Science.gov

Sample records for adequate temporal sampling

  1. The Temporal Focus Scale: Factor Structure and Association with Alcohol Use in a Sample of Northern Irish School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Percy, Andrew; Goudie, Andrew J.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Cole, Jon C.

    2012-01-01

    The Temporal Focus Scale (TFS) is a 12-item self-report measure of cognitive engagement with the temporal domains of past, present and future. Developed in college student samples, a three-factor structure with adequate reliability and validity was documented in a series of independent studies. We tested the factor structure of the scale in a…

  2. Comparison of temporal trends in VOCs as measured with PDB samplers and low-flow sampling methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, P.T.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of temporal trends in tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentration determined by two sample techniques showed that passive diffusion bag (pdb) samplers adequately sample the large variation in PCE concentrations at the site. The slopes of the temporal trends in concentrations were comparable between the two techniques, and the pdb sample concentration generally reflected the instantaneous concentration sampled by the low-flow technique. Thus, the pdb samplers provided an appropriate sampling technique for PCE at these wells. One or two wells did not make the case for widespread application of pdb samples at all sites. However, application of pdb samples in some circumstances was appropriate for evaluating temporal and spatial variations in VOC concentrations, thus, should be considered as a useful tool in hydrogeology.

  3. GnRH Stimulation Test in Precocious Puberty: Single Sample is Adequate for Diagnosis and Dose Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Kandemir, Nurgün; Özön, Zeynep Alev; Gönç, Nazlı; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Gonadotropin stimulation test is the gold standard to document precocious puberty. However, the test is costly, time-consuming and uncomfortable. The aim of this study was to simplify the intravenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test in the diagnosis of precocious puberty and in the assessment of pubertal suppression. Methods: Data pertaining to 584 GnRH stimulation tests (314 testsfor diagnosis and 270 for assessment of pubertal suppression) were analyzed. Results: Forty-minute post-injection samples had the greatest frequency of “peaking luteinizing hormone (LH)” (p<0.001) in the diagnostic tests when the cut-off value was taken as 5 IU/L for LH, 40th minute sample was found to have 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity in the diagnosis of precocious puberty, while the sensitivity and specificity of the 20th minute sample was 100% in the assessment of pubertal suppression. Conclusion: LH level at the 40th minute post-injection in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty and at the 20th minute post-injection in the assessment of pubertal suppression is highly sensitive and specific. A single sample at these time points can be used in the diagnosis of early puberty and in the assessment of pubertal suppression. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21448328

  4. Temporal Stability of DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Criteria in a Problem Drinking Sample

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Terence M.; Rubin, Amy; Lachowicz, Mark; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin L.; Roy, Monica; Hermos, John; Helmuth, Eric; Rosenbloom, David

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) reformulated Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) based partially on research showing there were four main factors that underlie the symptoms of the disorder. The primary aim of this study was to examine the temporal stability of the DSM-5 factors as measured by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5; Weathers et al., 2010). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the structure of DSM-5 PTSD, and temporal stability over three time points was examined to determine if the measure reflects a consistent construct over time. Our sample was 507 combat-exposed veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan who enrolled in an online intervention for problem drinking and combat-related stress (masked for review). We administered the PCL-5 at baseline, 8-week post intervention, and 3-month follow-up assessments. The DSM-5 model provided an adequate fit to the data at baseline. Tests of equality of form and equality of factor loadings demonstrated stability of the factor structure over time, indicating temporal stability. This study confirms the results of previous research supporting the DSM-5 model of PTSD symptoms (Elhai et al., 2012; Miller et al., 2012). This is the first study to demonstrate the temporal stability of the PCL-5, indicating its use in longitudinal studies will measure the same construct over time. PMID:24932642

  5. Temporal sampling in vision and the implications for dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Pammer, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that dyslexia may manifest as a deficit in the neural synchrony underlying language-based codes (Goswami, 2011), such that the phonological deficits apparent in dyslexia occur as a consequence of poor synchronisation of oscillatory brain signals to the sounds of language. There is compelling evidence to support this suggestion, and it provides an intriguing new development in understanding the aetiology of dyslexia. It is undeniable that dyslexia is associated with poor phonological coding, however, reading is also a visual task, and dyslexia has also been associated with poor visual coding, particularly visuo-spatial sensitivity. It has been hypothesized for some time that specific frequency oscillations underlie visual perception. Although little research has been done looking specifically at dyslexia and cortical frequency oscillations, it is possible to draw on converging evidence from visual tasks to speculate that similar deficits could occur in temporal frequency oscillations in the visual domain in dyslexia. Thus, here the plausibility of a visual correlate of the Temporal Sampling Framework is considered, leading to specific hypotheses and predictions for future research. A common underlying neural mechanism in dyslexia, may subsume qualitatively different manifestations of reading difficulty, which is consistent with the heterogeneity of the disorder, and may open the door for a new generation of exciting research. PMID:24596549

  6. Analysis of SWOT spatial and temporal samplings over continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancamaria, Sylvain; Lamy, Alain; Mognard, Nelly

    2014-05-01

    The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, collaboratively developed by NASA, CNES and CSA, is a joint oceanography/continental hydrology mission planned for launch in 2020. In June 2013, a new SWOT orbit has been selected with a 77.6° inclination, a 21 days repeat cycle and a 891 km altitude. The main satellite payload (a Ka-band SAR Interferometer), will provide 2D maps of water elevation, mask and slope over two swaths, both having a 50 km extent. These two swaths will be separated by a 20 km nadir gap. Most of the studies concerning SWOT published since 2007 have considered a former orbit with a 78° inclination, 22 day repeat orbit and a 970 km altitude and a 60 km extent for each swath. None of them have studied the newly selected orbit and the impact of the 20 km nadir gap on the spatial coverage has not been much explored. The purpose of the work presented here is to investigate the spatial and temporal coverage given this new orbit and the actual swath extent (2*50 km swaths with the 20 km nadir gap in between) and compare it to the former SWOT configuration. It is shown that the new configuration will have almost no impact on the computation of monthly averages, however it will impact the spatial coverage. Because of the nadir gap, the orbit repeatitivity and the swaths extent, 3.6% of the continental surfaces in between 78°S and 78°N will never be observed by SWOT (which was previously equal to 2.2% with the former SWOT configuration). The equatorial regions will be the most impacted, as uncovered area could go up to ~14% locally, whereas it never exceeded 9% with the previous SWOT configuration.

  7. Spatio-temporal representativeness of euphotic depth in situ sampling in transitional coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhtala, Hanna; Tolvanen, Harri

    2016-06-01

    In dynamic coastal waters, the representativeness of spot sampling is limited to the measurement time and place due to local heterogeneity and irregular water property fluctuations. We assessed the representativeness of in situ sampling by analysing spot-sampled depth profiles of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in dynamic coastal archipelago waters in the south-western Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea. First, we assessed the role of spatio-temporality within the underwater light dynamics. As a part of this approach, an anomaly detection procedure was tested on a dataset including a large archipelago area and extensive temporal coverage throughout the ice-free season. The results suggest that euphotic depth variability should be treated as a spatio-temporal process rather than considering spatial and temporal dimensions separately. Second, we assessed the representativeness of spot sampling through statistical analysis of comparative data from spatially denser sampling on three test sites on two optically different occasions. The datasets revealed variability in different dimensions and scales. The suitability of a dataset to reveal wanted phenomena can usually be improved by careful planning and by clearly defining the data sampling objectives beforehand. Nonetheless, conducting a sufficient in situ sampling in dynamic coastal area is still challenging: detecting the general patterns at all the relevant dimensions is complicated by the randomness effect, which reduces the reliability of spot samples on a more detailed scale. Our results indicate that good representativeness of a euphotic depth sampling location is not a stable feature in a highly dynamic environment.

  8. Comparative evaluation of potential indicators and temporal sampling protocols for monitoring genetic erosion

    PubMed Central

    Hoban, Sean; Arntzen, Jan A; Bruford, Michael W; Godoy, José A; Rus Hoelzel, A; Segelbacher, Gernot; Vilà, Carles; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Genetic biodiversity contributes to individual fitness, species' evolutionary potential, and ecosystem stability. Temporal monitoring of the genetic status and trends of wild populations' genetic diversity can provide vital data to inform policy decisions and management actions. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding which genetic metrics, temporal sampling protocols, and genetic markers are sufficiently sensitive and robust, on conservation-relevant timescales. Here, we tested six genetic metrics and various sampling protocols (number and arrangement of temporal samples) for monitoring genetic erosion following demographic decline. To do so, we utilized individual-based simulations featuring an array of different initial population sizes, types and severity of demographic decline, and DNA markers [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites] as well as decline followed by recovery. Number of alleles markedly outperformed other indicators across all situations. The type and severity of demographic decline strongly affected power, while the number and arrangement of temporal samples had small effect. Sampling 50 individuals at as few as two time points with 20 microsatellites performed well (good power), and could detect genetic erosion while 80–90% of diversity remained. This sampling and genotyping effort should often be affordable. Power increased substantially with more samples or markers, and we observe that power of 2500 SNPs was nearly equivalent to 250 microsatellites, a result of theoretical and practical interest. Our results suggest high potential for using historic collections in monitoring programs, and demonstrate the need to monitor genetic as well as other levels of biodiversity. PMID:25553062

  9. Reduced Orbitofrontal and Temporal Grey Matter in a Community Sample of Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Brito, Stephane A.; Viding, Essi; Sebastian, Catherine L.; Kelly, Philip A.; Mechelli, Andrea; Maris, Helen; McCrory, Eamon J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with increased risk of psychiatric disorder. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported atypical neural structure in the orbitofrontal cortex, temporal lobe, amygdala, hippocampus and cerebellum in maltreated samples. It has been hypothesised that these structural differences may relate to…

  10. Temporally adaptive sampling: a case study in rare species survey design with marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum).

    PubMed

    Charney, Noah D; Kubel, Jacob E; Eiseman, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Improving detection rates for elusive species with clumped distributions is often accomplished through adaptive sampling designs. This approach can be extended to include species with temporally variable detection probabilities. By concentrating survey effort in years when the focal species are most abundant or visible, overall detection rates can be improved. This requires either long-term monitoring at a few locations where the species are known to occur or models capable of predicting population trends using climatic and demographic data. For marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum) in Massachusetts, we demonstrate that annual variation in detection probability of larvae is regionally correlated. In our data, the difference in survey success between years was far more important than the difference among the three survey methods we employed: diurnal surveys, nocturnal surveys, and dipnet surveys. Based on these data, we simulate future surveys to locate unknown populations under a temporally adaptive sampling framework. In the simulations, when pond dynamics are correlated over the focal region, the temporally adaptive design improved mean survey success by as much as 26% over a non-adaptive sampling design. Employing a temporally adaptive strategy costs very little, is simple, and has the potential to substantially improve the efficient use of scarce conservation funds. PMID:25799224

  11. Temporally Adaptive Sampling: A Case Study in Rare Species Survey Design with Marbled Salamanders (Ambystoma opacum)

    PubMed Central

    Charney, Noah D.; Kubel, Jacob E.; Eiseman, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Improving detection rates for elusive species with clumped distributions is often accomplished through adaptive sampling designs. This approach can be extended to include species with temporally variable detection probabilities. By concentrating survey effort in years when the focal species are most abundant or visible, overall detection rates can be improved. This requires either long-term monitoring at a few locations where the species are known to occur or models capable of predicting population trends using climatic and demographic data. For marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum) in Massachusetts, we demonstrate that annual variation in detection probability of larvae is regionally correlated. In our data, the difference in survey success between years was far more important than the difference among the three survey methods we employed: diurnal surveys, nocturnal surveys, and dipnet surveys. Based on these data, we simulate future surveys to locate unknown populations under a temporally adaptive sampling framework. In the simulations, when pond dynamics are correlated over the focal region, the temporally adaptive design improved mean survey success by as much as 26% over a non-adaptive sampling design. Employing a temporally adaptive strategy costs very little, is simple, and has the potential to substantially improve the efficient use of scarce conservation funds. PMID:25799224

  12. Context effect in a temporal bisection task with the choice keys available during the sample.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luís; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    In a symbolic matching to sample task, six pigeons learned to associate different sample durations with different comparison stimuli. On "Short" trials, choice of Red and Green keylight comparisons were reinforced following 3-s and 9-s samples, respectively; on "Long" trials, Blue and Yellow keylight comparisons were reinforced following 9-s and 27-s samples, respectively. In contrast with previous studies, the comparison keys were available during the samples. After the temporal discriminations were learned, new pairs of comparison keys were presented and the preference for each was assessed during 27-s samples. One pair in particular, Green and Blue, was critical because it tested the predictions of two timing models, Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET) and the Learning-to-Time (LeT) model. The results showed that preference for Green increased during the sample, a result consistent with LeT but not with SET. Other test results, however, were predicted by neither model. PMID:19162143

  13. Daily temporal structure in African savanna flower visitation networks and consequences for network sampling.

    PubMed

    Baldock, Katherine C R; Memmott, Jane; Ruiz-Guajardo, Juan Carlos; Roze, Denis; Stone, Graham N

    2011-03-01

    Ecological interaction networks are a valuable approach to understanding plant-pollinator interactions at the community level. Highly structured daily activity patterns are a feature of the biology of many flower visitors, particularly provisioning female bees, which often visit different floral sources at different times. Such temporal structure implies that presence/absence and relative abundance of specific flower-visitor interactions (links) in interaction networks may be highly sensitive to the daily timing of data collection. Further, relative timing of interactions is central to their possible role in competition or facilitation of seed set among coflowering plants sharing pollinators. To date, however, no study has examined the network impacts of daily temporal variation in visitor activity at a community scale. Here we use temporally structured sampling to examine the consequences of daily activity patterns upon network properties using fully quantified flower-visitor interaction data for a Kenyan savanna habitat. Interactions were sampled at four sequential three-hour time intervals between 06:00 and 18:00, across multiple seasonal time points for two sampling sites. In all data sets the richness and relative abundance of links depended critically on when during the day visitation was observed. Permutation-based null modeling revealed significant temporal structure across daily time intervals at three of the four seasonal time points, driven primarily by patterns in bee activity. This sensitivity of network structure shows the need to consider daily time in network sampling design, both to maximize the probability of sampling links relevant to plant reproductive success and to facilitate appropriate interpretation of interspecific relationships. Our data also suggest that daily structuring at a community level could reduce indirect competitive interactions when coflowering plants share pollinators, as is commonly observed during flowering in highly

  14. On the importance of sampling variance to investigations of temporal variation in animal population size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Our purpose here is to emphasize the need to properly deal with sampling variance when studying population variability and to present a means of doing so. We present an estimator for temporal variance of population size for the general case in which there are both sampling variances and covariances associated with estimates of population size. We illustrate the estimation approach with a series of population size estimates for black-capped chickadees (Parus atricapillus) wintering in a Connecticut study area and with a series of population size estimates for breeding populations of ducks in southwestern Manitoba.

  15. Optimizing Spatio-Temporal Sampling Designs of Synchronous, Static, or Clustered Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helle, Kristina; Pebesma, Edzer

    2010-05-01

    When sampling spatio-temporal random variables, the cost of a measurement may differ according to the setup of the whole sampling design: static measurements, i.e. repeated measurements at the same location, synchronous measurements or clustered measurements may be cheaper per measurement than completely individual sampling. Such "grouped" measurements may however not be as good as individually chosen ones because of redundancy. Often, the overall cost rather than the total number of measurements is fixed. A sampling design with grouped measurements may allow for a larger number of measurements thus outweighing the drawback of redundancy. The focus of this paper is to include the tradeoff between the number of measurements and the freedom of their location in sampling design optimisation. For simple cases, optimal sampling designs may be fully determined. To predict e.g. the mean over a spatio-temporal field having known covariance, the optimal sampling design often is a grid with density determined by the sampling costs [1, Ch. 15]. For arbitrary objective functions sampling designs can be optimised relocating single measurements, e.g. by Spatial Simulated Annealing [2]. However, this does not allow to take advantage of lower costs when using grouped measurements. We introduce a heuristic that optimises an arbitrary objective function of sampling designs, including static, synchronous, or clustered measurements, to obtain better results at a given sampling budget. Given the cost for a measurement, either within a group or individually, the algorithm first computes affordable sampling design configurations. The number of individual measurements as well as kind and number of grouped measurements are determined. Random locations and dates are assigned to the measurements. Spatial Simulated Annealing is used on each of these initial sampling designs (in parallel) to improve them. In grouped measurements either the whole group is moved or single measurements within the

  16. Variation in spatial and temporal incidence of the crustacean pathogen Hematodinium perezi in environmental samples from Atlantic Coastal Bays

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematodinium perezi, a parasitic dinoflagellate, infects and kills blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. The parasite proliferates within host hemolymph and tissues, and also produces free-swimming biflagellated dinospores that emerge from infected crabs. Infections in C. sapidus recur annually, and it is not known if biotic or environmental reservoirs contribute to reinfection and outbreaks. To address this data gap, a quantitative PCR assay based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of H. perezi rRNA genes was developed to asses the temporal and spatial incidence of the parasite in Delaware and Maryland coastal bays. Results A previously-used PCR assay for H. perezi, based on the small subunit rRNA gene sequence, was found to lack adequate species specificity to discriminate non-Hematodinium sp. dinoflagellate species in environmental samples. A new ITS2-targeted assay was developed and validated to detect H. perezi DNA in sediment and water samples using E. coli carrying the H. perezi rDNA genes. Application of the method to environmental samples identified potential hotspots in sediment in Indian River Inlet, DE and Chincoteague Bay, MD and VA. H. perezi DNA was not detected in co-occurring shrimp or snails, even during an outbreak of the parasite in C. sapidus. Conclusions H. perezi is present in water and sediment samples in Maryland and Delaware coastal bays from April through November with a wide spatial and temporal variability in incidence. Sampling sites with high levels of H. perezi DNA in both bays share characteristics of silty, organic sediments and low tidal currents. The environmental detection of H. perezi in spring, ahead of peak prevalence in crabs, points to gaps in our understanding of the parasite’s life history prior to infection in crabs as well as the mode of environmental transmission. To better understand the H. perezi life cycle will require further

  17. Temporal evolution of a silicon surface subject to low energy ion irradiation and concurrent sample rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Tanmoy; Pearson, Daniel A.; Bradley, R. Mark; Som, Tapobrata

    2016-08-01

    We study the temporal evolution of silicon surfaces subject to low energy Ar+-ion bombardment and concurrent sample rotation. Systematic experiments are carried out in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. It is observed that an experiment which produces an anisotropic surface without sample rotation produces a statistically isotropic surface with a smaller surface roughness if the sample is rotated at a sufficiently high angular speed. Interrupted coarsening of the nanoscale mounds on the surface at long times t is observed without concurrent deposition of metal impurities for the first time. We find that the characteristic lateral size and height of the mounds increase as t 1 / 2 and t, respectively. Both our experiments and simulations show that azimuthally rotating ripples form at a sufficiently small rotational speeds, as predicted two decades ago. Finally, predictions from theories on rotating samples subject to ion bombardment are tested.

