. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  20. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  1. ADEQUATE SHELTERS AND QUICK REACTIONS TO WARNING: A KEY TO CIVIL DEFENSE.

    PubMed

    LYNCH, F X

    1963-11-08

    Case histories collected by investigators in Japan during 1945 illustrate both the effectiveness of shelters and the dangers inherent in apathy of the population, which suffered needless casualties by ignoring air raid warnintgs. Adequate shelters and immediate response to warnings are essential to survival in nuclear attack.

  2. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to…

  3. 45 CFR 1182.15 - Institute responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... record systems. These security safeguards shall apply to all systems in which identifiable personal data... data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of personal data. (4... technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual...

  4. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  5. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  6. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  7. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  8. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  9. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  10. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  11. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-03

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  12. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  13. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  14. Identifying the Factors Impacting the Adequately Yearly Progress Performance in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Ju-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The NCLB (No Child Left Behind Act) specifies that states must develop AYP (adequate yearly progress) statewide measurable objectives for improved achievement by all students, including economically disadvantaged students, students from minority races, students with disabilities, and students with limited English proficiency. By the 2013-2014…

  15. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  16. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  17. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  18. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Hemoglobin... discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit qualification standards in the United States, its impact...

  19. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  20. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  1. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  2. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  3. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  4. 30 CFR 227.801 - What if a State does not adequately perform a delegated function?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... delegated function? 227.801 Section 227.801 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Performance Review § 227.801 What if a State does not adequately perform a delegated function? If your performance of the delegated function does...

  5. Science Education as a Contributor to Adequate Yearly Progress and Accountability Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires states to measure the adequate yearly progress (AYP) of each public school and local educational agency (LEA) and to hold schools and LEAs accountable for failing to make AYP. Although it is required that science be assessed in at least three grades, the achievement results from science examinations are…

  6. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  7. Understanding the pelvic pain mechanism is key to find an adequate therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2016-06-25

    Pain is a natural mechanism to actual or potential tissue damage and involves both a sensory and an emotional experience. In chronic pelvic pain, localisation of pain can be widespread and can cause considerable distress. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to fully understand the pelvic pain mechanism and to identify an adequate therapeutic approach.

  8. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  9. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  10. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  11. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  12. Adequate Yearly Progress for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders through Research-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannest, Kimberly J.; Temple-Harvey, Kimberly K.; Mason, Benjamin A.

    2009-01-01

    Because schools are held accountable for the academic performance of all students, it is important to focus on academics and the need for effective teaching practices. Adequate yearly progress, a method of accountability that is part of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), profoundly affects the education of students who have emotional and…

  13. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared.

  14. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  15. Crustal structure of the Nova Scotia margin and implications for the Moroccan margin conjugate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Louden, K. E.; Jackson, R.; Dehler, S.; Funck, T.

    2003-04-01

    The Nova Scotia margin is located at a transition from volcanic margins in the south to non-volcanic margins in the north along the Eastern Atlantic continental margin system. South of the Nova Scotia margin, seaward dipping reflections (SDR) and a high-velocity lower crustal layer are observed across the ocean-continent transition (OCT), indicative of volcanic margins. North of the Nova Scotia margin, no SDR is observed and thin crust overlies serpentinized mantle across the OCT. Along the Nova Scotia margin, an SDR sequence is observed but only on the southern-most part neighboring Georges Bank. The East Coast Magnetic Anomaly, possibly related to an igneous wedge, extends further to the north but disappears south of the Scotian Basin. In order to understand the crustal structure of this transition from volcanic to non-volcanic margin, three wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction (WAR/R) profiles were acquired across the full width of the Nova Scotia margin in 2001, to delineate the crustal features from continental crust to oceanic crust. The northern profile (Line 1) crosses the Scotian Basin and coincides with existing multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) profile 89-1; the middle profile (Line 2) crosses the Lahave Platform and coincides with MCS profiles 88-1 and 88-1a; and the southern profile (Line 3) crosses the southwestern part of the margin. Preliminary results for the middle WAR/R profile indicate that serpentinized mantle is observed below the OCT, possibly overlain by thin oceanic crust. Oceanic crust is about 6 km thick, 1-2 km thicker than that of the northern profile. This indicates increasing volcanism and magma generation from the northern to the southern parts of the margin. WAR/R profiles were collected across the conjugate NW-Moroccan margin in 2001, one of which is 60 km to the north of Line 1 in the plate reconstruction at the time of rifting. Similar amounts of crustal extension and widths of transitional crust are shown along these

  16. Reconstructing Rodinia by Fitting Neoproterozoic Continental Margins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Reconstructions of Phanerozoic tectonic plates can be closely constrained by lithologic correlations across conjugate margins by paleontologic information, by correlation of orogenic belts, by paleomagnetic location of continents, and by ocean floor magmatic stripes. In contrast, Proterozoic reconstructions are hindered by the lack of some of these tools or the lack of their precision. To overcome some of these difficulties, this report focuses on a different method of reconstruction, namely the use of the shape of continents to assemble the supercontinent of Rodinia, much like a jigsaw puzzle. Compared to the vast amount of information available for Phanerozoic systems, such a limited approach for Proterozoic rocks, may seem suspect. However, using the assembly of the southern continents (South America, Africa, India, Arabia, Antarctica, and Australia) as an example, a very tight fit of the continents is apparent and illustrates the power of the jigsaw puzzle method. This report focuses on Neoproterozoic rocks, which are shown on two new detailed geologic maps that constitute the backbone of the study. The report also describes the Neoproterozoic, but younger or older rocks are not discussed or not discussed in detail. The Neoproterozoic continents and continental margins are identified based on the distribution of continental-margin sedimentary and magmatic rocks that define the break-up margins of Rodinia. These Neoproterozoic continental exposures, as well as critical Neo- and Meso-Neoproterozoic tectonic features shown on the two new map compilations, are used to reconstruct the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia. This approach differs from the common approach of using fold belts to define structural features deemed important in the Rodinian reconstruction. Fold belts are difficult to date, and many are significantly younger than the time frame considered here (1,200 to 850 Ma). Identifying Neoproterozoic continental margins, which are primarily

  17. The synrift subsidence deficit at rifted margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, T.

    2009-04-01

    Across rifted margins, the prerift continental crust thins from ~ 30 km, reaching zero at the continent-ocean transition (COT) beyond which either oceanic crust or unroofed mantle forms top basement. As a result of the crustal thinning, considerable subsidence is both expected and observed. However at several margins, subsidence appears to have occurred largely after rather than during rifting. Examples of such behaviour described in the literature include the West Iberia margin, the salt basins of the South Atlantic, and the Exmouth Plateau margin. This synrift subsidence deficit can be explained by crustal depth-dependent stretching, in which much of the crust is withdrawn after the end of rifting, but considerable problems arise with this model. They can however also be explained at magma-rich margins by thermal uplift during rifting, the addition of igneous intrusions to the lithosphere during rifting, and the partial depletion of the mantle. At magma-poor margins, mantle serpentinization has a similar effect, although as serpentinization can only occur once the entire curst has become brittle, this is likely to be important only at high degrees of stretching. An alternative explanation may be the influx of asthenosphere warmer than the relatively cool sublithospheric mantle observed beneath several continents and which is one explanation for the lack of melt at many rifted margins. These different models would thus imply some modification to the McKenzie model for lithospheric stretching, arising because of the geodynamic processes accompanying continental breakup. But it is also possible that synrift subsidence has been systematically underestimated if local water level was substantially below global sealevel. The presence of thick evaporites at many rifted margins indicates that this was true at the end of rifting. As rifting leading to continental breakup by definition occurs within a continent, it may be expected that the rift initially develops isolated

  18. Lithospheric growth at margins of cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, D. B.

    2002-09-01

    Deep seismic reflection profiles collected across Proterozoic-Archean margins are now sufficiently numerous to formulate a consistent hypothesis of how continental nuclei grow laterally to form cratonic shields. This picture is made possible both because the length of these regional profiles spans all the tectonic elements of an orogen on a particular cratonic margin and because of their great depth range. Key transects studied include the LITHOPROBE SNORCLE 1 transect and the BABEL survey, crossing the Slave and Baltic craton margins, respectively. In most cases, the older (Archean) block appears to form a wedge of uppermost mantle rock embedded into the more juvenile (Proterozoic) block by as much as 100-200 km at uppermost mantle depths and Archean lithosphere is therefore more laterally extensive at depth than at the surface. Particularly bright reflections along the Moho are cited as evidence of shear strain within a weak, low-viscosity lower crustal channel that lies along the irregular top of the indenting wedge. The bottom of the wedge is an underthrust/subduction zone, and associated late reversal in subduction polarity beneath the craton margin emerges as a common characteristic of these margins although related arc magmatism may be minor.

  19. Theory of margination in confined multicomponent suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriquez Rivera, Rafael; Sinha, Kushal; Graham, Michael

    2015-11-01

    In blood flow, leukocytes and platelets tend to segregate near the vessel walls; this is known as margination. Margination of leukocytes and platelets is important in physiological processes, medical diagnostics and drug delivery. A mechanistic theory is developed to describe flow-induced segregation in confined multicomponent suspensions of deformable particles such as blood. The theory captures the essential features of margination by describing it in terms of two key competing processes in these systems at low Reynolds number: wall-induced migration and hydrodynamic pair collisions. The theory also includes the effect of physical properties of the deformable particles and molecular diffusion. Several regimes of segregation are identified, depending on the value of a ``margination parameter'' M. Moreover, there is a critical value of M below which a sharp ``drainage transition'' occurs: one component is completely depleted from the bulk flow to the vicinity of the walls. Direct hydrodynamic simulations also display this transition in suspensions where the components differ in size or flexibility. The developed mechanistic theory leads to substantial insight into the origins of margination and will help in guiding development of new technologies involving multicomponent suspensions. This work was supported by NSF grant CBET-1436082.

  20. Passive margins: A model of formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, Xavier; Sibuet, Jean-Claude

    1981-05-01

    The stretching model of McKenzie is applied to the formation of passive continental margins, assuming local isostatic equilibrium. We present the quantitative implications of the model; we then discuss its fit to the IPOD data on the Armorican and Galicia continental margins of the northeast Atlantic. The amount of brittle stretching observed in the upper 8 km of the prestretched continental crust reaches a maximum value of about 3. This large amount of thinning is comparable to the thinning of the whole continental crust observed by seismic refraction measurements and required by the model for the whole lithosphere. This agreement suggests that the simple stretching model is a good first approximation to the actual physical process of formation of the margin. It is thus possible to compute simply the thermal evolution of the margin and to discuss its petrological consequences. It is also possible to obtain a quantitative reconstruction of the edge of the continent prior to breakup. Finally, the large slope of the base of the lithosphere during the formation of the margin results in a force similar but opposite to the `ridge-push' force acting on accreting plate boundaries.

  1. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins.

    PubMed

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E; Butterworth, Nathaniel P; Müller, R Dietmar

    2016-08-11

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth's major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength--velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  2. A comparison of marginal odds ratio estimators.

    PubMed

    Loux, Travis M; Drake, Christiana; Smith-Gagen, Julie

    2017-02-01

    Uses of the propensity score to obtain estimates of causal effect have been investigated thoroughly under assumptions of linearity and additivity of exposure effect. When the outcome variable is binary relationships such as collapsibility, valid for the linear model, do not always hold. This article examines uses of the propensity score when both exposure and outcome are binary variables and the parameter of interest is the marginal odds ratio. We review stratification and matching by the propensity score when calculating the Mantel-Haenszel estimator and show that it is consistent for neither the marginal nor conditional odds ratio. We also investigate a marginal odds ratio estimator based on doubly robust estimators and summarize its performance relative to other recently proposed estimators under various conditions, including low exposure prevalence and model misspecification. Finally, we apply all estimators to a case study estimating the effect of Medicare plan type on the quality of care received by African-American breast cancer patients.

  3. Efficient and robust feature extraction by maximum margin criterion.

    PubMed

    Li, Haifeng; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Keshu

    2006-01-01

    In pattern recognition, feature extraction techniques are widely employed to reduce the dimensionality of data and to enhance the discriminatory information. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are the two most popular linear dimensionality reduction methods. However, PCA is not very effective for the extraction of the most discriminant features, and LDA is not stable due to the small sample size problem. In this paper, we propose some new (linear and nonlinear) feature extractors based on maximum margin criterion (MMC). Geometrically, feature extractors based on MMC maximize the (average) margin between classes after dimensionality reduction. It is shown that MMC can represent class separability better than PCA. As a connection to LDA, we may also derive LDA from MMC by incorporating some constraints. By using some other constraints, we establish a new linear feature extractor that does not suffer from the small sample size problem, which is known to cause serious stability problems for LDA. The kernelized (nonlinear) counterpart of this linear feature extractor is also established in the paper. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that the new feature extractors are effective, stable, and efficient.

  4. Risk Informed Margins Management as part of Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith

    2014-06-01

    The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about Light Water Reactor (LWR) design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, readability, and safety, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as risk informed margins management (RIMM) strategies.

  5. Subglacial hydrology and ice stream margin locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perol, Thibaut; Rice, James R.; Platt, John D.; Suckale, Jenny

    2015-07-01

    Fast-flowing ice streams in West Antarctica are separated from the nearly stagnant ice in the adjacent ridge by zones of highly localized deformation known as shear margins. It is presently uncertain what mechanisms control the location of shear margins and possibly allow them to migrate. In this paper we show how subglacial hydrological processes can select the shear margin location, leading to a smooth transition from a slipping to a locked bed at the base of an ice stream. Our study uses a two-dimensional thermomechanical model in a cross section perpendicular to the direction of flow. We confirm that the intense straining at the shear margins can generate large temperate regions within the deforming ice. Assuming that the melt generated in the temperate ice collects in a drainage channel at the base of the margin, we show that a channel locally decreases the pore pressure in the subglacial till. Therefore, the basal shear strength just outside the channel, assuming a Coulomb-plastic rheology, can be substantially higher than that inferred under the majority of the stream. Results show that the additional basal resistance produced by the channel lowers the stress concentrated on the locked portion of the bed. Matching the model to surface velocity data, we find that shear margins are stable when the slipping-to-locked bed transition occurs less than 500 m away from a channel operating at an effective pressure of 200 kPa and for a hydraulic transmissivity equivalent to a basal water film of order 0.2 mm thickness.

  6. Surgical margins and handling of soft-tissue sarcoma in extremities: a clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, R.; Coakley, N.; Werier, J.; Engel, J.; Ghert, M.; Verma, S.

    2013-01-01

    Questions In limb salvage surgery for extremity soft-tissue sarcoma (sts), what is an adequate surgical margin? What is the appropriate number of samples to take from the margins of a surgical resection specimen? What is the appropriate handling of surgical resection specimens? Background Surgery is the primary treatment for extremity sts. The combination of radiotherapy with surgery allows for limb salvage by using radiation to biologically “sterilize” microscopic extensions of tumour and to spare neurovascular and osseous structures. Adjuvant chemotherapy in sts—except for rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma—continues to be controversial. Methods The medline and embase databases (1975 to June 2011) and the Cochrane Library were searched for pertinent studies. The Web sites of the main guideline organizations and the American Society of Clinical Oncology conference proceedings (2007–2010) were also searched. Results and Conclusions Thirty-three papers, including four guidelines, one protocol, and one abstract, were eligible for inclusion. The data suggest that patients with clear margins have a better prognosis, but no prospective studies have indicated how wide margins should be. In limb-salvage surgery for extremity sts, the procedure should be planned to achieve a clear margin. However, to preserve functionality, surgery may result in a very close (<1 cm) or even microscopically positive margin. In this circumstance, the use of preoperative or postoperative radiation should be considered. No studies described the optimal number of tissue sections required to assess adequacy of excision nor the appropriate handling of surgical resection specimens. The Sarcoma Disease Site Group made its recommendations based on expert opinion and consensus. PMID:23737694

  7. Max-Margin-Based Discriminative Feature Learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Changsheng; Liu, Qingshan; Dong, Weishan; Wei, Fan; Zhang, Xin; Yang, Lin

    2016-12-01

    In this brief, we propose a new max-margin-based discriminative feature learning method. In particular, we aim at learning a low-dimensional feature representation, so as to maximize the global margin of the data and make the samples from the same class as close as possible. In order to enhance the robustness to noise, we leverage a regularization term to make the transformation matrix sparse in rows. In addition, we further learn and leverage the correlations among multiple categories for assisting in learning discriminative features. The experimental results demonstrate the power of the proposed method against the related state-of-the-art methods.

