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Sample records for adequate sun exposure

  1. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  2. Sun Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... pass through your skin and damage your skin cells. Sunburns are a sign of skin damage. Suntans ... after the sun's rays have already killed some cells and damaged others. UV rays can cause skin ...

  3. [Skin and sun exposure].

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Serafinella Patrizia; Borgia, Francesco; Trifirò, Caterina; Aragona, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Fisherman commonly experience a significant number of cutaneous problems, related to the exposure to environmental factors due to their working conditions. Among these factors, sun exposure is able to determine both acute and chronic skin damage, mostly linked to the effects of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation on epidermal and dermal structures. In particular, UV-A appears to play a major role in the deterioration of dermal structure leading to the photoaged appearance of the skin, while UV-B is mainly responsible for skin cancers. Peculiar clinical features of skin damage in fishermen include dryness, irregular pigmentation, wrinkling, stellate pseudoscars, elastosis, inelasticity, telangiectasia, comedones and sebaceous hyperplasia. Furtheremore, the high incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers, on sun-exposed areas, confirms the need for occupational health policies focusing on issues such as photoprotection.

  4. Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... prolonged exposure to the sun when possible. ■■ Wear sunscreen with a minimum of SPF 15. ӽӽ SPF ... 1789, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, or avobenzone. ӽӽ Sunscreen performance is affected by wind, humidity, perspiration, and ...

  5. The risks and benefits of sun exposure 2016

    PubMed Central

    Hoel, David G.; Berwick, Marianne; de Gruijl, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Public health authorities in the United States are recommending that men, women and children reduce their exposure to sunlight, based on concerns that this exposure will promote skin cancer. On the other hand, data show that increasing numbers of Americans suffer from vitamin D deficiencies and serious health problems caused by insufficient sun exposure. The body of science concerning the benefits of moderate sun exposure is growing rapidly, and is causing a different perception of sun/UV as it relates to human health. Melanoma and its relationship to sun exposure and sunburn is not adequately addressed in most of the scientific literature. Reports of favorable health outcomes related to adequate serum 25(OH)D concentration or vitamin D supplementation have been inappropriately merged, so that benefits of sun exposure other than production of vitamin D are not adequately described. This review of recent studies and their analyses consider the risks and benefits of sun exposure which indicate that insufficient sun exposure is an emerging public health problem. This review considers the studies that have shown a wide range health benefits from sun/UV exposure. These benefits include among others various types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer disease/dementia, myopia and macular degeneration, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. The message of sun avoidance must be changed to acceptance of non-burning sun exposure sufficient to achieve serum 25(OH)D concentration of 30 ng/mL or higher in the sunny season and the general benefits of UV exposure beyond those of vitamin D. PMID:27942349

  6. Non-melanoma skin cancer, sun exposure and sun protection.

    PubMed

    Calzavara-Pinton, P; Ortel, B; Venturini, M

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of skin tumors including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and its biological precursor, the actinic keratosis, and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) often named together non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is growing all over the world in people of Caucasian ancestry. A plenty of clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the causal relationship with high cumulative solar dosages and number of sunburns, although the hazard may be different for different tumors according to the modalities of ultraviolet (UV) exposure. BCC is much more strongly related to measures of intermittent ultraviolet exposure (particularly those of childhood or adolescence) than to measures of cumulative exposure. In contrast, SCC is more strongly related to constant or cumulative sun exposure. Photobiological studies have clarified that sunlight and UVB radiation are complete carcinogens for AK and SCC although the relationship with UVA exposure is much less known. Also the likelihood of BCC has been related to either sunburns and high lifetime solar, UVA and UVB cumulative doses but the pathogenetic pathways of both UVB and UVA radiation for BCC development need to be clarified so far. The lack of a complete knowledge of the photocarcinogenic pathways of keratinocytes has contributed to the limited results of solar photoprotection strategies, beside the limitations of the available sunscreens and present EU regulations.

  7. [Skin, sun exposure and vitamin D: facts and controversies].

    PubMed

    Leccia, M-T

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin D plays a clearly defined role in phosphorus, calcium and bone metabolism. In addition to its effects on cellular proliferation and differentiation, and on immunity, it appears to exert other action, poorly understood to date, on human physiology and disease. A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated a protective role of sun exposure with regard to the incidence of certain immune diseases and cancer, and upon the related mortality rates. Furthermore, over the last 10 years, studies have purported to find levels judged "inadequate" in numerous populations, and, in the absence of any strict scientific arguments, a correlation was established by certain authors between supposedly "inadequate" levels, sun exposure and risk of cancer. However, analysis of the literature shows that there is in fact no precise and consensual definition of normal ranges and that the notion of inadequacy was created artificially using assay techniques lacking in sensitivity and reproducibility. Photosynthesis of vitamin D can in fact be considered perfectly adequate in the majority of populations. However, greater care is needed with elderly subjects and with subjects exposed very little to sunlight. Current studies show that the means of photoprotection used in everyday life do not adversely affect such photosynthesis. In the event of documented vitamin D deficiency, oral supplements should be given, and exposure to natural or artificial UV radiation should not be prescribed. Ultraviolet radiation has been shown to be carcinogenic and responsible for the onset of most skin cancers, and the population must be warned against misleading advertising from the tanning industry. Care should also be taken with regard to the potential harmful effects of inappropriate vitamin D supplementation.

  8. Sun exposure and skin cancer prevention in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laughlin-Richard, N

    2000-04-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of malignancy today, and its incidence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Sun exposure is believed to be the primary factor behind this trend. Nearly 80% of a person's lifetime sun exposure occurs before age 21. Many skin cancer risk behaviors begin in early childhood; therefore, it is important to target the pediatric population for skin cancer prevention education. Parents, teachers, day care providers, and health care professionals should make sun safety a regular part of their practice. School nurses, in particular, are in a prime setting for educating the greatest number of children about sun safety. Age-appropriate skin cancer prevention education should become a routine part of the health curriculum at all grade levels. Numerous on-line resources are available to assist school nurses in the development of age-appropriate teaching materials and sun exposure policies for schools.

  9. Culture and sun exposure in immigrant East Asian women living in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jang, Haeyoung; Koo, Fung Kuen; Ke, Liang; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Fraser, David R; Seibel, Marcus J; Tseng, Marilyn; Mpofu, Elias; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, researchers examined cultural and attitudinal factors that might be related to sun-exposure behaviors among East Asian women living in Australia. Researchers asked Chinese (n = 20) and Korean (n = 16) immigrant women who participated in a larger cross-sectional quantitative study of vitamin D blood levels to volunteer to participate in an in-depth interview in 2010. These women reported a number of cultural factors related to their attitudes and behaviors with regard to sun exposure. They expressed preference for fair skin, a tradition of covering skin when outdoors, and no sunbathing culture. They believed that fair skin was more beautiful than tanned skin. They reported that beauty was the reason for active avoidance of sunlight exposure. Although they reported knowledge of the need for sun avoidance due to skin cancer risk, few reported knowledge about the benefits of sun exposure for adequate vitamin D levels. These findings may provide some reasons for vitamin D deficiency previously reported in these populations. Thus, researchers recommend that these attitudes of excessive sun protection and limiting sun exposure be further investigated as they may have implications for planning and delivery of health promotion programs to this growing population of immigrants in Australia.

  10. Sun Exposure and Melanoma Survival: A GEM Study

    PubMed Central

    Berwick, Marianne; Reiner, Anne S.; Paine, Susan; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Kricker, Anne; Goumas, Chris; Cust, Anne E.; Thomas, Nancy E.; Groben, Pamela A.; From, Lynn; Busam, Klaus; Orlow, Irene; Marrett, Loraine D.; Gallagher, Richard P.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Rosso, Stefano; Zanetti, Roberto; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Dwyer, Terry; Venn, Alison; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Begg, Colin B.

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously reported a significant association between higher ultraviolet radiation exposure before diagnosis and greater survival with melanoma in a population-based study in Connecticut. We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that sun exposure prior to diagnosis was associated with greater survival in a larger, international population-based study with more detailed exposure information. Methods We conducted a multi-center, international population-based study in four countries – Australia, Italy, Canada and the United States – with 3,578 cases of melanoma with an average of 7.4 years of follow-up. Measures of sun exposure included sunburn, intermittent exposure, hours of holiday sun exposure, hours of water-related outdoor activities, ambient UVB dose, histological solar elastosis and season of diagnosis. Results Results were not strongly supportive of the earlier hypothesis. Having had any sunburn in one year within 10 years of diagnosis was inversely associated with survival; solar elastosis – a measure of lifetime cumulative exposure – was not. Additionally, none of the intermittent exposure measures – water related activities and sunny holidays - were associated with melanoma-specific survival. Estimated ambient UVB dose was not associated with survival. Conclusion Although there was an apparent protective effect of sunburns within 10 years of diagnosis, there was only weak evidence in this large, international, population-based study of melanoma that sun exposure prior to diagnosis is associated with greater melanoma-specific survival. Impact This study adds to the evidence that sun exposure prior to melanoma diagnosis has little effect on survival with melanoma. PMID:25069694

  11. Sunscreen use and increased duration of intentional sun exposure: still a burning issue.

    PubMed

    Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu; Doré, Jean-François

    2007-07-01

    Sunscreen use is often proposed for sun protection because of their ability to block UV-induced sunburns (the sun protection factor--SPF). Among suntan seekers, however, risk of cutaneous melanoma may be increased because of extended sun exposure duration. We made a systematic review of the evidence linking sunscreen use to sun exposure duration. Five observational studies found that when sun exposure was associated with willingness to get a tan or to stay longer in the sun (i.e., intentional sun exposure), sunscreen use was associated with duration of sun exposure 13-39% longer. Paradoxically, sunburns tend to be more frequent among sunscreen users, probably because of greater natural sun sensitivity. When sun exposure was not intentional, sunscreen use did not increase time spent in the sun. Two European double-blind randomized trials conducted among young sun seekers found daily sun exposure duration, especially sunbathing, 19-25% longer with use of SPF 30 than with use of SPF 10 sunscreens. One randomized trial in a holiday resort in France found a 3-13% increase in sun exposure duration with use of SPF 12 versus SPF 40 sunscreen. But, the SPF 12 groups used 3.6-4.2 more sunscreen than the SPF 40 group, and thus the actual SPF in the SPF 12 group was higher than in the SPF 40 groups. In conclusion, sunscreen use leads to longer duration of sun exposure when sun exposure is intentional, but not when sun exposure is non intentional.

  12. Sun protection policies of Australian primary schools in a region of high sun exposure.

    PubMed

    Harrison, S L; Garzón-Chavez, D R; Nikles, C J

    2016-06-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP available publicly. Total SPP scores were low {mean 3.6 [95% CI: 3.4-3.9]; median 2 [interquartile range (IQR) 2, 4]}, with only 3.2% of schools achieving the maximum score of 12. Median SPP scores were higher in Northern and Central Queensland [both 2 (IQR 2, 6) and (IQR 2, 5), respectively] than in Southern Queensland [2 (IQR 2, 3); P = 0.004]. Clothing and hat-wearing were addressed in most policies (96% and 89%) while few schools used their SPP to plan outdoor events (5.2%) or reschedule activities to minimize sun exposure (11.7%). The SunSmart Schools program has been operating in Queensland for 17 years, and while most primary schools now have a written SPP, most are not comprehensive. Incentive-based approaches (5-star-rating award scheme and grants) may assist in addressing this issue, to reduce sun exposure of students and teachers. These data provide a baseline from which improvements in the comprehensiveness of school SPPs can be evaluated.

  13. Elderly and sun-affected skin. Distinguishing between changes caused by aging and changes caused by habitual exposure to sun.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review and distinguish between skin changes produced by aging and changes produced by habitual exposure to sun. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The literature was searched from 1969 to 1999 for articles on dermatoheliosis and sun-damaged skin. Surprisingly few were found comparing the difference between elderly skin and sun-damaged skin. A few articles focused on certain small aspects of sun-damaged skin. Many excellent articles described particular changes (e.g., actinic keratosis), but few covered all the changes due to aging and to sun. MAIN MESSAGE: Skin changes due to aging can be distinguished from those due to sun damage. All changes due to sun exposure can be grouped under the term dermatoheliosis; five parts of the skin are involved: epidermis (actinic keratosis), dermis (solar elastosis), blood vessels (telangiectasia), sebaceous glands (solar comedones), and melanocytes (diffuse or mottled brown patches). Habitual exposure to sun and a white skin are prerequisites for developing these changes. Knowing the difference between changes caused by sun and by aging can help physicians predict which patients are most likely to get skin cancers. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of these common skin changes will help physicians diagnose and manage the skin abnormalities of elderly people and of people with dermatoheliosis. PMID:11421052

  14. Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Louise; Tjønneland, Anne; Køster, Brian; Brot, Christine; Andersen, Rikke; Lundqvist, Marika; Christensen, Jane; Olsen, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how vitamin D status is affected by adherence to UVB-limiting sun exposure guidelines. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between adherence to the Danish sun exposure guidelines and vitamin D status. In total, 3194 Danes (2625 adults, 569 children) were recruited among the general population, and more than 92% had blood samples taken both autumn and spring. Using linear regression, we associated serum vitamin D concentrations to questionnaire responses on: seeking shade, wearing a sunhat, wearing protective clothing or using sunscreen. The odds ratio (OR) of either low (<25 or 50 nmol/L) or adequate/high (≥50 nmol/L) vitamin D status was examined using logistic regression. For adults, those who always sought shade or wore protective clothing compared to those who did not had lower levels of vitamin D (autumn concentrations for shade: 7.2 nmol/L lower (−11.0–−3.6 nmol/L); for protective clothing: 9.9 nmol/L lower (−13.6–−6.2 nmol/L). Adherence to all four guidelines was also associated with lower vitamin D concentrations (autumn: 9.7 nmol/L lower (−14.3–−5.1 nmol/L). Use of sunscreen was associated with adequate vitamin D status, as those who always sought shade compared to those who did not had an OR (95% CI) of 1.68 (1.25–2.35) of having ≥50 nmol/L during both spring and autumn. No associations were found with wearing a sunhat, and there were no clear associations for children. In conclusion, adherence to the sun exposure guidelines on shade and protective clothing was associated with lower vitamin D status among Danish adults, but not children. PMID:27164133

  15. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Krzywanski, Jaroslaw; Mikulski, Tomasz; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Mlynczak, Marcel; Gaczynska, Ewa; Ziemba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure) and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in the years 2010-2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD-outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND-weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN-track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL-track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OH)D < 30 ng/ml) and were supplemented orally. Inadequate Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral supplementation

  16. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Krysztofiak, Hubert; Mlynczak, Marcel; Gaczynska, Ewa; Ziemba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure) and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in the years 2010–2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD—outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND—weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN—track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL—track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OH)D < 30 ng/ml) and were supplemented orally. Inadequate Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral

  17. Occupational sun exposure and risk of melanoma according to anatomical site.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Kylie; McGeechan, Kevin; Armstrong, Bruce K; Cust, Anne E

    2014-06-01

    Although sunburn and intermittent sun exposures are associated with increased melanoma risk, most studies have found null or inverse associations between occupational (more continuous pattern) sun exposure and melanoma risk. The association of melanoma with occupational sun exposure may differ according to anatomical site, with some studies finding a positive association with melanoma on the head and neck. We examined the association between occupational sun exposure (self-reported weekday sun exposure) and melanoma risk according to anatomical site, using data from two multicentre population-based case-control studies: the Australian Melanoma Family Study (588 cases, 472 controls) and the Genes, Environment and Melanoma study (GEM; 1079 cases, 2,181 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for potential confounders. Occupational sun exposure was not positively associated with melanoma risk overall or at different body sites in both studies. The GEM study found inverse associations between occupational sun exposure and melanoma on the head and neck [OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.56, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.36-0.86, ptrend 0.02], and between the proportion of total sun exposure occurring on weekdays and melanoma on the upper limbs (OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.66, 95% CI 0.42-1.02, ptrend 0.03). Our results suggest that occupational sun exposure does not increase risk of melanoma, even of melanomas situated on the head and neck. This finding seemed not to be due to negative confounding of occupational sun exposure by weekend sun.

  18. Local Adaptation of Sun-Exposure-Dependent Gene Expression Regulation in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Ryosuke; Fraser, Hunter B.

    2016-01-01

    Sun-exposure is a key environmental variable in the study of human evolution. Several skin-pigmentation genes serve as classical examples of positive selection, suggesting that sun-exposure has significantly shaped worldwide genomic variation. Here we investigate the interaction between genetic variation and sun-exposure, and how this impacts gene expression regulation. Using RNA-Seq data from 607 human skin samples, we identified thousands of transcripts that are differentially expressed between sun-exposed skin and non-sun-exposed skin. We then tested whether genetic variants may influence each individual’s gene expression response to sun-exposure. Our analysis revealed 10 sun-exposure-dependent gene expression quantitative trait loci (se-eQTLs), including genes involved in skin pigmentation (SLC45A2) and epidermal differentiation (RASSF9). The allele frequencies of the RASSF9 se-eQTL across diverse populations correlate with the magnitude of solar radiation experienced by these populations, suggesting local adaptation to varying levels of sunlight. These results provide the first examples of sun-exposure-dependent regulatory variation and suggest that this variation has contributed to recent human adaptation. PMID:27760139

  19. Reliability and validity of a telephone questionnaire for estimating lifetime personal sun exposure in epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Kricker, Anne; Vajdic, Claire M; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2005-10-01

    Our Australia-wide case-control study of ocular melanoma diagnosed in 1996 to 1997 needed a short telephone interview on sun exposure. We constructed one by examining data from 700 controls ages 40 to 64 years in the Geraldton Skin Cancer Survey in 1988; they had answered a "whole-of-life" questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. Sun exposure in their first 4 decade years of age best predicted their lifetime annual average sun exposure, so the shortened questionnaire asked about sun exposure in these 4 decade years only. Retesting 60 participants 1 year later with the whole-of-life questionnaire gave an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.78) for ranked total sun exposure between the two interviews; the intraclass correlation coefficient was higher in men (0.73) than in women (0.54). Correlations were also high between parallel measurements of sun exposure on working days in the decade years and in outdoor occupations throughout life in the telephone interview of the ocular melanoma study (Spearman's R = 0.75) and in another study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (R = 0.71). Agreement between simultaneous parallel measures of total exposure (nonworking + working day and recreational + occupational exposure) was slightly weaker and of nonworking day and recreational exposure much weaker. Occupational exposure in women was much less strongly correlated with total exposure than it was in men possibly because of their frequently combined work and family roles, which the questionnaires did not try to separate. Research is needed into how this might be done to improve sun exposure measurement in women.

  20. Dissemination of go sun smart in outdoor recreation: effect of program exposure on sun protection of guests at high-altitude ski areas.

    PubMed

    Walkosz, Barbara J; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Scott, Michael D; Dignan, Mark B; Cutter, Gary R; Liu, Xia; Maloy, Julie A

    2014-09-01

    Go Sun Smart is a theory-based health communication program designed to influence sun-protection behaviors of employees and guests at high-altitude ski areas to reduce skin cancer risk. The effects of Go Sun Smart, in a Phase IV dissemination randomized posttest-only trial, on sun-protection behaviors of ski area guests are reported. Program use was assessed by on-site observation and guest message exposure, and sun protection was measured in intercept surveys at ski areas. Dissemination strategy-enhanced versus basic-was not significantly related to sun safety practices. Additional analyses examined the relation between message exposure and guests' sun safety practices. Ski areas displaying at least 6 Go Sun Smart materials in guest-only areas and 9 Go Sun Smart materials throughout the area increased guests' message exposure. Higher message exposure within the high-use ski areas was associated with improved sun protection by guests but not within the low-use ski areas. The authors underscore the importance of program implementation and message exposure on the success of evidence-based health communication efforts applied industrywide.

  1. Sun Exposure and Protection Habits in Pediatric Patients with a History of Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Shraga, Yael; Cohen, Rinat; Ben Ami, Michal; Yeshayahu, Yonatan; Temam, Vered; Modan-Moses, Dalit

    2015-01-01

    Background Survivors of childhood cancer are at high risk for developing non-melanoma skin cancer and therefore are firmly advised to avoid or minimize sun exposure and adopt skin protection measures. We aimed to compare sun exposure and protection habits in a cohort of pediatric patients with a history of malignancy to those of healthy controls. Methods Case-control study of 143 pediatric patients with a history of malignancy (aged 11.2±4.6y, Male = 68, mean interval from diagnosis 4.4±3.8y) and 150 healthy controls (aged 10.4±4.8y, Male = 67). Sun exposure and protection habits were assessed using validated questionnaires. Results Patients and controls reported similar sun exposure time during weekdays (94±82minutes/day vs. 81±65minutes/day; p = 0.83), while during weekends patients spent significantly less time outside compared to controls (103±85minutes/day vs. 124±87minutes/day; p = 0.02). Time elapsed from diagnosis positively correlated with time spent outside both during weekdays (r = 0.194, p = 0.02) and weekends (r = 0.217, p = 0.01), and there was a step-up in sun exposure starting three years after diagnosis. There was no significant difference regarding composite sun protection score between patients and controls. Age was positively correlated with number of sunburns per year and sun exposure for the purpose of tanning, and was negatively correlated with the use of sun protection measures. Conclusions Although childhood cancer survivors are firmly instructed to adopt sun protection habits, the adherence to these instructions is incomplete, and more attention should be paid to improve these habits throughout their lives. Since sunlight avoidance may results in vitamin D deficiency, dietary supplementation will likely be needed. PMID:26348212

  2. Sun Protection Policies of Australian Primary Schools in a Region of High Sun Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, S. L.; Garzón-Chavez, D. R.; Nikles, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP…

  3. Sun exposure over a lifetime in Australian adults from latitudinally diverse regions.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Robyn M; Valery, Patricia; van der Mei, Ingrid; Dwyer, Terence; Pender, Michael P; Taylor, Bruce; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2013-01-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns in sun exposure underlie variations in skin cancer incidence and vitamin D deficiency, indicate effectiveness of sun protection programs and provide insights into future health risks. From 558 adults across four regions of Australia (Brisbane (27°S), Newcastle (33°S), Geelong and the Western Districts of Victoria (37°S) and Tasmania (43°S)), we collected: self-report data on time-in-the-sun from age 6 years; natural skin color and ethnicity; silicone skin casts (for cumulative skin damage); and serum for vitamin D status. Ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the location of residence, with time-in-the-sun, was used to calculate a "UVR dose" for each year of life. Individuals maintained their ranking compared to their peers for time-in-the-sun in summer compared to winter and across ages (Spearman rho 0.24-0.84, all P < 0.001). Time-in-the-sun decreased with age in all birth cohorts, and over calendar time. Summer time-in-the-sun increased with increasing latitude (P < 0.001). Seasonal variation in vitamin D status had greater amplitude and vitamin D deficiency increased with increasing latitude. Temporal patterns are consistent with effectiveness of sun protection programs. Higher relative time-in-the-sun persists from childhood through adulthood. Lower summer time-in-the-sun in the warmest location may have implications for predictions of UVR-related health risks of climate change.

  4. A survey of recreational sun exposure of residents of San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Newman, W G; Agro, A D; Woodruff, S I; Mayer, J A

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer in San Diego is one of the highest in the nation. Research has documented that excessive unprotected exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over time significantly increases a person's risk for developing various types of skin cancer. Our study investigated the amount of sun exposure and the practice of sun protection among San Diegans and examined factors thought to be associated with these behaviors. In April 1994, a random sample of 864 San Diego residents was surveyed by telephone. Because most survey questions specifically asked about sun exposure and sun protection when tanning versus recreating, the analyses were presented separately for recreators (i.e., those who spent time in the sun during the hours of 8:00 am and 6:00 pm for recreation last summer; n = 786) and tanners (i.e., those who spent at least 10% of their time in the sun to get a tan last summer; n = 464), a subset of recreators. Study results indicated that on average, 27% of the tanners' time in the sun last summer was spent getting a tan, and tanners reported using sunscreen about 50% of the time on both their face and body. In terms of sun protection while recreating, survey respondents reported using sunscreen on their face approximately 40% of the time compared to approximately 30% of the time on their body. Correlates of sun exposure and sun protection for both tanners and recreators included demographic characteristics, susceptibility factors, attitudes, and knowledge. The findings from this study support the need for education on skin cancer prevention. The practical implications of these findings are discussed in terms of appropriate community skin cancer prevention interventions. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): skin cancer, sunlight, behavior.

  5. Activity Monitors Help Users Get Optimum Sun Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Goddard scientist Shahid Aslam was investigating alternative methods for measuring extreme ultraviolet radiation on the Solar Dynamics Observatory when he hit upon semiconductors that measured wavelengths pertinent to human health. As a result, he and a partner established College Park, Maryland-based Sensor Sensor LLC and developed UVA+B SunFriend, a wrist monitor that lets people know when they've received their optimal amounts of sunlight for the day.

  6. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Naomi; Geldenhuys, Sian; Gorman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant burden on global healthcare due to its high prevalence and associations with chronic health conditions. In our animal studies, ongoing exposure to low dose ultraviolet radiation (UVR, found in sunlight) reduced weight gain and the development of signs of cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. These observations suggest that regular exposure to safe levels of sunlight could be an effective means of reducing the burden of obesity. However, there is limited knowledge around the nature of associations between sun exposure and the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction, and we do not know if sun exposure (independent of outdoor activity) affects the metabolic processes that determine obesity in humans. In addition, excessive sun exposure has strong associations with a number of negative health consequences such as skin cancer. This means it is very important to “get the balance right” to ensure that we receive benefits without increasing harm. In this review, we detail the evidence around the cardiometabolic protective effects of UVR and suggest mechanistic pathways through which UVR could be beneficial. PMID:27727191

  7. A Hands-On Activity to Raise Awareness about Healthy Sun Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    João Fonseca, Maria; Costa, Patrício; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes sunburn and has been consistently associated with increased susceptibility to melanoma and skin ageing. Acknowledging the need to promote healthy sun exposure habits, numerous educational initiatives have been developed to raise public awareness towards this issue. However, studies…

  8. Sun Exposure, Shade and Vitamin D: A Practical Activity for the Australian Climate and Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, David; Parisi, Alfio; Downs, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Australia has one of the highest rates of incidence and mortality due to skin cancer in the world. Exposure to the sun also has a beneficial side. The beneficial effects are relatively few, but they are essential to a person's well being. It is well known that exposure to small amounts of UV radiation are beneficial for the human body and…

  9. Skin pigmentation, sun exposure and vitamin D levels in children of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesised that light skin pigmentation has arisen to ensure adequate levels of vitamin D as human populations moved out of Africa and into higher latitudes. Vitamin D, which is primarily obtained through exposure to sunlight (specifically ultraviolet radiation B (UVR-B)), has been inversely associated with several complex diseases. Greater sun exposure, on the other hand, is a well-known cause of skin cancer. The potential of UVR to be beneficial for some health outcomes but detrimental for others has prompted a public health debate on how to balance the positive and negative consequences of sun exposure. In this study we aimed to determine the validity of the evolutionary hypothesis linking lighter skin with higher vitamin D concentrations in a European population. Additionally, we aimed to examine the influence of pigmentation on personal behaviour towards sunlight exposure and the effects of this behaviour on vitamin D. Methods We combined genetic variants strongly associated with skin colour, tanning or freckling to create genetic scores for each of these phenotypes. We examined the association of the scores with pigmentary traits, sun exposure and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels among children of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, N = 661 to 5649). Results We found that fairer-skinned children, i.e. those with higher pigmentation score values, had higher levels of 25(OH)D (0.6 nmol/l; 95% CI 0.2, 1.0; per unit increase in skin colour score; N = 5649). These children also used more protection against the damaging effects of UVR. Conclusions In this population taking protective measures against sunburn and skin cancer does not seem to remove the positive effect that having a less pigmented skin has on vitamin D production. Our findings require further replication as skin pigmentation showed only a small effect on circulating 25(OH)D. PMID:24924479

  10. Using behavioral economics to promote healthy behavior toward sun exposure in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    García-Romero, Maria T; Geller, Alan C; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer represents an important public health problem, and it is associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure, particularly at early ages. Unhealthy sun exposure and intentional tanning continue to be the trend among young people. Multiple interventions to raise awareness of the risks of sun exposure have been implemented, without necessarily translating into decreased unhealthy behaviors or skin cancer incidence rates. Behavioral economics adds a set of concepts and tools to potentially boost the efficacy of existing approaches to decrease unhealthy sun exposure. This paper reviews public health interventions that have been based in behavioral economics concepts and their results, and provides examples of new and creative ways physicians and health professionals can actively apply insights from behavioral economics to counsel teenagers and young adults about skin cancer prevention.

  11. Sun exposure, sunbeds and sunscreens and melanoma. What are the controversies?

    PubMed

    Bataille, Veronique

    2013-12-01

    The association between various measures of sun exposure and melanoma risk is quite complex to dissect as many case-control studies of melanoma included different subtypes of melanomas which are likely to be biologically different, so interpretation of the data is difficult. Screening bias in countries with high levels of sun exposure is also an issue. Now that progress is being made in the genetic subclassification of melanoma tumours, it is apparent that melanomas have different somatic changes according to body sites/histological subtypes and that UV exposure may be relevant for some but not all types of melanomas. Melanoma behaviour also points to non-sun-related risk factors, and complex gene-environment interactions are likely. As UV exposure is the only environmental factor ever linked to melanoma, it is still prudent to avoid excessive sun exposure and sunburn especially in poor tanners. However, the impact of strict sun avoidance, which should not be recommended, may take years to be apparent as vitamin D deficiency is a now a common health issue in Caucasian populations, with a significant impact on health in general.

  12. Effect of physical activity and sun exposure on vitamin D status of Saudi children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East. In this context, we aimed to determine whether the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is related to degree of physical activity and sun exposure among apparently healthy Saudi children and adolescents, a little studied population. Methods A total of 331 Saudi children aged 6–17 years (153 boys and 178 girls) were included in this cross sectional study. Levels of physical activity and sun exposure were determined using a standard questionnaire. Anthropometry, serum calcium and 25-(OH) vitamin D were analyzed. Results All subjects were vitamin D deficient, the majority being moderately deficient (71.6%). Age was the single most significant predictor affecting 25 (OH) Vitamin D levels, explaining 21% of the variance perceived (p = 1.68 x 10-14). Age-matched comparisons revealed that for groups having the same amount of sun exposure, those with moderate or are physically active will have higher levels of vitamin D status, though levels in across groups remained deficient. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is common among Saudi children and adolescents, and is influenced by both sun exposure and physical activity. Promotion of an active outdoor lifestyle among Saudi children in both homes and schools may counteract the vitamin D deficiency epidemic in this vulnerable population. Vitamin D supplementation is suggested in all groups, including those with the highest sun exposure and physical activity. PMID:22759399

  13. Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, and risk of advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    John, Esther M; Schwartz, Gary G; Koo, Jocelyn; Van Den Berg, David; Ingles, Sue A

    2005-06-15

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that the hormonal form of vitamin D promotes the differentiation and inhibits the proliferation, invasiveness, and metastasis of human prostatic cancer cells. Results from epidemiologic studies of vitamin D status and/or vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk have been mixed. We conducted a population-based, case-control study of advanced prostate cancer among men ages 40 to 79 years from the San Francisco Bay area. Interview data on lifetime sun exposure and other risk factors were collected for 905 non-Hispanic White men (450 cases and 455 controls). Using a reflectometer, we measured constitutive skin pigmentation on the upper underarm (a sun-protected site) and facultative pigmentation on the forehead (a sun-exposed site) and calculated a sun exposure index from these measurements. Biospecimens were collected for 426 cases and 440 controls. Genotyping was done for VDR polymorphisms in the 5' regulatory region (Cdx-2), exon 2 (FokI), and the 3' region (TaqI and BglI). Reduced risk of advanced prostate cancer was associated with high sun exposure determined by reflectometry [odds ratio (OR), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.33-0.80] and high occupational outdoor activity (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.48-1.11). Significant risk reductions with the high-activity alleles FokI FF or Ff, TaqI tt, and BglI BB genotypes and a nonsignificant reduction with Cdx-2 AG or AA genotype were observed in the presence of high sun exposure, with ORs ranging from 0.46 to 0.67. Our findings support the hypothesis that sun exposure and VDR polymorphisms together play important roles in the etiology of prostate cancer.

  14. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe; Yepes, Pablo

    2009-03-10

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

  15. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang, Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Yepes, Pablo; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe

    2009-03-01

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

  16. Sun exposure, skin color and vitamin D status in Arab children and adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Khan, Nasiruddin; Sabico, Shaun; Aljohani, Naji; Alfawaz, Hanan; Alsulaimani, Maha; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M; Alokail, Majed S

    2016-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East and North African countries. Sunlight has long been recognized as a major provider of vitamin D and lighter skin color has been associated with better vitamin D status. In this context, we aimed to determine whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25-(OH)D] concentrations are related to skin color, sun exposure and gender among healthy Saudi children and adults. A total of 808 Saudi children (age=14.6±0.04years) and 561 (age=31.4±0.3years) adults of both genders were included in this study. Levels of sun exposure and skin color were determined using a standard questionnaire. Anthropometry and plasma 25-(OH)D concentrations were analyzed. On the basis of duration of sun exposure (<20min vs. >20min), a significantly lower concentration of 25-(OH)D (40.9±1.2 vs. 35.5±1.8nmol/l; p<0.019) was demonstrated in dark-skinned boys with exposure time less than 20min than those exposed longer than 20min. We were unable to show an effect of sunlight exposure or skin color on vitamin D status of children or adults, except in dark-skinned boys who had lower 25(OH)D concentrations associated with limited sun exposure.

  17. Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    John, Esther M; Schwartz, Gary G; Koo, Jocelyn; Wang, Wei; Ingles, Sue A

    2007-12-15

    Considerable evidence indicates that vitamin D may reduce the risk of several cancers, including breast cancer. This study examined associations of breast cancer with sun exposure, the principal source of vitamin D, and vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms (FokI, TaqI, BglI) in a population-based case-control study of Hispanic, African-American, and non-Hispanic White women aged 35-79 years from the San Francisco Bay Area of California (1995-2003). In-person interviews were obtained for 1,788 newly diagnosed cases and 2,129 controls. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the upper underarm (a sun-protected site that measures constitutive pigmentation) and on the forehead (a sun-exposed site) using reflectometry. Biospecimens were collected for a subset of the study population (814 cases, 910 controls). A high sun exposure index based on reflectometry was associated with reduced risk of advanced breast cancer among women with light constitutive skin pigmentation (odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.91). The association did not vary with VDR genotype. No associations were found for women with medium or dark pigmentation. Localized breast cancer was not associated with sun exposure or VDR genotype. This study supports the hypothesis that sunlight exposure reduces risk of advanced breast cancer among women with light skin pigmentation.

  18. Dissemination of Go Sun Smart in Outdoor Recreation: Effect of Program Exposure on Sun Protection of Guests at High Altitude Ski Areas

    PubMed Central

    WALKOSZ, BARBARA J.; BULLER, DAVID B.; ANDERSEN, PETER A.; SCOTT, MICHAEL D.; DIGNAN, MARK B.; CUTTER, GARY R.; LIU, XIA; MALOY, JULIE A.

    2014-01-01

    Go Sun Smart (GSS) is a theory-based health communication program designed to influence sun protection behaviors of employees and guests at high altitude ski areas to reduce skin cancer risk. The effects of GSS, in a Phase IV dissemination randomized posttest-only trial, upon sun protection behaviors of ski area guests are reported. Program use was assessed by on-site observation and guest message exposure and sun protection was measured in intercept surveys at ski areas. Dissemination strategy, enhanced versus basic, was not significantly related to sun safety practices. Additional analyses examined the relationship of message exposure to guests’ sun safety practices. Ski areas displaying at least 6 GSS materials in guest-only areas and 9 GSS materials throughout the area increased guests’ message exposure. Higher message exposure within the high-use ski areas was associated with improved sun protection by guests but not in the low-use ski areas. The importance of program implementation and message exposure on the success of evidence-based health communication efforts applied industry-wide are underscored. PMID:24617350

  19. Sun behaviour and personal UVR exposure among Europeans on short term holidays.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Bibi; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Maier, Bernhard; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Heydenreich, Jakob; Dadvand, Payam; Maier, Harald; Grage, Mette Marie-Louise; Harrison, Graham I; Schmalwieser, Alois W; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Young, Antony R; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2015-10-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be the main cause of skin cancer, the incidence of which is rising with national differences across Europe. With this observation study we aimed to determine the impact of nationality on sun behaviour and personal UVR exposure on sun and ski holidays. 25 Danish and 20 Spanish sun-seekers were observed during a sun holiday in Spain, and 26 Danish and 27 Austrian skiers were observed during a ski holiday in Austria. The participants recorded their location and clothing in diaries. Personal time-logged UVR data were recorded as standard erythema doses (SEDs) by an electronic UVR dosimeter worn on the wrist. Danish sun-seekers were outdoors for significantly longer, received significant higher percentages of ambient UVR, and received greater accumulated UVR doses than Spanish sun-seekers. Danish skiers were also outdoors for significantly longer than Austrian skiers, but the behaviour of the Danish skiers did not result in significantly greater accumulated UVR doses. Both Danish and Spanish sun-seekers and Danish and Austrian skiers received substantial UVR doses. The behaviour's influence on the UVR doses received by the Danish participants may indicate an explanation of the higher skin cancer incidence among Scandinavians compared with other European populations.

  20. Solar UVR exposure, concurrent activities and sun-protective practices among primary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caradee Y; Reeder, Anthony I; Bodeker, Gregory E; Gray, Andrew; Cox, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive measures of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, concurrent activities and sun-protective practices are needed to develop and evaluate skin cancer prevention and sun protection interventions. The UVR exposures of 345 primary schoolchildren at 23 schools around New Zealand were measured using electronic UVR monitors for 1-week periods over 12 weeks in 2004 and 2005. In addition, ambient UVR levels on a horizontal surface were measured on-site at each school. Children completed activity diaries during the period UVR measurements were made and provided information on their indoor and outdoor status and clothing and sun protection worn. Mean total daily UVR exposure (7:00-20:00 h NZST + 1) at the body location where the UVR monitors were worn was 0.9 SED (standard erythemal dose, 1 SED = 100 J m(-2)). This was 4.9% of the ambient UVR on a horizontal surface. Mean time spent outdoors was 2.3 h day(-1). Differences in children's UVR exposure could be explained in part by activity, where outdoor passive pursuits were associated with higher UVR exposure rates than outdoor active and outdoor travel pursuits. Compared with older children, the activities of younger children, although labeled the same, resulted in different UVR exposures, either as a result of reporting differences or a real difference in UVR exposure patterns. UVR exposure rates were generally higher on weekdays compared with the weekend, confirming the important role of school sun protection and skin cancer prevention programs. High UVR exposure activities included physical education, athletics and lunch break.

  1. Sun exposure, sexual behavior and uterine cervical human papilloma virus.

    PubMed

    Hrushesky, William J M; Sothern, Robert B; Rietveld, Wop J; Du-Quiton, Jovelyn; Boon, Mathilde E

    2006-01-01

    We have previously observed marked seasonal fluctuations in the frequency of cervical smears positive for human papilloma virus (HPV) in a series of smears obtained in Holland, with a peak in the summer months, especially August. Here, we tested two possible mechanisms that might underlie this summer peak: (1) enhanced transmission of HPV due to increased seasonal sexual activity, or (2) suppression of immunity due to summertime population exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Data derived from a continuous series of >900,000 independent cervical smears obtained from 1983 to 1998 were assessed for histopathologic epithelial changes pathognomonic of HPV. The rate of HPV positivity was then compared to both the rate of sexual activity (using conception frequency as a readily available surrogate) as well as yearly and monthly fluctuations in solar-UV fluency. The rate of HPV positivity was found to be twice as high during the summer months, with a peak in August corresponding with maximal UV fluency. Furthermore, over these 16 consecutive years of continuous observation, maximum HPV detection rate and maximum UV fluency are positively correlated (r=0.59, P<0.01); the sunnier the year, the greater the rate of HPV. Likewise, there is a positive correlation of the monthly UV fluency, and monthly HPV discovery rate (r=0.16, P<0.03). In contrast, conception frequency (and, presumably, population sexual HPV transmission) was maximal near the vernal equinox, with relatively modest (<10%) seasonal fluctuation, i.e., not fully explaining this prominent August peak in HPV discovery. There is a clear relationship between the detection of HPV-positive cervical smears and sunlight exposure. We speculate that the well-known phenomenon of UV-mediated suppression of immune surveillance may be causally related to this unusual increase in cytologically defined active HPV infections during the summer months in northern countries such as Holland. Confirming this relationship

  2. Occupation and factors associated with exposure to the sun among beach workers.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Eudes Euler de Souza; Costa, Danielle Clarisse Barbosa; da Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2014-04-01

    Subjects were selected from five urban beaches to characterize the type of work conducted on urban beaches in the city of Natal, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and determine potential associated factors among workers exposed to the sun. Data collection was based on a validated questionnaire. Results were obtained for 362 workers. Individuals were predominantly male (72.6%) who worked under direct exposure to the sun (87.8%). Almost 95% had no more than 6 years of schooling and 87.91% earned an average monthly income of $318.75 dollars or more. Photoprotection was reported by 80.1%, among which sunscreen and caps/hats were predominant. Around 25% smoked and more than half did not consume alcohol. Male gender, no more than 6 years of schooling, daily exposure for up to 6 hours and use of photoprotection were the factors associated with the outdoor work category.