  18. Coherent diffractive imaging of time-evolving samples with improved temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvestad, A.; Tripathi, A.; Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Cha, W.; Wild, S. M.; Stephenson, G. B.; Fuoss, P. H.

    2016-05-01

    Bragg coherent x-ray diffractive imaging is a powerful technique for investigating dynamic nanoscale processes in nanoparticles immersed in reactive, realistic environments. Its temporal resolution is limited, however, by the oversampling requirements of three-dimensional phase retrieval. Here, we show that incorporating the entire measurement time series, which is typically a continuous physical process, into phase retrieval allows the oversampling requirement at each time step to be reduced, leading to a subsequent improvement in the temporal resolution by a factor of 2-20 times. The increased time resolution will allow imaging of faster dynamics and of radiation-dose-sensitive samples. This approach, which we call "chrono CDI," may find use in improving the time resolution in other imaging techniques.

  19. Using Temporal Sampling to Improve Attribution of Source Populations for Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Goldstien, Sharyn J.; Inglis, Graeme J.; Schiel, David R.; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have applied genetic tools to the identification of source populations and transport pathways for invasive species. However, there are many gaps in the knowledge obtained from such studies because comprehensive and meaningful spatial sampling to meet these goals is difficult to achieve. Sampling populations as they arrive at the border should fill the gaps in source population identification, but such an advance has not yet been achieved with genetic data. Here we use previously acquired genetic data to assign new incursions as they invade populations within New Zealand ports and marinas. We also investigated allelelic frequency change in these recently established populations over a two-year period, and assessed the effect of temporal genetic sampling on our ability to assign new incursions to their population of source. We observed shifts in the allele frequencies among populations, as well as the complete loss of some alleles and the addition of alleles novel to New Zealand, within these recently established populations. There was no significant level of genetic differentiation observed in our samples between years, and the use of these temporal data did alter the assignment probability of new incursions. Our study further suggests that new incursions can add genetic variation to the population in a single introduction event as the founders themselves are often more genetically diverse than theory initially predicted. PMID:23755264

  20. Timeless: A Large Sample Study on the Temporal Robustness of Affective Responses

    PubMed Central

    Postzich, Christopher; Blask, Katarina; Frings, Christian; Walther, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Emotion and its effects on other psychological phenomena are frequently studied by presenting emotional pictures for a short amount of time. However, the duration of exposure strongly differs across paradigms. In order to ensure the comparability of affective response elicitation across those paradigms, it is crucial to empirically validate emotional material not only with regard to the affective dimensions valence and arousal, but also with regard to varying presentation times. Despite this operational necessity for the temporal robustness of emotional material, there is only tentative empirical evidence on this issue. To close this gap, we conducted a large sample study testing for the influence of presentation time on affective response elicitation. Two hundred and forty emotional pictures were presented for either 200 or 1000 ms and were rated by 302 participants on the core affect dimensions valence and arousal. The most important finding was that affective response elicitation was comparable for 200 and 1000 ms presentation times, indicating reliable temporal robustness of affective response elicitation within the supra-liminal spectrum. Yet, a more detailed look on the data showed that presentation time impacted particularly on high arousing negative stimuli. However, because these interaction effects were exceedingly small, they must be interpreted with caution and do not endanger the main finding, namely the quite reliable temporal robustness of affective response elicitation. Results are discussed with regard to the comparability of affective response elicitation across varying paradigms. PMID:27313561

  1. Rapid imaging of surgical breast excisions using direct temporal sampling two photon fluorescent lifetime imaging

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, Michael G.; Sheikine, Yuri; Vardeh, Hilde; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Two photon fluorescent lifetime imaging is a modality that enables depth-sectioned, molecularly-specific imaging of cells and tissue using intrinsic contrast. However, clinical applications have not been well explored due to low imaging speed and limited field of view, which make evaluating large pathology samples extremely challenging. To address these limitations, we have developed direct temporal sampling two photon fluorescent lifetime imaging (DTS-FLIM), a method which enables a several order of magnitude increase in imaging speed by capturing an entire lifetime decay in a single fluorescent excitation. We use this greatly increased speed to perform a preliminary study using gigapixel-scale imaging of human breast pathology surgical specimens. PMID:26600997

  2. Temporal distribution of favourite books, movies, and records: differential encoding and re-sampling.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Steve M J; Chessa, Antonio G; Murre, Jaap M J

    2007-10-01

    The reminiscence bump is the effect that people recall more personal events from early adulthood than from childhood or adulthood. The bump has been examined extensively. However, the question of whether the bump is caused by differential encoding or re-sampling is still unanswered. To examine this issue, participants were asked to name their three favourite books, movies, and records. Furthermore,they were asked when they first encountered them. We compared the temporal distributions and found that they all showed recency effects and reminiscence bumps. The distribution of favourite books had the largest recency effect and the distribution of favourite records had the largest reminiscence bump. We can explain these results by the difference in rehearsal. Books are read two or three times, movies are watched more frequently, whereas records are listened to numerous times. The results suggest that differential encoding initially causes the reminiscence bump and that re-sampling increases the bump further. PMID:17852723

  3. [Can examination of spontaneous urine samples adequately replace 24-hour-urine samples for determining excretory rate of various lithogenic and inhibitory substances in metabolic evaluation of kidney calculi patients?].

    PubMed

    Brändle, E; Melzer, H; Gomez-Anson, B; Flohr, P; Kleinschmidt, K; Sieberth, H G; Hautmann, R E

    1996-03-01

    The gold standard for metabolic evaluation of stone-forming patients is the 24-h urine specimen. Recently, some authors have suggested that for routine metabolic evaluation spot urine samples are as valuable as the 24-h urine specimen. The purpose of our study, was to determine the value of the spot urine sample in comparison with the 24-h urine specimens. Eighty-eight healthy volunteers on different diets were investigated (32 vegetarians, 12 body-builders without protein concentrates, 28 body-builders on protein concentrates, and 16 subjects on a regular European diet). Using 24-h specimens, excretion rates of oxalate, calcium, sodium and potassium were determined. The concentration ratio of these electrolytes to creatinine was calculated for spot urine samples. A highly significant correlation between the excretion rates and the results of the spot urine samples was found for all parameters. However, the correlations showed considerable variations. On the other hand, we were able to show that creatinine excretion is highly dependent on daily protein intake, body weight and glomerular filtration rate. This leads to a considerable inter- and intraindividual variation in creatinine excretion. This variation of the creatinine excretion is the major cause for the variation in the results of spot urine samples. It is concluded that spot urine samples are an inadequate substitute for the 24-h urine specimen and that the 24-h urine specimen is still the basis for metabolic evaluation in stone patients. PMID:8650847

  4. Experimental evaluation of factors affecting temporal variability of water samples obtained from long-screened wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; LeBlanc, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    As a well is pumped through time, concentrations of specific constituents in the water discharging from the well may change as a result of their transport within the well and the aquifer. A series of experiments conducted at a research site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, examined the effects of transport on the chemistry of water samples obtained from a long-screened well. Analyses of time series of constituent concentrations in water pumped from the long-screened well showed persistent temporal trends during the first experiment. Iron concentrations decreased over a five-hour test (15 casing volumes), whereas the calcium and magnesium concentrations increased. In contrast, the time series of constituent concentrations of water discharging from the same well showed less change with time during a later experiment. Numerical simulations were undertaken to test the relative importance of several possible factors affecting the temporal variations of these constituents. During the process of quantitatively explaining the changes in concentrations over time observed in the two experiments, different system conceptualizations were used, including (1) flow and transport in the aquifer without wellbore transport, (2) flow and transport in the aquifer with advective flow and transport in the wellbore, and (3) flow and transport in the aquifer with advective flow and transport in the wellbore and a thin layer (skin) of water surrounding the well with constituent concentrations that had been altered by the presence of the well. The conjectured skin of wellbore water, which could have invaded the aquifer because of nearby sampling or dispersion and diffusion near the wellbore, in conjunction with flow and transport in the aquifer and advective transport within the wellbore, produced a reasonable match between the simulated and observed concentrations. The data analysis confirms the known fact that long-screened wells provide mechanisms for the redistribution of chemical

  5. A genetic demographic analysis of Lake Malawi rock-dwelling cichlids using spatio-temporal sampling.

    PubMed

    Husemann, Martin; Nguyen, Rachel; Ding, Baoqing; Danley, Patrick D

    2015-06-01

    We estimated the effective population sizes (Ne ) and tested for short-term temporal demographic stability of populations of two Lake Malawi cichlids: Maylandia benetos, a micro-endemic, and Maylandia zebra, a widespread species found across the lake. We sampled a total of 351 individuals, genotyped them at 13 microsatellite loci and sequenced their mitochondrial D-loop to estimate genetic diversity, population structure, demographic history and effective population sizes. At the microsatellite loci, genetic diversity was high in all populations. Yet, genetic diversity was relatively low for the sequence data. Microsatellites yielded mean Ne estimates of 481 individuals (±99 SD) for M. benetos and between 597 (±106.3 SD) and 1524 (±483.9 SD) individuals for local populations of M. zebra. The microsatellite data indicated no deviations from mutation-drift equilibrium. Maylandia zebra was further found to be in migration-drift equilibrium. Temporal fluctuations in allele frequencies were limited across the sampling period for both species. Bayesian Skyline analyses suggested a recent expansion of M. zebra populations in line with lake-level fluctuations, whereas the demographic history of M. benetos could only be estimated for the very recent past. Divergence time estimates placed the origin of M. benetos within the last 100 ka after the refilling of the lake and suggested that it split off the sympatric M. zebra population. Overall, our data indicate that micro-endemics and populations in less favourable habitats have smaller Ne , indicating that drift may play an important role driving their divergence. Yet, despite small population sizes, high genetic variation can be maintained. PMID:25891855

  6. DUSTER: dynamic contrast enhance up-sampled temporal resolution analysis method.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Gilad; Louzoun, Yoram; Artzi, Moran; Nadav, Guy; Ewing, James R; Ben Bashat, Dafna

    2016-05-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI using Tofts' model for estimating vascular permeability is widely accepted, yet inter-tissue differences in bolus arrival time (BAT) are generally ignored. In this work we propose a method, incorporating the BAT in the analysis, demonstrating its applicability and advantages in healthy subjects and patients. A method for DCE Up Sampled TEmporal Resolution (DUSTER) analysis is proposed which includes: baseline T1 map using DESPOT1 analyzed with flip angle (FA) correction; preprocessing; raw-signal-to-T1-to-concentration time curves (CTC) conversion; automatic arterial input function (AIF) extraction at temporal super-resolution; model fitting with model selection while incorporating BAT in the pharmacokinetic (PK) model, and fits contrast agent CTC while using exhaustive search in the BAT dimension in super-resolution. The method was applied to simulated data and to human data from 17 healthy subjects, six patients with glioblastoma, and two patients following stroke. BAT values were compared to time-to-peak (TTP) values extracted from dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging. Results show that the method improved the AIF estimation and allowed extraction of the BAT with a resolution of 0.8 s. In simulations, lower mean relative errors were detected for all PK parameters extracted using DUSTER compared to analysis without BAT correction (vp:5% vs. 20%, Ktrans: 9% vs. 24% and Kep: 8% vs. 17%, respectively), and BAT estimates demonstrated high correlations (r = 0.94, p < 1e− 10) with true values. In real data, high correlations between BAT values were detected when extracted from data acquired with high temporal resolution (2 s) and sub-sampled standard resolution data (6 s) (mean r = 0.85,p < 1e− 10). BAT and TTP values were significantly correlated in the different brain regions in healthy subjects (mean r = 0.72,p = < 1e− 3), as were voxel-wise comparisons in patients (mean r = 0.89, p < 1e− 10). In conclusion

  7. Temporal and spatial trends of chemical composition of wet deposition samples collected in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Elisabeth; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Lohninger, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Triggered by the occurrence of acid rain a sampling network for the collection of wet deposition samples was initiated in Austria in the early 1980s. Now the data set covers a time period of slightly more than 30 years for the stations being operable since the beginning. Sampling of rain water and snow was and is performed with Wet and Dry Only Samplers (WADOS) on a daily basis. Chemical analysis of rain water and snow samples comprised anions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate) and cations (sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) as well as pH and electrical conductivity. Here we evaluate and discuss temporal trends of both, ion concentrations and wet deposition data for twelve sampling stations, which were operable for most of the observation period of 30 years. As expected concentrations and wet deposition loads of sulfate and acidity decreased significantly during the last three decades - which is also reflected by a strong decrease of sulfur emissions in Austria and neighboring countries. Regarding nitrate the decrease of concentrations and wet deposition loads is less pronounced. Again this is in accordance with changes in emission data. In case of ammonium even less stations showed a significant decrease of annual average concentrations and depositions. Reasons for that might be twofold. On one hand emissions of ammonia did not decrease as strongly as e.g. sulfur emissions. Furthermore local sources will be more dominant and can influence the year to year variability. Seasonality of ion concentrations and deposition loads were investigated using Fourier analysis. Sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and also precipitation amount showed characteristic seasonal patterns for most of the sites and for concentrations as well as deposition loads. However the maxima in ion concentrations and deposition loads were observed during different times of the year. Concentrations of basic cations and chloride, on the contrary, hardly showed any seasonality. However, as

  8. {sup 222}Rn in water: A comparison of two sample collection methods and two sample transport methods, and the determination of temporal variation in North Carolina ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, J.H. III

    1994-12-31

    Objectives of this field experiment were: (1) determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the radon concentrations of samples collected by EPA`s standard method, using a syringe, and an alternative, slow-flow method; (2) determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the measured radon concentrations of samples mailed vs samples not mailed; and (3) determine whether there was a temporal variation of water radon concentration over a 7-month period. The field experiment was conducted at 9 sites, 5 private wells, and 4 public wells, at various locations in North Carolina. Results showed that a syringe is not necessary for sample collection, there was generally no significant radon loss due to mailing samples, and there was statistically significant evidence of temporal variations in water radon concentrations.

  9. Temporal analysis of archived samples indicates marked genetic changes in declining North Sea cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, William F; van Oosterhout, Cock; Rogers, Stuart I; Carvalho, Gary R

    2003-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that current exploitation rates can contribute to shifts in life-history traits and the collapse of marine fish stocks, few empirical studies have investigated the likely evolutionary impacts. Here, we used DNA recovered from a temporal series of archived North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) otoliths, to investigate genetic diversity within the Flamborough Head population between 1954 and 1998, during which time the population underwent two successive declines. Microsatellite data indicated a significant reduction in genetic diversity between 1954 and 1970 (total number of alleles: 1954, 46; 1960, 42; 1970, 37), and a subsequent recovery between 1970 and 1998 (total number of alleles: 1970, 37; 1981, 42; 1998, 45). Furthermore, estimates of genetic differentiation (F(ST) and R(ST)) showed a significant divergence between 1998 and earlier samples. Data are consistent with a period of prolonged genetic drift, accompanied by a replacement of the Flamborough Head population through an increased effective migration rate that occurred during a period of high exploitation and appreciable demographic and phenotypic change. Other studies indicate that diversity at neutral microsatellite loci may be correlated with variability at selected genes, thus compromising a population's subsequent recovery and adaptive potential. Such effects are especially pertinent to North Sea cod, which are threatened by continuing exploitation and rising sea temperatures. PMID:14561275

  10. Estimating Effective Population Size from Temporally Spaced Samples with a Novel, Efficient Maximum-Likelihood Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Tin-Yu J.; Burt, Austin

    2015-01-01

    The effective population size Ne is a key parameter in population genetics and evolutionary biology, as it quantifies the expected distribution of changes in allele frequency due to genetic drift. Several methods of estimating Ne have been described, the most direct of which uses allele frequencies measured at two or more time points. A new likelihood-based estimator NB^ for contemporary effective population size using temporal data is developed in this article. The existing likelihood methods are computationally intensive and unable to handle the case when the underlying Ne is large. This article tries to work around this problem by using a hidden Markov algorithm and applying continuous approximations to allele frequencies and transition probabilities. Extensive simulations are run to evaluate the performance of the proposed estimator NB^, and the results show that it is more accurate and has lower variance than previous methods. The new estimator also reduces the computational time by at least 1000-fold and relaxes the upper bound of Ne to several million, hence allowing the estimation of larger Ne. Finally, we demonstrate how this algorithm can cope with nonconstant Ne scenarios and be used as a likelihood-ratio test to test for the equality of Ne throughout the sampling horizon. An R package “NB” is now available for download to implement the method described in this article. PMID:25747459

  11. C-arm cone beam CT perfusion imaging using the SMART-RECON algorithm to improve temporal sampling density and temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Niu, Kai; Li, Ke; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Strother, Charles; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a newly developed reconstruction algorithm, Synchronized MultiArtifact Reduction with Tomographic RECONstruction (SMART-RECON), was applied to C-arm cone beam CT perfusion (CBCTP) imaging. This algorithm contains a special rank regularizer, designed to reduce limited-view artifacts associated with super- short scan reconstructions. As a result, high temporal sampling and temporal resolution image reconstructions were achieved using an interventional C-arm x-ray system. The algorithm was evaluated in terms of the fidelity of the dynamic contrast update curves and the accuracy of perfusion parameters through numerical simulation studies. Results shows that, not only were the dynamic curves accurately recovered (relative root mean square error ∈ [3%, 5%] compared with [13%, 22%] for FBP), but also the noise in the final perfusion maps was dramatically reduced. Compared with filtered backprojection, SMART-RECON generated CBCTP maps with much improved capability in differentiating lesions with perfusion deficits from the surrounding healthy brain tissues.