  8. Possible novel agents in marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Broccoli, Alessandro

    Efficacy, safety and mechanisms of action of novel agents in marginal zone lymphoma patients, both with a nodal and extranodal presentation, are reviewed. Data on lenalidomide, bortezomib and (90)yttrium-ibrutumomab tiuxetan are obtained from trials specifically designed for patients affected by marginal zone lymphoma and with various disease presentations. The role of targeted agents, such as obinutuzumab, ibrutinib and idelalisib, and of some very new drugs (venetoclax, copanlisib, ublituximab and TGR-1202) is also discussed, taking into account the most relevant experiences in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. A glance to some possible drug combinations will also be provided, along with an update of the most relevant ongoing trials.

  9. 17 CFR 242.405 - Withdrawal of margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin Requirements for Security Futures § 242.405 Withdrawal of margin. (a) By the customer. Except as otherwise... account after such withdrawal is sufficient to satisfy the required margin for the security futures...

  10. Margin and sensitivity methods for security analysis of electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Scott L.

    Reliable operation of large scale electric power networks requires that system voltages and currents stay within design limits. Operation beyond those limits can lead to equipment failures and blackouts. Security margins measure the amount by which system loads or power transfers can change before a security violation, such as an overloaded transmission line, is encountered. This thesis shows how to efficiently compute security margins defined by limiting events and instabilities, and the sensitivity of those margins with respect to assumptions, system parameters, operating policy, and transactions. Security margins to voltage collapse blackouts, oscillatory instability, generator limits, voltage constraints and line overloads are considered. The usefulness of computing the sensitivities of these margins with respect to interarea transfers, loading parameters, generator dispatch, transmission line parameters, and VAR support is established for networks as large as 1500 buses. The sensitivity formulas presented apply to a range of power system models. Conventional sensitivity formulas such as line distribution factors, outage distribution factors, participation factors and penalty factors are shown to be special cases of the general sensitivity formulas derived in this thesis. The sensitivity formulas readily accommodate sparse matrix techniques. Margin sensitivity methods are shown to work effectively for avoiding voltage collapse blackouts caused by either saddle node bifurcation of equilibria or immediate instability due to generator reactive power limits. Extremely fast contingency analysis for voltage collapse can be implemented with margin sensitivity based rankings. Interarea transfer can be limited by voltage limits, line limits, or voltage stability. The sensitivity formulas presented in this thesis apply to security margins defined by any limit criteria. A method to compute transfer margins by directly locating intermediate events reduces the total number

  11. The disappearance of a "classical" ice marginal position in NE-Germany: the Frankfurt phase puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böse, Margot; Lüthgens, Christopher; Nitzsche, Carolin; Hardt, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    The Frankfurt phase of the Weichselian glaciation is a classical ice marginal position in the North European plain according to all geological and geomorphological maps since the end of the 19th century. Its detection is based on the connection of prominent, but rather isolated landscape features to a supposed ice margin. As in NE-Germany no till layer is connected to the proposed ice marginal position, it is usually considered to represent an active ice margin which formed during a stability phase of the downwasting from the maximum Weichselian ice extent, the Brandenburg phase, which is located about 60 km further south. This is in contrast to the supposed equivalent of the Frankfurt ice marginal position in Poland, the Poznan phase, which is documented by a more prominent landform record and an associated till. New investigations and a reinterpretation of the topography, a reevaluation of sediments in sand pits, as well as geochronological data of glaciofluvial sediments give new insights into the glacial processes as well as in the timing. The landscape was widely formed by glaciofluvial processes forming a complex pattern of intercalated outwash sediments of the advancing, as well as of the downwasting glacier of the Brandenburg phase. A detailed study of the topography by LIDAR data gives evidence of a successive ice retreat pattern south of the so called Frankfurt ice marginal area, documented in the form of a differentiated pattern of glaciofluvial sediments and till on top. An outwash plain, the Müncheberger Sandur, on which several eskers have been mapped, was classically interpreted as a proglacial feature of the Frankfurt ice marginal position. Nevertheless, a series of OSL-ages shows Weichselian ages which are not in accordance with the supposed timing as an outwash plain related to the Frankfurt ice marginal position. The ages, as well as sedimentological evidence suggest that the sandy glaciofluvial sediments belong to the proglacial sediment cycle

  12. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it.

  13. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-01-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  14. Intraoperative targeted optical imaging: a guide towards tumor-free margins in cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Orbay, Hakan; Bean, Jero; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several decades, development of various imaging techniques such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography greatly facilitated the early detection of cancer. Another important aspect that is closely related to the survival of cancer patients is complete tumor removal during surgical resection. The major obstacle in achieving this goal is to distinguish between tumor tissue and normal tissue during surgery. Currently, tumor margins are typically assessed by visual assessment and palpation of the tumor intraoperatively. However, the possibility of microinvasion to the surrounding tissues makes it difficult to determine an adequate tumor-free excision margin, often forcing the surgeons to perform wide excisions including the healthy tissue that may contain vital structures. It would be ideal to remove the tumor completely, with minimal safety margins, if surgeons could see precise tumor margins during the operation. Molecular imaging with optical techniques can visualize the tumors via fluorophore conjugated probes targeting tumor markers such as proteins and enzymes that are upregulated during malignant transformation. Intraoperative use of this technique may facilitate complete excision of the tumor and tumor micromasses located beyond the visual capacity of the naked eye, ultimately improving the clinical outcome and survival rates of cancer patients.

  15. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  16. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed Central

    Godrich, Stephanie L.; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R.; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing. PMID:28054955

  17. Tectonic erosion at the front of the Japan Trench convergent margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Huene, R.; Culotta, R.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging of a multichannel seismic record was improved by reprocessing using pre-stack techniques. The reprocessed record shows structures that indicate tectonic erosion and gravity collapse at the front of the Japan Trench margin. Much of the lower slope appears to be underlain by a detached, coherent block of continental crust. The lower slope has failed by mass wasting and the resulting apron of slump debris at the base of the slope has become involved in thrust faulting at the front of the subduction zone. Slumping continues as long as debris is removed from the front of the margin by subduction, and the apron cannot build up sufficiently to stabilize the failing lower slope. Truncated beds at the base of the upper plate indicate subcrustal erosion as well, this probably being the main cause of massive subsidence of the margin. Subsidence was the cause of oversteepening, destabilization and subsequent gravity collapse of the leading edge of the upper plate. ?? 1989.

  18. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  19. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  20. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-18

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery.

  1. Oil & gas in the 1990`s and beyond: Adequate supplies, growing demand, flat prices

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1995-06-01

    Long term petroleum market fundamentals are clear: supplies are adequate and world demand will continue to grow steadily. Adequate supplies insure that prices will not increase significantly, on average, till the end of the 1990`s, probably much beyond. Despite plentiful supply and modest price increases, there will be peaks and valleys in the price graph as productive capacity is used up, then expanded. Tens of billions of dollars will be needed over the next decade to expand producing capacity. World oil consumption will increase at about 1.5% per year, at least for the next decade. Demand in Asia and Latin America will grow several times faster than this average world rate. World natural gas demand will grow at more then 2% per year well past 2000. Oil and gas companies around the world have changed the way they operate to survive the market realities of the 1990`s. restructuring, outsourcing, and partnering will continue as increasing costs and flat prices squeeze profits. Energy use patterns will change. Fuel and other product specifications will change. Market shares of oil and gas will shift. But opportunities abound in this new market environment. Growing markets always provide opportunities. Technology has helped operators dramatically lower finding, developing, and producing costs. The petroleum age is far from being over. Growing markets, adequate supply, affordable products, and a 60% market share. Those are the signs of an industry with a bright future.

  2. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

  3. A test for adequate wastewater treatment based on glutathione S transferase isoenzyme profile.

    PubMed

    Grammou, A; Samaras, P; Papadimitriou, C; Papadopoulos, A I

    2013-04-01

    Discharge to the environment of treated or non-treated municipal wastewater imposes several threats to coastal and estuarine ecosystems which are difficult to assess. In our study we evaluate the use of the isoenzyme profile of glutathione S transferase (GST) in combination with the kinetic characteristics of the whole enzyme and of heme peroxidase, as a test of adequate treatment of municipal wastewater. For this reason, Artemia nauplii were incubated in artificial seawater prepared by wastewater samples, such as secondary municipal effluents produced by a conventional activated sludge unit and advanced treated effluents produced by the employment of coagulation, activated carbon adsorption and chlorination as single processes or as combined ones. Characteristic changes of the isoenzyme pattern and the enzymes' kinetic properties were caused by chlorinated secondary municipal effluent or by secondary non-chlorinated effluent. Advanced treatment by combination of coagulation and/or carbon adsorption resulted to less prominent changes, suggesting more adequate treatment. Our results suggest that GST isoenzyme profile in combination with the kinetic properties of the total enzyme family is a sensitive test for the evaluation of the adequateness of the treatment of reclaimed wastewater and the reduction of potentially harmful compounds. Potentially, it may offer a 'fingerprint' characteristic of a particular effluent and probably of the treatment level it has been subjected.

  4. Analysis of Bubble Plume Distributions to Evaluate Methane Hydrate Decomposition on the Cascadia Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, U. K.; Johnson, H. P.; Salmi, M.; Solomon, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Methane gas is formed within the sediments of accretionary prisms by the biological and thermal degradation of organic matter. Some of this methane is trapped as solid-phase methane hydrate, the stability of which is temperature and pressure-dependent. Past fluctuations in global temperatures have resulted in the decomposition of continental margin gas hydrate reservoirs and subsequent emissions of methane, creating a positive feedback to global warming with additional impacts on the marine environment. Temperature data collected over the past four decades show that bottom water on the upper slope of the Washington State continental margin has undergone systematic warming. Thermal models of this heat propagation into the sediments indicate a 40 meter deepening of the methane hydrate stability depth (MHDS) that if correct, would suggest a preferential release of methane into the water column from these depths on the Cascadia margin. Location data for over 100 active methane seeps on the Cascadia margin were compiled from a variety of sources including research cruises, published literature, and local fishermen. Emission site locations show anomalous plume densities at depths associated with the MHDS, which lies at approximately 500 meters water depth in the NE Pacific. This supports the hypothesis that warming of seawater at intermediate depths due to contemporary climate change has begun to destabilize the Cascadia margin gas hydrate reservoir. While relatively small sample size and incomplete coverage due to the ad-hoc nature of data acquisition limit confidence in any conclusions drawn from this dataset, this study provides a framework for future analysis of methane plume distributions and supports the need for a comprehensive and systematic geophysical and geochemical examination of the Cascadia margin.

  5. Wind-tunnel investigation of longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of a 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, T. A.; Brooks, C. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle equipped with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing was tested in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel to provide experimental data for a prediction of the static stability and control characteristics of the research vehicle as well as to provide an estimate of vehicle flight characteristics for a computer simulation program used in the planning and execution of specific flight-research mission. Data were obtained at a Reynolds number of 16.5 x 10 to the 6th power per meter for Mach numbers up to 0.92. The results indicate regions of longitudinal instability; however, an adequate margin of longitudinal stability exists at a selected cruise condition. Satisfactory effectiveness of pitch, roll, and yaw control was also demonstrated.

  6. Thinking on the Margin: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangs, Joann

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important concepts being taught in principles classes is the idea of "thinking on the margin." It can also be one of the most difficult to get across. One of the most telling examples, according to this author, comes in trying to get students to learn the profit maximizing condition for perfectly competitive firms. She…

  7. 12 CFR 349.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... depository institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail...

  8. 12 CFR 48.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for all other currency...

  9. 12 CFR 48.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for all other currency...

  10. 12 CFR 48.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for all other currency...

  11. 12 CFR 349.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... depository institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail...

  12. 12 CFR 240.9 - Margin requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... required. A banking institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value...

  13. 12 CFR 349.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... depository institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail...

  14. Keeping Academically Marginal Youth in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Geoffrey; Dunham, Roger

    1986-01-01

    From among factors theoretically considered relevant to preventing school dropouts, empirical procedures identified five variables that predicted most of the variance among marginal youth: (1) extent of misbehavior in school; (2) belief in school's relevance to employment; (3) feelings of success in school; (4) parental monitoring of behavior; (5)…

  15. Young People Speaking Back from the Margins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John

    2010-01-01

    The diminished educational opportunities and subsequent life chances of many marginalized young people have been dramatic, even to the point of being catastrophic. But they are not hapless victims, nor are they passive recipients of deficit categories like "at riskness", placed upon them by the media, politicians, agencies, and some…

  16. Negative Stress Margins - Are They Real?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Lee, Darlene S.; Mohaghegh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Advances in modeling and simulation, new finite element software, modeling engines and powerful computers are providing opportunities to interrogate designs in a very different manner and in a more detailed approach than ever before. Margins of safety are also often evaluated using local stresses for various design concepts and design parameters quickly once analysis models are defined and developed. This paper suggests that not all the negative margins of safety evaluated are real. The structural areas where negative margins are frequently encountered are often near stress concentrations, point loads and load discontinuities, near locations of stress singularities, in areas having large gradients but with insufficient mesh density, in areas with modeling issues and modeling errors, and in areas with connections and interfaces, in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transitions, bolts and bolt modeling, and boundary conditions. Now, more than ever, structural analysts need to examine and interrogate their analysis results and perform basic sanity checks to determine if these negative margins are real.

  17. 5TH BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OCEAN MARGINS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    DR. ARTURO MASSOL, PROGRAM CHAIR; DR. ROSA BUXEDA, PROGRAM CO-CHAIR

    2004-01-08

    BI-OMP supports DOE's mission in Climate Change Research. The program provides the fundamental understanding of the linkages between carbon and nitrogen cycles in ocean margins. Researchers are providing a mechanistic understanding of these cycles, using the tools of modern molecular biology. The models that will allow policy makers to determine safe levels of greenhouse gases for the Earth System.

  18. Second Language Learners' Use of Marginal Glosses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of marginal reading glosses by 18 second language (L2) learners is examined through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of audiotaped think-aloud protocols. How these readers interact with the glosses is identified and divided into five categories or gloss interactions. Examples from each are presented. The primary research question…

  19. Structural Marginality and the Urban Social Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapferer, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    This article argues for a redefinition of "Marginality" in terms of the principles that influence the developing order of the urban formation as a whole. The emerging social order and the political participation of residents of two shanty areas in Kabwe, Zambia are traced over a period of 40 years. (Author/EB)

  20. Marginalization in neural circuits with divisive normalization

    PubMed Central

    Beck, J.M.; Latham, P.E.; Pouget, A.