  3. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey.

    PubMed

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-19

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26797627

  5. Exposure to mass media health information, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection behaviors in a United States probability sample

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer; Coups, Elliot J.; Ford, Jennifer; DiBonaventura, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Background The mass media is increasingly important in shaping a range of health beliefs and behaviors. Objective We examined the association between mass media health information exposure (general health, cancer, sun-protection information), skin cancer beliefs and sun protection behaviors. Methods We utilized a general population national probability sample comprised of 1,633 individuals with no skin cancer history (Health Information National Trends Survey, 2005, National Cancer Institute) and examined univariate and multivariate associations between family history of skin cancer, mass media exposure, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection (use of sunscreen, shade-seeking, and use of sun-protective clothing). Results Mass media exposure was higher in younger individuals, and among those who were Caucasian and more highly educated. More accurate skin cancer beliefs and more adherent sun protection practices were reported by older individuals, and among those who were Caucasian and more highly educated. Recent Internet searches for health or sun-protection information was associated with sunscreen use. Limitations Study limitations include the self-report nature of sun protection behaviors and cross-sectional study design. Conclusion We identify demographic differences in mass media health exposure, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection behaviors that will contribute to planning skin cancer awareness and prevention messaging across diverse population subgroups. PMID:19596487

  6. Evaluation of fall Sun Exposure Score in predicting vitamin D status in young Canadian adults, and the influence of ancestry.

    PubMed

    Sham, Lauren; Yeh, E Ann; Magalhaes, Sandra; Parra, Esteban J; Gozdzik, Agnes; Banwell, Brenda; Hanwell, Heather E

    2015-04-01

    Query of sun-related habits or ancestry could help screen for risk of vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<75nmol/L). We evaluated the association between Sun Exposure Score (calculated from recall of Time Exposed to Sun and Skin Exposed to Sun in the previous week), demographics and anthropometrics (including self-reported ancestry and skin melanin reflectometry), and serum 25(OH)D levels in healthy young Canadian adults in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA; 43°N) during fall. 310 adults (67% female) of European, East Asian, and South Asian ancestries were evaluated. The median (interquartile range) 25(OH)D level was 49.7nmol/L (36.7-70.3) and 80% of participants were vitamin D insufficient. The vast majority of those of East and South Asian ancestry were vitamin D insufficient (91% and 97%, respectively), as were 55% of those of European ancestry. Sun Exposure Score and 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated after accounting for confounders. A multivariable model showed ancestry, recent summer sun exposure, sex, melanin, vitamin D intake, age and year of study significantly predicted 25(OH)D concentration; ancestry was the strongest independent predictor (adjusted R(2)=43%). Although Sun Exposure Score was not a significant predictor of serum 25(OH)D levels, inquiry of ancestry has potential use in screening for vitamin D insufficiency.

  7. Sun Exposure, Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms FokI and BsmI and Risk of Multiple Primary Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Mandelcorn-Monson, Rochelle; Marrett, Loraine; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Orlow, Irene; Goumas, Chris; Paine, Susan; Rosso, Stefano; Thomas, Nancy; Millikan, Robert C.; Pole, Jason D.; Cotignola, Javier; Rosen, Cheryl; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Begg, Colin B.; Berwick, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Sunlight exposure increases risk of melanoma. Sunlight also potentiates cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D, which can inhibit melanoma cell growth and promote apoptosis. Vitamin D effects are mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We hypothesized that genetic variation in VDR affects the relationship of sun exposure to risk of a further melanoma in people who have already had one. We investigated the interaction between VDR polymorphisms and sun exposure in a population-based multinational study comparing 1138 patients with a multiple (second or subsequent) primary melanoma (cases) to 2151 patients with a first primary melanoma (controls); essentially a case-control study of melanoma in a population of melanoma survivors. Sun exposure was assessed using a questionnaire and interview, and was shown to be associated with multiple primary melanoma. VDR was genotyped at the FokI and BsmI loci and the main effects of variants at these loci and their interactions with sun exposure were analyzed. Only the BsmI variant was associated with multiple primary melanoma (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 0.99-1.62 for the homozygous variant genotype). Joint effects analyses showed highest ORs in the high exposure, homozygous variant BsmI genotype category for each sun exposure variable. Stratified analyses showed somewhat higher ORs for the homozygous BsmI variant genotype in people with high sun exposure than with low sun exposure. P values for interaction, however, were high. These results suggest that risk of multiple primary melanoma is increased in people who have the BsmI variant of VDR. PMID:21612999

  8. An examination of direct and indirect effects of exposure and attention to health media on intentions to avoid unprotected sun exposure.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Jennette; Riffe, Daniel; Lovejoy, Travis I

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States, accounting for more than 2 million diagnoses and more than 9,000 deaths annually. A regional online survey of students enrolled at institutions of higher education (N = 1,251) examined (a) associations between health media use and intentions to avoid unprotected sun exposure and (b) theoretically derived health behavior constructs that may mediate the relationship between media use and individuals' decisions to avoid unprotected sun exposure. Individuals with greater exposure and attention to health information in television, magazines, and newspapers had higher intentions to avoid unprotected sun exposure. Multiple mediation models indicated that health behavior constructs collectively mediated the relationship between television use and sun-protective behavioral intentions. Both cumulative and specific indirect mediating effects were observed for the relationship between magazine use and sun-protective behavioral intentions. However, the direction of effects was opposite to the hypothesized direction, due primarily to the association of magazine use with less favorable attitudes about sun protection and reduced behavioral control to avoid unprotected sun exposure. This study provides preliminary evidence for the interrelationships among media use, internal psychological states and cognitions, and health behavior decision making. Future studies should further explicate the mediating processes that account for the relationships between media and health behavior.

  9. Host characteristics, sun exposure, indoor tanning and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Veierød, Marit B; Couto, Elisabeth; Lund, Eiliv; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-07-15

    Use of indoor tanning devices increases risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma, but the association with risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is unclear. Cohort studies of SCC risk are rare and we aimed to assess the association between SCC risk and host characteristics, sun exposure, and indoor tanning in a population-based cohort of Norwegian and Swedish women conjunctly with SCC incidence data from national cancer registries. Host characteristics and exposure to sun and indoor tanning devices before 50-years old were recorded by questionnaire at inclusion (30-50 years) in 1991/92. Multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression. During follow-up of 106,548 women through December 2009, SCC was diagnosed in 141 women. Skin sensitivity to acute sun exposure was the most important pigmentation characteristic (RR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.47-5.05, for red with pain/red with pain and blisters versus brown). We found no consistent associations with sunburns and bathing vacations in the first five age decades, but a significant positive trend for bathing vacations summarized over ages 10-49 years (Ptrend  = 0.02). We also found significantly increased risks of SCC following indoor tanning at age 40-49 years (RR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.29-3.67, for ≥ 1 time/month versus never) and indoor tanning summarized over ages 10-49 years (Ptrend  = 0.001). RR for ever versus never use of indoor tanning over ages 10-49 years was 1.93 (95% CI 1.27-2.95). Propensity to burn was an important host characteristic, and bathing vacations and indoor tanning summarized over ages 10-49 years increased SCC risk.

  10. Addressing the health benefits and risks, involving vitamin D or skin cancer, of increased sun exposure

    PubMed Central

    Moan, Johan; Porojnicu, Alina Carmen; Dahlback, Arne; Setlow, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    Solar radiation is the main cause of skin cancers. However, it also is a main source of vitamin D for humans. Because the optimal status of vitamin D protects against internal cancers and a number of other diseases, a controversy exists: Will increased sun exposure lead to net health benefits or risks? We calculated the relative yield of vitamin D photosynthesis as a function of latitude with a radiative transfer model and cylinder geometry for the human skin surface. The annual yield of vitamin D is 3.4 and 4.8 times larger below the equator than in the U.K. and Scandinavia, respectively. In populations with similar skin types, there are clear latitude gradients of all major forms of skin cancer, indicating a north–south gradient in real sun exposure. Surprisingly, the incidence rates of major internal cancers also increase from north to south. However, the survival prognosis also improves significantly from north to south. Reasons for these findings are discussed in view of the role of vitamin D. In Norway, melanoma rates increased by a factor of 6 from 1960 to 1990, while the prognosis improved in the same period. After 1990, melanoma rates have remained constant or even decreased in age groups <50 years, whereas the prognosis has not improved further. These data, together with those for internal cancers and the beneficial effects of an optimal vitamin D status, indicate that increased sun exposure may lead to improved cancer prognosis and, possibly, give more positive than adverse health effects. PMID:18180454

  11. Sun exposure: what molecular photodermatology tells us about its good and bad sides.

    PubMed

    Krutmann, Jean; Morita, Akimichi; Chung, Jin Ho

    2012-03-01

    The health consequences of sun exposure have concerned mankind for more than 100 years. Recent molecular studies in photodermatology have greatly advanced our understanding of this important topic. We will illustrate this progress by focusing on the following selected topics: (i) the nature of the DNA damage-independent part of the UVB response of human skin and the role of the arylhydrocarbon receptor in cutaneous biology, (ii) the contribution of wavelengths beyond the UV spectrum to solar radiation-induced skin damage, (iii) the emerging evidence that subcutaneous fat is a target tissue for sunlight, and (iv) the most recent insight into the mode of action of phototherapy.

  12. SFDT-1 Camera Pointing and Sun-Exposure Analysis and Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Joseph; Dutta, Soumyo; Striepe, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) vehicle was developed to advance and test technologies of NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Technology Demonstration Mission. The first flight test (SFDT-1) occurred on June 28, 2014. In order to optimize the usefulness of the camera data, analysis was performed to optimize parachute visibility in the camera field of view during deployment and inflation and to determine the probability of sun-exposure issues with the cameras given the vehicle heading and launch time. This paper documents the analysis, results and comparison with flight video of SFDT-1.

  13. Adolescent Dietary Vitamin D and Sun Exposure in Relation to Benign Breast Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Berkey, Catherine S.; Colditz, Graham A.; Giovannucci, Edward; Malspeis, Susan; Willett, Walter C.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vitamin D may reduce cell proliferation and tumor growth in breast tissue, and exposure may be most important during adolescence when breast tissue is developing. In the Nurses’ Health Study II, higher recalled adolescent vitamin D intake was associated with a lower risk of benign breast disease (BBD). Our study aim was to assess adolescent vitamin D exposure in relation to BBD in young women. Methods Vitamin D was assessed in 6,593 adolescent girls (9 to 15 years of age at baseline) in the prospective Growing Up Today Study cohort using the mean energy-adjusted intakes from food frequency questionnaires in 1996, 1997, and 1998. In 1999, 5286 girls reported skin color, sunscreen use, tanning bed use, and number of sunburns in the past year, and we used state of residence to assess low vs. high ultraviolet (UV) index. Biopsy-confirmed BBD was reported on questionnaires in 2005, 2007, and 2010 (n=122). Results Dietary vitamin D, tanning behaviors, and other sun exposure variables were not significantly associated with BBD in logistic regression models adjusted for age, family history of breast cancer or BBD, age at menarche, nulliparity, alcohol intake, body mass index, and physical activity. The relative risk for the top (>467 IU/day) vs. bottom (<243 IU/day) quartile of vitamin D intake was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.23). Conclusions Sun exposure was not significantly associated with BBD in this prospective cohort study. However, a suggestive inverse association between dietary vitamin D and BBD was observed that merits further study. PMID:26084210

  14. Vitamin D intake determines vitamin d status of postmenopausal women, particularly those with limited sun exposure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Millen, Amy E; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Beresford, Shirley A A; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Zheng, Yingye; Goodman, Gary E; Thornquist, Mark D; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2014-05-01

    Few detailed data are available on the wide range of determinants of vitamin D status among postmenopausal women, and it is also unclear whether there may be undiscovered determinants. The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in a large cohort of postmenopausal women. Data from a subset of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study were analyzed (50-79 y; n = 3345). Information on diet, lifestyle behaviors, secondhand smoke, use of dietary supplements and medication, chronic diseases, and anthropometry was collected at baseline (1993-1998) and on sun exposure at year 4 follow-up. Linear regression was performed to estimate regression coefficients (β). Significant determinants were total vitamin D intake (food plus supplements per 100 IU/d, β = 2.08), years of supplemental vitamin D use (β = 0.15), total fat intake (grams per day, β = -0.03), smoking status (β = -2.64, current vs. never), regional solar irradiance (β = 6.26, 475-500 vs. 300-325 Langleys), daylight time spent outdoors in summer (β = 5.15, >2 h vs. <30 min/d), recreational physical activity (metabolic equivalent task per hour per week, β = 0.13), waist circumference (centimeters, β = -0.26), and race/ethnicity (β = -11.94, black vs. white). Total vitamin D intake (partial R(2) = 0.09) explained the most variance in serum 25(OH)D concentrations (total R(2) = 0.29). The association between total vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D concentrations was stronger among participants who spent less rather than more daylight time outdoors in summer (P-interaction = 0.026). History and medications for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type 2 diabetes and secondhand smoke exposure were not associated with serum 25(OH)D. In conclusion, dietary factors and sun exposure remain important determinants of vitamin D status in postmenopausal women. Vitamin D intake should be emphasized for those with limited sun exposure.

  15. Sun Exposure, Vitamin D Receptor Genetic Variants, and Risk of Breast Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Satagopan, Jaya; Sima, Camelia S.; Orlow, Irene; Mujumdar, Urvi; Coble, Joseph; Roy, Pampa; Yoo, Sarah; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests a negative relation between sunlight exposure and breast cancer risk. The hypothesized mechanism is sunlight-induced cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D. Objectives: Our goal was to examine sun exposure and its interaction with vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene variants on breast cancer risk. Methods: We examined sun exposure and breast cancer incidence among 31,021 private pesticide applicators’ wives, including 578 cases, enrolled in the prospective Agricultural Health Study cohort and followed 8.6 years on average. We estimated interactions between sun exposure, VDR variants, and breast cancer in a nested case–control study comprising 293 cases and 586 matched controls. Information on sun exposure was obtained by questionnaire at cohort enrollment. Relative risks were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression for the cohort data and conditional logistic regression for the nested case–control data. Results: We observed a small decrease in breast cancer risk in association with usual sun exposure of ≥ 1 hr/day (versus < 1 hr/day) 10 years before the start of follow-up among all participants [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.0]. The association appeared to be slightly stronger in relation to estrogen receptor–positive tumors (HR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5, 0.9) than estrogen receptor–negative tumors (HR = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.6, 2.1). The HR for joint exposure ≥ 1 hr/day of sunlight and one VDR haplotype was less than expected given negative HRs for each individual exposure (interaction p-value = 0.07). Conclusion: Our results suggest that sun exposure may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, but we did not find clear evidence of modification by VDR variants. Larger studies are warranted, particularly among populations in whom low levels of usual sun exposure can be more precisely characterized. Citation: Engel LS, Satagopan J, Sima CS, Orlow I, Mujumdar U, Coble J, Roy P, Yoo S, Sandler DP

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p < 0.001). Likewise, respondents from the middle social class and those with higher education levels were more likely to be informed (p < 0.02). The prevalence of regular sunscreen use among study participants was only 23.7%, and female and employed respondents were more likely to use sunscreen (p < 0.001). Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  17. Comparison of self-reported lifetime sun exposure with two methods of cutaneous microtopography.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Lynn; Knight, Julia A; Vieth, Reinhold; Barnett, Heidi; Wong, Ansely

    2007-01-15

    There is currently no "gold standard" for measuring lifetime sun exposure. Exploration of alternatives to self-reports is important for examining illnesses related to ultraviolet light exposure. Using skin replicas obtained from 184 controls in a breast cancer case-control study (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2004-2005), the authors compared self-reported indicators of lifetime sun exposure with two measures of cutaneous microtopography, the Beagley-Gibson system and skin line counts. With the Beagley-Gibson system, significantly increased odds ratios were found for age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.16), spending 7 days outside per week during the summer (OR = 3.33, 95% CI: 1.48, 7.50), and lifetime number of sunlamp sessions. Significantly decreased odds ratios were found for having darker skin, ever giving birth, and ever using sunlamps. With the skin line count approach, significant positive associations were found for age (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.35), age squared, duration of working in outdoor jobs (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.79, 0.98), and average number of outdoor activities per week at ages 20-29 years (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.10). While the Beagley-Gibson method was associated with more variables than the skin line count method, both methods require further refinement before graded skin replicas can be recommended as a substitute for self-report measures.

  18. Sun exposure behaviour among subgroups of the Danish population. Based on personal electronic UVR dosimetry and corresponding exposure diaries.

    PubMed

    Thieden, Elisabeth

    2008-02-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be the most important etiological factor in skin cancer development. The main objective of this thesis was to achieve an objective, basic knowledge of the individual UVR exposure dose pattern and to reveal the factors and with which power they influence on the UVR dose among the Danes. Eight open prospective, observational studies and one study analyzing the compliance and reliability of data were performed in healthy Danish volunteers with an age range of 4-68 years. The subjects were chosen to cover an age span group of children, adolescents, and indoor workers and in addition, groups with expected high UVR exposure, sun worshippers, golfers, and gardeners. We developed a personal, electronic UVR dosimeter in a wristwatch (SunSaver). The subjects wore the UVR dosimeter that measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SED) and completed diaries with data on their sun exposure behaviour. This resulted in corresponding UVR dosimeter and diary data from 346 sun-years where one sun-year is one person participating in one summer half-year (median 119 days). The annual UVR doses were calculated based on the personal and ambient measured UVR doses. We found a huge variation in annual UVR exposure dose within the total population sample, median 173 SED (range, 17-980 SED). The inter-group variation in annual UVR dose was from median 132 SED among indoor workers to median 224 SED among gardeners. No significant correlation was found between annual UVR dose and age either within the total population or among the adults. But the subjects below 20 years of age had an increase in annual UVR dose of 5 SED per year. Young people before the age of 20 years did not get a higher proportion of the lifetime UVR dose than expected (25%) when assuming a life expectancy of 80 years. There was no significant difference in annual UVR dose between males and females in the total population sample. But, among children, girls

  19. [Reconstructed breast burns following black clothes wearing and short sun exposure].

    PubMed

    Grecea, M; Scevola, A; Toussoun, G; Clough, K; Delay, E

    2013-02-01

    Breast reconstructions are plastic surgeries that female patients, who have undergone mastectomies, are increasingly using. While the morphological results are appreciated by patients themselves as being more and more satisfactory, results in terms of sensitivity remain uncertain and depend on type of reconstruction used. The chest wall skin already desensitized by mastectomy and exposed to radiotherapy presents disturbance of blood supply and innervation, likely responsible for impaired local thermoregulation that can easily lead to thermal burn injuries. Our paper presents a rare ethiopathological burn entity on the reconstructed breast: the association between short sun exposure and wearing black clothes. This aetiology of burns must be known by patients and by plastic surgeons in order to prevent dramatic clinical situations leading up to the loss of the reconstruction.

  20. The association between osteoporotic hip fractures and actinic lesions as a biomarker for cumulative sun exposure in older people-a retrospective case-control study in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Perroud, H A; Dagatti, M S; Amigot, B; Levit, G P; Tomat, M F; Morosano, M E; Masoni, A M; Pezzotto, S M

    2016-04-02

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the presence of actinic lesions (solar keratosis and non-melanoma skin cancer) and osteoporotic hip fractures in older patients. Both pathologies are common conditions in this age group. Since cumulative sun exposure is difficult to quantify, the presence of actinic lesions can be used to indirectly analyze the association between ultraviolet radiation and osteoporotic hip fractures. This was an observational case-control study. We reviewed the centralized medical records of patients with hip fracture (cases, n = 51) and patients with other diseases hospitalized in the same institution and period (controls, n = 59). The mean age of the patients was 80 ± 8.3 years (range 50-103 years). Differences in maternal hip fracture history were found between cases and controls (14.8 and 8 %, respectively; p = 0.047). Falls history in the past year was higher in cases than in controls (p < 0.0001). Actinic lesions were observed in 32.7 % of patients (prevalence rate 23.5 % in cases, 40.7 % in controls; p = 0.04). When considering patients with actinic lesions, controls have a higher FRAX score compared with cases. Although sun exposure is recommended for bone health, it represents a risk factor for actinic lesions. The presence of actinic lesions may indicate a lower osteoporotic hip fracture risk. A balance between adequate lifetime sun exposure and protection against its adverse effects is required for each patient, in the context of geographic location.

  1. Inconstant sun: how solar evolution has affected cosmic and ultraviolet radiation exposure over the history of life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Karam, P Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Four billion years ago, sea-level UV exposure was more than 400 times as intense as today, the dose from solar cosmic rays was five times present levels, and galactic cosmic rays accounted for only about 10% their current contribution to sea-level radiation doses. Exposure to cosmic radiation accounts for about 10% of natural background radiation exposure today and includes dose from galactic cosmic rays and solar charged particles. There is little exposure to ionizing wavelengths of UV due to absorption by ozone. The sun has evolved significantly over its life; in the past there were higher levels of particulate radiation and lower UV emissions from the sun, and a stronger solar wind reduced radiation dose in the inner solar system from galactic cosmic rays. Finally, since the early atmosphere contained little to no oxygen, surface levels of UV radiation were far higher in the past.

  2. Unprotected daily sun exposure is differently associated with central adiposity and beta-cell dysfunction by gender: The Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) V

    SciTech Connect

    Ohn, Jung Hun; Kwon, In Ho; Park, Juri; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Lee, Seong Jin; Kim, Doo-Man; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Hong, Eun-Gyoung

    2014-08-15

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation by sun exposure has been associated with both harms and benefits to metabolic health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether unprotected daily sun exposure is associated with the prevalence of diabetes and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey V from 2010 to 2011. Participants 19–60 years of age were asked about the average amount of time they had been exposed to direct sunlight per day since the age of 19. We categorized participants into three groups with different levels of lifetime daily sun exposure and explored the association of sun exposure with the prevalence of diabetes. Results: The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with more than 5 h of unprotected sun exposure per day, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.75–3.25), compared to those with less than 2 h of sun exposure, and the association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Long-term sun exposure was associated with increased central obesity and the possibility of an increase in visceral adiposity, especially among women, and with decrease in beta cell function and peripheral adiposity or percent body fat in men. Conclusions: Our study provides a cutoff for upper limit of sun exposure and suggests unprotected daily sun exposure for more than 5 h should be avoided to prevent diabetes. Increased central adiposity and decreased beta cell function were observed in women and men, respectively, who had long-term unprotected daily sun exposure. - Highlights: • Sun exposure for more than 5 h per day is associated with diabetes risk. • Insulin resistance associated with visceral adiposity may play a role in women. • Insulin secretory defect may explain diabetes risk in men.

  3. Sun Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs on skin that has been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is ... have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ...

  4. Sun exposure and vitamin D status as Northeast Asian migrants become acculturated to life in Australia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuyu; Gies, Peter; King, Kerryn; Lucas, Robyn M

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is more common in Northeast-Asian immigrants to western countries than in the local population; prevalence equalizes as immigrants adopt the host country's culture. In a community-based study of 100 Northeast-Asian immigrants in Canberra, Australia, we examined predictors of vitamin D status, its association with indicators of acculturation (English language use; time since migration) and mediators of that association. Participants completed a sun and physical activity diary and wore an electronic ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dosimeter for 7 days. Skin colour was measured by reflectance spectrophotometry. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and cardio-metabolic biomarkers were measured on fasting blood. In a multiple linear regression model, predictors for 25(OH)D concentration were season of blood collection, vitamin D supplementation, UVR exposure, body mass index, physical activity and having private health insurance (R(2) = 0.57). Greater acculturation was associated with lower risk of vitamin D deficiency (de-seasonalized 25(OH)D level <50 nmol L(-1)) (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 0.22 [95%CI 0.04-0.96]); this association was statistically mediated by physical activity and time outdoors. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with higher total cholesterol levels (>5.0 mmol L(-1)) (AOR: 7.48 [95%CI 1.51-37.0]). Targeted public health approaches are required to manage the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in migrants retaining a traditional lifestyle.

  5. EFFECT OF EXPOSURE TO THE SUN ON THE CIRCULATING LYMPHOCYTES IN MAN

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Herbert D.

    1919-01-01

    Chronic solar dermatitis was accompanied, in 25 of the 38 individuals studied, by an appreciable increase, percentage and absolute, in the number of circulating lymphocytes. In eight there was a definite decrease and in five no appreciable change after prolonged exposure to the rays of the summer sun. Of the thirteen subjects with no increase in blood lymphocytes, six failed to tan, three were so dark originally that to determine an increase was impossible, and five had an extremely high lymphocyte count at the first count. Blood counts on white persons living in the Philippines indicate that the blood lymphocytes are likewise increased after a prolonged period of residence in the tropical zone. Because of the parallelism between the tanning and the blood changes it seems probable that the lymphocytosis observed in the majority of instances, which is similar to the response of the blood of animals to small doses of the x-rays, is due to the effects of the ultra-violet rays contained in the solar spectrum. PMID:19868304

  6. Validation of brief questionnaire measures of sun exposure and skin pigmentation against detailed and objective measures including vitamin D status.

    PubMed

    Cargill, Jessica; Lucas, Robyn M; Gies, Peter; King, Kerryn; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Allen, Martin W; Banks, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Self-reported sun exposure is commonly used in research, but how well this represents actual sun exposure is poorly understood. From February to July 2011, a volunteer sample (n = 47) of older adults (≥45 years) in Canberra, Australia, answered brief questions on time outdoors (weekdays and weekends) and natural skin color. They subsequently maintained a sun diary and wore an ultraviolet radiation (UVR) digital dosimeter for 7 days. Melanin density was estimated using reflectance spectrophotometry; lifetime sun damage was assessed using silicone casts of the back of the hand; and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was assayed. Questionnaire-reported time outdoors correlated significantly with diary-recorded time outdoors (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.66; 95% CI 0.46, 0.80; P < 0.001) and UVR dosimeter dose (r(s ) = 0.46; 95% CI 0.18, 0.68; P = 0.003), but not 25(OH)D concentration (r(s) = 0.24; 95% CI -0.05, 0.50; P = 0.10). Questionnaire-reported untanned skin color correlated significantly with measured melanin density at the inner upper arm (r(s) = 0.49; 95% CI 0.24, 0.68; P < 0.001). In a multiple linear regression model, statistically significant predictors of 25(OH)D concentration were self-reported frequency of physical activity, skin color and recent osteoporosis treatment (R(2) = 0.54). In this study, brief questionnaire items provided valid rankings of sun exposure and skin color, and enabled the development of a predictive model for 25(OH)D concentration.

  7. Analysis of the B-RafV600E mutation in cutaneous melanoma patients with occupational sun exposure.

    PubMed

    Candido, Saverio; Rapisarda, Venerando; Marconi, Andrea; Malaponte, Grazia; Bevelacqua, Valentina; Gangemi, Pietro; Scalisi, Aurora; McCubrey, James A; Maestro, Roberta; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Fenga, Concettina; Libra, Massimo

    2014-03-01

    Sun-exposure is one of the risk factors associated with the development of a cutaneous neoplasm. In melanoma, the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK (MAPK) signaling pathway is constitutively activated through multiple mechanisms, including B-Raf mutation. It has been hypothesized that B-Raf mutations in melanocytic lesions arise from DNA damage induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, it is still discussed if B-Raf mutations are associated with melanoma patients exposed to the sun. Therefore, in the present study, the known B-RafV600E mutation was analysed in melanoma samples from 30 indoor and 38 outdoor workers. B-RafV600E mutation was detected in 52 and 73% of outdoor workers and indoor workers, respectively. Of note, this mutation was identified in 12 of 14 (85%) melanoma of the trunk diagnosed in indoor workers and in 9 of 19 (47%) samples from outdoor workers (p=0.03). By analyzing melanomas of other body sites, no statistical difference in the frequency of B-RafV600E mutation was identified between the groups of workers. It appears that the mutation detected among indoor workers may be associated with a recreational or intermittent exposure to the sun, as usually the trunk is a sun-protected body site. Overall, these data indicate that the B-RafV600E mutation detected in melanoma is not associated with a chronic exposure to the sun. Mutations detected in other genes may also contribute to melanoma development in the subset of patients exposed to UV radiation.

  8. “Prescribing sunshine”: a national, cross-sectional survey of 1,089 New Zealand general practitioners regarding their sun exposure and vitamin D perceptions, and advice provided to patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The health effects of ultraviolet radiation vary according to wavelength, timing and pattern of exposure, personal characteristics and practices. Negative effects include skin cancers, eye diseases and immune suppression; positive effects primarily relate to endogenous vitamin D production which protects against bone disease. Drafting comprehensive guidelines regarding appropriate sun protective behaviours and vitamin D sufficiency is challenging. Advice given by general practitioners is potentially influential because they are widely respected. Methods A survey instrument was developed, pre-tested and provided to practising GP’s, either by on-line link or mailed, reply paid hard-copy. Odds ratios, differences in means, or ratios of geometric means from regression models are reported for potential predictor variables with 95% confidence intervals. Results Data (demographic, training, practicing, information accessing, confidence in vitamin D knowledge) suitable for analysis were obtained from 1,089 GPs (32% participation). Many (43%) were ‘not at all confident’ about their vitamin D knowledge. Recent information led 29% to recommend less sun protection during winter months and 10% less all year. Confidence was positively associated with non-‘Western’ medical training, information sources read and practising in a metropolitan centre with a medical school. Reading the Melanoma Clinical Practice Guidelines was associated with lower estimates of the amount of summer sun exposure required to obtain adequate vitamin D. Increasing years in practice was negatively associated with provision of recommended advice about summer and winter sun protection. Greater concern about vitamin D than skin cancer was expressed by females and those in practice longer. Conclusions Concern about the potentially negative impact of skin cancer prevention on vitamin D status may undermine appropriate sun protective recommendations. Reading some educational resources was

  9. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of elementary school students regarding sun exposure and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, Panta; Parmet, Yisrael; Bessell, Ann G; Peay, Tamika; Weiss, Alina; Kirsner, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess baseline knowledge of skin cancer, sun protection practices, and perceptions of tanning among third through fifth grade elementary students in Florida. A total of 4,002 students in nineteen elementary schools in Palm Beach County, Florida were surveyed. SunSmart America curriculum pretest responses were the main outcome measures. Overall students' knowledge using a students' mean knowledge scale scores of skin cancer and sun protection were low (<40% of questions answered correctly) and was found to increase with increasing grade level (p < 0.01). Boys more frequently reported spending greater than 2 hours in the sun when compared with girls (p < 0.01). Girls, however, were more likely to try and get a tan most of the time or always when compared with boys (p = 0.02). Non-Hispanic White students (51.3%) more frequently reported use of SPF 15 or greater sunscreen "most of the time or always" compared with Hispanic (35.3%) and non-Hispanic Black (13.4%) students (p < 0.01). Elementary aged students in south Florida have limited knowledge about sun safety, despite spending considerable amount of time in the sun. Sun safe behavior is associated with gender and ethnicity. The findings provide empirical support for the need of a school-based educational intervention.

  10. Vitamin D Levels and Related Genetic Polymorphisms, Sun Exposure, Skin Color, and Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    sun exposure, and dietary calcium and vitamin D intake are ascertained. Finally, the melanin content of the skin is measured using a skin reflectance...meter called a Dermaspectrometer, to measure baseline skin melanin content, which is known to inhibit vitamin D synthesis from sunlight. This...three hospitals in Chicago, along with demographic and medical information, BMI, and skin melanin content using a portable narrow-band reflectometer

  11. Mutations in KIT occur at low frequency in melanomas arising from anatomical sites associated with chronic and intermittent sun exposure.

    PubMed

    Handolias, Despina; Salemi, Renato; Murray, William; Tan, Angela; Liu, Wendy; Viros, Amaya; Dobrovic, Alexander; Kelly, John; McArthur, Grant A

    2010-04-01

    In melanoma, mutations in KIT are most frequent in acral and mucosal subtypes and rarely reported in cutaneous melanomas particularly those associated with intermittent UV exposure. Conversely melanomas arising within chronic sun damaged skin are considered to harbour KIT mutations at higher rates. To characterize the frequency of KIT mutations in a representative melanoma population, 261 patients from two Australian melanoma centres were prospectively screened for mutations in exons 11, 13 and 17 of the KIT gene. A total of 257 patients had cutaneous melanoma arising from non-acral sites and four were acral melanomas. No mucosal or ocular melanomas were analysed. KIT mutations were identified in five tumours (2% of the entire cohort) including two acral melanomas. Two of the three non-acral melanomas with KIT mutations were associated with markers of chronic sun damage as assessed by the degree of skin elastosis. In the remaining cohort, 43% had chronically sun damaged skin. This report confirms that within an Australian population, KIT mutations are infrequent in cutaneous melanomas associated with both intermittent and chronic sun exposed skin.

  12. Improving the Efficacy of Appearance-Based Sun Exposure Interventions with the Terror Management Health Model

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Kasey Lynn; Cooper, Douglas P.; Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2014-01-01

    The terror management health model (TMHM) suggests that when thoughts of death are accessible people become increasingly motivated to bolster their self-esteem relative to their health, because doing so offers psychological protection against mortality concerns. Two studies examined sun protection intentions as a function of mortality reminders and an appearance-based intervention. In Study 1, participants given a sun protection message that primed mortality and shown a UV-filtered photo of their face reported greater intentions to use sun protection on their face, and took more sunscreen samples than participants shown a regular photo of their face. In Study 2, reminders of mortality increased participants’ intentions to use facial sun protection when the UV photo was specifically framed as revealing appearance consequences of tanning, compared to when the photo was framed as revealing health consequences, or when no photo was shown. These findings extend the terror management health model, and provide preliminary evidence that appearance-based tanning interventions have a greater influence on sun protection intentions under conditions that prime thoughts of death. We discuss implications of the findings, and highlight the need for additional research examining the applicability to long-term tanning behavior. PMID:24811049

  13. UV Radiation and Sun Exposure | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-05-18

    Tanning is your body's attempt to protect itself from being damaged by ultraviolet radiation. Too much ultraviolet radiation (UV) from sunlight is dangerous. Nearly half of UV radiation is received between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., when the sun's rays are the strongest. Even on a cloudy day, you can be sunburned by UV radiation.

  14. Age- and sun exposure-dependent differences in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine in human epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Toyokuni, Shinya; Hirao, Ayaka; Wada, Tamae; Nagai, Ryoji; Date, Akira; Yoshii, Takashi; Akatsuka, Shinya; Yamashita, Yoriko; Kawada, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Aging and exposure to sunlight are two major factors in the deterioration of skin function. In this study, thirty-six fixed human skin samples from sun-exposed and unexposed areas from young and old individuals were used to evaluate the localization of oxidative stress according to levels and distribution of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine in samples using immunohistochemistry. In the epidermis of the young, negligible amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine were detected in unexposed areas, whereas nuclear 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cytoplasmic Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine were increased in the lower epidermis in sun-exposed areas. In contrast, the aged presented prominent nuclear 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and nuclear Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine in the epidermis of unexposed areas, concomitant with dermal increase in Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine. However, the immunostaining of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine revealed a decrease in the epidermis of sun-exposed areas in the aged. These results suggest an age-dependent difference in the adaptation and protective mechanisms of the epidermis against sunlight-associated oxidative stress, thus necessitating distinct standards for evaluation in each age group. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:21980228

  15. Shining the light on Sunshine: a systematic review of the influence of sun exposure on type 2 diabetes mellitus-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shore-Lorenti, Catherine; Brennan, Sharon L; Sanders, Kerrie M; Neale, Rachel E; Lucas, Robyn M; Ebeling, Peter R

    2014-12-01

    Prospective observational studies uniformly link vitamin D deficiency with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), yet trials supplementing participants at risk of T2DM with vitamin D to reduce progression to T2DM have yielded inconsistent results. Inconsistencies between supplementation trials may be due to insufficient dosing or small sample sizes. Observational studies may also have reported spurious associations due to uncontrolled confounding by lifestyle or genetic factors. Alternatively, observational and intervention studies may not be entirely comparable. Observational studies show an association between higher vitamin D status, which is predominantly derived from sun exposure, and decreased incidence of T2DM. Trials intervene with vitamin D supplementation, and therefore may be missing alternate causes of the effect of sun exposure, as seen in observational studies. We propose that sun exposure may be the driving force behind the associations seen in observational studies; sun exposure may have additional benefits beyond increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels. We performed an electronic literature search to identify articles that examined associations between sun exposure and T2DM and/or glucose metabolism. A best evidence synthesis was then conducted using outcomes from analyses deemed to have high methodological quality. Ten eligible full-text articles were identified, yielding 19 T2DM-related outcomes. The best evidence analysis considered 11 outcomes which were grouped into six outcome types: T2DM, fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, fasting insulin, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. There was moderate evidence to support a role of recreational sun exposure in reducing odds of T2DM incidence. High-level evidence was lacking; evidence presented for other outcomes was of low or insufficient level. This review highlights significant gaps in research pertaining to sun exposure and T2DM-related outcomes. Further research is

  16. Cutaneous melanoma frequencies and seasonal trend in 20 years of observation of a population characterised by excessive sun exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bonin, Serena; Albano, Antonio; di Meo, Nicola; Gatti, Alessandro; Stinco, Giuseppe; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Trevisan, Giusto

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer. It has become an increasingly common neoplasm in the most developed countries, especially among individuals of European origin. Patients and methods. Anonymous data of patients with cutaneous melanoma were collected from the diagnostic database of the University Hospital of Trieste from 1 January 1990 to 10 December 2013. Our study is based on a population which was constant over the period of observation; it was also well-defined and characterised by unrestrained sun exposure. Results The number of cutaneous melanomas increased during the period of observation with a seasonality trend and gender related differences both for anatomical sites distribution and stage of the disease. Moreover, 6% of our cohort developed multiple melanomas. Conclusions In a well-defined population devoted to excessive sun exposure the frequencies of skin melanomas roughly doubled from 1990 to 2013 following a seasonal trend. In that population, prevention efforts according to gender specific risk behaviour, as well as follow-up programmes both for evaluation of metastatic spreading and for early diagnosis of additional skin melanomas, are crucial due to gender specific differences and to the occurrence of multiple melanomas. PMID:26834525

  17. A Pilot Study of the Validity of Self-reported Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Sun Protection Practices Among Lifeguards, Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    O’Riordan, David L.; Glanz, Karen; Gies, Peter; Elliott, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor recreation settings, such as swimming pools, provide a promising venue to assess UVR exposure and sun protection practices among individuals who are minimally clothed and exposed to potentially high levels of UVR. Most studies assessing sun exposure/protection practices rely on self-reported data, which are subject to bias. The aim of this study was to establish the feasibility of conducting a multimethod study to examine the validity of self-reported measures within a swimming pool setting. Data were collected from 27 lifeguards, children and parents in Hawaii. Each participant filled out a survey and a 4 day sun habits diary. On two occasions, researchers assessed observable sun protection behaviors (wearing hats, shirts, sunglasses), swabbed the skin to detect the presence of sunscreen, and subjects wore polysulphone dosimeters to measure UVR exposure. Overall, observed sun protection behaviors were more highly correlated with diary reports than with survey reports. While lifeguards and children reported spending comparable amounts of time in the sun, dosimeter measures showed that lifeguards received twice as much UVR exposure. This study demonstrated the feasibility of implementing a multimethod validity study within a broader population of swimming pools. PMID:18179624

  18. A prospective study of the synergistic effects of arsenic exposure and smoking, sun exposure, fertilizer use, and pesticide use on risk of premalignant skin lesions in Bangladeshi men.

    PubMed

    Melkonian, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Pierce, Brandon L; Chen, Yu; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Syed, Emdadul H; Parvez, Faruque; Graziano, Joseph; Rathouz, Paul J; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-01-15

    Skin lesions are classic clinical signs of toxicity due to long-term exposure to arsenic, and they are considered precursors to arsenic-related skin cancer. The authors prospectively evaluated synergisms between effects of arsenic exposure and those of tobacco use, sun exposure, and pesticide and fertilizer use on incident skin lesions using risk factor data from 5,042 men from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Araihazar, Bangladesh, which recruited participants from October 2000 to May 2002. Discrete time hazard models were used to estimate measures of synergistic interactions on the additive scale. The authors observed significant synergistic effects between various measures of arsenic exposure and smoking and fertilizer use. The relative excess risks for the interactions between smoking status and arsenic exposure were 0.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.06, 0.19) for water arsenic and 0.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.15) for urinary arsenic measures, respectively. Significant synergistic effects were also observed between fertilizer use and water arsenic (relative excess risk for the interaction = 0.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.01, 0.12). This is the first prospective study based on individual-level data that supports a role for smoking and certain occupational risk factors in modification of the effect of long-term arsenic exposure on skin lesions. Understanding differential arsenic susceptibility allows researchers to develop interventions to prevent the health consequences of this massive problem in the Bangladeshi population and beyond.

