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Sample records for adequate storage space

  1. Practices in adequate structural design. [of space vehicles and space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of the guidelines for safe and reliable space vehicle design, especially in the structural engineering area, which have been formulated by NASA in the aftermath of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident in 1986. Illustrative examples are presented from state-of-the-art, performance-driven hardware whose design ineluctably gives rise to a high sensitivity to small variations and uncertainties. It is recommended that such hardware be designed with a view to easy inspectability and manufacturability, with emphasis on the role played in system structures by fracture mechanics. Static and dynamic coupling effects must be precluded wherever possible.

  2. Energy storage options for space power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Martin, J. F.; Olszewski, M.

    Including energy storage in a space power supply enhances the feasibility of using thermal power cycles (Rankine or Brayton) and providing high-power pulses. Superconducting magnets, capacitors, electrochemical batteries, thermal phase-change materials (PCM), and flywheels are assessed; the results obtained suggest that flywheels and phase-change devices hold the most promise. Latent heat storage using inorganic salts and metallic eutectics offers thermal energy storage densities of 1500 kJ/kg to 2000 kJ/kg at temperatures to 1675 K. Innovative techniques allow these media to operate in direct contact with the heat engine working fluid. Enhancing thermal conductivity and/or modifying PCM crystallization habit provide other options. Flywheels of low-strain graphite and Kevlar fibers have achieved mechanical energy storage densities of 300 kJ/kg. With high-strain graphite fibers, storage densities appropriate to space power needs (about 500 kJ/kg) seem feasible. Coupling advanced flywheels with emerging high power density homopolar generators and compulsators could result in electric pulse-power storage modules of significantly higher energy density.

  3. Freezing and storage at -20 °C provides adequate preservation of Toxoplasma gondii DNA for retrospective molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Delhaes, Laurence; Filisetti, Denis; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé; Yéra, Hélène; Dalle, Frédéric; Sterkers, Yvon; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Touafek, Feriel; Cassaing, Sophie; Bastien, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Nucleic acid-based testing has become crucial for toxoplasmosis diagnosis. For retrospective (forensic or scientific) studies, optimal methods must be employed for DNA long-term storage. We compared Toxoplasma gondii detection before and after DNA storage using real-time PCR. No significant differences were found depending on duration or storage conditions at -20 °C or -80 °C.

  4. Fuel cell energy storage for Space Station enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fuel cell energy storage for space station enhancement are presented. Topics covered include: power profile; solar dynamic power system; photovoltaic battery; space station energy demands; orbiter fuel cell power plant; space station energy storage; fuel cell system modularity; energy storage system development; and survival power supply.

  5. Long term storage of cryogens in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fester, D. A.; Eberhardt, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental design procedures leading to the configuration of a space-based cryogenic fluids test system are reported. Large quantities of cryogenic fluids are expected to be required in space for cooling systems, chemical and electrical OTVs, and resupply tankers. The design was guided by the necessity for representative storage and supply systems to be compatible with the Shuttle. Consideration was given to liquid hydrogen, oxygen, methane, and argon containers and concommitant fluid dynamics, thermal, and structural analyses. A 5% initial ullage was included for the liquids, except for methane, which was calculated at 8.9%. The Ar, CH4, and O2 tanks were set at 12.5 cu m, while the H2 tank was 37.4 cu m. The orbital experiment is required to provide actual thermal stabilization lags in a zero-g environment. Details of the Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility test module for flight on board the Shuttle are presented.

  6. Actions Needed to Ensure Scientific and Technical Information is Adequately Reviewed at Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This audit was initiated in response to a hotline complaint regarding the review, approval, and release of scientific and technical information (STI) at Johnson Space Center. The complainant alleged that Johnson personnel conducting export control reviews of STI were not fully qualified to conduct those reviews and that the reviews often did not occur until after the STI had been publicly released. NASA guidance requires that STI, defined as the results of basic and applied scientific, technical, and related engineering research and development, undergo certain reviews prior to being released outside of NASA or to audiences that include foreign nationals. The process includes technical, national security, export control, copyright, and trade secret (e.g., proprietary data) reviews. The review process was designed to preclude the inappropriate dissemination of sensitive information while ensuring that NASA complies with a requirement of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (the Space Act)1 to provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information resulting from NASA research activities. We focused our audit on evaluating the STI review process: specifically, determining whether the roles and responsibilities for the review, approval, and release of STI were adequately defined and documented in NASA and Center-level guidance and whether that guidance was effectively implemented at Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. Johnson was included in the review because it was the source of the initial complaint, and Goddard, Langley, and Marshall were included because those Centers consistently produce significant amounts of STI.

  7. Space Station Freedom electric power system evolutionary energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domeniconi, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom electric power system evolutionary energy storage are presented. Topics covered include: system requirements evolution; Space Station Freedom timeline; development of technologies selection criteria; and candidate technologies.

  8. Low temperature storage container for transporting perishables to space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, William G (Inventor); Owen, James W. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention is directed to the long term storage of frozen and refrigerated food and biological samples by the space shuttle to the space station. A storage container is utilized which has a passive system so that fluid/thermal and electrical interfaces with the logistics module is not required. The container for storage comprises two units, each having an inner storage shell and an outer shell receiving the inner shell and spaced about it. The novelty appears to lie in the integration of thermally efficient cryogenic storage techniques with phase change materials, including the multilayer metalized surface thin plastic film insulation and the vacuum between the shells. Additionally the fiberglass constructed shells having fiberglass honeycomb portions, and the lining of the space between the shells with foil combine to form a storage container which may keep food and biological samples at very low temperatures for very long periods of time utilizing a passive system.

  9. Targeting adequate thermal stability and fire safety in selecting ionic liquid-based electrolytes for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Chancelier, L; Diallo, A O; Santini, C C; Marlair, G; Gutel, T; Mailley, S; Len, C

    2014-02-07

    The energy storage market relating to lithium based systems regularly grows in size and expands in terms of a portfolio of energy and power demanding applications. Thus safety focused research must more than ever accompany related technological breakthroughs regarding performance of cells, resulting in intensive research on the chemistry and materials science to design more reliable batteries. Formulating electrolyte solutions with nonvolatile and hardly flammable ionic liquids instead of actual carbonate mixtures could be safer. However, few definitions of thermal stability of electrolytes based on ionic liquids have been reported in the case of abuse conditions (fire, shortcut, overcharge or overdischarge). This work investigates thermal stability up to combustion of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C1C4Im][NTf2]) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([PYR14][NTf2]) ionic liquids, and their corresponding electrolytes containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide LiNTf2. Their possible routes of degradation during thermal abuse testings were investigated by thermodynamic studies under several experimental conditions. Their behaviours under fire were also tested, including the analysis of emitted compounds.

  10. Energy Storage Technology Development for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of human exploration systems. Improving battery performance and safety for human missions enhances a number of exploration systems, including un-tethered extravehicular activity suits and transportation systems including landers and rovers. Similarly, improved fuel cell and electrolyzer systems can reduce mass and increase the reliability of electrical power, oxygen, and water generation for crewed vehicles, depots and outposts. To achieve this, NASA is developing non-flow-through proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks, and electrolyzers coupled with low permeability membranes for high pressure operation. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments over the past year include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale non-flow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. NASA is also developing advanced lithium-ion battery cells, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiatedmixed- metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety.

  11. Energy storage systems comparison for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanommering, G.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the requirements, options, selection criteria and other considerations, and current status with regard to the energy storage subsystem (ESS) for the photovoltaic power system alternative for the space station is provided.

  12. Perspectives on energy storage wheels for space station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Several of the issues of the workshop are addressed from the perspective of a potential Space Station developer and energy wheel user. Systems' considerations are emphasized rather than component technology. The potential of energy storage wheel (ESW) concept is discussed. The current status of the technology base is described. Justification for advanced technology development is also discussed. The study concludes that energy storage in wheels is an attractive concept for immediate technology development and future Space Station application.

  13. Overview of Energy Storage Technologies for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, Subbarao

    2006-01-01

    This presentations gives an overview of the energy storage technologies that are being used in space applications. Energy storage systems have been used in 99% of the robotic and human space missions launched since 1960. Energy storage is used in space missions to provide primary electrical power to launch vehicles, crew exploration vehicles, planetary probes, and astronaut equipment; store electrical energy in solar powered orbital and surface missions and provide electrical energy during eclipse periods; and, to meet peak power demands in nuclear powered rovers, landers, and planetary orbiters. The power source service life (discharge hours) dictates the choice of energy storage technology (capacitors, primary batteries, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells, regenerative fuel cells, flywheels). NASA is planning a number of robotic and human space exploration missions for the exploration of space. These missions will require energy storage devices with mass and volume efficiency, long life capability, an the ability to operate safely in extreme environments. Advanced energy storage technologies continue to be developed to meet future space mission needs.

  14. Assessment of adequate quality and collocation of reference measurements with space borne hyperspectral infrared instruments to validate retrievals of temperature and water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbet, X.

    2015-06-01

    A method is presented to assess whether a given reference ground based point observation, typically a radiosonde measurement, is adequately collocated and sufficiently representative of space borne hyperspectral infrared instrument measurements. Once this assessment is made, the ground based data can be used to validate and potentially calibrate, with a high degree of accuracy, the hyperspectral retrievals of temperature and water vapour.

  15. Development of regenerable energy storage for space multimegawatt applications

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, M.

    1986-01-01

    A program has recently been initiated as a part of the national Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) to develop energy storage technology for space power applications. This program is jointly conducted by the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense. It is focused on the development of advanced technologies in regenerable energy storage that will be required for generation of multimegawatt levels of sprint power for SDI space missions. Energy storage technology considered in the program relate to devices that have a high specific capacity for energy storage, which can provide high levels of electric power on demand, and which may be recharged with electric power. The devices of principal interest are electrochemical batteries, chemical fuel cells, and electromechanical flywheels (the latter includes the motors and generators used to provide the electrical to mechanical coupling). The intent of the program is to resolve technical feasibility issues associated with an electrically regenerable energy storage system satisfying SDI needs. Specifically, energy storage technology will be developed through the proof-of-concept stage within the next six years that provides a specific power greater than 2.5 kW/kg with an energy storage density of at least 450 kJ/kg.

  16. Unequally spaced four levels phase encoding in holographic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ke; Huang, Yong; Lin, Xiao; Cheng, Yabin; Li, Xiaotong; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-12-01

    Holographic data storage system is a candidate for the information recording due to its large storage capacity and high transfer rate. We propose an unequally spaced four levels phase encoding in the holographic data storage system here. Compared with two levels or three levels phase encoding, four levels phase encoding effectively improves the code rate. While more phase levels can further improve code rate, it also puts higher demand for the camera to differentiate the resulting smaller grayscale difference. Unequally spaced quaternary level phases eliminates the ambiguity of pixels with same phase difference relative to reference light compared to equally spaced quaternary levels. Corresponding encoding pattern design with phase pairs as the data element and decoding method were developed. Our encoding improves the code rate up to 0.875, which is 1.75 times of the conventional amplitude method with an error rate of 0.13 % according to our simulation results.

  17. Data storage systems technology for the Space Station era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, John; Mccaleb, Fred; Sos, John; Chesney, James; Howell, David

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an internal NASA study to determine if economically feasible data storage solutions are likely to be available to support the ground data transport segment of the Space Station mission. An internal NASA effort to prototype a portion of the required ground data processing system is outlined. It is concluded that the requirements for all ground data storage functions can be met with commercial disk and tape drives assuming conservative technology improvements and that, to meet Space Station data rates with commercial technology, the data will have to be distributed over multiple devices operating in parallel and in a sustained maximum throughput mode.

  18. Assessment of adequate quality and collocation of reference measurements with space-borne hyperspectral infrared instruments to validate retrievals of temperature and water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbet, X.

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented to assess whether a given reference ground-based point observation, typically a radiosonde measurement, is adequately collocated and sufficiently representative of space-borne hyperspectral infrared instrument measurements. Once this assessment is made, the ground-based data can be used to validate and potentially calibrate, with a high degree of accuracy, the hyperspectral retrievals of temperature and water vapour.

  19. Space Station thermal storage/refrigeration system research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station thermal loading conditions represent an order of magnitude increase over current and previous spacecraft such as Skylab, Apollo, Pegasus III, Lunar Rover Vehicle, and Lockheed TRIDENT missiles. Thermal storage units (TSU's) were successfully used on these as well as many applications for ground based solar energy storage applications. It is desirable to store thermal energy during peak loading conditions as an alternative to providing increased radiator surface area which adds to the weight of the system. Basically, TSU's store heat by melting a phase change material (PCM) such as a paraffin. The physical property data for the PCM's used in the design of these TSU's is well defined in the literature. Design techniques are generally well established for the TSU's. However, the Space Station provides a new challenge in the application of these data and techniques because of three factors: the large size of the TSU required, the integration of the TSU for the Space Station thermal management concept with its diverse opportunities for storage application, and the TSU's interface with a two-phase (liquid/vapor) thermal bus/central heat rejection system. The objective in the thermal storage research and development task was to design, fabricate, and test a demonstration unit. One test article was to be a passive thermal storage unit capable of storing frozen food at -20 F for a minimum of 90 days. A second unit was to be capable of storing frozen biological samples at -94 F, again for a minimum of 90 days. The articles developed were compatible with shuttle mission conditions, including safety and handling by astronauts. Further, storage rack concepts were presented so that these units can be integrated into Space Station logistics module storage racks. The extreme sensitivity of spacecraft radiator systems design-to-heat rejection temperature requirements is well known. A large radiator area penalty is incurred if low temperatures are accommodated via a

  20. Space Station thermal storage/refrigeration system research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S.

    1993-02-01

    Space Station thermal loading conditions represent an order of magnitude increase over current and previous spacecraft such as Skylab, Apollo, Pegasus III, Lunar Rover Vehicle, and Lockheed TRIDENT missiles. Thermal storage units (TSU's) were successfully used on these as well as many applications for ground based solar energy storage applications. It is desirable to store thermal energy during peak loading conditions as an alternative to providing increased radiator surface area which adds to the weight of the system. Basically, TSU's store heat by melting a phase change material (PCM) such as a paraffin. The physical property data for the PCM's used in the design of these TSU's is well defined in the literature. Design techniques are generally well established for the TSU's. However, the Space Station provides a new challenge in the application of these data and techniques because of three factors: the large size of the TSU required, the integration of the TSU for the Space Station thermal management concept with its diverse opportunities for storage application, and the TSU's interface with a two-phase (liquid/vapor) thermal bus/central heat rejection system. The objective in the thermal storage research and development task was to design, fabricate, and test a demonstration unit. One test article was to be a passive thermal storage unit capable of storing frozen food at -20 F for a minimum of 90 days. A second unit was to be capable of storing frozen biological samples at -94 F, again for a minimum of 90 days. The articles developed were compatible with shuttle mission conditions, including safety and handling by astronauts. Further, storage rack concepts were presented so that these units can be integrated into Space Station logistics module storage racks. The extreme sensitivity of spacecraft radiator systems design-to-heat rejection temperature requirements is well known. A large radiator area penalty is incurred if low temperatures are accommodated via a

  1. Electrochemical Energy Storage for an Orbiting Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The system weight of a multi hundred kilowatt fuel cell electrolysis cell energy storage system based upon alkaline electrochemical cell technology for use in a future orbiting space station in low Earth orbit (LEO) was studied. Preliminary system conceptual design, fuel cell module performance characteristics, subsystem and system weights, and overall system efficiency are identified. The impact of fuel cell module operating temperature and efficiency upon energy storage system weight is investigated. The weight of an advanced technology system featuring high strength filament wound reactant tanks and a fuel cell module employing lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plates is defined.

  2. Electrochemical energy storage for an orbiting space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1981-12-01

    The system weight of a multi hundred kilowatt fuel cell electrolysis cell energy storage system based upon alkaline electrochemical cell technology for use in a future orbiting space station in low Earth orbit (LEO) was studied. Preliminary system conceptual design, fuel cell module performance characteristics, subsystem and system weights, and overall system efficiency are identified. The impact of fuel cell module operating temperature and efficiency upon energy storage system weight is investigated. The weight of an advanced technology system featuring high strength filament wound reactant tanks and a fuel cell module employing lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plates is defined.

  3. Automated File Transfer and Storage Management Concepts for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will summarize work that has been done to prototype and analyze approaches for automated file transfer and storage management for space missions. The concepts were prototyped in an environment with data files being generated at the target mission rates and stored in onboard files. The space-to-ground link was implemented using a channel simulator to introduce representative mission delays and errors. The system was operated for days with data files building up on the spacecraft and periodically being transferred to ground storage during a limited contact time. Overall performance was measured to identify limits under which the entire data volume could be transferred automatically while still fitting into the mission s limited contact time. The overall concepts, measurements, and results will be presented.

  4. Space station experiment definition: Long-term cryogenic fluid storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jetley, R. L.; Scarlotti, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    The conceptual design of a space station Technology Development Mission (TDM) experiment to demonstrate and evaluate cryogenic fluid storage and transfer technologies is presented. The experiment will be deployed on the initial operational capability (IOC) space station for a four-year duration. It is modular in design, consisting of three phases to test the following technologies: passive thermal technologies (phase 1), fluid transfer (phase 2), and active refrigeration (phase 3). Use of existing hardware was a primary consideration throughout the design effort. A conceptual design of the experiment was completed, including configuration sketches, system schematics, equipment specifications, and space station resources and interface requirements. These requirements were entered into the NASA Space Station Mission Data Base. A program plan was developed defining a twelve-year development and flight plan. Program cost estimates are given.

  5. Low temperature storage container for transporting perishables to space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W. (Inventor); Dean, William G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Two storage containers are disclosed within which food or biological samples may be stored for transfer in a module by the space shuttle to a space station while maintaining the food or samples at very low temperatures. The container is formed in two parts, each part having an inner shell and an outer shell disposed about the inner shell. The space between the shells is filled with a continuous wrap multi-layer insulation and a getter material. The two parts of the container have interlocking members and when connected together are sealed for preventing leakage from the space between the shells. After the two parts are filled with frozen food or samples they are connected together and a vacuum is drawn in the space between the shells and the container is stored in the module. For the extremely low temperature requirements of biological samples, an internal liner having a phase change material charged by a refrigerant coil is disposed in the space between the shells, and the container is formed from glass fiber material including honeycomb structural elements. All surfaces of the glass fiber which face the vacuum space are lined with a metal foil.

  6. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  7. Space station experiment definition: Long term cryogenic fluid storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riemer, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary design of an experiment to demonstrate and evaluate long-term cryogenic fluid storage and transfer technologies has been performed. This Long-Term Cryogenic Fluid Storage (LTCFS) experiment is a Technology Development Mission (TDM) experiment proposed by the NASA Lewis Research Center to be deployed on the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) space station. Technologies required by future orbital cryogenic systems such as Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV's) were defined, and critical technologies requiring demonstration were chosen to be included in the experiment. A three-phase test program was defined to test the following types of technologies: (1) Passive Thermal Technologies; (2) Fluid Transfer Technologies; and (3) Active Refrigeration Technologies. The development status of advanced technologies required for the LTCFS experiment is summarized, including current, past and future programs.

  8. Study of flywheel energy storage for space stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-02-01

    The potential of flywheel systems for space stations using the Space Operations Center (SOC) as a point of reference is discussed. Comparisons with batteries and regenerative fuel cells are made. In the flywheel energy storage concept, energy is stored in the form of rotational kinetic energy using a spinning wheel. Energy is extracted from the flywheel using an attached electrical generator; energy is provided to spin the flywheel by a motor, which operates during sunlight using solar array power. The motor and the generator may or may not be the same device. Flywheel energy storage systems have a very good potential for use in space stations. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special impotance relative to batteries, are high energy density (lighter weight), longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. In addition, flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have the potential for very high discharge rate. Major disadvantages are noted.

  9. Study of flywheel energy storage for space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of flywheel systems for space stations using the Space Operations Center (SOC) as a point of reference is discussed. Comparisons with batteries and regenerative fuel cells are made. In the flywheel energy storage concept, energy is stored in the form of rotational kinetic energy using a spinning wheel. Energy is extracted from the flywheel using an attached electrical generator; energy is provided to spin the flywheel by a motor, which operates during sunlight using solar array power. The motor and the generator may or may not be the same device. Flywheel energy storage systems have a very good potential for use in space stations. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special impotance relative to batteries, are high energy density (lighter weight), longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. In addition, flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have the potential for very high discharge rate. Major disadvantages are noted.

  10. A Flywheel Energy Storage System Demonstration for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.; Jansen, Ralph; Dever, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    A novel control algorithm for the charge and discharge modes of operation of a flywheel energy storage system for space applications is presented. The motor control portion of the algorithm uses sensorless field oriented control with position and speed estimates determined from a signal injection technique at low speeds and a back EMF technique at higher speeds. The charge and discharge portion of the algorithm use command feed-forward and disturbance decoupling, respectively, to achieve fast response with low gains. Simulation and experimental results are presented.

  11. Site-specific investigations on aquifer thermal energy storage for space and process cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. R.

    1991-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has completed three preliminary site-specific feasibility studies that investigated aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for reducing space and process cooling costs. Chilled water stored in an ATES system could be used to meet all or part of the process and/or space cooling loads at the three facilities investigated. Seasonal or diurnal chill ATES systems could be significantly less expensive than a conventional electrically-driven, load-following chiller system at one of the three sites, depending on the cooling water loop return temperature and presumed future electricity escalation rate. For the other two sites investigated, a chill ATES system would be economically competitive with conventional chillers if onsite aquifer characteristics were improved. Well flow rates at one of the sites were adequate, but the expected thermal recovery efficiency was too low. The reverse of this situation was found at the other site, where the thermal recovery efficiency was expected to be adequate, but well flow rates were too low.

  12. Comparative analysis of energy storage systems for space stations

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, L.; Oppenheim, J.E.

    1983-08-01

    Tradeoff analyses of the electrical power subsystem (EPS) utilizing various options such as nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H/sub 2/) batteries, open-loop fuel cells, and regenerative fuel cells (RF/C) were conducted to determine the optimum evolutionary approach in the buildup sequence from an initial to an all-up growth space station. The analyses included all the interfacing subsystems that can be readily integrated with the EPS. These included the environmental control and life support subsystem (ECLSS), thermal control subsystem (TCS), and reaction control subsystem (RCS). The results show that the electrical power energy storage system design for the evolutionary stage is strongly influenced by new technology, life-cycling cost, and space station buildup architecture. This work was performed under Rockwell sponsored R and D, Projects 316 and 317.

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  14. Flywheel Energy Storage System Designed for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delventhal, Rex A.

    2002-01-01

    Following successful operation of a developmental flywheel energy storage system in fiscal year 2000, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center began developing a flight design of a flywheel system for the International Space Station (ISS). In such an application, a two-flywheel system can replace one of the nickel-hydrogen battery strings in the ISS power system. The development unit, sized at approximately one-eighth the size needed for ISS was run at 60,000 rpm. The design point for the flight unit is a larger composite flywheel, approximately 17 in. long and 13 in. in diameter, running at 53,000 rpm when fully charged. A single flywheel system stores 2.8 kW-hr of useable energy, enough to light a 100-W light bulb for over 24 hr. When housed in an ISS orbital replacement unit, the flywheel would provide energy storage with approximately 3 times the service life of the nickel-hydrogen battery currently in use.

  15. Subcooling for Long Duration In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustafi, Shuvo; Johnson, Wesley; Kashani, Ali; Jurns, John; Kutter, Bernard; Kirk, Daniel; Shull, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as hydrogen and oxygen are crucial for exploration of the solar system because of their superior specific impulse capability. Future missions may require vehicles to remain in space for months, necessitating long-term storage of these cryogens. A Thermodynamic Cryogen Subcooler (TCS) can ease the challenge of cryogenic fluid storage by removing energy from the cryogenic propellant through isobaric subcooling of the cryogen below its normal boiling point prior to launch. The isobaric subcooling of the cryogenic propellant will be performed by using a cold pressurant to maintain the tank pressure while the cryogen's temperature is simultaneously reduced using the TCS. The TCS hardware will be integrated into the launch infrastructure and there will be no significant addition to the launched dry mass. Heat leaks into all cryogenic propellant tanks, despite the use of the best insulation systems. However, the large heat capacity available in the subcooled cryogenic propellants allows the energy that leaks into the tank to be absorbed until the cryogen reaches its operational thermodynamic condition. During this period of heating of the subcooled cryogen there will be minimal loss of the propellant due to venting for pressure control. This simple technique can extend the operational life of a spacecraft or an orbital cryogenic depot for months with minimal mass penalty. In fact isobaric subcooling can more than double the in-space hold time of liquid hydrogen compared to normal boiling point hydrogen. A TCS for cryogenic propellants would thus provide an enhanced level of mission flexibility. Advances in the important components of the TCS will be discussed in this paper.

  16. Enabling Exploration of Deep Space: High Density Storage of Antimatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gerald A.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    1999-01-01

    Portable electromagnetic antiproton traps are now in a state of realization. This allows facilities like NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to conduct antimatter research remote to production sites. MSFC is currently developing a trap to store 10(exp 12) antiprotons for a twenty-day half-life period to be used in future experiments including antimatter plasma guns, antimatter-initiated microfusion, and the synthesis of antihydrogen for space propulsion applications. In 1998, issues including design, safety and transportation were considered for the MSFC High Performance Antimatter Trap (HiPAT). Radial diffusion and annihilation losses of antiprotons prompted the use of a 4 Tesla superconducting magnet and a 20 KV electrostatic potential at 10(exp -12) Torr pressure. Cryogenic fluids used to maintain a trap temperature of 4K were sized accordingly to provide twenty days of stand-alone storage time (half-life). Procurement of the superconducting magnet with associated cryostat has been completed. The inner, ultra-high vacuum system with electrode structures has been fabricated, tested and delivered to MSFC along with the magnet and cryostat. Assembly of these systems is currently in progress. Testing under high vacuum conditions, using electrons and hydrogen ions will follow in the months ahead.

  17. Telemetry data storage systems technology for the Space Station Freedom era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, John T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the requirements and functions of the telemetry-data recording and storage systems, and the data-storage-system technology projected for the Space Station, with particular attention given to the Space Optical Disk Recorder, an on-board storage subsystem based on 160 gigabit erasable optical disk units each capable of operating at 300 M bits per second. Consideration is also given to storage systems for ground transport recording, which include systems for data capture, buffering, processing, and delivery on the ground. These can be categorized as the first in-first out storage, the fast random-access storage, and the slow access with staging. Based on projected mission manifests and data rates, the worst case requirements were developed for these three storage architecture functions. The results of the analysis are presented.

  18. Application of advanced flywheel technology for energy storage on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olszewski, Mitchell

    1987-01-01

    In space power applications where solar inputs are the primary thermal source, energy storage is necessary to provide a continuous power supply during the eclipse portion of the orbit. Because of their potentially high storage density, flywheels are being considered for use as the storage system on the proposed orbiting space station. During the past several years, graphite fiber technology has advanced, leading to significant gains in flywheel storage density. Use of these improved fibers in experimental flywheel rims has resulted in ultimate storage densities of 878 kJ/kg. With these high strength graphite fibers, operational storage densities for flywheel storage modules applicable to the space station power storage could reach 200 kJ/kg. This module would also be volumetrically efficient occupying only about 1 cu m. Because the size and mass of the flywheel storage module are controlled by the storage density, improvements in fiber strength can have a significant impact on these values. With the improvements anticipated within the next five years, operational storage density on the order of 325 kJ/kg may be possible for the flywheel module.