  12. Effect of temporal sampling and timing for soil moisture measurements at field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snapir, B.; Hobbs, S.

    2012-04-01

    Estimating soil moisture at field scale is valuable for various applications such as irrigation scheduling in cultivated watersheds, flood and drought prediction, waterborne disease spread assessment, or even determination of mobility with lightweight vehicles. Synthetic aperture radar on satellites in low Earth orbit can provide fine resolution images with a repeat time of a few days. For an Earth observing satellite, the choice of the orbit is driven in particular by the frequency of measurements required to meet a certain accuracy in retrieving the parameters of interest. For a given target, having only one image every week may not enable to capture the full dynamic range of soil moisture - soil moisture can change significantly within a day when rainfall occurs. Hence this study focuses on the effect of temporal sampling and timing of measurements in terms of error on the retrieved signal. All the analyses are based on in situ measurements of soil moisture (acquired every 30 min) from the OzNet Hydrological Monitoring Network in Australia for different fields over several years. The first study concerns sampling frequency. Measurements at different frequencies were simulated by sub-sampling the original data. Linear interpolation was used to estimate the missing intermediate values, and then this time series was compared to the original. The difference between these two signals is computed for different levels of sub-sampling. Results show that the error increases linearly when the interval is less than 1 day. For intervals longer than a day, a sinusoidal component appears on top of the linear growth due to the diurnal variation of surface soil moisture. Thus, for example, the error with measurements every 4.5 days can be slightly less than the error with measurements every 2 days. Next, for a given sampling interval, this study evaluated the effect of the time during the day at which measurements are made. Of course when measurements are very frequent the time

  13. Temporal lobe in human aging: A quantitative protein profiling study of samples from Chinese Human Brain Bank.

    PubMed

    Xu, Benhong; Xiong, Feng; Tian, Rui; Zhan, Shaohua; Gao, Yanpan; Qiu, Wenying; Wang, Renzhi; Ge, Wei; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The temporal lobe is a portion of the cerebral cortex with critical functionality. The age-related protein profile changes in the human temporal lobe have not been previously studied. This 4-plex tandem mass tag labeled proteomic study was performed on samples of temporal lobe from Chinese donors. Tissue samples were assigned to four age groups: Group A (the young, age: 34±13 years); Group B (the elderly, 62±5 years); Group C (the aged, 84±4 years) and Group D (the old, 95±1 years). Pooled samples from the different groups were subjected to proteomics and bioinformatics analysis to identify age-related changes in protein expression and associated pathways. We isolated 5072 proteins, and found that 67 proteins were downregulated and 109 proteins were upregulated in one or more groups during the aging process. Western blotting assays were performed to verify the proteomic results. Bioinformatic analysis identified proteins involved in neuronal degeneration, including proteins involved in neuronal firing, myelin sheath damage, and cell structure stability. We also observed the accumulation of extracellular matrix and lysosomal proteins which imply the occurrence of fibrosis and autophagy. Our results suggest a series of changes across a wide range of proteins in the human temporal lobe that may relate to aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26631761

  14. Correlated Spatio-Temporal Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Low Rank Matrix Approximation and Optimized Node Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Xinglin; Hu, Yongli; Sun, Yanfeng; Yin, Baocai; Gao, Junbin

    2014-01-01

    The emerging low rank matrix approximation (LRMA) method provides an energy efficient scheme for data collection in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) by randomly sampling a subset of sensor nodes for data sensing. However, the existing LRMA based methods generally underutilize the spatial or temporal correlation of the sensing data, resulting in uneven energy consumption and thus shortening the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose a correlated spatio-temporal data collection method for WSNs based on LRMA. In the proposed method, both the temporal consistence and the spatial correlation of the sensing data are simultaneously integrated under a new LRMA model. Moreover, the network energy consumption issue is considered in the node sampling procedure. We use Gini index to measure both the spatial distribution of the selected nodes and the evenness of the network energy status, then formulate and resolve an optimization problem to achieve optimized node sampling. The proposed method is evaluated on both the simulated and real wireless networks and compared with state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show the proposed method efficiently reduces the energy consumption of network and prolongs the network lifetime with high data recovery accuracy and good stability. PMID:25490583

  15. The Effect of Sample Duration and Cue on a Double Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Luis; Machado, Armando

    2008-01-01

    To test the assumptions of two models of timing, Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET) and Learning to Time (LeT), nine pigeons were exposed to two temporal discriminations, each signaled by a different cue. On half of the trials, pigeons learned to choose a red key after a 1.5-s horizontal bar and a green key after a 6-s horizontal bar; on the other…

  16. The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS): Exploration and Confirmation of Factor Structure in a Healthy Chinese Sample

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Raymond C. K.; Shi, Yan-fang; Lai, Man-kin; Wang, Yu-na; Wang, Ya; Kring, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) is a measure specifically designed to capture the anticipatory and consummatory facets of pleasure. However, few studies have examined the structure of the measure in non-Western samples. The current study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the TEPS in a Chinese sample. Methods We administered the Chinese version of the TEPS to 2275 healthy Chinese college students. They were randomly split into two sub-samples. The first sub-sample was used for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to examine the structure of the TEPS in a Chinese sample. The second sub-sample was used as a validation sample for the identified structure from the EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was adopted. Results Results of the EFA suggested a four-factor model (consummatory contextual, consummatory abstract, anticipatory contextual, and anticipatory abstract factors) instead of the original two-factor model (consummatory and anticipatory factors) ascertained from Western samples in the United States. The CFA results confirmed these results in the second sub-sample. Internal consistency and test-retest stability of the TEPS factors were good. Conclusions The TEPS has four factors among Chinese participants. Possible reasons for cultural difference and potential applications of the TEPS for cross-cultural comparison are discussed. PMID:22530007

  17. The Influence of temporal sampling regime on the WFD classification of catchments within the Eden Demonstration Test Catchment Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Haygarth, Phil; Quinn, Paul; Reaney, Sim

    2014-05-01

    A high temporal resolution data set from the Eden Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project is used to investigate the processes causing pollution and the influence of temporal sampling regime on the WFD classification of three catchments. This data highlights WFD standards may not be fit for purpose. The Eden DTC project is part of a UK government-funded project designed to provide robust evidence regarding how diffuse pollution can be cost-effectively controlled to improve and maintain water quality in rural river catchments. The impact of multiple water quality parameters on ecosystems and sustainable food production are being studied at the catchment scale. Three focus catchments approximately 10 km2 each, have been selected to represent the different farming practices and geophysical characteristics across the Eden catchment, Northern England. A field experimental programme has been designed to monitor the dynamics of agricultural diffuse pollution at multiple scales using state of the art sensors providing continuous real time data. The data set, which includes Total Phosphorus and Total Reactive Phosphorus, Nitrate, Ammonium, pH, Conductivity, Turbidity and Chlorophyll a reveals the frequency and duration of nutrient concentration target exceedance which arises from the prevalence of storm events of increasing magnitude. This data set is sub-sampled at different time intervals to explore how different sampling regimes affects our understanding of nutrient dynamics and the ramification of the different regimes to WFD chemical status. This presentation seeks to identify an optimum temporal resolution of data for effective catchment management and to question the usefulness of the WFD status metric for determining health of a system. Criteria based on high frequency short duration events needs to be accounted for.

  18. Effects of electrofishing gear type on spatial and temporal variability in fish community sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; McIntyre, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Fish community data collected from 24 major river basins between 1993 and 1998 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program were analyzed to assess multiple-reach (three consecutive reaches) and multiple-year (three consecutive years) variability in samples collected at a site. Variability was assessed using the coefficient of variation (CV; SD/mean) of species richness, the Jaccard index (JI), and the percent similarity index (PSI). Data were categorized by three electrofishing sample collection methods: backpack, towed barge, and boat. Overall, multiple-reach CV values were significantly lower than those for multiple years, whereas multiple-reach JI and PSI values were significantly greater than those for multiple years. Multiple-reach and multiple-year CV values did not vary significantly among electrofishing methods, although JI and PSI values were significantly greatest for backpack electrofishing across multiple reaches and multiple years. The absolute difference between mean species richness for multiple-reach samples and mean species richness for multiple-year samples was 0.8 species (9.5% of total species richness) for backpack samples, 1.7 species (10.1%) for towed-barge samples, and 4.5 species (24.4%) for boat-collected samples. Review of boat-collected fish samples indicated that representatives of four taxonomic families - Catostomidae, Centrarchidae, Cyprinidae, and Ictaluridae - were collected at all sites. Of these, catostomids exhibited greater interannual variability than centrarchids, cyprinids, or ictalurids. Caution should be exercised when combining boat-collected fish community data from different years because of relatively high interannual variability, which is primarily due to certain relatively mobile species. Such variability may obscure longer-term trends.

  19. Sampling-variance effects on detecting density dependence from temporal trends in natural populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shenk, T.M.; White, Gary C.; Burnham, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate robustness of four tests to detect density dependence, from series of population abundances, to the addition of sampling variance. Population abundances were generated from random walk, stochastic exponential growth, and density-dependent population models. Population abundance estimates were generated with sampling variances distributed as lognormal and constant coefficients of variation (cv) from 0.00 to 1.00. In general, when data were generated under a random walk, Type I error rates increased rapidly for Bulmer's R, Pollard et al.'s, and Dennis and Taper's tests with increasing magnitude of sampling variance for n > 5 yr and all values of process variation. Bulmer's R* test maintained a constant 5% Type I error rate for n > 5 yr and all magnitudes of sampling variance in the population abundance estimates. When abundances were generated from two stochastic exponential growth models (R = 0.05 and R = 0.10), Type I errors again increased with increasing sampling variance; magnitude of Type I error rates were higher for the slower growing population. Therefore, sampling error inflated Type I error rates, invalidating the tests, for all except Bulmer's R* test. Comparable simulations for abundance estimates generated from a density-dependent growth rate model were conducted to estimate power of the tests. Type II error rates were influenced by the relationship of initial population size to carrying capacity (K), length of time series, as well as sampling error. Given the inflated Type I error rates for all but Bulmer, s R*, power was overestimated for the remaining tests, resulting in density: dependence being detected more often than it existed. Population abundances of natural populations are almost exclusively estimated rather than censused, assuring sampling error. Therefore, because these tests have been shown to be either invalid when only sampling variance occurs in the population abundances (Bulmer's R

  20. A cautionary note on substituting spatial subunits for repeated temporal sampling in studies of site occupancy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, William L.; White, Gary C.

    2009-01-01

    1. Assessing the probability that a given site is occupied by a species of interest is important to resource managers, as well as metapopulation or landscape ecologists. Managers require accurate estimates of the state of the system, in order to make informed decisions. Models that yield estimates of occupancy, while accounting for imperfect detection, have proven useful by removing a potentially important source of bias. To account for detection probability, multiple independent searches per site for the species are required, under the assumption that the species is available for detection during each search of an occupied site. 2. We demonstrate that when multiple samples per site are defined by searching different locations within a site, absence of the species from a subset of these spatial subunits induces estimation bias when locations are exhaustively assessed or sampled without replacement. 3. We further demonstrate that this bias can be removed by choosing sampling locations with replacement, or if the species is highly mobile over a short period of time. 4. Resampling an existing data set does not mitigate bias due to exhaustive assessment of locations or sampling without replacement. 5. Synthesis and applications. Selecting sampling locations for presence/absence surveys with replacement is practical in most cases. Such an adjustment to field methods will prevent one source of bias, and therefore produce more robust statistical inferences about species occupancy. This will in turn permit managers to make resource decisions based on better knowledge of the state of the system.

  1. Estimates of Marine Debris Accumulation on Beaches Are Strongly Affected by the Temporal Scale of Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen D. A.; Markic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Marine debris is a global issue with impacts on marine organisms, ecological processes, aesthetics and economies. Consequently, there is increasing interest in quantifying the scale of the problem. Accumulation rates of debris on beaches have been advocated as a useful proxy for at-sea debris loads. However, here we show that past studies may have vastly underestimated the quantity of available debris because sampling was too infrequent. Our study of debris on a small beach in eastern Australia indicates that estimated daily accumulation rates decrease rapidly with increasing intervals between surveys, and the quantity of available debris is underestimated by 50% after only 3 days and by an order of magnitude after 1 month. As few past studies report sampling frequencies of less than a month, estimates of the scale of the marine debris problem need to be critically re-examined and scaled-up accordingly. These results reinforce similar, recent work advocating daily sampling as a standard approach for accurate quantification of available debris in coastal habitats. We outline an alternative approach whereby site-specific accumulation models are generated to correct bias when daily sampling is impractical. PMID:24367607

  2. COMPARING SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR MONITORING ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND TRENDS: IMPACT OF TEMPORAL PATTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a comparison of two classes of sampling designs suggested for long-term environmental monitoring. one class is based on a rotating panel design that prescribes visiting a panel of sites for several consecutive years with partial replacement of sites each year;...

  3. Ocular-following responses to white noise stimuli in humans reveal a novel nonlinearity that results from temporal sampling.

    PubMed

    Sheliga, Boris M; Quaia, Christian; FitzGibbon, Edmond J; Cumming, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    White noise stimuli are frequently used to study the visual processing of broadband images in the laboratory. A common goal is to describe how responses are derived from Fourier components in the image. We investigated this issue by recording the ocular-following responses (OFRs) to white noise stimuli in human subjects. For a given speed we compared OFRs to unfiltered white noise with those to noise filtered with band-pass filters and notch filters. Removing components with low spatial frequency (SF) reduced OFR magnitudes, and the SF associated with the greatest reduction matched the SF that produced the maximal response when presented alone. This reduction declined rapidly with SF, compatible with a winner-take-all operation. Removing higher SF components increased OFR magnitudes. For higher speeds this effect became larger and propagated toward lower SFs. All of these effects were quantitatively well described by a model that combined two factors: (a) an excitatory drive that reflected the OFRs to individual Fourier components and (b) a suppression by higher SF channels where the temporal sampling of the display led to flicker. This nonlinear interaction has an important practical implication: Even with high refresh rates (150 Hz), the temporal sampling introduced by visual displays has a significant impact on visual processing. For instance, we show that this distorts speed tuning curves, shifting the peak to lower speeds. Careful attention to spectral content, in the light of this nonlinearity, is necessary to minimize the resulting artifact when using white noise patterns undergoing apparent motion. PMID:26762277

  4. Ocular-following responses to white noise stimuli in humans reveal a novel nonlinearity that results from temporal sampling

    PubMed Central

    Sheliga, Boris M.; Quaia, Christian; FitzGibbon, Edmond J.; Cumming, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    White noise stimuli are frequently used to study the visual processing of broadband images in the laboratory. A common goal is to describe how responses are derived from Fourier components in the image. We investigated this issue by recording the ocular-following responses (OFRs) to white noise stimuli in human subjects. For a given speed we compared OFRs to unfiltered white noise with those to noise filtered with band-pass filters and notch filters. Removing components with low spatial frequency (SF) reduced OFR magnitudes, and the SF associated with the greatest reduction matched the SF that produced the maximal response when presented alone. This reduction declined rapidly with SF, compatible with a winner-take-all operation. Removing higher SF components increased OFR magnitudes. For higher speeds this effect became larger and propagated toward lower SFs. All of these effects were quantitatively well described by a model that combined two factors: (a) an excitatory drive that reflected the OFRs to individual Fourier components and (b) a suppression by higher SF channels where the temporal sampling of the display led to flicker. This nonlinear interaction has an important practical implication: Even with high refresh rates (150 Hz), the temporal sampling introduced by visual displays has a significant impact on visual processing. For instance, we show that this distorts speed tuning curves, shifting the peak to lower speeds. Careful attention to spectral content, in the light of this nonlinearity, is necessary to minimize the resulting artifact when using white noise patterns undergoing apparent motion. PMID:26762277