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of computations performed by the nervous system involves a type of probabilistic inference known as marginalization. This computation comes up in seemingly unrelated tasks, including causal reasoning, odor recognition, motor control, visual tracking, coordinate transformations, visual search, decision making, and object recognition, to name just a few. The question we address here is: how could neural circuits implement such marginalizations? We show that when spike trains exhibit a particular type of statistics – associated with constant Fano factors and gain-invariant tuning curves, as is often reported in vivo – some of the more common marginalizations can be achieved with networks that implement a quadratic nonlinearity and divisive normalization, the latter being a type of nonlinear lateral inhibition that has been widely reported in neural circuits. Previous studies have implicated divisive normalization in contrast gain control and attentional modulation. Our results raise the possibility that it is involved in yet another, highly critical, computation: near optimal marginalization in a remarkably wide range of tasks. PMID:22031877

  1. Confronting the Marginalization of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeter, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, over the last two decades, attention to culturally responsive, multicultural approaches to teaching have largely been supplanted by standardized curricula and pedagogy that derive from neoliberal business models of school reform. In this essay, I discuss three factors that contribute to the marginalization of culturally responsive…

  2. Japan's Winning Margins. Management, Training, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorriman, John; Kenjo, Takashi

    This book explains the fundamental reasons for Japan's astonishing commercial success in relation to its Western competitors. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 discusses implications of Japanese history for education, training, and management. Chapter 3 looks at the first winning margin--education. It covers the following: Japan's long…

  3. The Seismicity of Two Hyperextended Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, Tim; Terje Osmundsen, Per

    2013-04-01

    A seismic belt marks the outermost edge of Scandinavia's proximal margin, inboard of and roughly parallel to the Taper Break. A similar near- to onshore seismic belt runs along its inner edge, roughly parallel to and outboard of the asymmetric, seaward-facing escarpment. The belts converge at both the northern and southern ends of Scandinavia, where crustal taper is sharp and the proximal margin is narrow. Very few seismic events have been recorded on the intervening, gently-tapering Trøndelag Platform. Norway's distribution of seismicity is systematically ordered with respect to 1) the structural templates of high-beta extension that shaped the thinning gradient during Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous time, and 2) the topographically resurgent Cretaceous-Cenozoic "accommodation phase" family of escarpments that approximate the innermost limit of crustal thinning [See Redfield and Osmundsen (2012) for diagrams, definitions, discussion, and supporting citations.] Landwards from the belt of earthquake epicenters that mark the Taper Break the crust consistently thickens, and large fault arrays tend to sole out at mid crustal levels. Towards the sea the crystalline continental crust is hyperextended, pervasively faulted, and generally very thin. Also, faulting and serpentinization may have affected the uppermost parts of the distal margin's lithospheric mantle. Such contrasting structural conditions may generate a contrasting stiffness: for a given stress, more strain can be accommodated in the distal margin than in the less faulted proximal margin. By way of comparison, inboard of the Taper Break on the gently-tapered Trøndelag Platform, faulting was not penetrative. There, similar structural conditions prevail and proximal margin seismicity is negligible. Because stress concentration can occur where material properties undergo significant contrast, the necking zone may constitute a natural localization point for post-thinning phase earthquakes. In Scandinavia

  4. Gas hydrates of outer continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances in which a rigid framework of water molecules traps molecules of gas, mainly methane. Gas-hydrate deposits are common in continental margin sediment in all major oceans at water depths greater than about 300 m. Thirty-three localities with evidence for gas-hydrate occurrence have been described worldwide. The presence of these gas hydrates has been inferred mainly from anomalous lacoustic reflectors seen on marine seismic records. Naturally occurring marine gas hydrates have been sampled and analyzed at about tensites in several regions including continental slope and rise sediment of the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Except for some Gulf of Mexico gas hydrate occurrences, the analyzed gas hydrates are composed almost exclusively of microbial methane. Evidence for the microbial origin of methane in gas hydrates includes (1) the inverse relation between methane occurence and sulfate concentration in the sediment, (2) the subparallel depth trends in carbon isotopic compositions of methane and bicarbonate in the interstitial water, and (3) the general range of {sup 13}C depletion ({delta}{sub PDB}{sup 13}C = {minus}90 to {minus}60 {per thousand}) in the methane. Analyses of gas hydrates from the Peruvian outer continental margin in particular illustrate this evidence for microbially generated methane. The total amount of methane in gas hydrates of continental margins is not known, but estimates of about 10{sup 16} m{sup 3} seem reasonable. Although this amount of methane is large, it is not yet clear whether methane hydrates of outer continental margins will ever be a significant energy resource; however, these gas hydrates will probably constitute a drilling hazard when outer continental margins are explored in the future.

  5. A Singular Perturbation Approach for Time-Domain Assessment of Phase Margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, J. Jim; Yang, Xiaojing; Hodel, A Scottedward

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of time-domain assessment of the Phase Margin (PM) of a Single Input Single Output (SISO) Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) system using a singular perturbation approach, where a SISO LTI fast loop system, whose phase lag increases monotonically with frequency, is introduced into the loop as a singular perturbation with a singular perturbation (time-scale separation) parameter Epsilon. First, a bijective relationship between the Singular Perturbation Margin (SPM) max and the PM of the nominal (slow) system is established with an approximation error on the order of Epsilon(exp 2). In proving this result, relationships between the singular perturbation parameter Epsilon, PM of the perturbed system, PM and SPM of the nominal system, and the (monotonically increasing) phase of the fast system are also revealed. These results make it possible to assess the PM of the nominal system in the time-domain for SISO LTI systems using the SPM with a standardized testing system called "PM-gauge," as demonstrated by examples. PM is a widely used stability margin for LTI control system design and certification. Unfortunately, it is not applicable to Linear Time-Varying (LTV) and Nonlinear Time-Varying (NLTV) systems. The approach developed here can be used to establish a theoretical as well as practical metric of stability margin for LTV and NLTV systems using a standardized SPM that is backward compatible with PM.

  6. A soft-contact model for computing safety margins in human prehension.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tarkeshwar; Ambike, Satyajit

    2017-04-06

    The soft human digit tip forms contact with grasped objects over a finite area and applies a moment about an axis normal to the area. These moments are important for ensuring stability during precision grasping. However, the contribution of these moments to grasp stability is rarely investigated in prehension studies. The more popular hard-contact model assumes that the digits exert a force vector but no free moment on the grasped object. Many sensorimotor studies use this model and show that humans estimate friction coefficients to scale the normal force to grasp objects stably, i.e. the smoother the surface, the tighter the grasp. The difference between the applied normal force and the minimal normal force needed to prevent slipping is called safety margin and this index is widely used as a measure of grasp planning. Here, we define and quantify safety margin using a more realistic contact model that allows digits to apply both forces and moments. Specifically, we adapt a soft-contact model from robotics and demonstrate that the safety margin thus computed is a more accurate and robust index of grasp planning than its hard-contact variant. Previously, we have used the soft-contact model to propose two indices of grasp planning that show how humans account for the shape and inertial properties of an object. A soft-contact based safety margin offers complementary insights by quantifying how humans may account for surface properties of the object and skin tissue during grasp planning and execution.

  7. Cenozoic Source-to-Sink of the African margin of the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouby, Delphine; Chardon, Dominique; Huyghe, Damien; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cecile; Loparev, Artiom; Ye, Jing; Dall'Asta, Massimo; Grimaud, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the Transform Source to Sink Project (TS2P) is to link the dynamics of the erosion of the West African Craton to the offshore sedimentary basins of the African margin of the Equatorial Atlantic at geological time scales. This margin, alternating transform and oblique segments from Guinea to Nigeria, shows a strong structural variability in the margin width, continental geology and relief, drainage networks and subsidence/accumulation patterns. We analyzed this system combining onshore geology and geomorphology as well as offshore sub-surface data. Mapping and regional correlation of dated lateritic paleo-landscape remnants allows us to reconstruct two physiographic configurations of West Africa during the Cenozoic. We corrected those reconstitutions from flexural isostasy related to the subsequent erosion. These geometries show that the present-day drainage organization stabilized by at least 29 Myrs ago (probably by 34 Myr) revealing the antiquity of the Senegambia, Niger and Volta catchments toward the Atlantic as well as of the marginal upwarp currently forming a continental divide. The drainage rearrangement that lead to this drainage organization was primarily enhanced by the topographic growth of the Hoggar swell and caused a major stratigraphic turnover along the Equatorial margin of West Africa. Elevation differences between paleo-landscape remnants give access to the spatial and temporal distribution of denudation for 3 time-increments since 45 Myrs. From this, we estimate the volumes of sediments and associated lithologies exported by the West African Craton toward different segments of the margin, taking into account the type of eroded bedrock and the successive drainage reorganizations. We compare these data to Cenozoic accumulation histories in the basins and discuss their stratigraphic expression according to the type of margin segment they are preserved in.

  8. Quantification of the Variability of Diaphragm Motion and Implications for Treatment Margin Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Rit, Simon; Herk, Marcel van; Zijp, Lambert; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2012-03-01

    -acquisition variability and the PDF asymmetry have a limited impact on dose distributions and inferred margins. The use of a margin recipe to account for respiratory motion with an estimate of the average motion amplitude was adequate in almost all patients.

  9. Sci—Thur PM: Planning and Delivery — 04: Respiratory margin derivation and verification in partial breast irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, S; Conroy, L; Smith, WL

    2014-08-15

    Partial breast irradiation (PBI) following breast-conserving surgery is emerging as an effective means to achieve local control and reduce irradiated breast volume. Patients are planned on a static CT image; however, treatment is delivered while the patient is free-breathing. Respiratory motion can degrade plan quality by reducing target coverage and/or dose homogeneity. A variety of methods can be used to determine the required margin for respiratory motion in PBI. We derive geometric and dosimetric respiratory 1D margin. We also verify the adequacy of the typical 5 mm respiratory margin in 3D by evaluating plan quality for increasing respiratory amplitudes (2–20 mm). Ten PBI plans were used for dosimetric evaluation. A database of volunteer respiratory data, with similar characteristics to breast cancer patients, was used for this study. We derived a geometric 95%-margin of 3 mm from the population respiratory data. We derived a dosimetric 95%-margin of 2 mm by convolving 1D dose profiles with respiratory probability density functions. The 5 mm respiratory margin is possibly too large when 1D coverage is assessed and could lead to unnecessary normal tissue irradiation. Assessing margins only for coverage may be insufficient; 3D dosimetric assessment revealed degradation in dose homogeneity is the limiting factor, not target coverage. Hotspots increased even for the smallest respiratory amplitudes, while target coverage only degraded at amplitudes greater than 10 mm. The 5 mm respiratory margin is adequate for coverage, but due to plan quality degradation, respiratory management is recommended for patients with respiratory amplitudes greater than 10 mm.

  10. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  11. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  12. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya Osain

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results: Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion: The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical

  13. Arctic Submarine Slope Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, D.; Geissler, W.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine landsliding represents aside submarine earthquakes major natural hazard to coastal and sea-floor infrastructure as well as to coastal communities due to their ability to generate large-scale tsunamis with their socio-economic consequences. The investigation of submarine landslides, their conditions and trigger mechanisms, recurrence rates and potential impact remains an important task for the evaluation of risks in coastal management and offshore industrial activities. In the light of a changing globe with warming oceans and rising sea-level accompanied by increasing human population along coasts and enhanced near- and offshore activities, slope stability issues gain more importance than ever before. The Arctic exhibits the most rapid and drastic changes and is predicted to change even faster. Aside rising air temperatures, enhanced inflow of less cooled Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean reduces sea-ice cover and warms the surroundings. Slope stability is challenged considering large areas of permafrost and hydrates. The Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide (HYM) north of Svalbard is the first and so far only reported large-scale submarine landslide in the Arctic Ocean. The HYM exhibits the highest headwalls that have been found on siliciclastic margins. With more than 10.000 square kilometer areal extent and app. 2.400 cubic kilometer of involved sedimentary material, it is one of the largest exposed submarine slides worldwide. Geometry and age put this slide in a special position in discussing submarine slope stability on glaciated continental margins. The HYM occurred 30 ka ago, when the global sea-level dropped by app. 50 m within less than one millennium due to rapid onset of global glaciation. It probably caused a tsunami with circum-Arctic impact and wave heights exceeding 130 meters. The HYM affected the slope stability field in its neighbourhood by removal of support. Post-megaslide slope instability as expressed in creeping and smaller-scaled slides are

  14. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance.

  15. Computer synthesis of human motion as a part of an adequate motion analysis experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexandre A.; Sholukha, Victor A.; Zinkovsky, Anatoly V.

    1999-05-01

    The role of problem of computer synthesis of a human motion for a traditional problem of control generalized and muscular forces determination is discussed. It is emphasized significance of computer model choice for adequate analysis kinematic and dynamic experimental data. On the basis of an imitation computer model influence of model's parameters values is demonstrated. With help of non-stationary constraints we can simulate human motions that satisfy to the most significant parameters of the concerned class of motion. Some results of simulation are discussed. We arrive at a conclusion that for correct interpretation of an experiment mixed problem of bodies system dynamics must be solved.

  16. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  17. An Evaluation of the Marginal Sharpness of the Porcelain Labial Margin Metal Ceramic Restoration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    permanent molar in each case and constructed 12 crowns, one each for 12 patients, which they checked annually for three years. The gingival index of...the gingival attachment complex. He observed that frequently a healthy sulcus will probe less than one millimeter. In such cases , a restoration should...in many cases the cement film thickness at the defective margin was greater than 200 micrometers. This degree of marginal opening provided an ideal

  18. Sedimentation and diagenesis along open and island-protected windward carbonate platform margins of the Cretaceous El Abra Formation, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minero, Charles J.

    1991-05-01

    diagenesis, for the first time resulting in dissolution of anhydrite, calcitization of dolomite, and equant calcite cementation. Early diagenesis along the windward protected margin was extensive. Prolonged subaerial exposure resulted in calcrete cementation and secondary porosity. Subsequent marine cementation and internal sedimentation reduced porosity. Equant calcite cement precipitated during local Upper Cretaceous exposure. Burial diagenesis was limited to traces of dolomite, anhydrite and late-stage, equant calcite cement, suggesting similar pore fluids as in the open margin. Depositional environment determined the type and degree of early diagenesis, which strongly influenced subsequent diagenetic events. Subtidal sediments of the open margin underwent minimal early diagenesis and entered the burial realm much as they were deposited. They were subjected to intensive compaction and alteration by brines. In contrast, sediments exposed to meteoric diagenesis and marine cementation on near-backreef islands and tidal flats, entered the mesogenetic realm as stabilized, lithified rocks; much as they are at present.

  19. Dune mobility and aridity at the desert margin of northern China at a time of peak monsoon strength

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, J.A.; Lu, H.; Zhou, Y.; Miao, X.; Swinehart, J.B.; Liu, Z.; Goble, R.J.; Yi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Wind-blown sands were mobile at many sites along the desert margin in northern China during the early Holocene (11.5-8 ka ago), based on extensive new numerical dating. This mobility implies low effective moisture at the desert margin, in contrast to growing evidence for greater than modern monsoon precipitation at the same time in central and southern China. Dry conditions in the early Holocene at the desert margin can be explained through a dynamic link between enhanced diabatic heating in the core region of the strengthened monsoon and increased subsidence in drylands to the north, combined with high evapotranspiration rates due to high summer temperatures. After 8 ka ago, as the monsoon weakened and lower temperatures reduced evapotranspiration, eolian sands were stabilized by vegetation. Aridity and dune mobility at the desert margin and a strengthened monsoon can both be explained as responses to high summer insolation in the early Holocene. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  20. Numerical simulation of platelet margination in microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong; Shaqfeh, Eric

    2009-11-01

    The adhesion of platelets to vascular walls is the first step in clotting. This process critically depends on the preferential concentration of platelets near walls. The presence of red blood cells, which are the predominant blood constituents, is known to affect the steady state platelet concentration and the dynamic platelet margination, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood to-day. We use a direct numerical simulation to study the platelet margination process, with particular emphasis on the Stokesian hydrodynamic interactions among red cells, platelets, and vessel walls. Well-known mechanical models are used for the shearing and bending stiffness of red cell membranes, and the stiffer platelets are modeled as rigid discoids. A boundary integral formulation is used to solve the flow field, where the numerical solution procedure is accelerated by a parallel O(N N) smooth particle-mesh Ewald method. The effects of red cell hematocrit and deformability will be discussed.