  19. Using Paraffin with -10 deg C to 10 deg C Melting Point for Payload Thermal Energy Storage in SpaceX Dragon Trunk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    A concept of using paraffin wax phase change material (PCM) with a melting point between -10 deg C and 10 deg C for payload thermal energy storage in a Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) Dragon trunk is presented. It overcomes the problem of limited heater power available to a payload with significant radiators when the Dragon is berthed to the International Space Station (ISS). It stores adequate thermal energy to keep a payload warm without power for 6 hours during the transfer from the Dragon to an ExPRESS logistics carrier (ELC) on the ISS.

  20. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor); Blasso, L. G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disk and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990s.

  1. Reusable module for the storage, transportation, and supply of multiple propellants in a space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D. (Inventor); Mankins, John C. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A space module has an outer structure designed for traveling in space, a docking mechanism for facilitating a docking operation therewith in space, a first storage system storing a first propellant that burns as a result of a chemical reaction therein, a second storage system storing a second propellant that burns as a result of electrical energy being added thereto, and a bi-directional transfer interface coupled to each of the first and second storage systems to transfer the first and second propellants into and out thereof. The space module can be part of a propellant supply architecture that includes at least two of the space modules placed in an orbit in space.

  2. A fuel cell energy storage system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Adlhart, Otto J.; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a fuel cell energy storage system for the Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is discussed. The ion-exchange membrane fuel cell uses hydrogen stored as a metal hydride. Several features of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell are examined, including its construction, hydrogen storage, hydride recharge, water heat, water removal, and operational parameters.

  3. Flexible Graphene-based Energy Storage Devices for Space Application Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2014-01-01

    Develop prototype graphene-based reversible energy storage devices that are flexible, thin, lightweight, durable, and that can be easily attached to spacesuits, rovers, landers, and equipment used in space.

  4. Holographic Storage as a Solution to Space Imaging Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, Milton

    1998-01-01

    The data growth experienced in the recent past has been of staggering proportions. Over the past 10 years, tape data storage density (with the same form factor) has increased according to Moore's law, doubling every 18 months. However, during the same period, data transfer speeds have only increased at a rate of about 1.3 times every 18 months, and thus have fallen behind data density growth rates by a factor of at least 3. Coupled with data media density growth, data storage requirements have gone up significantly. According to a recent Computer Technology Review article (March 1998) the total storage at a typical Fortune 1000 site is projected to escalate from just 10 TB in 1997 to 1 PB by the year 2000. In the next 5 years, a typical large database system for U.S. government agencies is expected to accept 5 TB per day, maintain 300 TB on-line (within 15 seconds to 1 minute access time), and archive from 15 to 100 PB. Additionally, data intensive programs such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS) and the intelligence data archival systems at the Rome Air Development Center, and scientific laboratories such as Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will have enormously large scientific databases with very large storage requirements.

  5. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor); Blasso, L. G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Application. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include the following: magnetic disk and tape technologies; optical disk and tape; software storage and file management systems; and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

  6. International Space Station Attitude Motion Associated With Flywheel Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1999-01-01

    Flywheels can exert torque that alters the Station's attitude motion, either intentionally or unintentionally. A design is presented for a once planned experiment to contribute torque for Station attitude control, while storing or discharging energy. Two contingencies are studied: the abrupt stop of one rotor while another rotor continues to spin at high speed, and energy storage performed with one rotor instead of a counter rotating pair. Finally, the possible advantages to attitude control offered by a system of ninety-six flywheels are discussed.

  7. An experiment to evaluate liquid hydrogen storage in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Fester, D. A.; Johns, W. A.; Marino, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The design and verification of a Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment for orbital operation on the Shuttle is described. The experiment will furnish engineering data to establish design criteria for storage and supply of cryogenic fluids, mainly hydrogen, for use in low gravity environments. The apparatus comprises an LAD (liquid acquisition device) and a TVS (thermodynamic vent system). The hydrogen will be either vented or forced out by injected helium and the flow rates will be monitored. The data will be compared with ground-based simulations to determine optimal flow rates for the pressurizing gas and the release of the cryogenic fluid. It is noted that tests on a one-g, one-third size LAD system are under way.

  8. Regenerative Fuel Cell System As Alternative Energy Storage For Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, J.; Bockstahler, K.; Funke, H.; Jehle, W.; Markgraf, S.; Henn, N.; Schautz, M.

    2011-10-01

    Next generation telecommunication satellites will demand more power. Power levels of 20 to 30kW are foreseen for the next 10 years. Battery technology that can sustain 30kW for eclipse lengths of up to 72 minutes (equals amount of stored energy of 36kWh) will represent a major impact on the total mass of the satellite, even with Li-ion battery technologies, which are estimated to reach an energy density of 250Wh/kg (begin of life) on cell level i.e. 150Wh/kg on subsystem level in 10 years. For the high power level another technology is needed to reach the next goal of 300 - 350Wh/kg on subsystem level. One candidate is the Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) technology which proves to be superior to batteries with increasing power demand and increasing discharge time. Such an RFC system based on hydrogen and oxygen technology consists of storage for the reactants (H2, O2 and H2O), a fuel cell (FC) and an electrolyser (ELY). In charge mode, the electrolyser splits water in hydrogen and oxygen using electrical power from solar cells. The gases are stored in appropriate tanks. In discharge mode, during time intervals of power demand, O2 and H2 are converted in the fuel cell to generate electricity under formation of water as by-product. The water is stored in tanks and during charge mode rerouted to the electrolyser thus creating a closed-loop process. Today Astrium is developing an RFCS as energy storage and supply unit for some future ESA missions. A complete RFCS breadboard has been established and the operational behaviour of the system is being tested. First test results, dedicated experience gained from system testing and a comparison with the analytical prediction will be discussed and presented.

  9. Large-Scale Demonstration of Liquid Hydrogen Storage with Zero Boiloff for In-Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Flachbart, R. H.; Holt, K. A.; Johnson, E.; Hedayat, A.; Hipp, B.; Plachta, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    Cryocooler and passive insulation technology advances have substantially improved prospects for zero-boiloff cryogenic storage. Therefore, a cooperative effort by NASA s Ames Research Center, Glenn Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was implemented to develop zero-boiloff concepts for in-space cryogenic storage. Described herein is one program element - a large-scale, zero-boiloff demonstration using the MSFC multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB). A commercial cryocooler was interfaced with an existing MHTB spray bar mixer and insulation system in a manner that enabled a balance between incoming and extracted thermal energy.

  10. Polarization fields and phase space densities in storage rings: Stroboscopic averaging and the ergodic theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, James A.; Heinemann, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    A class of orbital motions with volume preserving flows and with vector fields periodic in the “time” parameter θ is defined. Spin motion coupled to the orbital dynamics is then defined, resulting in a class of spin-orbit motions which are important for storage rings. Phase space densities and polarization fields are introduced. It is important, in the context of storage rings, to understand the behavior of periodic polarization fields and phase space densities. Due to the 2π time periodicity of the spin-orbit equations of motion the polarization field, taken at a sequence of increasing time values θ,θ+2π,θ+4π,…, gives a sequence of polarization fields, called the stroboscopic sequence. We show, by using the Birkhoff ergodic theorem, that under very general conditions the Cesàro averages of that sequence converge almost everywhere on phase space to a polarization field which is 2π-periodic in time. This fulfills the main aim of this paper in that it demonstrates that the tracking algorithm for stroboscopic averaging, encoded in the program SPRINT and used in the study of spin motion in storage rings, is mathematically well-founded. The machinery developed is also shown to work for the stroboscopic average of phase space densities associated with the orbital dynamics. This yields a large family of periodic phase space densities and, as an example, a quite detailed analysis of the so-called betatron motion in a storage ring is presented.

  11. Simulation of the Interaction Between Flywheel Energy Storage and Battery Energy Storage on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trouong, Long V.; Wolff, Frederic J.; Dravid, Narayan V.; Li, Ponlee

    2000-01-01

    Replacement of one module of the battery charge discharge unit (BCDU) of the International Space Station (ISS) by a flywheel energy storage unit (FESU) is under consideration. Integration of these two dissimilar systems is likely to surface difficulties in areas of system stability and fault protection. Other issues that need to be addressed include flywheel charge and discharge profiles and their effect on the ISS power system as well as filter sizing for power Ability purposes. This paper describes a SABER based simulation to study these issues.

  12. 49 CFR 228.311 - Minimum space requirements, beds, storage, and sanitary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters § 228.311 Minimum space requirements, beds, storage, and sanitary facilities. (a) Each camp car used for sleeping purposes must contain at least 80 square feet...

  13. 49 CFR 228.311 - Minimum space requirements, beds, storage, and sanitary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters § 228.311 Minimum space requirements, beds, storage, and sanitary facilities. (a) Each camp car used for sleeping purposes must contain at least 80 square feet...

  14. 49 CFR 228.311 - Minimum space requirements, beds, storage, and sanitary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters § 228.311 Minimum space requirements, beds, storage, and sanitary facilities. (a) Each camp car used for sleeping purposes must contain at least 80 square feet...

  15. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low Earth orbit space station

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K.B.

    1984-08-01

    Results of a study to define the characteristics of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a large space station operating in low earth orbit (LEO) are presented. The regenerative fuel cell system employs an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell with the option of employing either an alkaline or a solid polymer electrolyte electrolyzer.

  16. Water Vapor Storage Change in the Canopy-Air Space of a Tall Deciduous Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, C.; Dragoni, D.; Schmid, H.

    2005-05-01

    The ability of weather and climate models to predict humidity, cloud formation and precipitation critically depends on the exchange of water vapor between vegetation and the atmosphere. The canopy air-space in tall forests is deep enough to act as a buffer volume that is depleted at times of well developed turbulent mixing, and gets recharged in conditions of poor mixing. Recent studies have attributed biases in modeled vapor exchange to the misrepresentation or neglect of this mechanism. At the Morgan-Monroe State Forest AmeriFlux site (Indiana, USA), water vapor exchange and the vapor storage change in the canopy air-space has been observed for the last six years. The objective of this work is to calculate vapor storage change fluxes in the canopy air-space from time increments of concentration profiles from data collected in 2003. We relate vapor storage change fluxes to measured environmental forcing quanitites, such as net radiation, ambient vapor pressure deficit, dew-point temperature depression, stability, and friction velocity to interpret the observed seasonal and daily patterns. Also, changes in water vapor storage rates are compared with measured latent heat fluxes to determine how the total forest-atmosphere vapor exchange is affected by the recharging and depletion of water vapor throughout the canopy air-space.

  17. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  18. A study of the applicability/compatibility of inertial energy storage systems to future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldon, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    The applicability/compatibility of inertial energy storage systems like the homopolar generator (HPG) and the compensated pulsed alternator (CPA) to future space missions is explored. Areas of CPA and HPG design requiring development for space applications are identified. The manner in which acceptance parameters of the CPA and HPG scale with operating parameters of the machines are explored and the types of electrical loads which are compatible with the CPA and HPG are examined. Potential applications including the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster, pulsed data transmission, laser ranging, welding and electromagnetic space launch are discussed.

  19. Optimization of a Brayton cryocooler for ZBO liquid hydrogen storage in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deserranno, D.; Zagarola, M.; Li, X.; Mustafi, S.

    2014-11-01

    NASA is evaluating and developing technology for long-term storage of cryogenic propellant in space. A key technology is a cryogenic refrigerator which intercepts heat loads to the storage tank, resulting in a reduced- or zero-boil-off condition. Turbo-Brayton cryocoolers are particularly well suited for cryogen storage applications because the technology scales well to high capacities and low temperatures. In addition, the continuous-flow nature of the cycle allows direct cooling of the cryogen storage tank without mass and power penalties associated with a cryogenic heat transport system. To quantify the benefits and mature the cryocooler technology, Creare Inc. performed a design study and technology demonstration effort for NASA on a 20 W, 20 K cryocooler for liquid hydrogen storage. During the design study, we optimized these key components: three centrifugal compressors, a modular high-capacity plate-fin recuperator, and a single-stage turboalternator. The optimization of the compressors and turboalternator were supported by component testing. The optimized cryocooler has an overall flight mass of 88 kg and a specific power of 61 W/W. The coefficient of performance of the cryocooler is 23% of the Carnot cycle. This is significantly better performance than any 20 K space cryocooler existing or under development.

  20. Re-Imagining the 21st Century School Library: From Storage Space to Active Learning Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Susan K. S.

    2015-01-01

    As libraries adjust to the needs of the 21st century, there needs to be a different way of thinking in regards to its design. School libraries have traditionally been designed as large rooms for the storage of materials for research and pleasure reading. As more and more districts focus their attention on digital acquisitions, the need for storage…

  1. Mass storage systems for data transport in the early space station era 1992-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carper, Richard (Editor); Dalton, John (Editor); Healey, Mike (Editor); Kempster, Linda (Editor); Martin, John (Editor); Mccaleb, Fred (Editor); Sobieski, Stanley (Editor); Sos, John (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Program will provide a vehicle to deploy an unprecedented number of data producing experiments and operational devices. Peak down link data rates are expected to be in the 500 megabit per second range and the daily data volume could reach 2.4 terabytes. Such startling requirements inspired an internal NASA study to determine if economically viable data storage solutions are likely to be available to support the Ground Data Transport segment of the NASA data system. To derive the requirements for data storage subsystems, several alternative data transport architectures were identified with different degrees of decentralization. Data storage operations at each subsystem were categorized based on access time and retrieval functions, and reduced to the following types of subsystems: First in First out (FIFO) storage, fast random access storage, and slow access with staging. The study showed that industry funded magnetic and optical storage technology has a reasonable probability of meeting these requirements. There are, however, system level issues that need to be addressed in the near term.

  2. Energy storage and thermal control system design status. [for space station power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Stephen N.; Willhoite, Bryan C.; Van Ommering, Gert

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) will initially rely on photovoltaics for power generation and Ni/H2 batteries for electrical energy storage. The current design for the development status of two major subsystems in the PV Power Module is discussed. The energy storage subsystem comprised of high capacity Ni/H2 batteries and the single-phase thermal control system that rejects the excess heat generated by the batteries and other components associated with power generation andstorage is described.

  3. Development of a COTS Mass Storage Unit for the Space Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggin, Karl; Clark, Porter

    1999-01-01

    The technology to develop a Mass Storage Unit (MSU) using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hard drives is an on-going challenge to meet the Space Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) program requirements. A conceptual view of SPARCLE's laser collecting atmospheric data from the shuttle is shown in Figure 1. The determination to develop this technology required several in depth studies before an actual COTS hard drive was selected to continue this effort. Continuing the development of the MSU can, and will, serve future NASA programs that require larger data storage and more on-board processing.

  4. Densities of some molten fluoride salt mixtures suitable for heat storage in space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1988-01-01

    Liquid densities were determined for a number of fluoride salt mixtures suitable for heat storage in space power applications, using a procedure that consisted of measuring the loss of weight of an inert bob in the melt. The density apparatus was calibrated with pure LiF and NaF at different temperatures. Density data for safe binary and ternary fluoride salt eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds are presented. In addition, a comparison was made between the volumetric heat storage capacity of different salt mixtures.

  5. Storage Information Management System (SIMS) Spaceflight Hardware Warehousing at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubicko, Richard M.; Bingham, Lindy

    1995-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) on site and leased warehouses contain thousands of items of ground support equipment (GSE) and flight hardware including spacecraft, scaffolding, computer racks, stands, holding fixtures, test equipment, spares, etc. The control of these warehouses, and the management, accountability, and control of the items within them, is accomplished by the Logistics Management Division. To facilitate this management and tracking effort, the Logistics and Transportation Management Branch, is developing a system to provide warehouse personnel, property owners, and managers with storage and inventory information. This paper will describe that PC-based system and address how it will improve GSFC warehouse and storage management.

  6. Proceedings of the NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, Kim; Blasso, Len (Editor); Lipscomb, Ann (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the National Space Science Data Center Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications held July 23 through 25, 1991 at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The program includes a keynote address, invited technical papers, and selected technical presentations to provide a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disk and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

  7. Hydrogen Research for Spaceport and Space-Based Applications: Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Transport. Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Tim; Balaban, Canan

    2008-01-01

    The activities presented are a broad based approach to advancing key hydrogen related technologies in areas such as fuel cells, hydrogen production, and distributed sensors for hydrogen-leak detection, laser instrumentation for hydrogen-leak detection, and cryogenic transport and storage. Presented are the results from research projects, education and outreach activities, system and trade studies. The work will aid in advancing the state-of-the-art for several critical technologies related to the implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Activities conducted are relevant to a number of propulsion and power systems for terrestrial, aeronautics and aerospace applications. Hydrogen storage and in-space hydrogen transport research focused on developing and verifying design concepts for efficient, safe, lightweight liquid hydrogen cryogenic storage systems. Research into hydrogen production had a specific goal of further advancing proton conducting membrane technology in the laboratory at a larger scale. System and process trade studies evaluated the proton conducting membrane technology, specifically, scale-up issues.

  8. International Space Station Attitude Control and Energy Storage Experiment: Effects of Flywheel Torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1999-01-01

    The Attitude Control and Energy Storage Experiment is currently under development for the International Space Station; two counter-rotating flywheels will be levitated with magnetic bearings and placed in vacuum housings. The primary objective of the experiment is to store and discharge energy, in combination with existing batteries, into the electrical power system. The secondary objective is to use the flywheels to exert torque on the Station; a simple torque profile has been designed so that the Station's Control Moment Gyroscopes will be assisted in maintaining torque equilibrium attitude. Two energy storage contingencies could result in the inadvertent application of torque by the flywheels to the Station: an emergency shutdown of one flywheel rotor while the other remains spinning, and energy storage with only one rotor instead of the counterrotating pair. Analysis of these two contingencies shows that attitude control and the microgravity environment will not be adversely affected.

  9. Feasibility of flywheel energy storage systems for applications in future space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, G. Espiritu; Gill, S. P.; Kotas, J. F.; Paschall, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the overall feasibility of deploying electromechanical flywheel systems in space used for excess energy storage. Results of previous Rocketdyne studies have shown that the flywheel concept has a number of advantages over the NiH2 battery, including higher specific energy, longer life and high roundtrip efficiency. Based on this prior work, this current study was broken into four subtasks. The first subtask investigated the feasibility of replacing the NiH2 battery orbital replacement unit (ORU) on the international space station (ISSA) with a flywheel ORU. In addition, a conceptual design of a generic flywheel demonstrator experiment implemented on the ISSA was completed. An assessment of the life cycle cost benefits of replacing the station battery energy storage ORU's with flywheel ORU's was performed. A fourth task generated a top-level development plan for critical flywheel technologies, the flywheel demonstrator experiments and its evolution into the production unit flywheel replacement ORU.

  10. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  11. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faget, N. M.

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  12. International Space Station Bus Regulation With NASA Glenn Research Center Flywheel Energy Storage System Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Peter E.; Kenny, Barbara H.; Dever, Timothy P.; Santiago, Walter; Jansen, Ralph H.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental flywheel energy storage system is described. This system is being used to develop a flywheel based replacement for the batteries on the International Space Station (ISS). Motor control algorithms which allow the flywheel to interface with a simplified model of the ISS power bus, and function similarly to the existing ISS battery system, are described. Results of controller experimental verification on a 300 W-hr flywheel are presented.

  13. Design and evaluation of thermodynamic vent/screen baffle cryogenic storage system. [for space shuttles, space tugs, and spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical program was performed to compare an integrated thermodynamic vent/screen baffle orbital cryogenic propellant storage and transfer system with other concepts. The screen systems were found to be 20% to 29% lighter in weight than a propulsively accelerated Tug-scale LH2/LO2 resupply module. The screen systems were compared with small-scale supercritical storage systems for the space shuttle fuel cell reactant and life support system fluid supply and were lighter by up to 556 kg (1225 lb) for the extended 30-day mission. When compared with high-pressure gas storage for the spacelab atmosphere supply, the screen system saved 79% of the inert system weight for the 30-day mission. An experimental program found that heat flux rates up to 9,450 watts/sq m (3,000 Btu/hr-sq ft) degraded the LH2 bubble point performance of eight screens by a maximum of 12.5%. No effects of helium pressurant, screen material, or LH2 superheat were observed.

  14. Selection of high temperature thermal energy storage materials for advanced solar dynamic space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, Dovie E.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn; Juhasz, Albert

    1987-01-01

    Under the direction of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Technology (OAST), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated an in-house thermal energy storage program to identify combinations of phase change thermal energy storage media for use with a Brayton and Stirling Advanced Solar Dynamic (ASD) space power system operating between 1070 and 1400 K. A study has been initiated to determine suitable combinations of thermal energy storage (TES) phase change materials (PCM) that result in the smallest and lightest weight ASD power system possible. To date the heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 1025 K have been verified experimentally. The study has indicated that these salt systems produce large ASD systems because of their inherent low thermal conductivity and low density. It is desirable to have PCMs with high densities and high thermal conductivities. Therefore, alternate phase change materials based on metallic alloy systems are also being considered as possible TES candidates for future ASD space power systems.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of ventilation of confined-space manure storage facilities: applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Manbeck, H B; Murphy, D J

    2008-10-01

    Fatalities associated with entry into on-farm confined-space manure storage tanks occur each year The fatalities are due to asphyxiation or poisoning by exposure to high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, methane, and carbon dioxide. Forced ventilation has been shown to be an effective way to reduce concentrations of these noxious gases to levels that are safe for human entry into these storage tanks. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was used as an indicator gas to investigate the effectiveness of forced ventilation strategies for eliminating the toxic and oxygen-deficient atmospheres in confined-space manure tanks. Validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling protocols were used to simulate H2S evacuation from fan-ventilated manure tanks. The simulation studies were conducted for rectangular and circular manure tanks, and the effects of pollutant source, inter-contamination (process by which a portion of exhausted contaminant gas enters a ventilated confined airspace through the fresh air intake), storage size (i.e., length, diameter), and air exchange rate on H2S removalfrom fan-ventilated manure tanks were investigated. For the same air exchange rate, as the size (i.e., length, diameter) of the tank increased, the rate of evacuation of the H2S from the confined space decreased. For rectangular and circular manure tanks, the higher the air exchange rate, the higher the rate of evacuation of the H2S from the confined space. For the rectangular tank geometries and ventilation system layouts simulated, evacuation times decreased exponentially with air exchange rate. Evacuation times for the circular tanks simulated decreased linearly with air exchange rate.

  16. Technology Development for Hydrogen Propellant Storage and Transfer at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley; Krenn, Angela; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a major user of liquid hydrogen. In particular, NASA's John F. Kennedy (KSC) Space Center has operated facilities for handling and storing very large quantities of liquid hydrogen (LH2) since the early 1960s. Safe operations pose unique challenges and as a result NASA has invested in technology development to improve operational efficiency and safety. This paper reviews recent innovations including methods of leak and fire detection and aspects of large storage tank health and integrity. We also discuss the use of liquid hydrogen in space and issues we are addressing to ensure safe and efficient operations should hydrogen be used as a propellant derived from in-situ volatiles.

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  18. Cryogenic temperature control by means of energy storage materials. [for long space voyages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Picklesimer, E. A.; Connor, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the concept of thermal control by means of physical or chemical reaction heats for applications involving the storage of cryogens during long-term space voyages. The investigation included some preliminary experimental tests of energy storage material (ESM) effectiveness. The materials considered can store and liberate large amounts of thermal energy by means of mechanisms such as sensible heat, heat of fusion, and physical or chemical reaction heat. A differential thermal analysis was utilized in the laboratory tests. Attention is given to the evaluation of cryogenic ESM thermal control concepts, the experimental determination of phase change materials characteristics, and adsorption ESMs. It is found that an ESM shield surrounded by multiple layer insulation provides the best protection for a cryogen store.

  19. Application of regenerative fuel cells for space energy storage - A comparison to battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolwin, K.

    1992-12-01

    A major advantage of regenerative fuel cells compared with battery systems arises from the decoupling of their rated power and their capacity, which determines the storage system. The mass of battery systems is related to the energy stored, whereas the masses of regenerative fuel cells systems are mainly determined by their rated power. On the other hand, average power and total energy are not independent variables, since they are correlated by the period of discharge of the electrochemical cells. Thus a comparison of the different approaches to storage can be given, by evaluating system masses as a function of power requirement and period of discharge. Since space power applications are considered, the charging and discharging periods can be expressed in terms of orbit altitudes.

  20. Future thrusts of the NASA space power program. [with emphasis on electrochemical energy conversion and storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L.

    1978-01-01

    General objectives and plan directions are given for current program support in the following areas: (1) solar cells and arrays; (2) batteries and fuel cells; (3) thermoelectric, thermionic, and Brayton cycle conversion systems; (4) circuits and subsystems for the management and distribution of power; and (5) the interactions of the environment with the power system and the spacecraft. Particular emphasis is given to the electrochemical energy conversion storage portion of the program where efforts are directed to improving the energy density and life of nickel cadmium batteries, to validating flight-weight silver hydrogen cells, to promoting the safe use of lithium primary batteries, to completing the silver zinc batteries and the orbital transfer fuel cell technology, to increasing the capacity of space batteries, to and to evaluating new electrochemical concepts for very high energy density. The use of the fuel cell electrolyzer concept for energy storage in both the dedicated and the truly regenerative mode is also being investigated.

  1. Environmental projects. Volume 13: Underground storage tanks, removal and replacement. Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengelsdorf, Irv

    1991-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 40 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel oil, hydraulic oil, and waste oil. These fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). This present volume describes what happened to the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC. Twenty-four of these USTs were constructed of carbon steel without any coating for corrosion protection, and without secondary containment or leak detection. Two remaining USTs were constructed of fiberglass-coated carbon steel but without secondary containment or leak protection. Of the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC, 23 were cleaned, removed from the ground, cut up, and hauled away from the GDSCC for environmentally acceptable disposal. Three USTs were permanently closed (abandoned in place).

  2. Long term orbital storage of cryogenic propellants for advanced space transportation missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, John R.; Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive study has developed the major features of a large capacity orbital propellant depot for the space-based, cryogenic OTV. The study has treated both the Dual-Keel Space Station and co-orbiting platforms as the accommodations base for the propellant storage facilities, and trades have examined both tethered and hard-docked options. Five tank set concepts were developed for storing the propellants, and along with layout options for the station and platform, were evaluated from the standpoints of servicing, propellant delivery, boiloff, micrometeoroid/debris shielding, development requirements, and cost. These trades led to the recommendation that an all-passive storage concept be considered for the platform and an actively refrigerated concept providing for reliquefaction of all boiloff be considered for the Space Station. The tank sets are modular, each storing up to 45,400 kg of LO2/LH2, and employ many advanced features to provide for microgravity fluid management and to limit boiloff. The features include such technologies as zero-gravity mass gauging, total communication capillary liquid acquisition devices, autogenous pressurization, thermodynamic vent systems, thick multilayer insulation, vapor-cooled shields, solar-selective coatings, advanced micrometeoroid/debris protection systems, and long-lived cryogenic refrigeration systems.