  19. A Prospective Study of the Synergistic Effects of Arsenic Exposure and Smoking, Sun Exposure, Fertilizer Use, and Pesticide Use on Risk of Premalignant Skin Lesions in Bangladeshi Men

    PubMed Central

    Melkonian, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Pierce, Brandon L.; Chen, Yu; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Syed, Emdadul H.; Parvez, Faruque; Graziano, Joseph; Rathouz, Paul J.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-01-01

    Skin lesions are classic clinical signs of toxicity due to long-term exposure to arsenic, and they are considered precursors to arsenic-related skin cancer. The authors prospectively evaluated synergisms between effects of arsenic exposure and those of tobacco use, sun exposure, and pesticide and fertilizer use on incident skin lesions using risk factor data from 5,042 men from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Araihazar, Bangladesh, which recruited participants from October 2000 to May 2002. Discrete time hazard models were used to estimate measures of synergistic interactions on the additive scale. The authors observed significant synergistic effects between various measures of arsenic exposure and smoking and fertilizer use. The relative excess risks for the interactions between smoking status and arsenic exposure were 0.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.06, 0.19) for water arsenic and 0.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.15) for urinary arsenic measures, respectively. Significant synergistic effects were also observed between fertilizer use and water arsenic (relative excess risk for the interaction = 0.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.01, 0.12). This is the first prospective study based on individual-level data that supports a role for smoking and certain occupational risk factors in modification of the effect of long-term arsenic exposure on skin lesions. Understanding differential arsenic susceptibility allows researchers to develop interventions to prevent the health consequences of this massive problem in the Bangladeshi population and beyond. PMID:21098630

  20. Vitamin D Intake Determines Vitamin D Status of Postmenopausal Women, Particularly Those with Limited Sun Exposure123

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Millen, Amy E.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Zheng, Yingye; Goodman, Gary E.; Thornquist, Mark D.; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    Few detailed data are available on the wide range of determinants of vitamin D status among postmenopausal women, and it is also unclear whether there may be undiscovered determinants. The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in a large cohort of postmenopausal women. Data from a subset of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study were analyzed (50–79 y; n = 3345). Information on diet, lifestyle behaviors, secondhand smoke, use of dietary supplements and medication, chronic diseases, and anthropometry was collected at baseline (1993–1998) and on sun exposure at year 4 follow-up. Linear regression was performed to estimate regression coefficients (β). Significant determinants were total vitamin D intake (food plus supplements per 100 IU/d, β = 2.08), years of supplemental vitamin D use (β = 0.15), total fat intake (grams per day, β = –0.03), smoking status (β = –2.64, current vs. never), regional solar irradiance (β = 6.26, 475–500 vs. 300–325 Langleys), daylight time spent outdoors in summer (β = 5.15, >2 h vs. <30 min/d), recreational physical activity (metabolic equivalent task per hour per week, β = 0.13), waist circumference (centimeters, β = –0.26), and race/ethnicity (β = –11.94, black vs. white). Total vitamin D intake (partial R2 = 0.09) explained the most variance in serum 25(OH)D concentrations (total R2 = 0.29). The association between total vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D concentrations was stronger among participants who spent less rather than more daylight time outdoors in summer (P-interaction = 0.026). History and medications for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type 2 diabetes and secondhand smoke exposure were not associated with serum 25(OH)D. In conclusion, dietary factors and sun exposure remain important determinants of vitamin D status in postmenopausal women. Vitamin D intake should be emphasized for those with

  1. TERT promoter mutations in skin cancer: the effects of sun exposure and X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Pópulo, Helena; Boaventura, Paula; Vinagre, João; Batista, Rui; Mendes, Adélia; Caldas, Regina; Pardal, Joana; Azevedo, Filomena; Honavar, Mrinalini; Guimarães, Isabel; Manuel Lopes, José; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-08-01

    The reactivation or reexpression of telomerase (TERT) is a widespread feature of neoplasms. TERT promoter mutations were recently reported that were hypothesized to result from UV radiation. In this retrospective study, we assessed TERT promoter mutations in 196 cutaneous basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), including 102 tumors from X-irradiated patients, 94 tumors from patients never exposed to ionizing radiation treatment, and 116 melanomas. We sought to evaluate the effects of UV and X-ray irradiation on TERT mutation frequency. TERT mutations were detected in 27% of BCCs from X-irradiated patients, 51% of BCCs from nonirradiated patients, and 22% of melanoma patients. TERT mutations were significantly increased in non-X-irradiated BCC patients compared with X-irradiated BCC patients; the mutations also presented a different mutation signature. In nonirradiated patients, TERT mutations were more frequent in BCCs of sun-exposed skin, supporting a possible causative role of UV radiation. In melanoma, TERT promoter mutations were generally restricted to intermittent sun-exposed areas and were associated with nodular and superficial spreading subtypes, increased thickness, ulceration, increased mitotic rate, and BRAFV600E mutations. Our results suggest that various carcinogenic factors may cause distinct TERT promoter mutations in BCC and that TERT promoter mutations might be associated with a poorer prognosis in melanoma.

  2. Suberythemal Sun Exposures at Swedish Schools Depend on Sky Views of the Outdoor Environments - Possible Implications for Pupils' Health.

    PubMed

    Pagels, Peter; Wester, Ulf; Söderström, Margareta; Lindelöf, Bernt; Boldemann, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2(nd) , 5(th) and 8(th) graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor environments differing in amount of shade, vegetation, and peripheral city-scape quantified as percentage of free sky view calculated from fish-eye photographs. Exposures correlated with the sky views (with exceptions in May) and were suberythemal. The exposures were also below the threshold limit of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for hazard evaluation of UVR but were potentially enough for adequate vitamin D formation according to a cited model calculation - as illustrated in the results and discussed. The school environments, typical in southern and middle Sweden, offer enough shade to protect children from overexposure during seasons with potentially harmful solar UV radiation. Pupils' outdoor stay may be extended during September and March. In May extended outdoor stay of the youngest pupils requires a more UVR-protective environment.

  3. Temporal Trends in Satellite-Derived Erythemal UVB and Implications for Ambient Sun Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Langston, Marvin; Dennis, Leslie; Lynch, Charles; Roe, Denise; Brown, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been associated with various health outcomes, including skin cancers, vitamin D insufficiency, and multiple sclerosis. Measurement of UVR has been difficult, traditionally relying on subject recall. We investigated trends in satellite-derived UVB from 1978 to 2014 within the continental United States (US) to inform UVR exposure assessment and determine the potential magnitude of misclassification bias created by ignoring these trends. Monthly UVB data remotely sensed from various NASA satellites were used to investigate changes over time in the United States using linear regression with a harmonic function. Linear regression models for local geographic areas were used to make inferences across the entire study area using a global field significance test. Temporal trends were investigated across all years and separately for each satellite type due to documented differences in UVB estimation. UVB increased from 1978 to 2014 in 48% of local tests. The largest UVB increase was found in Western Nevada (0.145 kJ/m2 per five-year increment), a total 30-year increase of 0.87 kJ/m2. This largest change only represented 17% of total ambient exposure for an average January and 2% of an average July in Western Nevada. The observed trends represent cumulative UVB changes of less than a month, which are not relevant when attempting to estimate human exposure. The observation of small trends should be interpreted with caution due to measurement of satellite parameter inputs (ozone and climatological factors) that may impact derived satellite UVR nearly 20% compared to ground level sources. If the observed trends hold, satellite-derived UVB data may reasonably estimate ambient UVB exposures even for outcomes with long latency phases that predate the satellite record. PMID:28208641

  4. Photostability of commercial sunscreens upon sun exposure and irradiation by ultraviolet lamps

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Helena; Tarras-Wahlberg, Nils; Strömdahl, Birgitta; Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Johan; Larkö, Olle; Rosén, Arne; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Background Sunscreens are being widely used to reduce exposure to harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The fact that some sunscreens are photounstable has been known for many years. Since the UV-absorbing ingredients of sunscreens may be photounstable, especially in the long wavelength region, it is of great interest to determine their degradation during exposure to UV radiation. Our aim was to investigate the photostability of seven commercial sunscreen products after natural UV exposure (UVnat) and artificial UV exposure (UVart). Methods Seven commercial sunscreens were studied with absorption spectroscopy. Sunscreen product, 0.5 mg/cm2, was placed between plates of silica. The area under the curve (AUC) in the spectrum was calculated for UVA (320–400 nm), UVA1 (340–400 nm), UVA2 (320–340 nm) and UVB (290–320 nm) before (AUCbefore) and after (AUCafter) UVart (980 kJ/m2 UVA and 12 kJ/m2 of UVB) and before and after UVnat. If theAUC Index (AUCI), defined as AUCI = AUCafter/AUCbefore, was > 0.80, the sunscreen was considered photostable. Results Three sunscreens were unstable after 90 min of UVnat; in the UVA range the AUCI was between 0.41 and 0.76. In the UVB range one of these sunscreens was unstable with an AUCI of 0.75 after 90 min. Three sunscreens were photostable after 120 min of UVnat; in the UVA range the AUCI was between 0.85 and 0.99 and in the UVB range between 0.92 and 1.0. One sunscreen showed in the UVA range an AUCI of 0.87 after UVnat but an AUCI of 0.72 after UVart. Five of the sunscreens were stable in the UVB region. Conclusion The present study shows that several sunscreens are photounstable in the UVA range after UVnat and UVart. There is a need for a standardized method to measure photostability, and the photostability should be marked on the sunscreen product. PMID:17324264

  5. The multicentre south European study 'Helios'. II: Different sun exposure patterns in the aetiology of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin.

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, S.; Zanetti, R.; Martinez, C.; Tormo, M. J.; Schraub, S.; Sancho-Garnier, H.; Franceschi, S.; Gafà, L.; Perea, E.; Navarro, C.; Laurent, R.; Schrameck, C.; Talamini, R.; Tumino, R.; Wechsler, J.

    1996-01-01

    The role of sun exposure in development of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas among different populations from south Europe was investigated. Between 1989 and 1993 we interviewed incident cases and a random population sample of controls from five centres where a cancer registry was operating, whereas we selected a sample of hospital-based cases and controls from the other three centres. We gathered information on life-long exposure to sunlight during different activities. Results are analysed for 1549 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases and 228 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases compared with 1795 controls. We observed a statistically significant increase of risk of SCC with increasing sun exposure beyond a threshold of 70,000 cumulated hours of exposure in a lifetime. Sun exposures during work and holidays were, however, inversely correlated. Odds ratios (ORs) of SCC were up to eight or nine times the reference for the highest exposures (200,000 cumulated hours or more). BCC exhibited a 2-fold increase of risk for lower exposure (8000-10,000 cumulated hours in a lifetime) with a plateau and a slight decrease of risk for the highest exposures (100,000 cumulated hours or more). Outdoor work showed a significantly increased risk of SCC (OR 1.6 for more than 54,000 cumulated hours of exposure in a lifetime), whereas recreational activities such as sun exposure during holidays at the beach (OR 1.6 for more than 2600 cumulated hours of exposure in a lifetime) or during water sports (OR 1.6 for more than 2600 cumulated hours of exposure in a lifetime) were associated with an increased risk of BCC. Risk patterns were different in poor or good tanners with a significant risk trend for good tanners, whereas poor tanners were on a plateau of increased risk at any level of exposure. Solar radiation is associated with a risk of BCC even for relatively short periods of exposure such as during holidays and sports, whereas SCC develops later if exposure continues. The skin

  6. Phenylpropanoid metabolites and expression of key genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the shaded peel of apple fruit in response to sun exposure.

    PubMed

    Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2013-08-01

    The shaded peel of 'Fortune' (a red cultivar) and 'Mutsu' (a yellow/green cultivar) apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) was exposed to full sun by turning fruit 180° at about one week before harvest to determine the expression of key genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis in response to sunlight exposure and their relationships with the levels of anthocyanins and other phenolics. For the unturned (control) fruit, the shaded peel had lower expression levels of MdMYB10 (a transcriptional factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis) and seven structural genes in anthocyanin synthesis (MdPAL, MdCHS, MdCHI, MdF3H, MdDFR1, MdLDOX, and MdUFGT), and lower levels of anthocyanins and flavonols than the sun-exposed peel in both cultivars. Exposure of the shaded peel to full sun caused marked up-regulation of the expression of MdMYB10 and all seven structural genes, which peaked between 6 h and 30 h after fruit turning, consequently leading to higher levels of anthocyanins, flavonols, and total phenolics than in the shaded peel and even in the sun-exposed peel of control fruit. Interestingly, the levels of flavonols were higher in the shaded peel of turned fruit (the original sun-exposed peel) than in the sun-exposed peel of both control and turned fruit in both cultivars, suggesting that competition for substrates exists in different branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway. These results indicate that sunlight exposure stimulates the expression of MdMYB10 and structural genes in anthocyanin synthesis, thereby elevating the levels of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds in both red and yellow/green cultivars.

  7. Latitudinal variations over Australia of the solar UV-radiation exposures for vitamin D3 in shade compared to full sun.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, David J; Parisi, Alfio V

    2010-03-01

    Abstract This paper reports on the variation of UV radiation in full sun and in shade and how this relates to the physiological production of vitamin D(3) for various latitudes. Calibrated spectral measurements were used to measure the UV radiation in the shade of numerous shade environments for varying solar zenith angles and seasons. This was for exposures to the horizontal, 45 degrees and vertical planes for the solar zenith angle (SZA) range of approximately 5 degrees to 80 degrees. For an SZA of approximately 5 degrees, average UV irradiances required for vitamin D(3) production (UV(D3)) were 0.67 W/m(2) and 0.20 W/m(2) for global and for shade with a sky view of greater than 40%, respectively. The best time to expose the human body to UV radiation while using shaded environments with a sky view of greater than 40% for vitamin D(3) synthesis is for SZAs less than approximately 45 degrees. Shade can be used throughout Australia during summer and winter. However, winter exposure times will vary depending on the latitude. Using shade for UV(D3) exposures can reduce total UV-radiation exposure by 37% to 58% compared to full sun UV(D3) exposures. This research indicates that an improved approach to optimize UV-radiation exposures for the production of vitamin D(3) is to use diffuse UV radiation under shade in and around the middle of the day.

  8. Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3)levels in adult New Zealanders with ethnicity, skin color and self-reported skin sensitivity to sun exposure.

    PubMed

    Nessvi, Sofia; Johansson, Lisa; Jopson, Jan; Stewart, Alistair; Reeder, Anthony; McKenzie, Richard; Scragg, Robert K

    2011-01-01

    The study aim was to determine the contribution of ethnicity, objectively measured skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure to variations in 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3) ]. A multiethnic sample (European, Maori, Pacific and Asian) of 503 adult volunteers aged 18-85 years, recruited from Auckland and Dunedin in New Zealand, answered a questionnaire on sun exposure and self-defined ethnicity. Skin color was measured using a spectrophotometer and the Individual Typology Angle (ITA) calculated. A blood sample was collected 4 weeks later to measure 25(OH)D(3). 25(OH)D(3) was associated with ethnicity, but not self-reported skin reaction-to-sun exposure. Amongst the ethnic groups, Asians had the lowest mean 25(OH)D level (37.0 nmol L(-1)) and Europeans with lighter colored skin had the highest (57.9 nmol L(-1)). An association also was seen between 25(OH)D(3) and skin color, with an increase of 2-3 nmol L(-1) per 10° increase in ITA value, indicating higher 25(OH)D(3) with lighter skin color; but much of this association disappeared after adjusting for ethnicity. In contrast, ethnicity remained associated with 25(OH)D(3) after adjusting for ITA skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure. These results indicate that self-defined ethnicity was a major determinant of variations in serum 25(OH)D(3), while objective measures of skin color explained relatively little additional variation.

  9. Response to 'Avoidance of sun exposure as a risk factor for major causes of death: a competing risk analysis of the Melanoma in Southern Sweden cohort'.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S; Sobotzki, C

    2017-03-23

    Lindqvist et al. [1] recently published a mortality analysis in a prospective cohort of 29 518 Sweden-born women. Using a competing risk framework, the authors observed an increased mortality by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and noncancer/non-CVD for women who avoided sun exposure. A. Torres, the president of the American Academy of Dermatology, already addressed a number of limitations which are important in the interpretation of this study [2]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Myopia in Young Adults Is Inversely Related to an Objective Marker of Ocular Sun Exposure: The Western Australian Raine Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    MCKNIGHT, CHARLOTTE M.; SHERWIN, JUSTIN C.; YAZAR, SEYHAN; FORWARD, HANNAH; TAN, ALEX X.; HEWITT, ALEX W.; PENNELL, CRAIG E.; MCALLISTER, IAN L.; YOUNG, TERRI L.; CORONEO, MINAS T.; MACKEY, DAVID A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine the association between ocular sun exposure measured by conjunctival ultraviolet (UV) autofluorescence and myopic refractive error in young adults. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. METHODS SETTING Population-based cohort in Western Australia. STUDY POPULATION Total of 1344 mostly white subjects aged 19–22 years in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Eye Health Study. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES Cycloplegic autorefraction, conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence photography, participant questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Prevalence of myopic refractive error (spherical equivalent less than −0.50 diopters) and area of conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence in mm2. RESULTS There was an inverse relationship between myopic refractive error and ocular sun exposure, with more than double the prevalence of myopia in the lowest quartile of conjunctival autofluorescence than the highest quartile (33.0% vs 15.6%). Median area of autofluorescence was significantly lower in myopic than in nonmyopic subjects (31.9 mm2 vs 47.9 mm2, P < .001). These differences remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, parental history of myopia, and subject level of education. The use of corrective lenses did not explain the lower conjunctival autofluorescence observed in myopic subjects. CONCLUSIONS In this young adult population, myopic refractive error was inversely associated with objectively measured ocular sun exposure, even after adjustment for potential confounders. This further supports the inverse association between outdoor activity and myopia. PMID:25072831

  11. Sex-related location of head and neck melanoma strongly argues for a major role of sun exposure in cars and photoprotection by hair.

    PubMed

    Lesage, Candice; Barbe, Coralie; Le Clainche, Annick; Lesage, François-Xavier; Bernard, Philippe; Grange, Florent

    2013-05-01

    Head and neck melanomas (HNMs) are frequent and have a poorer prognosis than melanomas at other sites. Photoprotection in these locations is difficult. In this population-based study of 279 HNMs diagnosed in a French region between 2004 and 2009, major differences were found between genders. A clearcut, sex-related distribution was found between a "peripheral" area (scalp, forehead, temples, ears, and neck) and a "central" one (other parts of the face), with 56.7% of HNMs being located in the peripheral area in men and 79.3% in the central area in women (P<0.0001). Moreover, HNMs located in the peripheral area occurred on the left side in 57.6% of men and on the right side in 73.1% of women (P=0.009). Peripheral HNMs differed from central HNMs by a higher proportion of invasive tumors, nodular or superficial spreading melanomas, and a lower proportion of lentigo maligna melanomas (LMMs). We hypothesized that this differential distribution between men and women could be explained mostly by a major role of long-term photoprotection by hair and sun exposure in a car. Important public health messages could result from these observations, such as the role of hairstyles in melanoma prevention and the importance of reducing sun exposure in a car, particularly in professional drivers.

  12. Encouraging Sun Safety for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Kathy; Tillotson, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    The rise in the number of cases of skin cancers, both melanomas and nonmelanomas, has prompted increased awareness and educational efforts to limit sun exposure. Because 80% of lifetime sun exposure occurs before the age of 18, educating parents and adolescents to incorporate sun-protective behaviors into daily routines is particularly important.…

  13. Role of clothes in sun protection.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, Thilo; Altmeyer, Peter; Hoffmann, Klauss

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the carcinogenic factor in sunlight. Damage to skin cells from repeated UV exposure can lead to the development of skin cancer. Apart from avoidance of the sun, the most frequently used form of UV protection has been the application of sunscreens. The use of textiles as a means of sun protection has been underrated in previous educational campaigns, even though suitable clothing offers usually simple and effective broadband protection against the sun. Apart from skin cancer formation, exacerbation of photosensitive disorders and premature skin aging could be prevented by suitable UV-protective clothing. Nevertheless, several studies have recently shown that, contrary to popular opinion, some textiles provide only limited UV protection. It has been found that one-third of commercial summer clothing items provide a UV protection factor (UPF) less than 15. Given the increasing interest in sun protection, recreationally and occupationally, test methods and a rating scheme for clothing were needed that would ensure sufficient UV protection. Various textile parameters have an influence on the UPF of a finished garment. Important parameters are the fabric porosity, type, color, weight and thickness. The application of UV absorbers into the yarns significantly improves the UPF of a garment. Under the conditions of wear and use several factors can alter the UV-protective properties of a textile, e.g., stretch, wetness and laundering. The use of UV-blocking cloths can provide excellent protection against the hazards of sunlight; this is especially true for garments manufactured as UV-protective clothing. However, further educational efforts are necessary to change people's sun behavior and raise awareness for the use of adequate sun-protective clothing.

  14. Aztec Suns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  15. College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Risks Regarding Intentional Sun Exposure: A 17-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felts, Michael; Burke, Sloane C.; Vail-Smith, Karen; Whetstone, Lauren MacKenzie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer, the most common cancer in the United States, accounts for over one million cases per year. Risk can be mediated by limiting UV radiation exposure, yet efforts to increase adoption of protective measures have met with limited success. Purpose: This study compares the results of surveys conducted in 1990 and 2007 assessing…

  16. Sun meter

    DOEpatents

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  17. Sun Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Buttons and Badges Stay Informed Cancer Home Sun Safety Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays can damage your skin in ...

  18. Sun and Other Types of Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Category Cancer A-Z What Causes Cancer? Sun and Other Types of Radiation Learn about the different types of radiation and how exposure might affect cancer risk. UV Radiation (Sun) Ultraviolet (UV) radiation comes from the sun and ...

  19. The Skin Cancer and Sun Knowledge (SCSK) Scale: Validity, Reliability, and Relationship to Sun-Related Behaviors Among Young Western Adults.

    PubMed

    Day, Ashley K; Wilson, Carlene; Roberts, Rachel M; Hutchinson, Amanda D

    2014-08-01

    Increasing public knowledge remains one of the key aims of skin cancer awareness campaigns, yet diagnosis rates continue to rise. It is essential we measure skin cancer knowledge adequately so as to determine the nature of its relationship to sun-related behaviors. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a new measure of skin cancer knowledge, the Skin Cancer and Sun Knowledge (SCSK) scale. A total of 514 Western young adults (females n = 320, males n = 194) aged 18 to 26 years completed measures of skin type, skin cancer knowledge, tanning behavior, sun exposure, and sun protection. Two-week test-retest of the SCSK was conducted with 52 participants. Internal reliability of the SCSK scale was acceptable (KR-20 = .69), test-retest reliability was high (r = .83, n = 52), and acceptable levels of face, content, and incremental validity were demonstrated. Skin cancer knowledge (as measured by SCSK) correlated with sun protection, sun exposure, and tanning behaviors in the female sample, but not in the males. Skin cancer knowledge appears to be more relevant to the behavior of young women than that of young males. We recommend that future research establish the validity of the SCSK across a range of participant groups.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA deletion percentage in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin.

    PubMed

    Powers, Julia M; Murphy, Gillian; Ralph, Nikki; O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, James E J

    2016-12-01

    The percentages of mitochondrial genomes carrying the mtDNA(3895) and the mtDNA(4977) (common) deletion were quantified in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin biopsies, for five cohorts of patients varying either in sun exposure profile, age or skin cancer status. Non-melanoma skin cancer diagnoses are rising in Ireland and worldwide [12] but most risk prediction is based on subjective visual estimations of sun exposure history. A quantitative objective test for pre-neoplastic markers may result in better adherence to sun protective behaviours. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to be subject to the loss of a significant proportion of specific sections of genetic code due to exposure to ultraviolet light in sunlight. Although one such deletion has been deemed more sensitive, another, called the mtDNA(4977) or common deletion, has proved to be a more useful indicator of possible risk in this study. Quantitative molecular analysis was carried out to determine the percentage of genomes carrying the deletion using non sun exposed and sun exposed skin biopsies in cohorts of patients with high or low sun exposure profiles and two high exposure groups undergoing treatment for NMSC. Results indicate that mtDNA deletions correlate to sun exposure; in groups with high sun exposure habits a significant increase in deletion number in exposed over non sun exposed skin occurred. An increase in deletion percentage was also seen in older cohorts compared to the younger group. The mtDNA(3895) deletion was detected in small amounts in exposed skin of many patients, the mtDNA(4977) common deletion, although present to some extent in non sun exposed skin, is suggested to be the more reliable and easily detected marker. In all cohorts except the younger group with relatively lower sun exposure, the mtDNA(4977) deletion was more frequent in sun exposed skin samples compared to non-sun exposed skin.

  1. Is the current public health message on UV exposure correct?

    PubMed

    Lucas, Robyn M; Repacholi, Mike H; McMichael, Anthony J

    2006-06-01

    Current sun safety messages stress the importance of sun protection in avoiding the consequences of excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), such as skin cancers, cataracts and other eye diseases, and viral infections caused by UV-induced immunosuppression. However, adequate exposure to UVR has an important role in human health, primarily through UV-induced production of vitamin D, a hormone essential to bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency may be associated with increased risks of some cancers, autoimmune diseases and mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. Here, we review the evolution of current sun exposure practices and sun-safe messages and consider not only the benefits, but also the detrimental effects that such messages may have. UVR-induced vitamin D production can be inhibited by factors such as deep skin pigmentation, indoor lifestyles, older age, sun avoidance behaviours and clothing habits that limit skin exposure, with deleterious consequences for health. There is some early evidence that sun-safe messages are beginning to cause a decrease in skin cancer rates in young people. After the widespread promotion of sun safety, it may now be appropriate to refine public health messages to take better account of variations between groups and their susceptibility to the dangers and benefits of sun exposure.

  2. Is the current public health message on UV exposure correct?

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Robyn M.; Repacholi, Mike H.; McMichael, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    Current sun safety messages stress the importance of sun protection in avoiding the consequences of excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), such as skin cancers, cataracts and other eye diseases, and viral infections caused by UV-induced immunosuppression. However, adequate exposure to UVR has an important role in human health, primarily through UV-induced production of vitamin D, a hormone essential to bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency may be associated with increased risks of some cancers, autoimmune diseases and mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. Here, we review the evolution of current sun exposure practices and sun-safe messages and consider not only the benefits, but also the detrimental effects that such messages may have. UVR-induced vitamin D production can be inhibited by factors such as deep skin pigmentation, indoor lifestyles, older age, sun avoidance behaviours and clothing habits that limit skin exposure, with deleterious consequences for health. There is some early evidence that sun-safe messages are beginning to cause a decrease in skin cancer rates in young people. After the widespread promotion of sun safety, it may now be appropriate to refine public health messages to take better account of variations between groups and their susceptibility to the dangers and benefits of sun exposure. PMID:16799733

  3. Knowledge and attitudes of UK university students in relation to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and their sun-related behaviours: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Lucy; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether knowledge about the harms of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) influences UK university students' sun-related behaviours and examine in depth their attitudes towards: sun protection, natural and artificial tanning behaviours. Design Qualitative methodology with 15 semistructured, individual interviews. Thematic analysis using the Framework Method with analyst triangulation and member validation. Setting One university in the West Midlands, UK. Participants 15 Caucasian male (n=4) and female (n=11) students, aged 18–22 years, from a UK university. Participants were recruited using convenience sampling from the university's main campus followed by purposive sampling for: gender, course and sun-related behaviours. Results Five main themes emerged: (1) knowledge of UVR; (2) sun-protection practices; (3) attitudes towards tanning; (4) external influences and (5) internal influences. All students knew the associated skin cancer risks from the sun and sunbed use, but this did not appear an important influence in their sun-related behaviours. Body image strongly motivated sun-protection practices and the desire to tan naturally or artificially, across both genders. However, participants' final decision-making appeared to be influenced by their beliefs that practising known harmful sun-related behaviours would not affect them or the perceived susceptibility to sunburn. Beliefs about sunbathing and sunscreen use prompted improper use of sun protection and inadvertently caused more harmful practices. Participants' peers, family and the media had dual roles influencing the development of attitudes towards sun protection and tanning, which contributed to how participants behaved in the sun and their engagement in tanning methods. Conclusions Knowledge about the risk of skin cancer associated with UVR did not strongly influence sun-related behaviours, whereas body image appeared as a key motivator. Attitudes towards sun protection and tanning stemmed

  4. Increasing Sun Protection in Winter Outdoor Recreation

    PubMed Central

    Walkosz, Barbara J.; Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Scott, Michael D.; Dignan, Mark B.; Cutter, Gary R.; Maloy, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Unprotected and excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the primary risk factor for skin cancer. Design A pair-matched, group-randomized, pre-test/post-test, quasi-experimental design, with ski resorts as the unit of randomization, tested the effectiveness of Go Sun Smart, a multi-channel skin cancer prevention program. Independent samples of guests were taken at baseline (2001) and follow-up (2002); data were analyzed in 2006. Setting and Participants A total of 6516 adult guests at 26 ski resorts in the western U.S. and Canada were recruited, consented, and interviewed on chairlifts. This study was nested within an occupational intervention for ski resort workers. Intervention Ski resorts were pair-matched and randomized to receive Go Sun Smart, which consisted of print, electronic, visual, and interpersonal skin cancer prevention messages. Main Outcome Measures Sun-protection behaviors, sunburning, recall of sun-protection messages, and the association of message exposure to sun protection. Results The difference in recall of all sun-protection messages, messages on signs and posters, and the Go Sun Smart logo was significant between the intervention and control resorts. Reported use of sun-protection practices was higher by guests at intervention ski areas using more (a higher dose of) Go Sun Smart materials. Intervention-group guests who recalled a sun-safety message were more likely to practice sun safety than intervention-group guests who did not recall a message and control-group guests. Conclusions While the mere implementation of Go Sun Smart did not produce sun-safety improvements, Go Sun Smart appeared to be effective for guests who encountered and remembered it. Many factors can work against message exposure. Signage seemed to produce the greatest increase in exposure to sun-safety messages. PMID:18471586

  5. Effects of Early Sun Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with light skin have less melanin than dark-skinned people. This is why very fair-skinned ... this are wrinkled, tight, or leathery skin and dark spots.Lowered immune system. White blood cells work ...

  6. Effects of a Preschool Staff Intervention on Children's Sun Protection: Outcomes of Sun Protection Is Fun!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.; Tripp, Mary K.; James, Aimee S.; Harrist, Ronald B.; Mueller, Nancy H.; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Parcel, Guy S.

    2007-01-01

    The preschool is an important yet understudied setting for sun-protection interventions. This study evaluates the effects of Sun Protection is Fun! (SPF) on preschool staff behavioral and psychosocial outcomes related to protecting children from sun exposure. Twenty preschools participated in a 2-year, group-randomized trial to evaluate SPF, a…

  7. Concurrent Psychosocial Predictors of Sun Safety among Middle School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreeva, Valentina A.; Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Yaroch, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sun-induced skin damage, which increases skin cancer risk, is initiated in early life and promoted through later sun exposure patterns. If sun safety determinants are well understood and addressed during the school years, skin cancer incidence might be reduced. This study tested psychosocial influences on youth's sun safety and…

  8. After the Bell: Developing Sun Sense--Learning about Protection from the Sun's Rays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (2008) reports that our students will experience 80% of their lifetime exposure to the Sun by the time they are 18. Further, research has demonstrated that continued exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet rays can lead to skin aging, sunburn, immune suppression, ocular melanoma, cataracts, corneal burns, and even…

  9. Get SunWise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Patricia; Ingram, Dabney

    2004-01-01

    Providing sun-safe environments, schedules, and activities; teaching and modeling sun-safe behaviors; and implementing a sun-safe school policy are ways that schools can help protect children from sun overexposure and lay the foundation for a healthy lifestyle at an early age. This article presents the SunWise program and examples of classroom…

  10. Micro sun sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, C. C.; Mobasser, S.; Wrigley, C. J.; Bae, Y.; Howard, A.; Schroeder, J.

    2002-01-01

    A new generation of sun sensors is emerging. These sun sensors utilize an imaging detector and the sun sensor determines the sun angles based on an image of fringes or centroids on the detector plane. Typically determines the sun angle in two axes.

  11. A high UV environment does not ensure adequate Vitamin D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Brodie, A.; Harrison, S.; Nowak, M.; Moore, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Queensland has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world and due to the high levels of solar UV in this region it is assumed that incidental UV exposure should provide adequate vitamin D status for the population. This research was undertaken to test this assumption among healthy free-living adults in south-east Queensland, Australia (27°S), at the end of winter. This research was approved by Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee and conducted under the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. 10.2% of the sample had serum vitamin D levels below 25nm/L (deficiency) and a further 32.3% had levels between 25nm/L and 50nm/L (insufficiency). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency can occur at the end of winter, even in sunny climates. The wintertime UV levels in south-east Queensland (UV index 4-6) are equivalent to summertime UV levels in northern regions of Europe and the USA. These ambient UV levels are sufficient to ensure synthesis of vitamin D requirements. We investigated individual UV exposure (through a self reported sun exposure questionnaire) and found correlations between exposure and Vitamin D status. Further research is needed to explore the interactions between the solar UV environment and vitamin D status, particularly in high UV environments, such as Queensland.

  12. Our Star, the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Mary Kay

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities for elementary and middle school students on the sun and the Earth-sun relationship. Studies the structure of the sun with activities that include Shadow Play, Reflective Solar Cooker, Equatorial Sundial, and Tracing Images. (YDS)

  13. Does C-C bonding proceed during exposure of adequate metal surfaces to CH{sub 4}? Reply to {open_quotes}Comment by Z. Hlavathy, Z. Paal, and P. Tetenyi{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Amaraiglio, A.; Pareja, P.; Amariglio, H.

    1997-02-01

    The comments, results, and reflections presented by Hlavathy and co-workers in their Letter aim at demonstrating that C-C bonding between CH{sub x} adspecies, formed upon exposure of Pt to CH{sub 4}, can proceed as well during the exposure itself as during further exposure to H{sub 2}. This possibility was implicitly put forward because they thought that a tight parallelism exists between the interactions of CH{sub 4} and CO with a metal surface, provided that the exposure to CH{sub 4} is carried out at a high enough temperature (450{degrees}C). In both cases these authors assumed that three kinds of carbon, C{sub {alpha}}, C{sub {beta}}, and C{sub {gamma}}, can be formed, C{sub {alpha}} being the main species responsible for the production of CH{sub 4} and of the C{sub 2}, alkanes obtained when the metal was further contacted with H{sub 2} at 100{degrees}C. As they argued that C{sub {alpha}} (also named carbidic carbon) has only metal atoms in its first coordination shell, they were implicitly led it that C-C bonding must take place during the hydrogenation step. The authors have not denied this possibility, but they have suggested that different situations can result from exposures to CH{sub 4} conducted at temperatures much lower than those used by Koerts et al.. 13 refs.

  14. Metabolomic analysis of sun exposed skin.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Manpreet; Southall, Michael; Samaras, Samantha Tucker

    2013-08-01

    It is very well known that exposure of skin to sun chronically accelerates the mechanism of aging as well as making it more susceptible toward skin cancer. This aspect of aging has been studied very well through genomics and proteomics tools. In this study we have used a metabolomic approach for the first time to determine the differences in the metabolome from full thickness skin biopsies from sun exposed and sun protected sites. We have primarily investigated the energy metabolism and the oxidative pathway in sun exposed skin. Biochemical pathway analysis revealed that energy metabolism in photoexposed skin is predominantly anaerobic. The study also validated the increased oxidative stress in skin.

  15. Sun protection in children: realities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gilaberte, Y; Carrascosa, J M

    2014-04-01

    One of the main goals of all skin cancer prevention campaigns is to protect children from ultraviolet radiation. However, little is known about how sun exposure risks differ between adults and children or about how these risks are best managed. Children's skin is more susceptible to sun damage for a number of reasons, including certain anatomical and functional aspects in children under 2 years of age and habits that predispose to greater sun exposure during the first 2 decades of life. Oil-based emulsions containing inorganic filters appear to be safest sunscreens for children, although the addition of certain organic filters is necessary to achieve a sun protection factor of 50. Oxybenzone, and probably also octocrylene, should be avoided in sunscreens for children. Sunscreen use should be part of an overall sun protection strategy that includes avoidance of exposure to midday sun and the use of protective clothing and hats. The above considerations justify the implementation of primary prevention campaigns focused on sun protection education for children and the continuation of basic and epidemiological research into specific sun protection strategies and sunscreens for each age group.

  16. Sun: Friend and Foe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froschauer, Linda K.; Boudrot, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the benefits and hazards that the sun provides. Describes activities which focus on the power of the sun and on the development of "Sun-sensible" behavior. Also included is a poster which contains puzzles and additional information and activities on safe sunning. (ML)

  17. Bayesian seismology of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruberbauer, M.; Guenther, D. B.

    2013-06-01

    We perform a Bayesian grid-based analysis of the solar l = 0, 1, 2 and 3 p modes obtained via BiSON in order to deliver the first Bayesian asteroseismic analysis of the solar composition problem. We do not find decisive evidence to prefer either of the contending chemical compositions, although the revised solar abundances (AGSS09) are more probable in general. We do find indications for systematic problems in standard stellar evolution models, unrelated to the consequences of inadequate modelling of the outer layers on the higher order modes. The seismic observables are best fitted by solar models that are several hundred million years older than the meteoritic age of the Sun. Similarly, meteoritic age calibrated models do not adequately reproduce the observed seismic observables. Our results suggest that these problems will affect any asteroseismic inference that relies on a calibration to the Sun.

  18. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  19. Improving sun-safe knowledge, attitude and behaviour in parents of primary school children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cercato, M C; Nagore, E; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Guillén, C

    2013-03-01

    Excessive sun exposure, mainly in childhood, represents one of the major skin cancer risk factors. Sun protection habits should start early in life to be effective. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and sun protection behaviour in parents (P) and in their children (C). The educational intervention addressed the parents of 131 primary school pupils in Valencia, Spain, during the school year 2007-2008. A self-administered pre- and post-intervention questionnaire was handed in during school hours to be filled in by parents. Parents' compliance was very high (88 %). At baseline, regular high-sun-protective-factor (>15) sunscreen use was common (P, 64 %; C, 95 %); wearing clothing (T-shirt: P, 34 %, C, 62 %; hat: P, 29 %, C, 64 %) and sun avoidance at midday (P, 23 %; C, 29 %) were less frequent. Almost 70 % of parents reported difficulties, mainly due to the children's refusal. A high knowledge score (median, 6/7) and a medium/high attitude score (median, 24/30) in parents were observed; however, lifetime sunburn history was generally reported (P, 88 %; C, 24 %). Factors associated with parents' knowledge were a personal history of sunburns and regularly repeating sunscreen application to children (median score: 6 vs 5; p ≤ 0.01) Predictors of a more favourable attitude were female caretakers and having daughters (median score: 30 vs 25 and 25 vs 24, respectively; p ≤ 0.01). A trend towards limited post-intervention positive changes emerged; however, sun avoidance habit decreased (35 vs 20 %, p = 0.01). Despite a high level of parents' knowledge, sun protection in children is not adequate, and sunburns are not uncommon. Unfavourable beliefs and attitudes need to be overcome and quality of messages improved to achieve sun-safe exposure in children.

  20. The effects of exposure to LN2 temperatures and 2.5 suns solar radiation on 30-cm ion thruster performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental test program was developed to demonstrate all 30 cm Hg-ion bombardment thruster functions over the thermal environment of several proposed missions. A 30 cm thruster with grids dished 1.25 cm and instrumented with 31 thermocouples, was placed in a vacuum tank equipped with minus 196 C walls. Cold storage of a thruster was simulated and temperatures as low as minus 100 C were attained on the thruster. The thruster started successfully from these cold conditions. The thruster operating at both half and full beam power was exposed to 2.5 suns on axis solar simulation. Various thruster thermal configurations, used to simulate multiple thruster operation, were tested at the above conditions. The results of these tests are reported herein.

  1. The effects of exposure to LN2 temperatures and 2.5 suns solar radiation on 30-cm ion thruster performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental test program was developed to demonstrate all 30 cm Hg-ion bombardment thruster functions over the thermal environment of several proposed missions. A 30 cm thruster with grids dished 1.25 cm and instrumented with 31 thermocouples, was placed in a vacuum tank equipped with -196 C walls. Cold storage of a thruster was simulated and temperatures as low as -100 C were attained on the thruster. The thruster started successfully from these cold conditions. The thruster operating at both half and full beam power was exposed to 2.5 suns on axis solar simulation. Various thruster thermal configurations, used to simulate multiple thruster operation, were tested at the above conditions. The results of these tests are reported herein.

  2. Most blood biomarkers related to vitamin status, one-carbon metabolism, and the kynurenine pathway show adequate preanalytical stability and within-person reproducibility to allow assessment of exposure or nutritional status in healthy women and cardiovascular patients.