  1. Stepwise Signal Extraction via Marginal Likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Du, Chao; Kao, Chu-Lan Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the estimation of stepwise signal. To determine the number and locations of change-points of the stepwise signal, we formulate a maximum marginal likelihood estimator, which can be computed with a quadratic cost using dynamic programming. We carry out extensive investigation on the choice of the prior distribution and study the asymptotic properties of the maximum marginal likelihood estimator. We propose to treat each possible set of change-points equally and adopt an empirical Bayes approach to specify the prior distribution of segment parameters. Detailed simulation study is performed to compare the effectiveness of this method with other existing methods. We demonstrate our method on single-molecule enzyme reaction data and on DNA array CGH data. Our study shows that this method is applicable to a wide range of models and offers appealing results in practice. PMID:27212739

  2. The multifaceted West Greenland passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Sonja; Damm, Volkmar; Block, Martin; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Heyde, Ingo; Nelson, Catherine; Kouwe, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The Baffin Bay located between Greenland and Canada, is the northward extension of the Labrador Sea. The Davis Strait High separates these two marine basins. The evolution of these basins is closely linked, and is as well affiliated to the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The opening history started in the Cretaceous with the formation of several terrestrial rift basins with a block-faulted, metamorphic Precambrian basement. The further opening of the Baffin Bay coincides with the volcanic activity (60.9-52.5 Ma) along the West Greenland margin (Storey et al., 1998). The subsequent seafloor spreading in the Baffin Bay is linked to the Labrador Sea by the Ungava Fault Zone (UFZ), which is the most prominent transform fault in this region. Two main problems are still unsolved: 1) There are clear indications for normal seafloor spreading in the Baffin Bay like the seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) on the Canadian side (Skaarup et al., 2006) and on the Greenland side based on our data. On the other hand, associated magnetic spreading anomalies are not yet discovered in the Baffin Bay or are not formed. These findings may either point to slow or ultraslow spreading or underlying strongly extended continental crust and/or serpentinised mantle. 2) The Greenlandic margin is much wider than the Canadian. In addition, a breakup unconformity can only be traced on the Greenland side and is not reported for the Canadian side. Which process causes this asymmetric margin and differences in shelf width? Is it a result of asymmetric spreading or connected to volcanic activity during breakup processes? In summer 2008, a marine geoscientific expedition (MSM09/03) was conducted with the research vessel "Maria S. Merian" in the Davis Strait and southern Baffin Bay. Approximately 1800 km of multichannel reflection seismic data were acquired. To supplement the database, a subsequent marine geoscientific expedition ARK-XXV/3 with RV POLARSTERN in summer 2010 was conducted. In our

  3. Marginal Loss Calculations for the DCOPF

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, Brent; O'Neill, Richard P.; Castillo, Andrea R.

    2016-12-05

    The purpose of this paper is to explain some aspects of including a marginal line loss approximation in the DCOPF. The DCOPF optimizes electric generator dispatch using simplified power flow physics. Since the standard assumptions in the DCOPF include a lossless network, a number of modifications have to be added to the model. Calculating marginal losses allows the DCOPF to optimize the location of power generation, so that generators that are closer to demand centers are relatively cheaper than remote generation. The problem formulations discussed in this paper will simplify many aspects of practical electric dispatch implementations in use today, but will include sufficient detail to demonstrate a few points with regard to the handling of losses.

  4. Adaptive marginal median filter for colour images.

    PubMed

    Morillas, Samuel; Gregori, Valentín; Sapena, Almanzor

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new filter for impulse noise reduction in colour images which is aimed at improving the noise reduction capability of the classical vector median filter. The filter is inspired by the application of a vector marginal median filtering process over a selected group of pixels in each filtering window. This selection, which is based on the vector median, along with the application of the marginal median operation constitutes an adaptive process that leads to a more robust filter design. Also, the proposed method is able to process colour images without introducing colour artifacts. Experimental results show that the images filtered with the proposed method contain less noisy pixels than those obtained through the vector median filter.

  5. Focused fluid flow in passive continental margins.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Christian

    2005-12-15

    Passive continental margins such as the Atlantic seaboard of Europe are important for society as they contain large energy resources, and they sustain ecosystems that are the basis for the commercial fish stock. The margin sediments are very dynamic environments. Fluids are expelled from compacting sediments, bottom water temperature changes cause gas hydrate systems to change their locations and occasionally large magmatic intrusions boil the pore water within the sedimentary basins, which is then expelled to the surface. The fluids that seep through the seabed at the tops of focused fluid flow systems have a crucial role for seabed ecology, and study of such fluid flow systems can also help in predicting the distribution of hydrocarbons in the subsurface and deciphering the climate record. Therefore, the study of focused fluid flow will become one of the most important fields in marine geology in the future.

  6. Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins

    SciTech Connect

    Gregersen, S. ); Basham, P.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The main focus of this volume is the earthquakes that occur at and near the continental margins on both sides of the North Atlantic. The book, which contains the proceedings of the NATO workshop on Causes and Effects of Earthquakes at Passive Margins and in Areas of Postglacial Rebound on Both Sides of the North Atlantic, draws together the fields of geophysics, geology and geodesy to address the stress and strain in the Earth's crust. The resulting earthquakes produced on ancient geological fault zones and the associated seismic hazards these pose to man are also addressed. Postglacial rebound in North America and Fennoscandia is a minor source of earthquakes today, during the interglacial period, but evidence is presented to suggest that the ice sheets suppressed earthquake strain while they were in place, and released this strain as a pulse of significant earthquakes after the ice melted about 9000 years ago.

  7. [Incidence of primary malignant lesions in clinically benign teratoma: on the problem of adequate surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Kindermann, G; Jung, E M; Maassen, V; Bise, K

    1996-08-01

    The Problem of an Adequate Surgical Approach: Frequency of malignant teratomas is, according to the literature, 2%-10%. Examining 194 own cases (1983-1993) it was 1.5%. We found one squamous cell carcinoma (0.5%). Additionally we found 2 immature teratomas (1%). We point out the different biological behaviour of malignant mature teratomas and immature teratomas. We agree with the majority of authors that the method of choice is the intact removal of all teratomas without iatrogen rupture or contamination of the abdominal cavity by contents of the teratoma. This adequate surgical procedure can and should be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy with endobag. The often practised method of cutting open the cyst during laparoscopy, sucking off the contents or cutting the teratoma into pieces, has been proven to lead to implantation and worsening the prognosis in case of a malignant teratoma. Even the rinsing of the abdominal cavity, usually carried out with this method, could not compensate always for the disadvantage of this "dirty" endoscopical method compared with usual oncological standards. This is pointed out by case reports in the literature and the first analysis of a German survey with early-follow-up of 192 laparoscopically managed ovarian malignancies [11a]. The principle of intact removal of every teratoma should again be kept in mind.

  8. MRI can determine the adequate area for debridement in the case of Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Akira; Fujita, Fumihiko; Tokai, Hirotaka; Ito, Yuichiro; Haraguchi, Masashi; Tajima, Yoshitsugu; Kanematsu, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    A 57-year-old man was transferred to our hospital because of gluteal pain. His right buttock had flare and swelling. Complete blood count showed leukocytosis, and renal failure was evident. Pelvic computed tomography (CT) revealed that the abscess, including gas, was widespread into the hypodermal tissue of the right buttock. Fournier's gangrene had been suspected, and immediate drainage was performed on the right buttock. The symptom and the condition improved rapidly, but on the day after the operation, the patient became drowsy and fell into endotoxic shock. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed strong inflammation along the entire fascia of the right femur and necrotizing fasciitis. MRI was very useful for identification of the necrotic range. Immediately, an emergency operation was performed; 3 wide incisions were made on the right thigh and crus for drainage. The patient was cared for intensively under a sedated condition, and irrigation and debridement were repeated every day. Culture of the pus revealed mixed infection of Escherichia coli and anaerobic bacteria, and a large quantity of antimicrobial drug was used. The inflammatory reaction decreased, and the patient's general condition tentatively improved. With Fournier's gangrene, initiating adequate surgical and medical treatment is essential. Therefore, MRI should be used in the early exact diagnosis of this disease to obtain knowledge of the extent of necrosis and to determine the adequate area for debridement.

  9. Duration of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Infectiousness under Adequate Therapy, as Assessed Using Induced Sputum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yousang; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Suh-Young; Park, So Young; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Changhwan

    2017-01-01

    Background A sputum culture is the most reliable indicator of the infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB); however, a spontaneous sputum specimen may not be suitable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the infectious period in patients with non–drug-resistant (DR) PTB receiving adequate standard chemotherapy, using induced sputum (IS) specimens. Methods We evaluated the duration of infectiousness of PTB using a retrospective cohort design. Results Among the 35 patients with PTB, 22 were smear-positive. The rates of IS culture positivity from baseline to the sixth week of anti-tuberculosis medication in the smear-positive PTB group were 100%, 100%, 91%, 73%, 36%, and 18%, respectively. For smear-positive PTB cases, the median time of conversion to culture negativity was 35.0 days (range, 28.0–42.0 days). In the smear-negative PTB group (n=13), the weekly rates of positive IS culture were 100%, 77%, 39%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, respectively, and the median time to conversion to culture-negative was 21.0 days (range, 17.5–28.0 days). Conclusion The infectiousness of PTB, under adequate therapy, may persist longer than previously reported, even in patients with non-DR PTB. PMID:28119744

  10. Narita Target Heart Rate Equation Underestimates the Predicted Adequate Exercise Level in Sedentary Young Boys

    PubMed Central

    Siahkouhian, Marefat; Khodadadi, Davar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Optimal training intensity and the adequate exercise level for physical fitness is one of the most important interests of coaches and sports physiologists. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Narita et al target heart rate equation for the adequate exercise training level in sedentary young boys. Methods Forty two sedentary young boys (19.07±1.16 years) undertook a blood lactate transition threshold maximal treadmill test to volitional exhaustion with continuous respiratory gas measurements according to the Craig method. The anaerobic threshold (AT) of the participants then was calculated using the Narita target heart rate equation. Results Hopkin's spreadsheet to obtain confidence limit and the chance of the true difference between gas measurements and Narita target heart rate equation revealed that the Narita equation most likely underestimates the measured anaerobic threshold in sedentary young boys (168.76±15 vs. 130.08±14.36) (Difference ±90% confidence limit: 38.1±18). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed a poor agreement between the criterion method and Narita equation (ICC= 0.03). Conclusion According to the results, the Narita equation underestimates the measured AT. It seems that the Narita equation is a good predictor of aerobic not AT which can be investigated in the future studies. PMID:24427475

  11. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  12. Marginal selenium status in northern Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Jeffrey M; Ball, Madeleine J

    2011-09-01

    Se plays many important roles in humans. Marginal Se status has been associated with adverse health effects including an increased risk of chronic disease such as cancer. There are few Australian data, but the population of Tasmania, Australia, is potentially at risk of marginal Se status. A cross-sectional study of 498 men and women aged 25-84 years was undertaken to assess the Se status of the northern Tasmanian population. Se status was assessed using dietary estimates and measures of serum Se and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Mean Se intakes were 77·4 (sd 31·3) and 65·1 (sd 23·7) μg/d for men and women, respectively; 27 % of the subjects consumed less than the Australian/New Zealand estimated average requirement. Mean serum Se concentration was 89·1 (sd 15·1) μg/l; 83 % of the study subjects had serum Se concentrations below 100 μg/l and 60 % had serum Se concentration below 90 μg/l, suggesting that Se status in many subjects was inadequate for maximal GPx activity. This was supported by the positive association between serum Se and serum GPx (P < 0·001), indicating that enzyme activity was limited by Se concentrations. The lowest mean serum Se concentrations were observed in the oldest age ranges; however, the prevalence of marginal Se status was similar across age ranges and did not appear to be influenced by sex or socio-economic status. The prevalence of marginal Se status was high in all sex and age subgroups, suggesting that the northern Tasmanian population could benefit from increasing Se intakes.

  13. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines

    PubMed Central

    Kadiri, M. Al; Carroll, R.J.; Wand, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models. PMID:21037941

  14. Modeling Sedimentary Deposits on the Continental Margin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    sedimentation processes. P. 151-164, in Numerical Experiments in Stratigraphy : Recent Advances in stratigraphic and sedimentologic Computer Simulations. Soc...Niedoroda, A.W., 1996, Modeling the sedimentology and stratigraphy of continental margins, Oceanography, v. 9, p183-188 Swift, D. J. P. B. S. Parsons...hypothesis that on muddy shelves such as the northern California shelf, Holocene event stratigraphy consists of the deposits of high-concentration

  15. MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox Trim and Static Stability Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis

    2012-01-01

    MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox (MASCOT) utilizes geometric, aerodynamic, and inertial inputs to calculate air vehicle stability in a variety of critical flight conditions. The code is based on fundamental, non-linear equations of motion and is able to translate results into a qualitative, graphical scale useful to the non-expert. MASCOT was created to provide the conceptual aircraft designer accurate predictions of air vehicle stability and control characteristics. The code takes as input mass property data in the form of an inertia tensor, aerodynamic loading data, and propulsion (i.e. thrust) loading data. Using fundamental nonlinear equations of motion, MASCOT then calculates vehicle trim and static stability data for the desired flight condition(s). Available flight conditions include six horizontal and six landing rotation conditions with varying options for engine out, crosswind, and sideslip, plus three take-off rotation conditions. Results are displayed through a unique graphical interface developed to provide the non-stability and control expert conceptual design engineer a qualitative scale indicating whether the vehicle has acceptable, marginal, or unacceptable static stability characteristics. If desired, the user can also examine the detailed, quantitative results.

  16. Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox: Trim and Static Stability Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical background of the Trim and Static module of the Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox. This module performs a low-fidelity stability and control assessment of an aircraft model for a set of flight critical conditions. This is attained by determining if the control authority available for trim is sufficient and if the static stability characteristics are adequate. These conditions can be selected from a prescribed set or can be specified to meet particular requirements. The prescribed set of conditions includes horizontal flight, take-off rotation, landing flare, steady roll, steady turn and pull-up/ push-over flight, for which several operating conditions can be specified. A mathematical model was developed allowing for six-dimensional trim, adjustable inertial properties, asymmetric vehicle layouts, arbitrary number of engines, multi-axial thrust vectoring, engine(s)-out conditions, crosswind and gyroscopic effects.

  17. Testing for conditional multiple marginal independence.

    PubMed

    Bilder, Christopher R; Loughin, Thomas M

    2002-03-01

    Survey respondents are often prompted to pick any number of responses from a set of possible responses. Categorical variables that summarize this kind of data are called pick any/c variables. Counts from surveys that contain a pick any/c variable along with a group variable (r levels) and stratification variable (q levels) can be marginally summarized into an r x c x q contingency table. A question that may naturally arise from this setup is to determine if the group and pick any/c variable are marginally independent given the stratification variable. A test for conditional multiple marginal independence (CMMI) can be used to answer this question. Since subjects may pick any number out of c possible responses, the Cochran (1954, Biometrics 10, 417-451) and Mantel and Haenszel (1959, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 22, 719-748) tests cannot be used directly because they assume that units in the contingency table are independent of each other. Therefore, new testing methods are developed. Cochran's test statistic is extended to r x 2 x q tables, and a modified version of this statistic is proposed to test CMMI. Its sampling distribution can be approximated through bootstrapping. Other CMMI testing methods discussed are bootstrap p-value combination methods and Bonferroni adjustments. Simulation findings suggest that the proposed bootstrap procedures and the Bonferroni adjustments consistently hold the correct size and provide power against various alternatives.

  18. Maximum Margin Clustering of Hyperspectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazmardi, S.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.

    2013-09-01

    In recent decades, large margin methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are supposed to be the state-of-the-art of supervised learning methods for classification of hyperspectral data. However, the results of these algorithms mainly depend on the quality and quantity of available training data. To tackle down the problems associated with the training data, the researcher put effort into extending the capability of large margin algorithms for unsupervised learning. One of the recent proposed algorithms is Maximum Margin Clustering (MMC). The MMC is an unsupervised SVMs algorithm that simultaneously estimates both the labels and the hyperplane parameters. Nevertheless, the optimization of the MMC algorithm is a non-convex problem. Most of the existing MMC methods rely on the reformulating and the relaxing of the non-convex optimization problem as semi-definite programs (SDP), which are computationally very expensive and only can handle small data sets. Moreover, most of these algorithms are two-class classification, which cannot be used for classification of remotely sensed data. In this paper, a new MMC algorithm is used that solve the original non-convex problem using Alternative Optimization method. This algorithm is also extended for multi-class classification and its performance is evaluated. The results of the proposed algorithm show that the algorithm has acceptable results for hyperspectral data clustering.

  19. Origin and dynamics of depositionary subduction margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannucchi, Paola; Morgan, Jason P.; Silver, Eli A.; Kluesner, Jared W.