  3. The study of importance of the storage method of the space foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Providing foods to space crew is the important requirements to support long term manned space exploration. Foods fill not only physiological requirements to sustain life, but psychological needs for refreshment and joy during the long and hard mission to extraterrestrial planets. In the space stay of the long term, the storage technology of the food is important. Surplus food and the establishment of a safe save method of the food are essential. However, in Moon and Mars base or spaceship, there are limited spaces. We need to think about how to use the storage food when we have the time of emergency. The fundamental composition of our recipe is unpolished rice, barley, soybean, sweat potato and green-yellow vegetables. Supplement food materials to fulfill the nutritional requirements we chose are loach, silkworm pupa, termite, snail, mud snail, bee, cassava and quinoa. The pupa of the silkworm becomes the important nourishment source as protein and lipid. The silk thread uses it as clothing and cosmetics and medical supplies. However, we can use the silk thread as food as protein. The silk thread is mad of sericin and fibroin. The sericin is used for cosmetics mainly, but can make sheet food by mixing it with rice flour. We can make Japanese rolled sushi with this product. In addition, we can make spring roll and gyoza and shao-mai. As for the fibroin which is the subject of the silk thread, is to extract it high pressure heat; of the protein can powder it, and can use it as food. Even if there is the silk thread in this way after having made it clothes once, we can do it to food again. We can reuse the cotton thread as carbohydrates equally, too. We can use the wood as carbohydrates, also. Based upon the foregoing, we use the pupa of the silkworm as protein and lipid, and the silk thread as protein, and the cotton thread and wood as carbohydrates. It is recommended as healthy meal balance; Protein: Lipid: Carbohydrate ratio equal 15We succeeded to develop joyful

  4. Control of a High Speed Flywheel System for Energy Storage in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.; Jansen, Ralph; Dever, Timothy; Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    A novel control algorithm for the charge and discharge modes of operation of a flywheel energy storage system for space applications is presented. The motor control portion of the algorithm uses sensorless field oriented control with position and speed estimates determined from a signal injection technique at low speeds and a back EMF technique at higher speeds. The charge and discharge portion of the algorithm use command feed-forward and disturbance decoupling, respectively, to achieve fast response with low gains. Simulation and experimental results are presented demonstrating the successful operation of the flywheel control up to the rated speed of 60,000 rpm.

  5. International Space Station (ISS) Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) Wet Storage Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Michael D.; Rotter, Henry A.; Lee, Jason; Packham, Nigel; Brady, Timothy K.; Kelly, Robert; Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to evaluate the risks posed by the practice of long-term wet storage of ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) regeneration system orbital replacement units (ORUs). The ISS ECLS regeneration system removes water from urine and humidity condensate and converts it into potable water and oxygen. A total of 29 ORUs are in the ECLS system, each designed to be replaced by the ISS crew when necessary. The NESC assembled a team to review the ISS ECLS regeneration system and evaluate the potential for biofouling and corrosion. This document contains the outcome of the evaluation.

  6. A fuel cell energy storage system concept for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Marmolejo, Jose

    1989-03-01

    An update is given on work to design and build a Fuel Cell Energy Storage System (FCESS) bench-tested unit for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Fueled by oxygen and hydride-stored hydrogen, the FCESS is being considered as an alternative to the EMU zinc-silver oxide battery. Superior cycle life and quick recharge are the main attributes of FCESS. The design and performance of a nonventing, 28 V, 34 Ahr system with 7 amp rating are discussed.

  7. A fuel cell energy storage system concept for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Marmolejo, Jose

    1989-01-01

    An update is given on work to design and build a Fuel Cell Energy Storage System (FCESS) bench-tested unit for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Fueled by oxygen and hydride-stored hydrogen, the FCESS is being considered as an alternative to the EMU zinc-silver oxide battery. Superior cycle life and quick recharge are the main attributes of FCESS. The design and performance of a nonventing, 28 V, 34 Ahr system with 7 amp rating are discussed.

  8. Two-Dimensional MXene with Controlled Interlayer Spacing for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Simon, Patrice

    2017-03-10

    In this issue of ACS Nano, Luo et al. report the preparation of pillared two-dimensional (2D) Ti3C2 MXenes with controllable interlayer spacings between 1 and 2.708 nm. These materials were further intercalated by ion exchange with Sn(+IV) ions. The results show improved electrochemical performance due to improved ion accessibility into the 2D structure as well as the confinement effect, which limits volume expansion during the Li-alloying reaction. Beyond this specific example, the demonstration that the interlayer spacings of MXenes can be fine-tuned by creating pillared structures based on the spontaneous intercalation of surfactants opens new perspectives in the field of electrochemical energy storage.

  9. Modified-Collins cryocooler for zero-boiloff storage of cryogenic fuels in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannon, Charles L.; Krass, Brady; Hogan, Jake; Brisson, John

    2012-06-01

    Future lunar and planetary explorations will require the storage of cryogenic propellants, particularly liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2), in low earth orbit (LEO) for periods of time ranging from days to months, and possibly longer. Without careful thermal management, significant quantities of stored liquid cryogens can be lost due to boil-off. Boil-off can be minimized by a variety of passive means including insulation, sun shades and passive radiational cooling. However, it has been shown that active cooling using space cryocoolers has the potential to result in Zero Boil-Off (ZBO) and the launch-mass savings using active cooling exceeds that of passive cooling of LOX for mission durations in LEO of less than 1 week, and for LH2 after about 2 months in LEO. Large-scale DC-flow cryogenic refrigeration systems operate at a fraction of the specific power levels required by small-scale AC-flow cryocoolers. The efficiency advantage of DC-flow cryogenic cycles motivates the current development of a cryocooler based on a modification of the Collins Cycle. The modified Collins cycle design employs piston type expanders that support high operating pressure ratios, electromagnetic valves that enable "floating pistons", and recuperative heat transfer. This paper will describe the design of a prototype Modified-Collins cryocooler for ZBO storage of cryogenic fuels in space.

  10. Space environment data storage and access: lessons learned and recommendations for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Hugh; Heynderickx, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    With the ever increasing volume of space environment data available at present and planned for the near future, the demands on data storage and access methods are increasing as well. In addition, continued access to historical, archived data remains crucial. On the basis of many years of experience, the authors identify the following issues as important for continued and efficient handling of datasets now and in the future: The huge data volumes currently or very soon avaiable from a number of space missions will limi direct Internet download access to even relatively short epoch ranges of data. Therefore, data providers should establish or extend standardised data (post-) processing services so that only data query results should be downloaded. Although a single standardised data format will in all likelihood remain utopia, data providers should at least include extensive metadata with their data products, according to established standards and practices (e.g. ISTP, SPASE). Standardisation of (sets of) metadata greatly facilitates data mining and querying. The use of SQL database storage should be considered instead of, or in parallel with, classic storage of data files. The use of SQL does away with having to handle file parsing and processing, while at the same time standard access protocols can be used to (remotely) connect to such data repositories. Many data holdings are still lacking in extensive descriptions of data provenance (e.g. instrument description), content and format. Unfortunately, detailed data information is usually rejected by scientific and technical journals. Re-processing of historical archived datasets into modern formats, making them easily available and usable, is urgently required, as knowledge is being lost. A global data directory has still not been achieved; policy makers should enforce stricter rules for "broadcasting" dataset information.

  11. System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Fields, Paul R.

    1981-04-21

    An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  12. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration For Long Duration In-Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Motil, Susan M.; Kortes, Trudy F.; Taylor, William J.; McRight, Patrick S.

    2012-01-01

    The high specific impulse of cryogenic propellants can provide a significant performance advantage for in-space transfer vehicles. The upper stages of the Saturn V and various commercial expendable launch vehicles have used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants; however, the application of cryogenic propellants has been limited to relatively short duration missions due to the propensity of cryogens to absorb environmental heat resulting in fluid losses. Utilizing advanced cryogenic propellant technologies can enable the efficient use of high performance propellants for long duration missions. Crewed mission architectures for beyond low Earth orbit exploration can significantly benefit from this capability by developing realistic launch spacing for multiple launch missions, by prepositioning stages and by staging propellants at an in-space depot. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Office of the Chief Technologist is formulating a Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission to mitigate the technical and programmatic risks of infusing these advanced technologies into the development of future cryogenic propellant stages or in-space propellant depots. NASA is seeking an innovative path for human space exploration, which strengthens the capability to extend human and robotic presence throughout the solar system. This mission will test and validate key cryogenic technological capabilities and has the objectives of demonstrating advanced thermal control technologies to minimize propellant loss during loiter, demonstrating robust operation in a microgravity environment, and demonstrating efficient propellant transfer on orbit. The status of the demonstration mission concept development, technology demonstration planning and technology maturation activities in preparation for flight system development are described.

  13. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between -Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications, and is an example of industry and government cooperation that leads to novel inventions. Device development involves three energy generation and consumption projects: 1) a low mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; 2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and 3) a new approach to building supercapacitors. These three technologies - energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting) - represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies will be useful for lightweight power generation that enables inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and facilitates surface operations. The PV device model is a two-sphere, light-trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. All three components may be printed in line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the threedimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. MSFC is testing the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh space and lunar surface environments, and available results will be reported. Unlike many traditional light sources, this device does not contain toxic compounds, and the LED component has passed stringent off-gassing tests required for potential manifesting on spacecraft such as the International Space

  14. Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) for Thermal Storage on Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future manned exploration spacecraft will need to operate in challenging thermal environments. State-of-the-art technology for active thermal control relies on sublimating water ice and venting the vapor overboard in very hot environments, and or heavy phase change material heat exchangers for thermal storage. These approaches can lead to large loss of water and a significant mass penalties for the spacecraft. This paper describes an innovative thermal control system that uses a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to control spacecraft temperatures in highly variable environments without venting water. SEAR uses heat pumping and energy storage by LiCl/water absorption to enable effective cooling during hot periods and regeneration during cool periods. The LiCl absorber technology has the potential to absorb over 800 kJ per kg of system mass, compared to phase change heat sink systems that typically achieve approx. 50 kJ/kg. This paper describes analysis models to predict performance and optimize the size of the SEAR system, estimated size and mass of key components, and an assessment of potential mass savings compared with alternative thermal management approaches. We also describe a concept design for an ISS test package to demonstrate operation of a subscale system in zero gravity.

  15. Space Station Control Requirements and Flywheel System Weights for Combined Momentum and Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    The specifications of the flywheel system for momentum storage and vehicle torquing are somewhat dependent upon the attitude control requirements of the space station in orbit. As a ground rule, the flywheel system will be sized large enough to provide all attitude maneuvers, if practical, to avoid or minimize turning on the reaction control system (RCS). The RCS, whenever used, expels expensive mass and tends to contaminate optical surfaces of the vehicle. The vehicle rate and acceleration specifications of 0.10 deg/sec and 0.01 deg/square sec are tentative, and may be reduced if lesser values are more practical for flywheel design. For local vertical attitude hold, the average attitude error should be zero, and not the classical 1 degree, since control moment gyro (CMG) gimbal angles provide an exact reference feedback for gravity gradient momentum. Docking presents a problem for docking transients and attitude alignment which will require use of the RCS.

  16. Structural assessment of a Space Station solar dynamic heat receiver thermal energy storage canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, M. T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Thompson, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper assesses the structural performance of a Space Station thermal energy storage (TES) canister subject to orbital solar flux variation and engine cold start-up operating conditions. The impact of working fluid temperature and salt-void distribution on the canister structure are assessed. Both analytical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the temperature distribution of the canister. Subsequent finite-element structural analyses of the canister were performed using both analytically and experimentally obtained temperatures. The Arrhenius creep law was incorporated into the procedure, using secondary creep data for the canister material, Haynes-188 alloy. The predicted cyclic creep strain accumulations at the hot spot were used to assess the structural performance of the canister. In addition, the structural performance of the canister based on the analytically-determined temperature was compared with that based on the experimentally-measured temperature data.

  17. Structural assessment of a space station solar dynamic heat receiver thermal energy storage canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. L.; Kerslake, T. W.; Tong, M. T.

    1988-01-01

    The structural performance of a space station thermal energy storage (TES) canister subject to orbital solar flux variation and engine cold start up operating conditions was assessed. The impact of working fluid temperature and salt-void distribution on the canister structure are assessed. Both analytical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the temperature distribution of the canister. Subsequent finite element structural analyses of the canister were performed using both analytically and experimentally obtained temperatures. The Arrhenius creep law was incorporated into the procedure, using secondary creep data for the canister material, Haynes 188 alloy. The predicted cyclic creep strain accumulations at the hot spot were used to assess the structural performance of the canister. In addition, the structural performance of the canister based on the analytically determined temperature was compared with that based on the experimentally measured temperature data.

  18. Concept Design of Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Motil, Susan M.; Kortes, Trudy F.; Meyer, Michael L.; taylor, William J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is in the planning and investigation process of developing innovative paths for human space exploration that strengthen the capability to extend human and robotic presence beyond low Earth orbit and throughout the solar system. NASA is establishing the foundations to enable humans to safely reach multiple potential destinations, including the Moon, asteroids, Lagrange points, and Mars and its environs through technology and capability development. To achieve access to these destinations within a reasonable flight time will require the use of high performance cryogenic propulsion systems. Therefore NASA is examining mission concepts for a Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Flight Demonstration which will test and validate key capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements such as large cryogenic propulsion stages and propellant depots. The CPST project will perform key ground testing in fiscal year 2012 and execute project formulation and implementation leading to a flight demonstration in 2017.

  19. Cascade Storage and Delivery System for a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yagoda, Evan; Swickrath, Michael; Stambaugh, Imelda

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MMSEV is a pressurized vehicle used to extend the human exploration envelope for Lunar, Near Earth Object (NEO), and Deep Space missions. The Johnson Space Center is developing the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the MMSEV. The MMSEV s intended use is to support longer sortie lengths with multiple Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) on a higher magnitude than any previous vehicle. This paper presents an analysis of a high pressure oxygen cascade storage and delivery system that will accommodate the crew during long duration Intra Vehicular Activity (IVA) and capable of multiple high pressure oxygen fills to the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) worn by the crew during EVAs. A cascade is a high pressure gas cylinder system used for the refilling of smaller compressed gas cylinders. Each of the large cylinders are filled by a compressor, but the cascade system allows small cylinders to be filled without the need of a compressor. In addition, the cascade system is useful as a "reservoir" to accommodate low pressure needs. A regression model was developed to provide the mechanism to size the cascade systems subject to constraints such as number of crew, extravehicular activity duration and frequency, and ullage gas requirements under contingency scenarios. The sizing routine employed a numerical integration scheme to determine gas compressibility changes during depressurization and compressibility effects were captured using the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state. A multi-dimensional nonlinear optimization routine was used to find the minimum cascade tank system mass that meets the mission requirements. The sizing algorithms developed in this analysis provide a powerful framework to assess cascade filling, compressor, and hybrid systems to design long duration vehicle ECLSS architecture. 1

  20. Creation of a Unified Educational Space within a SLA University Classroom Using Cloud Storage and On-Line Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabayeva, Kamilya Zhumartovna

    2016-01-01

    In the present article the author gives evidence of effective application of cloud storage and on-line applications in the educational process of the higher education institution, as well as considers the problems and prospects of using cloud technologies in the educational process, when creating a unified educational space in the foreign language…

  1. The Study of Importance of the Balance Space Food -Storage Method -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Providing foods to space crew is the important requirements to support long term manned space exploration. Foods fill not only physiological requirements to sustain life, but psychological needs for refreshment and joy during the long and hard mission to extraterrestrial planets. We designed joyful and healthy recipe with materials, which can be produced by the bio-regenerative agricultural system operated at limited resources available in Mars base, Moon base and spaceship. We need to think about how to use the storage food when we have the time of emergency. The pupa of the silkworm becomes the important nourishment source as protein and lipid. The silk thread uses it as clothing and cosmetics and medical supplies. However, we can use the silk thread as food as protein. The silk thread is mad of sericin and fibroin. The sericin is used for cosmetics mainly, but can make sheet food by mixing it with rice flour. We can make Japanese rolled sushi with this product. In addition, we can make spring roll and gyoza and shao-mai. As for the fibroin which is the subject of the silk thread, is to extract it high pressure heat; of the protein can powder it, and can use it as food. Even if there is the silk thread in this way after having made it clothes once, we can do it to food again. We can reuse the cotton thread as carbohydrates equally, too. We can use the wood as carbohydrates, also. Based upon the foregoing, we use the pupa of the silkworm as protein and lipid, and the silk thread as protein, and the cotton thread and wood as carbohydrates. It is recommended as healthy meal balance; Protein: Lipid: Carbohydrate ratio equal 15-20We succeeded to develop joyful and nutritious space recipe at the end. Since energy consumption for physical exercise activities under micro-or sub-gravity is less than the terrestrial case, choice of our space foods is essencial to suppress blood sugar level, and prevent the metabolic syndrome. Because of less need of agricultural resources

  2. Practices in Adequate Structural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Structural design and verification of space vehicles and space systems is a very tricky and awe inspiring business, particularly for manned missions. Failures in the missions with loss of life is devastating personally and nationally. The scope of the problem is driven by high performance requirements which push state-of-the-art technologies, creating high sensitivites to small variations and uncertainties. Insurance of safe, reliable flight dictates the use of sound principles, procedures, analysis, and testing. Many of those principles which were refocused by the Space Shuttle Challenger (51-L) accident on January 26, 1986, and the activities conducted to insure safe shuttle reflights are discussed. The emphasis will be focused on engineering, while recognizing that project and project management are also key to success.

  3. Effect of low and high storage temperatures on head space gas concentrations and physical properties of wood pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; C. Jim Lim; Tony Bi; Xingya Kuang; Staffan Melin

    2013-11-01

    Headspace gas concentrations and wood pellet properties were studied in sealed glass canisters at 5–40 degrees C storage temperatures. CO2 and CO concentrations at 5, 10, 20 and 40 degrees C at the end of 23–28 days of storage were 1600 and 200, 4700 and 1200, and 31 200 and 15 800 parts per million by volume (ppmv) respectively. Corresponding O2 concentration was about 19•49, 19•20, 18•0 and 2•07% respectively. Non-linear regression equations adequately described the gas concentrations in the storage container as a function of time. Safe level estimation functions developed were linear for O2 and logarithmic for CO and CO2 concentrations. Measured pellet properties moisture, length, diameter, unit, bulk and tapped density, durability, calorific value, ash content and per cent fines were in the range of 4•6–5•02%, 14–15 mm, 6•4–6•5 mm, 1125–1175 kg m-3, 750–770 kg m-3, 825–840 kg m-3, 73–74%, 18•32–18•78 MJ kg-1, 0•65–0•74% and 0•13–0•15%. Durability values of pellets decreased by 13% at 40 degrees C storage temperature and other properties changed marginally.

  4. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor); Blasso, L. G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Papers and viewgraphs from the conference are presented. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disks and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

  5. Ongoing nickel-hydrogen energy storage device testing at George C. Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, John E.; Lanier, John R., Jr.; Hall, Charles I.; Whitt, Thomas H.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the testing is to characterize Ni-H2 cells for successful integration into the electrical power system (EPS) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A broad spectrum of Ni-H2 design technology is encompassed by the testing configurations; tests include cells with dates of manufacture as early as 1976. The database includes cells of varied storage times, capacity, plate design, stack design, terminal configuration, pressure vessel thickness, separator material, potassium hydroxide (KOH) concentration, and thermal control. Currently, 196 Ni-H2 cells are being tested, grouped as follows: 12 RNH-35-3, 14 RNH-30-1, 22 HST cells (1 battery, flight spare lot), 132 HST cells (6 batteries, test modules 1 and 2, called TM1 and TM2), 12 HST cells (3 four-cell packs, TM1, TM2, flight spare module FSM), and 4 HST cells (engineering lot). In addition to the characterization and life testing, an extensive thermal vacuum and purge test was conducted in November 1989 and February 1990 using the HST FSM (3 batteries composed of 69 HST cells from the flight spare lot) to help verify thermal design. A report is presented of the progress, significant findings, and future objectives of the testing.

  6. An AC-electromagnetic bearing for flywheel energy storage in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolajsen, Jorgen L.

    1993-01-01

    A repulsive type AC-electromagnetic bearing was developed and tested. It was conceived on the basis of the so-called Magnetic River suspension for high-speed trains. The appearance of the bearing is similar to the traditional DC-type electromagnetic bearing but the operating principle is different. The magnets are fed with alternating current instead of direct current and the rotor is fitted with a conducting sleeve (e.g. aluminum) instead of a ferromagnetic sleeve. The repulsion is due to induction of eddy-currents in the conducting sleeve. The bearing is inherently stable and requires no feedback control. It provides support in five degrees of freedom such that a short rotor may be fully supported by a single bearing. These capabilities were demonstrated experimentally. On the down side, the load carrying capacity and the damping obtained so far were quite low compared to the DC-type bearing. Also, significant heating of the conducting sleeve was experienced. The AC-bearing is essentially a modified induction motor and there are strong indications that it can be run both as a motor and as a generator with no commutator requirements. It is therefore considered to be a good candidate for support of energy storage flywheels in space.

  7. Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) for Thermal Storage on Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Future manned exploration spacecraft will need to operate in challenging thermal environments. State-of the- art technology for active thermal control relies on sublimating water ice and venting the vapor overboard in very hot environments. This approach can lead to large loss of water and a significant mass penalty for the spacecraft. This paper describes an innovative thermal control system that uses a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to control spacecraft temperatures in highly variable environments without venting water. SEAR uses heat pumping and energy storage by LiCl/water absorption to enable effective cooling during hot periods and regeneration during cool periods. The LiCl absorber technology has the potential to absorb over 800 kJ per kg of system mass, compared to phase change heat sink systems that typically achieve approx. 50 kJ/kg. The optimal system is based on a trade-off between the mass of water saved and extra power needed to regenerate the LiCl absorber. This paper describes analysis models and the predicted performance and optimize the size of the SEAR system, estimated size and mass of key components, and power requirements for regeneration. We also present a concept design for an ISS test package to demonstrate operation of a subscale system in zero gravity.

  8. Two-dimensional model of a Space Station Freedom thermal energy storage canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.

    1990-01-01

    The Solar Dynamic Power Module being developed for Space Station Freedom uses a eutectic mixture of LiF-CaF2 phase change salt contained in toroidal canisters for thermal energy storage. Results are presented from heat transfer analyses of the phase-change salt containment canister. A 2-D, axisymmetric finite-difference computer program which models the canister walls, salt, void, and heat engine working fluid coolant was developed. Analyses included effects of conduction in canister walls and solid salt, conduction and free convection in liquid salt, conduction and radiation across salt vapor filled void regions, and forced convection in the heat engine working fluid. Void shape, location, and growth or shrinkage (due to density difference between the solid and liquid salt phases) were prescribed based on engineering judgement. The salt phase change process was modeled using the enthalpy method. Discussion of results focuses on the role of free-convection in the liquid salt on canister heat transfer performance. This role is shown to be important for interpreting the relationship between groundbased canister performance (in 1-g) and expected on-orbit performance (in micro-g). Attention is also focused on the influence of void heat transfer on canister wall temperature distributions. The large thermal resistance of void regions is shown to accentuate canister hot spots and temperature gradients.

  9. Two-dimensional model of a Space Station Freedom thermal energy storage canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.

    1990-01-01

    The Solar Dynamic Power Module being developed for Space Station Freedom uses a eutectic mixture of LiF-CaF2 phase change salt contained in toroidal canisters for thermal energy storage. Results are presented from heat transfer analyses of the phase change salt containment canister. A 2-D, axisymmetric finite difference computer program which models the canister walls, salt, void, and heat engine working fluid coolant was developed. Analyses included effects of conduction in canister walls and solid salt, conduction and free convection in liquid salt, conduction and radiation across salt vapor filled void regions and forced convection in the heat engine working fluid. Void shape, location, growth or shrinkage (due to density difference between the solid and liquid salt phases) were prescribed based on engineering judgement. The salt phase change process was modeled using the enthalpy method. Discussion of results focuses on the role of free-convection in the liquid salt on canister heat transfer performance. This role is shown to be important for interpreting the relationship between ground based canister performance (in l-g) and expected on-orbit performance (in micro-g). Attention is also focused on the influence of void heat transfer on canister wall temperature distributions. The large thermal resistance of void regions is shown to accentuate canister hot spots and temperature gradients.

  10. Data systems and computer science space data systems: Onboard memory and storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Tom

    1991-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: technical objectives; technology challenges; state-of-the-art assessment; mass storage comparison; SODR drive and system concepts; program description; vertical Bloch line (VBL) device concept; relationship to external programs; and backup charts for memory and storage.

  11. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  13. Optimal maneuvering and fine pointing control of large space telescope with a new magnetically suspended, single gimballed momentum storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadkarni, A. A.; Joshi, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    This paper considers the application of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) to both fine pointing and large-angle maneuvering of a large space telescope (LST). The AMCD, which consists principally of a spinning rim suspended in noncontacting electromagnetic bearings, represents a new development in momentum storage devices. A nonlinear mathematical model of the AMCD/LST system is derived. An optimal stochastic fine-pointing controller is designed via LQG theory and the minimum-energy maneuvering problem is solved via a gradient technique. Number of state variable and control variable constraints, as well as all trigonometric nonlinearities, are considered in the latter part.

  14. Working group report on advanced high-voltage high-power and energy-storage space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, H. A.; Cooke, D. L.; Evans, R. W.; Hastings, D.; Jongeward, G.; Laframboise, J. G.; Mahaffey, D.; Mcintyre, B.; Pfizer, K. A.; Purvis, C.

    1986-01-01

    Space systems in the future will probably include high-voltage, high-power energy-storage and -production systems. Two such technologies are high-voltage ac and dc systems and high-power electrodynamic tethers. The working group identified several plasma interaction phenomena that will occur in the operation of these power systems. The working group felt that building an understanding of these critical interaction issues meant that several gaps in our knowledge had to be filled, and that certain aspects of dc power systems have become fairly well understood. Examples of these current collection are in quiescent plasmas and snap over effects. However, high-voltage dc and almost all ac phenomena are, at best, inadequately understood. In addition, there is major uncertainty in the knowledge of coupling between plasmas and large scale current flows in space plasmas. These gaps in the knowledge are addressed.

  15. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate...

  16. LABORATORY TESTING TO SIMULATE VAPOR SPACE CORROSION IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Gray, J.

    2013-08-30

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 70 years at the Hanford nuclear facility. Vapor space corrosion of the tank walls has emerged as an ongoing challenge to overcome in maintaining the structural integrity of these tanks. The interaction between corrosive and inhibitor species in condensates/supernates on the tank wall above the liquid level, and their interaction with vapor phase constituents as the liquid evaporates from the tank wall influences the formation of corrosion products and the corrosion of the carbon steel. An effort is underway to gain an understanding of the mechanism of vapor space corrosion. Localized corrosion, in the form of pitting, is of particular interest in the vapor space. CPP testing was utilized to determine the susceptibility of the steel in a simulated vapor space environment. The tests also investigated the impact of ammonia gas in the vapor space area on the corrosion of the steel. Vapor space coupon tests were also performed to investigate the evolution of the corrosion products during longer term exposures. These tests were also conducted at vapor space ammonia levels of 50 and 550 ppm NH{sub 3} (0.005, and 0.055 vol.%) in air. Ammonia was shown to mitigate vapor space corrosion.