  5. Single blood-Hg samples can result in exposure misclassification: temporal monitoring within the Japanese community (United States)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The most prominent non-occupational source of exposure to methylmercury is the consumption of fish. In this study we examine a fish consuming population to determine the extent of temporal exposure and investigate the extent to which single time estimates of methylmercury exposure based on blood-Hg concentration can provide reliable estimates of longer-term average exposure. Methods Blood-mercury levels were obtained from a portion of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study (AMIBS) cohort. Specifically, 56 Japanese women residing in the Puget Sound area of Washington State, US were sampled on three occasions across a one-year period. Results An average of 135 days separated samples, with mean blood-mercury levels for the visits being 5.1, 6.6 and 5.0 μg/l and geometric means being 2.7, 4.5 and 3.1 μg/l. The blood-mercury levels in this group exceed national averages with geometric means for two of the visits being between the 90th and 95th percentiles of nationally observed levels and the lowest geometric mean being between the 75th and 90th percentile. Group means were not significantly different across sampling periods suggesting that exposure of combined subjects remained relatively constant. Comparing intra-individual results over time did not reveal a strong correlation among visits (r = 0.19, 0.50, 0.63 between 1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd sample results, respectively). In comparing blood-mercury levels across two sampling interval combinations (1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd visits, respectively), 58% (n = 34), 53% (n = 31) and 29% (n = 17) of the individuals had at least a 100% difference in blood-Hg levels. Conclusions Point estimates of blood-mercury, when compared with three sample averages, may not reflect temporal variability and individual exposures estimated on the basis of single blood samples should be treated with caution as indicators of long-term exposure. Reliance on single blood

  6. The spatial and temporal patterns of odors sampled by lobsters and crabs in a turbulent plume.

    PubMed

    Reidenbach, Matthew A; Koehl, M A R

    2011-09-15

    Odors are dispersed across aquatic habitats by turbulent water flow as filamentous, intermittent plumes. Many crustaceans sniff (take discrete samples of ambient water and the odors it carries) by flicking their olfactory antennules. We used planar laser-induced fluorescence to investigate how flicking antennules of different morphologies (long antennules of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus; short antennules of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus) sample fluctuating odor signals at different positions in a turbulent odor plume in a flume to determine whether the patterns of concentrations captured can provide information about an animal's position relative to the odor source. Lobster antennules intercept odors during a greater percentage of flicks and encounter higher peak concentrations than do crab antennules, but because crabs flick at higher frequency, the duration of odor-free gaps between encountered odor pulses is similar. For flicking antennules there were longer time gaps between odor encounters as the downstream distance to the odor source decreases, but shorter gaps along the plume centerline than near the edge. In contrast to the case for antennule flicking, almost all odor-free gaps were <500 ms at all positions in the plume if concentration was measured continuously at the same height as the antennules. Variance in concentration is lower and mean concentration is greater near the substratum, where leg chemosensors continuously sample the plume, than in the water where antennules sniff. Concentrations sampled by legs increase as an animal nears an odor source, but decrease for antennules. Both legs and antennules encounter higher concentrations near the centerline than at the edge of the plume. PMID:21865526

  7. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  8. 29 CFR 98.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adequate evidence. 98.900 Section 98.900 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a...

  9. Automated on-line liquid-liquid extraction system for temporal mass spectrometric analysis of dynamic samples.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Kai-Ta; Liu, Pei-Han; Urban, Pawel L

    2015-09-24

    Most real samples cannot directly be infused to mass spectrometers because they could contaminate delicate parts of ion source and guides, or cause ion suppression. Conventional sample preparation procedures limit temporal resolution of analysis. We have developed an automated liquid-liquid extraction system that enables unsupervised repetitive treatment of dynamic samples and instantaneous analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). It incorporates inexpensive open-source microcontroller boards (Arduino and Netduino) to guide the extraction and analysis process. Duration of every extraction cycle is 17 min. The system enables monitoring of dynamic processes over many hours. The extracts are automatically transferred to the ion source incorporating a Venturi pump. Operation of the device has been characterized (repeatability, RSD = 15%, n = 20; concentration range for ibuprofen, 0.053-2.000 mM; LOD for ibuprofen, ∼0.005 mM; including extraction and detection). To exemplify its usefulness in real-world applications, we implemented this device in chemical profiling of pharmaceutical formulation dissolution process. Temporal dissolution profiles of commercial ibuprofen and acetaminophen tablets were recorded during 10 h. The extraction-MS datasets were fitted with exponential functions to characterize the rates of release of the main and auxiliary ingredients (e.g. ibuprofen, k = 0.43 ± 0.01 h(-1)). The electronic control unit of this system interacts with the operator via touch screen, internet, voice, and short text messages sent to the mobile phone, which is helpful when launching long-term (e.g. overnight) measurements. Due to these interactive features, the platform brings the concept of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) to the chemistry laboratory environment. PMID:26423626

  10. Compensating for population sampling in simulations of epidemic spread on temporal contact networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génois, Mathieu; Vestergaard, Christian L.; Cattuto, Ciro; Barrat, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Data describing human interactions often suffer from incomplete sampling of the underlying population. As a consequence, the study of contagion processes using data-driven models can lead to a severe underestimation of the epidemic risk. Here we present a systematic method to alleviate this issue and obtain a better estimation of the risk in the context of epidemic models informed by high-resolution time-resolved contact data. We consider several such data sets collected in various contexts and perform controlled resampling experiments. We show how the statistical information contained in the resampled data can be used to build a series of surrogate versions of the unknown contacts. We simulate epidemic processes on the resulting reconstructed data sets and show that it is possible to obtain good estimates of the outcome of simulations performed using the complete data set. We discuss limitations and potential improvements of our method.

  11. Compensating for population sampling in simulations of epidemic spread on temporal contact networks

    PubMed Central

    Génois, Mathieu; Vestergaard, Christian L.; Cattuto, Ciro; Barrat, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Data describing human interactions often suffer from incomplete sampling of the underlying population. As a consequence, the study of contagion processes using data-driven models can lead to a severe underestimation of the epidemic risk. Here we present a systematic method to alleviate this issue and obtain a better estimation of the risk in the context of epidemic models informed by high-resolution time-resolved contact data. We consider several such data sets collected in various contexts and perform controlled resampling experiments. We show how the statistical information contained in the resampled data can be used to build a series of surrogate versions of the unknown contacts. We simulate epidemic processes on the resulting reconstructed data sets and show that it is possible to obtain good estimates of the outcome of simulations performed using the complete data set. We discuss limitations and potential improvements of our method. PMID:26563418

  12. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in mussel sampled around the Icelandic coastline.

    PubMed

    Sturludottir, Erla; Gunnlaugsdottir, Helga; Jorundsdottir, Hronn O; Magnusdottir, Elin V; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2013-06-01

    Contaminants have been determined in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) at 11 locations around the Icelandic coastline from 1990 to 2010. The aim of the present study was to investigate if there has been a change in concentration of contaminants around the Icelandic coastline for the last two decades and if the concentrations and changes, if present, were consistent between locations. Concentrations of the persistent organic pollutants, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB-153) and trans-nonachlor, have decreased at most of the sampling locations in Iceland in recent years. However, an increasing trend was found at a few locations that could be explained by anthropogenic activity. The concentration levels of the persistent organics were much lower than found at the Norwegian, USA and Chinese coasts, especially levels of p,p'-DDE. The concentration of copper and selenium had a consistent pattern of change and concentration between locations over the period which showed a decreasing trend in recent years. The trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and zinc showed more variation in concentration between locations, the concentration of arsenic, mercury and zinc was fairly stable over the period, whereas there were fluctuations in cadmium concentrations. The concentrations of cadmium and zinc were observed to be somewhat higher than found in mussels from Norway, USA and China but values of mercury and lead were much lower in the mussel sampled in Iceland. The higher concentrations of cadmium and zinc can be explained by the volcanic activity in Iceland but no major anthropogenic sources of trace elements are known in Iceland. PMID:23567170

  13. Reduced temporal sampling effect on accuracy of time-domain fluorescence lifetime Förster resonance energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    Omer, Travis; Zhao, Lingling; Intes, Xavier; Hahn, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) aims at quantifying the exponential decay rate of fluorophores to yield lifetime maps over the imaged sample. When combined with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), the technique can be used to indirectly sense interactions at the nanoscale such as protein–protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions, and protein conformational changes. In the case of FLIM-FRET, the fluorescence intensity decays are fitted to a biexponential model in order to estimate the lifetime and fractional amplitude coefficients of each component of the population of the donor fluorophore (quenched and nonquenched). Numerous time data points, also called temporal or time gates, are typically employed for accurately estimating the model parameters, leading to lengthy acquisition times and significant computational demands. This work investigates the effect of the number and location of time gates on model parameter estimation accuracy. A detailed model of a FLIM-FRET imaging system is used for the investigation, and the simulation outcomes are validated with in vitro and in vivo experimental data. In all cases investigated, it is found that 10 equally spaced time gates allow robust estimation of model-based parameters with accuracy similar to that of full temporal datasets (90 gates). PMID:25166472

  14. Testing the temporal relationship between maternal and adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth C; Clark, Shaunna L; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2015-01-01

    Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a 4-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring 10 to 14 years of age at the 1st year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). The final model, χ(2)(14) = 23.74, p = .05 (TLI = .97, CFI = .98, RMSEA = .05), indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression 2 years later. Of interest, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression, and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods is warranted. PMID:24702257

  15. Spatio-temporal variability of solid, total dissolved and labile metal: passive vs. discrete sampling evaluation in river metal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Priadi, Cindy; Bourgeault, Adeline; Ayrault, Sophie; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène; Bonté, Philippe; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2011-05-01

    In order to obtain representative dissolved and solid samples from the aquatic environment, a spectrum of sampling methods are available, each one with different advantages and drawbacks. This article evaluates the use of discrete sampling and time-integrated sampling in illustrating medium-term spatial and temporal variation. Discrete concentration index (CI) calculated as the ratio between dissolved and solid metal concentrations in grab samples are compared with time-integrated concentration index (CI) calculated from suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected in sediment traps and labile metals measured by the diffusive gel in thin films (DGT) method, collected once a month during one year at the Seine River, upstream and downstream of the Greater Paris Region. Discrete CI at Bougival was found to be significantly higher than at Triel for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn, while discrete metal partitioning at Marnay was found to be similar to Bougival and Triel. However, when using time-integrated CI, not only was Bougival CI significantly higher than Triel CI, CI at Marnay was also found to be significantly higher than CI at Triel which was not observed for discrete CI values. Since values are time-averaged, dramatic fluctuations were smoothed out and significant medium-term trends were enhanced. As a result, time-integrated concentration index (CI) was able to better illustrate urbanization impact between sites when compared to discrete CI. The impact of significant seasonal phenomenon such as winter flood, low flow and redox cycles was also, to a certain extent, visible in time-integrated CI values at the upstream site. The use of time-integrated concentration index may be useful for medium- to long-term metal studies in the aquatic environment. PMID:21468423

  16. Enhanced Spatial & Temporal Sampling of Air/Sea Interaction with the NASA CYGNSS MicroSat Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruf, C. S.; Ridley, A. J.; O'Brien, A.; Johnson, J.; Yi, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a new spaceborne mission to address the deficiencies with current tropical cyclone (TC) intensity forecasts related to inadequate observations and modeling of the inner core. The inadequacy results from two causes: 1) much of the inner core ocean surface is obscured from conventional remote sensing instruments by intense precipitation in the eye wall and inner rain bands; and 2) the rapidly evolving (genesis and intensification) stages of the TC life cycle are poorly sampled by conventional polar-orbiting imagers. CYGNSS is specifically designed to address these two limitations by combining the all-weather performance of GNSS-R bistatic ocean surface scatterometry with the enhanced sampling properties of a constellation of satellites. CYGNSS will provide surface wind measurements of the TC inner core that could not previously be measured from space. Mission simulations predict a median(mean) revisit time of 2(5) hours. The CYGNSS wind fields, when combined with as-frequent precipitation fields (e.g. produced by the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement mission), will resolve the evolution of both the precipitation and underlying wind fields throughout the TC life cycle. They will provide near simultaneous and continuous observations and enable new insights into TC inner core dynamics and energetics. The use of a dense constellation of GNSS-R microsats results in spatial and temporal sampling properties that are markedly different from previous wide swath polar imagers. In particular, revisit times in the tropics are characterized by a probability distribution rather than a single, deterministic number of hours. The asymmetric shape of the probability distribution results in median revisit times that are less than half that of the mean, and mean revisit times that are less than half that of current polar orbiting imagers. CYGNSS is currently in Phase B project development. In parallel with the

  17. Investigating temporal field sampling strategies for site-specific calibration of three soil moisture - neutron intensity parameterisation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwema, J.; Rosolem, R.; Baatz, R.; Wagener, T.; Bogena, H. R.

    2015-02-01

    The Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor (CRNS) can provide soil moisture information at scales relevant to hydrometeorological modeling applications. Site-specific calibration is needed to translate CRNS neutron intensities into sensor footprint average soil moisture contents. We investigated temporal sampling strategies for calibration of three CRNS parameterisations (modified N0, HMF, and COSMIC) by assessing the effects of the number of sampling days and soil wetness conditions on the performance of the calibration results, for three sites with distinct climate and land use: a semi-arid site, a temperate grassland and a temperate forest. When calibrated with a year of data, COSMIC performed relatively good at all three sites, and the modified N0 method performed best at the two humid sites. It is advisable to collect soil moisture samples on more than a single day regardless of which parameterisation is used. In any case, sampling on more than ten days would, despite the strong increase in work effort, improve calibration results only little. COSMIC needed the least number of days at each site. At the semi-arid site, the N0mod method was calibrated better under average wetness conditions, whereas HMF and COSMIC were calibrated better under drier conditions. Average soil wetness condition gave better calibration results at the two humid sites. The calibration results for the HMF method were better when calibrated with combinations of days with similar soil wetness conditions, opposed to N0mod and COSMIC, which profited from using days with distinct wetness conditions. The outcomes of this study can be used by researchers as a CRNS calibration strategy guideline.

  18. Temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolite levels in bedtime, morning, and 24-h urine samples for 50 adults in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marsha K; Sobus, Jon R; Barr, Dana Boyd; Croghan, Carry W; Chen, Fu-Lin; Walker, Richard; Alston, Lillian; Andersen, Erik; Clifton, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insects in both agricultural and residential settings worldwide. Few data are available on the temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of non-occupationally exposed adults. In this work, we describe the study design and sampling methodology for the Pilot Study to Estimate Human Exposures to Pyrethroids using an Exposure Reconstruction Approach (Ex-R study). Two major objectives were to quantify the concentrations of several pyrethroid metabolites in bedtime, first morning void (FMV), and 24-h urine samples as concentration (wet weight), specific-gravity (SG) corrected, creatinine (CR) corrected, and excretion rate values for 50 Ex-R adults over a six-week monitoring period and to determine if these correction approaches for urine dilution reduced the variability of the biomarker levels. The Ex-R study was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Human Studies Facility in Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA and at participants' homes within a 40-mile radius of this facility. Recruitment of participants and field activities occurred between October 2009 and May 2011. Participants, ages 19-50 years old, provided daily food, activity, and pesticide-use diaries and collected their own urine samples (bedtime, FMV, and 24-h) during weeks 1, 2, and 6 of a six-week monitoring period. A total of 2503 urine samples were collected from the study participants. These samples were analyzed for the pyrethroid metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis/trans-DCCA), and 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid (MPA) using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Only 3-PBA was frequently detected (>50%) in the adult urine samples. Median urinary 3-PBA levels were 0.88 ng/mL, 0.96 ng/mL-SG, 1.04 ng/mg, and 1.04 ng/min for concentration, SG-corrected, CR-corrected, and excretion rate values, respectively

  19. A Japanese New Altimetry Mission, COMPIRA - Towards High Temporal and Spatial Sampling of Sea Surface Height Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, N.; Uematsu, A.; Yajima, Y.; Isoguchi, O.

    2014-12-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is working on a conceptual study of altimeter mission named Coastal and Ocean measurement Mission with Precise and Innovative Radar Altimeter (COMPIRA), which will carry a wide-swath altimeter named Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Height Imaging Oceanic Sensor with Advanced Interferometry (SHIOSAI). Capturing meso/submeso-scale phenomena is one of important objectives of the COMPIRA mission, as well as operational oceanography and fishery. For operational oceanography including coastal forecast, swath of SHIOSAI is selected to be 80 km in left and right sides to maximize temporal and spatial sampling of the sea surface height. Orbit specifications are also designed to be better sampling especially for mid-latitude region. That is, a spatial grid sampling is 5 km and an observation times per revisit period (about 10 days) is 2 to 3 times. In order to meet both sampling frequency and spatial coverage requirements as much as possible, orbit inclination was set relatively low, 51 degrees. Although this sampling frequency is, of course, not enough high to capture time evolution of coastal phenomena, an assimilation process would compensate its time evolution if 2D SSH fields was observed at least once within decal time scale of phenomena. JAXA has launched a framework called "Coastal forecast core team" to aim at developing coastal forecast system through pre-launch activities toward COMPIRA. Assimilation segment as well as satellite and in situ data provision will play an important role on these activities. As a first step, we evaluated effects of ocean current forecast improvement with COMPIRA-simulated wide-swath and high sampling sea surface heights (SSH) data. Simulated SSH data are generated from regional ocean numerical models and the COMPIRA orbit and error specifications. Then, identical twin experiments are conducted to investigate the effect of wide-swath SSH measurements on coastal forecast in the Tohoku Pacific coast

  20. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec....

  1. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  2. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  3. Investigating temporal field sampling strategies for site-specific calibration of three soil moisture-neutron intensity parameterisation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwema, J.; Rosolem, R.; Baatz, R.; Wagener, T.; Bogena, H. R.