    PubMed

    Midttun, Oivind; Townsend, Mary K; Nygård, Ottar; Tworoger, Shelley S; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ueland, Per Magne

    2014-05-01

    sufficient within-person reproducibility to allow one-exposure assessment of biomarker status in epidemiologic studies. The Western Norway B Vitamin Intervention Trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NTC00354081.

  3. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  4. Seasons by the Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  5. Fireworks on the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows fireworks on the sun as 10 significant flares erupted on the sun from Oct. 19-28, 2014. The graph shows X-ray output from the sun as measured by NOAA’s GOES spacecraft. The X-rays ...

  6. Retraction: "Oral Polypodium leucomotos increases the anti-inflammatory and melanogenic responses of the skin to different modalities of sun exposures: a pilot study" by Calzavara-Pinton PG, Rossi MT, Zanca A, Arisi M, Gonzalez S, and Venturini M.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    The above article, published online on November 6, 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Thomas M. Ruenger, MD PhD and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as the clinical trial reported in this manuscript was not approved by the local Ethics Committee. Reference Calzavara-Pinton PG, Rossi MT, Zanca A, Arisi M, Gonzalez S, Venturini M. Oral Polypodium leucomotos increases the anti-inflammatory and melanogenic responses of the skin to different modalities of sun exposures: a pilot study. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2016; 32: 22-27. doi: 10.1111/phpp.12209.

  7. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  8. Encouraging sun safety for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boe, Kathy; Tillotson, Elizabeth A

    2006-06-01

    The rise in the number of cases of skin cancers, both melanomas and nonmelanomas, has prompted increased awareness and educational efforts to limit sun exposure. Because 80% of lifetime sun exposure occurs before the age of 18, educating parents and adolescents to incorporate sun-protective behaviors into daily routines is particularly important. Education of parents is essential to establishing healthy behavior patterns in children. Educational interventions are recommended that encourage the following: using sunscreen, wearing hats with wide brims and clothing that blocks or absorbs ultraviolet rays, using sunglasses that block ultraviolet radiation, and seeking shade. Continued efforts are important through adolescence to maintain the established behaviors. School nurses are in a position to affect the health education curriculum, as well as school policies that promote sun safety behaviors.

  9. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  10. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  11. Effects of a multicomponent intervention on motivation and sun protection behaviors among midwestern beachgoers.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; McChargue, Dennis; Fuqua, R Wayne

    2003-07-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent of all cancers in the United States. Although avoiding sun exposure and using sun protection reduces skin cancer risk, rates of such behaviors are moderate at best. The present study examined the impact of a multicomponent intervention that aimed to increase the saliency of skin cancer risk while promoting the use of sun protection. Midwestern beachgoers (n = 100) participated in an intervention or questionnaire-only control group. Sun protection, stage of change, and sun exposure were measured at baseline and 2-month follow-up. The intervention group significantly improved in sun protection use and stage of change, but not sun exposure, compared with the control group. Personalizing the risks of unprotected sun exposure combined with providing education about sun protection facilitated healthy changes in behavior and motivation.

  12. ORNL SunTracker

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, Robert Wesley

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screen that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.

  13. Vitamin D Concentration Responses to Vitamin D3 Administration in older People Without Sun Exposure: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Janice B.; Kane, Lynn; Bikle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Inadequate vitamin D (D) status is common in the very elderly yet data on dose responses to D are sparse. Our objective was to determine the dose response relationship of 25-OH D to supplemental vitamin D3 in elderly nursing home residents. Design Randomized double-blind investigation Setting Nursing Home Participants Eighty-one women (n=51) and men (n=30), mean age of 87.4 ±8 years enrolled and 72 completed the study. Intervention Sixteen weeks of oral D3 at 800, 2000, or4000 IU/day or 50,000 IU/week Measurements Main outcome was 25(OH) D concentrations (tandem mass spectrometry) after 16 weeks. Free 25(OH) D and iPTH were also analyzed. Safety monitoring of calcium, eGFR, adherence and clinical status was performed. Results 25(OH)D concentrations increased with dose (p<.0001) and were higher with 50000 IU/wk (p<.0001) than other doses, higher with 4000 IU/day than 800 or 2000 IU/day but 800 IU and 2000 IU/day did not differ. One subject on 800 IU/day had concentrations <20 ng/mL. All on ≥2000 IU/day had concentrations >20 ng/mL. Free 25(OH) D concentrations rose with total D. Both total and free 25(OH)D were related to calcium concentrations ;only free 25(OH)D was related to iPTH. Conclusion 25(OH) D increased linearly with 800-4000 IU/day and 50000 IU/week D3 without a ceiling effect. Data suggest some elderly will require over 800 IU/day D3 to ensure adequate vitamin D status. Changes in 25(OH) D with D3 were related to starting concentrations (greatest with the lowest concentrations and unchanged with 800 and 2000 IU/day if 20-40 ng/mL). Relationships between measures of D effect and free 25(OH)D suggest its potential in defining optimal 25(OH) D concentrations. PMID:26782853

  14. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate...

  15. Patterns of persistent DNA damage associated with sun exposure and the glutathione S-transferase M1 genotype in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Mark L; Hubbard, Karen; Utti, Charles; Clas, Brian; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Hill, Helene Z; Orlow, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Solar radiation can lead to changes affecting DNA metabolism resulting in loss of DNA integrity. Skin specimens obtained from melanoma patients treated at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center were used to study patterns of DNA fragmentation using the comet assay and levels of deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) using real-time PCR. Skin specimens were classified according to the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) genotype (either wild type [WT] or null) and patient sunburn history. GSTM1 null individuals with a sunburn history showed increased levels of both DNA fragmentation by comet assays and mtDNA deletions relative to GSTM1 WT patients with little or no sunburn history. Microarray analyses identified a number of genes whose expression was upregulated >or=5-fold in cells from GSTM1-null patients or from those reporting histories of sunburn. These genes encoded small molecule transporters, various growth factor/chemokine receptors, transcription factors and tumor suppressors. Of 17 genes directly involved in DNA repair, three DNA ligases were highly upregulated while the RAD23 UV excision repair gene and the Growth Arrest and DNA Damage gene (GADD45) were downregulated. These findings support the idea that exposure to solar radiation early in life may induce long-term cellular changes that lead to persistent DNA damage and altered patterns of gene expression.

  16. Habits of sun exposure and risk of malignant melanoma: an analysis of incidence rates in Norway 1955-1977 by cohort, sex, age, and primary tumor site

    SciTech Connect

    Magnus, K.

    1981-11-15

    Incidence data on malignant melanoma of the skin in Norway from 1955-1977, comprising a total of 5108 new cases, were analyzed according to cohort, sex, age, and primary tumor site. A continuous increase in incidence of approximately 7% per year was observed for both sexes during the study period. For trunk and lower limb melanomas, the increase and cohort variations in incidence were much greater than for face and neck melanoma. A difference between these site groups was also observed in the shape of the cohort curves of age-specific rates. This indicated that the trend in carcinogenic exposure through life was different for the face--neck and the trunk--lower limb. For the generations born 1930-1949, the incidence of malignant melanoma per area unit of skin was greater for the trunk and lower limb than for the face--neck. It is suggested that not only the cumulated dose, but also the intensity of solar radiation may be significant in the cause of malignant melanoma.

  17. Sun on Skin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes sessions in two schools that focused on recent work with 2,857 children in Europe researching the children's perceptions of sun on skin. Investigates children's ideas about skin on different parts of the body, which was most vulnerable to the sun, and different types and colors. (Author/CCM)

  18. The magnetic Sun.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Richard A

    2008-05-28

    The nature of our star, the Sun, is dominated by its complex and variable magnetic fields. It is the purpose of this paper to review the fundamental nature of our magnetic Sun by outlining the most basic principles behind the way the Sun works and how its fields are generated, and to examine not only the historical observations of our magnetic star, but, in particular, to study the wonderful observations of the Sun being made from space today. However, lying behind all of this are the most basic equations derived by James Clerk Maxwell, describing how the magnetic fields and plasmas of our Sun's atmosphere, and indeed of all stellar atmospheres, work and how they influence the Earth.

  19. Sun-Earth Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  20. Sounding the Sun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    Sounding the Sun Antony Fraser-Smith STAR Laboratory Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305 phone: (650) 723-3684 fax: (650) 723-9251 email...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sounding the Sun 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...systems. The objective of our “Sounding the sun ” experiment is to detect earth-directed CME’s by using existing earth-based HF (3- 30 MHz) radar systems

  1. Sun-Smart Safety Tips: Avoiding the Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camping Magazine, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Skin cancer is the fastest increasing cancer, and children receive 80% of their lifetime sun exposure before age 18. Campers should apply sunscreen with a sun protection factor of at least 15 daily, 20 minutes before going outdoors and again every 2 hours. Seven strategies for preventing sunburn and reducing the risk of developing skin cancer are…

  2. The Turbulent Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Sally, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Six articles review current understanding and research in solar physics. Included are topics on sunspots, the corona, solar flares, solar waves, and solar-energy generation. Also included is a resume of physical data relating to the sun. (SL)

  3. STEREO Sun360 Teaser

    NASA Video Gallery

    For the past 4 years, the two STEREO spacecraft have been moving away from Earth and gaining a more complete picture of the sun. On Feb. 6, 2011, NASA will reveal the first ever images of the entir...

  4. Sun protection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in combination with wide-brimmed hats, sunglasses, and sunscreen, are all helpful in preventing damage to the ... Any one of these by itself, even the sunscreen, may not be enough to prevent sun damage.

  5. The Sun Gets Loopy

    NASA Video Gallery

    SDO watched as an active region in the Sun’s southern hemisphere produced a whole series of looping arcs of plasma in profile (Sept. 11-13, 2010). The arcs are actually charged particles spirali...

  6. Van Gogh Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    Nicholeen Viall, a solar scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center creates images of the sun reminiscent of Van Gogh, but it's science, not art. The color of each pixel contains a wealth of i...

  7. Sun and sun beds: inducers of vitamin D and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Cicarma, Emanuela; Porojnicu, Alina Carmen; Lagunova, Zoya; Dahlback, Arne; Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Johan

    2009-09-01

    Solar radiation is both the main cause of all types of skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), and the main source of vitamin D accompanied by its beneficial effects. The dilemma lies in that increased sun exposure could lead to an increase in skin cancers and yet is necessary for the better prognosis of internal cancers. Solar radiation varies in intensity and spectral composition with geographic location and time. Of central interest in the present context is that the UVA/UVB ratio can vary. Thus, the UVA/UVB ratio increases with decreasing solar elevation. The ratio is also larger for most sun beds than that in the midday sun, but similar to that in the afternoon sun. This may have large health implications, since vitamin D is exclusively generated by UVB, while UVA and UVB likely play a role in the onset of CMM. Sun and sun beds act similarly: one quantum of radiation at a given wavelength has the same biological effect, irrespective of the source from which it comes. The winter levels of vitamin D are 10 to 100% lower than the summer levels in most populations, but can be brought up to summer levels by moderate sun bed exposure. Doses of 200 IU of vitamin D per day are not sufficiently large to maintain a summer vitamin D status in winter. At high latitudes (>40 degrees) the sun provides no vitamin D in winter. A number of epidemiological studies, interventional studies, animal studies and cell experiments show that vitamin D reduces the risk and/or prognosis of internal cancers. Populations living at high latitudes would probably benefit from moderately increasing their exposure to UVB to provide a good vitamin D status.

  8. Knowledge and Practice of Sun Protection in Schools in South Africa Where No National Sun Protection Programme Exists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Reeder, Anthony I.; Albers, Patricia N.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline…

  9. The Sun and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  10. Flight Qualified Micro Sun Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Mobasser, Sohrab; Wrigley, Chris; Schroeder, Jeffrey; Bae, Youngsam; Naegle, James; Katanyoutanant, Sunant; Jerebets, Sergei; Schatzel, Donald; Lee, Choonsup

    2007-01-01

    A prototype small, lightweight micro Sun sensor (MSS) has been flight qualified as part of the attitude-determination system of a spacecraft or for Mars surface operations. The MSS has previously been reported at a very early stage of development in NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 1 (January 2004). An MSS is essentially a miniature multiple-pinhole electronic camera combined with digital processing electronics that functions analogously to a sundial. A micromachined mask containing a number of microscopic pinholes is mounted in front of an active-pixel sensor (APS). Electronic circuits for controlling the operation of the APS, readout from the pixel photodetectors, and analog-to-digital conversion are all integrated onto the same chip along with the APS. The digital processing includes computation of the centroids of the pinhole Sun images on the APS. The spacecraft computer has the task of converting the Sun centroids into Sun angles utilizing a calibration polynomial. The micromachined mask comprises a 500-micron-thick silicon wafer, onto which is deposited a 57-nm-thick chromium adhesion- promotion layer followed by a 200-nm-thick gold light-absorption layer. The pinholes, 50 microns in diameter, are formed in the gold layer by photolithography. The chromium layer is thin enough to be penetrable by an amount of Sunlight adequate to form measurable pinhole images. A spacer frame between the mask and the APS maintains a gap of .1 mm between the pinhole plane and the photodetector plane of the APS. To minimize data volume, mass, and power consumption, the digital processing of the APS readouts takes place in a single field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The particular FPGA is a radiation- tolerant unit that contains .32,000 gates. No external memory is used so the FPGA calculates the centroids in real time as pixels are read off the APS with minimal internal memory. To enable the MSS to fit into a small package, the APS, the FPGA, and other components are mounted

  11. UV radiation transmittance: regular clothing versus sun-protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Bielinski, Kenneth; Bielinski, Nolan

    2014-09-01

    There are many clothing options available for patients who are interested in limiting their exposure to UV radiation; however, these options can be confusing for patients. For dermatologists, there is limited clinical data regarding the advantages, if any, of sun-protective clothing. In this study, we examined the UV radiation transmittance of regular clothing versus sun-protective clothing. We found that regular clothing may match or even exceed sun-protective clothing in blocking the transmittance of UV radiation. These data will help dermatologists better counsel their patients on clothing options for sun protection.

  12. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  13. Sun Exposure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips Советы по безопасному нахождению на солнце - Русский ... not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  14. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  15. Sun protection and sunscreen labeling--an update.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Marius A; Gougerot, Agnès

    2007-01-01

    Sun exposure is today well recognized as having an adverse effect on human skin. Part of sun radiation, ultraviolet radiation A (UVA) and B (UVB), can modify skin structures and induce short-term skin changes (sunburn, tanning, hyperkeratinization, brown spots) and long-term skin damages (accelerated skin aging and skin cancers). Protection against both UVA and UVB is very important, therefore sun protection by clothes, avoiding sun exposure and correct use of sunscreens are important means to reduce short- and long-term solar radiation effects. The recommendation of appropriate sunscreen by doctors and cosmetic professionals (the function of skin type and sun radiation intensity) is today easier due to the recently implemented European uniform labeling system of sunscreens and detailed information for consumers.

  16. The Sun in STEREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Parallax gives depth to life. Simultaneous viewing from slightly different vantage points makes binocular humans superior to monocular cyclopes, and fixes us in the third dimension of the Universe. We've been stunned by 3-d images of Venus and Mars (along with more familiar views of earth). Now astronomers plan to give us the best view of all, 3-d images of the dynamic Sun. That's one of the prime goals of NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories, also known as STEREO. STEREO is a pair of spacecraft observatories, one placed in orbit in front of earth, and one to be placed in an earth-trailing orbit. Simultaneous observations of the Sun with the two STEREO spacecraft will provide extraordinary 3-d views of all types of solar activity, especially the dramatic events called coronal mass ejections which send high energy particles from the outer solar atmosphere hurtling towards earth. The image above the first image of the sun by the two STEREO spacecraft, an extreme ultraviolet shot of the Sun's million-degree corona, taken by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) instrument package. STEREO's first 3-d solar images should be available in April if all goes well. Put on your red and blue glasses!

  17. Knowledge of outdoor workers on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure.

    PubMed

    Hault, K; Rönsch, H; Beissert, S; Knuschke, P; Bauer, A

    2016-04-01

    The most important but influenceable risk factor in the development of skin cancer is the unprotected exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In order to assure adequate and effective protection against UV exposure, a level of knowledge about solar radiation and its effects is required. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of workers in outdoor professions on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure. Forty outdoor workers were given a standardized questionnaire designed to ascertain their level of knowledge. The majority of participants knew exposure to solar radiation can be detrimental depending on exposure time. Eighty-three percentage recognized that people working regularly in an outdoor environment may be at risk due to high exposure. Long-sleeved clothing plus headgear and sunscreen containing sun-protecting substances were deemed adequate methods of protection by 83% and 85% respectively. Seventy percentage of the outdoor workers were familiar with the definition of the sun protection factor (SPF), yet only 25% correctly identified the amount of sunscreen needed to achieve the SPF as indicated on the product. A mere 8% of participants knew that symptoms of a sunburn first became apparent 3 h after sun exposure and only 18% were able to accurately gauge the amount of time they could spend in the sun before developing one. Although 30% had heard of the ultraviolet index (UVI), only 13% understood that protecting your skin using additional measures is recommended as of UVI 3. Overall, 30% of the outdoor workers thought themselves sufficiently protected against the harmful effects of the sun. While the participants of this study had a basic fundamental understanding of the effects of solar radiation and methods of protection against exposure, there remains an urgent need for further clarification across all demographic groups.

  18. Go Sun Smart

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2009-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests risk for skin cancer by adopting sun safe practices. The following narrative describes the intervention in toto from its design and implementation through assessment. Our theory driven, experimentally tested intervention was successful in reducing employees’ risks for skin cancer during and after the ski season. We also succeeded in making ski area guests more aware of the need to take sun safe precautions with both themselves and their children. PMID:20148119

  19. Near-Sun asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanenko, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    As follows from dynamical studies, in the course of evolution, most near-Earth objects reach orbits with small perihelion distances. Changes of the asteroids in the vicinity of the Sun should play a key role in forming the physical properties, size distribution, and dynamical features of the near-Earth objects. Only seven of the discovered asteroids are currently moving along orbits with perihelion distances q < 0.1 AU. However, due to the Kozai-Lidov secular perturbations, the asteroids, having recently passed near the Sun, could by now have moved to orbits farther from the Sun. In this study, we found asteroids that have been recently orbiting with perihelion distances q < 0.1 AU. Asteroids may be on such orbits for hundreds to tens of thousands of years. To carry out astrophysical observations of such objects is a high priority.

  20. Sun direction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, L. F.; Pace, G. D., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    One of the detectors is an illumination detector consisting of two spaced apart elongated strips with a strip of cadmium sulphide (Cds) deposited therebetween. Whenever the line image impinges the CdS strip, the resistance between the two other strips is relatively low, while being high when the line image is outside the field of view of the illumination detector. Also included is a sun angle detector which consists of a vapor deposited resistor strip connected at one end to plus 10v and at the other end to minus 10v. Spaced apart from the resistor strip is an elongated strip of low resistance material acting as an output strip, with a CdS strip between the two strips. When the line image is within the field of view of the sun angle detector, the output voltage at the output strip depends on the position of the line image across the sun angle detector.

  1. The controversial sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, Roger K.

    1993-01-01

    The sun serves as an important test case for a variety of problems related to stellar structure and evolution as well as fundamental physics. The sun also influences the terrestrial environment through its varied outputs. These two aspects of the solar interior combine to generate a surprising level of controversy for such an inherently simple star. I review three topics each of which is the subject of some degree of controversy: 1) the solar neutrino problem, 2) the status of modeling and observational efforts to understand the solar cycle of activity, and 3) observational efforts to detect and identify solar g-modes.

  2. Martian Moon Blocks Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the transit of Mars' moon Phobos across the Sun. It is made up of images taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the morning of the 45th martian day, or sol, of its mission. This observation will help refine our knowledge of the orbit and position of Phobos. Other spacecraft may be able to take better images of Phobos using this new information. This event is similar to solar eclipses seen on Earth in which our Moon passes in front of the Sun. The images were taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  3. SunSmart? Skin Cancer Knowledge and Preventive Behaviour in a British Population Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, A.; Waller, J.; Hiom, S.; Swanston, D.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer has risen rapidly in the UK over the last 20 years, prompting public health organizations to try and raise awareness of the dangers of sun exposure and the need to practice sun-safe behaviour. This study aimed to assess baseline levels of sun-safe knowledge and behaviour in a British population-representative sample,…

  4. Investigation of Model Sunscreen Formulations Comparing the Sun Protection Factor, the Universal Sun Protection Factor and the Radical Formation Ratio.

    PubMed

    Syring, Felicia; Weigmann, Hans-Jürgen; Schanzer, Sabine; Meinke, Martina C; Knorr, Fanny; Lademann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In view of globally rising skin cancer rates and harmful effects exerted by sunlight throughout the ultraviolet, visible and infrared ranges, an objective, safe and comprehensive method for determining sunscreen efficacy is required in order to warrant safe sun exposure. In this study, the influence of characteristic active ingredients (chemical filters, physical filters and antioxidants) on different sunscreen indicators, including the universal sun protection factor and the radical formation ratio, was determined and compared to their influence on sun protection factor values. Spectroscopic universal sun protection factor measurements were conducted ex vivo by analyzing tape strips taken from human skin, and radical formation ratio determination was performed via electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using porcine ear skin ex vivo. The sun protection factor determination was conducted according to ISO standards (ISO 24444:2010). It was shown that chemical filters provide a protective effect which was measurable by all methods examined (spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and erythema formation). Physical filters, when used as single active ingredients, increased protective values in universal sun protection factor and sun protection factor measurements but exhibited no significant effect on universal sun protection factor measurements when used in combination with chemical filters or antioxidants. Antioxidants were shown to increase sun protection factor values. Radical formation ratio values were shown to be influenced merely by chemical filters, leading to the conclusion that the universal sun protection factor is the most suitable efficacy indicator for the ultraviolet range.

  5. Licensing the Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The University of San Diego (USD) and Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU) are licensing the sun. Both California schools are generating solar power on campus without having to sink large amounts of capital into equipment and installation. By negotiating power purchasing agreements (PPAs) with Amsolar and Perpetual Energy Systems, respectively,…

  6. Sun Packs Double Punch

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 3, the sun packed a double punch, emitting a M6.0-class flare at 9:43 am EDT. This video is of the second, slightly stronger M9.3-class flare at 11:41 pm EDT. Both flares had significant ...

  7. Our Explosive Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  8. Go Sun Smart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests…

  9. California Sun Glint

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the Sun, the solar power stations in California's Mohave Desert can reflect solar energy from their large, mirror-like surfaces directly ... array at Harper Lake (upper right-hand corner). The Mohave Desert SEGS are the largest collection of solar fields in the world. Together ...

  10. The Sun in Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Bero, Elizabeth; Sever, Thomas L.

    1999-01-01

    Leveraging funds from NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, we combined the expertise of an archaeoastronomer, a solar scientist, and a teacher to trace humankind's view of the Sun and how that has changed, from the time of Stonehenge in about 1800 B.C.E., to the time of the Maya in 700 C.E., up to the modem era. Our program was aimed at middle-school students in an attempt to explain not only how science is done today, but how science has evolved from the observations of ancient societies. From these varied cultures, we touched on methods of observing the Sun, ideas of the composition of the Sun, and the relationship of the Sun to everyday life. Further, using the von Braun Astronomical Society's Planetarium in Huntsville, Alabama as a test-bed for the program, we illustrated concepts such as solstices, equinoxes, and local noon with approximately 800 eighth grade students from the local area. Our presentation to SEPA will include a description of NASA's IDEAS program and how to go about partnering with a NASA astronomer, some slides from our planetarium program and web-site, and some hands-on activities.

  11. Sun-Earth Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Michael Sandras, a member of the Pontchartrain Astronomical Society, explains his solar telescope to students of Second Street in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County and Nicholson elementary schools in StenniSphere's Millennium Hall on April 10. The students participated in several hands-on activities at Stennis Space Center's Sun-Earth Day celebration.

  12. The Sun on Trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2014-03-01

    For 150 years, the Sun has been seen as a gaseous object devoid of a surface, as required by the Standard Solar Model (SSM). Yet, not one line of observational evidence supports a gaseous Sun. In contrast, overwhelming evidence exists that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter. Recently, 40 proofs have been compiled in conjunction with the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model (LMHSM). This model advances that the Sun has a true surface. Photospheric structures, such as sunspots, granules, and faculae, are not optical illusions, as in the SSM, but real objects with a condensed nature. The LMHSM accounts for the thermal spectrum by invoking true inter-atomic structure on the photosphere in the form of the graphite-like layered hexagonal metallic hydrogen lattice first proposed by Wigner and Huntington. Within the convection zone, layered metallic hydrogen, insulated by intercalate atoms, enables the generation of the solar dynamo. Electrons located in conduction bands provide a proper means of generating magnetic fields. Metallic hydrogen ejected from the photosphere also thinly populates the corona, as reflected by the continuous K-coronal spectrum. This coronal matter harvests electrons, resulting in the production of highly ionized atoms. Electron affinity, not temperature, governs the ion profile. The chromosphere is a site of hydrogen and proton capture. Line emission in this region, strongly supports the idea that exothermic condensation reactions are occurring in the chromosphere. In the LMHSM, solar activity and solar winds are regulated by exfoliation reactions occurring in the Sun itself, as the metallic hydrogen lattice excludes non-hydrogen elements from the solar body.

  13. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    PubMed

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure.

  14. Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For a diffuse UV exposure of 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than approximately 50° can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-315 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of UVA observed in full sun.

  15. Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For diffuse UV exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than 60° and 50° respectively can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-330 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of damaging UVA observed in full sun.

  16. The global sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, Jean-Claude

    After a definition of the various terms used to identify the solar layers, from the center to the exterior, and a physical description of these layers, it is shown that various couplings are controlling the physics in the core and the outer layers, and even the planets. One of these couplings is between convection, rotation and magnetism (the dynamo), and another coupling is between solar activity and planetary physics. These couplings make it possible to use observed data (oscillations, neutrinos, emergence of active regions, and of course their evolution) to infer properties of the solar interior. The theoretical knowledge of the sun must take into account the existence of these couplings, as well as the existence of another type of coupling, the one that links the past and the present states of the sun.

  17. Seismology of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Gough, D.; Toomre, J.

    1985-01-01

    The use of the sun's oscillations, caused by the constructive interference between internally reflected waves, to study the interior of the sun is examined. Pressure and buoyancy have the strongest influence on oscillations; pressure fluctuations at high frequency produce acoustic waves and at low frequency buoyancy produces internal gravity waves. The theory of acoustic wave frequency, which is used to determine measurements of sound speed and rate of rotation of the solar interior as well as the thickness of the convection zone, is presented. The classification of solar oscillations is described. The models for acoustic modes of low degree and intermediate degree are discussed. The effect of internal speed, gravity modes, and solar rotation on solar models is determined. The oscillation frequencies yield an He abundance that is consistent with cosmology, but they reinforce the severity of the neutrino problem.

  18. Skylab and the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Articles pertaining to the solar studies and the Skylab program are presented, with emphasis on the usefulness of the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) program. A description of Skylab objectives and key mission events is included along with articles about the sun. Skylab solar studies which are reported include these topics: ATM solar observatory, scientific instruments, crew operations and crew training, and the joint observing program. The Skylab associated solar programs are also reported.

  19. The sun compass revisited

    PubMed Central

    Guilford, Tim; Taylor, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Many animals, and birds in particular, are thought to use directional information from the sun in the form of a time-compensated sun compass, with predictably deviated orientation under clock shift being regarded as the litmus test of this. We suggest that this paradigm obscures a number of other ways in which solar-derived information could be important in animal orientation. We distinguish between the known use of the sun's azimuth to provide absolute geographical direction (compass mechanism) and its possible use to detect changes in heading (heading indicator mechanism). Just as in an aircraft, these two kinds of information may be provided by separate mechanisms and used for different functions, for example for navigation versus steering. We also argue that although a solar compass must be time-referenced to account for the sun's apparent diurnal movement, this need not entail full time compensation. This is because animals might also use time-dependent solar information in an associatively acquired, and hence time-limited, way. Furthermore, we show that a solar heading indicator, when used on a sufficiently short timescale, need not require time compensation at all. Finally, we suggest that solar-derived cues, such as shadows, could also be involved in navigation in ways that depend explicitly upon position, and are therefore not strictly compass-related. This could include giving directionality to landmarks, or acting as time-dependent landmarks involved in place recognition. We conclude that clock shift experiments alone are neither necessary nor sufficient to identify the occurrence of all conceivable uses of solar information in animal orientation, so that a predictable response to clock shift should not be regarded as an acid test of the use of solar information in navigation. PMID:25389374

  20. The sun compass revisited.

    PubMed

    Guilford, Tim; Taylor, Graham K

    2014-11-01

    Many animals, and birds in particular, are thought to use directional information from the sun in the form of a time-compensated sun compass, with predictably deviated orientation under clock shift being regarded as the litmus test of this. We suggest that this paradigm obscures a number of other ways in which solar-derived information could be important in animal orientation. We distinguish between the known use of the sun's azimuth to provide absolute geographical direction (compass mechanism) and its possible use to detect changes in heading (heading indicator mechanism). Just as in an aircraft, these two kinds of information may be provided by separate mechanisms and used for different functions, for example for navigation versus steering. We also argue that although a solar compass must be time-referenced to account for the sun's apparent diurnal movement, this need not entail full time compensation. This is because animals might also use time-dependent solar information in an associatively acquired, and hence time-limited, way. Furthermore, we show that a solar heading indicator, when used on a sufficiently short timescale, need not require time compensation at all. Finally, we suggest that solar-derived cues, such as shadows, could also be involved in navigation in ways that depend explicitly upon position, and are therefore not strictly compass-related. This could include giving directionality to landmarks, or acting as time-dependent landmarks involved in place recognition. We conclude that clock shift experiments alone are neither necessary nor sufficient to identify the occurrence of all conceivable uses of solar information in animal orientation, so that a predictable response to clock shift should not be regarded as an acid test of the use of solar information in navigation.

  1. The sun, our star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, R. W.

    Observational data, analytical models, and instrumentation used to study the sun and its evolution are detailed, and attention is given to techniques for converting solar energy to useful power on earth. The star ignited when the mutual gravitational attractions of dust and vapor in a primordial cloud in the Galaxy caused an in-rush of accelerating particles which eventually became dense enough to ignite. The heat grew until inward rushing matter was balanced by outward moving radiative forces. The planets formed from similar debris, and solar radiation is suggested to have triggered the chemical reactions giving rise to life on earth. Visual, spectroscopic, coronagraphic, and UV observations of the sun from the ground and from spacecraft, particularly Skylab, are described, together with features of the solar surface, magnetic field, sunspots, and coronal loops. Models for the processes that occur in the solar interior are explored, as are the causes of solar flares. Attention is given to solar cells, heliostat arrays, wind turbines, and water turbines as means to convert, either directly or indirectly, the earth-bound solar energy to electrical and thermal power. Finally, the life cycle of the sun, about 9 billion yr in duration, is summarized, noting the current status of midlife.

  2. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.

  3. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589

  4. The Toboggan Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Wayne P. S.; van der Werf, Siebren Y.

    2005-09-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found early observations of this effect in the literature by Willem Barents (1597) and by Captain Scott and H. G. Ponting (1911). We show recent photographic material of the effect and present ray-tracing calculations to explain its essentials.

  5. Retractable Sun Shade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, A.; Derespinis, S. F.; Mockovciak, John, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Window-shade type spring roller contains blanket, taken up by rotating cylindrical frame and held by frame over area to be shaded. Blanket made of tough, opaque polyimide material. Readily unfurled by mechanism to protect space it encloses from Sun. Blanket forms arched canopy over space and allows full access to it from below. When shading not needed, retracted mechanism stores blanket compactly. Developed for protecting sensitive Space Shuttle payloads from direct sunlight while cargo-bay doors open. Adapted to shading of greenhouses, swimming pools, and boats.

  6. Seismology of the sun.

    PubMed

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Gough, D; Toomre, J

    1985-09-06

    Oscillations of the sun make it possible to probe the inside of a star. The frequencies of the oscillations have already provided measures of the sound speed and the rate of rotation throughout much of the solar interior. These quantities are important for understanding the dynamics of the magnetic cycle and have a bearing on testing general relativity by planetary precession. The oscillation frequencies yield a helium abundance that is consistent with cosmology, but they reinforce the severity of the neutrino problem. They should soon provide an important standard by which to calibrate the theory of stellar evolution.

  7. LUNA and the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broggini, Carlo; LUNA Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    One of the main ingredients of nuclear astrophysics is the knowledge of the thermonu-clear reactions responsible for the stellar luminosity and for the synthesis of the chemical elements. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso Laboratory the cross section of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained in the past 20 years are reviewed and their influence on our understanding of the properties of the neutrino and the Sun is discussed.

  8. LUNA and the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Broggini, Carlo; Collaboration: LUNA Collaboration

    2014-05-09

    One of the main ingredients of nuclear astrophysics is the knowledge of the thermonu-clear reactions responsible for the stellar luminosity and for the synthesis of the chemical elements. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso Laboratory the cross section of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained in the past 20 years are reviewed and their influence on our understanding of the properties of the neutrino and the Sun is discussed.

  9. Ultraviolet light exposure, skin cancer risk and vitamin D production

    PubMed Central

    RIVAS, MIGUEL; ROJAS, ELISA; ARAYA, MARÍA C.; CALAF, GLORIA M.

    2015-01-01

    The danger of overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation has been widely reviewed since the 1980s due to the depletion of the ozone layer. However, the benefits of mild exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) light have not been widely investigated. Numerous reports have demonstrated that an association exists between low light exposure to the sun, non-melanoma skin cancer and a lack of vitamin D synthesis. As vitamin D synthesis in the body depends on skin exposure to UVB radiation from the sun (wavelength, 290–320 nm), experimental measurements for this type of solar radiation are important. The present study analyzed data obtained from a laboratory investigating UV radiation from the sun at the University of Tarapacá (Arica, Chile), where systematic experimental UVB measurements had been performed using a calibrated biometer instrument since 2006. These data were compared with skin cancer data from the local population. The results demonstrated that the incidence of skin cancer systematically increased from 7.4 to 18.7 in men and from 10.0 to 21.7 in women between 2000 and 2006 in Arica, respectively; this increase may be due to multiple factors, including the lack of adequate levels of vitamin D in risk groups such as post-menopausal women and senior age. This marked increase may also be due to the high levels of UV radiation measured in this region throughout the year. However, it is not certain that the local population has adequate vitamin D levels, nor that their skin has been predominantly exposed to artificial light that does not allow adequate vitamin D synthesis. Thus, the current study presents the association between skin type IV, the time to induce solar erythema and the time required to produce 1,000 international units of vitamin D. PMID:26622830

  10. Ultraviolet light exposure, skin cancer risk and vitamin D production.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Miguel; Rojas, Elisa; Araya, María C; Calaf, Gloria M

    2015-10-01

    The danger of overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation has been widely reviewed since the 1980s due to the depletion of the ozone layer. However, the benefits of mild exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) light have not been widely investigated. Numerous reports have demonstrated that an association exists between low light exposure to the sun, non-melanoma skin cancer and a lack of vitamin D synthesis. As vitamin D synthesis in the body depends on skin exposure to UVB radiation from the sun (wavelength, 290-320 nm), experimental measurements for this type of solar radiation are important. The present study analyzed data obtained from a laboratory investigating UV radiation from the sun at the University of Tarapacá (Arica, Chile), where systematic experimental UVB measurements had been performed using a calibrated biometer instrument since 2006. These data were compared with skin cancer data from the local population. The results demonstrated that the incidence of skin cancer systematically increased from 7.4 to 18.7 in men and from 10.0 to 21.7 in women between 2000 and 2006 in Arica, respectively; this increase may be due to multiple factors, including the lack of adequate levels of vitamin D in risk groups such as post-menopausal women and senior age. This marked increase may also be due to the high levels of UV radiation measured in this region throughout the year. However, it is not certain that the local population has adequate vitamin D levels, nor that their skin has been predominantly exposed to artificial light that does not allow adequate vitamin D synthesis. Thus, the current study presents the association between skin type IV, the time to induce solar erythema and the time required to produce 1,000 international units of vitamin D.

  11. The Sun: A Star Close Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    1991-01-01

    Both the "quiet" sun and the "active" sun are described. The quiet sun includes the solar phenomena that occur everyday and the active sun includes solar phenomena that appear nonuniformly on the sun and vary over time. A general description of the sun, sunspots, flares, plages, filaments, prominences, solar-terrestrial…

  12. The Sun in Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Sever, Thomas L.; Bero, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Using a grant from NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, we have developed an inter-disciplinary curriculum for middle-school students which targets both history and astronomy. Our curriculum explores the attitudes and techniques of ancient spiritual leaders, specifically those of the Maya and Inca cultures, who observed and tried to control the Sun. We wish students to understand the probable importance of astronomical observations to these ancient peoples. In addition, using the experience of an archaeologist, we show how modern techniques of viewing the Earth through satellite imagery, has allowed the re-discovery of ancient sites where solar observations and attempted manipulation of the universe took place. To contrast ancient observations of the Sun with modern ones, we use the experience of a solar astronomer and bring to the classroom up-to-date information about solar astronomy and the impact of solar activity on the Earth's environment. In this presentation, we will present fragments of our curriculum as well as results from pre- and post-tests given to participating groups of students. Finally, we will discuss comments from local middle-school teachers who were asked to evaluate our curriculum.

  13. Eruptions from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  14. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  15. Sun light European Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  16. The Rapidly Rotating Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l < 60. The observationally constrained kinetic energy is approximately a thousandth of the theoretical prediction, suggesting the prevalence of an intrinsically different paradigm of turbulence. A fundamental question arises: what mechanism of turbulence transports the heat ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  17. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M.

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  18. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Hively, L.M.

    1996-04-30

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position. 17 figs.

  19. Global seismology of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sarbani

    2016-12-01

    The seismic study of the Sun and other stars offers a unique window into the interior of these stars. Thanks to helioseismology, we know the structure of the Sun to admirable precision. In fact, our knowledge is good enough to use the Sun as a laboratory. We have also been able to study the dynamics of the Sun in great detail. Helioseismic data also allow us to probe the changes that take place in the Sun as solar activity waxes and wanes. The seismic study of stars other than the Sun is a fairly new endeavour, but we are making great strides in this field. In this review I discuss some of the techniques used in helioseismic analyses and the results obtained using those techniques. I focus on results obtained with global helioseismology, i.e., the study of the Sun using its normal modes of oscillation. I also briefly touch upon asteroseismology, the seismic study of stars other than the Sun, and discuss how seismic data of others stars are interpreted.

  20. Knowledge and practice of sun protection in schools in South Africa where no national sun protection programme exists.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caradee Y; Reeder, Anthony I; Albers, Patricia N

    2016-04-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline information and investigated possible associations between strategies regarding sun protection in schools and students' responses to a questionnaire. Principals from randomly selected urban government schools in all nine South African provinces completed a questionnaire and 679 students were surveyed. The mean sun-related knowledge and behaviour scores of students were 4 (range: 1-7) and 3 (range-0-8) out of 9, respectively. The mean school sun protection effort score was 4 out of 14. There were no statistically significant correlations between students' knowledge or behaviour scores and their school score. The World Health Organization recommends an SSAP to address policy, practice and curriculum changes to support sun protection of students. This cross-sectional study demonstrates the feasibility of, and need for, a larger baseline study with longitudinal, multi-variable follow-up which includes other influential factors, such as parent support. Such research could quantify the impact of the SSAP and identify which key factors influence the sun-related knowledge and behaviours of students.

  1. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  2. Reconnection on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  3. A sun protection survey of New England fishermen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting

    2003-05-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States, with more than 1 million cases of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnosed annually and an estimated 53,600 cases of melanoma and 7400 deaths expected during the year 2002. Excess exposure to UV radiation has long been linked to both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Fishing is a popular sport in the United States, and one with excessive sun exposure. Results of a survey of recreational fishermen conducted at the 23rd Annual Eastern Fishing & Outdoor Exposition found that sun protection attitudes and practices were poor or inadequate. I recommend that a tailored sun protection intervention program should take into account age, gender, and skin type, as well as the unique obstacles faced by fishermen.

  4. Ultraviolet radiation and the athlete: risk, sun safety, and barriers to implementation of protective strategies.

    PubMed

    Jinna, Sphoorthi; Adams, Brian B

    2013-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays a pivotal role in the development of both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Numerous factors potentially place athletes at high risk for developing these cancers. Various prevention strategies ameliorate this risk, including avoiding sun exposure during peak UV exposure hours, applying sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 30 or above before participating in outdoor sports, wearing hats and sunglasses, and reducing exposure with long pants and long-sleeve shirts. The literature, however, cites several barriers to these prevention approaches, including sports' competition rules, the lack of availability of sunscreen, and the lack of information about sun safety behaviors. Sun safety education programs prove effective in getting athletes to participate in prevention strategies. This article reviews the effect of UV radiation on athletes' skin and provides sports medicine clinicians with suggestions to improve the sun safety behaviors of their athletes.