  17. Rim-ditch method overcomes space limitations for scrubber sludge storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgecoth, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Well before the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, it was obvious that environmental rules and regulations were becoming more stringent. Power plants that now wish to remain competitive will have to constantly modify processes and procedures to satisfy the demands of environmental protection. In anticipation of more stringent future clean air requirements, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) chose to install wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on two 500-MW units at its Widows Creek Fossil plant (WCF) near Stevenson, Ala. WCF's scrubbers produce more than 800,000 tons of sludge each year. Using rim ditching theory and knowledge gained from extensive testing the contractors' engineers designed a 150 foot tall stack on the available 140 acre area to provide approximately 13,300 acre/foot of storage capacity. With the current production of more than 800,000 tpy, this will provide TVA with approximately 25 years of total storage life.

  18. High Performance Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) for Space Energy Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Billings, Keith J.; Kisor, Adam; Bennett, William R.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Burke, Kenneth; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cells provide a pathway to energy storage system development that are game changers for NASA missions. The fuel cell/ electrolysis MEA performance requirements 0.92 V/ 1.44 V at 200 mA/cm2 can be met. Fuel Cell MEAs have been incorporated into advanced NFT stacks. Electrolyzer stack development in progress. Fuel Cell MEA performance is a strong function of membrane selection, membrane selection will be driven by durability requirements. Electrolyzer MEA performance is catalysts driven, catalyst selection will be driven by durability requirements. Round Trip Efficiency, based on a cell performance, is approximately 65%.

  19. Thermal analysis of heat storage canisters for a solar dynamic, space power system

    SciTech Connect

    Wichner, R.P.; Solomon, A.D.; Drake, J.B.; Williams, P.T.

    1988-04-01

    A thermal analysis was performed of a thermal energy storage canister of a type suggested for use in a solar receiver for an orbiting Brayton cycle power system. Energy storage for the eclipse portion of the cycle is provided by the latent heat of a eutectic mixture of LiF and CaF/sub 2/ contained in the canister. The chief motivation for the study is the prediction of vapor void effects on temperature profiles and the identification of possible differences between ground test data and projected behavior in microgravity. The first phase of this study is based on a two-dimensional, cylindrical coordinates model using an interim procedure for describing void behavior in 1/minus/g and microgravity. The thermal anaylsis includes the effects of solidification front behavior, conduction in liquid/solid salt and canister materials, void growth and shrinkage, radiant heat transfer across the void, and convection in the melt due to Marangoni-induced flow and, in 1/minus/g, flow due to density gradients. A number of significant differences between 1/minus/g and 0/minus/g behavior were found. These resulted from differences in void location relative to the maximum heat flux and a significantly smaller effective conductance in 0/minus/g due to the absence of gravity-induced convection.

  20. Thermal analysis of heat storage canisters for a solar dynamic, space power system

    SciTech Connect

    Wichner, R.P.; Solomon, A.D.; Drake, J.B.; Williams, P.T.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal analysis was performed of a thermal energy storage canister of a type suggested for use in a solar receiver for an orbiting Brayton cycle power system. Energy storage for the eclipse portion of the cycle is provided by the latent heat of a eutectic mixture of LiF and CaF/sub 2/ contained in the canister. The chief motivation for the study is the prediction of vapor void effects on temperature profiles and the identification of possible differences between ground test data and projected behavior in microgravity. The first phase of this study is based on a two-dimensional, cylindrical coordinates model using an interim procedure for describing void behavior in 1-g and microgravity. The thermal analysis includes the effects of solidification front behavior, conduction in liquid/solid salt and canister materials, void growth and shrinkage, radiant heat transfer across the void, and convection in the melt due to Marangoni-induced flow and, in 1-g, flow due to density gradients. A number of significant differences between 1-g and 0-g behavior were found. This resulted from differences in void location relative to the maximum heat flux and a significantly smaller effective conductance in 0-g due to the absence of gravity-induced convection. 20 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Thermal analysis of heat storage canisters for a solar dynamic, space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichner, R. P.; Solomon, A. D.; Drake, J. B.; Williams, P. T.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal analysis was performed of a thermal energy storage canister of a type suggested for use in a solar receiver for an orbiting Brayton cycle power system. Energy storage for the eclipse portion of the cycle is provided by the latent heat of a eutectic mixture of LiF and CaF2 contained in the canister. The chief motivation for the study is the prediction of vapor void effects on temperature profiles and the identification of possible differences between ground test data and projected behavior in microgravity. The first phase of this study is based on a two-dimensional, cylindrical coordinates model using an interim procedure for describing void behavor in 1-g and microgravity. The thermal analysis includes the effects of solidification front behavior, conduction in liquid/solid salt and canister materials, void growth and shrinkage, radiant heat transfer across the void, and convection in the melt due to Marangoni-induced flow and, in 1-g, flow due to density gradients. A number of significant differences between 1-g and o-g behavior were found. This resulted from differences in void location relative to the maximum heat flux and a significantly smaller effective conductance in 0-g due to the absence of gravity-induced convection.

  2. Illuminating solid gas storage in confined spaces - methane hydrate formation in porous model carbons.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, Lars; Nickel, Winfried; Casco, Mirian; Senkovska, Irena; Bon, Volodymyr; Wallacher, Dirk; Grimm, Nico; Krause, Simon; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín

    2016-07-27

    Methane hydrate nucleation and growth in porous model carbon materials illuminates the way towards the design of an optimized solid-based methane storage technology. High-pressure methane adsorption studies on pre-humidified carbons with well-defined and uniform porosity show that methane hydrate formation in confined nanospace can take place at relatively low pressures, even below 3 MPa CH4, depending on the pore size and the adsorption temperature. The methane hydrate nucleation and growth is highly promoted at temperatures below the water freezing point, due to the lower activation energy in ice vs. liquid water. The methane storage capacity via hydrate formation increases with an increase in the pore size up to an optimum value for the 25 nm pore size model-carbon, with a 173% improvement in the adsorption capacity as compared to the dry sample. Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction measurements (SXRPD) confirm the formation of methane hydrates with a sI structure, in close agreement with natural hydrates. Furthermore, SXRPD data anticipate a certain contraction of the unit cell parameter for methane hydrates grown in small pores.

  3. Potential propellant storage and feed systems for space station resistojet propulsion options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bader, Clayton H.

    1987-01-01

    The resistojet system has been defined as part of the baseline propulsion system for the initial Operating Capability Space Station. The resistojet propulsion module will perform a reboost function using a wide variety of fluids as propellants. There are many optional propellants and propellant combinations for use in the resistojet including (but not limited to): hydrazine, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, water, carbon dioxide, and methane. Many different types of propulsion systems have flown or have been conceptualized that may have application for use with resistojets. This paper describes and compares representative examples of these systems that may provide a basis for space station resistojet system design.

  4. Application of Electron Beams in Space for Energy Storage and Optical Beam Generation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    MIRROR -DRIFT __ SPACE BUNCHER OUTPUT RADIATION Fig. 6-Optical klystron I/ // CATCHER MAGNET - / PAIR OF CORNER MAGNETSI ~FORM AN ACHROMATIC SERVCO.Rl I...optical link will be unable to penetrate heavy cloud formations and will thus present availability problems in most regions of the world. CONCLUDING

  5. Power Reactant Storage Assembly (PRSA) (Space Shuttle). PRSA hydrogen and oxygen DVT tank refurbishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-07-01

    The Power Reactant Storage Assembly (PRSA) liquid hydrogen Development Verification Test (H2 DVT) tank assembly (Beech Aircraft Corporation P/N 15548-0116-1, S/N 07399000SHT0001) and liquid oxygen (O2) DVT tank assembly (Beech Aircraft Corporation P/N 15548-0115-1, S/N 07399000SXT0001) were refurbished by Ball Electro-Optics and Cryogenics Division to provide NASA JSC, Propulsion and Power Division, the capability of performing engineering tests. The refurbishments incorporated the latest flight configuration hardware and avionics changes necessary to make the tanks function like flight articles. This final report summarizes these refurbishment activities. Also included are up-to-date records of the pressure time and cycle histories.

  6. Space Geodesy and Geochemistry Applied to the Monitoring, Verification of Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Swart, Peter

    2013-11-30

    This award was a training grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this award was solely to provide training for two PhD graduate students for three years in the general area of carbon capture and storage (CCS). The training consisted of course work and conducting research in the area of CCS. Attendance at conferences was also encouraged as an activity and positive experience for students to learn the process of sharing research findings with the scientific community, and the peer review process. At the time of this report, both students have approximately two years remaining of their studies, so have not fully completed their scientific research projects.

  7. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  8. Evaluation of space adequateness of shrimp farms in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rodrigo R; Hartmann, Carlos; Tagliani, Paulo R A; Poersch, Luís H

    2011-09-01

    In Rio Grande do Sul State, there are four marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in the municipal districts of São José do Norte and Rio Grande, and other four with previous license for operation. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and characterize areas for marine shrimp farming located in the Southern portion of the Patos Lagoon estuary (32º00'S 52º00'W) by employing the analysis of satellite remote sensing (Landsat TM and ETM+/Google Earth), airborne remote sensing (35mm system ADAR 1000), terrestrial remote sensing (RICOH 500SE), and field expeditions, integrating data in a Geographical Information System (IDRISI Andes). As a result, the enterprises were built on coastal fields or in obliterated dune areas, which are favorable for cultivation. The proximity of possible consuming markets and local labor, relatively good access roads and local technical support also favor the projects. However, there must be caution in terms of changes in the original projects, which could cause environmental impacts and noncompliance of environmental norms, such as the occupation of salt marsh areas. Based on the obtained information, instruments can be created to help inherent legal decision-making to manage the activity for futures enterprises.

  9. Longitudinal phase-space coating of beam in a storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, C. M.

    2014-06-01

    In this Letter, I report on a novel scheme for beam stacking without any beam emittance dilution using a barrier rf system in synchrotrons. The general principle of the scheme called longitudinal phase-space coating, validation of the concept via multi-particle beam dynamics simulations applied to the Fermilab Recycler, and its experimental demonstration are presented. In addition, it has been shown and illustrated that the rf gymnastics involved in this scheme can be used in measuring the incoherent synchrotron tune spectrum of the beam in barrier buckets and in producing a clean hollow beam in longitudinal phase space. The method of beam stacking in synchrotrons presented here is the first of its kind.

  10. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  11. Impact of thermal energy storage properties on solar dynamic space power conversion system mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn E.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1987-01-01

    A 16 parameter solar concentrator/heat receiver mass model is used in conjunction with Stirling and Brayton Power Conversion System (PCS) performance and mass computer codes to determine the effect of thermal energy storage (TES) material property changes on overall PCS mass as a function of steady state electrical power output. Included in the PCS mass model are component masses as a function of thermal power for: concentrator, heat receiver, heat exchangers (source unless integral with heat receiver, heat sink, regenerator), heat engine units with optional parallel redundancy, power conditioning and control (PC and C), PC and C radiator, main radiator, and structure. Critical TES properties are: melting temperature, heat of fusion, density of the liquid phase, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid density. Preliminary results indicate that even though overall system efficiency increases with TES melting temperature up to 1400 K for concentrator surface accuracies of 1 mrad or better, reductions in the overall system mass beyond that achievable with lithium fluoride (LiF) can be accomplished only if the heat of fusion is at least 800 kJ/kg and the liquid density is comparable to that of LiF (1800 kg/cu m).

  12. Impact of thermal energy storage properties on solar dynamic space power conversion system mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn E.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1987-01-01

    A 16 parameter solar concentrator/heat receiver mass model is used in conjunction with Stirling and Brayton Power Conversion System (PCS) performance and mass computer codes to determine the effect of thermal energy storage (TES) material property changes on overall PCS mass as a function of steady state electrical power output. Included in the PCS mass model are component masses as a function of thermal power for: concentrator, heat receiver, heat exchangers (source unless integral with heat receiver, heat sink, regenerator), heat engine units with optional parallel redundancy, power conditioning and control (PC and C), PC and C radiator, main radiator, and structure. Critical TES properties are: melting temperature, heat of fusion, density of the liquid phase, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid density. Preliminary results indicate that even though overalll system efficiency increases with TES melting temperature up to 1400 K for concentrator surface accuracies of 1 mrad or better, reductions in the overall system mass beyond that achievable with lithium fluoride (LiF) can be accomplished only if the heat of fusion is at least 800 kJ/kg and the liquid density is comparable to that of LiF (1880 kg/cu m.

  13. Thermal storage in ammonium alum/ammonium nitrate eutectic for solar space heating

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, D.Y.; Jotshi, C.K.; Klausner, J.F.; Hsieh, C.K.; Srinivasan, N.

    1995-10-01

    Ammonium alum and ammonium nitrate in the weight ratio of 1:1 forms a eutectic that melts at 53 C and crystallizes at 48 C. The latent heat of fusion of this eutectic was found to be 215 kJ/kg. Its enthalpy as measured by drop calorimetry was found to be 287 kJ/kg in the temperature range of 24--65 C, which is 1.67 times greater than water (172.2 kJ/kg) and 8.75 times greater than rock (32.8 kJ/kg). Upon several heating/cooling cycles, phase separation was observed. However, by adding 5% attapulgite clay to this eutectic mixture, phase separation was prevented. This eutectic was encapsulated in 0.0254m diameter HDPE hollow balls and subjected to about 1,100 heating/cooling cycles in the temperature range between 25 and 65 C. At the end of these cycles, the decrease in enthalpy was found to be 5%. A scale model of the heat storage unit was fabricated to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of this eutectic encapsulated in HDPE balls. The thermal extraction efficiency of the system was measured with the recirculation of hot air during charging and was found to be in the range of 85--98%.

  14. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  15. Profiling of differentially expressed genes critical to storage root development in hydroponically and in-vitro grown sweetpotato for space farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egnin, M.; Gao, H.; He, G.; Woullard, F.; Mortley, D.; Scoffield, J.; Bey, B.; Quain, M.; Prakash, C. S.; Bonsi, C.

    Environment is known to have significant effects on the nutrient content and quality of crop plants especially through its impact on the temporal and spatial expression of genes Little is known about the molecular changes and harvest index in plants in response to microgravity Sweetpotato underline Ipomoea underline batatas L Lam is one of the most important root crops and an excellent NASA crop for space farming to provide essential nutrients to sustain human life on long-term space missions The initiation and development of storage root formation is one of the most critical processes determining yield of sweetpotato The molecular mechanism of storage root initiation and development in sweetpotato is poorly understood To this end knowledge of gravity perception the genetic and molecular nature of the induction process of storage root will tremendously help improve on sweetpotato harvest index for space farming cDNA-AFLP techniques were employed to investigate temporal and spatial expressions to gain molecular insights and identify transcripts differentially expressed during early stages of sweetpotato storage root development Two hydroponically grown cultivars using Nutrient Film Technology NFT and microstorage roots were evaluated TU-82-155 an early maturing 90 DAP with orange flesh and tinge red skin and PI318846-3 a late maturing 135 DAP with white flesh and off-yellow skin were compared for differential genes expression during storage root development at 14 21 28 35 and 45 DAP Total RNA was isolated from

  16. Real space mapping of ionic diffusion and electrochemical activity in energy storage and conversion materials

    DOEpatents

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina; Kumar, Amit; Dudney, Nancy J; Jesse, Stephen

    2014-05-06

    A method and system for probing mobile ion diffusivity and electrochemical reactivity on a nanometer length scale of a free electrochemically active surface includes a control module that biases the surface of the material. An electrical excitation signal is applied to the material and induces the movement of mobile ions. An SPM probe in contact with the surface of the material detects the displacement of mobile ions at the surface of the material. A detector measures an electromechanical strain response at the surface of the material based on the movement and reactions of the mobile ions. The use of an SPM tip to detect local deformations allows highly reproducible measurements in an ambient environment without visible changes in surface structure. The measurements illustrate effective spatial resolution comparable with defect spacing and well below characteristic grain sizes of the material.

  17. A study pertaining to inertial energy storage machine designs for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zowarka, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design of a counterrotating fast discharge homopolar generator (HPG) and a counterrotating active rotary flux compressor (CARFC) for space application is reported. The HPG is a counterrotating spool-type homopolar with superconducting field coil excitation. It delivers a 20-ms, 145-kJ pulse to a magnetoplasmahydrodynamic thruster. The peak output current is 42.7 kA at 240 V. After 20 ms the current is 29.7 kA at 167 V. The CARFC delivers ten 50-kJ, 250 microsecond pulses at 50-ms interval to six Xenon flash lamps pumping an Nd glass laser. The flux compressor is counterrotating for torque compensation. Current is started in the machine with a 5-kV, 5-kJ pulse-charged capacitor. Both designs were based upon demonstrated technology. The sensitivity of the designs to technology that may be available in five to ten years was determined.

  18. A microporous Cu-MOF with optimized open metal sites and pore spaces for high gas storage and active chemical fixation of CO2.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao-Ying; Tian, Hong-Rui; Ai, Jing; Li, Lei-Jiao; Dang, Song; Lan, Ya-Qian; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2016-09-25

    A microporous Cu-MOF with optimized open metal sites and pore space was constructed based on a designed bent ligand; it exhibits high-capacity multiple gas storage under atmospheric pressure and efficient catalytic activity for chemical fixation of CO2 under mild conditions.

  19. Experiments with phase-change thermal-energy-storage canisters for Space Station Freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Kerslake, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    The solar dynamic power module proposed for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) uses the heat of fusion of a phase change material (PCM) to efficiently store thermal energy for use during eclipse periods. The PCM, a LiF-20CaF2 salt, is contained in annular, metal canisters located in a heat receiver at the focus of a solar concentrator. PCM canister ground-based experiments and analytical heat transfer studies are discussed. The hardware, test procedures, and test results from these experiments are discussed. After more than 900 simulated SSF orbital cycles, no canister cracks or leaks were observed and all data were successfully collected. The effect of 1-g test orientation on canister wall temperatures was generally small while void position was strongly dependent on test orientation and canister cooling. In one test orientation, alternating wall temperature data were measured that supports an earlier theory of oscillating vortex flow in the PCM melt. Analytical canister wall temperatures compared very favorably with experimental temperature data. This illustrates that ground-based canister thermal performance can be predicted well by analyses that employ straight-forward, engineering models of void behavior and liquid PCM free convection. Because of the accuracy of analytical models and the relative insensitivity of 1-g performance to test orientation, canister performance in micro-g should be predictable with a high degree of confidence by removing gravity effects from the analytical modeling.

  20. Experiments with phase change thermal energy storage canisters for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    The solar dynamic power module proposed for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) uses the heat of fusion of a phase change material (PCM) to efficiently store thermal energy for use during eclipse periods. The PCM, a LiF-20CaF2 salt, is contained in annular, metal canisters located in a heat receiver at the focus of a solar concentrator. PCM canister ground-based experiments and analytical heat transfer studies are discussed. The hardware, test procedures, and test results from these experiments are discussed. After more than 900 simulated SSF orbital cycles, no canister cracks or leaks were observed and all data were successfully collected. The effect of 1-g test orientation on canister wall temperatures was generally small while void position was strongly dependent on test orientation and canister cooling. In one test orientation, alternating wall temperature data were measured that supports an earlier theory of oscillating vortex flow in the PCM melt. Analytical canister wall temperatures compared very favorably with experimental temperature data. This illustrates that ground-based canister thermal performance can be predicted well by analyses that employ straight-forward, engineering models of void behavior and liquid PCM free convection.

  1. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low earth orbit space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K. B.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to define characteristics of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) for low earth orbit Space Station missions. The RFCS's were defined and characterized based on both an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an alkaline electrolyte water electrolyzer and an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an acid solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer. The study defined the operating characteristics of the systems including system weight, volume, and efficiency. A maintenance philosophy was defined and the implications of system reliability requirements and modularization were determined. Finally, an Engineering Model System was defined and a program to develop and demonstrate the EMS and pacing technology items that should be developed in parallel with the EMS were identified. The specific weight of an optimized RFCS operating at 140 F was defined as a function of system efficiency for a range of module sizes. An EMS operating at a nominal temperature of 180 F and capable of delivery of 10 kW at an overall efficiency of 55.4 percent is described. A program to develop the EMS is described including a technology development effort for pacing technology items.

  2. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low earth orbit space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K. B.

    1988-04-01

    A study was conducted to define characteristics of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) for low earth orbit Space Station missions. The RFCS's were defined and characterized based on both an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an alkaline electrolyte water electrolyzer and an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an acid solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer. The study defined the operating characteristics of the systems including system weight, volume, and efficiency. A maintenance philosophy was defined and the implications of system reliability requirements and modularization were determined. Finally, an Engineering Model System was defined and a program to develop and demonstrate the EMS and pacing technology items that should be developed in parallel with the EMS were identified. The specific weight of an optimized RFCS operating at 140 F was defined as a function of system efficiency for a range of module sizes. An EMS operating at a nominal temperature of 180 F and capable of delivery of 10 kW at an overall efficiency of 55.4 percent is described. A program to develop the EMS is described including a technology development effort for pacing technology items.

  3. Environmental Assessment Construction of Antenna Parts Storage Facility and Demolition of Hazardous Materials Storage Shed and Oil Change Pit, Jordan Lake Air Force Space Surveillance Station, Alabama

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-03

    meet Class A standards to house the function for which it is currently designated. However, from necessity it must be continued in use for a short...dura- tion or until a suitable facility can be obtained. Class A standards mean the facility is adequate and can house the function for which it is...shed cannot be raised to meet Class A standards to house the function for which it was designated. The oil change pit is no longer used by

  4. Passive storage technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Advances in storage technology and how passive techniques could be applied to the storage of propellants at the space station are described. The devices considered are passive orbital disconnect struts, cooled shield optimization, liftweight shields and catalytic converters.

  5. Final Environmental Assessment: Construction of Maintenance and Storage Facility, Perimeter Fence Upgrade and Demolition of Three Buildings and Two Structures Gila River Air Force Space Surveillance Station Arizona

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Desert iguana Dipsosaurus dorsalis Regal horned lizard Phrynosoma solare Side-blotched lizard Uta stansburiana Western whiptail2 Cnemidophorus...Phoenix and four miles north of Maricopa (Figure 1). The AFSSS, known as the “space fence”, is a radar system that detects and tracks objects in orbit...storage tank, and a fire pump shed located adjacent to the antenna array on the north half of the Installation. The transmitting building, potable

  6. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.

  7. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589

  8. Storage ring injection

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Some basic issues involved in injecting the beam into storage rings with the principal parameters of those studied at the workshop have been considered. The main conclusion is that straightforward adjustments of the storage ring parameters makes injection easy. The largest number of injected turns is fourteen, and the phase space dilution allowance seems adequate to ensure very small beam loss during injection. The adjustments also result in lower bending magnet fields, and high field superconducting magnets (e.g., 5 Tesla) are not necessary. The design changes do not necessarily affect the Keil-Schnell criterion for stability of the longitudinal microwave instability, although that criterion appears to be irrelevant. Because the beams are expected to be unstable, but with slow growth rates, the vacuum chamber impedances required to give equal risetimes for the various designs are compared for systems posing various degrees of difficulty for injection. Finally, the impact of the parameters on cost is noted, and a system is considered that cuts the length of the linac in half by using doubly charged ions.

  9. Energy storage criteria handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.; Cole, R. L.; Hull, A. B.

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide information and criteria necessary for the selection and sizing of energy storage technologies for use at U.S. Naval facilities. The handbook gives Naval base personnel procedures and information to select the most viable energy storage options to provide the space conditioning (heating and cooling) and domestic hot water needs of their facility. The handbook may also be used by contractors, installers, designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the energy storage business. The handbook is organized into three major sections: a general section, a technical section, and an example section. While a technical background is assumed for the latter two sections, the general section is simply written and can serve as an introduction to the field of energy storage. The technical section examines the following energy storage technologies: sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, cold storage, thermochemical storage, mechanical storage, pumped hydro storage, and electrochemical storage. The example section is limited to thermal storage and includes examples for: water tank storage, rockbed storage, latent heat storage, and cold water storage.

  10. The cerebellopontine angle: does the translabyrinthine approach give adequate access?

    PubMed

    Fagan, P A; Sheehy, J P; Chang, P; Doust, B D; Coakley, D; Atlas, M D

    1998-05-01

    A long-standing but unfounded criticism of the translabyrinthine approach is the misperception that this approach does not give adequate access to the cerebellopontine angle. Because of what is perceived as limited visualization and operating space within the cerebellopontine angle, some surgeons still believe that the translabyrinthine approach is inappropriate for large acoustic tumors. In this study, the surgical access to the cerebellopontine angle by virtue of the translabyrinthine approach is measured and analyzed. The parameters are compared with those measured for the retrosigmoid approach. This series objectively confirms that the translabyrinthine approach offers the neurotologic surgeon a shorter operative depth to the tumor, via a similar-sized craniotomy. This permits superior visualization by virtue of a wider angle of surgical access. Such access is achieved with the merit of minimal cerebellar retraction.

  11. Scenario simulation based assessment of subsurface energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, C.; Bauer, S.; Dahmke, A.

    2014-12-01

    Energy production from renewable sources such as solar or wind power is characterized by temporally varying power supply. The politically intended transition towards renewable energies in Germany („Energiewende") hence requires the installation of energy storage technologies to compensate for the fluctuating production. In this context, subsurface energy storage represents a viable option due to large potential storage capacities and the wide prevalence of suited geological formations. Technologies for subsurface energy storage comprise cavern or deep porous media storage of synthetic hydrogen or methane from electrolysis and methanization, or compressed air, as well as heat storage in shallow or moderately deep porous formations. Pressure build-up, fluid displacement or temperature changes induced by such operations may affect local and regional groundwater flow, geomechanical behavior, groundwater geochemistry and microbiology. Moreover, subsurface energy storage may interact and possibly be in conflict with other "uses" like drinking water abstraction or ecological goods and functions. An utilization of the subsurface for energy storage therefore requires an adequate system and process understanding for the evaluation and assessment of possible impacts of specific storage operations on other types of subsurface use, the affected environment and protected entities. This contribution presents the framework of the ANGUS+ project, in which tools and methods are developed for these types of assessments. Synthetic but still realistic scenarios of geological energy storage are derived and parameterized for representative North German storage sites by data acquisition and evaluation, and experimental work. Coupled numerical hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and reactive transport (THMC) simulation tools are developed and applied to simulate the energy storage and subsurface usage scenarios, which are analyzed for an assessment and generalization of the imposed THMC

  12. NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology Summer Workshop. Volume 4: Power technology panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology requirements in the areas of energy sources and conversion, power processing, distribution, conversion, and transmission, and energy storage are identified for space shuttle payloads. It is concluded that the power system technology currently available is adequate to accomplish all missions in the 1973 Mission Model, but that further development is needed to support space opportunities of the future as identified by users. Space experiments are proposed in the following areas: power generation in space, advanced photovoltaic energy converters, solar and nuclear thermoelectric technology, nickel-cadmium batteries, flywheels (mechanical storage), satellite-to-ground transmission and reconversion systems, and regenerative fuel cells.