    2016-06-01

    Here we propose a new framework for forearc evolution that focuses on the potential feedbacks between subduction tectonics, sedimentation, and geomorphology that take place during an extreme event of subduction erosion. These feedbacks can lead to the creation of a "depositionary forearc," a forearc structure that extends the traditional division of forearcs into accretionary or erosive subduction margins by demonstrating a mode of rapid basin accretion during an erosive event at a subduction margin. A depositionary mode of forearc evolution occurs when terrigenous sediments are deposited directly on the forearc while it is being removed from below by subduction erosion. In the most extreme case, an entire forearc can be removed by a single subduction erosion event followed by depositionary replacement without involving transfer of sediments from the incoming plate. We need to further recognize that subduction forearcs are often shaped by interactions between slow, long-term processes, and sudden extreme events reflecting the sudden influences of large-scale morphological variations in the incoming plate. Both types of processes contribute to the large-scale architecture of the forearc, with extreme events associated with a replacive depositionary mode that rapidly creates sections of a typical forearc margin. The persistent upward diversion of the megathrust is likely to affect its geometry, frictional nature, and hydrogeology. Therefore, the stresses along the fault and individual earthquake rupture characteristics are also expected to be more variable in these erosive systems than in systems with long-lived megathrust surfaces.

  20. Ocean Margins Programs, Phase I research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, P.

    1994-08-01

    During FY 1992, the DOE restructured its regional coastal-ocean programs into a new Ocean Margins Program (OMP), to: Quantify the ecological and biogeochemical processes and mechanisms that affect the cycling, flux, and storage of carbon and other biogenic elements at the land/ocean interface; Define ocean-margin sources and sinks in global biogeochemical cycles, and; Determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or export to the interior ocean. Currently, the DOE Ocean Margins Program supports more than 70 principal and co-principal investigators, spanning more than 30 academic institutions. Research funded by the OMP amounted to about $6.9M in FY 1994. This document is a collection of abstracts summarizing the component projects of Phase I of the OMP. This phase included both research and technology development, and comprised projects of both two and three years duration. The attached abstracts describe the goals, methods, measurement scales, strengths and limitations, and status of each project, and level of support. Keywords are provided to index the various projects. The names, addresses, affiliations, and major areas of expertise of the investigators are provided in appendices.

  1. Origin and dynamics of depositionary subduction margins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vannucchi, Paola; Morgan, Jason P.; Silver, Eli; Kluesner, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Here we propose a new framework for forearc evolution that focuses on the potential feedbacks between subduction tectonics, sedimentation, and geomorphology that take place during an extreme event of subduction erosion. These feedbacks can lead to the creation of a “depositionary forearc,” a forearc structure that extends the traditional division of forearcs into accretionary or erosive subduction margins by demonstrating a mode of rapid basin accretion during an erosive event at a subduction margin. A depositionary mode of forearc evolution occurs when terrigenous sediments are deposited directly on the forearc while it is being removed from below by subduction erosion. In the most extreme case, an entire forearc can be removed by a single subduction erosion event followed by depositionary replacement without involving transfer of sediments from the incoming plate. We need to further recognize that subduction forearcs are often shaped by interactions between slow, long-term processes, and sudden extreme events reflecting the sudden influences of large-scale morphological variations in the incoming plate. Both types of processes contribute to the large-scale architecture of the forearc, with extreme events associated with a replacive depositionary mode that rapidly creates sections of a typical forearc margin. The persistent upward diversion of the megathrust is likely to affect its geometry, frictional nature, and hydrogeology. Therefore, the stresses along the fault and individual earthquake rupture characteristics are also expected to be more variable in these erosive systems than in systems with long-lived megathrust surfaces.

  2. Terrane amalgamation in the Philippine Sea margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Robert; Nichols, Gary J.

    1990-09-01

    The Philippine Sea plate includes plateaus of thickened crust interpreted as imbricated ophiolite and arc-related terranes of late Mesozoic-early Tertiary age separated by thinner oceanic crust. The arrival of plateaus at the subducting southwest margin of the Philippine Sea plate has caused the Philippine Trench to propagate southward in increments and caused transfer of terranes to the Philippine margin. New data from the Halmahera region indicate that the position, nature and evolution of plate boundaries have been strongly influenced by the heterogeneous character of the Philippine Sea plate. At present the Philippine Trench terminates at an oceanic plateau which is structurally continuous with an old forearc and ophiolite terrane on Halmahera. The position of this terrane has caused Philippine Sea plate-Eurasia convergence to be transferred from subduction at the Philippine Trench to the Molucca Sea Collision Zone through a broad NE-SW dextral transpressional zone across Halmahera. This plate boundary configuration is unstable and requires the future development of a new subduction zone to the east of Halmahera which will result in amalgamation of the Halmahera ophiolite terrane to the Philippine margin. In the Halmahera region amalgamation of terranes to the evolving Philippine microcontinent is currently in process.

  3. Phosphorylation of Ribose-Borate Complexes at Convergent Margins?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, N. G.

    2008-12-01

    The potential of pyrophosphate formation upon heating of hydrogenated orthophosphates like whitlockite ((Ca18Mg2H2(PO4)14) to a few hundred °C in geological environments with low water to rock ratio has probably been underestimated. Once pyrophosphate is available, phosphorylation of pentoses, ribose in particular, may occur. Experiments involving heating of sodium dihydrogen phosphate have even shown high yields of trimetaphosphate. This compound is an even better phosphorylating agent than pyrophosphate and has been identified in volcanic fumaroles. Ribose may be formed from formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, because the ribose molecule is stabilized by borate that binds to the 2' and 3' positions. Mechanistically, aldehydes can be formed directly from elemental carbon present in mafic rocks in contact with water. The initial reaction of elemental carbon with water gives hydroxymethylene, which can rearrange to formaldehyde. A new hydroxymethylene molecule can then add onto the formaldehyde (and larger aldehyde molecules) and form glycolaldehyde. In this way, the known lag in the formation of glycolaldehyde from formaldehyde is avoided. This lag has previously been a drawback and a reason that the formose reaction was for a while outdated as a possible mechanism for abiotic synthesis of carbohydrates. The reason why pentoses are stabilized by borate is that borate forms trigonal and tetrahedral complexes with oxygen groups and, therefore, has a strong affinity for organic material. Boric acid and borate readily form complexes with a wide variety of sugars, particularly the furanose form of pentoses, and other compounds containing cis-hydroxyl groups like humic substances. Borate is continuously scavenged from seawater by secondary layer minerals of oceanic lithosphere and is released again at moderate heating of the subducting plate at convergent margins. The Mariana back-arc is a good example of this process. The fact that ribose is stabilized by borate may

  4. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  5. Society of Surgical Oncology–American Society for Radiation Oncology Consensus Guideline on Margins for Breast-Conserving Surgery With Whole-Breast Irradiation in Stages I and II Invasive Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Meena S.; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Giuliano, Armando E.; Harris, Jay R.; Khan, Seema A.; Horton, Janet; Klimberg, Suzanne; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Freedman, Gary; Houssami, Nehmat; Johnson, Peggy L.; Morrow, Monica

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To convene a multidisciplinary panel of breast experts to examine the relationship between margin width and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and develop a guideline for defining adequate margins in the setting of breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A multidisciplinary consensus panel used a meta-analysis of margin width and IBTR from a systematic review of 33 studies including 28,162 patients as the primary evidence base for consensus. Results: Positive margins (ink on invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) are associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of IBTR compared with negative margins. This increased risk is not mitigated by favorable biology, endocrine therapy, or a radiation boost. More widely clear margins than no ink on tumor do not significantly decrease the rate of IBTR compared with no ink on tumor. There is no evidence that more widely clear margins reduce IBTR for young patients or for those with unfavorable biology, lobular cancers, or cancers with an extensive intraductal component. Conclusions: The use of no ink on tumor as the standard for an adequate margin in invasive cancer in the era of multidisciplinary therapy is associated with low rates of IBTR and has the potential to decrease re-excision rates, improve cosmetic outcomes, and decrease health care costs.

  6. A novel theoretical framework for the dynamic stability analysis, movement control, and trajectory generation in a multisegment biomechanical model.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Kamran; Roy, Anindo

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simplified characterization of the postural control system that embraces two broad components: one representing the musculoskeletal dynamics in the sagittal plane and the other representing proprioceptive feedback and the central nervous system (CNS). Specifically, a planar four-segment neuromusculoskeletal model consisting of the ankle, knee, and hip degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) is described in this paper. The model includes important physiological constructs such as Hill-type muscle model, active and passive muscle stiffnesses, force feedback from the Golgi tendon organ, muscle length and rate feedback from the muscle spindle, and transmission latencies in the neural pathways. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for each individual DOF is assumed to represent the CNS analog in the modeling paradigm. Our main hypothesis states that all stabilizing PID controllers for such multisegment biomechanical models can be parametrized and analytically synthesized. Our analytical and simulation results show that the proposed representation adequately shapes a postural control that (a) possesses good disturbance rejection and trajectory tracking, (b) is robust against feedback latencies and torque perturbations, and (c) is flexible to embrace changes in the musculoskeletal parameters. We additionally present detailed sensitivity analysis to show that control under conditions of limited or no proprioceptive feedback results in (a) significant reduction in the stability margins, (b) substantial decrease in the available stabilizing parameter set, and (c) oscillatory movement trajectories. Overall, these results suggest that anatomical arrangement, active muscle stiffness, force feedback, and physiological latencies play a major role in shaping motor control processes in humans.

  7. Verification test results of Apollo stabilization and control systems during undocked operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, E. L.; Haken, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of analysis and simulation testing of both the Skylark 1 reaction control system digital autopilot (RCS DAP) and the thrust vector control (TVC) autopilot for use during the undocked portions of the Apollo/Soyuz Test Project Mission. The RCS DAP testing was performed using the Skylab Functional Simulator (SLFS), a digital computer program capable of simulating the Apollo and Skylab autopilots along with vehicle dynamics including bending and sloshing. The model is used to simulate three-axis automatic maneuvers along with pilot controlled manual maneuvers using the RCS DAP. The TVC autopilot was tested in two parts. A classical stability analysis was performed on the vehicle considering the effects of structural bending and sloshing when under control of the TVC autopilot. The time response of the TVC autopilot was tested using the SLFS. Results indicate that adequate performance stability margins can be expected for the CSM/DM configuration when under the control of the Apollo control systems tested.

  8. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  9. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record systems. These security safeguards shall apply to... use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction...

  10. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  11. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  12. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  13. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  14. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  15. Matching occupation and self: does matching theory adequately model children's thinking?

    PubMed

    Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary

    2004-10-01

    The present exploratory-descriptive cross-national study focused on the career development of 11- to 14-yr.-old children, in particular whether they can match their personal characteristics with their occupational aspirations. Further, the study explored whether their matching may be explained in terms of a fit between person and environment using Holland's theory as an example. Participants included 511 South African and 372 Australian children. Findings relate to two items of the Revised Career Awareness Survey that require children to relate personal-social knowledge to their favorite occupation. Data were analyzed in three stages using descriptive statistics, i.e., mean scores, frequencies, and percentage agreement. The study indicated that children perceived their personal characteristics to be related to their occupational aspirations. However, how this matching takes place is not adequately accounted for in terms of a career theory such as that of Holland.

  16. Adequate connexin-mediated coupling is required for proper insulin production

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    To assess whether connexin (Cx) expression contributes to insulin secretion, we have investigated normal and tumoral insulin-producing cells for connexins, gap junctions, and coupling. We have found that the glucose-sensitive cells of pancreatic islets and of a rat insulinoma are functionally coupled by gap junctions made of Cx43. In contrast, cells of several lines secreting insulin abnormally do not express Cx43, gap junctions, and coupling. After correction of these defects by stable transfection of Cx43 cDNA, cells expressing modest levels of Cx43 and coupling, as observed in native beta-cells, showed an expression of the insulin gene and an insulin content that were markedly elevated, compared with those observed in both wild-type (uncoupled) cells and in transfected cells overexpressing Cx43. These findings indicate that adequate levels of Cx-mediated coupling are required for proper insulin production and storage. PMID:8522612

  17. Switching off angiogenic signalling: creating channelled constructs for adequate oxygen delivery in tissue engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Cheema, U; Alekseeva, T; Abou-Neel, E A; Brown, R A

    2010-10-06

    A major question in biomimetic tissue engineering is how much of the structure/function of native vasculature needs to be reproduced for effective tissue perfusion. O2 supplied to cells in 3D scaffolds in vitro is initially dependent upon diffusion through the scaffold and cell consumption. Low O2 (3%) enhances specific cell behaviours, but where O2 is critically low (pathological hypoxia) cell survival becomes compromised. We measured real-time O2 in 3D scaffolds and introduced micro-channelled architecture to controllably increase delivery of O2 to cells and switch off the hypoxic response. Simple static micro-channelling gives adequate perfusion and can be used to control cell generated hypoxia-induced signalling.

  18. Adaptive robust image registration approach based on adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhao; Tao, Feng; Jun, Wang

    2013-10-01

    An efficient, robust, and accurate approach is developed for image registration, which is especially suitable for large-scale change and arbitrary rotation. It is named the adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function (ASPT-WAPF). The proposed ASPT model overcomes the oversampling problem of conventional log-polar transform. Additionally, the WAPF presented as the feature descriptor is robust to the alteration in the fovea area of an image, and reduces the computational cost of the following registration process. The experimental results show two major advantages of the proposed method. First, it can register images with high accuracy even when the scale factor is up to 10 and the rotation angle is arbitrary. However, the maximum scaling estimated by the state-of-the-art algorithms is 6. Second, our algorithm is more robust to the size of the sampling region while not decreasing the accuracy of the registration.

  19. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Petrov, Todor

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry.

  20. J-modulated ADEQUATE experiments using different kinds of refocusing pulses.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Christina M; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    Owing to the recent developments concerning residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), the interest in methods for the accurate determination of coupling constants is renascenting. We intended to use the J-modulated ADEQUATE experiment by Kövér et al. for the measurement of (13)C - (13)C coupling constants at natural abundance. The use of adiabatic composite chirp pulses instead of the conventional 180 degrees pulses, which compensate for the offset dependence of (13)C 180 degrees pulses, led to irregularities of the line shapes in the indirect dimension causing deviations of the extracted coupling constants. This behaviour was attributed to coupling evolution, during the time of the adiabatic pulse (2 ms), in the J-modulation spin echo. The replacement of this pulse by different kinds of refocusing pulses indicated that a pair of BIPs (broadband inversion pulses), which behave only partially adiabatic, leads to correct line shapes and coupling constants conserving the good sensitivity obtained with adiabatic pulses.

  1. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. Results The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Conclusion Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable. PMID:27760131

  2. [Quality of Mesorectal Excision ("Plane of Surgery") - Which Quality Targets are Adequate?].

    PubMed

    Hermanek, P; Merkel, S; Ptok, H; Hohenberger, W

    2015-12-01

    Today, the examination of rectal cancer specimens includes the obligate macroscopic assessment of the quality of mesorectal excision by the pathologist reporting the plane of surgery. The frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery (earlier described as incomplete mesorectal excision) is essential. The quality of mesorectal excision is important for the prognosis, especially as local recurrences are observed more frequently after operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery. For the definition of quality targets, data of 13 studies published between 2006 and 2012, each with more than 100 patients and adequate specialisation and experience of the surgeons (5413 patients), data of the prospective multicentric observation study "Quality Assurance - Rectal Cancer" (at the Institute for Quality Assurance in Operative Medicine at the Otto-von-Guericke University at Magdeburg) from 2005 to 2010 (8044 patients) and data of the Department of Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, from 1998 to 2011 (991 patients) were analysed. The total incidence of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery was 5.0 % (721/14 448). Even with adequate specialisation and experience of the surgeon, the frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery is higher in abdominoperineal excisions than in sphincter-preserving surgery (8.4 vs. 2.8 %, p < 0.001). Thus, the quality target for the frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane should be defined as < 5 % for sphincter-preserving procedures and as < 10 % for abdominoperineal excisions.

  3. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  4. When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms

    PubMed Central

    Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Design, setting, and subjects: Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Main outcome measures: Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Results: Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. Conclusion: These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed. PMID:16326772

  5. Residual triose phosphate isomerase activity and color measurements to determine adequate cooking of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Sair, A I; Booren, A M; Berry, B W; Smith, D M

    1999-02-01

    The objectives were to (i) compare the use of triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) activity and internal color scores for determination of cooking adequacy of beef patties and (ii) determine the effect of frozen storage and fat content on residual TPI activity in ground beef. Ground beef patties (24.4% fat) were cooked to five temperatures ranging from 60.0 to 82.2 degrees C. TPI activity decreased as beef patty cooking temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, no difference (P > 0.05) in activity (6.3 U/kg meat) was observed in patties cooked to 71.1 degrees C and above. Degree of doneness color scores, a* values and b* values, of ground beef patties decreased as internal temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, temperature had no effect on L* values. TPI activity in raw ground beef after five freeze-thaw cycles did not differ from the control. Three freeze-thaw cycles of raw ground beef resulted in a 57.2% decrease in TPI activity after cooking. TPI activity of cooked beef increased during 2 months of frozen storage, but TPI activity in ground beef stored for 3 months or longer did not differ from the unfrozen control. While past research has shown color to be a poor indicator of adequate thermal processing, our results suggest that undercooked ground beef patties could be distinguished from those that had been adequately cooked following U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines using residual TPI activity as a marker.