  5. Watching the Sun from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesnell, W. Dean

    2016-07-01

    Space-based solar observatories have made fundamental discoveries about the lifecycle of the solar magnetic field and how that field affects the solar system. Observing the Sun from space provides access to all wavelengths of light and eliminates the smearing of atmospheric seeing. Being in space means the emissions from the highly-ionized material that are the natural emissions of the corona can be measured. Continuous observations of the Sun can be made from a single satellite in certain orbits. This leads to unexpected discoveries, such as orbiting coronagraphs showing that sun grazing comets are the most common class of observed comets. Or when the coronal holes discovered with the solar X-ray telescopes on Skylab explained long-noticed correlations in particle fluxes from the Sun with solar longitudes. Space-based coronagraphs and heliospheric imagers are able to track coronal mass ejections from when they leave the Sun until they hit the Earth or another planet. In a more practical point, as humans have become more entwined in the use of technology, the magnetic field of the Sun has become more intrusive. Energetic particles and high-energy photons from solar fares can compromise humans and electronics in space. As a coronal mass ejection passes by and interacts with the Earth's magnetosphere, it generates large currents at the Earth's surface that can disrupt power distribution systems. The measurements of Sun made possible by being in space will be described, along with some highlights of the observatories that make them.

  6. Evaluation of the SunWise School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Alan; Rutsch, Linda; Kenausis, Kristin; Zhang, Zi

    2003-01-01

    Melanoma, the most fatal form of skin cancer, is rising at rates faster than all other preventable cancers in the United States. Childhood exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light increases the risk for skin cancer as an adult, therefore, starting positive sun protection habits early may be key to reducing the incidence of this disease. The…

  7. At what time should one go out in the sun?

    PubMed

    Moan, Johan; Dahlback, Arne; Porojnicu, Alina Carmen

    2008-01-01

    To get an optimal vitamin D supplement from the sun at a minimal risk of getting cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), the best time of sun exposure is noon. Thus, common health recommendations given by authorities in many countries, that sun exposure should be avoided for three to five hours around noon and postponed to the afternoon, may be wrong and may even promote CMM. The reasons for this are (1) The action spectrum for CMM is likely to be centered at longer wavelengths (UVA, ultraviolet A, 320-400 nm) than that of vitamin D generation (UVB, ultraviolet B, 280-320 nm). (2) Scattering of solar radiation on clear days is caused by small scattering elements, Rayleigh dominated and increases with decreasing wavelengths. A larger fraction of UVA than of UVB comes directly and unscattered from the sun. (3) The human body can be more realistically represented by a vertical cylinder than by a horizontal, planar surface, as done in almost all calculations in the literature. With the cylinder model, high UVA fluence rates last about twice as long after noon as high UVB fluence rates do. In view of this, short, nonerythemogenic exposures around noon should be recommended rather than longer nonerythemogenic exposures in the afternoon. This would give a maximal yield of vitamin D at a minimal CMM risk.

  8. Deimos Crosses Face of Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the passing, or transit, of the martian moon Deimos over the Sun. This event is similar solar eclipse seen on Earth in which our Moon crosses in front of the Sun. The animation is made up of images taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sol 39 of its mission. Deimos passed slightly closer to the center of the Sun than expected, and arrived about 30 seconds early. This observation will help refine our knowledge of the orbit and position of Deimos.

  9. Sun Tracking Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chou, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chiu-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems. PMID:22412341

  10. Sun tracking systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chou, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chiu-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems.

  11. Brazil: Colossus of the Sun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    COVER FEATURE Brazil: Colossus of the Sun By United States Military Liaison Office Team [Editor’s Note. The following report continues our series...residents of the Colossus of the Sun , as Brazil has come to be known, enjoy tropical weather, maritime breezes, and exciting beaches. Over 90 percent of...DATE 1993 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1993 to 00-00-1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Brazil: Colossus of the Sun 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  12. Sun-Earth Day, 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  13. Randomized Trial Testing a Worksite Sun Protection Program in an Outdoor Recreation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.; Zarlengo, Elizabeth M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Giese, Aimee J.

    2005-01-01

    Health communication campaigns intended to reduce chronic and severe exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight and prevent skin cancer are a national priority. Outdoor workers represent an unaddressed, high-risk population. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a worksite sun safety program largely based on the diffusion-of-innovations theory, was evaluated in…

  14. Response of container-grown flowering dogwood cultivars to sun/shade production regime, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, ‘Cherokee Brave™’ and ‘Cherokee Princess’ were grown in #5 nursery containers in an amended 100% bark substrate. Treatments were assigned based on exposure time to a full sun/shade condition during the growing season: 1) plants grown in full sun, 2) plants grown in...

  15. Seven Months of the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    This multi-wavelength movie of the Sun covers seven months of activity (April 25 - Nov. 30, 2011), the majority of the SDO mission to date. The frames combine images taken at the same time in three...

  16. Hinode Observes an Active Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    The X-ray Telescope on the Japanese/NASA mission Hinode has been observing the full sun, nearly continuously, for an extended period. In this movie significant small-scale dynamic events can be obs...

  17. Prototype of sun projector device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  18. SunShot Identity Video

    ScienceCinema

    Le, Minh; Resch, Rhone

    2016-07-12

    Highlights of the SunShot program, the national targets for the program, and the "all of the above" approach to achieving those goals through research, tech transfer, permitting, tax incentives, and a comprehensive approach to installation.

  19. Spurting Plasma on the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft, orbiting more than 20,000 miles above Earth, shows a stream of plasma burst out from the sun on May 27,2014. Since the stream lacked en...

  20. SunShot Identity Video

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Minh; Resch, Rhone

    2014-05-19

    Highlights of the SunShot program, the national targets for the program, and the "all of the above" approach to achieving those goals through research, tech transfer, permitting, tax incentives, and a comprehensive approach to installation.

  1. Vitamin D and sun protection: the impact of mixed public health messages in Australia.

    PubMed

    Youl, Philippa H; Janda, Monika; Kimlin, Michael

    2009-04-15

    Exposure of the skin to sunlight can cause skin cancer and is also necessary for cutaneous Vitamin D production. Media reports have highlighted the purported health benefits of Vitamin D. Our aim was to examine attitudes and behaviours related to sun protection and Vitamin D. A cross-sectional study of 2,001 residents in Queensland, Australia, aged 20-70 years was undertaken. Information collected included the following: skin cancer risk factors; perceptions about levels of sun exposure required to maintain Vitamin D; belief that sun protection increases risk of Vitamin D deficiency; intention, and actual change in sun protection practices for adults and children. Multivariate models examined predictors of attitudinal and behavioural change. One-third (32%) believed a fair-skinned adult, and 31% thought a child required at least 30 min/day in summer sun to maintain Vitamin D levels. Reductions in sun protection were reported by 21% of adults and 14% of children. Factors associated with the belief that sun protection may result in not obtaining enough Vitamin D included age of >or=60 years (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.66) and having skin that tanned easily (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.38-2.78). Participants from low-income households, and those who frequently used sun-protective clothing were more likely to have reduced sun protection practices (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.10-1.73 and OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.36-2.20, respectively). This study provides evidence of reductions in sun protection practices in a population living in a high UV environment. There is an urgent need to refocus messages regarding sun exposure and for continued sun protection practices.

  2. Individual and contextual determinants of adequate maternal health care services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O; Mageto, Lillian E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal antenatal health services in Kenya. Individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal health care (MHC) services were obtained from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data set. Multilevel partial-proportional odds logit models were fitted using STATA 13.0 to quantify the relations of the selected covariates to adequate MHC use, defined as a three-category ordinal variable. The sample consisted of 3,621 women who had at least one live birth in the five-year period preceding this survey. Only 18 percent of the women had adequate use of MHC services. Greater educational attainment by the woman or her partner, higher socioeconomic status, access to medical insurance coverage, and greater media exposure were the individual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC services. Greater community ethnic diversity, higher community-level socioeconomic status, and greater community-level health facility deliveries were the contextual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC. To improve the use of MHC services in Kenya, the government needs to design and implement programs that target underlying individual and community level factors, providing focused and sustained health education to promote the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care.

  3. Factors Associated With Occupational Sun-Protection Policies in Local Government Organizations in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Walkosz, Barbara J.; Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Wallis, Allan; Buller, Mary Klein; Scott, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Skin cancer prevention remains a national priority. Reducing chronic UV radiation exposure for outdoor workers through sun-safety practices is an important step to help reduce the incidence of skin cancer. OBJECTIVE To determine the presence of occupational sun-safety policies at local government organizations in a single state. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Of 571 potentially eligible local government organizations of Colorado cities, counties, and special tax districts, we enrolled 98 in a randomized pretest-posttest controlled experiment starting August 15, 2010, that evaluated an intervention to promote the adoption of sun-safety policies. We used a policy-coding protocol to evaluate personal sun-protection practices, environmental and administrative controls, and policy directives for sun safety starting February 10, 2011. We report the baseline assessment of the occupational sun-protection policies of these organizations. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The presence of an occupational sun-safety policy. RESULTS Overall, 85 local government organizations (87%) had policies that required personal sun-protection practices, including the use of eyewear, hats, and protective clothing. However, of the 98 responding organizations, only 8 hat policies (8%), 10 eyewear policies (10%), and 7 clothing policies (7%) mentioned sun protection as the intent of the policy. Only cosmopoliteness, operationalized as proximity to an urban area, was associated with the presence of a sun-safety policy (odds ratio, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.98–1.00]; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Outdoor workers are at increased risk for skin cancer because of long-term exposure to solar UV radiation. Although organizational policies have the potential to increase sun protection in occupational settings, occupational sun-safety policies were uncommon among local governments. Opportunities exist for dermatologists and other physicians to influence occupational sun-safety practices and

  4. Planning for a brighter future: a review of sun protection and barriers to behavioral change in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dadlani, Chicky; Orlow, Seth J

    2008-09-15

    Skin cancer is one of the most preventable groups of malignancies; however, skin cancer incidence continues to rise in the United States. The relationship between skin cancer and ultraviolet (UV) radiation is well known. Many interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to UV radiation have been employed throughout the United States. Studies show an increase in knowledge and awareness regarding sun exposure and skin cancer. Unfortunately, sun protection interventions are slow at effecting behavioral change. In this review, we examine current barriers facing youth today in regards to sun protection practices, appropriate age groups to target for intervention, proposed methods of sun protection, the influence of role models in changing sun protective behavior, the stages of behavioral change, and characteristics and techniques of sun protection programs that can not only increase knowledge but actually elicit changes in sun protection behavior.

  5. The role of skin cancer knowledge in sun-related behaviours: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Day, Ashley K; Wilson, Carlene J; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Roberts, Rachel M

    2014-09-01

    Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in many Western countries. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship between skin cancer knowledge and sun-protective, exposure and tanning behaviours in the general population. A total of 34 studies, published in peer-reviewed journals over three decades, were reviewed and synthesised. Sun-protective behaviour was positively associated with skin cancer knowledge in most cases. Findings were inconsistent regarding other sun-related behaviours. Heterogeneity in measurement compromised the capacity to definitively link knowledge and sun-related behaviours. There is a need for development and utilisation of a standardised skin cancer knowledge scale, and guidelines are suggested.

  6. The Skin Cancer and Sun Knowledge (SCSK) Scale: Validity, Reliability, and Relationship to Sun-Related Behaviors among Young Western Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Ashley K.; Wilson, Carlene; Roberts, Rachel M.; Hutchinson, Amanda D.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing public knowledge remains one of the key aims of skin cancer awareness campaigns, yet diagnosis rates continue to rise. It is essential we measure skin cancer knowledge adequately so as to determine the nature of its relationship to sun-related behaviors. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a new measure of skin cancer…

  7. NEW SUNS IN THE COSMOS?

    SciTech Connect

    De Freitas, D. B.; Leao, I. C.; Lopes, C. E. Ferreira; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Alves, S.; De Medeiros, J. R.; Catelan, M.

    2013-08-20

    The present work reports on the discovery of three stars that we have identified to be rotating Sun-like stars, based on rotational modulation signatures inferred from light curves from the CoRoT mission's Public Archives. In our analysis, we performed an initial selection based on the rotation period and position in the period-T{sub eff} diagram. This revealed that the stars CoRoT IDs 100746852, 102709980, and 105693572 provide potentially good matches to the Sun with a similar rotation period. To refine our analysis, we applied a novel procedure, taking into account the fluctuations of the features associated with photometric modulation at different time intervals and the fractality traces that are present in the light curves of the Sun and of these ''New Sun'' candidates alike. In this sense, we computed the so-called Hurst exponent for the referred stars, for a sample of 14 CoRoT stars with sub- and super-solar rotational periods, and for the Sun itself in its active and quiet phases. We found that the Hurst exponent can provide a strong discriminant of Sun-like behavior, going beyond what can be achieved with solely the rotation period itself. In particular, we find that CoRoT ID 105693572 is the star that most closely matches the solar rotation properties as far as the latter's imprints on light curve behavior are concerned. The stars CoRoT IDs 100746852 and 102709980 have significant smaller Hurst exponents than the Sun, notwithstanding their similarity in rotation periods.

  8. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P < 0.0001), respectively. In contrast, using the full model as a Bayesian prior with trough-only data allowed 97% (93 to 102%; P = 0.23) accurate AUC estimation. On the basis of 5,000 profiles simulated from the full model, among adults with normal renal function and a therapeutic AUC of ≥400 mg · h/liter for an organism for which the vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  9. If the Sun Were a Light Bulb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adney, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students compare the sun's brightness with that of a light bulb of known luminosity (in watts) to determine the luminosity of the sun is presented. As an extension, the luminosity value that the student obtains for the sun can also be used to estimate the sun's surface temperature. (KR)

  10. Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1978-01-01

    The solar tracking control system, Sun Chaser, a method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions is described. The Sun Chaser follows the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and resets itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise.

  11. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  12. Melanocortin-1-receptor gene and sun sensitivity in individuals without red hair.

    PubMed

    Healy, E; Flannagan, N; Ray, A; Todd, C; Jackson, I J; Matthews, J N; Birch-Machin, M A; Rees, J L

    2000-03-25

    Susceptibility to sunburn, photoageing, and skin cancer is inversely related to an individual's ability to tan after sun exposure. We examined variants in the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) gene in individuals from Ireland and the UK. We found evidence of an association between the degree of tanning after repeated sun exposure, and the number of variant alleles present. Heterozygotes were intermediate between wild-type individuals and those with two variant alleles. We suggest that MC1R gene status therefore determines sun sensitivity in people without red hair.

  13. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  14. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  15. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  16. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  17. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  18. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  19. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  20. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  1. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  2. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  3. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  4. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  5. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  6. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  7. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  8. Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    The solar tracking control system (Sun Chaser) is believed to be an improved method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions. The Sun Chaser will follow the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and reset itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise. A description of the Sun Chaser hardware and its operation together with results is presented.

  9. Astrophysical processes on the Sun

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Clare E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there have been a series of major solar space missions, namely Yohkoh, SOHO, TRACE, and in the past 5 years, STEREO, Hinode and SDO, studying various aspects of the Sun and providing images and spectroscopic data with amazing temporal, spatial and spectral resolution. Over the same period, the type and nature of numerical models in solar physics have been completely revolutionized as a result of widespread accessibility to parallel computers. These unprecedented advances on both observational and theoretical fronts have led to significant improvements in our understanding of many aspects of the Sun's behaviour and furthered our knowledge of plasma physics processes that govern solar and other astrophysical phenomena. In this Theme Issue, the current perspectives on the main astrophysical processes that shape our Sun are reviewed. In this Introduction, they are discussed briefly to help set the scene. PMID:22665891

  10. SunBlock '99: Young Scientists Investigate the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, R. W.; Pike, C. D.; Mason, H.; Young, P.; Ireland, J.; Galsgaard, K.

    1999-10-01

    SunBlock `99 is a Web-based Public Understanding of Science and educational project which seeks to present the very latest solar research as seen through the eyes of young British scientists. These ``solar guides'' discuss not only their scientific interests, but also their extra-curricular activities and the reasons they chose scientific careers; in other words the human face of scientific research. The SunBlock '99 pages gather a range of solar images and movies from current solar space observatories and discuss the underlying physics and its relationship to the school curriculum. The instructional level is pitched at UK secondary school children (aged 13-16 years). It is intended that the material should not only provide a visually appealing introduction to the study of the Sun, but that it should help bridge the often wide gap between classroom science lessons and the research scientist `out in the field'. SunBlock '99 is managed by a team from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Universities of St Andrews and Cambridge, together with educational consultants. The production has, in part, been sponsored by PPARC and the Millennium Mathematics Project. Web site addresss: http://www.sunblock99.org.uk

  11. Slow shocks around the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    1982-01-01

    It is inferred from this study that magnetohydrodynamic slow shocks can exist in the vicinity of the sun. The study uses a two-hole corona model, the sub-Alfvenic streams originating from the edge of the polar open-field regions are forced to turn towards equator in coronal space following the curved boundary of the closed field region. When the streamlines from the opposite poles merge at a neutral point, their directions become parallel to the neutral sheet. An oblique slow shock can develop near or at the neutral point, the shock extends polewards to form a surface of discontinuity around the sun.

  12. The Sun: Our Nearest Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have in our celestial backyard, a prime example of a variable star. The Sun, long thought to be "perfect" and unvarying, began to reveal its cycles in the early 1600s as Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner used a telescope to study sunspots. For the past four hundred years, scientists have accumulated data, showing a magnetic cycle that repeats, on average, every eleven (or twenty-two) years. In addition, modern satellites have shown that the energy output at radio and x-ray wavelengths also varies with this cycle. This talk will showcase the Sun as a star and discuss how solar studies may be used to understand other stars.

  13. Mars and the early Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, D. P.; Doyle, L. R.; Reynolds, R. T.; Whitman, P. G.

    1993-01-01

    Global mean temperatures near 273 K on early Mars are difficult to explain in the context of standards solar evolution models. Even assuming maximum CO2 greenhouse warming, the required flux is approximately 15 percent too low. Here we consider two astrophysical models that could increase the flux by this amount. The first model is a nonstandard solar model in which the early Sun had a mass somewhat greater than today's mass (1.02-1.06 solar mass). The second model is based on a standard evolutionary solar model, but the ecliptic flux is increased due to focusing by an (expected) heavily spotted early Sun.

  14. Project SUN (Students Understanding Nature)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curley, T.; Yanow, G.

    1995-01-01

    Project SUN is part of NASA's 'Mission to Planet Earth' education outreach effort. It is based on development of low cost, scientifi- cally accurate instrumentation and computer interfacing, coupled with Apple II computers as dedicated data loggers. The project is com- prised of: instruments, interfacing, software, curriculum, a detailed operating manual, and a system of training at the school sites.

  15. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  16. Seismology and the Wounded Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cally, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Active regions provide an opening in the Sun's surface that allow seismic waves to penetrate the overlying atmosphere. Some proportion then return due to reflection, with implications for "internal" seismology. This is illustrated using simulations with particular reference to "travel times" and acoustic halos.

  17. Creating SunSmart Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles-Corti, B.; English, D. R.; Costa, C.; Milne, E.; Cross, D.; Johnston, R.

    2004-01-01

    Kidskin was a sun-protection intervention study involving 1776 children attending 33 primary schools in Perth, Western Australia. There were three study groups: a control group, a moderate intervention group and a high intervention group. In addition to receiving a specially designed curricular intervention (1995-1998), the moderate and high…

  18. The Sun's Crowded Delivery Room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2007-07-01

    Astronomic observations with the latest and greatest telescopes are leading astronomers to embrace the idea that stars usually form in clusters, even if they end up, like our Sun, isolated from other stars. Cosmochemists using optical microscopes, electron microscopes, and mass spectrometers are finding evidence supporting the idea, along with important details about the star-forming regions and about the earliest history of the Solar System. The latest breakthrough is reported by Martin Bizzarro and his colleagues at the Geological Institute and Geological Museum in Denmark, at the University of Texas, and at Clemson University in South Carolina. They made high-precision measurements of iron and nickel isotopes. The results show that the oldest planetesimals to form in the solar system did not contain any iron-60, which decays to nickel-60 with a half-life of only 1.5 million years, yet somewhat younger materials did contain it. In contrast, aluminum-26, with a half-life of 740,000 years, was relatively uniformly distributed. This suggests to Bizzarro and his colleagues that iron-60 was added to the cloud of gas and dust surrounding the primitive Sun (the protoplanetary disk) about 1 million years after the Solar System formed. This could happen if the Sun's nursery contained massive stars (perhaps 30 times the mass of the Sun). Such stars last only about 4 million years. They are extremely active, blowing away their outer layers in the last million years of existence. The dispersed material would have included aluminum-26 and might have caused collapse of interstellar gas and dust to cause formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. A million years later the massive star exploded, ejecting iron-60 from its interior. Bizzarro and colleagues argue that this huge event of destruction and creation is recorded in the meteorites.

  19. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (10/14/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadben,. Director, to Nancy Wrona and Dennis Smith informing them that Maricopa County's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2003 MAGCO Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  20. Region 6: Texas Adequate Letter (4/16/2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality determined 2021 motor vehicle emission budgets for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Beaumont/Port Arthur area adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  1. Region 2: New Jersey Adequate Letter (5/23/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This April 22, 2002 letter from EPA to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection determined 2007 and 2014 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mobile Source Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal

  2. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (10/29/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Denvers' particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  3. Region 1: New Hampshire Adequate Letter (8/12/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 9, 2008 letter from EPA to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, determined the 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal Register (FR).

  4. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (1/20/2004)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Greeleys' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the FR.

  5. Region 8: Utah Adequate Letter (6/10/2005)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Utah Department of Environmental Quality determined Salt Lake Citys' and Ogdens' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  6. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  7. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  8. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  9. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  10. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  11. Region 6: New Mexico Adequate Letter (8/21/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Carl Edlund, Director, to Alfredo Santistevan regarding MVEB's contained in the latest revision to the Albuquerque Carbon Monoxide State Implementation Plan (SIP) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  12. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  13. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  14. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  15. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  16. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  17. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  18. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  19. Region 9: Nevada Adequate Letter (3/30/2006)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Deborah Jordan, Director, to Leo M. Drozdoff regarding Nevada's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2005 Truckee Meadows CO Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity decisions.

  20. Sun protection policies in Miami-Dade County public schools: opportunities for skin cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Kirsner, Robert S; Parker, Dorothy F; Brathwaite, Noel; Thomas, Andrea; Tejada, Francisco; Trapido, Edward J

    2005-01-01

    Childhood exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun and a history of sunburns are risk factors for skin cancer. Because children spend time outdoors when they are at school, school sun protection policies are an important health issue, particularly in areas of the country with year-round warm and sunny climates, such as Florida. To better understand the sun protection policies and practices in South Florida schools, a sample (n = 51) of elementary and middle schools in Miami-Dade County public schools were surveyed as part of a CDC-funded cancer control program at the University of Miami. Of the principals and teachers surveyed, most (78%) knew about the county school system's guidelines for avoiding excessive heat exposure, which include two sun protection measures. Two-thirds reported that they shared these guidelines with teachers; 21% shared them with parents. Few schools monitor implementation of the guidelines, although 70% schedule outdoor activities to avoid peak sun hours. No schools required sunscreen, hats, or protective clothing. Physical education teachers and students spend an average of 4.5 and 0.6 hours per day outdoors, respectively. Improved school sun protection policies and monitoring of such policies is needed to reduce sun exposure and skin cancer risk for both students and staff.

  1. Sun-induced freckling: ephelides and solar lentigines.

    PubMed

    Praetorius, Christian; Sturm, Richard A; Steingrimsson, Eirikur

    2014-05-01

    Freckles, the lay term for ephelides and lentigines, are important pigmentation characteristics observed in humans. Both are affected by sunlight; ephelides are largely genetically determined but induced by sunlight, whereas lentigines are induced by sun exposure and photodamage of the skin. However, despite being commonly observed, we know very little about them. Here, we review the current status of knowledge about freckles and propose a model for their formation.

  2. The Sun Sets on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    On Sol 20 of its journey, Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity woke up around 5:30 in the martian afternoon to watch the sunset. A series of five sets of three-color images from the rover's panoramic camera was acquired looking toward the southwest. Each set used an infrared, green and violet filter, rather than the human red-green-blue, so that the maximum panoramic camera wavelength range could be covered by the observations, enhancing the scientific value of the measurements.

    A color image was made from the first post-sunset sequence of calibrated color images, with the color balance set to approximate what the sunset color would have looked like to the human eye. The color seen in this first post-sunset image was then used to colorize each image in the sequence. Approximately one-minute gaps between consecutive color images meant the Sun's position changed within each color set, so the images had to be manually shifted to compensate for this motion. In this fashion, the position and brightness of the Sun are taken from each individual image, but the color is taken from a single set of images. The images were then combined into a movie where one color set fades gracefully into the next. Analysis of the five color sets shows that there were only small color variations during the sunset, so most of the real variations are captured in the movie.

    The rapid dimming of the Sun near the horizon is due to the dust in the sky. There is nearly twice as much dust as there was when the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, which landed on Mars in 1997, imaged the sunset. This causes the Sun to be many times fainter. The sky above the Sun has the same blue tint observed by Pathfinder and also by Viking, which landed on Mars in 1976. This is because dust in the martian atmosphere scatters blue light forward toward the observer much more efficiently than it scatters red light forward. Therefore, a 'halo' of blueish sky color is always observed close to the Sun. We're only seeing

  3. GOES Weather Satellite Watches The Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA satellites such as STEREO, SOHO, and SDO are dedicated to studying the sun. GOES is a weather satellite but also watches the sun constantly. Watch this video and learn why space weather data i...

  4. SDO Watches Giant Filament on the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    A snaking, extended filament of solar material currently lies on the front of the sun-- some 1 million miles across from end to end. Filaments are clouds of solar material suspended above the sun b...

  5. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk for damage. Both snow and strong wind can wear away sunscreen and reduce its effectiveness, ... protect your skin from the bitter cold, heavy winds and winter sun, follow these important sun protection ...

  6. Our prodigal sun. [solar energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Characteristics of the sun are reported indicating it as a source of energy. Data from several space missions are discussed, and the solar activity cycle is presented. The corona, flares, prominences, spots, and wind of the sun are also discussed.

  7. Our World: The Sun, A Real Star

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about the important relationship between Earth and the sun. Find out about the layers of the sun and how Earth's magnetosphere acts like a giant handkerchief to protect us from all kinds of s...

  8. Caddo Sun Accounts across Time and Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Billy Day, a Tunica/Biloxi, recently described the significance of the sun for Caddoan people. Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--'a'hat.' Well, I can't do that anymore because they say we are sun worshipers. We didn't worship the sun. We worshiped what was…

  9. The Sun and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.

    The Sun's action on the Earth is fundamentally responsible for maintaining the physical conditions that support life on the land, in the oceans, and in the atmosphere, and a comprehensive understanding of this action should be a central concern of scientific endeavor. The Sun's influence goes beyond providing energy to the biosphere and maintaining the Earth's climate and weather; it strongly affects the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere as well as the magnetosphere, the region of space permeated by the terrestrial magnetic field and occupied by ionized gases. Flares and other solar disturbances can produce strong reactions in the Earth's ionosphere, magnetic field, and space plasma environment, often within 20 minutes of onset. As human activity extends into space, and to the Moon and planets, scientific understanding of solar-terrestrial interactions and, more generally, of the space environment's physics will assume increasing importance.

  10. Total eclipses of the sun.

    PubMed

    Zirker, J B

    1980-12-19

    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans.

  11. A high accuracy sun sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhove, H.

    The High Accuracy Sun Sensor (HASS) is described, concentrating on measurement principle, the CCD detector used, the construction of the sensorhead and the operation of the sensor electronics. Tests on a development model show that the main aim of a 0.01-arcsec rms stability over a 10-minute period is closely approached. Remaining problem areas are associated with the sensor sensitivity to illumination level variations, the shielding of the detector, and the test and calibration equipment.

  12. SunWise[R] Meteorologist Tool Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The SunWise Program is designed to help meteorologists raise sun safety awareness by addressing the science of the sun, the risk of overexposure to its ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and what students and their families can do to protect themselves from overexposure. This Tool Kit has been designed for use all over the United States and its…

  13. Sun Tracker Operates a Year Between Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low-cost modification of Sun tracker automatically compensates equation of time and seasonal variations in declination of Sun. Output of Scotch Yoke drive mechanism adjusted through proper sizing of crank, yoke and other components and through choice of gear ratios to approximate seasonal northand south motion of Sun. Used for industrial solar-energy monitoring and in remote meteorological stations.

  14. Sun tracker for clear or cloudy weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Sun tracker orients solar collector so that they absorb maximum possible sunlight without being fooled by bright clouds, holes in cloud cover, or other atmospheric conditions. Tracker follows sun within 0.25 deg arc and is accurate within + or - 5 deg when sun is hidden.

  15. Observing Sun-like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Petrus C.; White, Russel J.

    2016-05-01

    The Sun represents only one realization of the many possibilities for stellar dynamos. In order to fully understand the physics of solar and stellar magnetism we need to study in full detail the magnetic cycles of stars that are very much like the Sun . To do this we need a telescope that can resolve the disks of nearby solar type stars. Georgia State's University Center for High Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) array is a diffraction limited interferometer with a baseline of over 300 m, located on Mount Wilson. It is the highest resolution telescope in the visible and infrared currently in operation. CHARA has resolved the disks of larger stars and observed starspots. We will describe an ongoing observing program for nearby Sun-like stars to determine with great accuracy the basic parameters of these stars and the presence of starspots on their surfaces. Combined with the decades long observations of Mount Wilson and Lowell Observatories of stellar cycles the data obtained will act as a powerful constraint on solar and stellar dynamo models and simulations.

  16. Micro Sun Sensor for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobasser, Sohrab; Liebe, Carl; Bae, Youngsam; Schroeder, Jeffrey; Wrigley, Chris

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the development of a compact micro Sun sensor for use as a part of the attitude determination subsystem aboard future miniature spacecraft and planetary robotic vehicles. The prototype unit has a mass of only 9 g, a volume of only 4.2 cm(sup 3), a power consumption of only 30 mW, and a 120 degree field of view. The unit has demonstrated an accuracy of 1 arcminute. The unit consists of a multiple pinhole camera: A micromachined mask containing a rectangular array of microscopic pinholes, machined utilizing the microectromechanical systems (MEMS), is mounted in front of an active-pixel sensor (APS) image detector. The APS consists of a 512 x 512-pixel array, on-chip 10-bit analog to digital converter (ADC), on-chip bias generation, and on-chip timing control for self-sequencing and easy programmability. The digitized output of the APS is processed to compute the centroids of the pinhole Sun images on the APS. The Sun angle, relative to a coordinate system fixed to the sensor unit, is then computed from the positions of the centroids.

  17. Sun protection use behaviour among University students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sun protection use behaviour among university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 18,687 undergraduate university students aged 18-30 years (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 57.2% of university students reported liking to sunbathe and of those only 48.1% used sun protection when sunbathing. In multivariate logistic regression, younger age, being female, coming from a wealthy or quite well off economic family background, living in an upper middle or high income country, lighter skin tone, and other health behaviours were found to be associated with sun protection use behaviour. Low sun protection use calls for health promotion programmes to prevent unprotected sun exposure.

  18. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

  19. Dust Cloud near the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ingrid; Krivov, Alexander; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2000-08-01

    General structure and composition of the near-solar dust cloud are investigated. Based on estimates for sources and transport of dust to the near-solar region, we derive a representative set of trajectories of dust grains by numerical integrations and obtain the spatial distribution of different dust populations within 10 solar radii ( R⊙) from the Sun. For the radial structure, we find the dust number density to be enhanced by a factor of 1 to 4 in a typical heliocentric distance zone with a width of 0.2 R⊙ in the sublimation region—the formation of a dust ring—depending on the materials and porosities considered. The excess density in the ring increases with increasing initial size for porous grains and decreases for compact ones. Non-zero eccentricities of the dust orbits decrease the enhancement. Moderate enhancements that we predict are consistent with eclipse observations, most of which have not shown any peak features in the F-corona brightness at several solar radii. We describe typical features of β-meteoroids formed by the sublimation of particles near the Sun and estimate the total mass loss due to this mechanism to range between 1 and 10 kg s -1. For the vertical structure of the dust cloud we show that grains larger than ˜10 μm in size keep in a disk with a typical thickness of tens degrees; grains with radii of several μm fill in a broader disk-like volume which is tilted off the ecliptic plane by a variable angle depending on the solar activity cycle; submicrometer-sized grains form a nearly spherical halo around the Sun with a radius of more than 10 R⊙. From our present knowledge we cannot exclude the existence of an additional spheroidal component of larger grains near the Sun, which depends on how effective long-period comets are as sources of dust. Estimates of absolute number densities and local fluxes of dust show that simple extrapolation of the interplanetary dust cloud into the solar vicinity does not describe the dust cloud

  20. Sun Savvy Students: Free Teaching Resources from EPA's SunWise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Jordan, Luke

    2008-01-01

    With summer in full swing and the sun is naturally on our minds, what better time to take advantage of a host of free materials provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Sun Wise program. Sun Wise aims to teach students and teachers about the stratospheric ozone layer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and how to be safe while in the Sun.…

  1. Regulatory requirements for providing adequate veterinary care to research animals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2013-09-01

    Provision of adequate veterinary care is a required component of animal care and use programs in the United States. Program participants other than veterinarians, including non-medically trained research personnel and technicians, also provide veterinary care to animals, and administrators are responsible for assuring compliance with federal mandates regarding adequate veterinary care. All program participants therefore should understand the regulatory requirements for providing such care. The author provides a training primer on the US regulatory requirements for the provision of veterinary care to research animals. Understanding the legal basis and conditions of a program of veterinary care will help program participants to meet the requirements advanced in the laws and policies.

  2. Sun protection provided by regulation school uniforms in Australian schools: an opportunity to improve personal sun protection during childhood.

    PubMed

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sun exposure is linked to excessive pigmented mole development and melanoma risk. Clothing provides a physical barrier, protecting skin from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Extending sleeves to elbow length and shorts to knee length has been shown to significantly reduce mole acquisition in preschoolers from tropical Queensland. We used publicly available uniform images and guidelines from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.25°S, n = 43 schools), Cairns (16.87°S, n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.26°S, n = 23) in tropical Australia to objectively determine the body surface proportion covered by regulation school uniforms. Uniforms of nongovernment, large (≥800 students), urban, educationally advantaged schools with comprehensive sun protection policies covered more skin than those of government schools (63.2% vs 62.0%; P < 0.001), smaller schools (63.4% vs 62.3%; P = 0.009), rural (62.7% vs 61.9%; P = 0.002) and educationally disadvantaged schools (62.8% vs 62.3%; P < 0.001) with underdeveloped sun protection policies (62.8% vs 62.2%; P = 0.002). Overall, SunSmart and non-SunSmart school uniforms covered identical body surface proportions (62.4%, P = 0.084). Although wearing regulation school uniforms is mandatory at most Australian primary schools, this opportunity to improve children's sun protection is largely overlooked. Recent evidence suggests that even encouraging minor alterations to school uniforms (e.g. slightly longer sleeves/dresses/skirts/shorts) to increase skin coverage may reduce mole acquisition and melanoma risk, especially in high-risk populations.

  3. SunWise: A Program that Radiates Good Ideas. Policy Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The school day makes up a major part of a child's everyday life. The time children spend outside of the classroom, including recess, lunch, physical education classes, field trips, and after-school activities, can result in a significant amount of sun exposure, especially if it occurs during the hours of peak sun intensity from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.…

  4. Dermatological effects from years in the sun: compounding opportunities.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marty

    2006-01-01

    Sun worship has existed for thousands of years and the popularity of sunbathing and tanning salons proves that it still exists today. Overexposure to the ultraviolet rays of the sun and tanning beds is a major cause of skin damage and the main cause of precancerous and cancerous skin lesions. Regardless of the many warnings about the dangers of sun exposure and the many sunscreen products available, a significant number of people develop these lesions. The most common sun-induced pre-cancerous lesion is solar keratosis, or actinic keratosis. Unless detected and treated, actinic keratosis can progress to skin cancer. The three main types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. All can be cured if caught early and treated promptly. A number of treatment options are available for skin cancers, including topical preparations, systemic chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and surgery. The best treatment option depends on the type and location of lesion, the stage of the lesion, and the needs of the individual patient.

  5. The relationship between sun protection policies and practices in schools with primary-age students: the role of school demographics, policy comprehensiveness and SunSmart membership.

    PubMed

    Dono, J; Ettridge, K A; Sharplin, G R; Wilson, C J

    2014-02-01

    Schools can implement evidence-based sun protection policies that guide practices to help protect children from harmful sun exposure. This national study assessed the relationship between the existence and comprehensiveness of written policies and the comprehensiveness of sun protection practices. The impact of school demographics on the strength of the relationship was also examined, as was the possibility that 'SunSmart' membership would have an additional impact on practices, beyond having any formal policy. In 2011-12, staff members of 1573 schools catering to primary-age students completed a self-administered survey about sun protection policies and practices (response rate of 57%). Results showed that schools with a written policy had more comprehensive practices than schools without a written policy. The relationship between having a written policy and sun protection practices was stronger for remote schools compared with metropolitan and regional schools, and for schools catering to both primary and secondary students compared with primary students only. In addition, policy comprehensiveness was associated with practice comprehensiveness, and SunSmart membership was indirectly related to practice comprehensiveness via policy comprehensiveness. These results indicate that written policies relate to practice comprehensiveness, but the strength of the association can vary according to the characteristics of the organization.

  6. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  7. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  8. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  9. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  10. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  11. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  12. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  13. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  14. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  15. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  16. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation…

  17. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  18. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  19. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (11/1/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadbent, Director, Air Division to Nancy Wrona and James Bourney informing them of the adequacy of Revised MAG 1999 Serious Area Carbon Monoxide Plan and that the MAG CO Plan is adequate for Maricopa County.

  20. Is the Global Solar UV Index an effective instrument for promoting sun protection? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Italia, Nadia; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2012-04-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor for skin cancer. The Global Solar Ultraviolet Index (UVI) was developed as a tool to visualize the amount of harmful radiation and to encourage people to use sun protection. We conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of the UVI. We employed a comprehensive search strategy to explore the impact of the UVI on five outcome categories. Twenty-seven of a total of 260 studies met our inclusion criteria; data extraction and quality appraisal were undertaken for 25 studies, comprising 3 randomized controlled trials, 2 non-randomized intervention studies and 20 cross-sectional studies. Nearly half of these studies were from Australia and New Zealand. We found low to intermediate levels of UVI awareness and low levels of UVI understanding. Studies rated moderate or strong suggest that the UVI does not influence knowledge, attitudes, sun protection behavior or sun exposure. Overall, the findings imply that the UVI, as currently implemented, has not been successful at improving sun protection practices and reducing sun exposure among the population at large. Drawing on experience with theory-based sun protection programs, we advocate for more realistic expectations of what the UVI can and cannot achieve.

  1. Are sun- and shade-type anatomy required for the acclimation of Neoregelia cruenta?

    PubMed

    Reinert, Fernanda; Leal-Costa, Marcos V; Junqueira, Nícia E; Tavares, Eliana S

    2013-01-01

    Sun and shade plants are often discriminated by a number of sun- and shade-type anatomies. Nonetheless, we propose that among tank-bromeliads, changes in rosette architecture satisfy the requirements for coping with contrasting light levels. The tank-bromeliad Neoregelia cruenta naturally colonises sub-habitats ranging from full exposure to direct sunlight, to shaded environments in sand ridge plains. We quantified anatomical and morphological traits of leaves and rosettes of N. cruenta grown under sun and shade conditions. Cells with undulated lateral walls within the water parenchyma are for the first time described for the family. Under high light, leaf blades were wider, shorter, and yellowish. The rosette diameter of sun plants was less than half that of shade plants. Sun leaves overlapped with neighbouring leaves for most of their length, forming a cylindrical rosette where water accumulates. Shade leaves only overlapped in the centre of the rosette. Most anatomical traits were similar under both growth conditions. Stomata were absent from the base of sun leaves, which is probably explained by limited gas exchange at the base of the tight sun-type rosette. Data suggest that the ability of N. cruenta to acclimate to sun and shade is better explained by changes in rosette architecture than by leaf anatomy.

  2. Acute sun damage and photoprotective responses in whales.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Levasseur, Laura M; Gendron, Diane; Knell, Rob J; O'Toole, Edel A; Singh, Manuraj; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2011-05-22

    Rising levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) secondary to ozone depletion are an issue of concern for public health. Skin cancers and intraepidermal dysplasia are increasingly observed in individuals that undergo chronic or excessive sun exposure. Such alterations of skin integrity and function are well established for humans and laboratory animals, but remain unexplored for mammalian wildlife. However, effects are unlikely to be negligible, particularly for species such as whales, whose anatomical or life-history traits force them to experience continuous sun exposure. We conducted photographic and histological surveys of three seasonally sympatric whale species to investigate sunburn and photoprotection. We find that lesions commonly associated with acute severe sun damage in humans are widespread and that individuals with fewer melanocytes have more lesions and less apoptotic cells. This suggests that the pathways used to limit and resolve UVR-induced damage in humans are shared by whales and that darker pigmentation is advantageous to them. Furthermore, lesions increased significantly in time, as would be expected under increasing UV irradiance. Apoptosis and melanocyte proliferation mirror this trend, suggesting that whales are capable of quick photoprotective responses. We conclude that the thinning ozone layer may pose a risk to the health of whales and other vulnerable wildlife.