  13. Digital image storage.

    PubMed

    Wallack, Seth

    2008-01-01

    Digital image archival requires less physical storage space, allows for rapid storage and retrieval and avoids loss in image quality over time or with image duplication compared with film storage. Because medical imaging data are critically important and, by law, must be stored in a safe, accessible manner, it is imperative not to have one computer error destroy all copies of the image data. Several options for image storage media are available including magnetic tape, optical media, spinning disks and solid state. Other considerations include on-site vs. off-site storage, redundancy, on-line vs. off-line storage, and removable storage media for disaster recovery. The different storage media can be used in different configurations to provide sufficient protection of digital data. Choose a storage system that will keep your data safe from unauthorized access, hardware failure, and clinic disasters.

  14. Highly flexible nearest-neighbor-search associative memory with integrated k nearest neighbor classifier, configurable parallelism and dual-storage space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Fengwei; Mihara, Keisuke; Yamasaki, Shogo; Chen, Lei; Jürgen Mattausch, Hans

    2016-04-01

    VLSI-implementations are often applied to solve the high computational cost of pattern matching but have usually low flexibility for satisfying different target applications. In this paper, a digital word-parallel associative memory architecture for k nearest neighbor (KNN) search, which is one of the most basic algorithms in pattern recognition, is reported applying the squared Euclidean distance measure. The reported architecture features reconfigurable parallelism, dual-storage space to achieve a flexible number of reference vectors, and a dedicated majority vote circuit. Programmable switching circuits, located between vector components, enable scalability of the searching parallelism by configuring the reference feature-vector dimensionality. A pipelined storage with dual static-random-access-memory (SRAM) cells for each unit and an intermediate winner control circuit are designed to extend the applicability by improving the flexibility of the reference storage. A test chip in 180 nm CMOS technology, which has 32 rows, 4 elements in each row and 2-parallel 8-bit dual-components in each element, consumes altogether 61.4 mW and in particular only 11.9 mW during the reconfigurable KNN classification (at 45.58 MHz and 1.8 V).

  15. Potential Estimation of Hourly Blank Storage Space and Charge Loads of EVs using Road Traffic Census and Vehicles Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Takuya; Ito, Masakazu; Kawasaki, Norihiro; Miyazaki, Takahiko; Kashiwagi, Takao

    If both EVs (Electric Vehicles, includes plug-in hybrid electric vehicles) and renewable energies spread in large quantities, it is possible to control the supply fluctuation of renewable energies using the storage battery of EVs. This research tried to show the charge load potential of EVs based on the state of the Japanese passenger car using traffic census results etc. Furthermore, it tried to show trend of the storage battery capacity according to time. From the estimated result; (1) the charge electricity of low and middle distance gets a majority of the total charge demand, (2) charge load changes according to time several times, and the minimum load is the number of GWh at early morning, (3) if night charge is assumed, the standby charge demand of noon will reach tens GWh, it may have sufficient scale for supply fluctuation control of PVs. Although the present EV is not suitable for long-distance running, these are expected to be 30 or less percent of the total charge demand. The estimated storage capacity potential in this research will not change numbers of times.

  16. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  17. Thermal performance of an integrated thermal protection system for long-term storage of cryogenic propellants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, R. L.; Boyle, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    It was demonstrated that cryogenic propellants can be stored unvented in space long enough to accomplish a Saturn orbiter mission after 1,200-day coast. The thermal design of a hydrogen-fluorine rocket stage was carried out, and the hydrogen tank, its support structure, and thermal protection system were tested in a vacuum chamber. Heat transfer rates of approximately 23 W were measured in tests to simulate the near-Earth portion of the mission. Tests to simulate the majority of the time the vehicle would be in deep space and sun-oriented resulted in a heat transfer rate of 0.11 W.

  18. Trapping of xenon gas in closed inner spaces of carbon nanomaterials for stable gas storage under high-vacuum condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Keita; Yasuda, Hidehiro

    2017-01-01

    Xe gas can be trapped in the closed inner spaces of glassy carbon derived from C60 fullerene by thermal coalescence of C60 in Xe atmosphere and in cap-opened carbon nanotubes (CNTs) covered with an ionic liquid by soaking Xe-adsorbing CNTs in an ionic liquid. The trapped Xe gas is detected by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry using a spectrometer mounted on an analytical transmission electron microscope. The closed inner spaces store gas molecules even under high-vacuum condition (˜10-5 Pa).

  19. Berkeley Storage Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, Alex; Gu, Junmin; Natarajan, Vijaya; Shoshani, Arie

    2007-03-01

    Storage Resource Managers (SRMs) are middleware components whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management of shared storage components on the Grid, They provide storage availability for the planning and execution of a Grid job. SRMs manage two types of resources: space and files. When managing space, SRMs negotiate space allocation with the requesting client, andlor assign default space quotas. When managing files, SRMs allocate space for files, invoke file transfer services to move files into the space. phi files for a certain lifetime, release files upon the clients’ request, and use file replacement policies to optimize the use of the shared space. SPMs can be designed to provide effective sharing of files, by monitoring the activity of shared files, and make dynamic decisions on which files to replace when space is needed. In addition, SRMs perform automatic gathage collection of unused files by removing selected files whose lifetime has expired when space is needed. BeStMan is a Java implementation of SRM functionality by the Scientific Data Management Group at LBNL. It manages multiple disks as well as the HPSS mass storage system, and can be adapted to other storage systems. The BeStMan package contains the SRM server, the SRM client tools, and SRM testing tools.

  20. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  1. ASME Section VIII Recertification of a 33,000 Gallon Vacuum-jacketed LH2 Storage Vessel for Densified Hydrogen Testing at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, Adam M.; Notardonato, William U.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) has been developed at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. GODU-LH2 has three main objectives: zero-loss storage and transfer, liquefaction, and densification of liquid hydrogen. A cryogenic refrigerator has been integrated into an existing, previously certified, 33,000 gallon vacuum-jacketed storage vessel built by Minnesota Valley Engineering in 1991 for the Titan program. The dewar has an inner diameter of 9.5 and a length of 71.5; original design temperature and pressure ranges are -423 F to 100 F and 0 to 95 psig respectively. During densification operations the liquid temperature will be decreased below the normal boiling point by the refrigerator, and consequently the pressure inside the inner vessel will be sub-atmospheric. These new operational conditions rendered the original certification invalid, so an effort was undertaken to recertify the tank to the new pressure and temperature requirements (-12.7 to 95 psig and -433 F to 100 F respectively) per ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. This paper will discuss the unique design, analysis and implementation issues encountered during the vessel recertification process.

  2. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  3. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  4. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  5. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  6. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  7. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  8. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  9. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  10. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  11. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  12. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  13. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  14. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  15. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  16. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  17. Analysis of radiative and phase-change phenomena with application to space-based thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Kurt O.

    1991-01-01

    The simplified geometry for the analysis is an infinite, axis symmetric annulus with a specified solar flux at the outer radius. The inner radius is either adiabatic (modeling Flight Experiment conditions), or convective (modeling Solar Dynamic conditions). Liquid LiF either contacts the outer wall (modeling ground based testing), or faces a void gap at the outer wall (modeling possible space based conditions). The analysis is presented in three parts: Part 3 considers and adiabatic inner wall and linearized radiation equations; part 2 adds effects of convection at the inner wall; and part 1 includes the effect of the void gap, as well as previous effects, and develops the radiation model further. The main results are the differences in melting behavior which can occur between ground based 1 g experiments and the microgravity flight experiments. Under 1 gravity, melted PCM will always contact the outer wall having the heat flux source, thus providing conductance from this source to the phase change front. In space based tests where a void gap may likely form during solidification, the situation is reversed; radiation is now the only mode of heat transfer and the majority of melting takes place from the inner wall.

  18. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Steinleitner, G.

    1984-05-01

    Electrochemical storage cell or battery with at least one anode space for receiving the anolyte and one cathode space for receiving the catholyte which spaces are separated from each other by an alkali ion-conducting solid electrolyte and are bounded at least in some places by a metallic housing. A safety space which is subdivided into at least two safety zones, adjoins at least in some places, the solid electrolyte.

  19. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (10/14/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadben,. Director, to Nancy Wrona and Dennis Smith informing them that Maricopa County's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2003 MAGCO Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  20. Region 6: Texas Adequate Letter (4/16/2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality determined 2021 motor vehicle emission budgets for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Beaumont/Port Arthur area adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  1. Region 2: New Jersey Adequate Letter (5/23/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This April 22, 2002 letter from EPA to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection determined 2007 and 2014 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mobile Source Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal

  2. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (10/29/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Denvers' particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  3. Region 1: New Hampshire Adequate Letter (8/12/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 9, 2008 letter from EPA to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, determined the 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal Register (FR).

  4. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (1/20/2004)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Greeleys' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the FR.

  5. Region 8: Utah Adequate Letter (6/10/2005)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Utah Department of Environmental Quality determined Salt Lake Citys' and Ogdens' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  6. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  7. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  8. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  9. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  10. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  11. Region 6: New Mexico Adequate Letter (8/21/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Carl Edlund, Director, to Alfredo Santistevan regarding MVEB's contained in the latest revision to the Albuquerque Carbon Monoxide State Implementation Plan (SIP) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  12. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  13. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  14. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  15. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  16. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  17. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  18. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  19. Region 9: Nevada Adequate Letter (3/30/2006)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Deborah Jordan, Director, to Leo M. Drozdoff regarding Nevada's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2005 Truckee Meadows CO Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity decisions.

  20. A tissue retrieval and postharvest processing regimen for rodent reproductive tissues compatible with long-term storage on the international space station and postflight biospecimen sharing program.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijayalaxmi; Holets-Bondar, Lesya; Roby, Katherine F; Enders, George; Tash, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    Collection and processing of tissues to preserve space flight effects from animals after return to Earth is challenging. Specimens must be harvested with minimal time after landing to minimize postflight readaptation alterations in protein expression/translation, posttranslational modifications, and expression, as well as changes in gene expression and tissue histological degradation after euthanasia. We report the development of a widely applicable strategy for determining the window of optimal species-specific and tissue-specific posteuthanasia harvest that can be utilized to integrate into multi-investigator Biospecimen Sharing Programs. We also determined methods for ISS-compatible long-term tissue storage (10 months at -80°C) that yield recovery of high quality mRNA and protein for western analysis after sample return. Our focus was reproductive tissues. The time following euthanasia where tissues could be collected and histological integrity was maintained varied with tissue and species ranging between 1 and 3 hours. RNA quality was preserved in key reproductive tissues fixed in RNAlater up to 40 min after euthanasia. Postfixation processing was also standardized for safe shipment back to our laboratory. Our strategy can be adapted for other tissues under NASA's Biospecimen Sharing Program or similar multi-investigator tissue sharing opportunities.

  1. Feasibility study for measurement of insulation compaction in the cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks at Kennedy Space Center by fast/thermal neutron techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, R. A.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Parsons, A. M.; Arens, E. E.

    2014-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage tanks at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) use expanded perlite as thermal insulation. Some of the perlite may have compacted over time, compromising the thermal performance and also the structural integrity of the tanks. Neutrons can readily penetrate through the 1.75 cm outer steel shell and through the entire 120 cm thick perlite zone. Neutrons interactions with materials produce characteristic gamma rays which are then detected. In compacted perlite the count rates in the individual peaks in the gamma ray spectrum will increase. Portable neutron generators can produce neutron simultaneous fluxes in two energy ranges: fast (14 MeV) and thermal (25 meV). Fast neutrons produce gamma rays by inelastic scattering which is sensitive to Si, Al, Fe and O. Thermal neutrons produce gamma rays by radiative capture in prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA), which is sensitive to Si, Al, Na, K and H among others. The results of computer simulations using the software MCNP and measurements on a test article suggest that the most promising approach would be to operate the system in time-of-flight mode by pulsing the neutron generator and observing the subsequent die away curve in the PGNA signal.

  2. A Tissue Retrieval and Postharvest Processing Regimen for Rodent Reproductive Tissues Compatible with Long-Term Storage on the International Space Station and Postflight Biospecimen Sharing Program

    PubMed Central

    Holets-Bondar, Lesya; Roby, Katherine F.; Enders, George; Tash, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Collection and processing of tissues to preserve space flight effects from animals after return to Earth is challenging. Specimens must be harvested with minimal time after landing to minimize postflight readaptation alterations in protein expression/translation, posttranslational modifications, and expression, as well as changes in gene expression and tissue histological degradation after euthanasia. We report the development of a widely applicable strategy for determining the window of optimal species-specific and tissue-specific posteuthanasia harvest that can be utilized to integrate into multi-investigator Biospecimen Sharing Programs. We also determined methods for ISS-compatible long-term tissue storage (10 months at −80°C) that yield recovery of high quality mRNA and protein for western analysis after sample return. Our focus was reproductive tissues. The time following euthanasia where tissues could be collected and histological integrity was maintained varied with tissue and species ranging between 1 and 3 hours. RNA quality was preserved in key reproductive tissues fixed in RNAlater up to 40 min after euthanasia. Postfixation processing was also standardized for safe shipment back to our laboratory. Our strategy can be adapted for other tissues under NASA's Biospecimen Sharing Program or similar multi-investigator tissue sharing opportunities. PMID:25654107

  3. Feasibility study for measurement of insulation compaction in the cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks at Kennedy Space Center by fast/thermal neutron techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R. A.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Parsons, A. M.; Arens, E. E.

    2014-02-18

    The liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage tanks at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) use expanded perlite as thermal insulation. Some of the perlite may have compacted over time, compromising the thermal performance and also the structural integrity of the tanks. Neutrons can readily penetrate through the 1.75 cm outer steel shell and through the entire 120 cm thick perlite zone. Neutrons interactions with materials produce characteristic gamma rays which are then detected. In compacted perlite the count rates in the individual peaks in the gamma ray spectrum will increase. Portable neutron generators can produce neutron simultaneous fluxes in two energy ranges: fast (14 MeV) and thermal (25 meV). Fast neutrons produce gamma rays by inelastic scattering which is sensitive to Si, Al, Fe and O. Thermal neutrons produce gamma rays by radiative capture in prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA), which is sensitive to Si, Al, Na, K and H among others. The results of computer simulations using the software MCNP and measurements on a test article suggest that the most promising approach would be to operate the system in time-of-flight mode by pulsing the neutron generator and observing the subsequent die away curve in the PGNA signal.

  4. Robust holographic storage system design.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru

    2011-11-21

    Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration.

  5. Regulatory requirements for providing adequate veterinary care to research animals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2013-09-01

    Provision of adequate veterinary care is a required component of animal care and use programs in the United States. Program participants other than veterinarians, including non-medically trained research personnel and technicians, also provide veterinary care to animals, and administrators are responsible for assuring compliance with federal mandates regarding adequate veterinary care. All program participants therefore should understand the regulatory requirements for providing such care. The author provides a training primer on the US regulatory requirements for the provision of veterinary care to research animals. Understanding the legal basis and conditions of a program of veterinary care will help program participants to meet the requirements advanced in the laws and policies.

  6. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Haberfellner, F.; Prappacher, G.

    1985-01-08

    Electrochemical storage cell of the sodium and sulfur type with at least one anode space for receiving the anolyte and a cathode space for receiving the catholyte, which are separated from each other by an alkali ion-conducting solid electrolyte and are bounded at least in some areas by a metallic housing. The cathode space is in communication via at least one connecting element with at least one supply container for the sodium polysulfide being formed in the chemical reaction.

  7. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  8. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  9. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  10. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  11. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  12. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  13. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  14. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  15. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  16. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  17. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation…

  18. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  19. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  20. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (11/1/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadbent, Director, Air Division to Nancy Wrona and James Bourney informing them of the adequacy of Revised MAG 1999 Serious Area Carbon Monoxide Plan and that the MAG CO Plan is adequate for Maricopa County.

  1. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hasenauer, D.

    1983-09-20

    An electrochemical storage cell is disclosed based on alkali metal and chalcogen comprising at least one anode space for the alkali metal anolyte and a cathode space for the chalcogen catholyte, with the anode space and the cathode space separated from each other by an alkali ion-conducting solid electrolyte wall and a metallic housing bounding the cell. The solid electrolyte wall has a plurality of spaced, outwardly extending hollow recesses, and at least one current collector disposed between each pair of adjacent recesses.

  2. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Steinleitner, G.

    1985-05-07

    Electrochemical storage cell of the alkali metal and chalcogen type with at least one anode space for the alkali metal anolyte, and a cathode space for the chalcogen catholyte, with the anode space and the cathode space separated from each other by an alkali ion-conducting solid electrolyte wall, the improvement comprising the addition in the anode space of sodium and of a capturing material with O/sub 2/-getter properties in an amount sufficient to absorb detrimental bound or free oxygen.

  3. 36 CFR 79.9 - Standards to determine when a repository possesses the capability to provide adequate long-term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Agency Official; (2) Dedicate the requisite facilities, equipment and space in the physical plant to properly store, study and conserve the collection. Space used for storage, study, conservation and..., laboratory, study and any exhibition areas by: (i) Having the physical plant meet local electrical,...

  4. 36 CFR 79.9 - Standards to determine when a repository possesses the capability to provide adequate long-term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Agency Official; (2) Dedicate the requisite facilities, equipment and space in the physical plant to properly store, study and conserve the collection. Space used for storage, study, conservation and..., laboratory, study and any exhibition areas by: (i) Having the physical plant meet local electrical,...

  5. Improved methods for satellite-based groundwater storage estimates: A decade of monitoring the high plains aquifer from space and ground observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breña-Naranjo, Jose Agustin; Kendall, Anthony D.; Hyndman, David W.

    2014-09-01

    The impacts of climate extremes and water use on groundwater storage across large aquifers can be quantified using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite monitoring. We present new methods to improve estimates of changes in groundwater storage by incorporating irrigation soil moisture corrections to common data assimilation products. These methods are demonstrated using data from the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) for 2003 to 2013. Accounting for the impacts of observed and inferred irrigation on soil moisture significantly improves estimates of groundwater storage changes as verified by interpolated measurements from ~10,000 HPA wells. The resulting estimates show persistent declines in groundwater storage across the HPA, more severe in the southern and central HPA than in the north. Groundwater levels declined by an average of approximately 276 ± 23 mm from 2003 to 2013, resulting in a storage loss of 125 ± 4.3 km3, based on the most accurate of the three methods developed here.

  6. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting...risk that AGF financial statements will be materially misstated and the Army will not achieve audit readiness by the congressionally mandated...and $6.5 trillion in yearend adjustments made to Army General Fund data during FY 2015 financial statement compilation. We conducted this audit in

  7. Thermal storage for electric utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swet, C. J.; Masica, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of the thermal energy storage (TES) principle (storage of sensible heat or latent heat, or heat storage in reversible chemical reactions) in power systems are evaluated. Load leveling behind the meter, load following at conventional thermal power plants, solar thermal power generation, and waste heat utilization are the principal TES applications considered. Specific TES examples discussed include: storage heaters for electric-resistance space heating, air conditioning TES in the form of chilled water or eutectic salt baths, hot water TES, and trans-seasonal storage in heated water in confined aquifers.

  8. Applications and challenges for thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, L. D.; Tomlinson, J. T.

    1991-04-01

    New thermal energy storage (TES) technologies are being developed and applied as society strives to relieve increasing energy and environmental stresses. Applications for these new technologies range from residential and district heating and cooling using waste and solar energy, to high-temperature energy storage for power production and industrial processes. In the last two decades there has been great interest and development of heat storage systems, primarily for residential and commercial buildings. While development has continued, the rate of advancement has slowed with current technology considered adequate for electrically charged heat storage furnaces. Use of chill storage for building diurnal cooling has received substantial development.

  9. Energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  10. Shuttle orbiter storage locker system: A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, D. R.; Schowalter, D. T.; Weil, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    Study has been made to assure maximum utility of storage space and crew member facilities in planned space shuttle orbiter. Techniques discussed in this study should be of interest to designers of storage facilities in which space is at premium and vibration is severe. Manufacturers of boats, campers, house trailers, and aircraft could benefit from it.

  11. Adequate connexin-mediated coupling is required for proper insulin production

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    To assess whether connexin (Cx) expression contributes to insulin secretion, we have investigated normal and tumoral insulin-producing cells for connexins, gap junctions, and coupling. We have found that the glucose-sensitive cells of pancreatic islets and of a rat insulinoma are functionally coupled by gap junctions made of Cx43. In contrast, cells of several lines secreting insulin abnormally do not express Cx43, gap junctions, and coupling. After correction of these defects by stable transfection of Cx43 cDNA, cells expressing modest levels of Cx43 and coupling, as observed in native beta-cells, showed an expression of the insulin gene and an insulin content that were markedly elevated, compared with those observed in both wild-type (uncoupled) cells and in transfected cells overexpressing Cx43. These findings indicate that adequate levels of Cx-mediated coupling are required for proper insulin production and storage. PMID:8522612

  12. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  13. Elements for adequate informed consent in the surgical context.

    PubMed

    Abaunza, Hernando; Romero, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Given a history of atrocities and violations of ethical principles, several documents and regulations have been issued by a wide variety of organizations. They aim at ensuring that health care and clinical research adhere to defined ethical principles. A fundamental component was devised to ensure that the individual has been provided the necessary information to make an informed decision regarding health care or participation in clinical research. This article summarizes the history and regulations for informed consent and discusses suggested components for adequate consent forms for daily clinical practice in surgery as well as clinical research.

  14. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Langpape, R.

    1984-06-05

    The invention relates to an electrochemical storage cell on the basis of alkali metal and chalcogen, particularly sodium and sulfur. The storage cell has an anode space for receiving the anolyte and a cathode space for receiving the catholyte. The two spaces are separated from each other by a cup-shaped solid electrolyte. The solid electrolyte is surrounded in the region of the anode space by a capillary structure over the entire length. The capillary structure has at least one widened portion which is formed by an outward-pointing bulge of the capillary structure. The widened portion extends over the entire length of the capillary structure. Each widened portion is traversed in its interior by a canal. The cylinder surface of this canal is formed by a metal screen. The entrance opening of this canal is directly adjacent to the exit opening of a supply container for the sodium.

  15. Residual triose phosphate isomerase activity and color measurements to determine adequate cooking of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Sair, A I; Booren, A M; Berry, B W; Smith, D M

    1999-02-01

    The objectives were to (i) compare the use of triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) activity and internal color scores for determination of cooking adequacy of beef patties and (ii) determine the effect of frozen storage and fat content on residual TPI activity in ground beef. Ground beef patties (24.4% fat) were cooked to five temperatures ranging from 60.0 to 82.2 degrees C. TPI activity decreased as beef patty cooking temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, no difference (P > 0.05) in activity (6.3 U/kg meat) was observed in patties cooked to 71.1 degrees C and above. Degree of doneness color scores, a* values and b* values, of ground beef patties decreased as internal temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, temperature had no effect on L* values. TPI activity in raw ground beef after five freeze-thaw cycles did not differ from the control. Three freeze-thaw cycles of raw ground beef resulted in a 57.2% decrease in TPI activity after cooking. TPI activity of cooked beef increased during 2 months of frozen storage, but TPI activity in ground beef stored for 3 months or longer did not differ from the unfrozen control. While past research has shown color to be a poor indicator of adequate thermal processing, our results suggest that undercooked ground beef patties could be distinguished from those that had been adequately cooked following U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines using residual TPI activity as a marker.

  16. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  17. Inertial energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Kelly, James J.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1978-01-01

    The inertial energy storage device of the present invention comprises a composite ring formed of circumferentially wound resin-impregnated filament material, a flanged hollow metal hub concentrically disposed in the ring, and a plurality of discrete filament bandsets coupling the hub to the ring. Each bandset is formed of a pair of parallel bands affixed to the hub in a spaced apart relationship with the axis of rotation of the hub being disposed between the bands and with each band being in the configuration of a hoop extending about the ring along a chordal plane thereof. The bandsets are disposed in an angular relationship with one another so as to encircle the ring at spaced-apart circumferential locations while being disposed in an overlapping relationship on the flanges of the hub. The energy storage device of the present invention has the capability of substantial energy storage due to the relationship of the filament bands to the ring and the flanged hub.

  18. Use of burnup credit for transportation and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, T.L.; Ewing, R.I. ); Lake, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Burnup credit is the application of the effects of fuel burnup to nuclear criticality design. When burnup credit is considered in the design of storage facilities and transportation casks for spent fuel, the objectives are to reduce the requirements for storage space and to increase the payload of casks with acceptable nuclear criticality safety margins. The spent-fuel carrying capacities of previous-generation transport casks have been limited primarily by requirements to remove heat and/or to provide shielding. Shielding and heat transfer requirements for casks designed to transport older spent fuel with longer decay times are reduced significantly. Thus a considerable weight margin is available to the designer for increasing the payload capacity. One method to achieve an increase in capacity is to reduce fuel assembly spacing. The amount of reduction in assembly spacing is limited by criticality and fuel support structural concerns. The optimum fuel assembly spacing provides the maximum cask loading within a basket that has adequate criticality control and sufficient structural integrity for regulatory accident scenarios. The incorporation of burnup credit in cask designs could result in considerable benefits in the transport of spent fuel. The acceptance of burnup credit for the design of transport casks depends on the resolution of system safety issues and the uncertainties that affect the determination of criticality safety margins. The remainder of this report will examine these issues and the integrated approach under way to resolve them. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  19. The Open Storage Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcutt, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, open storage facilities have been established at four major museums in order to address the long-standing problem of lack of gallery space for putting collections on view. While making tens of thousands of objects available to visitors represents a great leap forward in accessibility, it raises inherent questions about…

  20. Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng

  1. Prostate cancer between prognosis and adequate/proper therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grozescu, T; Popa, F

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the indolent, non-invasive nature of most types of prostate cancer, as well as the simple fact that the disease seems more likely to be associated with age rather than with other factors (50% of men at the age of 50 and 80% at the age of 80 have it [1], with or without presenting any symptom), the big challenge of this clinical entity was to determine severity indicators (so far insufficient) to guide the physician towards an adequate attitude in the clinical setting. The risk of over-diagnosing and over-treating many prostate cancer cases (indicated by all the major European and American studies) is real and poses many question marks. The present paper was meant to deliver new research data and to reset the clinical approach in prostate cancer cases. PMID:28255369

  2. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; P<0.01) and improved adequacy of received services (95.04% versus 83.8%; P=0.02). Conclusion The poor prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  3. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  4. Improving biogas separation and methane storage with multilayer graphene nanostructure via layer spacing optimization and lithium doping: a molecular simulation investigation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Xue-Liang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-09-18

    Methane is a desirable alternative to conventional fossil fuels, and also a main component of biogas from anaerobic fermentation of organic wastes. However, its relatively lower purity and poor storage by existing adsorbent materials negatively affect its wide application. Thus, efficient, cost-effective, and safe adsorbent materials for methane purification and storage are highly desired. In this study, multilayer graphene nanostructures (MGNs) with optimized structure are investigated as a potential adsorbent for this purpose. The effects of layer distance and Li doping on MGN performance in terms of methane storage and acid gas (H(2)S and CO(2)) separation from biogas are examined by molecular simulations. The mechanisms for the interactions between gas molecules and substrates are elucidated by analyzing the binding energy, geometric structures, and charge distribution from the first-principles calculations. The results show that nonhydrocarbons in biogas can be effectively separated using Li-doped MGNs with the optimal layer distance of 0.68 nm, and then the pure methane gas can be stored in MGNs with capacity satisfying the DOE target. This work offers a molecular-level insight into the interactions between gas molecules and MGNs and might provide useful information for development of new materials for methane purification and storage.