  6. Carbonate comparison of west Florida continental margin with margins of eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    Temperate carbonate margins may have as many similarities to clastic margins as to other carbonate systems. An example is the west Florida continental margin north of Florida Bay, a vast area of more than 150,000 km/sup 2/. The facies of this area differ from those of other Holocene carbonates, such as the Bahama Banks, the Great Barrier Reef, and the Caribbean and Pacific bioherms. The west Florida margin is analogous to the predominantly clastic southeastern US in both physiology and sedimentary processes. The shelf facies is a veneer of carbonate sand, primarily molluscan shell fragments, with low sedimentation rates. It is similar to the southeastern US sand veneer with the clastic component removed. Like the US system, the west Florida shelf has a ridge and swale topography replete with sedimentary structures, such as sand waves, with a series of drainage systems incised into its surface at lower stands of sea level. On the outer edge, it is commonly bounded by outcrops with considerable positive relief. The upper slope of the west Florida margin is a calcilutite, a Holocene chalk deposit accumulating at rates of tens of centimeters/1000 years, comparable to the clastic lutite depositional rates of the eastern US continental slope, and two orders of magnitude higher than deep-sea oozes of similar composition. These relatively high rates are probably caused by fines pumped from and across the coarser shelf-sand sheets in both systems.

  7. Robust Stabilization of a Class of passive Nonlinear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh M.; Kelkar, Atul G.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of feedback stabilization is considered for a class of nonlinear, finite dimensional, time invariant passive systems that are affine in control. Using extensions of the Kalman-Yakubovch lemma, it is shown that such systems can be stabilized by a class of finite demensional, linear, time-invariant controllers which are strictly positive real in the weak or marginal sense. The stability holds regardless of model uncertainties, and is therefore, robust.

  8. Passive margin formation, Timor Sea, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hillis, R.R. )

    1990-06-01

    Recent ODP data show that sea-floor spreading began in the Argo Abyssal Plain in the earliest Cretaceous, and not the Callovian-Oxfordian as had previously been believed. These data are now consistent with the Callovian-Valanginian rifting observed on seismic records over the adjacent continental shelf (Vulcan subbasin, western Timor Sea). Tectonic subsidence plots have been constructed for well, extrapolated well, and significant off-well (seismically based) locations in the Vulcan subbasin and adjacent highs. The fully corrected plots show relatively little tectonic subsidence during the Callovian-Valanginian rift phase, even in the depocenter of the Swan Graben, where the Callovian-Valanginian interval reaches its maximum thickness. This is atypical for a passive margin basin. Assuming an extensional origin for the margin, the absence of tectonic subsidence is considered to indicate that continental rifting in the area was wet (accompanied by major volcanic activity). Recent studies have shown that extensive volcanism may occur where rift zones cut through regions of anomalously hot mantle (100-200{degree}C above normal). The addition to the crust of igneous material, the density of which has been modified by adiabatic decompression, inhibits syn-rift subsidence. A wet rifting model also has implications for the origin of the nearby marginal plateaux such as the Scott Plateau. Their relatively thick crust and lack of subsidence may be due to igneous underplating associated with wet rifting. As such the plateaux may be regarded as transitional between oceanic and continental crust. The post-Valanginian Cretaceous subsidence of the Vulcan subbasin and adjacent areas is consistent with typical post-rift thermal subsidence, the predicted exponentially decaying subsidence history for a wet rift being indistinguishable from that of a dry rift.

  9. Unitary-process discrimination with error margin

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, T.; Hayashi, A.; Horibe, M.; Hayashi, M.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate a discrimination scheme between unitary processes. By introducing a margin for the probability of an erroneous guess, this scheme interpolates the two standard discrimination schemes: minimum-error and unambiguous discrimination. We present solutions for two cases. One is the case of two unitary processes with general prior probabilities. The other is the case with a group symmetry: The processes comprise a projective representation of a finite group. In the latter case, we found that unambiguous discrimination is a kind of 'all or nothing': The maximum success probability is either 0 or 1. We also thoroughly analyze how entanglement with an auxiliary system improves discrimination performance.

  10. New Outer Bounds on the Marginal Polytope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-06

    not find any violated inequalities) Cycle inequalities. The marginal polytope can be defined by the intersection of a large number of linear...possibly zero) number of cut edges. Suppose we start at node i, where xi = 0. As we traverse the cycle, the assignment changes each time we cross a cut edge...Since we must return to xi = 0, the assignment can only change an even number of times. For a cycleC and any F ⊆ C such that |F | is odd, this

  11. Comparison of Chemical and Enzymatic Interesterification of Fully Hydrogenated Soybean Oil and Walnut Oil to Produce a Fat Base with Adequate Nutritional and Physical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Farfán, Mariel; Álvarez, Alfredo; Gárate, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Summary The optimal physical, chemical and nutritional properties of natural lipids depend on the structure and composition of triacylglycerols. However, they are not always mutually compatible. Lipid modification is a good way to give them specific functionalities, increase their oxidative stability, or improve their nutritional value. As such, chemical and enzymatic interesterification may be used to modify them and produce structured lipids. In accordance, the aim of this study is to compare chemical and enzymatic interesterification of binary blends of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil, using sodium methoxide or Lipozyme TL IM, respectively, to produce a fat base with adequate nutritional and physical characteristics. Three different mass ratios of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil blends (20:80, 40:60 and 60:40) were interesterified and evaluated. Total interesterification was determined by the stabilization of the solid fat content. Chemical reaction of the 20:80 blend was completed in 10 min and of the 40:60 and 60:40 blends in 15 min. Enzymatically interesterified blends were stabilized in 120 min at all of the mass ratios. Complete interesterification significantly reduced the solid fat content of the blends at any composition. Chemical and enzymatically interesterified fully hydrogenated blend of soybean and walnut oil at mass ratio of 40:60 showed the plastic curve of an all-purpose- -type shortening rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, with a high linolenic acid (C18:3n3) content and with zero trans-fatty acids. PMID:27904370

  12. Characterizing entanglement with global and marginal entropic measures

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio; De Siena, Silvio

    2003-12-01

    We qualify the entanglement of arbitrary mixed states of bipartite quantum systems by comparing global and marginal mixednesses quantified by different entropic measures. For systems of two qubits we discriminate the class of maximally entangled states with fixed marginal mixednesses, and determine an analytical upper bound relating the entanglement of formation to the marginal linear entropies. This result partially generalizes to mixed states the quantification of entanglement with marginal mixednesses holding for pure states. We identify a class of entangled states that, for fixed marginals, are globally more mixed than product states when measured by the linear entropy. Such states cannot be discriminated by the majorization criterion.

  13. Stability evaluation of short-circuiting gas metal arc welding based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Wang, Kehong; Zhou, Zhilan; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Jimi

    2017-03-01

    The arc of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) contains abundant information about its stability and droplet transition, which can be effectively characterized by extracting the arc electrical signals. In this study, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was used to evaluate the stability of electrical current signals. The welding electrical signals were first decomposed by EEMD, and then transformed to a Hilbert–Huang spectrum and a marginal spectrum. The marginal spectrum is an approximate distribution of amplitude with frequency of signals, and can be described by a marginal index. Analysis of various welding process parameters showed that the marginal index of current signals increased when the welding process was more stable, and vice versa. Thus EEMD combined with the marginal index can effectively uncover the stability and droplet transition of GMAW.

  14. At the margins: Agriculture, subsidies and the shifting fate of North America's Native Grassland.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, K M; Gutmann, M P; Brown, D G

    2016-03-01

    We examined patterns of shifting cropland cultivation in the US Great Plains from the dust bowl to the beginning of the 21st century, by comparing land-cover data from 400 sample sites across the region from the 1930s, 1950s, 1970s and, 1990s and 2000s. We argue that understanding the use of marginal land for cultivation in the Great Plains since the Great Depression requires understanding the interacting dynamics of demography, technology, and policy. The small area land-cover data are nested within 50 target counties across the region. We draw on these dynamics, and their interactions with a range of policy programs aimed at reducing environmental impacts of agriculture, to tell the story of how and when marginal lands have been brought into use. In a multi-level panel design, macro- and micro-level covariates were used to predict levels of encroachment on marginal soils. We conclude that land retirement programs (like the Conservation Reserve Program) have had a generally stabilizing effect on the micro-level patterns of land use in recent decades, but that increased levels of encroachment on marginal soils and native grassland remain a problem in areas with higher or increasing population densities.

  15. At the margins: Agriculture, subsidies and the shifting fate of North America’s Native Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Gutmann, M.P.; Brown, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined patterns of shifting cropland cultivation in the US Great Plains from the dust bowl to the beginning of the 21st century, by comparing land-cover data from 400 sample sites across the region from the 1930s, 1950s, 1970s and, 1990s and 2000s. We argue that understanding the use of marginal land for cultivation in the Great Plains since the Great Depression requires understanding the interacting dynamics of demography, technology, and policy. The small area land-cover data are nested within 50 target counties across the region. We draw on these dynamics, and their interactions with a range of policy programs aimed at reducing environmental impacts of agriculture, to tell the story of how and when marginal lands have been brought into use. In a multi-level panel design, macro- and micro-level covariates were used to predict levels of encroachment on marginal soils. We conclude that land retirement programs (like the Conservation Reserve Program) have had a generally stabilizing effect on the micro-level patterns of land use in recent decades, but that increased levels of encroachment on marginal soils and native grassland remain a problem in areas with higher or increasing population densities. PMID:26997690

  16. Origin of the Blue Ridge escarpment along the passive margin of Eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spotila, J.A.; Bank, G.C.; Reiners, P.W.; Naeser, C.W.; Naeser, N.D.; Henika, B.S.

    2004-01-01

    The Blue Ridge escarpment is a rugged landform situated within the ancient Appalachian orogen. While similar in some respects to the great escarpments along other passive margins, which have evolved by erosion following rifting, its youthful topographic expression has inspired proposals of Cenozoic tectonic rejuvenation in eastern North America. To better understand the post-orogenic and post-rift geomorphic evolution of passive margins, we have examined the origin of this landform using low-temperature thermochronometry and manipulation of topographic indices. Apatite (U-Th)/He and fission-track analyses along transects across the escarpment reveal a younging trend towards the coast. This pattern is consistent with other great escarpments and fits with an interpretation of having evolved by prolonged erosion, without the requirement of tectonic rejuvenation. Measured ages are also comparable specifically to those measured along other great escarpments that are as much as 100 Myr younger. This suggests that erosional mechanisms that maintain rugged escarpments in the early post-rift stages may remain active on ancient passive margins for prolonged periods. The precise erosional evolution of the escarpment is less clear, however, and several end-member models can explain the data. Our preferred model, which fits with all data, involves a significant degree of erosional escarpment retreat in the Cenozoic. Although this suggests that early onset of topographic stability is not required of passive margin evolution, more data are required to better constrain the details of the escarpment's development. ?? 2003 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Transform continental margins - Part 2: A worldwide review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier de Lépinay, Marion; Loncke, Lies; Basile, Christophe; Roest, Walter R.; Patriat, Martin; Maillard, Agnès; De Clarens, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    We present a global inventory of transform continental margins, based on both a worldwide comparison of continent-ocean boundary identifications with oceanic fracture zones traces, and a compilation of published regional studies. This inventory increases the number of identified transform margins from 29 to 78. These margins represent 16% of continental margins in cumulative length and 31% of non-convergent margins. We include morphological data, published upper crustal sections, continent to ocean transition locations and published Moho shape data in the new database. This review confirms that continent to ocean transitions are sharper at transform margins than at divergent margins. It also emphasizes the structural diversity of transform margins. Associated with one third of transform margins, we define marginal plateaus as a new type of relief that corresponds to a flat but deep surface inside the continental slope, and that may be inherited from crustal thinning prior to transform faulting. Transform margin initiation appears to be favoured along propagating oceans and within cold and thick lithospheres.

  18. Hierarchical Marginal Land Assessment for Land Use Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Bandaru, Vara Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Marginal land provides an alternative potential for food and bioenergy production in the face of limited land resources; however, effective assessment of marginal lands is not well addressed. Concerns over environmental risks, ecosystem services and sustainability for marginal land have been widely raised. The objective of this study was to develop a hierarchical marginal land assessment framework for land use planning and management. We first identified major land functions linking production, environment, ecosystem services and economics, and then classified land resources into four categories of marginal land using suitability and limitations associated with major management goals, including physically marginal land, biologically marginal land, environmental-ecological marginal land, and economically marginal land. We tested this assessment framework in south-western Michigan, USA. Our results indicated that this marginal land assessment framework can be potentially feasible on land use planning for food and bioenergy production, and balancing multiple goals of land use management. We also compared our results with marginal land assessment from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and land capability classes (LCC) that are used in the US. The hierarchical assessment framework has advantages of quantitatively reflecting land functions and multiple concerns. This provides a foundation upon which focused studies can be identified in order to improve the assessment framework by quantifying high-resolution land functions associated with environment and ecosystem services as well as their criteria are needed to improve the assessment framework.

  19. Large margin classifier-based ensemble tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuru; Liu, Qiaoyuan; Yin, Minghao; Wang, ShengSheng

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, many studies consider visual tracking as a two-class classification problem. The key problem is to construct a classifier with sufficient accuracy in distinguishing the target from its background and sufficient generalize ability in handling new frames. However, the variable tracking conditions challenges the existing methods. The difficulty mainly comes from the confused boundary between the foreground and background. This paper handles this difficulty by generalizing the classifier's learning step. By introducing the distribution data of samples, the classifier learns more essential characteristics in discriminating the two classes. Specifically, the samples are represented in a multiscale visual model. For features with different scales, several large margin distribution machine (LDMs) with adaptive kernels are combined in a Baysian way as a strong classifier. Where, in order to improve the accuracy and generalization ability, not only the margin distance but also the sample distribution is optimized in the learning step. Comprehensive experiments are performed on several challenging video sequences, through parameter analysis and field comparison, the proposed LDM combined ensemble tracker is demonstrated to perform with sufficient accuracy and generalize ability in handling various typical tracking difficulties.

  20. Instability and Tsunamigenic Potential at Convergent Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Huene, R.; Ranero, C. R.; Watts, P.

    2001-12-01

    Along many convergent margins multibeam echosounding navigated with GPS has revealed large slope failures that were probably tsunamigenic. Bathymetric data combined with seismic reflection imaging indicate multiple causes. The 55-km wide Nicoya Slump resulted from the steepening slope above an underthrusting seamount on the subducting oceanic plate. This slump may have generated a 27-m high wave. Several 5-7 km wide mid-slope slides off central Nicaragua probably resulted from steepening of the continental slope by tectonic erosion. They may have generated waves 6-7 m high. A 30 km wide mid-slope slump off northern Peru may have generated a 5 m high wave. Its cause will not be understood without better seismic reflection imaging but considerable fluid venting was observed across its headwall. In the Gulf of Alaska a large slide appears to have resulted from rapid sedimentation. Tsunamigenic slope failure along convergent margins is only beginning to be resolved and the causes vary. Subducted ocean floor relief, tectonically steepened slopes, and sites of rapid sedimentation can help target potential failure and possible future tsunami hazards.