  3. The challenge resulting from positive and negative effects of sunlight: how much solar UV exposure is appropriate to balance between risks of vitamin D deficiency and skin cancer?

    PubMed

    Reichrath, Jörg

    2006-09-01

    There is no doubt that solar ultraviolet (UV) exposure is the most important environmental risk factor for the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. Therefore, sun protection is of particular importance to prevent these malignancies, especially in risk groups. However, 90% of all requisite vitamin D has to be formed in the skin through the action of the sun-a serious problem, for a connection between vitamin D deficiency and a broad variety of independent diseases including various types of cancer, bone diseases, autoimmune diseases, hypertension and cardiovascular disease has now been clearly indicated in a large number of epidemiologic and laboratory studies. An important link that improved our understanding of these new findings was the discovery that the biologically active vitamin D metabolite 1,25(OH)(2)D is not exclusively produced in the kidney, but in many other tissues such as prostate, colon, skin and osteoblasts. Extra-renally produced 1,25(OH)(2)D is now considered to be an autocrine or paracrine hormone, regulating various cellular functions including cell growth. We and others have shown that strict sun protection causes vitamin D deficiency in risk groups. In the light of new scientific findings that convincingly demonstrate an association of vitamin D deficiency with a variety of severe diseases including various cancers, the detection and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in sun-deprived risk groups is of high importance. It has to be emphasized that in groups that are at high risk of developing vitamin D deficiency (e.g., nursing home residents or patients under immunosuppressive therapy), vitamin D status has to be monitored. Vitamin D deficiency should be treated, e.g., by giving vitamin D orally. Dermatologists and other clinicians have to recognize that there is convincing evidence that the protective effect of less intense solar UV radiation outweighs its mutagenic effects. Although further work is necessary to define an adequate vitamin

  4. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic

  5. Irradiance Variability of the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froehlich, Claus

    1990-01-01

    Direct measurements of the solar constant--the total irradiance at mean Sun-Earth distance--during the last ten years from satellites show variations over time scales from minutes to years and decades. At high frequencies the spectral power is determined by granulation, super- and mesogranulation. In the 5-minute range, moreover, it is dominated by power from the solar p-mode oscillations. Their power and frequencies change with time, yielding information about changes in the convection zone. During periods of several hours, the power is steadily increasing and may be partly due to solar gravity modes. The most important variance is in the range from days to several months and is related to the photospheric features of solar activity, decrease of the irradiance during the appearance of sunspots, and increasing by faculae and the magnetic network. Long-term modulation by the 11-year activity cycle are observed conclusively with the irradiance being higher during solar maximum. All these variations can be explained--at least qualitatively--by their manifestation on the photosphere. For the long-term changes, the simultaneous changes of the frequencies of solar p-mode oscillations suggest a more global origin of the variations. Indeed, it seems that the observed irradiance modulation is a true luminosity change with the magnetic cycle of the Sun.

  6. The Sun's New Exotic Neighbour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-03-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, an international team of researchers [1] discovered a brown dwarf belonging to the 24th closest stellar system to the Sun. Brown dwarfs are intermediate objects that are neither stars nor planets. This object is the third closest brown dwarf to the Earth yet discovered, and one of the coolest, having a temperature of about 750 degrees Celsius. It orbits a very small star at about 4.5 times the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. Its mass is estimated to be somewhere between 9 and 65 times the mass of Jupiter. At a time when astronomers are peering into the most distant Universe, looking at objects as far as 13 billion light-years away, one may think that our close neighbourhood would be very well known. Not so. Astronomers still find new star-like objects in our immediate vicinity. Using ESO's VLT, they just discovered a brown dwarf companion to the red star SCR 1845-6357, the 36th closest star to the Sun. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 11a/06 New Brown Dwarf in the Solar Neighbourhood (Artist's Impression) "This newly found brown dwarf is a valuable object because its distance is well known, allowing us to determine with precision its intrinsic brightness", said team member Markus Kasper (ESO). "Moreover, from its orbital motion, we should be able in a few years to estimate its mass. These properties are vital for understanding the nature of brown dwarfs." To discover this brown dwarf, the team used the high-contrast adaptive optics NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI [2]) on ESO's Very Large Telescope, an instrument specifically developed to search for extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. In particular, the SDI camera provides additional, often very useful spectral information which can be used to determine a rough temperature for the object without follow

  7. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting...risk that AGF financial statements will be materially misstated and the Army will not achieve audit readiness by the congressionally mandated...and $6.5 trillion in yearend adjustments made to Army General Fund data during FY 2015 financial statement compilation. We conducted this audit in

  8. UV Exposure and Sun Protective Practices | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. The UBVRI And Infrared Colour Indices Of The Sun And Sun-Like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanriver, Mehmet; Özeren, Ferhat Fikri

    2016-12-01

    The Sun is not a point source, the photometric observational techniques that are utilised for observing other stars cannot be utilised for the Sun, meaning that it is difficult to derive its colours accurately for astronomical work from direct measurements in different passbands. The solar twins are the best choices because they are the stars that are ideally the same as the Sun in all parameters, and also, their colours are highly similar to those of the Sun. From the 60 articles on the Sun and Sun-like stars in the literature from 1964 until today, the solar colour indices in the optic and infrared regions have been estimated.

  10. Effects of photoaging information and UV photo on sun protection intentions and behaviours: a cross-regional comparison.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Heike I M; Kulik, James A; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2013-01-01

    There is limited empirical evidence regarding differences in sun protection practices in different regions of the USA. This study examined whether there are regional differences in the efficacy of exposure to UV photographs and photoaging information (e.g. wrinkles and age spots) for increasing sun protection behaviours. Students attending a public university in either the Midwestern (Iowa) or Southwestern (Southern California) US reported baseline sun exposure and protection practices and were then randomly assigned to either receive information about photoaging, have a UV photo taken, both receive photoaging information and have a UV photo taken, or to receive neither intervention. Sun protection intentions were assessed immediately after the interventions, and both self-reported sun protection behaviours and an objective assessment (via spectrophotometry) of skin colour change were measured at the end of summer and one year following the interventions. The results showed a pervasive pattern of more risky UV exposure and less sun protection use at the Iowa site than at the Southern California site both prior to and following the interventions. Both interventions increased future sun protection intentions regardless of region. However, the intervention effects on skin colour and UV exposure differed across region, with generally more reliable effects at the Iowa site.

  11. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  12. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  13. Interstellar Clouds Near the Sun, III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Priscilla C.

    We propose to continue a study of interstellar sight-lines with low total column densities in order to determine the nature (temperature, density, fractional ionization) of the low density gas near the Sun and within the interior of the local superbubble. IUE data, combined with previous Copernicus observations, can be used to delimit the filling factor of nearby low density warm gas, and by default restrict the filling factor of 10^6 K plasma. In the proposed program, observations of MgI and ZnII(and in one region CIV) are combined with cloud maps and ground-based NaI observations (from a separate program) to restrict gas temperature, spatial and electron densities. The Welty et al. (1986) technique for removing fixed pattern noise through observations of a template star (used to flat-field the target stars on a pixel-by-pixel basis) is used to enable 3sigma absorption line detections at the 6-9 mA level, depending on the number of exposures involved. The ultimate goal of both the IUE and ground-based program is to map out the local interstellar medium. Apart from the intrinsic interest of this problem, it will help define regions where ultraviolet sources can be observed with FUSE/Lyman at lambda<912 A.

  14. Smartphone Mobile Application Delivering Personalized, Real-Time Sun Protection Advice: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; Berwick, Marianne; Lantz, Kathy; Buller, Mary Klein; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Liu, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Importance Mobile smart phones are rapidly emerging as an effective means of communicating with many Americans. Using mobile applications, they can access remote databases, track time and location, and integrate user input to provide tailored health information. Objective A smart phone mobile application providing personalized, real-time sun protection advice was evaluated in a randomized trial. Design The trial was conducted in 2012 and had a randomized pretest-posttest controlled design with a 10-week follow-up. Setting Data was collected from a nationwide population-based survey panel. Participants The trial enrolled a sample of n=604 non-Hispanic and Hispanic adults from the Knowledge Panel® aged 18 or older who owned an Android smart phone. Intervention The mobile application provided advice on sun protection (i.e., protection practices and risk of sunburn) and alerts (to apply/reapply sunscreen and get out of the sun), hourly UV Index, and vitamin D production based on the forecast UV Index, phone's time and location, and user input. Main Outcomes and Measures Percent of days using sun protection and time spent outdoors (days and minutes) in the midday sun and number of sunburns in the past 3 months were collected. Results Individuals in the treatment group reported more shade use but less sunscreen use than controls. Those who used the mobile app reported spending less time in the sun and using all protection behaviors combined more. Conclusions and Relevance The mobile application improved some sun protection. Use of the mobile application was lower than expected but associated with increased sun protection. Providing personalized advice when and where people are in the sun may help reduce sun exposure. PMID:25629710

  15. Sun tracking solar energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A parabolic reflector is supported so that it can track the sun. The support for this reflector comprises an azimuth frame supported on two wheels and a central pivotal point which are positioned in a substantially triangular configuration. On top of the azimuth frame, there is provided an elevation frame. The reflector rides on wheels captured within curved rails. The wheels of the azimuth frame are driven by an azimuth actuator. The reflector structure is counterbalanced about its elevation axis by a pendulum cable system which is driven by a motor. At the focal point of the parabolic reflector, a heat engine or receiver is mounted independently on the reflector. Suitable means are provided for moving the reflector about its two axes.

  16. Magnetic fields in the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according to whether the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 gauss. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.

  17. The Sun's Impact on Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert

    2002-01-01

    We provide an overview of the impact of the Sun on the Earth atmosphere and climate system, focused on heating of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. We emphasize the importance of the spectral measurements of SIM and SOLSTICE- that we must know how solar variations are distributed over ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths, since these have separate characteristic influences on Earth's ozone layer, clouds, and upper layers of the oceans. Emphasis is also given to understanding both direct and indirect influences of the Sun on the Earth, which involve feedbacks between Earth's stratosphere, troposphere, and oceans, each with unique time scales, dynamics, chemistry, and biology, interacting non-linearly. Especially crucial is the role of all three phases of water on Earth, water vapor being the primary greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, the importance of trace gases such as CO2 arising from their absorption in the "water vapor window" at 800 - 1250/cm (12.5 to 8 microns). Melting of polar ice is one major response to the post-industrial global warming, enhanced due to "ice-albedo" feedback. Finally, water in liquid form has a major influence due to cloud albedo feedback, and also due to the oceans' absorption of solar radiation, particularly at visible wavelengths, through the visible "liquid water window" that allows penetration of visible light deep into the mixed layer, while nearby ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths do not penetrate past the upper centimeter ocean surface skin layer. A large fraction of solar energy absorbed by the oceans goes into the latent heat of evaporation. Thus the solar heating of the atmosphere-ocean system is strongly coupled through the water cycle of evaporation, cloud formation, precipitation, surface runoff and ice formation, to Earth's energy budget and climate, each different climate component responding to variations in different solar spectral bands, at ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths.

  18. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  19. Elements for adequate informed consent in the surgical context.

    PubMed

    Abaunza, Hernando; Romero, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Given a history of atrocities and violations of ethical principles, several documents and regulations have been issued by a wide variety of organizations. They aim at ensuring that health care and clinical research adhere to defined ethical principles. A fundamental component was devised to ensure that the individual has been provided the necessary information to make an informed decision regarding health care or participation in clinical research. This article summarizes the history and regulations for informed consent and discusses suggested components for adequate consent forms for daily clinical practice in surgery as well as clinical research.

  20. Sun avoidance in the yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) of Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Variations with season, behavior and weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochron, Sharon T.

    Do free-ranging baboons avoid traveling towards the sun? Sun avoidance, in addition to resource and predator locations, may influence troop movement and non-random use of the home range. This paper investigates how sun avoidance, as measured by facial exposure to sunlight, influences directional choices. It hypothesizes that baboons should avoid the sun in the hot, dry season and show indifference to it in the cool, lush season. This paper also hypothesizes that baboons employ sun-avoidance behaviors more while they forage or travel to resting sites than when they travel to foraging sites or engage in active social behaviors; lastly this paper hypothesizes that sun altitude, temperature, humidity, and cloud cover influence sun-avoidance behavior. Using focal-animal techniques on 21 males from free-ranging baboon troops, I collected locational data, accurate to within 1.6 m, over 15 months. I calculated the difference between baboon bearings and the sun's azimuth in angular degrees. Both linear and circular statistics indicate that baboons put significantly (P<0.01) more than 90° between their bearing and the sun's azimuth under certain conditions. Contrary to hypotheses based on the detrimental effects of insolation, baboons in the cool, lush season avoid the sun, while baboons in the hot, dry season do not. In the lush season, the extent to which baboons avoid the sun does not depend on their other behaviors. Dry-season baboons demonstrate stronger sun avoidance while resting than when engaged in other behaviors. Finally, in the dry season, temperature drives sun avoidance; humidity drives it in the lush season.

  1. Sun Basking in Red Wood Ants Formica polyctena (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): Individual Behaviour and Temperature-Dependent Respiration Rates

    PubMed Central

    Kadochová, Štěpánka; Frouz, Jan; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    In early spring, red wood ants Formica polyctena are often observed clustering on the nest surface in large numbers basking in the sun. It has been hypothesized that sun-basking behaviour may contribute to nest heating because of both heat carriage into the nest by sun-basking workers, and catabolic heat production from the mobilization of the workers’ lipid reserves. We investigated sun-basking behaviour in laboratory colonies of F. polyctena exposed to an artificial heat source. Observations on identified individuals revealed that not all ants bask in the sun. Sun-basking and non-sun-basking workers did not differ in body size nor in respiration rates. The number of sun-basking ants and the number of their visits to the hot spot depended on the temperature of both the air and the hot spot. To investigate whether sun basking leads to a physiological activation linked with increased lipolysis, we measured respiration rates of individual workers as a function of temperature, and compared respiration rates of sun-basking workers before and two days after they were allowed to expose themselves to a heat source over 10 days, at self-determined intervals. As expected for ectothermic animals, respiration rates increased with increasing temperatures in the range 5 to 35°C. However, the respiration rates of sun-basking workers measured two days after a long-term exposure to the heat source were similar to those before sun basking, providing no evidence for a sustained increase of the basal metabolic rates after prolonged sun basking. Based on our measurements, we argue that self-heating of the nest mound in early spring has therefore to rely on alternative heat sources, and speculate that physical transport of heat in the ant bodies may have a significant effect. PMID:28114396

  2. Sun avoidance in the yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) of Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Variations with season, behavior and weather.

    PubMed

    Pochron, S T

    2000-09-01

    Do free-ranging baboons avoid traveling towards the sun? Sun avoidance, in addition to resource and predator locations, may influence troop movement and non-random use of the home range. This paper investigates how sun avoidance, as measured by facial exposure to sunlight, influences directional choices. It hypothesizes that baboons should avoid the sun in the hot, dry season and show indifference to it in the cool, lush season. This paper also hypothesizes that baboons employ sun-avoidance behaviors more while they forage or travel to resting sites than when they travel to foraging sites or engage in active social behaviors; lastly this paper hypothesizes that sun altitude, temperature, humidity, and cloud cover influence sun-avoidance behavior. Using focal-animal techniques on 21 males from free-ranging baboon troops, I collected locational data, accurate to within 1.6 m, over 15 months. I calculated the difference between baboon bearings and the sun's azimuth in angular degrees. Both linear and circular statistics indicate that baboons put significantly (P<0.01) more than 90 degrees between their bearing and the sun's azimuth under certain conditions. Contrary to hypotheses based on the detrimental effects of insolation, baboons in the cool, lush season avoid the sun, while baboons in the hot, dry season do not. In the lush season, the extent to which baboons avoid the sun does not depend on their other behaviors. Dry-season baboons demonstrate stronger sun avoidance while resting than when engaged in other behaviors. Finally, in the dry season, temperature drives sun avoidance; humidity drives it in the lush season.

  3. THE INFRARED COLORS OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Casagrande, L.; Asplund, M.; Ramirez, I.; Melendez, J.

    2012-12-10

    Solar infrared colors provide powerful constraints on the stellar effective temperature scale, but they must be measured with both accuracy and precision in order to do so. We fulfill this requirement by using line-depth ratios to derive in a model-independent way the infrared colors of the Sun, and we use the latter to test the zero point of the Casagrande et al. effective temperature scale, confirming its accuracy. Solar colors in the widely used Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub s} and WISE W1-4 systems are provided: (V - J){sub Sun} = 1.198, (V - H){sub Sun} = 1.484, (V - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 1.560, (J - H){sub Sun} = 0.286, (J - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 0.362, (H - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 0.076, (V - W1){sub Sun} = 1.608, (V - W2){sub Sun} = 1.563, (V - W3){sub Sun} = 1.552, and (V - W4){sub Sun} = 1.604. A cross-check of the effective temperatures derived implementing 2MASS or WISE magnitudes in the infrared flux method confirms that the absolute calibration of the two systems agrees within the errors, possibly suggesting a 1% offset between the two, thus validating extant near- and mid-infrared absolute calibrations. While 2MASS magnitudes are usually well suited to derive T{sub eff}, we find that a number of bright, solar-like stars exhibit anomalous WISE colors. In most cases, this effect is spurious and can be attributed to lower-quality measurements, although for a couple of objects (3% {+-} 2% of the total sample) it might be real, and may hint at the presence of warm/hot debris disks.

  4. Randomized trial on sun safety education at ski and snowboard schools in western North America.

    PubMed

    Walkosz, Barbara; Voeks, Jenifer; Andersen, Peter; Scott, Michael; Buller, David; Cutter, Gary; Dignan, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Go Sun Smart, a sun safety education program, directed to parents and children enrolled in ski and snowboard schools at high altitude resorts in western North America. Twenty-six ski resorts were paired and then randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. Three hundred fifty-seven parents were interviewed about their children's sun safety behavior and exposure to the Go Sun Smart program. More parents at the intervention resorts reported that their child was wearing sunscreen than at the control resorts (OR 2.37, 95% CI 0.93, 5.99) but this result was significant only at resorts in the Northwest region (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.24, 5.95). Parents at intervention resorts had significantly increased odds of having seen a Go Sun Smart poster than those at the control resorts (OR=8.53, 95% CI 2.17, 33.54). No significant differences were identified between the intervention and control groups for verbal messages from ski resort employees about sun protection. Outdoor wintertime recreation venues are a potentially effective site from which to implement sun safety education programs for children and parents.

  5. Translation of a Ski School Sun Safety Program to North American Ski and Snowboard Schools

    PubMed Central

    Walkosz, B.J.; Buller, D.B.; Andersen, P.A.; Scott, M.D.; Liu, X.; Cutter, G.R.; Dignan, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Unprotected and excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the primary risk factor for skin cancer. Promoting sun safety practices to children and adolescents who recreate outdoors has the potential to reduce skin cancer occurrence later in life. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a sun safety program for employees and guests of ski areas was distributed to determine if an enhanced disseminations strategy was more effective than a basic dissemination strategy at reaching parents at ski and snowboard schools. On-site observations of GSS use and surveys of 909 parents/caregivers with children enrolled in ski and snowboard schools were conducted and analyzed using techniques for clustered designs. No differences were identified by dissemination strategy. Greater implementation of GSS was associated with greater parental recall of materials but not greater sun protection practices. Greater recall of messages, regardless of level of implementation, resulted in greater sun protection practices for children. GSS effectiveness trial’s favorable findings may have been successfully translated to ski and snowboard school across the North American ski industry. Ski areas that used more of the program materials appeared to reach parents with sun safety advice and thus convinced them to take more precautions for their children. Sun safety need not be at odds with children’s outdoor recreation activities. PMID:25761916

  6. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  7. Sun-related behaviour and melanoma awareness among Swedish university students.

    PubMed

    Jerkegren, E; Sandrieser, L; Brandberg, Y; Rosdahl, I

    1999-02-01

    The relationship between knowledge, attitude and sun-related behaviour among Swedish students was examined in the present study. A total of 296 of 305 questionnaires, distributed among university students (medical school and economy programme) were analysed (157 men, 139 women, mean age 24 years). The percentage of students sunbathing with the intention of getting a tan was 75%. Thirteen per cent reported having experienced at least one painful sunburn every year and 93% stated at least one burn during the last ten years. The majority of the students had used a sun bed, 12% more than ten times during the last year. Subjects with high frequency of sun bed use also scored high on sunbathing and sunburns. Significantly more women (70%) than men (51%) used sunscreen. The overall knowledge of melanoma was high. No difference in knowledge was found between the high- and low-exposure group. Medical students scored higher on knowledge than economy students, but did not differ in exposure score. Our findings reveal an excessive sun exposure among university students. A high level of knowledge of risk does not lead to a sun-protective behaviour. Future preventative campaigns targeting young people must focus on strategies to change attitudes towards tanning as being healthy and attractive.

  8. Harvesting the Sun's Energy with Antennas

    SciTech Connect

    INL

    2008-05-28

    Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory, along with partners at Microcontinuum Inc. (Cambridge, MA) and Patrick Pinhero of the University of Missouri, are developing a novel way to collect energy from the sun with a technology that could potentially cost pennies a yard, be imprinted on flexible materials and still draw energy after the sun has set.

  9. Space Science in Action: Sun [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This videotape recording shows students what the sun is all about--how big it is, what it is made of, how old it is, and how long it is believed it will continue to burn. Students examine the individual layers of the sun and learn about solar activities, including sunspots, solar flares, and prominences. A hands-on activity guides students in…

  10. The Dark Side of the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes easy-to-implement strategies parents can use to ensure their children's safety in the sun and avoid skin cancer, which is the most prevalent form of cancer in United States. Suggestions include: limit the amount of time spent in the sun, wear protective clothing, use sunscreening agents, and have knowledge of skin cancer and its…

  11. EFFECT OF THE SUN UPON ANTENNA TEMPERATURE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    temperature distributions over the sun at several frequencies are presented. The method by which antenna temperature is evaluated, using the Philco...calculate the variation of carrier-to-noise ratio as an antenna scans toward the sun while receiving signals from a deep-space probe and from a random-orbit satellite.

  12. Harvesting the Sun's Energy with Antennas

    ScienceCinema

    INL

    2016-07-12

    Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory, along with partners at Microcontinuum Inc. (Cambridge, MA) and Patrick Pinhero of the University of Missouri, are developing a novel way to collect energy from the sun with a technology that could potentially cost pennies a yard, be imprinted on flexible materials and still draw energy after the sun has set.

  13. Genital melanoma: are we adequately screening our patients?

    PubMed

    Zikry, Joseph; Chapman, Lance W; Korta, Dorota Z; Smith, Janellen

    2017-03-15

    Full-body skin exams (FBSE) play an integral role inearly detection and treatment of skin cancer. Promptdetection of melanoma is especially importantas survival outcomes decrease significantly withpresentation of advanced disease. Given thatmelanoma may grow in areas of skin with little to nosun exposure, genital melanomas are a recognizedentity in cutaneous oncology.

  14. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  15. Signature extension for sun angle, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. A. (Principal Investigator); Berry, J. K.; Heimes, F.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Within a restricted zenith sun angle range of 35 - 50 degrees, it was empirically observed that canopy reflectance is mainly Lambertian. Reflectance changes with crop stage were simple shifts in scale in the sun angle range. It was noted that sun angle variations depend on canopy characteristics. Effects of the vegetative canopy were most pronounced at the larger solar zenith angles (20 %). The linear sun angle correction coefficients demonstrate a dependency on both crop stage (15-20 %) and crop type (10-20 %). The use of canopy reflectance modeling allowed for the generation of a simulated data set over an extremely broad envelope of sun angles.

  16. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  17. SDO Asks: What's The Sun Doing Now?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, W. D.

    2007-01-01

    Solar observations have tended to emphasize events like flares and CMEs, and what leads to these events. The past decade has seen an increasing emphasis on understanding the entire Sun, from the nuclear reactions at the core to the development and loss of magnetic loops in the corona. The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will return synoptic data, taken at a regular cadence and covering the entire Sun. This means you can still study events, but can also move forward to producing a quantitative model of what the Sun is doing today. The science investigations of SDO will determine how the Sun's magnetic field is generated and structured, how this stored magnetic energy is released into the heliosphere and geospace as the solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in the solar irradiance. How SDO data will transform the study of the Sun and the affect on stellar astrophysics will be discussed.

  18. Cohort profile: the QSkin Sun and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Catherine M; Green, Adèle C; Neale, Rachel E; Webb, Penelope M; Cicero, Rebekah A; Jackman, Lea M; O'Brien, Suzanne M; Perry, Susan L; Ranieri, Barbara A; Whiteman, David C

    2012-08-01

    The QSkin Sun and Health Study comprises a cohort of 43 794 men and women aged 40-69 years randomly sampled from the population of Queensland, Australia in 2011. The cohort was established to study the development of skin cancer and melanoma in the population with the highest reported incidence of these diseases in the world. At baseline, besides demographic items and general medical history, information about standard pigmentary characteristics (including hair and eye colour, freckling tendency, tanning ability and propensity to sunburn), past and recent history of sun exposure and sunburns, sun protection behaviours, use of tanning beds and history of skin cancer was collected by self-completed questionnaire. Participants have given their consent for data linkage to the universal national health insurance scheme and for linkage to cancer registries and pathology databases, thus ensuring complete ascertainment of all future skin cancer and melanoma occurrences and medical treatments and other cancer events. Linkage to these registers will occur at predetermined intervals. Approval to access QSkin data can be obtained on application to the study investigators and submission of a formal research plan that has previous approval from the human research ethics committee of the applicant's institution.

  19. Meridional Circulation in the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Hanasoge, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Measuring the depth variation of the meridional flows is important for understanding the solar cycle, at least according to a number of dynamo models. While attempting to extend the early observations of Giles (1999; Ph. D. thesis, Stanford Univ.) of time-distance measurements of flow, we have stumbled upon some systematic errors that can affect these measurements: 1) the additional distance traveled by radiation coming from points away from disk center causes an apparent 'shrinking' Sun, that is an apparent flow towards the disk center, 2) in measurements away from the central longitude, the rotation signal can leak into meridional flow signals, and 3) in measurements of the north-south mean travel times along the equator, a spurious error of 6 sec travel time is seen. That the signal is spurious is confirmed by observing half the time with the image rotated 180 degrees. Although this is an effect with mean travel times and not differences, it still seems useful to understand it. Attempts to understand and overcome these systematic problems will be presented. Forward modeling has been done using ray theory to test the sensitivity of travel times to various models.

  20. Dark matter near the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of dark matter in the disk of the Galaxy at the solar position is determined by comparing the observed distributions of tracer stars with the predictions obtained from different assumptions of how the unseen matter is distributed. The major uncertainties, observational and theoretical, are estimated. For all the observed samples, typical models imply that about half of the mass in the solar vicinity must be in the form of unobserved matter. The volume density of unobserved material near the sun is about 0.1 solar mass/cu pc; the corresponding column density is about 30 solar masses/cu pc. This, so far unseen, material must be in a disk with an exponential scale height of less than 0.7 kpc. All the existing observations are consistent with the unseen disk material being in the form of stars not massive enough to burn hydrogen. It is suggested that the unseen material that is required to hold up the rotation curves of galaxies and to satisfy the virial theorem for clusters of galaxies might also be in the form of low-mass stars.

  1. Low Sun from 'Low Ridge'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    A spectacular field of Martian sand ripples separates NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit from the slopes of 'Husband Hill.' It has been 200 Martian days, or sols, since the rover started a descent from the top of the peak to the rover's current position on 'Low Ridge.' Looking back to the north on sol 813 (April 17, 2006), Spirit acquired this blue-filter (436-nanometer) view with the right panoramic camera (Pancam) while the Sun was low in the sky late in the afternoon. Because of the low-angle lighting (sunlight is coming from the left), images like this provide superb views of subtle textures in the topography both near and far. Husband Hill, where the rover was perched late last summer, rises prominently just left of center in this view. A 150-meter wide (500 foot) field of curving sand ripples named 'El Dorado' lies at the base of Husband Hill.

    By collecting photos like this at different times of day, when lighting comes from different directions, scientists can distinguish surface properties such as color and reflectivity from topography and roughness. By separating these components they can map more details of the geologic terrain, providing new clues about the geologic history of Gusev Crater.

  2. Prostate cancer between prognosis and adequate/proper therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grozescu, T; Popa, F

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the indolent, non-invasive nature of most types of prostate cancer, as well as the simple fact that the disease seems more likely to be associated with age rather than with other factors (50% of men at the age of 50 and 80% at the age of 80 have it [1], with or without presenting any symptom), the big challenge of this clinical entity was to determine severity indicators (so far insufficient) to guide the physician towards an adequate attitude in the clinical setting. The risk of over-diagnosing and over-treating many prostate cancer cases (indicated by all the major European and American studies) is real and poses many question marks. The present paper was meant to deliver new research data and to reset the clinical approach in prostate cancer cases. PMID:28255369

  3. The cerebellopontine angle: does the translabyrinthine approach give adequate access?

    PubMed

    Fagan, P A; Sheehy, J P; Chang, P; Doust, B D; Coakley, D; Atlas, M D

    1998-05-01

    A long-standing but unfounded criticism of the translabyrinthine approach is the misperception that this approach does not give adequate access to the cerebellopontine angle. Because of what is perceived as limited visualization and operating space within the cerebellopontine angle, some surgeons still believe that the translabyrinthine approach is inappropriate for large acoustic tumors. In this study, the surgical access to the cerebellopontine angle by virtue of the translabyrinthine approach is measured and analyzed. The parameters are compared with those measured for the retrosigmoid approach. This series objectively confirms that the translabyrinthine approach offers the neurotologic surgeon a shorter operative depth to the tumor, via a similar-sized craniotomy. This permits superior visualization by virtue of a wider angle of surgical access. Such access is achieved with the merit of minimal cerebellar retraction.

  4. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; P<0.01) and improved adequacy of received services (95.04% versus 83.8%; P=0.02). Conclusion The poor prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  5. Development of Pyramidal Type 2-AXES Analog Sun Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Sung-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Nam, Myung-Ryong; Park, Dong-Jo

    2000-12-01

    PSS (Pyramidal type 2-axes Analog Sun Sensor) which will be used for KAISTSAT-4 is designed to be small, light, low in power consumption, and adequate for small satellite attitude sensor. The PSS for the KAISTSAT-4 consists of the pyramidal structure, solar cells and amplifier. The pyramidal structure is suitable for the 2-axes sensing, Solar cells are made up of a rectangular shape of crystal silicon. The PSS measures the angle of incident light and initial satellite attitude measurement, and provides an alarm for the sunlight-sensitive payloads. This paper explains the PSS structure and the characteristic test result about the PSS with 50o in FOV, less than 3o in accuracy.

  6. What Is the Source of Quiet Sun Transition Region Emission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, D. J.; De Pontieu, Bart

    2016-11-01

    Dating back to the first observations of the on-disk corona, there has been a qualitative link between the photosphere’s magnetic network and enhanced transition-temperature plasma emission. These observations led to the development of a general model that describes emission structures through the partitioning of the atmospheric volume with different magnetic loop geometries that exhibit different energetic equilibria. Does the internetwork produce transition-temperature emission? What fraction of network flux connects to the corona? How does quiet Sun emission compare with low-activity Sun-like stars? In this work, we revisit the canonical model of the quiet Sun, with high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and HMI in hand, to address those questions. We use over 900 deep exposures of Si iv 1393 Å from IRIS along with nearly simultaneous HMI magnetograms to quantify the correlation between transition-temperature emission structures and magnetic field concentrations through a number of novel statistics. Our observational results are coupled with analysis of the Bifrost MHD model and a large-scale potential field model. Our results paint a complex portrait of the quiet Sun. We measure an emission signature in the distant internetwork that cannot be attributed to network contribution. We find that the dimmest regions of emission are not linked to the local vertical magnetic field. Using the MHD simulation, we categorize the emission contribution from cool mid-altitude loops and high-altitude coronal loops and discuss the potential emission contribution of spicules. Our results provide new constraints on the coupled solar atmosphere so that we can build on our understanding of how dynamic thermal and magnetic structures generate the observed phenomena in the transition region.

  7. Brightness Changes in Sun-like Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Stephen M.; Henry, Gregory W.

    1998-01-01

    Does the Sun's energy output vary with time? Are observable climatic changes on the earth caused by changes in the Sun? Can we gain greater insight into this relation-ship by studying other stars with properties similar to the Sun's? In recent years, satellite observations have shown that the solar irradiance varies in phase with the 1 l-year sunspot cycle. The Sun is brighter by about O.l% at the peak of the sunspot cycle when solar magnetic activity is at its maximum. Over longer intervals, changes in the cart h's climate and solar magnetic activity seem to be correlated. We are using automatic photoelectric telescopes to measure brightness changes in a sample of 150 Sun-like stars. Lowell Observatory astronomers have also observed about 30 of these same stars with a manual telescope in a program that began 10 years before ours. Since these two data sets were acquired with different instruments and so have significant systematic differences, we developed software to combine them accurately and, therefore, extend our observational time coverage. We show sample results of brightness variations over 14 years in several Sun-like stars with different ages. Longitudinal studies like these, combined with cross-sectional studies of the larger sample of stars, may eventually allow us to infer with confidence the Sun's long-term brightness history and its impact on the earth's climate.

  8. Sun-synchronous satellite orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Der-Ming; Zhai, Shen-You

    2004-02-01

    The linearized dynamic equations used for on-board orbit determination of Sun-synchronous satellite are derived. Sun-synchronous orbits are orbits with the secular rate of the right ascension of the ascending node equal to the right ascension rate of the mean sun. Therefore the orbit is no more a closed circle but a tight helix about the Earth. In the paper, instead of treating the orbit as a closed circle, the actual helix orbit is taken as nominal trajectory. The details of the linearized equations of motion for the satellite in the Sun-synchronous orbit are derived. The linearized equations are obtained by perturbing the Keplerian motion with the J2 correction and the effect of sun's attraction being neglected. Combined with the GPS navigation equations, the Kalman filter formulation is given. The particular application considered is the circular Sun-synchronous orbit with the altitude of 800 km and inclination of 98.6°. The numerical example simulated by MATLAB® shows that only the pseudo-range data used in the algorithm still gives acceptable results. Based on the simulation results, we can use the on-board GPS receivers' signal only as an alternative to determine the orbit of Sun-Synchronous satellite and therefore circumvents the need for extensive ground support.

  9. Sun signs Valdez Principles; rejoining CMA

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1993-02-17

    Four year after an investors' group developed the Valdez Principles in response to the Exxon oil spill, Sun Co. (Philadelphia) has become the first major corporation to sign on to the environmental commitment. Sun also says it plans to rejoin the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) in light of new emphasis on its chemical business and to recommit to the Responsible Care program. Sun negotiated the commitment's working with the Coalition for Economically Responsible Economies (CERES; New York), which devised the code of conduct, now called the CERES Principles. It requries goals of reducing environmental impact, as well as annual environmental auditing and public reporting of results. Annual environmental reporting is coming,' says Sun chairman and CEO Robert H. Campbell. CERES' report provides credibility and accountability, he says. Sun's signing is the onset of a stampede,' says New York City Comptroller Elizabeth Holtzman, who advises on investment of the city's $47-billion pension funds. CERES says that between tens of' Fortune 500 companies have shown interest in a negotiated code. The 50 other signers are smaller companies. Du Pont says it is waiting to see Sun's agreement. Campbell says the commitment complements Sun's five-year-old program, which incorporates the American Petroleum Institute program and CMA's Responsible Care initiative. I don't think anything will change that the customer will notice,' he adds.

  10. SunPy—Python for solar physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SunPy Community; Mumford, Stuart J.; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J.; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M.; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specializing in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  11. [Latest evidence about longevity of Sun Simiao].

    PubMed

    Song, Zhen-Min

    2013-01-01

    Recording in the preface of Binglishufu (written by Lu Zhaolin of the Tang Dynasty) was the only direct evidence about the longevity of Sun Simiao. It recorded 'Sun Simiao said since his birth in the Xinyou Year of the Kaihuang Period, he was 93 years old'. But there were disputes over the time of Xinyou Year-581 AD or 541 AD? It is easy to pick holes in both arguments and the whole research, so the conclusion is not reliable. Recordings in Biography of Sun Simiao, which said 'the governor of the Luozhou area marveled at Sun's intelligence and called him the saint child', are also fabricated. According to literature, 'in the 3(rd) year of the Xianqing Period, Sun Simiao was invited by the emperor and lived in the deserted house of the Boyang Princess. He was more than 90 years old and did not have any visual or hearing loss … he was good to give lectures at various schools like Zhuang and Lao … in the Zhou Xuan Emperor Period Sun was tired of royal affairs and chose to be a hermit in the Taibai Mountain' (Tanghuiyao, Datang Xinyu, Tanbinlu). Sun Simiao should have been born in 560 AD. This time conformed to the time of his other events. He was 20 when a hermit and was 99 when he was invited by the Emperor Gaozong in the 3(rd) year of Xianqing.

  12. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  13. Is the Global Solar UV Index an Effective Instrument for Promoting Sun Protection? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Italia, Nadia; Rehfuess, Eva A.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor for skin cancer. The Global Solar Ultraviolet Index (UVI) was developed as a tool to visualize the amount of harmful radiation and to encourage people to use sun protection. We conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of the UVI. We employed a comprehensive search strategy to…

  14. Baseline Survey of Sun Protection Policies and Practices in Primary School Settings in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, A. I.; Jopson, J. A.; Gray, A.

    2009-01-01

    The SunSmart Schools Accreditation Programme (SSAP) was launched as a national programme in October 2005 to help reduce the risk of excessive child exposure to ultraviolet radiation. As part of the need for evaluation, this paper reports the findings of a national survey of a randomly selected sample of approximately 12% of New Zealand primary…

  15. THE LIFETIME OF H ALPHA-STRUCTURES IN ACTIVE REGIONS ON THE SUN,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    During the last two quarters of 1966 time series of exposures of active regions on the sun were obtained at the Solar Observatory at Harestua using the Zeiss Coude refractor and a Lyot monochromator. By a graphic method the mean lifetime of 574 fibrills taken from 81 selected areas is found to be 4 hours. (Author)

  16. Formation of Planets Around the Sun and Other Stars.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Doug

    2005-11-14

    Formation of Planets around the Sun and other stars. The quest to understand the formation of planets and planetary systems has entered an era of renaissance. Driven by observational discoveries in solar system exploration, protostellar disks, and extra solar planets, we have established a rich data bank which contains not only relic clues around mature stars, including the Sun, but also direct image of ongoing processes around young stars. For the first time in this scientific endeavor, we have adequate information to construct quantitative models to account for the ubiquity of planets and diversity of planetary systems. Some of the most intriguing theoretical questions facing us today include: a) how did the planets in the solar system form with their present-day mass, composition, and orbital elements, b) is planet formation a deterministic or chaotic process, and c) what are the observable signatures of planet formation and evolution around nearby young and mature stars? I will present a comprehensive scenario which suggests a) gas giant planets formed through coagulation of planetsimals and gas accretion onto earth-like cores; b) the final assemblage of the terrestrial planets in the solar system occurred through the propagation of Jupiter's secular resonance 4-30 Myrs after the emergence of the gas giant; and c) although they are yet to be discovered, Earth-like planets are expected to be common around nearby stars.

  17. Interior structure of the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacobbe, F. W.; Giacobbe, M. J.

    This paper describes a computational method of estimating physical and chemical properties within the solar interior without employing calculations involving opacities. Instead of using opacities to help determine how interior solar temperatures vary with the radial distance between the centre of the sun and its 'surface', an iterative technique employing empirical adiabatic 'cooling' and a fusion energy production rate expression were employed for this purpose. Other iterative calculations were also made (nearly simultaneously) to ensure that all known solar constraint conditions were precisely satisfied (except for the photospheric 'surface' temperature) during this computational process. In addition, all calculations could be performed using a conventional PC employing an Intel Pentium CPU and a computer program coded in ANSI C. Due to the simplifications that were possible using the techniques employed during this study, as well as the advantages associated with using a programming language that produces machine code when compiled, all solar structural details could be generated very rapidly using an ordinary computer. The results of this study were compared with more conventional results obtained by others. This comparison indicated that the methods employed within this paper produced interior intensive solar properties that were in reasonable agreement with similar properties obtained by employing more sophisticated computational approaches. Although it is not claimed that the results generated during this study are any better than more conventionally obtained findings, it is thought that these results, as well as our computational methods, are interesting and potentially useful to others. In particular, it is thought that the techniques outlined in this paper may provide a useful introduction to more complicated techniques of solar modelling.