    2015-07-01

    The Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor (CRNS) can provide soil moisture information at scales relevant to hydrometeorological modelling applications. Site-specific calibration is needed to translate CRNS neutron intensities into sensor footprint average soil moisture contents. We investigated temporal sampling strategies for calibration of three CRNS parameterisations (modified N0, HMF, and COSMIC) by assessing the effects of the number of sampling days and soil wetness conditions on the performance of the calibration results while investigating actual neutron intensity measurements, for three sites with distinct climate and land use: a semi-arid site, a temperate grassland, and a temperate forest. When calibrated with 1 year of data, both COSMIC and the modified N0 method performed better than HMF. The performance of COSMIC was remarkably good at the semi-arid site in the USA, while the N0mod performed best at the two temperate sites in Germany. The successful performance of COSMIC at all three sites can be attributed to the benefits of explicitly resolving individual soil layers (which is not accounted for in the other two parameterisations). To better calibrate these parameterisations, we recommend in situ soil sampled to be collected on more than a single day. However, little improvement is observed for sampling on more than 6 days. At the semi-arid site, the N0mod method was calibrated better under site-specific average wetness conditions, whereas HMF and COSMIC were calibrated better under drier conditions. Average soil wetness condition gave better calibration results at the two humid sites. The calibration results for the HMF method were better when calibrated with combinations of days with similar soil wetness conditions, opposed to N0mod and COSMIC, which profited from using days with distinct wetness conditions. Errors in actual neutron intensities were translated to average errors specifically to each site. At the semi-arid site, these errors were below the

  4. Study of the Effect of Temporal Sampling Frequency on DSCOVR Observations Using the GEOS-5 Nature Run Results (Part I): Earths Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Yang, Yuekui

    2016-01-01

    Satellites always sample the Earth-atmosphere system in a finite temporal resolution. This study investigates the effect of sampling frequency on the satellite-derived Earth radiation budget, with the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) as an example. The output from NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5) Nature Run is used as the truth. The Nature Run is a high spatial and temporal resolution atmospheric simulation spanning a two-year period. The effect of temporal resolution on potential DSCOVR observations is assessed by sampling the full Nature Run data with 1-h to 24-h frequencies. The uncertainty associated with a given sampling frequency is measured by computing means over daily, monthly, seasonal and annual intervals and determining the spread across different possible starting points. The skill with which a particular sampling frequency captures the structure of the full time series is measured using correlations and normalized errors. Results show that higher sampling frequency gives more information and less uncertainty in the derived radiation budget. A sampling frequency coarser than every 4 h results in significant error. Correlations between true and sampled time series also decrease more rapidly for a sampling frequency less than 4 h.

  5. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  6. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  7. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  8. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  9. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  10. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  11. Temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolite levels in bedtime, morning, and 24-hr urine samples for 50 adults in North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insects in both agricultural and residential settings worldwide. Few data are available on the temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of non-occupationally exposed adults. In this work, we describe the study ...

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) biomarkers in soil and sediment tracing: towards improved sampling protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiffarth, Dominic; Petticrew, Ellen; Owens, Philip; Lobb, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of CSSI in biomarkers, specifically fatty acids and derivatives thereof, has recently been investigated as a potential tracer in soil and sediment fingerprinting. The use of CSSIs is of interest because of the potential to discern sediment providence based on land use, which is often difficult or not possible with other tracing techniques alone, such as geochemistry and fallout radionuclides. However, challenges exist in producing a representative sample of potential source materials. This presentation focuses on the development of improved protocols for sample collection. The data presented here are part of a larger investigation into using CSSIs as tracers in an agricultural watershed (South Tobacco Creek) in southern Manitoba, Canada. Extensive sampling was performed throughout the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in several locations within the watershed, with a focus on capturing within and between field spatial and temporal variability in one particular sub-watershed (the "Stepler" watershed). The Stepler watershed provided a unique opportunity to perform sampling in a natural environment where agricultural crops were hydrologically separated, thereby allowing for a sampling regime of transects strategically placed with little influence from nearby crops. A portion of the data which has been analyzed, showing temporal and spatial variability in terms of carbon stable isotope signal, biomarker concentrations and soil organic carbon, is presented. As CSSI protocols for tracing are still in development, these data aid in determining the robustness of the technique as well as helping to inform sampling approaches.

  13. Temporal naturalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  14. RESULTS FROM EPA FUNDED RESEARCH PROGRAMS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF PURGE VOLUME, SAMPLE VOLUME, SAMPLE FLOW RATE AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS ON SOIL GAS CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two research studies funded and overseen by EPA have been conducted since October 2006 on soil gas sampling methods and variations in shallow soil gas concentrations with the purpose of improving our understanding of soil gas methods and data for vapor intrusion applications. Al...

  15. Exploratory studies of PM10 receptor and source profiling by GC/MS and principal component analysis of temporally and spatially resolved ambient samples.

    PubMed

    Jeon, S J; Meuzelaar, H L; Sheya, S A; Lighty, J S; Jarman, W M; Kasteler, C; Sarofim, A F; Simoneit, B R

    2001-05-01

    For a recent exploratory study of particulate matter (PM) compositions, origins, and impacts in the El Paso/Juarez (Paso del Norte) airshed, the authors relied on solvent extraction (SX)-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) procedures to characterize 24-hr quartz fiber (QF) filter samples obtained from nine spatially distributed high-volume (Hi-Vol) PM10 samplers as well as on thermal desorption (TD)-GC/MS methods to characterize 45 time-resolved (2-hr) filter samples obtained with modified 1-m3/hr PM10 samplers. Principal component analysis and related chemometric techniques were used for data reduction and data fusion as well as for multiway data correlation. A high degree of correspondence (R2 = 0.821) was found between the rapid TD-GC/MS method (which can be carried out on 2-hr filter slices containing only microgram amounts of sample) and conventional SX-GC/MS procedures. The four main source patterns of organic PM components observed in GC/MS profiles of both temporally and spatially resolved receptor samples obtained in the El Paso/Juarez border airshed during the study period are interpreted to represent (1) vehicular emissions plus resuspended urban dust; (2) biomass combustion; (3) native vegetation detritus and resuspended agricultural dust; and (4) waste burning. Moreover, principal component analysis of combined, variance-weighted, temporally resolved TD-GC/MS data and spatially resolved SX-GC/MS data was used to determine approximate source locations for specific PM components identified in time-resolved receptor sample profiles. The same approach can be used to determine approximate circadian concentration profiles of specific PM components identified in spatially resolved receptor sample profiles. PMID:11355465

  16. Assessing the uncertainty of biomass change estimates obtained using multi-temporal field, lidar sampling, and satellite imagery on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, H.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of statistical sampling designs for aboveground biomass (and carbon) inventory and monitoring programs that can make efficient use of a variety of available data sources, including field plots, airborne lidar sampling, and satellite imagery. While the use of multiple sources, or levels, of remote sensing data can significantly increase the precision of biomass change estimates, especially in remote areas (such as interior Alaska) where it is extremely expensive to establish field plots, it can be challenging to accurately characterize the uncertainty (i.e. variance and bias) of the estimates obtained from these complex multi-level designs. In this study we evaluate a model-based approach to estimate changes in biomass over the western lowlands of the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska during the period 2004-2009 using a combination of field plots, lidar sampling, and satellite imagery. The model-based approach -- where all inferences are conditioned on the model relating the remote-sensing measurements to the inventory parameter of interest (e.g. biomass) - is appropriate for cases where it is cost-prohibitive, or infeasible, to establish a probability sample of field plots that are both spatially and temporally coincident with each remote sensing data set. For example, a model-based approach can be used to obtain biomass estimates over a period of time, even when field data is only available for the current time period. In this study, lidar data were collected in 2004 and 2009 over single swaths that covered 130 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots distributed on a regular grid over the entire western Kenai. Field measurements on FIA plots were initially acquired over the period 1999-2003 and fifty-percent of these plots were remeasured in the period 2004-2009. In addition, high-accuracy coordinates (< 1 meter error) were obtained for these FIA plots using survey-grade GLONASS-enabled GPS equipment. Changes in biomass

  17. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  18. Dynamics and Sources of Atmospheric Lead in São Paulo, Brazil:Preliminary Insights from High Temporal Resolution Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, D.; Gioia, S. M. C. L.; Babinski, M.; Kerr, A. A. F. S.

    2009-04-01

    We present the results of a pilot study investigating the major processes that control concentrations and sources of lead (Pb) in the atmosphere of São Paulo City, Brazil. Aerosols were collected with high temporal resolution during a four-day period in July of 2005. The highest Pb concentrations measured coincided with large celebrations due to a soccer game final and the associated high traffic occurrence and large fireworks. This highlights the impact that a singular transient event can have on air quality even in a megacity like São Paulo. Under meteorological conditions nonconducive to pollutant dispersion (i.e., dry weather), Pb and particulate matter concentrations accumulated during the night, leading to the highest concentrations in aerosols collected early in the morning of the following day. The stable isotopes of Pb suggest that emissions from traffic remain the main source of Pb in São Paulo City due to the large traffic fleet, despite low Pb concentrations in gasoline and alcohol. Changes in wind directions result in different sources being dominant, such as industrial emissions from areas within the greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area.

  19. Levels and temporal trend of bisphenol A in composite food samples from Canadian Total Diet Study 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Perez-Locas, Carolina; Robichaud, André; Clement, Genevieve; Popovic, Svetlana; Dufresne, Guy; Dabeka, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Food composite samples from the Canadian Total Diet Study which was conducted each year from 2008 to 2012 rotating between different cities were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA). The overall levels of BPA in the composite food samples from each of the five years from 2008 to 2012 were similar in general with averages (range) of 7.7 ng/g (0.20-106 ng/g), 7.8 ng/g (0.26-110 ng/g), 6.9 ng/g (0.20-84 ng/g), 7.7 ng/g (0.20-105 ng/g) and 9.0 ng/g (0.15-90 ng/g) for 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Levels of BPA in most of the non-canned food composite samples were low and no particular trends were observed. In contrast, the trend of BPA levels in canned food composite samples over the five years (2008-2012) varies. BPA levels in most of the canned food composite samples from 2008 to 2012 were consistent in general (e.g. canned luncheon meat: 10-18 ng/g, canned baked beans: 18-25 ng/g). While BPA levels over the five years were found to decrease for some canned food composite samples (e.g., canned fish: 109 ng/g in 2009 vs. 51 ng/g in 2012), they were also found to increase for some other canned food composite samples (e.g. canned meat soups: 90-104 ng/g in 2011-2012 vs. 29 ng/g in 2008). Thus, recent changes in can coating for food packaging to BPA-free alternatives may have not been fully reflected in all canned food products over the period from 2008 to 2012. Continued monitoring is necessary to more fully assess the potential impact on dietary exposure by the use of BPA alternatives in food contact materials. PMID:26372889

  20. Temporal-spatial analysis of U.S.-Mexico border environmental fine and coarse PM air sample extract activity in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lauer, Fredine T.; Mitchell, Leah A.; Bedrick, Edward; McDonald, Jacob D.; Lee, Wen-Yee; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Amaya, Maria A.; Berwick, Marianne; Gonzales, Melissa; Currey, Robert; Pingitore, Nicholas E.

    2009-07-01

    Particulate matter less than 10 {mu}m (PM10) has been shown to be associated with aggravation of asthma and respiratory and cardiopulmonary morbidity. There is also great interest in the potential health effects of PM2.5. Particulate matter (PM) varies in composition both spatially and temporally depending on the source, location and seasonal condition. El Paso County which lies in the Paso del Norte airshed is a unique location to study ambient air pollution due to three major points: the geological land formation, the relatively large population and the various sources of PM. In this study, dichotomous filters were collected from various sites in El Paso County every 7 days for a period of 1 year. The sampling sites were both distant and near border crossings, which are near heavily populated areas with high traffic volume. Fine (PM2.5) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) PM filter samples were extracted using dichloromethane and were assessed for biologic activity and polycyclic aromatic (PAH) content. Three sets of marker genes human BEAS2B bronchial epithelial cells were utilized to assess the effects of airborne PAHs on biologic activities associated with specific biological pathways associated with airway diseases. These pathways included in inflammatory cytokine production (IL-6, IL-8), oxidative stress (HMOX-1, NQO-1, ALDH3A1, AKR1C1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signaling (CYP1A1). Results demonstrated interesting temporal and spatial patterns of gene induction for all pathways, particularly those associated with oxidative stress, and significant differences in the PAHs detected in the PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 fractions. Temporally, the greatest effects on gene induction were observed in winter months, which appeared to correlate with inversions that are common in the air basin. Spatially, the greatest gene expression increases were seen in extracts collected from the central most areas of El Paso which are also closest to highways and border crossings.

  1. Examining Temporal Sample Scale and Model Choice with Spatial Capture-Recapture Models in the Common Leopard Panthera pardus.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Joshua F; Tempa, Tshering; Norbu, Nawang; Hebblewhite, Mark; Mills, L Scott; Wangchuk, Tshewang R; Lukacs, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Many large carnivores occupy a wide geographic distribution, and face threats from habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, prey depletion, and human wildlife-conflicts. Conservation requires robust techniques for estimating population densities and trends, but the elusive nature and low densities of many large carnivores make them difficult to detect. Spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models provide a means for handling imperfect detectability, while linking population estimates to individual movement patterns to provide more accurate estimates than standard approaches. Within this framework, we investigate the effect of different sample interval lengths on density estimates, using simulations and a common leopard (Panthera pardus) model system. We apply Bayesian SCR methods to 89 simulated datasets and camera-trapping data from 22 leopards captured 82 times during winter 2010-2011 in Royal Manas National Park, Bhutan. We show that sample interval length from daily, weekly, monthly or quarterly periods did not appreciably affect median abundance or density, but did influence precision. We observed the largest gains in precision when moving from quarterly to shorter intervals. We therefore recommend daily sampling intervals for monitoring rare or elusive species where practicable, but note that monthly or quarterly sample periods can have similar informative value. We further develop a novel application of Bayes factors to select models where multiple ecological factors are integrated into density estimation. Our simulations demonstrate that these methods can help identify the "true" explanatory mechanisms underlying the data. Using this method, we found strong evidence for sex-specific movement distributions in leopards, suggesting that sexual patterns of space-use influence density. This model estimated a density of 10.0 leopards/100 km2 (95% credibility interval: 6.25-15.93), comparable to contemporary estimates in Asia. These SCR methods provide a guide to

  2. Examining Temporal Sample Scale and Model Choice with Spatial Capture-Recapture Models in the Common Leopard Panthera pardus

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Joshua F.; Tempa, Tshering; Norbu, Nawang; Hebblewhite, Mark; Mills, L. Scott; Wangchuk, Tshewang R.; Lukacs, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Many large carnivores occupy a wide geographic distribution, and face threats from habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, prey depletion, and human wildlife-conflicts. Conservation requires robust techniques for estimating population densities and trends, but the elusive nature and low densities of many large carnivores make them difficult to detect. Spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models provide a means for handling imperfect detectability, while linking population estimates to individual movement patterns to provide more accurate estimates than standard approaches. Within this framework, we investigate the effect of different sample interval lengths on density estimates, using simulations and a common leopard (Panthera pardus) model system. We apply Bayesian SCR methods to 89 simulated datasets and camera-trapping data from 22 leopards captured 82 times during winter 2010–2011 in Royal Manas National Park, Bhutan. We show that sample interval length from daily, weekly, monthly or quarterly periods did not appreciably affect median abundance or density, but did influence precision. We observed the largest gains in precision when moving from quarterly to shorter intervals. We therefore recommend daily sampling intervals for monitoring rare or elusive species where practicable, but note that monthly or quarterly sample periods can have similar informative value. We further develop a novel application of Bayes factors to select models where multiple ecological factors are integrated into density estimation. Our simulations demonstrate that these methods can help identify the “true” explanatory mechanisms underlying the data. Using this method, we found strong evidence for sex-specific movement distributions in leopards, suggesting that sexual patterns of space-use influence density. This model estimated a density of 10.0 leopards/100 km2 (95% credibility interval: 6.25–15.93), comparable to contemporary estimates in Asia. These SCR methods provide a guide

  3. Spatial and temporal distribution of erosion rates in a sample catchment of Central Italy investigated through digital photogrammetric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucelli, Pietro; Alessio Baldassarre, Maurizio; Conforti, Massimo; Della Seta, Marta; di Maggio, Cipriano; Galiano, Mariachiara; Lupia Palmieri, Elvidio; Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Scarciglia, Fabio; Vergari, Francesca

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion is a relevant environmental problem worldwide and represents one of the most significant phenomena of land degradation, frequently responsible for irreversible effects on the "soil resource". This problem is becoming even more important, especially in the Mediterranean area, which is affected by several and mostly severe erosive processes due to the action of surface running water and gravity, favored both by climate conditions and intensive, as well as rapidly changing land use. Aim of this presentation is to illustrate the results obtained by the application of digital photogrammetric methodologies to evaluate the rate and spatial-temporal development of denudation processes in a selected test area of Central Italy, the Upper Orcia Valley (Tuscany). The test area coincides with a small catchment extending about 4.4 km2, highly representative of the typical effects of accelerated slope dynamics that widely affects central Italy. This area is characterized by the widespread outcrop of a clayey substratum, thus experiencing the intensive action of surface running water on slopes, generating the typical badland landforms well-known as "calanchi" and "biancane". There is also diffuse evidence of mass wasting, which is mostly represented by soil creep, solifluction and landslide phenomena. A digital photogrammetric analysis of landforms was performed on four series of aerial photos which refer to the period 1954-2003, by using a Z-Map digital photogrammetric workstation. In order to obtain the best image orientation (both in terms of internal and external orientation) a DGPS survey was carried out and about 70 ground control points were located. Four high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DTMs with 2x2m pixels) of the test area were extracted from the aerial photographs dating to 1954, 1976, 1990 and 2003, respectively. The estimation of the sediment loss rate was computed by overlaying these DTMs. Moreover, interpretation of air photos allowed

  4. Sample project: establishing a global forest monitoring capability using multi-resolution and multi-temporal remotely sensed data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Matt; Stehman, Steve; Loveland, Tom; Vogelmann, Jim; Cochrane, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying rates of forest-cover change is important for improved carbon accounting and climate change modeling, management of forestry and agricultural resources, and biodiversity monitoring. A practical solution to examining trends in forest cover change at global scale is to employ remotely sensed data. Satellite-based monitoring of forest cover can be implemented consistently across large regions at annual and inter-annual intervals. This research extends previous research on global forest-cover dynamics and land-cover change estimation to establish a robust, operational forest monitoring and assessment system. The approach integrates both MODIS and Landsat data to provide timely biome-scale forest change estimation. This is achieved by using annual MODIS change indicator maps to stratify biomes into low, medium and high change categories. Landsat image pairs can then be sampled within these strata and analyzed for estimating area of forest cleared.