  5. Systemic Crisis of Civilization: In Search for Adequate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozin, Grigori

    In December 1972 a jumbo jet crashed in the Florida Everglades with the loss of 101 lives. The pilot, distracted by a minor malfunction, failed to note until too late the warning signal that - correctly - indicated an impending disaster. His sudden, astonished cry of Hey, what happening here? were his last words 1. Three decades after this tragic episode, as the Humankind approaches the threshold of the third Millennium, the problem of adequate reaction to warning signals of different nature and of distinguishing minor malfunctions in everyday life of society, in economy and technology as well as in evolution of biosphere from grave threats to the world community and the phenomenon of life on our planet remains crucial to human survival and the future of Civilization. Rational use of knowledge and technology available to the world community remains in this context the corner stone of discussions on the destiny of the intelligent life both on the planet Earth and in the Universe (the fact of intelligent life in the Universe is to be detected by the Humankind)…

  6. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  7. DARHT -- an adequate EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1996 the US District Court in Albuquerque ruled that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office, US Department of Energy (DOE), was adequate. The DARHT EIS had been prepared in the face of a lawsuit in only 10 months, a third of the time usually allotted for a DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS. It subject was the first major facility to be built in decades for the DOE nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. It was the first EIS to be prepared for a proposal at DOE`s Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1979, and the first ever prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office. Much of the subject matter was classified. The facility had been specially designed to minimize impacts to a nearby prehistoric Native American ruin, and extensive consultation with American Indian Pueblos was required. The week that the draft EIS was published Laboratory biologists identified a previously unknown pair of Mexican spotted owls in the immediate vicinity of the project, bringing into play the consultation requirements of the Endangered Species Act. In spite of these obstacles, the resultant DARHT EIS was reviewed by the court and found to meet all statutory and regulatory requirements; the court praised the treatment of the classified material which served as a basis for the environmental analysis.

  8. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  9. Modular Firewalls for Storage Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Giant honeycomb structures assembled in modular units. Flammable materials stored in cells. Walls insulated with firebrick to prevent spread of fire among cells. Portable, modular barrier withstands heat of combustion for limited time and confines combustion products horizontally to prevent fire from spreading. Barrier absorbs heat energy by ablation and not meant to be reused. Designed to keep fires from spreading among segments of solid rocket propellant in storage, barrier erected between storage units of other flammable or explosive materials; tanks of petroleum or liquid natural gas. Barrier adequate for most industrial purposes.

  10. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  11. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P < 0.0001), respectively. In contrast, using the full model as a Bayesian prior with trough-only data allowed 97% (93 to 102%; P = 0.23) accurate AUC estimation. On the basis of 5,000 profiles simulated from the full model, among adults with normal renal function and a therapeutic AUC of ≥400 mg · h/liter for an organism for which the vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  12. Is clinical measurement of anatomic axis of the femur adequate?

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2017-03-23

    Background and purpose - The accuracy of using clinical measurement from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the center of the knee to determine an anatomic axis of the femur has rarely been studied. A radiographic technique with a full-length standing scanogram (FLSS) was used to assess the adequacy of the clinical measurement. Patients and methods - 100 consecutive young adult patients (mean age 34 (20-40) years) with chronic unilateral lower extremity injuries were studied. The pelvis and intact contralateral lower extremity images in the FLSS were selected for study. The angles between the tibial axis and the femoral shaft anatomic axis (S-AA), the piriformis anatomic axis (P-AA), the clinical anatomic axis (C-AA), and the mechanical axis (MA) were compared between sexes. Results - Only the S-AA and C-AA angles were statistically significantly different in the 100 patients (3.6° vs. 2.8°; p = 0.03). There was a strong correlation between S-AA, P-AA, and C-AA angles (r > 0.9). The average intersecting angle between MA and S-AA in the femur in the 100 patients was 5.5°, and it was 4.8° between MA and C-AA. Interpretation - Clinical measurement of an anatomic axis from the ASIS to the center of the knee may be an adequate and acceptable method to determine lower extremity alignment. The optimal inlet for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing may be the lateral edge of the piriformis fossa.

  13. Commercially available blood storage containers.

    PubMed

    Prowse, C V; de Korte, D; Hess, J R; van der Meer, P F

    2014-01-01

    Plastic blood bags improve the safety and effectiveness of blood component separation and storage. Progress towards optimal storage systems is driven by medical, scientific, business and environmental concerns and is limited by available materials, consumer acceptance and manufacturing and regulatory concerns. Blood bag manufacturers were invited to submit lists of the bags they manufacture. The lists were combined and sorted by planned use. The lists were analysed by experts to assess the degree to which the products attend to scientific problems. Specific issues addressed included the use of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) as plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood bags, the size, material and thickness of platelet bags, and the fracture resistance of plasma bags. Alternatives to DEHP for red blood cell (RBC) storage exist, but are mostly in a developmental stage. Plastic bags (DEHP-free, PVC-free) for platelet storage with better gas diffusion capabilities are widely available. Alternatives for plasma storage with better fracture resistance at low temperatures exist. Most RBC products are stored in DEHP-plasticized PVC as no fully satisfactory alternative exists that ensures adequate storage with low haemolysis. A variety of alternative platelet storage systems are available, but their significance - other than improved oxygen transport - is poorly understood. The necessity to remove DEHP from blood bags still needs to be determined.

  14. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  15. Wideband optical storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, H. G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper has five purposes. First, to focus upon the key relationships that bound the technology choices for large, archival, digital storage devices; second, to identify the motivations for selecting the optical technology for a petabit-exabit level storage system (10 to the 15th to 10 to the 18th bits); third, to present a generic example and a specific implementation of a terabit-level optical storage device; fourth, to characterize the global design space constraints that will allow one to build a technology-limited optical store; and fifth, to sketch the outline of the BYTERON concept, a wideband 10 to the 16th to 10 to the 17th bit optical store concept and contrast its performance to that of an optical store that is in operation today

  16. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  17. Final Environmental Assessment, Construct Antenna Parts Storage Facility, Upgrade Perimeter Security Fence and Demolish Camera Shed, Red River Air Force Space Surveillance Station (AFSSS), Lewisville, Arkansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Substandard”). Condition Code 3 means this facility cannot be raised to meet Class A standard to house the function for which it is currently...and energy goals; • Have sufficient space to house all necessary parts and equipment; • Enhance security for the space surveillance system program...within the Red River AFSSS (NAVFAC, 2003). Radon Radon testing was performed in April 1999 and results indicate radon levels below the threshold

  18. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  19. Effective Use of Existing Space in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nancy A.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the effective use of stack space through weeding, storage, microfilm, and selection; study space based on student population; and service space by reorganization of staff, collections, and study space. Three references are noted. (CHC)

  20. Looking for an adequate quality criterion for depth coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbiriou, Paul; Boisson, Guillaume

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with 3DTV, more especially with 3D content transmission using disparity-based format. In 3DTV, the problem of measuring the stereoscopic quality of a 3D content remains open. Depth signal degradations due to 3DTV transmission will induce new types of artifacts in the final rendered views. Whereas we have some experience regarding the issue of texture coding, the issue of depth coding consequences is rather unknown. In this paper we focus on that particular issue. For that purpose we considered LDV contents (Layered Depth Video) and performed various encoding of their depth information - i.e. depth maps plus depth occlusions layers - using MPEG-4 Part 10 AVC/H.264 MVC. We investigate the impact of depth coding artifacts on the quality of the final views. To this end, we compute the correlation between depth coding errors with the quality of the synthesized views. The criteria used for synthesized views include MSE and structural criteria such as SSIM. The criteria used for depth maps include also a topological measure in the 3D space (the Hausdorff distance). Correlations between the two criteria sets are presented. Trends in function of quantization are also discussed.

  1. ATL Products Division's entries into the computer mass storage marketplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiler, Fred

    1991-01-01

    The viewgraphs of a discussion on ATL Products Division's entries into the computer mass storage marketplace presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. Topics covered are product evolution including robotics; aperture storage module library; Broadcast Division's TCS2000 Video Cart and TCS90 Videocart System; high density systems business product lines; and storage and library management.

  2. NV energy electricity storage valuation :

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority ("BA") as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 ("Pay-for-performance"). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  3. Dynamic storage expansion in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, E. N.

    1978-01-01

    Some functions of NASTRAN require a large block of working computer storage to execute. The method of meeting this requirement, because of insufficient data, was to specify in advance an excessive amount of data to avoid a fatal exit. A method was developed to calculate the amount of working space needed for the analysis and to inform the analyst of this data or, in the case of Univac computers, to acquire this extra storage and continue the analysis.

  4. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 1: Summary report. [cryogenic storage and fuel flow regulation system for space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Design, construction, and quality control tests on a dual screen liner device for the space shuttle orbiter cryogenic fuel tank and feedliner system are summarized. The dual stainless steel mesh of the device encloses eight liquid fuel channels and provides the liquid/vapor interface stability required for low gravity orbits.

  5. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  6. Seasonal storage of energy in solar heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J. E.; Klein, S. A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on several aspects of seasonal storage for space heating using water as the storage medium. The interrelationships between collector area, storage volume, and system performance are investigated using the transient simulation program TRNSYS. The situations for which seasonal storage is most promising are presented. Particular emphasis is placed upon design of seasonal storage systems. A design method is presented which is applicable for storage capacities ranging from a few days to seasonal storage. This design method, coupled with cost information, should be useful in assessing the economic viability of seasonal storage systems. Also investigated are the importance of the load heat exchanger size, tank insulation, collector slope, and year-to-year weather variations in system design.

  7. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  8. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  9. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  10. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  11. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  12. Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well as the technical challenges and research goals for storing hydrogen on board a vehicle.

  13. Archive Storage Media Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Sanjay

    1990-01-01

    Reviews requirements for a data archive system and describes storage media alternatives that are currently available. Topics discussed include data storage; data distribution; hierarchical storage architecture, including inline storage, online storage, nearline storage, and offline storage; magnetic disks; optical disks; conventional magnetic…

  14. Electrochemical storage cell or battery

    SciTech Connect

    Mennicke, S.; Liebermann, K.; Reiss, K.

    1983-11-08

    Electrochemical storage cell is disclosed, based on alkali metal and chalcogen as reactants with an anode space and a cathode space separated by an alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte wall and bounded by a cell wall of light metal such as aluminum. A strongly adhering metal coating is applied to the area of the light metal wall in contact with one of the reactants. The metal coating chemically reacts to form a sulfide without materially affecting conductivity of the cell wall of light metal and without material increase in the internal resistance of the storage cell.

  15. High temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage for future NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, Karl A.; Rudnick, Stanley J.

    1988-01-01

    Several NASA sponsored studies based on 'conventional' liquid helium temperature level superconductivity technology have concluded that superconducting magnetic energy storage has considerable potential for space applications. The advent of high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) may provide additional benefits over conventional superconductivity technology, making magnetic energy storage even more attractive. The proposed NASA space station is a possible candidate for the application of HTSC energy storage. Alternative energy storage technologies for this and other low Earth orbit missions are compared.

  16. Technologies. [space power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Energy technologies to meet the power requirements of future space missions are reviewed. Photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and solar thermal technologies are discussed along with techniques for energy storage and power management and distribution.

  17. 41 CFR 102-73.155 - What types of space can Federal agencies acquire with a categorical space delegation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... net depots; (c) Docks, piers, and mooring facilities (including closed storage space required in... to, flight preparation space, aircraft storage areas, and repair shops; (h) Hospitals, including..., and storage space. Office space within ranger stations is minimal and does not comprise a majority...

  18. Concept for lightweight spaced-based deposition technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, Michael; Anders, Andre

    2006-02-28

    In this contribution we will describe a technology path to very high quality coatings fabricated in the vacuum of space. To accomplish the ambitious goals set out in NASA's Lunar-Mars proposal, advanced thin-film deposition technology will be required. The ability to deposit thin-film coatings in the vacuum of lunar-space could be extremely valuable for executing this new space mission. Developing lightweight space-based deposition technology (goal:<300 g, including power supply) will enable the future fabrication and repair of flexible large-area space antennae and fixed telescope mirrors for lunar-station observatories. Filtered Cathodic Arc (FCA) is a proven terrestrial energetic thin-film deposition technology that does not need any processing gas but is well suited for ultra-high vacuum operation. Recently, miniaturized cathodic arcs have already been developed and considered for space propulsion. It is proposed to combine miniaturized pulsed FCA technology and robotics to create a robust, enabling space-based deposition system for the fabrication, improvement, and repair of thin films, especially of silver and aluminum, on telescope mirrors and eventually on large area flexible substrates. Using miniature power supplies with inductive storage, the typical low-voltage supply systems used in space are adequate. It is shown that high-value, small area coatings are within the reach of existing technology, while medium and large area coatings are challenging in terms of lightweight technology and economics.

  19. Waste gas storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, Brian D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Method for storing a waste gas mixture comprised of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inert gases, the gas mixture containing corrosive contaminants including inorganic acids and bases and organic solvents, and derived from space station operations. The gas mixture is stored under pressure in a vessel formed of a filament wound composite overwrap on a metal liner, the metal liner being pre-stressed in compression by the overwrap, thereby avoiding any tensile stress in the liner, and preventing stress corrosion cracking of the liner during gas mixture storage.

  20. Heavy ion storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented.

  1. TES (Thermal Energy Storage) Video News Release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    TES is an in-space technology experiment that flew on STS-62. Its intent is to investigate the behavior of two different thermal energy storage materials as they undergo repeated melting and freezing in the microgravity environment.

  2. Organic Carbon Storage in China's Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577±60 Tg C (1 Tg  = 1012 g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1±1.8 kg C m−2, about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km2 urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China. PMID:23991014

  3. The Human Right to Adequate Housing: A Tool for Promoting and Protecting Individual and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-01-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health. PMID:11988432

  4. Electrochemical storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, B.; Kleinschmager, H.

    1980-12-16

    An electrochemical storage cell or battery with an anode space for an alkali metal as the anolyte and with a cathode space for a sulfur-containing catholyte substance, which are separated from each other by an alkali-ion-conducting solid electrolyte and are confined by a cell wall of metal, particularly of a light metal or steel is described. Long-life corrosion protection of the metal cell wall is provided by a protective layer by applying to at least that part of the metal cell wall in contact with the catholyte substance, a foil of corrosion-resistant material 0.01 to 0.2 mm thick by means of a conductive adhesive which retains its adhesive properties at operating temperatures.

  5. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  6. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  7. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  8. Longitudinal dynamics in storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The single-particle equations of motion are derived for charged particles in a storage ring. Longitudinal space charge is included in the potential assuming an infinitely conducting circular beam pipe with a distributed inductance. The framework uses Hamilton's equations with the canonical variables phi and W. The Twiss parameters for longitudinal motion are also defined for the small amplitude synchrotron oscillations. The space-charge Hamiltonian is calculated for both parabolic bunches and ''matched'' bunches. A brief analysis including second-harmonic rf contributions is also given. The final sections supply calculations of dynamical quantities and particle simulations with the space-charge effects neglected.

  9. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ...

  10. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  11. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  12. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  13. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  14. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  15. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  16. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  17. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  18. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  19. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  20. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  1. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  2. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  3. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  4. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  5. Novel extraterrestrial processing for space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, K.; Dowler, W.; French, J.; Ash, R.

    The concept of space processing of chemicals, in general, and propellants, in particular, is explored quantitatively. The theoretical parametric calculations are supplemented by a bench scale experiment. It is seen that for several candidate space mission scenarios (recommended by several committees for the near-term future, i.e. 1990-2000 A.D.), space processing of both space resources and Earth-carried resources can make decisive differences in the mission success for a given payload. To fix ideas and to demonstrate trends, the specific case of water splitting to extract oxygen, discard (or use without storage) the resulting hydrogen, and burn Earth-carried non-cryogenic liquid fuel(s) in a simple rocket motor, designed for periodic thrusting, is treated in some detail. Experimental hardware is assembled and demonstrated to perform adequately, besides showing compactness of the space-packaged "capsule" module that is self-contained. Building upon previous studies (Ash et al., IAF-82-210, 1982), the concept of in situ propellant production (ISPP) is reexamined in light of more recent energy and materials technologies. Missions to comets and Mars Sample Return are mentioned as candidate scenarios. The mission duration, reliability-repairability of hardware, resource availability in low Earth orbit (LEO), and the thrust requirements are considered in turn. It is seen that space storage of hydrogen for extended durations (5-10 years) involves problems that require detailed studies, besides involving many presently unanswered issues. A study of the energy option in LEO and in deep space is developed in simple terms. The different solar, radioisotope, and nuclear power sources are mentioned. Storage and handling of raw and processed chemicals are considered. Applications of state-of-the-art technologies are explored using a concept of incremental small steps; this approach would decrease risk and cost yet lead toward fully autonomous energy -processing hardware for

  6. High volume data storage architecture analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A High Volume Data Storage Architecture Analysis was conducted. The results, presented in this report, will be applied to problems of high volume data requirements such as those anticipated for the Space Station Control Center. High volume data storage systems at several different sites were analyzed for archive capacity, storage hierarchy and migration philosophy, and retrieval capabilities. Proposed architectures were solicited from the sites selected for in-depth analysis. Model architectures for a hypothetical data archiving system, for a high speed file server, and for high volume data storage are attached.

  7. A system approach to archival storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction and viewgraphs of a discussion on a system approach to archival storage presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. The use of D-2 iron particles for archival storage is discussed along with how acceleration factors relating short-term tests to archival life times can be justified. Ampex Recording Systems is transferring D-2 video technology to data storage applications, and encountering concerns about corrosion. To protect the D-2 standard, Battelle tests were done on all four tapes in the Class 2 environment. Error rates were measured before and after the test on both exposed and control groups.

  8. Stability of Dosage Forms in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du, Brian J.; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick; Younker, Diane R.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf lives are essential for successful space medical operations. Stability of pharmaceuticals, therefore, is of paramount importance for assuring the health and wellness of astronauts on future space exploration missions. Unique physical and environmental factors of space missions may contribute to the instability of pharmaceuticals, e.g., radiation, humidity and temperature variations. Degradation of pharmaceutical formulations can result in inadequate efficacy and/or untoward toxic effects, which could compromise astronaut safety and health. Methods: Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms (liquid, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the International Space Station aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-121). One of the 4 kits was stored on the Shuttle and the other 3 were stored on the International Space Station (ISS) for return to Earth at 6-month interval aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit. The kit stored on the Shuttle was returned to Earth aboard STS-121 and 2 kits from ISS were returned on STS 117 and STS-122. Results: Analysis of standard physical and chemical parameters of degradation was completed for pharmaceuticals returned by STS-121 after14 days, STS - 117 after11 months and STS 122 after 19 months storage aboard ISS. Analysis of all flight samples along with ground-based matching controls was completed and results were compiled. Conclusion: Evaluation of results from the shuttle (1) and ISS increments (2) indicate that the number of formulations degraded in space increased with duration of storage in space and was higher in space compared to their ground-based counterparts. Rate of degradation for some of the formulations tested was faster in space than on Earth. Additionally, some of the formulations included in the medical kits were unstable, more so in space than on the ground. These results indicate that the

  9. Storage Woes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravage, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities are running out of closet space. With the amount of data predicted to grow 800 percent by 2016, higher education faces a desperate race to develop strategies to store and manage the tidal wave of information. Unfortunately, many IT departments, particularly those in the public sector, have flatlining budgets--and no money…

  10. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  11. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  12. Comprehensive monitoring for heterogeneous geographically distributed storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnikova, Natalia; Karavakis, E.; Lammel, S.; Wildish, Tony

    2015-12-23

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then. In this study, we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.

  13. Comprehensive Monitoring for Heterogeneous Geographically Distributed Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnikova, N.; Karavakis, E.; Lammel, S.; Wildish, T.

    2015-12-23

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then. In this paper we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.

  14. Comprehensive monitoring for heterogeneous geographically distributed storage

    DOE PAGES

    Ratnikova, Natalia; Karavakis, E.; Lammel, S.; ...

    2015-12-23

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then.more » In this study, we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.« less

  15. 14 CFR 23.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 23... Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and installed as prescribed in this section. (b) Safe cell...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 23... Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and installed as prescribed in this section. (b) Safe cell...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 27... Equipment § 27.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and... result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)— (1) At maximum...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 23... Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and installed as prescribed in this section. (b) Safe cell...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 23... Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1353 Storage battery design and installation. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75761, December 2, 2011. (a) Each storage battery must be designed...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 27... Equipment § 27.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and... result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)— (1) At maximum...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 27... Equipment § 27.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and... result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)— (1) At maximum...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 27... Equipment § 27.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and... result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)— (1) At maximum...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 27... Equipment § 27.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and... result when the battery is recharged (after previous complete discharge)— (1) At maximum...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1353 - Storage battery design and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Storage battery design and installation. 23... Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1353 Storage battery design and installation. (a) Each storage battery must be designed and installed as prescribed in this section. (b) Safe cell...

  5. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  6. Integrating thermal storage and life safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, M. )

    1991-05-01

    Recently, the city of Los Angeles responded to growing concerns over fire safety in tall buildings by mandating that all buildings over 75 ft tall must be built or retrofitted with fire protection systems, and all buildings over 150 ft tall must be built or retrofitted with fire protection storage tanks (Los Angeles 1988). Approximately 380 buildings in the Los Angeles area are affected. This paper reports on integrating thermal storage and life safety systems. This presents an opportunity for HVAC engineers to consider the combination of thermal storage and fire water storage systems. This exciting possibility also helps address two obstacles that affect each system: first-cost and available tank location space. Thermal storage often yields an attractive payback on its own merits. Combining sprinklers with thermal storage permits the life safety system to be part of a system that enhances cash flow.

  7. Nutrition in Space: Benefits on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2006-01-01

    History has often proven the criticality for adequate nutrition to ensure expedition success. Space exploration will be no different, with the exception of the certainty that food will not be found along the journey. Ensuring the health and safety of astronauts is critical and nutrition will serve several functions to that end. Nutritional assessment of International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers not only serves to evaluate the nutritional health of individuals, but also allows a better understanding of how space flight affects nutritional requirements, and how nutrition can serve in mitigating the negative effects of weightlessness on the human. Available data suggest that the nutritional status of astronauts is compromised during and after flight. Inadequate dietary intake and subsequent weight loss are often considered hallmarks of space flight, although exceptions to this do exist, and provide hope. However, beyond energy intake, specific nutrient issues also exist. Several vitamins, including D and folate, are affected in space travelers. Hematological and antioxidant defense systems are impacted, with increased iron storage, and increased markers of oxidative damage. Bone loss during space flight remains a critical challenge. Ground-based studies have proven that nutrition is a potent modulator of the bone response to simulated weightlessness. Protein and sodium are two nutrients which tend to exacerbate bone resorption and loss, likely mediated through acid base balance. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health. Both flight and ground-based research provide a unique situation, one where healthy individuals are put in a unique and challenging environment. A full understanding of the role of nutrition during space flight will not only enhance crew health and safety during flight, but will also expand our understanding of the role of

  8. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  9. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-25

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  10. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  11. Using Multitheory Model of Health Behavior Change to Predict Adequate Sleep Behavior.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj; Nahar, Vinayak K

    The purpose of this article was to use the multitheory model of health behavior change in predicting adequate sleep behavior in college students. A valid and reliable survey was administered in a cross-sectional design (n = 151). For initiation of adequate sleep behavior, the construct of behavioral confidence (P < .001) was found to be significant and accounted for 24.4% of the variance. For sustenance of adequate sleep behavior, changes in social environment (P < .02), emotional transformation (P < .001), and practice for change (P < .001) were significant and accounted for 34.2% of the variance.

  12. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  13. Cathodic protection maintenance for aboveground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Koszewski, L.

    1995-12-31

    Cathodic protection systems are utilized to mitigate corrosion on the external bottom surfaces of aboveground storage tanks (ASTs). Cathodic protection systems should be part of a preventative maintenance program to minimize in-service failures. A good maintenance program will permit determination of continuous adequate cathodic protection of ASTs, through sustained operation and also provide the opportunity to detect cathodic protection system malfunctions, through periodic observations and testing.

  14. Region 8: Colorado Lamar and Steamboat Springs Adequate Letter (11/12/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Lamar and Steamboat Springs particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  15. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency... floodplain management regulations meeting minimum requirements under the National Flood Insurance Program... they have brought their floodplain management regulations into compliance with the NFIP...

  16. Region 9: California Adequate / Inadequate Letter Attachment (5/30/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a document that states that it has been found adequate for transportation conformitypurposes certain 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 motor vehicleemissions budgets in the 2007 South Coast StateImplementation Plan.

  17. Space applications of superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, D. B.; Vorreiter, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Some potential applications of superconductivity in space are summarized, e.g., the use of high field magnets for cosmic ray analysis or energy storage and generation, space applications of digital superconducting devices, such as the Josephson switch and, in the future, a superconducting computer. Other superconducting instrumentation which could be used in space includes: low frequency superconducting sensors, microwave and infrared detectors, instruments for gravitational studies, and high-Q cavities for use as stabilizing elements in clocks and oscillators.

  18. Individual and contextual determinants of adequate maternal health care services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O; Mageto, Lillian E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal antenatal health services in Kenya. Individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal health care (MHC) services were obtained from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data set. Multilevel partial-proportional odds logit models were fitted using STATA 13.0 to quantify the relations of the selected covariates to adequate MHC use, defined as a three-category ordinal variable. The sample consisted of 3,621 women who had at least one live birth in the five-year period preceding this survey. Only 18 percent of the women had adequate use of MHC services. Greater educational attainment by the woman or her partner, higher socioeconomic status, access to medical insurance coverage, and greater media exposure were the individual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC services. Greater community ethnic diversity, higher community-level socioeconomic status, and greater community-level health facility deliveries were the contextual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC. To improve the use of MHC services in Kenya, the government needs to design and implement programs that target underlying individual and community level factors, providing focused and sustained health education to promote the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care.

  19. CMS Space Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnikova, N.; Huang, C.-H.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Wildish, T.; Zhang, X.

    2014-06-01

    During the first LHC run, CMS stored about one hundred petabytes of data. Storage accounting and monitoring help to meet the challenges of storage management, such as efficient space utilization, fair share between users and groups and resource planning. We present a newly developed CMS space monitoring system based on the storage metadata dumps produced at the sites. The information extracted from the storage dumps is aggregated and uploaded to a central database. A web based data service is provided to retrieve the information for a given time interval and a range of sites, so it can be further aggregated and presented in the desired format. The system has been designed based on the analysis of CMS monitoring requirements and experiences of the other LHC experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how the existing software components of the CMS data placement system, PhEDEx, have been re-used, dramatically reducing the development effort.

  20. CMS Space Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnikova, N.; Huang, C.-H.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Wildish, T.; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    During the first LHC run, CMS stored about one hundred petabytes of data. Storage accounting and monitoring help to meet the challenges of storage management, such as efficient space utilization, fair share between users and groups and resource planning. We present a newly developed CMS space monitoring system based on the storage metadata dumps produced at the sites. The information extracted from the storage dumps is aggregated and uploaded to a central database. A web based data service is provided to retrieve the information for a given time interval and a range of sites, so it can be further aggregated and presented in the desired format. The system has been designed based on the analysis of CMS monitoring requirements and experiences of the other LHC experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how the existing software components of the CMS data placement system, PhEDEx, have been re-used, dramatically reducing the development effort.