  18. Anisotropic microstructure near the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, W. A.; Grall, R. R.; Spangler, S. R.; Sakurai, T.; Harmon, J. K.

    1996-07-01

    Radio scattering observations provide a means of measuring a two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional spatial spectrum of electron density, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight. Earlier observations have shown that the microstructure at scales of the order of 10 km becomes highly field-aligned inside of 10 Rsolar [Armstrong et al., 1990]. Earlier work has also shown that density fluctuations at scales larger than 1000 km have a Kolmogorov spectrum, whereas the smaller scale structure has a flatter spectrum and is considerably enhanced above the Kolmogorov ``background'' [Coles et al., 1991]. Here we present new observations made during 1990 and 1992. These confirm the earlier work, which was restricted to one source on a few days, but they suggest that the anisotropy changes abruptly near 6 Rsolar which was not clear in the earlier data. The axial ratio measurements are shown on Figure 1 below. The new observations were made with a more uniform sampling of the spatial plane. They show that contours of constant correlation are elliptical. This is apparently inconsistent with the spatial correlation of the ISEE-3 magnetic field which shows a ``Maltese Cross'' shape [Matthaeus et al., 1990]. However this inconsistency may be only apparent: the magnetic field and density correlations need not have the same shape; the scale of the magnetic field correlations is at least 4 orders of magnitude larger; they are much further from the sun; and they are point measurements whereas ours are path-integrated. We also made two simultaneous measurements, at 10 Rsolar, of the anisotropy on scales of 200 to 4000 km. Significant anisotropy was seen on the smaller scales, but the larger scale structure was essentially isotropic. This suggests that the process responsible for the anisotropic microstructure is independent of the larger scale isotropic turbulence. It is then tempting to speculate that the damping of this anisotropic process inside of 6 Rsolar

  19. The Sun's dusty interstellar environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Veerle

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's dusty interstellar environment Interstellar dust from our immediate interstellar neighborhood travels through the solar system at speeds of ca. 26 km/s: the relative speed of the solar system with respect to the local interstellar cloud. On its way, its trajectories are altered by several forces like the solar radiation pressure force and Lorentz force. The latter is due to the charged dust particles that fly through the interplanetary magnetic field. These trajectories differ per particle type and size and lead to varying fluxes and directions of the flow inside of the solar system that depend on location but also on phase in the solar cycle. Hence, these fluxes and directions depend strongly on the configuration of the inner regions and outer regions of the heliosphere. Several missions have measured this dust in the solar system directly. The Ulysses dust detector data encompasses 16 years of intestellar dust fluxes and approximate directions, Stardust captured returned to Earth a few of these particles sucessfully, and finally the Cassini dust detector allowed for compositional information to be obtained from the impacts on the instrument. In this talk, we give an overview of the current status of interstellar dust research through the measurements made inside of the solar system, and we put them in perspective to the knowledge obtained from more classical astronomical means. In special, we focus on the interaction of the dust with the interplanetary magnetic field, and on what we learn about the dust (and the fields) by comparing the available dust data to computer simulations of dust trajectories. Finally, we synthesize the different methods of observation, their results, and give a preview on new research opportunities in the coming year(s).

  20. Cool Stars, Stellar Systems and the Sun.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stempels, Eric

    2009-02-01

    The series of 'Cool Star' meetings concentrates on the astrophysics of low-mass stars (with masses similar to that of the Sun and lower), including the Sun. The meeting in St. Andrews, Scotland, was the 15th in this series, and focused in particular on the origin of low-mass stars and their planets, as well as the properties of their atmospheres. This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the science presented by the 350 participants of this meeting. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in the astrophysics of cool stars and the Sun.

  1. THE SUN AS A VARIABLE STAR III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    observations has taught us more about the variations of solar type stars than about the sun itself. The observations of 15 stars of spectral types F and...stars 40 Leo, beta CVn and eta Boo this deviation is less than 0.004 mag. No evidence of variability in the stars which are similar to the sun has been...detected during this program. If we assume the sun acts in similar fashion to each of these stars, its variability over a fifteen-year period probably

  2. Systemic Crisis of Civilization: In Search for Adequate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozin, Grigori

    In December 1972 a jumbo jet crashed in the Florida Everglades with the loss of 101 lives. The pilot, distracted by a minor malfunction, failed to note until too late the warning signal that - correctly - indicated an impending disaster. His sudden, astonished cry of Hey, what happening here? were his last words 1. Three decades after this tragic episode, as the Humankind approaches the threshold of the third Millennium, the problem of adequate reaction to warning signals of different nature and of distinguishing minor malfunctions in everyday life of society, in economy and technology as well as in evolution of biosphere from grave threats to the world community and the phenomenon of life on our planet remains crucial to human survival and the future of Civilization. Rational use of knowledge and technology available to the world community remains in this context the corner stone of discussions on the destiny of the intelligent life both on the planet Earth and in the Universe (the fact of intelligent life in the Universe is to be detected by the Humankind)…

  3. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  4. DARHT -- an adequate EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1996 the US District Court in Albuquerque ruled that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office, US Department of Energy (DOE), was adequate. The DARHT EIS had been prepared in the face of a lawsuit in only 10 months, a third of the time usually allotted for a DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS. It subject was the first major facility to be built in decades for the DOE nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. It was the first EIS to be prepared for a proposal at DOE`s Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1979, and the first ever prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office. Much of the subject matter was classified. The facility had been specially designed to minimize impacts to a nearby prehistoric Native American ruin, and extensive consultation with American Indian Pueblos was required. The week that the draft EIS was published Laboratory biologists identified a previously unknown pair of Mexican spotted owls in the immediate vicinity of the project, bringing into play the consultation requirements of the Endangered Species Act. In spite of these obstacles, the resultant DARHT EIS was reviewed by the court and found to meet all statutory and regulatory requirements; the court praised the treatment of the classified material which served as a basis for the environmental analysis.

  5. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  6. SDO Catches Surfer Waves on the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    Scientists have spotted the iconic surfer's wave rolling through the atmosphere of the sun. The waves hold clues as to how energy moves through that atmosphere, known as the corona, and may help ex...

  7. SDO Catches Comet Streaking by Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory's AIA instrument captured the first ever image of a comet passing directly in front of the sun in the early morning of July 6, 2011 in 171 angstrom. The comet comes i...

  8. Nilaja Sun's "No Child...": Reflections on Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Nilaja; Alexander, Phillip; Huldeen, Branden; Russell, Ron; Friedman, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Nilaja Sun's groundbreaking one-woman show about a TA, her students, and her school, and includes interviews with the author/performer, an excerpt of the work, and a discussion of the organization behind it.

  9. THE LOST SIBLINGS OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Portegies Zwart, Simon F.

    2009-05-01

    The anomalous chemical abundances and the structure of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt observed in the solar system constrain the initial mass and radius of the star cluster in which the Sun was born to M {approx_equal} 500-3000M {sub sun} and R {approx_equal} 1-3 pc. When the cluster dissolved, the siblings of the Sun dispersed through the galaxy, but they remained on a similar orbit around the Galactic center. Today these stars hide among the field stars, but 10-60 of them are still present within a distance of {approx}100 pc. These siblings of the Sun can be identified by accurate measurements of their chemical abundances, positions, and their velocities. Finding even a few will strongly constrain the parameters of the parental star cluster and the location in the Galaxy where we were born.

  10. Physics of the Sun and its Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, B. N.; Narain, U.

    ch. 1. Recent advances in solar physics / B. N. Dwivedi -- ch. 2. Overview of the Sun / S. S. Hasan -- ch. 3. Seismic view of the Sun / S. M. Chitre and B. N. Dwivedi -- ch. 4. Solar magnetism / P. Venkatakrishnan and S. Gosain -- ch. 5. Waves and oscillations in the solar atmosphere / R. Erdélyi -- ch. 6. VUV spectroscopy of solar plasma / A. Mohan -- ch. 7. Active region diagnostics / H. E. Mason and D. Tripathi -- ch. 8. Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion in the lower solar atmosphere / V. Krishan -- ch. 9. On solar coronal heating mechanisms / K. Pandey and U. Narain -- ch. 10. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated phenomena / N. Srivastava -- ch. 11. The radio Sun / P. K. Manoharan -- ch. 12. The solar wind / P. K. Manoharan -- ch. 13. The Sun-Earth system: our home in space / J. L. Lean.

  11. SDO and Hinode Views of the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    IRIS will advance our understanding of how the enigmatic interface region on the sun powers its dynamic million-degree atmosphere called the corona. IRIS will join the Solar Dynamics Observatory (S...

  12. Sun-pointing programs and their accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, J.C.

    1981-05-01

    Several sun-pointing programs and their accuracy are described. FORTRAN program listings are given. Program descriptions are given for both Hewlett-Packard (HP-67) and Texas Instruments (TI-59) hand-held calculators.

  13. The Sun: Source of the Earth's Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Sun is the primary source of the Earth's energy. However, due to the complexity in the way the energy affects Earth, the various solar sources of the energy, and the variation exhibited by the Sun it is difficult to understand and predict the Earth's response to solar drivers. In addition to visible light the radiant energy of the Sun can exhibit variation in nearly all wavelengths, which can vary over nearly all timescales. Depending on the wavelength of the incident radiation the light can deposit energy in a wide variety or locations and drive processes from below Earth's surface to interplanetary space. Other sources of energy impacting Earth include energetic particles, magnetic fields, and mass and flow variations in the solar wind. Many of these variable energetic processes cannot be coupled and recent results continue to demonstrate that the complex dynamics of the Sun can have a great range of measurable impacts on Earth.

  14. A Hole in the Sun's Corona

    NASA Video Gallery

    This timelapse video shows a coronal hole, as captured in ultraviolet light by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory on Jan. 10, 2011. Coronal holes are areas of the sun's surface that are the source o...

  15. Solar physics: Weather of the magnetic Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    The Sun is a magnetically active rotating star. Simultaneous observations with the STEREO and SDO space missions reveal solar analogues of planetary Rossby waves that will help forecast space weather.

  16. RBSP: Studying the Sun's Influence on Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two wide rings of high-intensity particles encircle our planet's equator. Known as the Van Allen Radiation Belts, their behavior in response to the sun directly impacts life on Earth and in orbit. ...

  17. Huge Filament Rises From Sun's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 1, 2010 following a C3-class solar flare from sunspot 1092, an enormous magnetic filament stretching across the sun's northern hemisphere erupted. This 304 angstrom video shows that filam...

  18. Flexible Photovoltaics: Mission Power from the Sun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Flexible Photovoltaics : Mission Power from the Sun NSRDEC Project Officer: Steven Tucker Senior Engineer, EE COMM 508-233-6962 DSN 256...NOV 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Flexible Photovoltaics : Mission Power from the Sun...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 UNCLASSIFIED Flexible Photovoltaics – Why? Travel Lighter, Stay Longer! Known

  19. Digital Sun Sensor Multi-Spot Operation

    PubMed Central

    Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The operation and test of a multi-spot digital sun sensor for precise sun-line determination is described. The image forming system consists of an opaque mask with multiple pinhole apertures producing multiple, simultaneous, spot-like images of the sun on the focal plane. The sun-line precision can be improved by averaging multiple simultaneous measures. Nevertheless, the sensor operation on a wide field of view requires acquiring and processing images in which the number of sun spots and the related intensity level are largely variable. To this end, a reliable and robust image acquisition procedure based on a variable shutter time has been considered as well as a calibration function exploiting also the knowledge of the sun-spot array size. Main focus of the present paper is the experimental validation of the wide field of view operation of the sensor by using a sensor prototype and a laboratory test facility. Results demonstrate that it is possible to keep high measurement precision also for large off-boresight angles. PMID:23443388

  20. SunPy: Solar Physics in Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Perez Suarez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russel

    2015-04-01

    SunPy is a community-developed open-source software library for solar physics. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language which is being increasingly adopted throughout the scientific community as well as further afield. This has resulted in a wide array of software packages useful for scientific computing, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to machine learning (scifitlearn), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy aims to provide required specialised software for analysing solar and heliospheric datasets in Python. The current version is 0.5 with 0.6 expected to be released later this year. SunPy provides solar data access through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It supports common data types from major solar missions such as images (SDO/AIA, STEREO, PROBA2/SWAP etc.), time series (GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE, PROBA2/LYRA), and radio spectra (e-Callisto, STEREO/WAVES). SunPy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate SunPy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing SunPy.

  1. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  2. Is clinical measurement of anatomic axis of the femur adequate?

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2017-03-23

    Background and purpose - The accuracy of using clinical measurement from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the center of the knee to determine an anatomic axis of the femur has rarely been studied. A radiographic technique with a full-length standing scanogram (FLSS) was used to assess the adequacy of the clinical measurement. Patients and methods - 100 consecutive young adult patients (mean age 34 (20-40) years) with chronic unilateral lower extremity injuries were studied. The pelvis and intact contralateral lower extremity images in the FLSS were selected for study. The angles between the tibial axis and the femoral shaft anatomic axis (S-AA), the piriformis anatomic axis (P-AA), the clinical anatomic axis (C-AA), and the mechanical axis (MA) were compared between sexes. Results - Only the S-AA and C-AA angles were statistically significantly different in the 100 patients (3.6° vs. 2.8°; p = 0.03). There was a strong correlation between S-AA, P-AA, and C-AA angles (r > 0.9). The average intersecting angle between MA and S-AA in the femur in the 100 patients was 5.5°, and it was 4.8° between MA and C-AA. Interpretation - Clinical measurement of an anatomic axis from the ASIS to the center of the knee may be an adequate and acceptable method to determine lower extremity alignment. The optimal inlet for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing may be the lateral edge of the piriformis fossa.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency and sun avoidance among university students at Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Al Anouti, Fatme; Thomas, Justin; Abdel-Wareth, Laila; Rajah, Jaishen; Grant, William B

    2011-01-01

    This study offers evidence that vitamin D deficiency could be a major public health burden among young Emirati adults, mostly because of sun deprivation in a sun-blessed country. This study included a random sample of 138 females and 70 males tested for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status. To further evaluate the predictors of vitamin D status in this population, the study examined diet, obesity and sun exposure. In summer, the mean serum 25(OH)D concentration for females was 20.9 ± 14.9 nmol/L, whereas that for males was 27.3 ± 15.7 nmol/L. Females scored significantly higher than males on the sun avoidance inventory (SAI), indicating that females avoid sun exposure to a greater extent than males, possibly explaining the lower vitamin D status. A significant negative correlation also existed between SAI and vitamin D status (Pearson's r = −0.33; p < 0.01), but no significant association was evident between vitamin D status and body mass index (Pearson's r = 0.03; p = 0.33) or low dietary intake of vitamin D-fortified foods (Pearson's r = 0.08; p = 0.13). The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration for females tested in winter was 31.3 ± 12.3 nmol/L while in the summer, it was 20.9 ± 14.9 nmol/L. This difference was statistically significant, suggesting that seasonal variation plays an important role in vitamin D status in the United Arab Emirates. Fortification of foods and drinks with vitamin D, supplementation and sensible sun exposure are important steps toward minimizing vitamin D deficiency. PMID:22259650

  4. Attitudes, Beliefs, and Measures Taken by Parents to Protect Their Children from the Sun in Guangzhou City, China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Miaojian; Hu, Rong; Li, Ying; Wang, Yaning; Xie, Xiaoyuan; Yue, Pan; Guan, Lei; Lai, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Excessive sun exposure can cause sunburn, suntan, skin photoaging, and even skin cancer. Skin photoaging conflicts with the human pursuit of a young and beautiful appearance. Some research data indicate that the incidence of skin cancer in the Chinese has been increasing, although it remains lower than in whites. To estimate the prevalence of sun protection used on Chinese children aged 3-13 years and identify its predictors, a population-based cross-sectional questionnaire was given to 3684 parents/guardians of children in Guangzhou, China, of which 3083 questionnaires were returned. Of those returned, 35.5% of parents/guardians reported regularly using sun protection on their children and the primary reason cited was to prevent sunburn. Hats and handheld umbrellas were the most frequently used measures; sunscreen was less common, and when used, 48.8% of parents/guardians still reapplied sunscreen on their children every 2.0-3.0 h. Parental age, parents using sun protection measures themselves when outdoors, and the child's sex were factors associated with regular use of sun protection on children. These results suggest that sun protection campaigns targeted toward parents and children need to be conducted in Guangzhou, or throughout China, to strengthen awareness about sun protection and address any inadequate protocols of sun protection.

  5. Effect of sun elevation upon remote sensing of ocean color over an acid waste dump site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Photographic flights were made over an ocean acid waste dump site while dumping was in progress. The flights resulted in wide angle, broadband, spectral radiance film exposure data between the wavelengths of 500 to 900 nanometers for sun elevation angles ranging from 26 to 42 degrees. It is shown from densitometer data that the spectral signature of acid waste discharged into ocean water can be observed photographically, the influence of sun elevation upon remotely sensed apparent color can be normalized by using a single spectral band ratioing technique, and photographic quantification and mapping of acid waste through its suspended iron precipitate appears possible.

  6. A Tornado on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    On 7 November, 2012 at 08:00 UT, an enormous tornado of plasma rose from the surface of the Sun. It twisted around and around, climbing over the span of 10 hours to a height of 50 megameters roughly four times the diameter of the Earth! Eventually, this monster tornado became unstable and erupted violently as a coronal mass ejection (CME).Now, a team of researchers has analyzed this event in an effort to better understand the evolution of giant solar tornadoes like this one.Oscillating AxisIn this study, led by Irakli Mghebrishvili and Teimuraz Zaqarashvili of Ilia State University (Georgia), images taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly were used to track the tornados motion as it grew, along with a prominence, on the solar surface.The team found that as the tornado evolved, there were several intervals during which it moved back and forth quasi-periodically. The authors think these oscillations were due to one of two effects when the tornado was at a steady height: either twisted threads of the tornado were rotating around each other, or a magnetic effect known as kink waves caused the tornado to sway back and forth.Determining which effect was at work is an important subject of future research, because the structure and magnetic configuration of the tornado has implications for the next stage of this tornados evolution: eruption.Eruption from InstabilitySDO/AIA 3-channel composite image of the tornado an hour before it erupted in a CME. A coronal cavity has opened above the tornado; the top of the cavity is indicated by an arrow. [NASA/SDO/AIA; Mghebrishvili et al. 2015]Thirty hours after its formation, the tornado (and the solar prominence associated with it) erupted as a CME, releasing enormous amounts of energy. In the images from shortly before that moment, the authors observed a cavity open in the solar corona above the tornado. This cavity gradually expanded and rose above the solar limb until the tornado and prominence

  7. The Sol project: the sun in time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, L. G. F.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; de Medeiros, J. R.; Do Nascimento, J. D., Jr.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    The solar place in the set of stellar properties of the neighborhood, such as chemical composition, magnetic activity, lithium depletion, and others, suggests that the Sun may not exactly be a representative star. A few of the solar putative peculiarities seem to involve details of its evolutionary history, and that some light might be shed onto this question by a new approach based on the analysis of a time line in the HR diagram, searching for stars that might represent past, present and future solar evolutionary loci. The SOL Project (Solar Origin and Life) aims towards the identification, among the nearby stars, of those that share in detail the solar evolutionary track, in order to put the Sun as a star in proper perspective. We aim at obtaining, spectroscopically, atmospheric parameters, Fe and Li abundances, space velocities, state of evolution, degree of chromospheric activity and rotational velocities of a stellar sample, selected from precise astrometry and photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue, as to represent the Sun in various evolutionary stages along the solar mass, solar metallicity theoretical track: the early Sun, the present Sun, the subgiant Sun and the giant Sun. Here we present a progress report of the survey: the sample selection, OPD spectroscopic observations and preliminary results of the atmospheric parameters and evolutionary status analysis. As a by-product, we also present a new effective temperature calibration, based on published Infrared Flux Method data, and calibrated explicitly for precise spectroscopic stellar metallicities, for the (B-V), (BT-VT), (R-I), (V-I), (V-R) and (V-K) color indices, and valid for cool, normal and moderately metal-poor giant stars.

  8. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Sun Safe Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, Joseph; Roger, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), a spacecraft designed and built at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, MD, was launched on June 18, 2009 from Cape Canaveral. It is currently in orbit about the Moon taking detailed science measurements and providing a highly accurate mapping of the suface in preparation for the future return of astronauts to a permanent moon base. Onboard the spacecraft is a complex set of algorithms designed by the attitude control engineers at GSFC to control the pointig for all operational events, including anomalies that require the spacecraft to be put into a well known attitude configuration for a sufficiently long duration to allow for the investigation and correction of the anomaly. GSFC level requirements state that each spacecraft s control system design must include a configuration for this pointing and lso be able to maintain a thermally safe and power positive attitude. This stable control algorithm for anomalous events is commonly referred to as the safe mode and consists of control logic thatwill put the spacecraft in this safe configuration defined by the spacecraft s hardware, power and environment capabilities and limitations. The LRO Sun Safe mode consists of a coarse sun-pointing set of algorithms that puts the spacecraft into this thermally safe and power positive attitude and can be achieved wihin a required amount of time from any initial attitude, provided that the system momentum is within the momentum capability of the reaction wheels. On LRO the Sun Safe mode makes use of coarse sun sensors (CSS), an inertial reference unit (IRU) and reaction wheels (RW) to slew the spacecraft to a solar inertial pointing. The CSS and reaction wheels have some level of redundancy because of their numbers. However, the IRU is a single-point-failure piece of hardware. Without the rate information provided by the IRU, the Sun Safe control algorithms could not

  9. 7 CFR 3430.1008 - Sun Grant Information Analysis Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. 3430.1008...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1008 Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. The Centers and Subcenter shall maintain, at the North-Central Center, a Sun Grant...

  10. 7 CFR 3430.1008 - Sun Grant Information Analysis Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. 3430.1008...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1008 Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. The Centers and Subcenter shall maintain, at the North-Central Center, a Sun Grant...

  11. 7 CFR 3430.1008 - Sun Grant Information Analysis Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. 3430.1008...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1008 Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. The Centers and Subcenter shall maintain, at the North-Central Center, a Sun Grant...

  12. 7 CFR 3201.97 - Sun care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sun care products. 3201.97 Section 3201.97... Designated Items § 3201.97 Sun care products. (a) Definition. Products including sunscreens, sun blocks, and suntan lotions that are topical products that absorb or reflect the sun's ultraviolet radiation...

  13. 7 CFR 3201.97 - Sun care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sun care products. 3201.97 Section 3201.97... Designated Items § 3201.97 Sun care products. (a) Definition. Products including sunscreens, sun blocks, and suntan lotions that are topical products that absorb or reflect the sun's ultraviolet radiation...

  14. 7 CFR 3430.1008 - Sun Grant Information Analysis Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. 3430.1008...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1008 Sun Grant Information Analysis Center. The Centers and Subcenter shall maintain, at the North-Central Center, a Sun Grant...

  15. The Solar Chimes: Searching for Oscillations inside the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentzel, Donat G.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of investigating the sun's interior is discussed. One method for probing the interiors of some pulsating stars is described. The relationship between the sun's solar oscillation frequencies and the sun's solar cycles is discussed. A project to place six instruments around the world to observe the sun's oscillations (GONG) is…

  16. An Examination of Coarse Sun Sensor Contingencies in Attitude Determination and the Sun Vector Calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Brenman; Welch, Ray; Burt, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Satellite pointing is vital to the success of a mission. One element of that entails describing the position of the sun relative to the frame of the satellite. Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS) are typically used to provide the information to calculate the sun's position in Safe Modes or contingency operations. In the OCO-2 configuration there are 13 CSS total, which provide redundant 4 celestial coverage. Failures of the individual CSS elements can introduce holes in the celestial coverage resulting in potential loss of sun knowledge. These failures must be analyzed to determine if the contingency plan is sufficient to assure mission success. First the static case was looked at and determined that at a maximum, 3 CSS failures can be sustained on the body and 1 on the array without causing coverage holes. Also array sensors are more important to mission success. The Sun Vector calculation has been transcribed to MATLAB code and failure scenarios are being examined to determine the maximum error given a set of failure scenarios. This activity indicated that if there is a loss of the sun, the sun-searching algorithm could be modified to use XZ rotation as that is guaranteed to find it whereas the design using the YZ rotation misses the sun if it is at the + or - Y orientation.

  17. The Sun Sense Study: An Intervention to Improve Sun Protection in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Alice; Shaheen, Magda; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on parental knowledge, sun avoidance behaviors, and sun protection practices in children 3-10 years. Methods: A randomized trial at a pediatric clinic recruited 197 caregiver-child pairs (90% parents). Intervention included a brief presentation and brochure for the parent and…

  18. Primary and secondary metabolism in the sun-exposed peel and the shaded peel of apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2013-05-01

    The metabolism of carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids and phenolics was compared between the sun-exposed peel and the shaded peel of apple fruit. Contents of sorbitol and glucose were higher in the sun-exposed peel, whereas those of sucrose and fructose were almost the same in the two peel types. This was related to lower sorbitol dehydrogenase activity and higher activities of sorbitol oxidase, neutral invertase and acid invertase in the sun-exposed peel. The lower starch content in the sun-exposed peel was related to lower sucrose synthase activity early in fruit development. Dark respiratory metabolism in the sun-exposed peel was enhanced by the high peel temperature due to high light exposure. Activities of most enzymes in respiratory metabolism were higher in the sun-exposed peel, but the concentrations of most organic acids were relatively stable, except pyruvate and oxaloacetate. Due to the different availability of carbon skeletons from dark respiration in the two peel types, amino acids with higher C/N ratios are accumulated in the sun-exposed peel whereas those with lower C/N ratios are accumulated in the shaded peel. Contents of anthocyanins and flavonols and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, UDP-galactose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase and several other enzymes were higher in the sun-exposed peel than in the shaded peel, indicating the entire phenylpropanoid pathway is upregulated in the sun-exposed peel. Comprehensive analyses of the metabolites and activities of enzymes involved in primary metabolism and secondary metabolism have allowed us to gain a full picture of the metabolic network in the two peel types under natural light exposure.

  19. Moon and sun compasses in sandhoppers rely on two separate chronometric mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ugolini, A.; Melis, C.; Innocenti, R.; Tiribilli, B.; Castellini, C.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between the chronometric system of compensation for the apparent movement of the sun and that for the moon has been the subject of several, never proven, hypotheses. Our studies on sandhoppers have demonstrated that the chronometric mechanism of the moon compass is separate from that of the sun compass. They show (i) that a period of seven days in constant darkness has no influence on the capacity for orientation, either solar or lunar, and indicates the presence of one or more continuously operating timing mechanisms; (ii) that two different shifts in the light–dark phase have no effect on the chronometric mechanism of lunar orientation, but they do affect that of solar orientation; and (iii) that exposure to an artificial moon delayed by seven days with respect to the natural cycle causes the expected change in the mean direction of individuals tested under the natural moon, but not of those tested under the sun.

  20. 77 FR 34122 - Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter... to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Sun Air Express, LLC d/b/a Sun...

  1. The spectrum of darkonium in the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Kouvaris, Chris; Langæble, Kasper; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2016-10-10

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  2. Neptune as a Mirror for the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    How would the Kepler mission see a star like the Sun? We now know the answer to this question due to a creative approach: a new study has used the Kepler K2 mission to detect signals from the Sun reflected off of the surface of Neptune.Asteroseismology uses different oscillation modes of a star to probe its internal structure and properties. [Tosaka]Information in OscillationsKeplers most glamorous work is in discovering new planets around other stars. To successfully do this, however, the spacecraft is also quietly doing a lot of very useful work in the background, characterizing the many stars in our vicinity that planets might be found around.One of the ways Kepler gets information about these stars is from oscillations of the stars intensities. In asteroseismology, we look at oscillatory modes that are caused by convection-driven pressure changes on the inside of the star. All stars with near-surface convection oscillate like this including the Sun and by measuring the oscillations in intensity of these stars, we can make inferences about the stars properties.A Planetary MirrorWe do this by first understanding our Suns oscillations especially well (made easier by the fact that its nearby!). Then we use asteroseimic scaling relations determined empirically that relate characteristics like mass and radius of other stars to those of the Sun, based on the relation between the stars oscillation properties to the Suns.The trouble is, those oscillation properties are difficult to measure, and different instruments often measure different values. For this reason, wed like to measure the Suns oscillations with the same instrument we use to measure other stars oscillations: Kepler.Top panel: Kepler K2 49-day light curve of Neptune. Bottom panel: power density spectrum as a function of frequency (grey). Neptunes rotation frequencies and harmonics appear toward the left side (blue); the excess power due to the solar modes is visible toward the bottom right. The green curve

  3. The spectrum of darkonium in the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Langæble, Kasper; Grønlund Nielsen, Niklas

    2016-10-01

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  4. The sun since the Bronze Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the behavior of the sun during the last 7000 years. The C-14 content in carbonaceous fossil material can be used as an indicator regarding the level of solar activity at the time when the carbon was assimilated in the process of photosynthesis. Living trees, such as the bristlecone pine, provide a solar activity record to about 3000 B.C. The record can be extended with the aid of well-preserved dead wood to beyond 5000 B.C. The results of an analysis of solar activity levels as a function of time on the basis of C-14 contents are presented in a graph. Attention is given to the Maunder Minimum, a history of the sun in the last 5000 years, an interpretation of the major C-14 excursions, and the sun and climate history.

  5. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  6. Shining Light through the Sun by Axions

    SciTech Connect

    Rashba, Timur

    2007-11-27

    I show that the Sun can become partially transparent to high energy photons in the presence of a pseudo-scalar. I discuss the possibilities of observing this effect. Present data are limited to the observation of the solar occultation of 3C 279 by EGRET in 1991; 98% C.L. detection of a non-zero flux of gamma rays passing through the Sun is not yet conclusive. Since the same occultation happens every October, future experiments, e.g. GLAST, are expected to have better sensitivity to the discussed effect.

  7. The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.; Marsden, R. G.; Balogh, A.; Gloeckler, G.; Geiss, J.; McComas, D. J.; McKibben, R. B.; MacDowall, R. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Krupp, N.; Krueger, H.; Landgraf, M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun'rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.

  8. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  9. Martian Moon Eclipses Sun, in Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panel illustrates the transit of the martian moon Phobos across the Sun. It is made up of images taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the morning of the 45th martian day, or sol, of its mission. This observation will help refine our knowledge of the orbit and position of Phobos. Other spacecraft may be able to take better images of Phobos using this new information. This event is similar to solar eclipses seen on Earth in which our Moon passes in front of the Sun. The images were taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  10. Haloes around the Moon and the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex; Gaina, Danielle A.

    2008-10-01

    The authors observations of the Haloes around the Moon and the Sun during few last years are reported. A Historical review of the phenomenon is given since the observations by Benvenuto Cellini and Gaston Tissandier is given. A photograph (from eight available) of the Halo around the Sun observed in Chisinau on 21 May 2007 is included. The Halo from 21 May 2007 occured after a very fast increasing of the air temperature during one day by more than 15 Deg. The authors consider, that the phenomenon is due to scattering of light on Cirri clouds(7 km altitude), present on the sky during that day. They formed due to very fast heating.

  11. Patterns of sun protective behaviors among Hispanic children in a skin cancer prevention intervention

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kimberly A.; Huh, Jimi; Unger, Jennifer B.; Richardson, Jean L.; Allen, Martin W.; Peng, David H.; Cockburn, Myles G.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive melanoma is becoming more common in U.S. Hispanics, yet little is known about the sun protection behaviors in this population, particularly children and adolescents who incur high UV exposures. We used latent class analysis to examine patterns of sun protective behaviors in a cross-sectional survey of Hispanic elementary students participating in a sun safety intervention in Los Angeles from 2013–2014 (N=972). Five behavior indicators in two environments (school and home) representing multiple methods of sun protection were selected for the model. Results suggested a four-class model best fit the data. Classes were labeled in order of increasing risk as multiple protective behaviors (28%), clothing and shade (32%), pants only (15%), and low/inconsistent protective behaviors (25%). Children who reported high parental engagement with sun protection were significantly more likely to be classified in high overall protective categories (OR=4.77). Girls were more likely than boys to be classified in the highest protecting class (OR=3.46), but were also more likely to be in the “pants only” class (OR=2.65). Sensitivity to sunburn was associated with less likelihood of being in the “clothing and shade” class (OR=0.53). The differences amongst these classes and their predictors reveal the heterogeneity and complexity of Hispanic children’s sun protective behaviors. These findings have implications for the design and delivery of future sun protection interventions targeting Hispanic children, as strategies tailored to specific subgroups may be more effective in achieving meaningful behavioral changes. PMID:26436682

  12. Changes in coverage of sun protection in the news: threats and opportunities from emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Makin, Jennifer; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there have been shifts in news coverage of sun protection issues over a 12-year period in the context of an evolving skin cancer prevention agenda. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N = 552) published in the two metropolitan daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 2001 to 2012. Coding variables included theme, article type, prominence, spokesperson and topic slant. Articles were collapsed into three 4-year blocks and a series of chi-square analyses conducted to examine changes over time in coverage of topical issues (i.e. vitamin D and sunbeds) and established sun protection themes [i.e. health effects of ultraviolet (UV) exposure, education/prevention, attitudes/behaviour]. Coverage of vitamin D and sunbed issues increased over time and became more positive for sun protection objectives. The proportion of articles reporting on established sun protection themes remained steady over time (range: 36-38%) and there were no changes observed in the way these topics were presented in the news media. These results highlight that potentially competing sun protection issues that emerge over time need not pose a threat to existing skin cancer prevention programmes but instead can provide opportunities to further spread programme messages while increasing credibility.

  13. Development of sun compensation by honeybees: how partially experienced bees estimate the sun's course.

    PubMed

    Dyer, F C; Dickinson, J A

    1994-05-10

    Honeybees and some other insects, in learning the sun's course, behave as if they can estimate the sun's position at times of day when they have never seen it, but there are competing ideas about the computational mechanisms underlying this ability. In an approach to this problem, we provided incubator-reared bees with opportunities to fly and see the sun only during the late afternoon. Then, on a cloudy day, we allowed bees to fly for the first time during the morning and early afternoon, and we observed how they oriented their waggle dances to indicate their direction of flight relative to the sun's position. The clouds denied the bees a direct view of celestial orientation cues and thus forced them to estimate the sun's position on the basis of their experience on previous evenings. During the test days, experience-restricted bees behaved during the entire morning as if they expected the sun to be in an approximately stationary position about 180 degrees from the average solar azimuth that they had experienced on previous evenings; then from about local noon onward they used the evening azimuth. This pattern suggests that honeybees are innately informed of the general pattern of solar movement, such that they can generate an internal representation that incorporates spatial and temporal features of the sun's course that they have never directly seen.

  14. BcSUN1, a B. cinerea SUN-Family Protein, Is Involved in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Hernández, Alicia; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Brito, Nélida

    2017-01-01

    BcSUN1 is a glycoprotein secreted by Botrytis cinerea, an important plant pathogen that causes severe losses in agriculture worldwide. In this work, the role of BcSUN1 in different aspects of the B. cinerea biology was studied by phenotypic analysis of Bcsun1 knockout strains. We identified BcSUN1 as the only member of the Group-I SUN family of proteins encoded in the B. cinerea genome, which is expressed both in axenic culture and during infection. BcSUN1 is also weakly attached to the cellular surface and is involved in maintaining the structure of the cell wall and/or the extracellular matrix. Disruption of the Bcsun1 gene produces different cell surface alterations affecting the production of reproductive structures and adhesion to plant surface, therefore reducing B. cinerea virulence. BcSUN1 is the first member of the SUN family reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of a filamentous fungus. PMID:28163701

  15. Inference of magnetic fields in the very quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez González, M. J.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Lagg, A.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Collados, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Berkefeld, T.; Denker, C.; Doerr, H. P.; Feller, A.; Franz, M.; González Manrique, S. J.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Kuckein, C.; Louis, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Nicklas, H.; Orozco, D.; Rezaei, R.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Verma, M.; Waldman, T.; Volkmer, R.

    2016-11-01

    inclinations and azimuth values compatible with an isotropic distribution. The filling factors are typically below 30%. We also find that the flux of the two polarities is not balanced. From the other half of the observed quiet-Sun area 50% are two-lobed Stokes V profiles, meaning that 23% of the field of view can be adequately explained with a single constant magnetic field embedded in a non-magnetic atmosphere. The magnetic field vector and filling factor are reliable inferred in only 50% based on the regular profiles. Therefore, 12% of the field of view harbour hG fields with filling factors typically below 30%. At our present spatial resolution, 70% of the pixels apparently are non-magnetised.

  16. Testing a Theory-Based Health Communication Program: A Replication of Go Sun Smart in Outdoor Winter Recreation

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSEN, PETER A.; BULLER, DAVID B.; WALKOSZ, BARBARA J.; MALOY, JULIE; SCOTT, MICHAEL D.; CUTTER, GARY R.; DIGNAN, MARK B.

    2010-01-01

    The epidemic of preventable skin cancer in the United States creates an urgent need for health communication campaigns to improve sun protection. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a theory-driven multichannel health communication campaign showed positive effects on sun safety behaviors of employees and guests in a randomized trial at high-altitude ski areas. In this article we report findings from the North American GSS campaign for guests at ski areas that comprosed the original control-group resorts, replicating the results of the original guest intervention. Results showed that after GSS was deployed, guests at the original control group ski areas increased sun protection and reported greater recall of sun safety messages. Conversely, GSS had no effect on sunburning attitudes or self-efficacy beliefs. Like the original GSS guest intervention, the present study found that greater exposure to GSS messages was associated with greater use of sunscreen, sunscreen lip balm, and face covering, but not gloves or overall sun protection. There was no evidence that GSS decreased sunburning or attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs regarding sun safety. PMID:19466647

  17. Testing a theory-based health communication program: a replication of Go Sun Smart in outdoor winter recreation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Peter A; Buller, David B; Walkosz, Barbara J; Maloy, Julie; Scott, Michael D; Cutter, Gary R; Dignan, Mark B

    2009-06-01

    The epidemic of preventable skin cancer in the United States creates an urgent need for health communication campaigns to improve sun protection. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a theory-driven multichannel health communication campaign showed positive effects on sun safety behaviors of employees and guests in a randomized trial at high-altitude ski areas. In this article we report findings from the North American GSS campaign for guests at ski areas that comprosed the original control-group resorts, replicating the results of the original guest intervention. Results showed that after GSS was deployed, guests at the original control group ski areas increased sun protection and reported greater recall of sun safety messages. Conversely, GSS had no effect on sunburning attitudes or self-efficacy beliefs. Like the original GSS guest intervention, the present study found that greater exposure to GSS messages was associated with greater use of sunscreen, sunscreen lip balm, and face covering, but not gloves or overall sun protection. There was no evidence that GSS decreased sunburning or attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs regarding sun safety.

  18. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  19. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  20. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  1. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  2. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  3. A New NASA Book: Touch the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, N. A.

    2005-05-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired rely partly on their sense of touch to help paint pictures of objects and places in their mind's eye; however, astronomy and space science are, by nature, generally inaccessible to the touch. The universe, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope, was made hands-on in 2002 with the publication of Touch the Universe: A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy. This year, the Sun becomes an accessible object in a new universally designed publication called Touch the Sun. Touch the Sun contains text pages with both print and Braille. It features colorful embossed images from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft. There is also a close-up picture of a sunspot from the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak. Textures of swirling gas currents, dark sunspots, curving magnetic fields and explosive eruptions emphasize the dynamic nature of the Sun. The prototype images were tested with students from the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind; the images were revised, based upon their evaluations. Drs. Joe Gurman and Steele Hill from the Goddard Space Flight Center served as scientific consultants. Learn more about this special resource and try out some of the tactile images yourself!

  4. Electrochromic sun control coverings for windows

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D K; Tracy, C E

    1990-04-01

    The 2 billion square meters (m{sup 2}) of building windows in the United States cause a national energy drain almost as large as the energy supply of the Alaskan oil pipeline. Unlike the pipeline, the drain of energy through windows will continue well into the 21st century. A part of this energy drain is due to unwanted sun gain through windows. This is a problem throughout the country in commercial buildings because they generally require air conditioning even in cold climates. New commercial windows create an additional 1600 MW demand for peak electric power in the United States each year. Sun control films, widely used in new windows and as retrofits to old windows, help to mitigate this problem. However, conventional, static solar control films also block sunlight when it is wanted for warmth and daylighting. New electrochromic, switchable, sun-gain-control films now under development will provide more nearly optimal and automatic sun control for added comfort, decreased building operating expense, and greater energy saving. Switchable, electrochromic films can be deposited on polymers at high speeds by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a process that may be suitable for roll coating. This paper describes the electrochromic coatings and the PECVD processes, and speculates about their adaptability to high-speed roll coating. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Monster Prominence Erupts from the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    When a rather large M 3.6 class flare occurred near the edge of the Sun on Feb. 24, 2011, it blew out a gorgeous, waving mass of erupting plasma that swirled and twisted for 90 minutes. NASA’s So...