  5. The Effect of Local Hydration Environment on the Mechanical Properties and Unloaded Temporal Changes of Isolated Porcine Annular Samples.

    PubMed

    Gruevski, Kristina M; Gooyers, Chad E; Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2016-10-01

    Preventing dehydration during in vitro testing of isolated layers of annulus fibrosus tissue may require different test conditions than functional spine units. The purpose of the study was twofold: (A) to quantify changes in mass and thickness of multilayer annulus samples in four hydration environments over 120 min; and (B) to quantify cycle-varying biaxial tensile properties of annulus samples in the four environments. The environments included a saline bath, air, relative humidity control, and misting combined with controlled humidity. The loading protocol implemented 24 cycles of biaxial tensile loading to 20% strain at a rate of 2%/s with 3-, 8-, and 13-min of intermittent rest. Specimen mass increased an average (standard deviation) 72% (11) when immersed for 120 min (p < 0.0001). The air condition and the combined mist and relative humidity conditions reduced mass by 45% (15) and 25% (23), respectively, after 120 min (p < 0.0014). Stress at 16% stretch in the air condition was higher at cycle 18 (18 min of exposure) and cycle 24 (33 min of exposure) compared to all other environments in both the axial and circumferential directions (p < 0.0460). There was no significant change in mass or thickness over time in the relative humidity condition and the change in circumferential stress at 16% stretch between cycles 6 and 24 was a maximum of 0.099 MPa and not statistically significant. Implementation of a controlled relative humidity environment is recommended to maintain hydration of isolated annulus layers during cyclic tensile testing. PMID:27479500

  6. Are shear force methods adequately reported?

    PubMed

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Fowler, Stephanie M; Hopkins, David L

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the detail to which shear force (SF) protocols and methods have been reported in the scientific literature between 2009 and 2015. Articles (n=734) published in peer-reviewed animal and food science journals and limited to only those testing the SF of unprocessed and non-fabricated mammal meats were evaluated. It was found that most of these SF articles originated in Europe (35.3%), investigated bovine species (49.0%), measured m. longissimus samples (55.2%), used tenderometers manufactured by Instron (31.2%), and equipped with Warner-Bratzler blades (68.8%). SF samples were also predominantly thawed prior to cooking (37.1%) and cooked sous vide, using a water bath (50.5%). Information pertaining to blade crosshead speed (47.5%), recorded SF resistance (56.7%), muscle fibre orientation when tested (49.2%), sub-section or core dimension (21.8%), end-point temperature (29.3%), and other factors contributing to SF variation were often omitted. This base failure diminishes repeatability and accurate SF interpretation, and must therefore be rectified. PMID:27107727

  7. Temporal and vertical distributions of anthropogenic 236U in the Japan Sea using a coral core and seawater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Nomura, Tomoya; Steier, Peter; Gloser, Robin; Sasaki, Keiichi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Nakakuki, Tomoeki; Takahashi, Yoshio; Yamano, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    The input history of 236U to the surface water of the Japan Sea was reconstructed through measurement of the 236U/238U atom ratio in annual bands of a coral skeleton which was collected at Iki Island in the Tsushima Strait, the main entrance to the Japan Sea. The 236U/238U atom ratios and concentrations of U isotopes were measured for the period 1935-2010 using AMS and ICP-MS. The 236U/238U atom ratios revealed three prominent peaks: 4.51 × 10-9 in 1955, 6.15 × 10-9 in 1959 and 4.14 × 10-9 in 1963; thereafter the isotope ratios gradually decreased over the next several decades, attaining a value of ca.1.3 × 10-9 for the present day. A simplified depth profile model for 236U in the Japan Sea, using the reconstructed 236U value for the surface water together with observed depth profiles for 236U in the water column in 2010, yielded diffusion coefficients of 3.4-5.6 cm2/s for 6 sampling points. The diffusion coefficient values obtained for the northern stations were relatively large, and fitting uncertainty was also larger for stations in the northern region. It may be presumed that the distribution of 236U in the water columns have been influenced not only by diffusion but also by subduction of the surface water in the Japan Sea.

  8. Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel

    2013-08-01

    No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

  9. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  10. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  11. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200.14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and...

  12. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  13. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  14. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200....14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure...

  15. Spatial and temporal distribution of Au and other trace elements in an estuary using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique and grab sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Andrew R.; Salmon, S. Ursula; Rate, Andrew W.; Larsen, Sarah; Kilminster, Kieryn

    2015-12-01

    This study reports the first surface water evaluation of the temporal and spatial variability of Au in an estuary, using recently developed modifications to the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and grab sampling techniques. At the two study sites in the Swan River estuary that were more marine in character, the DGT-measured concentrations of Au (26.3 and 31.3 ng/L) were within the range of total concentrations measured on individual days (13.2-30.6 ng/L and 11.2-37.2 ng/L, respectively). In contrast, at an upstream site, Au concentrations measured by DGT were significantly lower than totals (3.9 ng/L for DGT, compared with 13.2-28.8 ng/L for grab sampling), likely due to either size exclusion of colloids (>70 nm) by DGT or formation of a dissolved, non-DGT-labile Au species (<0.45 μm). DGT-measured concentrations of other metals (Cu, Co, Cr, U, V, Mo and As) were also lower than total concentrations, although in contrast to DGT-measured Au, this phenomenon occurred at all sites. Furthermore, daily grab samples for Au, taken over the 10-day deployment (which included a rain event), showed that Au concentrations could spike substantially (from 15.1 ng/L to 37.2 ng/L) over intervals as short as one day. The combination of simultaneous deployment of different DGT devices and grab sampling represents a new development in efforts to understand the transport and fate of Au together with other elements in dynamic environments such as estuaries.

  16. Temporal trends in bisphenol A exposure in the United States from 2003-2012 and factors associated with BPA exposure: Spot samples and urine dilution complicate data interpretation.

    PubMed

    LaKind, Judy S; Naiman, Daniel Q

    2015-10-01

    Nationally representative data on urinary levels of BPA and its metabolites in the United States from the 2003-2004 to 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes and examine temporal trends. Additionally, NHANES data on lifestyle/demographic/dietary factors previously reported to be associated with BPA exposures were examined to assess the resiliency of the reported associations (whether the association is maintained across the five surveys). Finally, various approaches for addressing issues with the use of BPA concentration data from spot urine samples were examined for their effect on trends and associations. Three approaches were assessed here: (i) use of generic literature-based 24-h urine excretion volumes, (ii) use of creatinine adjustments, and (iii) use of individual urine flow rate data from NHANES. Based on 2011-2012 NHANES urinary BPA data and assumptions described in this paper, the median daily intake for the overall population is approximately 25 ng/kg day; median intake estimates were approximately two to three orders of magnitude below current health-based guidance values. Estimates of daily BPA intake have decreased significantly compared to those from the 2003-2004 NHANES. Estimates of associations between lifestyle/demographic/dietary factors and BPA exposure revealed inconsistencies related to both NHANES survey year and the three approaches listed above; these results demonstrate the difficulties in interpreting urinary BPA data, despite efforts to account for urine dilution and translation of spot sample data to 24-h data. The results further underscore the importance of continued research on how to best utilize urinary measures of environmental chemicals in exposure research. Until a consensus is achieved regarding the best biomonitoring approaches for assessing exposures to short-lived chemicals using urine samples, research on factors associated with BPA exposures should

  17. Exploring the possibility to detect recent temporal changes in highly disturbed sedimentary records through sampling repetitions and core comparisons of porosity and sand content.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, S; Bellucci, L G; Romano, S; Piazza, R; Turetta, C; Vecchiato, M; Nhon, D H; Frignani, M

    2015-07-01

    Dating of sediment cores in dynamic environments (such as tropical coastal lagoons) is often impossible to achieve, due to the difficulty to recover continuous and undisturbed records. Detailed temporal definition of environmental changes cannot be assured, but there is the possibility that information retained in such sediments can still provide useful insights on local or large-scale sedimentary dynamics, when a specific strategy is adopted. This latter consists in repeated core samplings at the same location and in the comparison of core profiles for basic and easily measurable parameters (porosity and sand content). This approach was tested on sediment cores, collected repeatedly during the period 2005-2010, at the same site of the Thi Nai Lagoon (central Vietnam). The proposed procedure was able to evidence the impact on lagoon sediments of activities linked to the construction of industrial settlements in the area, with dredging removing a consistent sediment layer from 2005 to 2008 and waste dumping providing additional sediment input in the following period. Simple statistic confirmed this scenario, together with core profiles of PCBs, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn. The procedure represents a simple tool to study coastal dynamics in places where the level of accuracy of traditional sediment radiodating cannot be reached. Several ameliorations are suggested in order to help developing the monitoring of sedimentary processes in poorly studied areas. PMID:26130246

  18. Assessing temporal and spatial variation in sensitivity of communities of periphyton sampled from agroecosystem to, and ability to recover from, atrazine exposure.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Ryan S; Brain, Richard A; Malia Andrus, J; Hosmer, Alan J; Solomon, Keith R; Hanson, Mark L

    2015-08-01

    Lotic systems in agriculturally intensive watersheds can experience short-term pulsed exposures of pesticides as a result of runoff associated with rainfall events following field applications. Of special interest are herbicides that could potentially impair communities of primary producers, such as those associated with periphyton. Therefore, this study examined agroecosystem-derived lotic periphyton to assess (1) variation in community sensitivity to, and ability to recover from, acute (48h) exposure to the photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicide atrazine across sites and time, and (2) attempt to determine the variables (e.g., community structure, hydrology, water quality measures) that were predictive for observed differences in sensitivity and recovery. Periphyton were sampled from six streams in the Midwestern U.S. on four different dates in 2012 (April to August). Field-derived periphyton were exposed in the laboratory to concentrations of atrazine ranging from 10 to 320μg/L for 48h, followed by untreated media for evaluation of recovery for 48h. Effective quantum yield of PSII was measured after 24h and 48h exposure and 24h and 48h after replacement of media. Inhibition of PSII EC50 values ranged from 53 to >320µg/L. The majority of periphyton samples (16 out of 22) exposed to atrazine up to 320µg/L recovered completely by 48h after replacement of media. Percent inhibition of effective quantum yield of PSII in periphyton (6 of 22 samples) exposed to 320µg/L atrazine that were significantly lower than controls after 48h ranged from 2% to 24%. No distinct spatial or temporal trends in sensitivity and recovery potential were observed over the course of the study. Conditional inference forest analysis and variation partitioning were used to investigate potential associations between periphyton sensitivity to and ability to recover from exposure to atrazine. Although certain environmental variables (i.e., proximity of high flow/velocity events and

  19. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  20. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  1. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  2. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  4. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  5. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  6. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  7. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  8. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  9. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  10. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  11. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  12. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  13. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  14. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  15. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  16. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  17. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  18. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  19. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  20. TEMPORAL VARIATION OF SETOSPHAERIA TURCICA SAMPLED FROM 1974 TO 1994 AND THE ORIGIN OF RACES 1,2, AND 23N IN NORTH AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Setosphaeria turcica causes northern corn leaf blight, an economically important disease of maize throughout the world. Survey collections of S. turcica isolates from 1974 to 1994 provided a unique opportunity to examine temporal diversity in the eastern US. Two hundred forty two isolates of S. turc...

  1. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    PubMed

    Zobel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for dicot plant root systems. PMID:26904040

  2. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  3. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  4. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  5. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  6. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  7. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  8. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...

  9. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  10. Maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the nutritional and fluid requirements of enterally-fed patients can be challenging and the practicalities of ensuring adequate delivery must be taken into consideration. Patients who are enterally fed can be more reliant on clinicians, family members and carers to meet their nutrition and hydration needs and identify any deficiencies, excesses or problems with delivery. Estimating a patient's requirements can be challenging due to the limitations of using predictive equations in the clinical setting. Close monitoring by all those involved in the patient's care, as well as regular review by a dietitian, is therefore required to balance the delivery of adequate feed and fluids to meet each patient's individual needs and prevent the complications of malnutrition and dehydration. Increasing the awareness of the signs of malnutrition and dehydration in patients receiving enteral tube feeding among those involved in a patient's care will help any deficiencies to be detected early on and rectified before complications occur. PMID:26087203

  11. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  12. Managing temporal relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Daniel L.; Geoffroy, Amy L.; Gohring, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Various temporal constraints on the execution of activities are described, and their representation in the scheduling system MAESTRO is discussed. Initial examples are presented using a sample activity described. Those examples are expanded to include a second activity, and the types of temporal constraints that can obtain between two activities are explored. Soft constraints, or preferences, in activity placement are discussed. Multiple performances of activities are considered, with respect to both hard and soft constraints. The primary methods used in MAESTRO to handle temporal constraints are described as are certain aspects of contingency handling with respect to temporal constraints. A discussion of the overall approach, with indications of future directions for this research, concludes the study.

  13. Sampling frequency affects estimates of annual nitrous oxide fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, L.; Wolf, B.; Rowlings, D.; Scheer, C.; Kiese, R.; Grace, P.; Stefanova, K.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-11-01

    Quantifying nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, a potent greenhouse gas, from soils is necessary to improve our knowledge of terrestrial N2O losses. Developing universal sampling frequencies for calculating annual N2O fluxes is difficult, as fluxes are renowned for their high temporal variability. We demonstrate daily sampling was largely required to achieve annual N2O fluxes within 10% of the ‘best’ estimate for 28 annual datasets collected from three continents—Australia, Europe and Asia. Decreasing the regularity of measurements either under- or overestimated annual N2O fluxes, with a maximum overestimation of 935%. Measurement frequency was lowered using a sampling strategy based on environmental factors known to affect temporal variability, but still required sampling more than once a week. Consequently, uncertainty in current global terrestrial N2O budgets associated with the upscaling of field-based datasets can be decreased significantly using adequate sampling frequencies.

  14. Sampling frequency affects estimates of annual nitrous oxide fluxes.

    PubMed

    Barton, L; Wolf, B; Rowlings, D; Scheer, C; Kiese, R; Grace, P; Stefanova, K; Butterbach-Bahl, K

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, a potent greenhouse gas, from soils is necessary to improve our knowledge of terrestrial N2O losses. Developing universal sampling frequencies for calculating annual N2O fluxes is difficult, as fluxes are renowned for their high temporal variability. We demonstrate daily sampling was largely required to achieve annual N2O fluxes within 10% of the 'best' estimate for 28 annual datasets collected from three continents--Australia, Europe and Asia. Decreasing the regularity of measurements either under- or overestimated annual N2O fluxes, with a maximum overestimation of 935%. Measurement frequency was lowered using a sampling strategy based on environmental factors known to affect temporal variability, but still required sampling more than once a week. Consequently, uncertainty in current global terrestrial N2O budgets associated with the upscaling of field-based datasets can be decreased significantly using adequate sampling frequencies. PMID:26522228

  15. Tank 241-BX-104 third temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 6, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Hayes, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.178 % of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.458% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  16. Tank vapor characterization project: Tank 241-BX-104 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on June 10, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-104 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.270% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.675% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  17. Tank 241-BY-108 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on January 30, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from tile headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-108 (Tank BY - 108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.888% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <1.979% of tile LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  18. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-S-102 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on December 19, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.; Hayes, J.C.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm as specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank S-102 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 2.410% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.973% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.973% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  19. Tank 241-C-107 fifth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on February 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank C-107 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 3.233% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <3.342% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  20. Tank 241-BX-104 fourth temporal study: Headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on April 7, 1997. Tank vapor characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroshkov, A.V.; Hayes, J.C.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-04 (Tank BX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by SESC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BX-104 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 0.208% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.536% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  1. Adequation of mini satellites to oceanic altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaieche, G.; Aguttes, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Association of the mini satellite concept and oceanic altimetry missions is discussed. Mission definition and most constraining requirements (mesoscale for example) demonstrate mini satellites to be quite adequate for such missions. Progress in altimeter characteristics, orbit determination, and position reporting allow consideration of oceanic altimetry missions using low Earth orbit satellites. Satellite constellation, trace keeping and orbital period, and required payload characteristics are exposed. The mission requirements covering Sun synchronous orbit, service area, ground system, and launcher characteristics as well as constellation maintenance strategy are specified. Two options for the satellite, orbital mechanics, propulsion, onboard power and stabilizing subsystems, onboard management, satellite ground linkings, mechanical and thermal subsystems, budgets, and planning are discussed.