  1. Public storage for the Open Science Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshina, T.; Guru, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Open Science Grid infrastructure doesn't provide efficient means to manage public storage offered by participating sites. A Virtual Organization that relies on opportunistic storage has difficulties finding appropriate storage, verifying its availability, and monitoring its utilization. The involvement of the production manager, site administrators and VO support personnel is required to allocate or rescind storage space. One of the main requirements for Public Storage implementation is that it should use SRM or GridFTP protocols to access the Storage Elements provided by the OSG Sites and not put any additional burden on sites. By policy, no new services related to Public Storage can be installed and run on OSG sites. Opportunistic users also have difficulties in accessing the OSG Storage Elements during the execution of jobs. A typical users' data management workflow includes pre-staging common data on sites before a job's execution, then storing for a subsequent download to a local institution the output data produced by a job on a worker node. When the amount of data is significant, the only means to temporarily store the data is to upload it to one of the Storage Elements. In order to do that, a user's job should be aware of the storage location, availability, and free space. After a successful data upload, users must somehow keep track of the data's location for future access. In this presentation we propose solutions for storage management and data handling issues in the OSG. We are investigating the feasibility of using the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System developed at RENCI as a front-end service to the OSG SEs. The current architecture, state of deployment and performance test results will be discussed. We will also provide examples of current usage of the system by beta-users.

  2. Storage options for Long Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE) items

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, R.D.

    1994-11-01

    A review of the Washington state requirements for the storage of long equipment items removed from tanks indicate that if the contaminated materials on the long equipment items are analyzed and determined to be DW, and not EHW, the containers can be stored on an uncovered, RCRA approved, storage pad. Long equipment items contaminated with reportable levels of EHW, or suspected of being contaminated with EHW, must be protected from the elements by means of a building or other protective covering that otherwise allows adequate inspection of the containers. Storage of the long equipment item containers on an uncovered storage pad is recommended and will reduce construction costs for new storage by an estimated 60 percent when compared to construction costs for enclosed storage.

  3. The partnership: Space shuttle, space science, and space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbertson, Philip E.; Freitag, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Space Station Program functions, design, and planned implementation is presented. The discussed functions for the permanently manned space facility include: (1) development of new technologies and related commercial products; (2) observations of the Earth and the universe; (3) provision of service facilities for resupply, maintenance, upgrade and repair of payloads and spacecraft; (4) provision of a transportation node for stationing, processing and dispatching payloads and vehicles; (5) provision of manufacturing and assembly facilities; (6) provision of a storage depot for parts and payloads; and (7) provision of a staging base for future space endeavors. The fundamental concept for the Space Station, as given, is that it be designed, operated, and evolved in response to a broad variety of scientific, technological, and commercial user interests. The Space Shuttle's role as the principal transportation system for the construction and maintenance of the Space Station and the servicing and support of the station crew is also discussed.

  4. Safety analysis report for the Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    This safety analysis report outlines the safety concerns associated with the Waste Storage Facility located in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The three main objectives of the report are: define and document a safety basis for the Waste Storage Facility activities; demonstrate how the activities will be carried out to adequately protect the workers, public, and environment; and provide a basis for review and acceptance of the identified risk that the managers, operators, and owners will assume.

  5. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  6. Efficient storage system for breath hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Murray, R D; Kerzner, B; MacLean, W C; McClung, H J; Gilbert, M

    1985-10-01

    Recommended materials for breath hydrogen collection (plastic syringes with twist lock closure) are only adequate for relatively brief periods because of gradual hydrogen loss and considerable variability between duplicate samples. To document the most favorable storage conditions for breath hydrogen, we compared hydrogen retention in plastic syringes using a conventional twist-in-lock closure versus a simple, inexpensive syringe closure, a Critocap. Hydrogen retention was studied at 25, 5, and -20 degrees C in two different syringe brands over 72 h of storage. An analysis of variance confirms the superiority of Critocaps over twist-in-lock closures (p less than 0.001). Reliability was maximal when samples were placed in environments less than 5 degrees C. When storage time was extended to 7 days, mean hydrogen retention was 86 +/- 6% (means +/- SD).

  7. Thermal energy storage for cogeneration applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drost, M. K.; Antoniak, Z. I.

    1992-04-01

    Cogeneration is playing an increasingly important role in providing energy efficient power generation and thermal energy for space heating and industrial process heat applications. However, the range of applications for cogeneration could be further increased if the generation of electricity could be decoupled from the generation of process heat. Thermal energy storage (TES) can decouple power generation from the production of process heat, allowing the production of dispatchable power while fully utilizing the thermal energy available from the prime mover. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) leads the US Department of Energy's Thermal Energy Storage Program. The program focuses on developing TES for daily cycling (diurnal storage), annual cycling (seasonal storage), and utility applications (utility thermal energy storage (UTES)). Several of these technologies can be used in a cogeneration facility. This paper discusses TES concepts relevant to cogeneration and describes the current status of these TES systems.

  8. Large capacity cryopropellant orbital storage facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive study was performed to develop the major features of a large capacity orbital propellant storage facility for the space-based cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle. Projected propellant usage and delivery schedules can be accommodated by two orbital tank sets of 100,000 lb storage capacity, with advanced missions expected to require increased capacity. Information is given on tank pressurization schemes, propellant transfer configurations, pump specifications, the refrigeration system, and flight tests.

  9. Importance of adequate exercise in the detection of coronary heart disease by radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Lo, K.; Pitt, B.

    1980-12-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained on 77 symptomatic patients without prior documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease was present by angiograms in 48. Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was abnormal in 41 patients (overall sensitivity 85%). In 29 patients with normal coronary arteries, RNV was normal in 24 (specificity 83%). To determine if the exercise level affects sensitivity, the studies were graded for adequacy of exercise. It was considered adequate if patients developed (a) chest pain, or (b) ST segment depression of at least 1 mm, or (c) if they achieved a pressure rate product greater than 250. Among the 48 patients with coronary artery disease, 35 achieved adequate exercise. Thirty-three had an abnormal RNV (sensitivity 94%). In 13 patients who failed to achieve adequate exercise, RNV was abnormal in eight (sensitivity of only 62%). Some patients with coronary artery disease may have a normal ventricular response at inadequate levels of stress.

  10. [Prevention of ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus by adequate treatment with acyclovir].

    PubMed

    Borruat, F X; Buechi, E R; Piguet, B; Fitting, P; Zografos, L; Herbort, C P

    1991-05-01

    We compared the frequency of severe ocular complications secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) in 232 patients. They were divided into three groups: 1) patients without treatment (n = 164); 2) patients treated adequately (n = 48) with acyclovir (ACV; 5 x 800 mg/d orally and ophthalmic ointment 5 x /d for a minimum of 7 days, given within three days after skin eruption); and, 3) patients treated inadequately (n = 20) with ACV (only topical treatment, insufficient doses, interrupted treatment, delayed treatment). Patients with no treatment or with inadequate treatments showed the same frequency of severe ocular complications (21% (34/164) and 25% (5/20), respectively). In contrast, when adequate treatment of ACV was given complications occurred in only 4% (2/48) of cases. This study emphasizes the need for prompt (within three days after skin eruption) and adequate (5 x 800 mg/d for at least 7 days) treatment of ACV to prevent the severe complications of HZO.

  11. Slow Dynamics Model of Compressed Air Energy Storage and Battery Storage Technologies for Automatic Generation Control

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Venkat; Das, Trishna

    2016-05-01

    Increasing variable generation penetration and the consequent increase in short-term variability makes energy storage technologies look attractive, especially in the ancillary market for providing frequency regulation services. This paper presents slow dynamics model for compressed air energy storage and battery storage technologies that can be used in automatic generation control studies to assess the system frequency response and quantify the benefits from storage technologies in providing regulation service. The paper also represents the slow dynamics model of the power system integrated with storage technologies in a complete state space form. The storage technologies have been integrated to the IEEE 24 bus system with single area, and a comparative study of various solution strategies including transmission enhancement and combustion turbine have been performed in terms of generation cycling and frequency response performance metrics.

  12. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  13. Nutrition and Foods as Related to Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Bourland, Charles T.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    U.S. space food development began with highly engineered foods that met rigid requirements imposed by the spacecraft design and short mission durations of the Mercury and Gemini programs. The lack of adequate bathroom facilities and limited food storage capacity promoted the development of low fiber diets to reduce fecal output. As missions lengthened, space food systems evolved, with the most basic design consideration always being the method of water supply. On the Apollo spacecraft, where water was abundant as a byproduct of fuel cell electricity generation, dehydrated food was used extensively. Such food has little advantage when water has to be transported to space to rehydrate it; therefore, more complex food systems were planned for Skylab, which used solar panels rather than fuel cells for electricity generation. The Skylab food system, the most advanced used in space to date, included freezers and refrigerators, increasing the palatability, variety, and nutritional value of the diet. On the Space Shuttle, power and weight constraints precluded the use of freezers, refrigerators, and microwave ovens. The availability of fuel cell by-product water was conducive to a shelf-stable food system with approximately half of the food dehydrated and the remainder made up of thermostabilized, irradiated, and intermediate-moisture foods.

  14. Storage media for computers in radiology.

    PubMed

    Dandu, Ravi Varma

    2008-11-01

    The introduction and wide acceptance of digital technology in medical imaging has resulted in an exponential increase in the amount of data produced by the radiology department. There is an insatiable need for storage space to archive this ever-growing volume of image data. Healthcare facilities should plan the type and size of the storage media that they needed, based not just on the volume of data but also on considerations such as the speed and ease of access, redundancy, security, costs, as well as the longevity of the archival technology. This article reviews the various digital storage media and compares their merits and demerits.

  15. Storage media for computers in radiology

    PubMed Central

    Dandu, Ravi Varma

    2008-01-01

    The introduction and wide acceptance of digital technology in medical imaging has resulted in an exponential increase in the amount of data produced by the radiology department. There is an insatiable need for storage space to archive this ever-growing volume of image data. Healthcare facilities should plan the type and size of the storage media that they needed, based not just on the volume of data but also on considerations such as the speed and ease of access, redundancy, security, costs, as well as the longevity of the archival technology. This article reviews the various digital storage media and compares their merits and demerits. PMID:19774182

  16. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  17. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Darrell J.; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D.; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent’s race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth. PMID:22658579

  18. Long term cryogenic storage facility systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The Long Term Cryogenic Storage Facility Systems Study (LTCSFSS) is a Phase A study of a large capacity propellant depot for the space based, cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle. The study is being performed for Marshall Space Flight Center by General Dynamics Space Systems Division and has five principal objectives: (1) Definition of preliminary concept designs for four storage facility concepts; (2) Selection of preferred concepts through the application of trade studies to candidate propellant management system components; (3) Preparation of a conceptual design for an orbital storage facility; (4) Development of supporting research and technology requirements; and (5) Development of a test program to demonstrate facility performance. The initial study has been completed, and continuation activities are just getting under way to provide greater detail in key areas and accommodate changes in study guidelines and assumptions.

  19. 77 FR 9515 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... RIN 3150-AJ05 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8 AGENCY: Nuclear... Commission) is amending its spent fuel storage regulations by revising the Holtec International HI-STORM 100... and safety will be adequately protected. This direct final rule revises the HI-STORM 100 listing in...

  20. 10 CFR 72.236 - Specific requirements for spent fuel storage cask approval and fabrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... storage cask must be designed to provide adequate heat removal capacity without active cooling systems. (g... ascertain that there are no cracks, pinholes, uncontrolled voids, or other defects that could...

  1. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  2. Storage and flood routing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, R.W.; Godfrey, R.G.

    1960-01-01

    The basic equations used in flood routing are developed from the law of continuity. In each method the assumptions are discussed to enable the user to select an appropriate technique. In the stage-storage method the storage is related to the mean gage height in the reach under consideration. In the discharge-storage method the storage is determined, from weighted values of inflow and outflow discharge. In the reservoir-storage method the storage is considered as a function of outflow discharge alone. A detailed example is given for each method to illustrate that particular technique.

  3. Storage and Retrieval of Information on Psychological Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Ki-Tack; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Information overproduction and the lack of an adequate system for its storage and retrieval have frustrated integrative efforts and hindered orderly progress in the area of psychological testing. Describes a prototype repository system to handle and service the mass of information produced. (Authors)

  4. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... designed to hold firmly in place. 10 CFR Part 830 imposes a requirement that a documented safety analysis... provide guidance on meeting the requirements imposed by DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis...

  5. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Adequate data capable of being audited is consistent with good business concepts and effective and efficient management of any organization, whether it is operated for profit or on a nonprofit basis. It is a... contract for services (for example, a management contract), directly assigning the costs to the...

  6. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  7. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  8. ADEQUATE SHELTERS AND QUICK REACTIONS TO WARNING: A KEY TO CIVIL DEFENSE.

    PubMed

    LYNCH, F X

    1963-11-08

    Case histories collected by investigators in Japan during 1945 illustrate both the effectiveness of shelters and the dangers inherent in apathy of the population, which suffered needless casualties by ignoring air raid warnintgs. Adequate shelters and immediate response to warnings are essential to survival in nuclear attack.

  9. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to…

  10. 45 CFR 1182.15 - Institute responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... record systems. These security safeguards shall apply to all systems in which identifiable personal data... data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of personal data. (4... technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual...

  11. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  12. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  13. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  14. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  15. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  16. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  17. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  18. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-03

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  19. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  20. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  1. Identifying the Factors Impacting the Adequately Yearly Progress Performance in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Ju-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The NCLB (No Child Left Behind Act) specifies that states must develop AYP (adequate yearly progress) statewide measurable objectives for improved achievement by all students, including economically disadvantaged students, students from minority races, students with disabilities, and students with limited English proficiency. By the 2013-2014…

  2. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  3. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  4. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  5. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Hemoglobin... discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit qualification standards in the United States, its impact...

  6. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  7. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  8. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  9. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  10. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  11. 30 CFR 227.801 - What if a State does not adequately perform a delegated function?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... delegated function? 227.801 Section 227.801 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Performance Review § 227.801 What if a State does not adequately perform a delegated function? If your performance of the delegated function does...

  12. Science Education as a Contributor to Adequate Yearly Progress and Accountability Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires states to measure the adequate yearly progress (AYP) of each public school and local educational agency (LEA) and to hold schools and LEAs accountable for failing to make AYP. Although it is required that science be assessed in at least three grades, the achievement results from science examinations are…

  13. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  14. Understanding the pelvic pain mechanism is key to find an adequate therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2016-06-25

    Pain is a natural mechanism to actual or potential tissue damage and involves both a sensory and an emotional experience. In chronic pelvic pain, localisation of pain can be widespread and can cause considerable distress. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to fully understand the pelvic pain mechanism and to identify an adequate therapeutic approach.

  15. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  16. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  17. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  18. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  19. Adequate Yearly Progress for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders through Research-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannest, Kimberly J.; Temple-Harvey, Kimberly K.; Mason, Benjamin A.

    2009-01-01

    Because schools are held accountable for the academic performance of all students, it is important to focus on academics and the need for effective teaching practices. Adequate yearly progress, a method of accountability that is part of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), profoundly affects the education of students who have emotional and…

  20. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared.

  1. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  2. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report.

  3. 60 K thermal storage unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, David C.; Bettini, Ronald G.; Stoyanof, Marko

    1996-03-01

    Thermal energy storage subsystems with phase change materials (PCMs) can improve the performance, reduce the weight, and extend the life of space IR sensor systems. This paper summarizes the findings of a Phillips Laboratory-sponsored Phase I SBIR program to demonstrate the feasibility of thermal storage unit (TSU) technology at an operational temperature of 60 K. During this program, an apparatus was designed and constructed for testing and characterizing various 60 K PCMs, a prototype TSU was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and successfully tested, and four PCMs—nitrogen, freon-22, air, and nitrogen trifluoride—were performance tested. The experimental results indicate that nitrogen trifluoride is a very promising 60 K PCM. In particular, the testing showed that a nitrogen trifluoride-based TSU has over two times the energy storage capacity of a nitrogen-based TSU, and four times the energy storage capacity of a high heat capacity solid device. As a result of this effort, development of a full-scale (6 kJ) 60 K TSU has been initiated in the Phase II SBIR follow-on program. The full scale TSU will be tested on-orbit in a Hitchhiker GAS Canister experiment on STS-87 in October of 1997.

  4. Energy Storage Flywheels on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, Robert O.; Brown, Gary; Levinthal, Joel; Brodeur, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    With advances in carbon composite material, magnetic bearings, microprocessors, and high-speed power switching devices, work has begun on a space qualifiable Energy Momentum Wheel (EMW). An EMW is a device that can be used on a satellite to store energy, like a chemical battery, and manage angular momentum, like a reaction wheel. These combined functions are achieved by the simultaneous and balanced operation of two or more energy storage flywheels. An energy storage flywheel typically consists of a carbon composite rotor driven by a brushless DC motor/generator. Each rotor has a relatively large angular moment of inertia and is suspended on magnetic bearings to minimize energy loss. The use of flywheel batteries on spacecraft will increase system efficiencies (mass and power), while reducing design-production time and life-cycle cost. This paper will present a discussion of flywheel battery design considerations and a simulation of spacecraft system performance utilizing four flywheel batteries to combine energy storage and momentum management for a typical LEO satellite. A proposed set of control laws and an engineering animation will also be presented. Once flight qualified and demonstrated, space flywheel batteries may alter the architecture of most medium and high-powered spacecraft.

  5. Heat storage module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staehle, H. J.; Lindner, F.

    1993-02-01

    Experiments performed on TEXUS 27 sounding rocket to investigate the thermal energy storage module of solar dynamic systems are reported. One of the most suitable energy storage materials for the desired temperature range of 800 to 900 C is lithium fluoride (LiF). Due to the large volume increase during melting of approximately 22% and the corrosivity in the molten state, a canister made of graphite or glass carbon was developed for space use. The heat exchanging wall is equipped with channels and the canister is filled in such a way that molten LiF occupies the whole volume except the channels. In the discharge model, the crystallization of LiF starts at the outer wall and continues towards the center of the canister. There, a void forms due to the volume contraction. The next melting cycle starts again at the heat exchanging wall, and the surplus of volume, due to the pressure of the central void, is able to penetrate the channels against the capillary forces. As soon as the melting front reaches the void, the capillary forces drive the melt out of the channels and a new cycle can start. Tests under terrestrial conditions revealed that the melt did not penetrate the channels as long as the gravity dependent pressure did not exceed the capillary pressure. The TEXUS experiments reported were performed to clarify the following points under microgravity: the melting/freezing behavior of LiF; the formation of the void(s) (Does one void form or several voids? Where is the void located? If several voids are generated, how is their distribution?); and the predicted function of the volume compensation.

  6. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  7. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  8. Space Suit Thermal Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Anthony B.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.; Iovine, John V.; Lin, Chin H.

    1998-01-01

    The present NASA space suit (the Shuttle EMU) is a self-contained environmental control system, providing life support, environmental protection, earth-like mobility, and communications. This study considers the thermal dynamics of the space suit as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the present space suit is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the suit with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The observations from this study are being utilized in two future design efforts, automatic thermal comfort control design for the present space suit and design of future space suit systems for Space Station, Lunar, and Martian missions.

  9. [Storage of plant protection products in farms: minimum safety requirements].

    PubMed

    Dutto, Moreno; Alfonzo, Santo; Rubbiani, Maristella

    2012-01-01

    Failure to comply with requirements for proper storage and use of pesticides in farms can be extremely hazardous and the risk of accidents involving farm workers, other persons and even animals is high. There are still wide differences in the interpretation of the concept of "securing or making safe", by workers in this sector. One of the critical points detected, particularly in the fruit sector, is the establishment of an adequate storage site for plant protection products. The definition of "safe storage of pesticides" is still unclear despite the recent enactment of Legislative Decree 81/2008 regulating health and work safety in Italy. In addition, there are no national guidelines setting clear minimum criteria for storage of plant protection products in farms. The authors, on the basis of their professional experience and through analysis of recent legislation, establish certain minimum safety standards for storage of pesticides in farms.

  10. Low cost environmental sensors for Spaceflight : NMP Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Buelher, Martin G.; Brinza, D.; Patel, J. U.

    2005-01-01

    An outstanding problem in spaceflight is the lack of adequate sensors for monitoring the space environment and its effects on engineering systems. By adequate, we mean low cost in terms of mission impact (e.g., low price, low mass/size, low power, low data rate, and low design impact). The New Millennium Program (NMP) is investigating the development of such a low-cost Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) package for inclusion on its technology validation flights. This effort follows from the need by NMP to characterize the space environment during testing so that potential users can extrapolate the test results to end-use conditions. The immediate objective of this effort is to develop a small diagnostic sensor package that could be obtained from commercial sources. Environments being considered are: contamination, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, cosmic radiation, EMI, and temperature. This talk describes the requirements and rational for selecting these environments and reviews a preliminary design that includes a micro-controller data logger with data storage and interfaces to the sensors and spacecraft. If successful, such a sensor package could be the basis of a unique, long term program for monitoring the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems.

  11. Low Cost Environmental Sensors for Spaceflight: NMP Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Buehler, Martin G.; Brinza, D.; Patel, J. U.

    2005-01-01

    An outstanding problem in spaceflight is the lack of adequate sensors for monitoring the space environment and its effects on engineering systems. By adequate, we mean low cost in terms of mission impact (e.g., low price, low mass/size, low power, low data rate, and low design impact). The New Millennium Program (NMP) is investigating the development of such a low-cost Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) package for inclusion on its technology validation flights. This effort follows from the need by NMP to characterize the space environment during testing so that potential users can extrapolate the test results to end-use conditions. The immediate objective of this effort is to develop a small diagnostic sensor package that could be obtained from commercial sources. Environments being considered are: contamination, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, cosmic radiation, EMI, and temperature. This talk describes the requirements and rational for selecting these environments and reviews a preliminary design that includes a micro-controller data logger with data storage and interfaces to the sensors and spacecraft. If successful, such a sensor package could be the basis of a unique, long term program for monitoring the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems.

  12. Energy Storage Criteria Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    of energy storage. A glossary defines most of the technical terms used. , The general section first outlines the available energy storage technologies...the end of each chapter and in the sources listed in the bibliography. The example section is limited to thermal energy storage. First , the . currently...a technical back’ )und wanting to thoroughly under- stand one or more areas of energy storage -chnology should first read Chapter 2, and possibly

  13. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  14. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Wim; Prinsen, Geert.; Hoogewoud, Jacco; Veldhuizen, Ab; Ruijgh, Erik; Kroon, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with? by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses. Regional expertise is welcomed in the calibration phase of NHI. It aims to reduce uncertainties by improving the

  15. Advanced optical disk storage technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haritatos, Fred N.

    1996-01-01

    There is a growing need within the Air Force for more and better data storage solutions. Rome Laboratory, the Air Force's Center of Excellence for C3I technology, has sponsored the development of a number of operational prototypes to deal with this growing problem. This paper will briefly summarize the various prototype developments with examples of full mil-spec and best commercial practice. These prototypes have successfully operated under severe space, airborne and tactical field environments. From a technical perspective these prototypes have included rewritable optical media ranging from a 5.25-inch diameter format up to the 14-inch diameter disk format. Implementations include an airborne sensor recorder, a deployable optical jukebox and a parallel array of optical disk drives. They include stand-alone peripheral devices to centralized, hierarchical storage management systems for distributed data processing applications.

  16. Thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The planning and implementation of activities associated with lead center management role and the technical accomplishments pertaining to high temperature thermal energy storage subsystems are described. Major elements reported are: (1) program definition and assessment; (2) research and technology development; (3) industrial storage applications; (4) solar thermal power storage applications; and (5) building heating and cooling applications.

  17. Storage Media for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautman, Rodes

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer storage devices designed to provide additional memory for microcomputers--chips, floppy disks, hard disks, optical disks--and describes how secondary storage is used (file transfer, formatting, ingredients of incompatibility); disk/controller/software triplet; magnetic tape backup; storage volatility; disk emulator; and…

  18. A Bookless Library, Part I: Relocating Print Materials to Off-Site Storage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Bethany B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the feasibility of a bookless library in a research setting. As spaces for collections are being converted for increased study and community spaces, many libraries have been moving low-use collections to off-site storage. Issues regarding the types of storage spaces available are addressed. Concerns and…

  19. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it.

  20. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-01-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  1. 46 CFR 92.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other spaces. 92.20-40 Section 92.20-40 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a... with hot and cold fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on...

  2. 46 CFR 92.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other spaces. 92.20-40 Section 92.20-40 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a... with hot and cold fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on...

  3. 46 CFR 72.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other spaces. 72.20-40 Section 72.20-40 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a) Sufficient facilities... fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an open deck to...

  4. 46 CFR 92.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other spaces. 92.20-40 Section 92.20-40 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a... with hot and cold fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on...

  5. 46 CFR 72.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other spaces. 72.20-40 Section 72.20-40 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a) Sufficient facilities... fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an open deck to...

  6. 46 CFR 72.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other spaces. 72.20-40 Section 72.20-40 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a) Sufficient facilities... fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an open deck to...

  7. 46 CFR 92.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other spaces. 92.20-40 Section 92.20-40 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a... with hot and cold fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on...

  8. 46 CFR 72.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other spaces. 72.20-40 Section 72.20-40 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a) Sufficient facilities... fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an open deck to...

  9. 46 CFR 72.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other spaces. 72.20-40 Section 72.20-40 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a) Sufficient facilities... fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on an open deck to...

  10. 46 CFR 92.20-40 - Other spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other spaces. 92.20-40 Section 92.20-40 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-40 Other spaces. Each vessel must have— (a... with hot and cold fresh water; (b) Recreation spaces; and (c) A space or spaces of adequate size on...

  11. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  12. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed Central

    Godrich, Stephanie L.; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R.; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing. PMID:28054955

  13. Reorganizing Nigeria's Vaccine Supply Chain Reduces Need For Additional Storage Facilities, But More Storage Is Required.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ekundayo; Harnly, Melissa; Whitaker, Shanta; Miller, Roger

    2016-02-01

    One of the major problems facing Nigeria's vaccine supply chain is the lack of adequate vaccine storage facilities. Despite the introduction of solar-powered refrigerators and the use of new tools to monitor supply levels, this problem persists. Using data on vaccine supply for 2011-14 from Nigeria's National Primary Health Care Development Agency, we created a simulation model to explore the effects of variance in supply and demand on storage capacity requirements. We focused on the segment of the supply chain that moves vaccines inside Nigeria. Our findings suggest that 55 percent more vaccine storage capacity is needed than is currently available. We found that reorganizing the supply chain as proposed by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency could reduce that need to 30 percent more storage. Storage requirements varied by region of the country and vaccine type. The Nigerian government may want to consider the differences in storage requirements by region and vaccine type in its proposed reorganization efforts.

  14. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  15. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  16. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-18

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery.