  1. Research priorities for zoonoses and marginalized infections.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for zoonoses and marginalized infections which affect poor populations, and a list of research priorities to support disease control. The work is the output of the Disease Reference Group on Zoonoses and Marginalized Infectious Diseases of Poverty (DRG6), which is part of an independent think tank of international experts, established and funded by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholder consultations. The report covers a diverse range of diseases, including zoonotic helminth, protozoan, viral and bacterial infections considered to be neglected and associated with poverty. Disease-specific research issues are elaborated under individual disease sections and many common priorities are identified among the diseases such as the need for new and/or improved drugs and regimens, diagnostics and, where appropriate, vaccines. The disease-specific priorities are described as micro priorities compared with the macro level priorities which will drive policy-making for: improved surveillance; interaction between the health, livestock, agriculture, natural resources and wildlife sectors in tackling zoonotic diseases; and true assessment of the burden of zoonoses. This is one often disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report search on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: w.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html.

  2. Review and Assessment of JPL's Thermal Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebes, G.; Kingery, C.; Farguson, C.; White, M.; Blakely, M.; Nunes, J.; Avila, A.; Man, K.; Hoffman, A.; Forgrave, J.

    2012-01-01

    JPL has captured its experience from over four decades of robotic space exploration into a set of design rules. These rules have gradually changed into explicit requirements and are now formally implemented and verified. Over an extended period of time, the initial understanding of intent and rationale for these rules has faded and rules are now frequently applied without further consideration. In the meantime, mission classes and their associated risk postures have evolved, coupled with resource constraints and growing design diversity, bringing into question the current "one size fits all" thermal margin approach. This paper offers a systematic review of the heat flow path from an electronic junction to the eventual heat rejection to space. This includes the identification of different regimes along this path and the associated requirements. The work resulted in a renewed understanding of the intent behind JPL requirements for hot thermal margins and a framework for relevant considerations, which in turn enables better decision making when a deviation to these requirements is considered.

  3. Hydrocarbon source potential in Brazilian margin basins

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, M.R.; Estrella, G.D.O.; Gaglianone, P.C.

    1984-04-01

    Twenty thousand samples from the Brazilian continental shelf basins were analyzed to characterize and evaluate the hydrocarbon source potential of the areas. The geochemical evaluation of the rock and oil samples was performed by organic carbon determinations, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance, thermal alteration index, liquid and gas chromatographies, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and carbon isotope analyses. Three source rock systems have been identified: lower Neocomian shales deposited in a continental environment, upper Neocomian shales grading from continental to lagoonal environment, and Aptian shales related to evaporitic and lacustrine sequences. Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary open marine slope sediments are not considered as source rocks. Locally, these sediments present high organic carbon content but show an extremely poor hydrocarbon yield. Anoxic depositional conditions, nevertheless, can be traced locally along some levels of the Santonian to Cenomanian shales and marls. These sediments are generally immature in the Brazilian margin basins and no oil was generated from this section. Three oil families were distinguished through oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations: the lower Neocomian continental type, the upper Neocomian continental to lagoonal type, and the Aptian evaporitic to lacustrine related sequences. The geochemical studies, together with geologic and geophysical data, provided the basis to display some models for the migration pathways and habitat of oils in the Brazilian margin basins.

  4. On recent developments in marginal separation theory

    PubMed Central

    Braun, S.; Scheichl, S.

    2014-01-01

    Thin aerofoils are prone to localized flow separation at their leading edge if subjected to moderate angles of attack α. Although ‘laminar separation bubbles’ at first do not significantly alter the aerofoil performance, they tend to ‘burst’ if α is increased further or if perturbations acting upon the flow reach a certain intensity. This then either leads to global flow separation (stall) or triggers the laminar–turbulent transition process within the boundary layer flow. This paper addresses the asymptotic analysis of the early stages of the latter phenomenon in the limit as the characteristic Reynolds number , commonly referred to as marginal separation theory. A new approach based on the adjoint operator method is presented that enables the fundamental similarity laws of marginal separation theory to be derived and the analysis to be extended to higher order. Special emphasis is placed on the breakdown of the flow description, i.e. the formation of finite-time singularities (a manifestation of the bursting process), and on its resolution being based on asymptotic arguments. The passage to the subsequent triple-deck stage is described in detail, which is a prerequisite for carrying out a future numerical treatment of this stage in a proper way. Moreover, a composite asymptotic model is developed in order for the inherent ill-posedness of the Cauchy problems associated with the current flow description to be resolved. PMID:24936013

  5. The genetics of nodal marginal zone lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Spina, Valeria; Khiabanian, Hossein; Messina, Monica; Monti, Sara; Cascione, Luciano; Bruscaggin, Alessio; Spaccarotella, Elisa; Holmes, Antony B.; Arcaini, Luca; Lucioni, Marco; Tabbò, Fabrizio; Zairis, Sakellarios; Diop, Fary; Cerri, Michaela; Chiaretti, Sabina; Marasca, Roberto; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Deaglio, Silvia; Ramponi, Antonio; Tiacci, Enrico; Pasqualucci, Laura; Paulli, Marco; Falini, Brunangelo; Inghirami, Giorgio; Bertoni, Francesco; Foà, Robin; Rabadan, Raul; Gaidano, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) is a rare, indolent B-cell tumor that is distinguished from splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) by the different pattern of dissemination. NMZL still lacks distinct markers and remains orphan of specific cancer gene lesions. By combining whole-exome sequencing, targeted sequencing of tumor-related genes, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis, we aimed at disclosing the pathways that are molecularly deregulated in NMZL and we compare the molecular profile of NMZL with that of SMZL. These analyses identified a distinctive pattern of nonsilent somatic lesions in NMZL. In 35 NMZL patients, 41 genes were found recurrently affected in ≥3 (9%) cases, including highly prevalent molecular lesions of MLL2 (also known as KMT2D; 34%), PTPRD (20%), NOTCH2 (20%), and KLF2 (17%). Mutations of PTPRD, a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase regulating cell growth, were enriched in NMZL across mature B-cell tumors, functionally caused the loss of the phosphatase activity of PTPRD, and were associated with cell-cycle transcriptional program deregulation and increased proliferation index in NMZL. Although NMZL shared with SMZL a common mutation profile, NMZL harbored PTPRD lesions that were otherwise absent in SMZL. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the genetics of NMZL, identify PTPRD lesions as a novel marker for this lymphoma across mature B-cell tumors, and support the distinction of NMZL as an independent clinicopathologic entity within the current lymphoma classification. PMID:27335277

  6. Kinematic and stability motion limits for a hexapod walking machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunton, Elizabeth M.

    1995-03-01

    The major problem addressed by this research is to investigate and implement the basic concepts necessary to lay the groundwork for efficient forms of motion planning, motion control, and gait algorithms with respect to hexapod walking machines. Specifically, the approach taken was to develop and implement the concepts of a stability margin and a joint space motion margin on an object-oriented representation of the Aquarobot. The model was generated in Franz Common Lisp and simulated via Allegro Common Windows. A method by which distance computations can be calculated and applied to the center of mass and triangular support pattern of a walking machine to determine the stability margin is introduced. Inverse kinematics and joint limits are utilized to ascertain the joint space motion margin of the model. Response to impending instability and the effect when a joint hits or approaches a joint kinematic limit on the motion of the hexapod walking machine by stopping the model is also addressed. The results are as follows: the concepts of the joint space motion margin and the stability margin can be successfully implemented on a kinematic model and graphical simulation of a hexapod walking machine. These concepts contribute to future work in the area of more efficient free gait algorithms, specifically asynchronous gait algorithms.

  7. The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight/The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Trained for the Urban Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    1 The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Subject Area Training EWS 2006...The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Submitted by Captain RC Rybka to Majors GC Schreffler and RR...estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the

  8. Transform continental margins - part 1: Concepts and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the geodynamic concepts and models related to transform continental margins, and their implications on the structure of these margins. Simple kinematic models of transform faulting associated with continental rifting and oceanic accretion allow to define three successive stages of evolution, including intra-continental transform faulting, active transform margin, and passive transform margin. Each part of the transform margin experiences these three stages, but the evolution is diachronous along the margin. Both the duration of each stage and the cumulated strike-slip deformation increase from one extremity of the margin (inner corner) to the other (outer corner). Initiation of transform faulting is related to the obliquity between the trend of the lithospheric deformed zone and the relative displacement of the lithospheric plates involved in divergence. In this oblique setting, alternating transform and divergent plate boundaries correspond to spatial partitioning of the deformation. Both obliquity and the timing of partitioning influence the shape of transform margins. Oblique margin can be defined when oblique rifting is followed by oblique oceanic accretion. In this case, no transform margin should exist in the prolongation of the oceanic fracture zones. Vertical displacements along transform margins were mainly studied to explain the formation of marginal ridges. Numerous models were proposed, one of the most used is being based on thermal exchanges between the oceanic and the continental lithospheres across the transform fault. But this model is compatible neither with numerical computation including flexural behavior of the lithosphere nor with timing of vertical displacements and the lack of heating related to the passing of the oceanic accretion axis as recorded by the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana marginal ridge. Enhanced models are still needed. They should better take into account the erosion on the continental slope, and the level of coupling

  9. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  10. Prevention of mother to child transmission lay counsellors: Are they adequately trained?

    PubMed

    Thurling, Catherine H; Harris, Candice

    2012-06-05

    South Africa's high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women requires a comprehensive health care approach to pregnancy because of the added risk of their HIV status. As a result of the shortage of health care workers in South Africa, lay counsellors play important roles in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). There is no standardization of training of lay counsellors in South Africa, and training varies in length depending on the training organisation. The study aimed to investigate the training of lay counsellors by analysing their training curricula and interviewing lay counsellors about their perceptions of their training. A two phase research method was applied. Phase one documented an analysis of the training curricula. Phase two was semi-structured interviews with the participants. Purposive sampling was undertaken for this study. The total sample size was 13 people, with a final sample of 9 participants, determined at the point of data saturation. The research was qualitative, descriptive and contextual in design. The curricula analysed had different styles of delivery, and the approaches to learning and courses varied, resulting in inconsistent training outcomes. A need for supervision and mentorship in the working environment was also noted. The training of lay counsellors needs to be adapted to meet the extended roles that they are playing in PMTCT. The standardization of training programmes, and the incorporation of a system of mentorship in the work environment, would ensure that the lay counsellors are adequately prepared for their role in PMTCT.

  11. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  12. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  13. Radiation dose reduction in invasive cardiology by restriction to adequate instead of optimized picture quality.

    PubMed

    Kuon, Eberhard; Dorn, Christian; Schmitt, Moritz; Dahm, Johannes B

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the cinegraphic image intensifier entrance dose level for coronary angiography was changed in four steps from dose level A (0.041 microGy frame(-1)), allowing high contrast, but coarse mottled background, to level D (0.164 microGy frame(-1)), affording high transparency and sharpness. Using this new approach throughout the course of 404 consecutive cardiac catheterizations, we reduced patient radiation exposures down to 11 to 16% of currently typical values: i.e., mean dose area products of 5.97 Gy cm2 (n = 91), 6.73 (n = 113), 8.11 (n = 91), and 8.90 (n = 109); cinegraphic dose area products of 2.34, 3.64, 4.56, and 5.49; and cinegraphic dose area products frame(-1) of 13.3, 19.8, 27.0, and 30.2 mGy cm2, for levels A, B, C, and D, respectively. The number of cinegraphic frames ranged within 168 to 182 per case. Our results show that during catheterization interventionalists should vary image intensifier entrance dose levels in accordance with documented structure, angulation, and body mass index. With the exception of cases with special requirements, lower dose levels typically guarantee an adequate image quality.

  14. Adequate nutrient intake can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Reusser, Molly E; DiRienzo, Douglas B; Miller, Gregory D; McCarron, David A

    2003-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease kills nearly as many Americans each year as the next seven leading causes of death combined. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and most of its associated risk factors is markedly higher and increasing more rapidly among African Americans than in any other racial or ethnic group. Improving these statistics may be simply a matter of improving diet quality. In recent years, a substantial and growing body of evidence has revealed that dietary patterns complete in all food groups, including nutrient-rich dairy products, are essential for preventing and reducing cardiovascular disease and the conditions that contribute to it. Several cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, insulin resistance syndrome, and obesity, have been shown to be positively influenced by dietary patterns that include adequate intake of dairy products. The benefits of nutrient-rich dietary patterns have been specifically tested in randomized, controlled trials emphasizing African American populations. These studies demonstrated proportionally greater benefits for African Americans without evidence of adverse effects such as symptoms of lactose intolerance. As currently promoted for the prevention of certain cancers and osteoporosis, regular consumption of diets that meet recommended nutrient intake levels might also be the most effective approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

  15. Are neurodegenerative disorder and psychotic manifestations avoidable brain dysfunctions with adequate dietary omega-3?

    PubMed

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2006-01-01

    The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic antidepressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.

  16. Are neurodegenerative disorder and psychotic manifestations avoidable brain dysfunctions with adequate dietary omega-3?

    PubMed

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2006-01-01

    The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic anti-depressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.

  17. Are image quality metrics adequate to evaluate the quality of geometric objects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Rushmeier, Holly E.

    2001-06-01

    Geometric objects are often represented by many millions of triangles or polygons, which limits the ease with which they can be transmitted and displayed electronically. This has lead to the development of many algorithms for simplifying geometric models, and to the recognition that metrics are required to evaluate their success. The goal is to create computer graphic renderings of the object that do not appear to be degraded to a human observer. The perceptual evaluation of simplified objects is a new topic. One approach has been to sue image-based metrics to predict the perceived degradation of simplified 3D models. Since that 2D images of 3D objects can have significantly different perceived quality, depending on the direction of the illumination, 2D measures of image quality may not adequately capture the perceived quality of 3D objects. To address this question, we conducted experiments in which we explicitly compared the perceived quality of animated 3D objects and their corresponding 2D still image projections. Our results suggest that 2D judgements do not provide a good predictor of 3D image quality, and identify a need to develop 'object quality metrics.'

  18. A high UV environment does not ensure adequate Vitamin D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Brodie, A.; Harrison, S.; Nowak, M.; Moore, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Queensland has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world and due to the high levels of solar UV in this region it is assumed that incidental UV exposure should provide adequate vitamin D status for the population. This research was undertaken to test this assumption among healthy free-living adults in south-east Queensland, Australia (27°S), at the end of winter. This research was approved by Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee and conducted under the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. 10.2% of the sample had serum vitamin D levels below 25nm/L (deficiency) and a further 32.3% had levels between 25nm/L and 50nm/L (insufficiency). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency can occur at the end of winter, even in sunny climates. The wintertime UV levels in south-east Queensland (UV index 4-6) are equivalent to summertime UV levels in northern regions of Europe and the USA. These ambient UV levels are sufficient to ensure synthesis of vitamin D requirements. We investigated individual UV exposure (through a self reported sun exposure questionnaire) and found correlations between exposure and Vitamin D status. Further research is needed to explore the interactions between the solar UV environment and vitamin D status, particularly in high UV environments, such as Queensland.

  19. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  20. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  1. PG medical training and accreditation: responsibility of the government for the adequate health service delivery.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, M D

    2012-09-01

    On one hand there is obvious inadequate health coverage to the rural population and on the other hand the densely populated urban area is facing the triple burden of increasing non-communicable and communicable health problems and the rising health cost. The postgraduate medical training is closely interrelated with the adequate health service delivery and health economics. In relation to the prevailing situation, the modern medical education trend indicates the five vital issues. These are i). Opportunity needs to be given to all MBBS graduates for General Specialist and Sub-Specialist Training inside the country to complete their medical education, ii). Urgent need for review of PG residential training criteria including appropriate bed and teacher criteria as well as entry criteria and eligibility criteria, iii). Involvement of all available units of hospitals fulfilling the requirements of the residential PG training criteria, iv). PG residential trainings involve doing the required work in the hospitals entitling them full pay and continuation of the service without any training fee or tuition fee, and v). Planning of the proportions of General Specialty and Sub-Specialty Training fields, particularly General Practice (GP) including its career and female participation. With increased number of medical graduates, now it seems possible to plan for optimal health coverage to the populations with appropriate postgraduate medical training. The medical professionals and public health workers must make the Government aware of the vital responsibility and the holistic approach required.