  2. Use of a (137)Cs re-sampling technique to investigate temporal changes in soil erosion and sediment mobilisation for a small forested catchment in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E; Alewell, Christine; Callegari, Giovanni; Mabit, Lionel; Mallimo, Nicola; Meusburger, Katrin; Zehringer, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Soil erosion and both its on-site and off-site impacts are increasingly seen as a serious environmental problem across the world. The need for an improved evidence base on soil loss and soil redistribution rates has directed attention to the use of fallout radionuclides, and particularly (137)Cs, for documenting soil redistribution rates. This approach possesses important advantages over more traditional means of documenting soil erosion and soil redistribution. However, one key limitation of the approach is the time-averaged or lumped nature of the estimated erosion rates. In nearly all cases, these will relate to the period extending from the main period of bomb fallout to the time of sampling. Increasing concern for the impact of global change, particularly that related to changing land use and climate change, has frequently directed attention to the need to document changes in soil redistribution rates within this period. Re-sampling techniques, which should be distinguished from repeat-sampling techniques, have the potential to meet this requirement. As an example, the use of a re-sampling technique to derive estimates of the mean annual net soil loss from a small (1.38 ha) forested catchment in southern Italy is reported. The catchment was originally sampled in 1998 and samples were collected from points very close to the original sampling points again in 2013. This made it possible to compare the estimate of mean annual erosion for the period 1954-1998 with that for the period 1999-2013. The availability of measurements of sediment yield from the catchment for parts of the overall period made it possible to compare the results provided by the (137)Cs re-sampling study with the estimates of sediment yield for the same periods. In order to compare the estimates of soil loss and sediment yield for the two different periods, it was necessary to establish the uncertainty associated with the individual estimates. In the absence of a generally accepted procedure

  3. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Tank 241-BY-108 temporal study headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on September 10, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit of 150 ppm specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP). Hydrogen was the principal flammable constituent of the Tank BY-108 headspace, determined to be present at approximately 1.463% of its lower flammability limit (LFL). Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <2.940% of the LFL. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in Table S.1. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0.

  4. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  5. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  6. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  7. Temporal sampling helps unravel the genetic structure of naturally occurring populations of a phytoparasitic nematode. 2. Separating the relative effects of gene flow and genetic drift.

    PubMed

    Gracianne, Cécile; Jan, Pierre-Loup; Fournet, Sylvain; Olivier, Eric; Arnaud, Jean-François; Porte, Catherine; Bardou-Valette, Sylvie; Denis, Marie-Christine; Petit, Eric J

    2016-09-01

    Studying wild pathogen populations in natural ecosystems offers the opportunity to better understand the evolutionary dynamics of biotic diseases in crops and to enhance pest control strategies. We used simulations and genetic markers to investigate the spatial and temporal population genetic structure of wild populations of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii on a wild host plant species, the sea beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima), the wild ancestor of cultivated beets. Our analysis of the variation of eight microsatellite loci across four study sites showed that (i) wild H. schachtii populations displayed fine-scaled genetic structure with no evidence of substantial levels of gene flow beyond the scale of the host plant, and comparisons with simulations indicated that (ii) genetic drift substantially affected the residual signals of isolation-by-distance processes, leading to departures from migration-drift equilibrium. In contrast to what can be suspected for (crop) field populations, this showed that wild cyst nematodes have very low dispersal capabilities and are strongly disconnected from each other. Our results provide some key elements for designing pest control strategies, such as decreasing passive dispersal events to limit the spread of virulence among field nematode populations. PMID:27606008

  8. Analysis of the effect of spatial and temporal sampling densities on accuracy of predicting the heating profile in windrowed broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standard method for monitoring temperature in windrow piles of broiler litter to predict microbial population reductions is described. Temperature data collected every 2 min on a 10 cm x 10 cm spatial sampling grid in five identically-constructed litter windrow piles was utilized in this study. ...

  9. Are PPS payments adequate? Issues for updating and assessing rates

    PubMed Central

    Sheingold, Steven H.; Richter, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Declining operating margins under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) have focused attention on the adequacy of payment rates. The question of whether annual updates to the rates have been too low or cost increases too high has become important. In this article we discuss issues relevant to updating PPS rates and judging their adequacy. We describe a modification to the current framework for recommending annual update factors. This framework is then used to retrospectively assess PPS payment and cost growth since 1985. The preliminary results suggest that current rates are more than adequate to support the cost of efficient care. Also discussed are why using financial margins to evaluate rates is problematic and alternative methods that might be employed. PMID:10127450

  10. Hydrologic and chemical data from an experiment to examine temporal variability in water samples from screened wells on Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment was designed to evaluate the changing chemical composition of the water pumped from a well screened in a physically and chemically heterogenous aquifer. Well F453-63, at the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic-Substances Hydrology research site located on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, was selected because it was known that the screen penetrated both the oxic and anoxic zones of the sewage plume from the Otis Air Base sewage-disposal sand beds. The experiment was conducted on August 12, 1992. Well F453-63 was sampled over time as it was pumped continuously, and three multilevel samplers were used to document the vertical distribution of selected chemicals in the ground water in the immediate vicinity of the well. All water samples obtained during the experiment were analyzed in the field for specific conductance and pH. The samples were subsequently analyzed for concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe+2), boron, calcium, chloride, iron (Fe total), phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, zinc, and nitrogen species, including nitrous oxide, ammonium, nitrite and nitrate. The results of these chemical analyses along with appropriate physical measurements of the site and aquifer material are documented in this data report.

  11. [PUF passive air sampling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmosphere of the Yangtze River Delta, China: spatio-temporal distribution and potential sources].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-fei; Yang, Wen-long; Dong, Liang; Shi, Shuang-xin; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Xiu-lan; Li, Ling-ling; Niu, Shan; Huang, Ye-ru

    2013-09-01

    Atmosphere is regarded to be an important media in the environmental pollution research area. Passive air sampling was one of the effective complementary sampling techniques for the active high volume air sampler in recent decades. A regional scale investigation on the atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was conducted in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). Polyurethane foam based passive air samplers were used to collect the atmospheric PAHs from 31 sampling sites in this area. PAHs concentrations ranged from 10.1 ng x m(-1) to 367 ng x m(-3) in this study. The annual average concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (BaP) reached 2.25 ng x m(-3), which was two times higher exceeding the national standard, GB 3095-2012. The atmospheric PAHs during four seasons decreased in the following order: autumn > winter > spring > summer. Larger BaP excessive areas were found in autumn and winter than other seasons. Moreover, an obvious emission of BaP was confirmed during the winter time. Traffic related petroleum combustion, coal and biomass burning, and coke oven were identified as potential sources of atmospheric PAHs, contributing 38.1%, 42.4%, and 19.5%, respectively. PMID:24288973

  12. Temporal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

    2012-10-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered

  13. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  14. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  15. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    PubMed

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  16. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  17. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  18. Temporal sampling helps unravel the genetic structure of naturally occurring populations of a phytoparasitic nematode. 1. Insights from the estimation of effective population sizes.

    PubMed

    Jan, Pierre-Loup; Gracianne, Cécile; Fournet, Sylvain; Olivier, Eric; Arnaud, Jean-François; Porte, Catherine; Bardou-Valette, Sylvie; Denis, Marie-Christine; Petit, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    The sustainability of modern agriculture relies on strategies that can control the ability of pathogens to overcome chemicals or genetic resistances through natural selection. This evolutionary potential, which depends partly on effective population size (N e ), is greatly influenced by human activities. In this context, wild pathogen populations can provide valuable information for assessing the long-term risk associated with crop pests. In this study, we estimated the effective population size of the beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, by sampling 34 populations infecting the sea beet Beta vulgaris spp. maritima twice within a one-year period. Only 20 populations produced enough generations to analyze the variation in allele frequencies, with the remaining populations showing a high mortality rate of the host plant after only 1 year. The 20 analyzed populations showed surprisingly low effective population sizes, with most having N e close to 85 individuals. We attribute these low values to the variation in population size through time, systematic inbreeding, and unbalanced sex-ratios. Our results suggest that H. schachtii has low evolutionary potential in natural environments. Pest control strategies in which populations on crops mimic wild populations may help prevent parasite adaptation to host resistance. PMID:26989440

  19. Extensive sampling of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Northwest Passage (Canadian Arctic Archipelago) reveals population differentiation across multiple spatial and temporal scales.

    PubMed

    Campagna, Leonardo; Van Coeverden de Groot, Peter J; Saunders, Brenda L; Atkinson, Stephen N; Weber, Diana S; Dyck, Markus G; Boag, Peter T; Lougheed, Stephen C

    2013-09-01

    As global warming accelerates the melting of Arctic sea ice, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) must adapt to a rapidly changing landscape. This process will necessarily alter the species distribution together with population dynamics and structure. Detailed knowledge of these changes is crucial to delineating conservation priorities. Here, we sampled 361 polar bears from across the center of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago spanning the Gulf of Boothia (GB) and M'Clintock Channel (MC). We use DNA microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences to quantify genetic differentiation, estimate gene flow, and infer population history. Two populations, roughly coincident with GB and MC, are significantly differentiated at both nuclear (F ST = 0.01) and mitochondrial (ΦST = 0.47; F ST = 0.29) loci, allowing Bayesian clustering analyses to assign individuals to either group. Our data imply that the causes of the mitochondrial and nuclear genetic patterns differ. Analysis of mtDNA reveals the matrilineal structure dates at least to the Holocene, and is common to individuals throughout the species' range. These mtDNA differences probably reflect both genetic drift and historical colonization dynamics. In contrast, the differentiation inferred from microsatellites is only on the scale of hundreds of years, possibly reflecting contemporary impediments to gene flow. Taken together, our data suggest that gene flow is insufficient to homogenize the GB and MC populations and support the designation of GB and MC as separate polar bear conservation units. Our study also provide a striking example of how nuclear DNA and mtDNA capture different aspects of a species demographic history. PMID:24102001

  20. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  1. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  2. Student Mobility and Its Implication for Schools' Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon M.; Meyers, Joel; Oshima, T. Chris

    2011-01-01

    Correlation and regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship of student mobility (as expressed by the school-level mobility rate) and first through fifth grade reading, language arts, and mathematics achievement for a statewide sample of 1062 elementary schools. Comparison data were analyzed to further investigate the relationship…

  3. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  4. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  5. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana A.

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  6. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P.; Woodruff, Bradley A.; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S.; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  7. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women's education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  8. A negative cranial computed tomographic scan is not adequate to support a diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri.

    PubMed

    Said, Rana R; Rosman, N Paul

    2004-08-01

    A 10-year-old boy with daily headache for 1 month and intermittent diplopia for 1 week was found to have a unilateral partial abducens palsy and bilateral papilledema; otherwise, his neurologic examination showed no abnormalities. A cranial computed tomographic (CT) scan was normal. Lumbar puncture disclosed a markedly elevated opening pressure of > 550 mm of cerebrospinal fluid with normal cerebrospinal fluid. Medical therapy with acetazolamide for presumed pseudotumor cerebri was begun. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, done several days later because of continuing symptoms, unexpectedly showed multiple hyperintensities of cerebral white matter on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Despite high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone for possible demyelinating disease, he failed to improve. A left temporal brain biopsy followed and disclosed an anaplastic oligodendroglioma. In a patient with features indicating pseudotumor cerebri, a negative cranial CT scan is not adequate to rule out underlying pathology; thus, MRI of the brain should probably always be performed. A revised definition of pseudotumor cerebri could better include "normal MRI of the brain" rather than "normal neuroimaging." PMID:15605471

  9. Biotic, temporal and spatial variability of tritium concentrations in transpirate samples collected in the vicinity of a near-surface low-level nuclear waste disposal site and nearby research reactor.

    PubMed

    Twining, J R; Hughes, C E; Harrison, J J; Hankin, S; Crawford, J; Johansen, M; Dyer, L

    2011-06-01

    The results of a 21 month sampling program measuring tritium in tree transpirate with respect to local sources are reported. The aim was to assess the potential of tree transpirate to indicate the presence of sub-surface seepage plumes. Transpirate gathered from trees near low-level nuclear waste disposal trenches contained activity concentrations of (3)H that were significantly higher (up to ∼700 Bq L(-1)) than local background levels (0-10 Bq L(-1)). The effects of the waste source declined rapidly with distance to be at background levels within 10s of metres. A research reactor 1.6 km south of the site contributed significant (p < 0.01) local fallout (3)H but its influence did not reach as far as the disposal trenches. The elevated (3)H levels in transpirate were, however, substantially lower than groundwater concentrations measured across the site (ranging from 0 to 91% with a median of 2%). Temporal patterns of tree transpirate (3)H, together with local meteorological observations, indicate that soil water within the active root zones comprised a mixture of seepage and rainfall infiltration. The degree of mixing was variable given that the soil water activity concentrations were heterogeneous at a scale equivalent to the effective rooting volume of the trees. In addition, water taken up by roots was not well mixed within the trees. Based on correlation modelling, net rainfall less evaporation (a surrogate for infiltration) over a period of from 2 to 3 weeks prior to sampling seems to be the optimum predictor of transpirate (3)H variability for any sampled tree at this site. The results demonstrate successful use of (3)H in transpirate from trees to indicate the presence and general extent of sub-surface contamination at a low-level nuclear waste site. PMID:21397999

  10. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  11. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  12. Do measures commonly used in body image research perform adequately with African American college women?

    PubMed

    Kashubeck-West, Susan; Coker, Angela D; Awad, Germine H; Stinson, Rebecca D; Bledman, Rashanta; Mintz, Laurie

    2013-07-01

    This study examines reliability and validity estimates for 3 widely used measures in body image research in a sample of African American college women (N = 278). Internal consistency estimates were adequate (α coefficients above .70) for all measures, and evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was found. Confirmatory factor analyses failed to replicate the hypothesized factor structures of these measures. Exploratory factor analyses indicated that 4 factors found for the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire were similar to the hypothesized subscales, with fewer items. The factors found for the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 were not similar to the subscales developed by the scale authors. Validity and reliability evidence is discussed for the new factors. PMID:23731233

  13. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  14. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  15. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  16. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  17. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  18. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  19. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  20. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  1. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  2. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  3. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  4. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  5. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  6. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  7. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  8. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  9. Temporal mapping and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, Charles G. (Inventor); Shrestha, Bijay (Inventor); Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan (Inventor); Mali, Preeti (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A compositing process for selecting spatial data collected over a period of time, creating temporal data cubes from the spatial data, and processing and/or analyzing the data using temporal mapping algebra functions. In some embodiments, the temporal data cube is creating a masked cube using the data cubes, and computing a composite from the masked cube by using temporal mapping algebra.

  10. Factors associated with adequate weekly reporting for disease surveillance data among health facilities in Nairobi County, Kenya, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mwatondo, Athman Juma; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Maina, Caroline; Makayotto, Lyndah; Mwangi, Moses; Njeru, Ian; Arvelo, Wences

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Kenya adopted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in 1998 to strengthen disease surveillance and epidemic response. However, the goal of weekly surveillance reporting among health facilities has not been achieved. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of adequate reporting and factors associated with IDSR reporting among health facilities in one Kenyan County. Methods Health facilities (public and private) were enrolled using stratified random sampling from 348 facilities prioritized for routine surveillance reporting. Adequately-reporting facilities were defined as those which submitted >10 weekly reports during a twelve-week period and a poor reporting facilities were those which submitted <10 weekly reports. Multivariate logistic regression with backward selection was used to identify risk factors associated with adequate reporting. Results From September 2 through November 30, 2013, we enrolled 175 health facilities; 130(74%) were private and 45(26%) were public. Of the 175 health facilities, 77 (44%) facilities classified as adequate reporting and 98 (56%) were reporting poorly. Multivariate analysis identified three factors to be independently associated with weekly adequate reporting: having weekly reporting forms at visit (AOR19, 95% CI: 6-65], having posters showing IDSR functions (AOR8, 95% CI: 2-12) and having a designated surveillance focal person (AOR7, 95% CI: 2-20). Conclusion The majority of health facilities in Nairobi County were reporting poorly to IDSR and we recommend that the Ministry of Health provide all health facilities in Nairobi County with weekly reporting tools and offer specific trainings on IDSR which will help designate a focal surveillance person. PMID:27303581

  11. Temporal Processing, Attention, and Learning Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerl, Karin; Willburger, Edith

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample (N = 439) of literacy impaired and unimpaired elementary school children the predictions of the temporal processing theory of dyslexia were tested while controlling for (sub)clininal attentional deficits. Visual and Auditory Temporal Order Judgement were administered as well as three subtests of a standardized attention test. The…

  12. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-evident (general anesthetics, drug metabolism). (3) The method of selection of subjects provides adequate... respect to pertinent variables such as age, sex, severity of disease, duration of disease, and use of... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies....

  13. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  14. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  15. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  16. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a)...

  17. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care §...

  18. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... safety analysis, or DSA, is to be prepared for every DOE nuclear facility. This DSA, once approved by...

  19. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  20. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  1. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  2. Temporal Non-locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filk, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of "temporal non-locality" within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of "temporally non-local states", "temporally non-local events" and "temporally non-local observables". The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon as "clock-representing states" are introduced in the context of special and general relativity. It is discussed in which way temporally non-local measurements may find an interesting application for experiments which test temporal versions of Bell inequalities.