  6. Nanoflare Heating of the Quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viall, N. M.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    How the solar corona is heated to temperatures of over 1 MK, while the photosphere below is only ~ 6000 K remains one of the outstanding problems in all of space science. Solving this problem is crucial for understanding Sun-Earth connections, and will provide new insight into universal processes such as magnetic reconnection and wave-particle interactions. We use a systematic technique to analyze the properties of coronal heating throughout the solar corona using data taken with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Our technique computes cooling times of the coronal plasma on a pixel-by-pixel basis and has the advantage that it analyzes all of the coronal emission, including the diffuse emission surrounding distinguishable coronal features. We have already applied this technique to 15 different active regions, and find clear evidence for dynamic heating and cooling cycles that are consistent with the 'impulsive nanoflare' scenario. What about the rest of the Solar corona? Whether the quiet Sun is heated in a similar or distinct manner from active regions is a matter of great debate. Here we apply our coronal heating analysis technique to quiet Sun locations. We find areas of quiet Sun locations that also undergo dynamic heating and cooling cycles, consistent with impulsive nanoflares. However, there are important characteristics that are distinct from those of active regions.

  7. SunBlock '99- An Educational Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, C. D.; Mason, H. E.; Walsh, R. W.

    2000-04-01

    SunBlock `99 is a web-based Public Understanding of Science and educational project which presents the very latest solar research as seen through the eyes of young British scientists. It seeks both to increase public awareness of solar physics and to provide an educational resource for use in the classroom.

  8. Error Compensation for Area Digital Sun Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Yang; Zhang, Gao-Fei; You, Zheng; Xing, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the error factors of the Linear Array Digital Sun Sensor (DSS), those of the Area Array DSS are complicated and methods used for error compensation are not valid or simple enough. This paper presents the main error factors of the Area Array DSS and proposes an effective method to compensate them. The procedure of error compensation of Area Array DSS includes three steps. First, the geometric error of calibration is compensated; second, the coordinate map method is used to compensate the error caused by optical refraction; third, the high order polynomial-fitting method is applied to calculate the tangent of the sun angles; finally, the arc tangent method is used to calculate the sun angles. Experimental results of the product of the High Accuracy Sun Sensor indicate that the precision is better than 0.02° during the cone field of view (CFOV) of 10°, and the precision is better than 0.14° during the CFOV 10° to 64°. The proposed compensation method effectively compensates the major error factors and significantly improves the measure precision of the Area APS DSS.

  9. Measuring Pinhole Images of the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriss, Victor

    1996-01-01

    Describes a measurement lab that introduces measurement and presents a simple example of how to use error analysis with an obvious illustration of its value. The experiment measures the diameters of pinhole images of the sun and uses them to calculate the heights of the leafy canopy that created the images. (JRH)

  10. Sun and Shade Leaves: Some Field Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1983-01-01

    Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)

  11. Faces of the Recovery Act: Sun Catalytix

    ScienceCinema

    Nocera, Dave

    2016-07-12

    BOSTON- At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dan Nocera talks about Sun Catalytix, the next generation of solar energy, and ARPA-E funding through the Recovery Act. To learn about more ARPA-E projects through the Recovery Act: http://arpa-e.energy.gov/FundedProjects.aspx

  12. ON ALIGNMENT OF SUN, EARTH, AND SATELLITE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The results are reported of an investigation of the relations among the launch parameters of an earth satellite and the time and position of alignment of the sun , the earth, and the satellite. The effects of variations of the launch conditions upon the satellite’s time of transit across the solar disc are determined. (Author)

  13. Sun photometer aerosol retrievals during SALTRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledano, Carlos; Torres, Benjamin; Althausen, Dietrich; Groß, Silke; Freudenthaler, Volker; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Gasteiger, Josef; Ansmann, Albert; Wiegner, Matthias; González, Ramiro; Cachorro, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    The Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE), aims at investigating the long-range transport of Saharan dust across the Atlantic Ocean. A large set of ground-based and airborne aerosol and meteorological instrumentation was used for this purpose during a 5-week campaign that took place during June-July 2013. Several Sun photometers were deployed at Barbados Island during this campaign. Two Cimels included in AERONET and the Sun and Sky Automatic Radiometer (SSARA) were co-located with the ground-based lidars BERTHA and POLIS. A set of optical and microphysical aerosol properties derived from Sun and Sky spectral observations (principal plane and almucantar configurations) in the range 340-1640nm are analyzed, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), volume size distribution, complex refractive index, sphericity and single scattering albedo. The Sun photometers include polarization capabilities, therefore apart from the inversion of sky radiances as it is routinely done in AERONET, polarized radiances are also inverted. Several dust events are clearly identified in the measurement period, with moderated AOD (500nm) in the range 0.3 to 0.6. The clean marine background was also observed during short periods. The retrieved aerosol properties are compared with the lidar and in-situ observations carried out within SALTRACE, as well as with data collected during the SAMUM campaigns in Morocco and Cape Verde, in order to investigate possible changes in the dust plume during the transport.

  14. The Return of the Sun Dragon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses types of solar eclipses and the frequency of their occurrence. Emphasis is placed on the May 30, 1984 solar eclipse. Ideas for building a pinhole camera to view the eclipse, to determine if the sun is changing size, and to report scientific findings are provided. (BC)

  15. Beliefs, knowledge and attitudes as predictors of sunbathing habits and use of sun protection among Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bränström, R; Brandberg, Y; Holm, L; Sjöberg, L; Ullén, H

    2001-08-01

    In 1996, a random population sample of 2615 adolescents completed a questionnaire concerning habitual sun-related behaviours, attitudes towards sunbathing, and knowledge about skin cancer. Females, older adolescents, those with less sun-sensitive skin, those with higher knowledge and those with a positive attitude towards sunbathing were more likely to be frequent sunbathers. Younger adolescents, those who today sunbathe moderately, and those with sensitive skin were more likely to believe that they would sunbathe more often in the future. Males, adolescents with less sensitive skin, those with a positive attitude towards sunbathing and those sunbathing often, were less likely to use protection when sunbathing. Interventions to decrease sun exposure among adolescents should focus on changing attitudes toward sunbathing and having a tan, since knowledge of skin cancer and the damaging affect of sunbathing did not seem to effect current sunbathing habits, or use of sun protection.

  16. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  17. Radiation dose reduction in invasive cardiology by restriction to adequate instead of optimized picture quality.

    PubMed

    Kuon, Eberhard; Dorn, Christian; Schmitt, Moritz; Dahm, Johannes B

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the cinegraphic image intensifier entrance dose level for coronary angiography was changed in four steps from dose level A (0.041 microGy frame(-1)), allowing high contrast, but coarse mottled background, to level D (0.164 microGy frame(-1)), affording high transparency and sharpness. Using this new approach throughout the course of 404 consecutive cardiac catheterizations, we reduced patient radiation exposures down to 11 to 16% of currently typical values: i.e., mean dose area products of 5.97 Gy cm2 (n = 91), 6.73 (n = 113), 8.11 (n = 91), and 8.90 (n = 109); cinegraphic dose area products of 2.34, 3.64, 4.56, and 5.49; and cinegraphic dose area products frame(-1) of 13.3, 19.8, 27.0, and 30.2 mGy cm2, for levels A, B, C, and D, respectively. The number of cinegraphic frames ranged within 168 to 182 per case. Our results show that during catheterization interventionalists should vary image intensifier entrance dose levels in accordance with documented structure, angulation, and body mass index. With the exception of cases with special requirements, lower dose levels typically guarantee an adequate image quality.

  18. A Cluster Randomized Trial to Evaluate a Health Education Programme “Living with Sun at School”

    PubMed Central

    Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Pereira, Bruno; Césarini, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Over-exposure to sunlight increases the risk of skin cancers, particularly when exposure occurs during childhood. School teachers can play an active role in providing an education programme that can help prevent this. “Living with the Sun,” (LWS) is a sun safety education program for school children based on a handy guide for classroom activities designed to improve children’s knowledge, but moreover to positively modify their sun safety attitudes and behaviours. The goal of our study was to determine the effectiveness of this programme by examining children’s knowledge, attitude and sun exposure behaviours prior to and after the completion of the programme. We carried out a cluster randomised trial in which the classes were randomly assigned to one of two groups; one using the LWS programme and another that didn’t, serving as the control. Data was collected before completion of the programme and an additional three times in the year after completion. The 70 participating classes (1,365 schoolchildren) were distributed throughout France. Statistical analysis confirmed that knowledge of sun risk increased significantly in the LWS classes (p < 0.001). Both groups positively changed their attitudes when considering the best sun protection, but the LWS group proved to consistently be more convinced (p = 0.04). After the summer holidays, differences between the two groups decreased throughout the year but stayed globally significant. We also observed some significant behaviour modification during the holidays. For instance, the LWS group applied sunscreen more frequently than the control group, and were more likely to wear a hat (72% versus 59%) and use a sun umbrella on the beach (75% versus 64%). PMID:22851947

  19. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  20. THE LIFETIME OF H-ALPHA STRUCTURES IN ACTIVE REGIONS ON THE SUN,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Time series of exposures of active regions on the sun were obtained at the Solar Observatory, Harestua, with a Zeiss Coude refractor (D=15 cm) and a Lyot monochromator with a passband halfwidth of 0.65 A. By a graphic method the mean lifetime of 574 fibrills on 81 selected negatives was determined to be 4 hours. This value may be as much as

  1. HD 129333: The Sun in its infancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorren, J. David; Guinan, Edward F.

    1994-01-01

    HD 129333 is a remarkable young, nearby solar-type G star which offers a unique opportunity of studying the properties of the Sun at a time very shortly after in arrived on the main sequence. Its space motion suggest that it is a member of the Pleiades moving group, with an age of approximately 70 Myr; its lithium abundance is consistent with this. HD 129333 has the highest level of Ca II emission of any G star which is not a member of a close binary. Our observations in 1983 showed it to have low-amplitude (5%) light variations implying a rotation period of about 2.7 days, or about 10 times faster than the Sun. Modeling of the photometric variations on the assumption that they are due to starspots yields a spot temperature about 500 K cooler than the photosphere, and a coverage of about 6% of the stellar surface area. ROSAT observations in 1990 revealed the star to be an X-ray source, with an X-ray luminosity in the 0.2 to 2.4 keV range about 300 times that of the Sun. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations in conjuction with ground-based photometry to examine the magnetic activity of this star. The IUE emission-line fluxes reveal a level of chromospheric activity 3 to 20 times greater than the Sun's. The transition-region activity is 20 to 100 times that of the Sun. The activity level of HD 129333 is consistent with the Skumanich law relating activity to age, and with the rotation-activity relation, although it may be near saturation level. This star can yield valuable information about the magnetic dynamo of the young Sun, as well as about stellar dynamos in general. The 1988 IUE observations covered four phases of its rotational cycle. A phase dependence of the Mg II h and k emission flux suggests a close association of chromospheric plages with starspot regions at that time. Systematic variations in the mean brightness of HD 129333 between 1983 and 1993, and in the UV emission fluxes, indicate the presence of an activity cycle of an

  2. Observing the Sun with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a space telescope primarily designed to detect high-energy X-rays from faint, distant astrophysical sources. Recently, however, its occasionally been pointing much closer to home, with the goal of solving a few longstanding mysteries about the Sun.Intensity maps from an observation of a quiet-Sun region near the north solar pole and an active region just below the solar limb. The quiet-Sun data will be searched for small flares that could be heating the solar corona, and the high-altitude emission above the limb may provide clues about particle acceleration. [Adapted from Grefenstette et al. 2016]An Unexpected TargetThough we have a small fleet of space telescopes designed to observe the Sun, theres an important gap: until recently, there was no focusing telescope making solar observations in the hard X-ray band (above ~3 keV). Conveniently, there is a tool capable of doing this: NuSTAR.Though NuSTARs primary mission is to observe faint astrophysical X-ray sources, a team of scientists has recently conducted a series of observations in which NuSTAR was temporarily repurposed and turned to focus on the Sun instead.These observations pose an interesting challenge precisely because of NuSTARs extreme sensitivity: pointing at such a nearby, bright source can quickly swamp the detectors. But though the instrument cant be used to observe the bright flares and outbursts from the Sun, its the perfect tool for examining the parts of the Sun weve been unable to explore in hard X-rays before now such as faint flares, or the quiet, inactive solar surface.In a recently published study led by Brian Grefenstette (California Institute of Technology), the team describes the purpose and initial results of NuSTARs first observations of the Sun.Solar MysteriesWhat is NuSTAR hoping to accomplish with its solar observations? There are two main questions that hard X-ray observations may help to answer.How are particles accelerated in

  3. A Tracking Sun Photometer Without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is small, lightweight, and consumes very little electricity as it measures the solar energy attenuated by gases and aerosol particles in the atmosphere. A Sun photometer is commonly used on the Earth's surface, as well as on aircraft, to determine the solar energy attenuated by aerosol particles in the atmosphere and their distribution of sizes. This information is used to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, as well as their distribution sizes. The design for this Sun photometer uses a combination of unique optics and a charge coupled device (CCD) array to eliminate moving parts and make the instrument more reliable. It could be selfcalibrating throughout the year. Data products would be down-welling flux, the direct-diffuse flux ratio, column abundance of gas phase constituents, aerosol optical depth at multiple-wavelengths, phase functions, cloud statistics, and an estimate of the representative size of atmospheric particles. These measurements can be used to obtain an estimate of aerosol size distribution, refractive index, and particle shape. Incident light is received at a light-reflecting (inner) surface, which is a truncated paraboloid. Light arriving from a hemispheric field of view (solid angle 2 steradians) enters the reflecting optic at an entrance aperture at, or adjacent to, the focus of the paraboloid, and is captured by the optic. Most of this light is reflected from an inner surface. The light proceeds substantially parallel to the paraboloid axis, and is detected by an array detector located near an exit aperture. Each of the entrance and exit apertures is formed by the intersection of the paraboloid with a plane substantially perpendicular to the paraboloid axis. Incident (non-reflected) light from a source of limited extent (the Sun) illuminates a limited area on the detector array. Both direct and diffuse illumination may be reflected, or not reflected, before being received on

  4. Excitation of Oscillations in the Magnetic Network on the Sun.

    PubMed

    Hasan; Kalkofen; van Ballegooijen AA

    2000-05-20

    We examine the excitation of oscillations in the magnetic network of the Sun through the footpoint motion of photospheric magnetic flux tubes located in intergranular lanes. The motion is derived from a time series of high-resolution G-band and continuum filtergrams using an object-tracking technique. We model the response of the flux tube to the footpoint motion in terms of the Klein-Gordon equation, which is solved analytically as an initial value problem for transverse (kink) waves. We compute the wave energy flux in upward-propagating transverse waves. In general we find that the injection of energy into the chromosphere occurs in short-duration pulses, which would lead to a time variability in chromospheric emission that is incompatible with observations. Therefore, we consider the effects of turbulent convective flows on flux tubes in intergranular lanes. The turbulent flows are simulated by adding high-frequency motions (periods 5-50 s) with an amplitude of 1 km s(-1). The latter are simulated by adding random velocity fluctuations to the observationally determined velocities. In this case, we find that the energy flux is much less intermittent and can in principle carry adequate energy for chromospheric heating.

  5. Formation of Planets Around the Sun and Other Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Doug

    2005-11-14

    The quest to understand the formation of planets and planetary systems has entered an era of renaissance. Driven by observational discoveries in solar system exploration, protostellar disks, and extra solar planets, we have established a rich data bank which contains not only relic clues around mature stars, including the Sun, but also direct image of ongoing processes around young stars. For the first time in this scientific endeavor, we have adequate information to construct quantitative models to account for the ubiquity of planets and diversity of planetary systems. Some of the most intriguing theoretical questions facing us today include: (a) how did the planets in the solar system form with their present-day mass, composition, and orbital elements, (b) is planet formation a deterministic or chaotic process, and (c) what are the observable signatures of planet formation and evolution around nearby young and mature stars? I will present a comprehensive scenario which suggests (a) gas giant planets formed through coagulation of planetsimals and gas accretion onto earth-like cores; (b) the final assemblage of the terrestrial planets in the solar system occurred through the propagation of Jupiter's secular resonance 4-30 Myrs after the emergence of the gas giant; and (c) although they are yet to be discovered, Earth-like planets are expected to be common around nearby stars.

  6. How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... other options to prevent UV damage. Too Much Sun Hurts Turning pink? Unprotected skin can be damaged ...

  7. Hispanics Should Be Wary of The Sun's Rays, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163904.html Hispanics Should Be Wary of the Sun's Rays, Too Skin cancer rates rising in this ... News) -- Many Latinos think they're safe from sun damage, even though advanced skin cancer is increasingly ...

  8. Sun Blasts 6 CMEs in 24 Hour Period

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie from the chronograph on board the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), shows the sun's atmosphere – the corona – from September 17 to September 20. The sun let loose with at ...

  9. UV photography, masculinity, and college men's sun protection cognitions.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the impact of an ultraviolet (UV) photography intervention and masculinity on college men's sun protection cognitions, including: perceived vulnerability to skin damage, attitudes toward sun protection, willingness to engage in sun protection behaviors, and intentions to receive a skin cancer exam. After completing a baseline survey, participants (N = 152) viewed a black-and-white photo of their face. Half also viewed a photo showing their UV damage. Participants then completed a second survey assessing sun protection cognitions. Regressions revealed that masculinity predicted lower sun protection cognitions, and men in the UV photograph condition reported higher sun protection cognitions. Masculinity by condition interactions showed that the positive effect of UV photography was stronger among masculine men. Negative associations between masculinity and sun protection cognitions were significant only among men who did not receive the intervention. Findings suggest that UV photography is a promising sun protection intervention among masculine men.

  10. The Development of Sun-Tracking System Using Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Dar; Huang, Hong-Cheng; Yeh, Hong-Yih

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the development of an image-based sun position sensor and the algorithm for how to aim at the Sun precisely by using image processing. Four-quadrant light sensors and bar-shadow photo sensors were used to detect the Sun's position in the past years. Nevertheless, neither of them can maintain high accuracy under low irradiation conditions. Using the image-based Sun position sensor with image processing can address this drawback. To verify the performance of the Sun-tracking system including an image-based Sun position sensor and a tracking controller with embedded image processing algorithm, we established a Sun image tracking platform and did the performance testing in the laboratory; the results show that the proposed Sun tracking system had the capability to overcome the problem of unstable tracking in cloudy weather and achieve a tracking accuracy of 0.04°. PMID:23615582

  11. Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation and Risk of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer in a Multinational European Study

    PubMed Central

    Surdu, Simona; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Bloom, Michael S.; Boscoe, Francis P.; Carpenter, David O.; Haase, Richard F.; Gurzau, Eugen; Rudnai, Peter; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Févotte, Joëlle; Leonardi, Giovanni; Vahter, Marie; Goessler, Walter; Kumar, Rajiv; Fletcher, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that ambient sunlight plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). However, there is ongoing controversy regarding the relevance of occupational exposure to natural and artificial ultraviolet radiation (UV) radiation. Objectives We investigated potential associations between natural and artificial UV radiation exposure at work with NMSC in a case-control study conducted in Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. Methods Occupational exposures were classified by expert assessment for 527 controls and 618 NMSC cases (515 basal cell carcinoma, BCC). Covariate information was collected via interview and multiple logistic regression models were used to assess associations between UV exposure and NMSC. Results Lifetime prevalence of occupational exposure in the participants was 13% for natural UV radiation and 7% for artificial UV radiation. Significant negative associations between occupational exposure to natural UV radiation and NMSC were detected for all who had ever been exposed (odds ratio (OR) 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27–0.80); similar results were detected using a semi-quantitative metric of cumulative exposure. The effects were modified by skin complexion, with significantly decreased risks of BCC among participants with light skin complexion. No associations were observed in relation to occupational artificial UV radiation exposure. Conclusions The protective effect of occupational exposure to natural UV radiation was unexpected, but limited to light-skinned people, suggesting adequate sun-protection behaviors. Further investigations focusing on variations in the individual genetic susceptibility and potential interactions with environmental and other relevant factors are planned. PMID:23638051

  12. Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

  13. Sun lotion chemicals as endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Maipas, Sotirios; Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet solar radiation is a well-known environmental health risk factor and the use of sun lotions is encouraged to achieve protection mainly from skin cancer. Sun lotions are cosmetic commercial products that combine active and inactive ingredients and many of these are associated with health problems, including allergic reactions and endocrine disorders. This review focuses on their ability to cause endocrine and reproductive impairments, with emphasis laid on the active ingredients (common and less common UV filters). In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated their ability to show oestrogenic/anti-oestrogenic and androgenic/anti-androgenic activity. Many ingredients affect the oestrous cycle, spermatogenesis, sexual behaviour, fertility and other reproductive parameters in experimental animals. Their presence in aquatic environments may reveal a new emerging environmental hazard.

  14. Teaching About the Sun-Earth Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, Arthur I.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This talk will be about the Sun: how it changes with time, its magnetic cycle, flares, and the solar wind. The solar wind and what space is like between the Sun and Earth will be presented. Also, the Earth, its magnetic field, how the solar wind interacts with the Earth, Aurora, and how these affect human systems will be discussed. These interactions dictate how we build our systems in space (communications satellites, GPS, etc), and some of our ground systems (power grids). Some simple classroom activities will be presented that can be done using new data from space that is available daily on the internet, and how you can use the internet to get space questions answered within about 1 day. Finally, some career opportunities for jobs related to space for the future will be discussed.

  15. Decadal Variations of Sun-Like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, G. W.; Henry, G. W.; Hall, J. C.; Radick, R. R.

    2013-04-01

    Observations of more than 300 Sun-like field stars carried out at Fairborn Observatory since 1993 now include 168 observed for 10 years or longer. This project, a successor to previous work at Lowell Observatory and Cloudcroft Observatory, beginning in 1955 and continuing for nearly half a century, demonstrates finally that variability at the Sun's low level of total irradiance variation can be detected in stars. By also including Ca II H&K observations from the Mount Wilson and Lowell observatories, we have discovered how the patterns of photometric variability are related to chromospheric activity. We discuss the limitations of detectability imposed by comparison star variability and as an example of a star close to the detection limit we show the evidence for cyclic variability in the solar twin 18 Sco.

  16. How plants LINC the SUN to KASH

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao; Meier, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Linkers of the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes formed by SUN and KASH proteins are conserved eukaryotic protein complexes that bridge the nuclear envelope (NE) via protein-protein interactions in the NE lumen. Revealed by opisthokont studies, LINC complexes are key players in multiple cellular processes, such as nuclear and chromosomal positioning and nuclear shape determination, which in turn influence the generation of gametes and several aspects of development. Although comparable processes have long been known in plants, the first plant nuclear envelope bridging complexes were only recently identified. WPP domain-interacting proteins at the outer NE have little homology to known opisthokont KASH proteins, but form complexes with SUN proteins at the inner NE that have plant-specific properties and functions. In this review, we will address the importance of LINC complex-regulated processes, describe the plant NE bridging complexes and compare them to opisthokont LINC complexes. PMID:23680964

  17. PROPERTIES OF NEAR-SUN ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David

    2013-05-15

    Asteroids near the Sun can attain equilibrium temperatures sufficient to induce surface modification from thermal fracture, desiccation, and decomposition of hydrated silicates. We present optical observations of nine asteroids with perihelia <0.25 AU (sub-solar temperatures {>=}800 K) taken to search for evidence of thermal modification. We find that the broadband colors of these objects are diverse but statistically indistinguishable from those of planet-crossing asteroids having perihelia near 1 AU. Furthermore, images of these bodies taken away from perihelion show no evidence for on-going mass-loss (model-dependent limits {approx}<1 kg s{sup -1}) that might result from thermal disintegration of the surface. We conclude that, while thermal modification may be an important process in the decay of near-Sun asteroids and in the production of debris, our new data provide no evidence for it.

  18. HIGHEST RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUIETEST SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, Philip R.; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Cao, Wenda; Abramenko, Valentyna; Andic, Aleksandra; Ahn, Kwangsu; Chae, Jongchul

    2010-05-01

    Highest resolution observations made with the new 1.6 m aperture solar telescope in Big Bear Solar Observatory during this time of historic inactivity on the Sun reveal new insights into the small-scale dynamics of the Sun's photosphere. The telescope's unprecedented resolution enabled us to observe that the smallest scale photospheric magnetic field seems to come in isolated points in the dark intergranular lanes, rather than the predicted continuous sheets confined to the lanes, and the unexpected longevity of the bright points implies a deeper anchoring than predicted. Further, we demonstrated for the first time that the photospheric plasma motion and magnetic fields are in equipartition over a wide dynamic range, and both cascade energy to ever-smaller scales according to classical Kolmogorov turbulence theory. Finally, we discovered tiny jet-like features originating in the dark lanes that surround the ubiquitous granules that characterize the solar surface.

  19. Under the Lens: Investigating the Sun's Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, William; Klotz, Irene

    2008-11-01

    Sometime around 2012, the waxing 11-year solar cycle once again will reach its peak. Between now and then, magnetically turbulent sunspots, spawned by some still mysterious process, will form near the poles in increasing numbers and migrate toward the Sun's faster-rotating equator in pairs of opposite polarity. Titanic magnetic storms will rage as immense flux tubes rise to the surface in active regions around sunspots and spread out in a boiling sea of electric charge. Magnetic field lines across an enormous range of scales will arc and undulate, rip apart and reconnect, heating the Sun's upper atmosphere and occasionally triggering brilliant flares and multibillion-megaton coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that travel through the solar wind and slam into Earth.

  20. We reside in the sun's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Kamide, Y

    2005-10-01

    The Sun is the origin of all activities of the Earth, including its solid, liquid and gas states, as well as life on the Earth surface. Life was created on this planet and was further evolved after long physical/chemical processes, so that life here matches with what this planet requires. This paper contends that the Earth is located within the solar atmosphere, but we do not feel it in a daily life because of the blocking effects of the Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere, preventing the entry of the solar atmosphere directly into the Earth's domain. This paper emphasizes that we should not attempt to change the quality of the natural environment that delicate interactions between the Sun and the Earth have established for us by taking a long time.

  1. Overexposed: The Skin and the Sun

    PubMed Central

    Arlette, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Sunlight produces many changes on our skin. Some of these we appreciate as cosmetically important, and some we see as medically destructive. Changes such as the appearance of wrinkling and skin cancer can come from the long-term direct effects of solar radiation. The sun has indirect effects on the skin which are mediated by disease processes, medications, immune reactants, and biochemical abnormalities. Understanding the nature of sun, how it produces its changes, and the wide variety of these manifestations is an important part of medical practice. By understanding the nature of sunlight, we are able to protect ourselves from its effects and to treat our patients. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:21263953

  2. Pupil constrictions to photographs of the sun.

    PubMed

    Binda, Paola; Pereverzeva, Maria; Murray, Scott O

    2013-05-17

    The pupil constricts in response to light increments and dilates with light decrements. Here we show that a picture of the sun, introducing a small overall decrease in light level across the field of view, results in a pupillary constriction. Thus, the pictorial representation of a high-luminance object (the sun) can override the normal pupillary dilation elicited by a light decrement. In a series of experiments that control for a variety of factors known to modulate pupil size, we show that the effect (a) does not depend on the retinal position of the images and (b) is modulated by attention. It has long been known that cognitive factors can affect pupil diameter by producing pupillary dilations. Our results indicate that high-level visual analysis (beyond the simple subcortical system mediating the pupillary response to light) can also induce pupillary constriction, with an effect size of about 0.1 mm.

  3. Putting the sun to work in Sacramento

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, D.E.

    2000-06-01

    At dawn this morning, the sun went to work for customers of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The largest photovoltaic (PV) power plant in the world, adjacent to the closed nuclear power plant at Rancho Seco, generated enough electricity for over a thousand customers, rooftop solar water heaters lowered thousands of residential electric bills and rooftop PV systems turned hundreds of Sacramento homes into mini power plants. SMUD, in partnership with their customers-owners, is leading the way in putting the sun to work today. SMUD plans to have at least half of its energy come from energy efficiency, existing hydroelectric plants and renewable resources in this decade. SMUD expects investments made in solar power today to provide its customer-owners with substantial long-term energy, environmental and community benefits. This article describes some of SMUD's efforts.

  4. Highest Resolution Observations of the Quietest Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Cao, Wenda; Abramenko, Valentyna; Andic, Aleksandra; Ahn, Kwangsu; Chae, Jongchul

    2010-05-01

    Highest resolution observations made with the new 1.6 m aperture solar telescope in Big Bear Solar Observatory during this time of historic inactivity on the Sun reveal new insights into the small-scale dynamics of the Sun's photosphere. The telescope's unprecedented resolution enabled us to observe that the smallest scale photospheric magnetic field seems to come in isolated points in the dark intergranular lanes, rather than the predicted continuous sheets confined to the lanes, and the unexpected longevity of the bright points implies a deeper anchoring than predicted. Further, we demonstrated for the first time that the photospheric plasma motion and magnetic fields are in equipartition over a wide dynamic range, and both cascade energy to ever-smaller scales according to classical Kolmogorov turbulence theory. Finally, we discovered tiny jet-like features originating in the dark lanes that surround the ubiquitous granules that characterize the solar surface.

  5. Adequate but not supplemental folic acid combined with soy isoflavones during early life improves bone health at adulthood in male mice.

    PubMed

    Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Ward, Wendy E

    2013-10-01

    Previous investigations from our laboratory have demonstrated that neonatal exposure to soy isoflavones (ISO) improves bone outcomes in CD-1 mice at adulthood with greater benefits in females than males. This study determined whether early-life exposure to supplemental folic acid (FA) - that may enhance DNA methylation of target genes - in combination with ISO provides greater benefits to male bone development than ISO alone. CD-1 dams were randomized to a low (0 mg/kg diet), adequate (2 mg/kg diet) or supplemental (8 mg/kg diet) level of FA during pregnancy and lactation. Offspring received corn oil or ISO (7 mg/kg of body weight per day) from postnatal day 1-10. From weaning, males were fed adequate FA and studied to age 4 months. Offspring exposed to adequate FA+ISO had multiple benefits to bone health: higher (P<.05) bone mineral density (BMD) and greater (P<.05) resistance to fracture at the femur and lumbar spine than mice exposed to adequate FA alone. Exposure to supplemental FA+ISO resulted in higher (P<.05) serum osteoprotegerin (OPG), and a higher ratio of OPG to receptor activator for nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) but did not result in greater BMD or strength at the femur or lumbar spine than supplemental FA alone. In conclusion, early-life exposure to adequate FA+ISO provided functional benefits to male bone development, while improvements induced by supplemental FA+ISO were limited to a higher level of serum OPG. Mechanistic studies are needed to better understand how FA and ISO improve bone development in male offspring.

  6. International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Series of three US satellites designed to study the solar wind and its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. ISEE-1 and 2 were placed into highly elliptical Earth orbits. ISEE-3 was placed in a halo orbit at the L1 Lagrangian point between the Sun and Earth. It gave advance warning of solar storms heading towards Earth. (See also INTERNATIONAL COMETARY EXPLORER and EXPLORER.)...

  7. The Sun Like Star : HT Vir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanriver, Mehmet; Özeren, Ferhat Fikri

    2016-12-01

    This study is focused on the photometric (light curve) analysis of the Sun like star HT Vir which is a binary star located in the ASAS catalogue, shows variation in W UMa (EW/KW) type. The solution of light curve was executed using the PHOBE code. We conducted an unspotted solution for the HT Vir binary system. The positions in the HR diagram of the components are also discussed.

  8. Development of Fudai Sun Sensor (FSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Takatoshi; Itoh, Hideaki; Kakimi, Yukitaka; Okubo, Hiroshi

    This paper describes the design process of the Fudai sun sensor (FSS) installed in a 50-kg-class micro-satellite, SOHLA-1. The FSS has been developed by the students of Osaka Prefecture University (OPU) with technical support from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Advanced Engineering Services (AES) Co. Ltd. In this project, the students experienced a series of processes required for developing satellite components, namely, design, production, test, launch, and operation.

  9. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Tian; Lim, Boon-Han; Lim, Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuth-elevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  10. Demographic Differences in Sun Protection Beliefs and Behavior: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shuxian; Xu, Feng; Yang, Chunxue; Li, Fei; Fan, Jing; Wang, Linggao; Cai, Minqiang; Zhu, Jianfeng; Kan, Haidong; Xu, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women). Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p < 0.05). Fifty-five percent of the participants never use an umbrella under sunlight, only 26.5% of the respondents wear hats, and 21.3% of the participants applied sunscreen. Females and individuals of a younger age and higher education level were more likely to perform sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a deficit in the use of sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products. PMID:25794187

  11. 40 CFR 158.2270 - Post-application exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exposures. (2) The Agency may accept surrogate exposure data estimations and/or modeling estimations from other sources to satisfy exposure data requirements. The surrogate data must meet the basic quality... acceptable, the Agency must find that the surrogate exposure data estimations have adequate information...

  12. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Qualls, Garry D.; Blattnig, Steve B.; Lee, Kerry T.; Fry, Dan J.; Stoffle, Nicholas N.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Slaba, Tony C.; Walker, Steven A.; Zapp, Edward N.

    2010-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. Both galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) environments pose a risk to astronauts for missions beyond LEO. The GCR environment, which is made up of protons and heavier ions covering a broad energy spectrum, is ever present but varies in intensity with the solar cycle, while SPEs are sporadic events, consisting primarily of protons moving outward through the solar system from the sun. The GCR environment is more penetrating and is more difficult to shield than SPE environments, but lacks the intensity to induce acute effects. Large SPEs are rare, but they could result in a lethal dose, if adequate shielding is not provided. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large SPE. Longer missions also require planning for large SPEs; adequate shielding must be provided and operational constraints must allow astronauts to move quickly to shielded locations. The dominant risk for longer missions, however, is GCR exposure, which accumulates over time and can lead to late effects such as cancer. SPE exposure, even low level SPE exposure received in heavily shielded locations, will increase this risk. In addition to GCR and SPE environments, the lunar neutron albedo resulting mainly from the interaction of GCRs with regolith will also contribute to astronaut risk. Full mission exposure assessments were performed for proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, radiation shielding models were developed for a proposed lunar habitat and rover. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for

  13. Schools Uniting Neighborhoods: The SUN Initiative in Portland, Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Dianne

    2005-01-01

    The Schools Uniting Neighborhoods (SUN) Community Schools Initiative is a community-driven model that allows each school community to design the programs that fit neighborhood needs, while working toward core goals that stretch across all SUN Community Schools. In this article, the author describes the history of SUN Community Schools and its core…

  14. Exploring Young People's Beliefs and Images about Sun Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, K. M.; Robinson, N. G.; Young, R. McD.; Anderson, P. J.; Hyde, M. K.; Greenbank, S.; Keane, J.; Rolfe, T.; Vardon, P.; Baskerville, D.

    2008-01-01

    To understand young people's low levels of sun protection behaviour, 145 young people (aged 12 to 20 years) were recruited from Queensland, to participate in a one-hour focus group where they discussed issues related to sun protection and images of tanned and non-tanned people. Responses were content analysed to identify common sun protection…

  15. The Sun Tower: An Inquiry Tool for a Dynamic Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Dan; Sissom, Betty; Camden, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Explains the use of a Sun Tower in different activities at elementary grade levels while addressing national and state science standards. Shows the movement and motion of the sun in the sky. Introduces an activity that includes the sun tower in which students observe the changes of shadows every half hour. (YDS)

  16. What is New on the Sun?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental property of the Sun's corona is that it is violently dynamic. The most spectacular and most energetic manifestations of this activity are the giant magnetic disruptions that give rise to coronal mass ejections (CME) and eruptive flares. These major events are of critical importance, because they drive the most destructive forms of space weather at Earth and in the solar system, and they provide a unique opportunity to study, in revealing detail, the interaction of magnetic field and matter, in particular, magnetohydrodynamic instability and nonequilibrium - processes that are at the heart of laboratory and astrophysical plasma physics. Recent observations by a number of NASA space missions have given us new insights into the physical mechanisms that underlie coronal explosions. Furthermore, massively-parallel computations have now allowed us to calculate fully three-dimensional models for the Sun's activity. In this talk I will review some of the latest observations of the Sun, including those from the just-launched Hinode and STEREO mission, and discuss recent advances in the theory and modeling of explosive solar activity.

  17. Escape of magnetic toroids from the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieber, John W.; Rust, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of heliospheric magnetic fields at 1 AU shows that 10(exp 24) Mx of net azimuthal flux escapes from the Sun per solar cycle. This rate is consistent with rates derived from other indicators of flux escape, including coronal mass ejections and filament eruptions. The toroidal flux escape rate is compared with the apparent rate of flux emergence at the solar surface, and it is concluded that escaping toroids will remove at least 20% of the emerging flux, and may remove as much as 100% of emerging flux if multiple eruptions occur on the toroids. The data imply that flux escapes the Sun with an efficiency far exceeding Parker's upper limit estimate of 3%. Toroidal flux escape is almost certainly the source of the observed overwinding of the interplanetary magnetic field spiral. Two mechanisms to facilitate net flux escape are discussed: helicity charging to push open the fields and flux transport with reconnection to close them off. We estimate the Sun will shed approximately 2 x 10(exp 45) of magnetic helicity per solar cycle, leading to a mean helicity density of 100 Mx(exp 2)cm(exp -3) at 1 AU, which agrees well with observations.

  18. Measured Occupational Solar UVR Exposures of Lifeguards in Pool Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gies, Peter; Glanz, Karen; O’Riordan, David; Elliott, Tom; Nehl, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to measure ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures of lifeguards in pool settings and evaluate their personal UVR protective practices. Methods Lifeguards (n = 168) wore UVR sensitive polysulfone (PS) film badges in wrist bracelets on 2 days and completed a survey and diary covering sun protection use. Analyses were used to describe sun exposure and sun protection practices, to compare UVR exposure across locations, and to compare findings with recommended threshold limits for occupational exposure. Results The measured UVR exposures varied with location, ranging from high median UVR exposures of 6.2 standard erythemal doses (SEDs) to the lowest median of 1.7 SEDs. More than 74% of the lifeguards’ PS badges showed UVR above recommended threshold limits for occupational exposure. Thirty-nine percent received more than four times the limit and 65% of cases were sufficient to induce sunburn. The most common protective behaviors were wearing sunglasses and using sunscreen, but sun protection was often inadequate. Conclusions At-risk individuals were exposed to high levels of UVR in excess of occupational limits and though appropriate types of sun protection were used, it was not used consistently and more than 50% of lifeguards reported being sunburnt at least twice during the previous year. PMID:19572325

  19. Keeping Cool Close to the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    The germanium detector in the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft is only the size and weight of a can of peaches but will play a critical role in investigating Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft travels at about 38 kilometers per second and is named after the scientific goals of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to visit Mercury since 1975. MESSENGER must take an oblique route to approach Mercury so that it does not fly past the planet and fall directly into the Sun. The spacecraft will travel 7.9 billion kilometers, flying by Earth once, Venus twice, and Mercury three times before settling into orbit around this mysterious planet. Of all the terrestrial planets, which include Venus, Earth, and Mars, Mercury is the smallest and the densest; its days are 176 Earth days long, two complete orbits of the planet around the Sun. Temperatures range from a high of 450 C on the Sun side during its long day to a low of -185 C on its night side. By studying this extreme planet, scientists hope to better understand how Earth formed and evolved. The GRS, one of the seven lightweight scientific instruments on MESSENGER, will be used to help scientists determine the abundance of elements in Mercury's crust, including the materials that might be ice at its poles. Livermore engineer Norman Madden led the West Coast team effort to design and build the GRS in a collaboration led by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). The team included Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories as well as University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). The JHUAPL MESSENGER project is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Mission. Because the detector needs to operate at very low temperatures and MESSENGER is close to the Sun, the thermal design to protect the detector was

  20. Solutions to the faint young Sun paradox simulated by a general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Eric Theodore

    The faint young Sun paradox has dominated our thinking regarding early climate. Geological evidence abounds for warm, possibly hot, seawater temperatures and the proliferation of early life during the Archean period of Earth's history (3.8-2.5 Ga). However the standard solar model indicates that the Sun was only 75 to 82 percent as bright as today, implying an apparent contradiction between warm surface temperatures and weak solar irradiance. Geological evidence also places constraints on the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide present early in Earth's history. Over the past four decades there has been much debate amongst geological, planetary, and climate science communities regarding how to properly resolve the issue of the faint young Sun. Up until very recently, 1-dimensional radiative convective models were the standard tool for deep paleoclimate modeling studies. These studies have notably lacked the ability to treat clouds, surface ice, and meridional energy transport. However, advancements in computing technology now allow us to tackle the faint young Sun paradox using a three-dimensional climate model. Here we use a modified version of the Community Atmosphere Model version 3 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research to study early climate. We find that resolving the faint young Sun paradox becomes less problematic when viewing a full representation of the climate system. Modest amounts of carbon dioxide and methane can provide adequate warming for the Archean within given constraints. Cooler climates with large ice caps but temperate tropical regions can be supported with even less carbon dioxide. The incorporation of systematic climate system differences expected during the Archean, such as fewer cloud condensation nuclei, reduced land albedos, and increased atmospheric nitrogen, can provide additional non-greenhouse means of warming the early Earth. A warm Archean no longer appears at odds with a faint young Sun. Here, we will also discuss the