  2. Ipragliflozin effectively reduced visceral fat in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes under adequate diet therapy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chiho; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Ono, Kota; Sugawara, Hajime; Kameda, Reina; Ichiyama, Mei; Yamamoto, Kohei; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Akinobu; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2016-06-30

    To investigate if ipragliflozin, a novel sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, alters body composition and to identify variables associated with reductions in visceral adipose tissue in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This prospective observational study enrolled Japanese participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subjects were administered ipragliflozin (50 mg/day) once daily for 16 weeks. Body composition, visceral adipose tissue volume and plasma variables were measured at 0, 8, and 16-weeks. The subjects' lifestyle habits including diet and exercise were evaluated at baseline and 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was defined as the decrease of visceral adipose tissue mass. Twenty-four of 26 enrolled participants completed the study. The visceral adipose tissue decreased significantly (110 ± 33 to 101 ± 36 cm(2), p = 0.005) as well as other parameters for metabolic insufficiency including hemoglobin A1c. Seventy-one % of the total body weight reduction (-2.49 kg) was estimated by a decrease in fat mass (-1.77 kg), and the remaining reduction (22%) by water volume (-0.55 kg). A minor but significant reduction in the skeletal muscle index was also observed. Correlation analyses were performed to identify variables associated with changes in visceral adipose tissue and the only significant variable identified was diet therapy (Spearman's r = -0.416, p = 0.043). Ipragliflozin significantly decreased visceral adipose tissue, and improved parametres for metabolic dysfunction. Adequate diet therapy would be necessary to induce and enhance the therapeutic merit.

  3. Gaussian membership functions are most adequate in representing uncertainty in measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, V.; Quintana, C.; Reznik, L.

    1992-01-01

    In rare situations, like fundamental physics, we perform experiments without knowing what their results will be. In the majority of real-life measurement situations, we more or less know beforehand what kind of results we will get. Of course, this is not the precise knowledge of the type 'the result will be between alpha - beta and alpha + beta,' because in this case, we would not need any measurements at all. This is usually a knowledge that is best represented in uncertain terms, like 'perhaps (or 'most likely', etc.) the measured value x is between alpha - beta and alpha + beta.' Traditional statistical methods neglect this additional knowledge and process only the measurement results. So it is desirable to be able to process this uncertain knowledge as well. A natural way to process it is by using fuzzy logic. But, there is a problem; we can use different membership functions to represent the same uncertain statements, and different functions lead to different results. What membership function do we choose? In the present paper, we show that under some reasonable assumptions, Gaussian functions mu(x) = exp(-beta(x(exp 2))) are the most adequate choice of the membership functions for representing uncertainty in measurements. This representation was efficiently used in testing jet engines to airplanes and spaceships.

  4. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  5. Envisioning and advancing marginalized men's health disparities scholarship: the marginality-cultural competence integrative framework (M-CCIF).

    PubMed

    Willis, Danny G; Porche, Demetrius J

    2006-05-01

    Given the current focus of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on eliminating health disparities among minority populations, a substantive body of culturally competent scholarship about marginalized men's health disparities is needed to add knowledge about the complex features, processes, and relationships underlying health disparities, marginality, men's health, interventions, and clinical outcomes. Marginalized men in the United States suffer disproportionately from mental and chronic health problems. Historically disadvantaged, their voices have not been privileged in health care and clinical discourses. Utilizing the concepts of marginalization and culturally competent scholarship, an integrative framework has been created to facilitate clinicians and scholars in envisioning and advancing critical scholarship related to marginalized men's health disparities.

  6. Investigating Continental Margins: An Activity to Help Students Better Understand the Continental Margins of North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Maria-Serena; Capodivacca, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Continental margins are an important part of the ocean floor. They separate the land above sea level from the deep ocean basins below and occupy about 11% of Earth's surface. They are also economically important, as they harbor both mineral resources and some of the most valuable fisheries in the world. In this article students investigate North…

  7. Talking (and Not Talking) about Race, Social Class and Dis/Ability: Working Margin to Margin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we examine some of the omnipresent yet unacknowledged discourses of social and economic disadvantage and dis/ability within schools in the US. First, we document ways that social class, race, and dis/ability function within schools to further disadvantage and exclude already marginalized students. Next, we show how particular ways…

  8. Marginalized, Not Marginal: Adult Education's Unique Contribution to the Fight against HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, John P.

    2005-01-01

    As the North American HIV/AIDS epidemic enters its third decade, marginalized communities remain disproportionately vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. What contributions has adult education made so far--and how might it play an increased role in the future?

  9. Quantifying Stability in Complex Networks: From Linear to Basin Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurths, Jürgen

    The human brain, power grids, arrays of coupled lasers and the Amazon rainforest are all characterized by multistability. The likelihood that these systems will remain in the most desirable of their many stable states depends on their stability against significant perturbations, particularly in a state space populated by undesirable states. Here we claim that the traditional linearization-based approach to stability is in several cases too local to adequately assess how stable a state is. Instead, we quantify it in terms of basin stability, a new measure related to the volume of the basin of attraction. Basin stability is non-local, nonlinear and easily applicable, even to high-dimensional systems. It provides a long-sought-after explanation for the surprisingly regular topologies of neural networks and power grids, which have eluded theoretical description based solely on linear stability. Specifically, we employ a component-wise version of basin stability, a nonlinear inspection scheme, to investigate how a grid's degree of stability is influenced by certain patterns in the wiring topology. Various statistics from our ensemble simulations all support one main finding: The widespread and cheapest of all connection schemes, namely dead ends and dead trees, strongly diminish stability. For the Northern European power system we demonstrate that the inverse is also true: `Healing' dead ends by addition of transmission lines substantially enhances stability. This indicates a crucial smart-design principle for tomorrow's sustainable power grids: add just a few more lines to avoid dead ends. Further, we analyse the particular function of certain network motifs to promote the stability of the system. Here we uncover the impact of so-called detour motifs on the appearance of nodes with a poor stability score and discuss the implications for power grid design. Moreover, it will be shown that basin stability enables uncovering the mechanism for explosive synchronization and

  10. Dark halos and elliptical galaxies as marginally stable dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    El Zant, A. A.

    2013-12-10

    The origin of equilibrium gravitational configurations is sought in terms of the stability of their trajectories, as described by the curvature of their Lagrangian configuration manifold of particle positions—a context in which subtle spurious effects originating from the singularity in the two-body potential become particularly clear. We focus on the case of spherical systems, which support only regular orbits in the collisionless limit, despite the persistence of local exponential instability of N-body trajectories in the anomalous case of discrete point particle representation even as N → ∞. When the singularity in the potential is removed, this apparent contradiction disappears. In the absence of fluctuations, equilibrium configurations generally correspond to positive scalar curvature and thus support stable trajectories. A null scalar curvature is associated with an effective, averaged equation of state describing dynamically relaxed equilibria with marginally stable trajectories. The associated configurations are quite similar to those of observed elliptical galaxies and simulated cosmological halos and are necessarily different from the systems dominated by isothermal cores, expected from entropy maximization in the context of the standard theory of violent relaxation. It is suggested that this is the case because a system starting far from equilibrium does not reach a 'most probable state' via violent relaxation, but that this process comes to an end as the system finds and (settles in) a configuration where it can most efficiently wash out perturbations. We explicitly test this interpretation by means of direct simulations.

  11. BSR occurrence along the Sunda margin: evidence from seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Heidrun

    2002-04-01

    The occurrence of bottom simulating reflections (BSRs) along the Sunda margin off Indonesia is investigated for the first time using seismic reflection data from three surveys conducted across the subduction zone and the forearc domain off southern Sumatra to central Java. BSRs commonly concur with the base of the thermodynamically stable hydrate zone and are thus an important indicator for gas hydrates. Along the Sunda Arc, BSR occurrence is restricted to the forearc domain in regions likely to represent a focussing of fluid flow, such as the forearc basin slopes or anticline structures. Dissociation of gas hydrates due to uplift along anticline structures may be an important secondary cause of BSR formation. The absence of BSRs in the forearc basin center despite continuous sedimentation to ensure carbon supply may be related to the very high sedimentation rate (>0.4 km/Ma) which causes unused carbon to pass through the stability zone even for a high rate constant of methanogenesis. In addition, the interbedding of low- and high-permeability layers renders fluid flow across layering ineffective. No BSR phases could be detected along the accretionary prism or the outer high, although the P- T regime would allow a potential BSR to lie within the accretionary sedimentary column.

  12. Stabilizing population.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Mitchell, J

    1998-04-01

    This article is a reprint of the Worldwatch Institute's "State of the World Report," Chapter 10: "Building a New Economy." 16 countries reached zero population growth by 1997. 33 countries have stabilized population, which amounts to 14% of world population. It is estimated that by 2050 population will include an additional 3.6 billion people beyond the present 6 billion. About 60% of the added population will be in Asia, an increase from 3.4 billion in 1995 to 5.4 billion in 2050. China's current population of 1.2 billion will reach 1.5 billion. India's population is expected to rapidly rise from 930 million to 1.53 billion. Populations in the Middle East and North Africa are expected to double in size. Sub-Saharan population is expected to triple in size. By 2050, Nigeria will have 339 million people, which was the entire population of Africa in 1960. There is a great need to stabilize population in a number of currently unstabilized countries. In 1971, Bangladesh and Pakistan had the same population; however, by 2050, Pakistan, without a strong commitment to reducing population growth, will have 70 million more people than Bangladesh. Population stabilization will depend on removal of physical and social barriers that prevent women from using family planning services and thereby help them control their own unwanted fertility. Stabilization will require poverty alleviation and removal of the need for large families. Family size is reduced with lower infant and child mortality risk, increased education, a higher legal age of marriage, and investment in stabilization programs. Solutions to global population growth cannot wait for health reform and budget deficit reductions.

  13. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record..., and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and...

  14. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record..., and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and...

  15. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record..., and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and...

  16. Engine Development Design Margins Briefing Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, Chuck

    2006-01-01

    New engines experience durability problems after entering service. The most prevalent and costly is the hot section, particularly the high-pressure turbine. The origin of durability problems can be traced back to: 1) the basic aero-mechanical design systems, assumptions, and design margins used by the engine designers, 2) the available materials systems, and 3) to a large extent, aggressive marketing in a highly competitive environment that pushes engine components beyond the demonstrated capability of the basic technology available for the hardware designs. Unfortunately the user must operate the engine in the service environment in order to learn the actual thrust loading and the time at max effort take-off conditions used in service are needed to determine the hot section life. Several hundred thousand hours of operational service will be required before the demonstrated reliability of a fleet of engines or the design deficiencies of the engine hot section parts can be determined. Also, it may take three to four engine shop visits for heavy maintenance on the gas path hardware to establish cost effective build standards. Spare parts drive the oerator's engine maintenance costs but spare parts also makes lots of money for the engine manufacturer during the service life of an engine. Unless competition prevails for follow-on engine buys, there is really no motivation for an OEM to spend internal money to improve parts durability and reduce earnings derived from a lucrative spare parts business. If the hot section life is below design goals or promised values, the OEM migh argue that the engine is being operated beyond its basic design intent. On the other hand, the airframer and the operator will continue to remind the OEM that his engine was selected based on a lot of promises to deliver spec thrust with little impact on engine service life if higher thrust is used intermittently. In the end, a standoff prevails and nothing gets fixed. This briefing will propose

  17. Adaptive limit margin detection and limit avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavrucuk, Ilkay

    This thesis concerns the development of methods, algorithms, and control laws for the development of an adaptive flight envelope protection system to be used for both manned and unmanned aircraft. The proposed method lifts the requirement for detailed a priori information of aircraft dynamics by enabling adaptation to system uncertainty. The system can be used for limits that can be either measured or related to selected measurable quantities. Specifically, an adaptive technique for predicting limit margins and calculating the corresponding allowable control or controller command margins of an aircraft is described in an effort to enable true carefree maneuvering. This new approach utilizes adaptive neural network based loops for the approximation of required aircraft dynamics. For limits that reach their maximum value in steady state, a constructed estimator model is used to predict the maneuvering quasi-steady response behavior---the so called dynamic trim---of the limit parameters and the corresponding control or command margins. Linearly Parameterized Neural Networks as well as Single Hidden Layer Neural Networks are used for on-line adaptation. The approach does not require any off-line training of the neural networks, instead all learning is achieved during flight. Lyapunov based weight update laws are derived. The method is extended for multi-channelled control limiting for aircraft subject to multiple limits, and for automatic control and command limiting for UAV's. Simulation evaluations of the method using a linear helicopter model and a nonlinear Generalized Tiltrotor Simulation (GTRSIM) model are presented. Limit avoidance methods are integrated and tested through the implementation of an artificial pilot model and an active-stick controller model for tactile cueing in the tiltrotor simulation, GTRSIM. Load factor, angle-of-attack, and torque limits are considered as examples. Similarly, the method is applied to the Georgia Tech's Yamaha R-Max (GTMax

  18. Subduction Variability Along the Active Chilean Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, C. J.; Barckhausen, U.; Bartsch, H.; Block, M.; Boennemann, C.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Flueh, E. R.; Delisle, G.; Gaedicke, C.; Kopp, H.; Krawczyk, C. M.; Kus, J.; Ladage, S.; Ranero, C.; Schreckenberger, B.; Stoll, J. B.; Urbina, O.; Wiedicke-Hombach, M.

    2002-12-01

    The presence of different subduction modes in the convergence process between the Nazca and South-American plates along the Chilean margin is known from previous investigations. In order to study this variability in detail a comprehensive combined off- and onshore geo-scientific survey (SPOC) was recently conducted between Coquimbo and Valdivia in collaboration between a number of German and Chilean institutions. Major focus was also put on the structure of the sedimentary forearc basins and the distribution of gas hydrates along the slope. SPOC is the successor project to a similar experiment named CINCA that was earlier performed in the far north of Chile between Arica and Taltal. The SPOC results clearly show a change in subduction mode at about 33 deg S where the Juan Fernandez Ridge presently strikes the margin. North of that latitude, structural features such as extensional fracturing of the continental slope, very little or almost no sedimentary trench fill, intensive block faulting of the oceanic crust, a missing accretionary wedge, a very narrow shelf and other facts provide evidence for subduction erosion in that region. South of 33 deg S, we observed significantly steeper frontal slope angles and much less inclination of the oceanic crust toward the trench. In general, the topography of the oceanic crust is relatively smooth with the exception of several seamounts and fracture zones. Moreover, the width of the trench and of the shelf significantly widens toward the south, and pronounced forearc basins developed. Compared to the thick sedimentary trench fill of up to 2 km a very narrow accretionary wedge was encountered. Preliminary mass balancing combined with the assumption that the high present convergence rate occurred also in the past suggests that the bulk of the trench sediments is removed by subduction. Thus, accretionary processes can play only a subordinate or intermittent role. Geological seafloor samples support the assumption that small- to

  19. Homodecoupled 1,1- and 1,n-ADEQUATE: Pivotal NMR Experiments for the Structure Revision of Cryptospirolepine.

    PubMed

    Saurí, Josep; Bermel, Wolfgang; Buevich, Alexei V; Sherer, Edward C; Joyce, Leo A; Sharaf, Maged H M; Schiff, Paul L; Parella, Teodor; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E

    2015-08-24

    Cryptospirolepine is the most structurally complex alkaloid discovered and characterized thus far from any Cryptolepis specie. Characterization of several degradants of the original, sealed NMR sample a decade after the initial report called the validity of the originally proposed structure in question. We now report the development of improved, homodecoupled variants of the 1,1- and 1,n-ADEQUATE (HD-ADEQUATE) NMR experiments; utilization of these techniques was critical to successfully resolving long-standing structural questions associated with crytospirolepine.

  20. Fiber optic chemical sensors for characterizing the carbon cycle in ocean margin regions

    SciTech Connect

    DeGrandpre, M.D.; Sayles, F.L.

    1993-04-13

    The overall objective of our DOE-Ocean Margins Programs grant is to develop a pCO[sub 2] sensor for long-term monitoring of pCO[sub 2] in the ocean margins and to establish a proving ground for the development of other chemical sensors for characterizing the carbon cycle in these regions. We have succeeded in keeping with the approximate timeline outlined in the original proposal, which, for year 1 included the following objectives: Continue sensor optimization, test response characteristics (reagent and sample flow rates, temperature), introduce position sensitive photodiode and photodiode array spectrophotometers and evaluate, develop reliable and reproducible fabrication techniques, develop sensor based on preliminary studies optimized for field measurements (minimize size and power requirements), test long-term stability of the sensor in the laboratory, determine susceptibility to fouling and corrosion. This work is summarized below along with a brief review of the sensor's operating principle.