  17. Oil & gas in the 1990`s and beyond: Adequate supplies, growing demand, flat prices

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1995-06-01

    Long term petroleum market fundamentals are clear: supplies are adequate and world demand will continue to grow steadily. Adequate supplies insure that prices will not increase significantly, on average, till the end of the 1990`s, probably much beyond. Despite plentiful supply and modest price increases, there will be peaks and valleys in the price graph as productive capacity is used up, then expanded. Tens of billions of dollars will be needed over the next decade to expand producing capacity. World oil consumption will increase at about 1.5% per year, at least for the next decade. Demand in Asia and Latin America will grow several times faster than this average world rate. World natural gas demand will grow at more then 2% per year well past 2000. Oil and gas companies around the world have changed the way they operate to survive the market realities of the 1990`s. restructuring, outsourcing, and partnering will continue as increasing costs and flat prices squeeze profits. Energy use patterns will change. Fuel and other product specifications will change. Market shares of oil and gas will shift. But opportunities abound in this new market environment. Growing markets always provide opportunities. Technology has helped operators dramatically lower finding, developing, and producing costs. The petroleum age is far from being over. Growing markets, adequate supply, affordable products, and a 60% market share. Those are the signs of an industry with a bright future.

  18. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

  19. A test for adequate wastewater treatment based on glutathione S transferase isoenzyme profile.

    PubMed

    Grammou, A; Samaras, P; Papadimitriou, C; Papadopoulos, A I

    2013-04-01

    Discharge to the environment of treated or non-treated municipal wastewater imposes several threats to coastal and estuarine ecosystems which are difficult to assess. In our study we evaluate the use of the isoenzyme profile of glutathione S transferase (GST) in combination with the kinetic characteristics of the whole enzyme and of heme peroxidase, as a test of adequate treatment of municipal wastewater. For this reason, Artemia nauplii were incubated in artificial seawater prepared by wastewater samples, such as secondary municipal effluents produced by a conventional activated sludge unit and advanced treated effluents produced by the employment of coagulation, activated carbon adsorption and chlorination as single processes or as combined ones. Characteristic changes of the isoenzyme pattern and the enzymes' kinetic properties were caused by chlorinated secondary municipal effluent or by secondary non-chlorinated effluent. Advanced treatment by combination of coagulation and/or carbon adsorption resulted to less prominent changes, suggesting more adequate treatment. Our results suggest that GST isoenzyme profile in combination with the kinetic properties of the total enzyme family is a sensitive test for the evaluation of the adequateness of the treatment of reclaimed wastewater and the reduction of potentially harmful compounds. Potentially, it may offer a 'fingerprint' characteristic of a particular effluent and probably of the treatment level it has been subjected.

  20. 86. VIEW OF LIQUID NITROGEN STORAGE FACILITY LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. VIEW OF LIQUID NITROGEN STORAGE FACILITY LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST OF THE SLC-3W FUEL APRON. NOTE HEAT EXCHANGER IN BACKGROUND. CAMERA TOWER LOCATED DIRECTLY IN FRONT OF LIQUID NITROGEN STORAGE TANK. NITROGEN AND HELIUM GAS STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH END OF FUEL APRON IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH ANODIZING TANK AND LIQUID BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH ANODIZING TANK AND LIQUID BIN STORAGE TANK IN FOREGROUND, FACING NORTH. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Receiving & Storage Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Air-storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, T.J.

    1981-10-01

    The air storage system, the critical component making CAES technically and economically feasible, is described in three of its forms. All have geological containments and reflect economics of scale requiring fairly large plant ratings and storage capacities. All three systems also are based on good precedent experience and there are a number of willing bidders in the engineering and construction field attesting to the readiness of the technology. The salient features of each storage system type are summarized. Hard rock caverns have the widest siting opportunity in a variety of geology, are well within construction capability in good quality rock with maximum control of system design through engineering, have the highest cost of the storage system options study and the potential for longest time to startup, are difficult and expensive to expand for increased storage or plant rating. The salt-solutioned cavern has limited siting opportunities, is a very economical storage system, and storage increase is possible through cavern additions.

  3. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  4. Storage and cooling by solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exell, R. H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques for converting solar energy into mechanical energy for use in small-to-large scale refrigeration systems are examined. The systems considered included a Rankine cycle, 106 kW system coupled to 58 sq m of flat plate collectors, photovoltaic panels with storage in the form of ice, a positive ventilation and ice bank cooling system, ammonia-water absorption refrigeration, intermittent refrigeration, and solid adsorption refrigeration. All the equipment will be required to produce storage temperatures in the range 0-10 C and, consequently, the use of solar energy for deep freeze applications is considered unlikely. Small units which feature storage spaces of around one cubic meter can be satisfied by solar cells or intermittent absorption units. Larger-sized storage will employ the ammonia absorption process. Flat-plate collectors are foreseen to supply the power in rural areas.

  5. Space station: Cost and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Costs for developing, producing, operating, and supporting the initial space station, a 4 to 8 man space station, and a 4 to 24 man space station are estimated and compared. These costs include contractor hardware; space station assembly and logistics flight costs; and payload support elements. Transportation system options examined include orbiter modules; standard and extended duration STS fights; reusable spacebased perigee kick motor OTV; and upper stages. Space station service charges assessed include crew hours; energy requirements; payload support module storage; pressurized port usage; and OTV service facility. Graphs show costs for science missions, space processing research, small communication satellites; large GEO transportation; OVT launch costs; DOD payload costs, and user costs.

  6. Open Government, Closed Stacks: Onsite Storage of Depository Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Aimee C.; Haslam, Michaelyn

    1998-01-01

    Examines the use of automated storage and retrieval systems in industry and in libraries. Highlights include intellectual content; and a system being built for the University of Nevada Las Vegas that takes into account selection criteria, limited stack space, and storage of federal depository materials. (LRW)

  7. Alkaline fuel cells for prime power and energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    Alkaline fuel cell technology and its application to future space missions requiring high power and energy storage are discussed. Energy densities exceeding 100 watthours per pound and power densities approaching 0.5 pounds per kilowatt are calculated for advanced systems. Materials research to allow reversible operation of cells for energy storage and higher temperature operation for peaking power is warranted.

  8. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  9. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  10. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  11. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  12. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  13. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, F.H.; Reid, M.A.; Martin, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary design study of a Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. This high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. 11 refs.

  14. Central unresolved issues in thermal energy storage for building heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Swet, C.J.; Baylin, F.

    1980-07-01

    This document explores the frontier of the rapidly expanding field of thermal energy storage, investigates unresolved issues, outlines research aimed at finding solutions, and suggests avenues meriting future research. Issues related to applications include value-based ranking of storage concepts, temperature constraints, consistency of assumptions, nomenclature and taxonomy, and screening criteria for materials. Issues related to technologies include assessing seasonal storage concepts, diurnal coolness storage, selection of hot-side storage concepts for cooling-only systems, phase-change storage in building materials, freeze protection for solar water heating systems, and justification of phase-change storage for active solar space heating.

  15. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, James B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall.

  16. Energy Efficient Storage and Transfer of Cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenics is globally linked to energy generation, storage, and usage. Thermal insulation systems research and development is an enabling part of NASA's technology goals for Space Launch and Exploration. New thermal testing methodologies and materials are being transferred to industry for a wide range of commercial applications.

  17. 79. VIEW FROM SOUTH OF NITROGEN AND HELIUM STORAGE TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. VIEW FROM SOUTH OF NITROGEN AND HELIUM STORAGE TANKS AND CONTROL SKIDS ON SLC-3W FUEL APRON - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. 71. DETAIL OF NITROGEN GAS STORAGE TANKS AND TRANSFER TUBING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. DETAIL OF NITROGEN GAS STORAGE TANKS AND TRANSFER TUBING ON SLC-3W LIQUID OXYGEN APRON - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. Receiver development for a solar dynamic power module with respect to space and terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laing, Doerte; Krause, Siegfried; Noyes, Gerold

    1990-10-01

    A heat-pipe/heat-storage receiver concept for solar dynamic energy conversion units with a Stirling engine for space stations is presented. Theoretical estimates for the heat flows between heat pipe, heat storage, and Stirling heater head are described. The heat transfer from and to the storage elements is adequate in all operation modes and states of loading of the storage. The dish/Stirling technology has also a high terrestrial potential. Therefore, to gain experience, a first heat pipe receiver was built for a terrestrial module, using an SPS V-160 Stirling engine. Test results of the performance tests of the V-160 Stirling heated by a natural gas burner and the heat pipe receiver/Stirling unit, heated by an electrical graphite heater, are presented. The V-160 Stirling showed a good part-load performance and a maximum thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency of 26.5 percent at 8.9 kWc power output. The heat pipe receiver performed without problems. A maximum electrical heating power of 35 kW has been applied. Dynamic system behavior has been tested with rapid changes in power input between 0 and 20 kW.

  20. Comparative energy storage assessment item

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, B.

    1984-01-01

    This analysis, a Space Station application study, rediscovered Integrated Power and Attitude Control (IPAC) and found the approach to have lower initial and resupply weight and lower initial and resupply cost than either battery/CMG or regenerative fuel cell/CMG systems. Preliminary trade studies were performed comparing (IPAC) with equivalent independent electrochemical power and control moment gyro (CMG) control approaches. Technologies considered to have adequate status for an initial Space Station were: (1) nickel cadmium batteries (NiCd batteries), (2) regenerative fuel cells (RFC), (3) Skylab class CMG's, and (4) state of the art IPAC using metal wheels and ball bearing suspension (SOA-IPAC). An advanced IPAC (ADV-IPAC) employing composite rotor material and magnetic suspension was included in the comparisons to illustrate a possible range of performance and cost of inertial systems. The candidates were compared on the basis of initial weight and cost and on the basis of resupply weight and cost for a 15 year mission. Thus, SOA-IPAC would appear to be an attractive approach for the initial Space Station and possible technology improvements would further the appeal for the initial and/or growth Space Station.

  1. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Durgin, P.B. ); Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  2. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  3. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  4. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya Osain

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results: Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion: The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical

  5. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance.

  6. Computer synthesis of human motion as a part of an adequate motion analysis experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexandre A.; Sholukha, Victor A.; Zinkovsky, Anatoly V.

    1999-05-01

    The role of problem of computer synthesis of a human motion for a traditional problem of control generalized and muscular forces determination is discussed. It is emphasized significance of computer model choice for adequate analysis kinematic and dynamic experimental data. On the basis of an imitation computer model influence of model's parameters values is demonstrated. With help of non-stationary constraints we can simulate human motions that satisfy to the most significant parameters of the concerned class of motion. Some results of simulation are discussed. We arrive at a conclusion that for correct interpretation of an experiment mixed problem of bodies system dynamics must be solved.

  7. Challenges in hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüth, F.

    2009-09-01

    Hydrogen is one possible medium for energy storage and transportation in an era beyond oil. Hydrogen appears to be especially promising in connection with electricity generation in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells in cars. However, before such technologies can be implemented on a larger scale, satisfactory solutions for on-board storage of hydrogen are required. This is a difficult task due to the low volumetric and gravimetric storage density on a systems level which can be achieved so far. Possibilities include cryogenic storage as liquid hydrogen, high pressure storage at 70 MPa, (cryo)adsorptive storage, or various chemical methods of binding and releasing hydrogen. This survey discusses the different options and the associated advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Space market model space industry input-output model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgin, Robert F.; Marchesini, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the Space Market Model (SMM) is to develop an information resource for the space industry. The SMM is intended to contain information appropriate for decision making in the space industry. The objectives of the SMM are to: (1) assemble information related to the development of the space business; (2) construct an adequate description of the emerging space market; (3) disseminate the information on the space market to forecasts and planners in government agencies and private corporations; and (4) provide timely analyses and forecasts of critical elements of the space market. An Input-Output model of market activity is proposed which are capable of transforming raw data into useful information for decision makers and policy makers dealing with the space sector.

  9. The pore space scramble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gormally, Alexandra; Bentham, Michelle; Vermeylen, Saskia; Markusson, Nils

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and energy security continue to be the context of the transition to a secure, affordable and low carbon energy future, both in the UK and beyond. This is reflected in for example, binding climate policy targets at the EU level, the introduction of renewable energy targets, and has also led to an increasing interest in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology with its potential to help mitigate against the effects of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning. The UK has proposed a three phase strategy to integrate CCS into its energy system in the long term focussing on off-shore subsurface storage (DECC, 2014). The potential of CCS therefore, raises a number of challenging questions and issues surrounding the long-term storage of CO2 captured and injected into underground spaces and, alongside other novel uses of the subsurface, contributes to opening a new field for discussion on the governance of the subsurface. Such 'novel' uses of the subsurface have lead to it becoming an increasingly contested space in terms of its governance, with issues emerging around the role of ownership, liability and property rights of subsurface pore space. For instance, questions over the legal ownership of pore space have arisen with ambiguity over the legal standpoint of the surface owner and those wanting to utilise the pore space for gas storage, and suggestions of whether there are depths at which legal 'ownership' becomes obsolete (Barton, 2014). Here we propose to discuss this 'pore space scramble' and provide examples of the competing trajectories of different stakeholders, particularly in the off-shore context given its priority in the UK. We also propose to highlight the current ambiguity around property law of pore space in the UK with reference to approaches currently taken in different national contexts. Ultimately we delineate contrasting models of governance to illustrate the choices we face and consider the ethics of these models for the common good

  10. [Incidence of primary malignant lesions in clinically benign teratoma: on the problem of adequate surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Kindermann, G; Jung, E M; Maassen, V; Bise, K

    1996-08-01

    The Problem of an Adequate Surgical Approach: Frequency of malignant teratomas is, according to the literature, 2%-10%. Examining 194 own cases (1983-1993) it was 1.5%. We found one squamous cell carcinoma (0.5%). Additionally we found 2 immature teratomas (1%). We point out the different biological behaviour of malignant mature teratomas and immature teratomas. We agree with the majority of authors that the method of choice is the intact removal of all teratomas without iatrogen rupture or contamination of the abdominal cavity by contents of the teratoma. This adequate surgical procedure can and should be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy with endobag. The often practised method of cutting open the cyst during laparoscopy, sucking off the contents or cutting the teratoma into pieces, has been proven to lead to implantation and worsening the prognosis in case of a malignant teratoma. Even the rinsing of the abdominal cavity, usually carried out with this method, could not compensate always for the disadvantage of this "dirty" endoscopical method compared with usual oncological standards. This is pointed out by case reports in the literature and the first analysis of a German survey with early-follow-up of 192 laparoscopically managed ovarian malignancies [11a]. The principle of intact removal of every teratoma should again be kept in mind.

  11. MRI can determine the adequate area for debridement in the case of Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Akira; Fujita, Fumihiko; Tokai, Hirotaka; Ito, Yuichiro; Haraguchi, Masashi; Tajima, Yoshitsugu; Kanematsu, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    A 57-year-old man was transferred to our hospital because of gluteal pain. His right buttock had flare and swelling. Complete blood count showed leukocytosis, and renal failure was evident. Pelvic computed tomography (CT) revealed that the abscess, including gas, was widespread into the hypodermal tissue of the right buttock. Fournier's gangrene had been suspected, and immediate drainage was performed on the right buttock. The symptom and the condition improved rapidly, but on the day after the operation, the patient became drowsy and fell into endotoxic shock. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed strong inflammation along the entire fascia of the right femur and necrotizing fasciitis. MRI was very useful for identification of the necrotic range. Immediately, an emergency operation was performed; 3 wide incisions were made on the right thigh and crus for drainage. The patient was cared for intensively under a sedated condition, and irrigation and debridement were repeated every day. Culture of the pus revealed mixed infection of Escherichia coli and anaerobic bacteria, and a large quantity of antimicrobial drug was used. The inflammatory reaction decreased, and the patient's general condition tentatively improved. With Fournier's gangrene, initiating adequate surgical and medical treatment is essential. Therefore, MRI should be used in the early exact diagnosis of this disease to obtain knowledge of the extent of necrosis and to determine the adequate area for debridement.

  12. Duration of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Infectiousness under Adequate Therapy, as Assessed Using Induced Sputum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yousang; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Suh-Young; Park, So Young; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Changhwan

    2017-01-01

    Background A sputum culture is the most reliable indicator of the infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB); however, a spontaneous sputum specimen may not be suitable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the infectious period in patients with non–drug-resistant (DR) PTB receiving adequate standard chemotherapy, using induced sputum (IS) specimens. Methods We evaluated the duration of infectiousness of PTB using a retrospective cohort design. Results Among the 35 patients with PTB, 22 were smear-positive. The rates of IS culture positivity from baseline to the sixth week of anti-tuberculosis medication in the smear-positive PTB group were 100%, 100%, 91%, 73%, 36%, and 18%, respectively. For smear-positive PTB cases, the median time of conversion to culture negativity was 35.0 days (range, 28.0–42.0 days). In the smear-negative PTB group (n=13), the weekly rates of positive IS culture were 100%, 77%, 39%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, respectively, and the median time to conversion to culture-negative was 21.0 days (range, 17.5–28.0 days). Conclusion The infectiousness of PTB, under adequate therapy, may persist longer than previously reported, even in patients with non-DR PTB. PMID:28119744

  13. Narita Target Heart Rate Equation Underestimates the Predicted Adequate Exercise Level in Sedentary Young Boys

    PubMed Central

    Siahkouhian, Marefat; Khodadadi, Davar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Optimal training intensity and the adequate exercise level for physical fitness is one of the most important interests of coaches and sports physiologists. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Narita et al target heart rate equation for the adequate exercise training level in sedentary young boys. Methods Forty two sedentary young boys (19.07±1.16 years) undertook a blood lactate transition threshold maximal treadmill test to volitional exhaustion with continuous respiratory gas measurements according to the Craig method. The anaerobic threshold (AT) of the participants then was calculated using the Narita target heart rate equation. Results Hopkin's spreadsheet to obtain confidence limit and the chance of the true difference between gas measurements and Narita target heart rate equation revealed that the Narita equation most likely underestimates the measured anaerobic threshold in sedentary young boys (168.76±15 vs. 130.08±14.36) (Difference ±90% confidence limit: 38.1±18). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed a poor agreement between the criterion method and Narita equation (ICC= 0.03). Conclusion According to the results, the Narita equation underestimates the measured AT. It seems that the Narita equation is a good predictor of aerobic not AT which can be investigated in the future studies. PMID:24427475

  14. Flywheel Energy Storage Technology Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Frederick J.

    2001-01-01

    A flywheel energy storage system was spun to 60,000 rpm while levitated on magnetic bearings. This system is being developed as an energy-efficient replacement for chemical battery systems. Used in groups, the flywheels can have two functions providing attitude control for a spacecraft in orbit as well as providing energy storage. The first application for which the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the flywheel is the International Space Station, where a two-flywheel system will replace one of the nickel-hydrogen battery strings in the space station's power system. The 60,000-rpm development rotor is about one-eighth the size that will be needed for the space station (0.395 versus 3.07 kWhr).

  15. NASA's space energy technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullin, J. P.; Byers, D. C.; Ambrus, J. H.; Loria, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    NASA's Space Energy Systems program is concerned with the development of technology for space missions requiring high performance, such as geostationary orbit communication satellites and planetary spacecraft, and high capacity, such as the planned Space Station and lunar bases; these two requirements often lead to great differences in system design. The program accordingly addresses a wide range of candidate technologies, which encompasses photovoltaics, chemical energy conversion and storage, thermoelectric conversion, power management and distribution, and thermal management.

  16. A new storage-ring light source

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alex

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  17. Emergency medicine in space.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lowan H; Trunkey, Donald; Rebagliati, G Steve

    2007-01-01

    Recent events, including the development of space tourism and commercial spaceflight, have increased the need for specialists in space medicine. With increased duration of missions and distance from Earth, medical and surgical events will become inevitable. Ground-based medical support will no longer be adequate when return to Earth is not an option. Pending the inclusion of sub-specialists, clinical skills and medical expertise will be required that go beyond those of current physician-astronauts, yet are well within the scope of Emergency Medicine. Emergency physicians have the necessary broad knowledge base as well as proficiency in basic surgical skills and management of the critically ill and injured. Space medicine shares many attributes with extreme conditions and environments that many emergency physicians already specialize in. This article is an introduction to space medicine, and a review of current issues in the emergent management of medical and surgical disease during spaceflight.

  18. 9. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  19. Pilot Project for Spaceborne Massive Optical Storage Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. J.

    1996-01-01

    A space bound storage device has many special requirements. In addition to large storage capacity, fas read/ write time, and high reliability, it also needs to have small volume, light weight, low power consumption, radiation hardening, ability to operate in extreme temperature ranges, etc. Holographic optical recording technology, which has been making major advancements in recent years, is an extremely promising candidate. The goal of this pilot project is to demonstrate a laboratory bench-top holographic optical recording storage system (HORSS) based on nonlinear polymer films 1 and/or other advanced photo-refractive materials. This system will be used as a research vehicle to study relevant optical properties of novel holographic optical materials, to explore massive optical storage technologies based on the photo-refractive effect and to evaluate the feasibility of developing a massive storage system, based on holographic optical recording technology, for a space bound experiment in the near future.

  20. 36 CFR 1234.14 - What are the requirements for environmental controls for records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... storage space that is designed to preserve them for their full retention period. New records storage... environmental controls for records storage facilities? 1234.14 Section 1234.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT FACILITY STANDARDS FOR...

  1. Progression of renal damage in glycogen storage disease type I is associated to hyperlipidemia: a multicenter prospective Italian study.

    PubMed

    Melis, Daniela; Cozzolino, Mariarosaria; Minopoli, Giorgia; Balivo, Francesca; Parini, Rossella; Rigoldi, Miriam; Paci, Sabrina; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Burlina, Alberto; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2015-04-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors decrease glomerular hyperfiltration but not microalbuminuria and proteinuria in glycogen storage disease type I. In the current study, we demonstrated that severe hyperlipidemia is associated with ACE-inhibitor ineffectiveness. We underline the importance of adequate metabolic control in glycogen storage disease type I. A combination therapy with ACE-inhibitors and lipid lowering drugs might be considered.

  2. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  3. Space and energy: Global viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, D. E.

    1981-11-01

    The potential contributions from space technology to solving the future world energy problem are addressed. The basic problem is created by the depletion of the fossile fuels in the next century. The replacement of oil, gas and coal is only feasible by nuclear power and solar energy. In the first case space technology can contribute to making the terrestrial storage of radioactive waste much less dangerous and more acceptable by expediting the highly radioactive components (only 3%) into space. In the case of solar energy space technology can contribute large solar power stations in space, providing energy via microwaves to special rectenna sites.

  4. Coal storage hopper with vibrating screen agitator

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S.; Lackey, M.E.; Sy, R.L.

    1984-09-11

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyor mechanism. The vibrating screen agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  5. Coal storage hopper with vibrating screen agitator

    DOEpatents

    Daw, Charles S.; Lackey, Mack E.; Sy, Ronald L.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyor mechanism. The vibrating screen agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  6. Regenerative fuel cell systems for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, M. A.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems are the leading energy storage candidates for Space Station. Key design features are the advanced state of technology readiness and high degree of system level design flexibility. Technology readiness was demonstrated through testing at the single cell, cell stack, mechanical ancillary component, subsystem, and breadboard levels. Design flexibility characteristics include independent sizing of power and energy storage portions of the system, integration of common reactants with other space station systems, and a wide range of various maintenance approaches. The design features led to selection of a RFC system as the sole electrochemical energy storage technology option for the space station advanced development program.

  7. Air-storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, T. J.

    1981-10-01

    The air storage system, the critical component making compressed air energy storage technically economically feasible, is described in three of its forms. All have geological containments and reflect economics of scale requiring fairly large plant ratings and storage capacities. All three systems also are based on good precedent experience and there are a number of willing bidders in the engineering and construction field attesting to the readiness of the technology. The salient features of each storage system type are summarized. Hard rock caverns have the widest siting opportunity with a variety of geology, are well within construction capability in good quality rock with maximum control of system design through engineering, and have the highest cost of the storage system options study. They have the potential for longest time to startup and are difficult and expensive to expand for increased storage or plant rating. The salt-solutioned cavern has limited siting opportunities, is a very economical storage system, and storage increase is possible through cavern additions.

  8. Open systems storage platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Kirby

    1992-01-01

    The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.

  9. Wind-energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  10. Summary and evaluation of the Strategic Defense Initiative Space Power Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edenburn, M. (Editor); Smith, J. M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Space Power Architecture Study (SPAS) identified and evaluated power subsystem options for multimegawatt electric (MMWE) space based weapons and surveillance platforms for the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) applications. Steady state requirements of less than 1 MMWE are adequately covered by the SP-100 nuclear space power program and hence were not addressed in the SPAS. Four steady state power systems less than 1 MMWE were investigated with little difference between them on a mass basis. The majority of the burst power systems utilized H(2) from the weapons and were either closed (no effluent), open (effluent release) or steady state with storage (no effluent). Closed systems used nuclear or combustion heat source with thermionic, Rankine, turboalternator, fuel cell and battery conversion devices. Open systems included nuclear or combustion heat sources using turboalternator, magnetohydrodynamic, fuel cell or battery power conversion devices. The steady state systems with storage used the SP-100 or Star-M reactors as energy sources and flywheels, fuel cells or batteries to store energy for burst applications. As with other studies the open systems are by far the lightest, most compact and simplist (most reliable) systems. However, unlike other studies the SPAS studied potential platform operational problems caused by effluents or vibration.

  11. 12. NORTHWEST CORNER OF STORAGE MAGAZINE (BUILDING 342) IN STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NORTHWEST CORNER OF STORAGE MAGAZINE (BUILDING 342) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  12. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  13. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record systems. These security safeguards shall apply to... use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction...

  14. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  15. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  16. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  17. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  18. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  19. Matching occupation and self: does matching theory adequately model children's thinking?

    PubMed

    Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary

    2004-10-01

    The present exploratory-descriptive cross-national study focused on the career development of 11- to 14-yr.-old children, in particular whether they can match their personal characteristics with their occupational aspirations. Further, the study explored whether their matching may be explained in terms of a fit between person and environment using Holland's theory as an example. Participants included 511 South African and 372 Australian children. Findings relate to two items of the Revised Career Awareness Survey that require children to relate personal-social knowledge to their favorite occupation. Data were analyzed in three stages using descriptive statistics, i.e., mean scores, frequencies, and percentage agreement. The study indicated that children perceived their personal characteristics to be related to their occupational aspirations. However, how this matching takes place is not adequately accounted for in terms of a career theory such as that of Holland.

  20. Switching off angiogenic signalling: creating channelled constructs for adequate oxygen delivery in tissue engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Cheema, U; Alekseeva, T; Abou-Neel, E A; Brown, R A

    2010-10-06

    A major question in biomimetic tissue engineering is how much of the structure/function of native vasculature needs to be reproduced for effective tissue perfusion. O2 supplied to cells in 3D scaffolds in vitro is initially dependent upon diffusion through the scaffold and cell consumption. Low O2 (3%) enhances specific cell behaviours, but where O2 is critically low (pathological hypoxia) cell survival becomes compromised. We measured real-time O2 in 3D scaffolds and introduced micro-channelled architecture to controllably increase delivery of O2 to cells and switch off the hypoxic response. Simple static micro-channelling gives adequate perfusion and can be used to control cell generated hypoxia-induced signalling.