  3. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with “specific” reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties. PMID:20298639

  4. A high UV environment does not ensure adequate Vitamin D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Brodie, A.; Harrison, S.; Nowak, M.; Moore, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Queensland has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world and due to the high levels of solar UV in this region it is assumed that incidental UV exposure should provide adequate vitamin D status for the population. This research was undertaken to test this assumption among healthy free-living adults in south-east Queensland, Australia (27°S), at the end of winter. This research was approved by Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee and conducted under the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. 10.2% of the sample had serum vitamin D levels below 25nm/L (deficiency) and a further 32.3% had levels between 25nm/L and 50nm/L (insufficiency). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency can occur at the end of winter, even in sunny climates. The wintertime UV levels in south-east Queensland (UV index 4-6) are equivalent to summertime UV levels in northern regions of Europe and the USA. These ambient UV levels are sufficient to ensure synthesis of vitamin D requirements. We investigated individual UV exposure (through a self reported sun exposure questionnaire) and found correlations between exposure and Vitamin D status. Further research is needed to explore the interactions between the solar UV environment and vitamin D status, particularly in high UV environments, such as Queensland.

  5. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties. PMID:20298639

  6. Temporal Ventriloquism in a Purely Temporal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartcher-O'Brien, Jessica; Alais, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how audiovisual signals are combined in time for a temporal analogue of the ventriloquist effect in a purely temporal context, that is, no spatial grounding of signals or other spatial facilitation. Observers were presented with two successive intervals, each defined by a 1250-ms tone, and indicated in which interval a brief…

  7. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

  8. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  9. Impact of sampling techniques on measured stormwater quality data for small streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmel, R.D.; Slade, R.M., Jr.; Haney, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    Science-based sampling methodologies are needed to enhance water quality characterization for setting appropriate water quality standards, developing Total Maximum Daily Loads, and managing nonpoint source pollution. Storm event sampling, which is vital for adequate assessment of water quality in small (wadeable) streams, is typically conducted by manual grab or integrated sampling or with an automated sampler. Although it is typically assumed that samples from a single point adequately represent mean cross-sectional concentrations, especially for dissolved constituents, this assumption of well-mixed conditions has received limited evaluation. Similarly, the impact of temporal (within-storm) concentration variability is rarely considered. Therefore, this study evaluated differences in stormwater quality measured in small streams with several common sampling techniques, which in essence evaluated within-channel and within-storm concentration variability. Constituent concentrations from manual grab samples and from integrated samples were compared for 31 events, then concentrations were also compared for seven events with automated sample collection. Comparison of sampling techniques indicated varying degrees of concentration variability within channel cross sections for both dissolved and particulate constituents, which is contrary to common assumptions of substantial variability in particulate concentrations and of minimal variability in dissolved concentrations. Results also indicated the potential for substantial within-storm (temporal) concentration variability for both dissolved and particulate constituents. Thus, failing to account for potential cross-sectional and temporal concentration variability in stormwater monitoring projects can introduce additional uncertainty in measured water quality data. Copyright ?? 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  10. IMPACTS OF IMAGERY TEMPORAL FREQUENCES ON LAND-COVER CHANGE DETECTION MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    An important consideration for monitoring land~cover (LC) change is the nominal temporal frequency of remote sensor data acquisitions required to adequately characterize change events, Ecosystem specific regeneration rates are an important consideration for determining the requir...

  11. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  12. Investigating Population History Using Temporal Genetic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Skoglund, Pontus; Sjödin, Per; Skoglund, Tobias; Lascoux, Martin; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The rapid advance of sequencing technology, coupled with improvements in molecular methods for obtaining genetic data from ancient sources, holds the promise of producing a wealth of genomic data from time-separated individuals. However, the population-genetic properties of time-structured samples have not been extensively explored. Here, we consider the implications of temporal sampling for analyses of genetic differentiation and use a temporal coalescent framework to show that complex historical events such as size reductions, population replacements, and transient genetic barriers between populations leave a footprint of genetic differentiation that can be traced through history using temporal samples. Our results emphasize explicit consideration of the temporal structure when making inferences and indicate that genomic data from ancient individuals will greatly increase our ability to reconstruct population history. PMID:24939468

  13. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  14. Temporal Coding of Volumetric Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llull, Patrick Ryan

    'Image volumes' refer to realizations of images in other dimensions such as time, spectrum, and focus. Recent advances in scientific, medical, and consumer applications demand improvements in image volume capture. Though image volume acquisition continues to advance, it maintains the same sampling mechanisms that have been used for decades; every voxel must be scanned and is presumed independent of its neighbors. Under these conditions, improving performance comes at the cost of increased system complexity, data rates, and power consumption. This dissertation explores systems and methods capable of efficiently improving sensitivity and performance for image volume cameras, and specifically proposes several sampling strategies that utilize temporal coding to improve imaging system performance and enhance our awareness for a variety of dynamic applications. Video cameras and camcorders sample the video volume (x,y,t) at fixed intervals to gain understanding of the volume's temporal evolution. Conventionally, one must reduce the spatial resolution to increase the framerate of such cameras. Using temporal coding via physical translation of an optical element known as a coded aperture, the compressive temporal imaging (CACTI) camera emonstrates a method which which to embed the temporal dimension of the video volume into spatial (x,y) measurements, thereby greatly improving temporal resolution with minimal loss of spatial resolution. This technique, which is among a family of compressive sampling strategies developed at Duke University, temporally codes the exposure readout functions at the pixel level. Since video cameras nominally integrate the remaining image volume dimensions (e.g. spectrum and focus) at capture time, spectral (x,y,t,lambda) and focal (x,y,t,z) image volumes are traditionally captured via sequential changes to the spectral and focal state of the system, respectively. The CACTI camera's ability to embed video volumes into images leads to exploration

  15. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  16. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  17. Effect of temporal resolution on the accuracy of ADCP measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez-Castro, J. A.; Oberg, K.; Duncker, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The application of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP's) in river flow measurements is promoting a great deal of progress in hydrometry. ADCP's not only require shorter times to collect data than traditional current meters, but also allow streamflow measurements at sites where the use of conventional meters is either very expensive, unsafe, or simply not possible. Moreover, ADCP's seem to offer a means for collecting flow data with spatial and temporal resolutions that cannot be achieved with traditional current-meters. High-resolution data is essential to characterize the mean flow and turbulence structure of streams, which can in turn lead to a better understanding of the hydrodynamic and transport processes in rivers. However, to properly characterize the mean flow and turbulence intensities of stationary flows in natural turbulent boundary layers, velocities need to be sampled over a long-enough time span. The question then arises, how long should velocities be sampled in the flow field to achieve an adequate temporal resolution? Theoretically, since velocities cannot be sampled over an infinitely long time interval, the error due to finite integration time must be considered. This error can be estimated using the integral time scale. The integral time scale is not only a measure of the time interval over which a fluctuating function is correlated with itself but also a measure of the time span over which the function is dependent on itself. This time scale, however, is not a constant but varies spatially in the flow field. In this paper we present an analysis of the effect of the temporal resolution (sampling time span) on the accuracy of ADCP measurements based on the integral time scale. Single ping velocity profiles collected with frequencies of 1 Hz in the Chicago River at Columbus Drive using an uplooking 600 kHz ADCP are used in this analysis. The integral time scale at different depths is estimated based on the autocorrelation function of the

  18. Extracting Temporal Information from Electronic Patient Records

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Patrick, Jon

    2012-01-01

    A method for automatic extraction of clinical temporal information would be of significant practical importance for deep medical language understanding, and a key to creating many successful applications, such as medical decision making, medical question and answering, etc. This paper proposes a rich statistical model for extracting temporal information from an extremely noisy clinical corpus. Besides the common linguistic, contextual and semantic features, the highly restricted training sample expansion and the structure distance between the temporal expression & related event expressions are also integrated into a supervised machine-learning approach. The learning method produces almost 80% F- score in the extraction of five temporal classes, and nearly 75% F-score in identifying temporally related events. This process has been integrated into the document-processing component of an implemented clinical question answering system that focuses on answering patient-specific questions (See demonstration at http://hitrl.cs.usyd.edu.au/ICNS/). PMID:23304326

  19. A method for determining adequate resistance form of complete cast crown preparations.

    PubMed

    Weed, R M; Baez, R J

    1984-09-01

    A diagram with various degrees of occlusal convergence, which takes into consideration the length and diameter of complete crown preparations, was designed as a guide to assist the dentist to obtain adequate resistance form. To test the validity of the diagram, five groups of complete cast crown stainless steel dies were prepared (3.5 mm long, occlusal convergence 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees). Gold copings were cast for each of the 50 preparations. Displacement force was applied to the casting perpendicularly to a simulated 30-degree cuspal incline until the casting was displaced. Castings were deformed at margins except for the 22-degree group. Castings from this group were displaced without deformation, and it was concluded that there was a lack of adequate resistance form as predicted by the diagram. The hypothesis that the diagram could be used to predict adequate or inadequate resistance form was confirmed by this study. PMID:6384470

  20. Errorless Learning of a Conditional Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arantes, Joana; Machado, Armando

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we extended errorless learning to a conditional temporal discrimination. Pigeons' responses to a left-red key after a 2-s sample and to a right-green key after a 10-s sample were reinforced. There were two groups: One learned the discrimination through trial and error and the other through an errorless learning procedure.…

  1. Temporal Ontologies for Geoscience: Alignment Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Time is a central concept in geoscience. Geologic histories are composed of sequences of geologic processes and events. Calibration of their timing ties a local history into a broader context, and enables correlation of events between locations. The geologic timescale is standardized in the International Chronostratigraphic Chart, which specifies interval names, and calibrations for the ages of the interval boundaries. Time is also a key concept in the world at large. A number of general purpose temporal ontologies have been developed, both stand-alone and as parts of general purpose or upper ontologies. A temporal ontology for geoscience should apply or extend a suitable general purpose temporal ontology. However, geologic time presents two challenges: Geology involves greater spans of time than in other temporal ontologies, inconsistent with the year-month-day/hour-minute-second formalization that is a basic assumption of most general purpose temporal schemes; The geologic timescale is a temporal topology. Its calibration in terms of an absolute (numeric) scale is a scientific issue in its own right supporting a significant community. In contrast, the general purpose temporal ontologies are premised on exact numeric values for temporal position, and do not allow for temporal topology as a primary structure. We have developed an ontology for the geologic timescale to account for these concerns. It uses the ISO 19108 distinctions between different types of temporal reference system, also linking to an explicit temporal topology model. Stratotypes used in the calibration process are modelled as sampling-features following the ISO 19156 Observations and Measurements model. A joint OGC-W3C harmonization project is underway, with standardization of the W3C OWL-Time ontology as one of its tasks. The insights gained from the geologic timescale ontology will assist in development of a general ontology capable of modelling a richer set of use-cases from geoscience.

  2. Comparison of four standards for determining adequate water intake of nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Phyllis M

    2011-01-01

    Adequate hydration for nursing home residents is problematic. The purpose of this study was to compare four standards used to determine a recommended water intake among nursing home residents. Inconsistencies in the amount of water intake recommended based on the standards compared were identified. The standard based on height and weight provides the most individualized recommendation. An individualized recommendation would facilitate goal setting for the care plan of each older person and assist in the prevention of dehydration. It is essential that a cost-effective and clinically feasible approach to determine adequate water intake be determined for this population to prevent the adverse outcomes associated with dehydration. PMID:21469538

  3. Is serum or sputum eosinophil cationic protein level adequate for diagnosis of mild asthma?

    PubMed

    Khakzad, Mohammad Reza; Mirsadraee, Majid; Sankian, Mojtaba; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Meshkat, Mojtaba

    2009-09-01

    Spirometry has been used as a common diagnostic test in asthma. Most of the patients with a mild asthma have a FEV1 within normal range. Hence, other diagnostic methods are usually used. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) could be an accurate diagnostic marker of mild asthma. In this study diagnosis of asthma was made according to internationally accepted criteria. Asthma severity was evaluated according to frequency of symptoms and FEV1.Adequate sputum samples were obtained in 50 untreated subjects. A control group of 12 normal subjects that showed PC20 more than 8 mg/dl was also examined. Sputum was induced by inhalation of hypertonic saline. Inflammatory cells in sputum smears were assessed semi-quantitatively. ECP and IgE concentrations, eosinophil (EO) percentage and ECP/EO ratio in serum and sputum were also determined. The results revealed that Cough and dyspnea were the most frequent clinical findings. Dyspnea and wheezing were the symptoms that correlated with staging of asthma. FEV1 was within normal range (more than 80% of predicted) in 22 (44%) subjects.Asthmatic patients showed significantly higher numbers of blood eosinophils (4.5+/- 3.1% vs. 1.2+/-0.2%, P=0.009), and higher levels of serum ECP than control group (3.1+/- 2.6 % and 22.6+/- 15.8 ng/ml, respectively). Sputum ECP level in asthmatics was significantly higher than non- asthmatics (55.3+/-29.8ng/mL vs. 25.0+/-24.7ng/mL, P=0.045). Regression analysis showed no significant correlation between spirometric parameters and biomarkers, the only exception was significant correlation between FEF(25-75) and serum ECP (r= 0.28, P 0.041). Regarding clinical symptoms, wheezing was significantly correlated with elevation of most of biomarkers. Since, serum and sputum ECP levels are elevated in untreated asthmatics, the ECP level could be used for accurate diagnosis of mild form of asthma in which spirometry is unremarkable. PMID:20124607

  4. Polarization temporal dynamics in a dye microlaser

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, A.; De Martini, F.; Mataloni, P.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the temporal dynamics of the output polarization of a dye microlaser operating in a transient regime, i.e., under femtosecond excitation. In these conditions the dipole angular diffusion has an important role in the formation of the microlaser pulse, as is shown in a theoretical model. By performing the experiment for different values of the microcavity length and varying the polarization angle, we measured threshold and buildup time of the microlaser and compared the results obtained with two dye solutions of different viscosity. The agreement between theory and experimental results is adequate. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  5. Temporal Organization in Prose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulhavy, Raymond W.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    High school students read textual passages organized around a semantic, temporal, or random theme. Free recall, semantically, and temporally-cued tests measured recall. During free recall, the organized passages yielded greater recall. For the cued tests, more words were remembered when the passage organization matched the type of test cue.…

  6. Temporal Bisection in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Trained 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds in temporal bisection task, with nonstandard comparison stimuli spaced linearly between short or long standard visual stimuli. Statistical analyses and results from different theoretical models of the data all suggested that temporal sensitivity was higher in the 8-year-olds than in younger groups, even when the…

  7. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  8. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  9. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  10. Calculating and Reducing Errors Associated with the Evaluation of Adequate Yearly Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    In the Spring, 1996, issue of "CRESST Line," E. Baker and R. Linn commented that, in efforts to measure the progress of schools, "the fluctuations due to differences in the students themselves could conceal differences in instructional effects." This is particularly true in the context of the evaluation of adequate yearly progress required by…

  11. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  12. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  13. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...

  14. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  15. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  16. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  17. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  18. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  19. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  20. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  1. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  2. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  3. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  4. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  5. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  7. Special or Not so Special: Special Education Background Experiences of Principals and Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study researched the special education background experience of principals and the effect on students in the subgroup of Students with Disabilities in making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). In the state of Ohio, schools and districts are expected to make AYP as a whole and additionally make AYP for each subgroup (various…

  8. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6-12 (n = 1,203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in…

  9. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the State's requirements for availability of services, as set forth in § 438.206. (e) CMS' right... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and Performance... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services....

  10. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  11. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  12. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  13. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  14. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conducting clinical investigations of a drug is to distinguish the effect of a drug from other influences... recognized by the scientific community as the essentials of an adequate and well-controlled clinical... randomization and blinding of patients or investigators, or both. If the intent of the trial is to...

  15. Final 2004 Report on Adequate Yearly Progress in the Montgomery County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jose W.

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of Montgomery County public schools made sufficient progress on state testing and accountability standards in 2004 to comply with the adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements under the "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001." Information released by the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) in October 2004 shows that…

  16. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  17. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  18. Estimates of Adequate School Spending by State Based on National Average Service Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Jerry

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a method for estimating expenditures per student needed to provide educational adequacy in each state. Illustrates the method using U.S., Arkansas, New York, Texas, and Washington State data, covering instruction, special needs, operations and maintenance, administration, and other costs. Estimates ratios of "adequate" to actual spending…

  19. Leadership Style and Adequate Yearly Progress: A Correlational Study of Effective Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leapley-Portscheller, Claudia Iris

    2008-01-01

    Principals are responsible for leading efforts to reach increasingly higher levels of student academic proficiency in schools associated with adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to identify the degree to which perceptions of principal transformational, transactional, and…

  20. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...

  1. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate cost data and cost finding. 413.24 Section 413.24 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY...

  2. Principals' Perceptions of Effective Strategies in Meeting Adequate Yearly Progress in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jadie K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of principals who have met Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) with the special education subgroup. This was a qualitative study, utilizing interviews to answer the research questions. The first three research questions analyzed the areas of assessment, building-level leadership, and curriculum…

  3. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  4. 75 FR 74022 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... November 15, 2010 (75 FR 69648). The corrected text of the recommendation approved by the Board is below... or telephone number (202) 694-7000. Correction: In the Federal Register of November 15, 2010 (75 FR... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the...

  5. Evaluating Rural Progress in Mathematics Achievement: Threats to the Validity of "Adequate Yearly Progress"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    2003-01-01

    This article examines major threats to the validity of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in the context of rural schools. Although rural students and their schools made significant academic progress in the past on national and state assessments, the current goal of AYP turns out to be highly unrealistic for them unless states set far lower…

  6. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  7. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  8. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  9. What Is the Cost of an Adequate Vermont High School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Access to an adequate education has been widely considered an undeniable right since Chief Justice Warren stated in his landmark decision that "Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments...it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an…

  10. Temporal bone radiography using the orthopantomograph

    SciTech Connect

    Tatezawa, T.

    1981-09-01

    Temporal bone radiographs obtained with an Orthopantomograph were compared with conventional radiographs. In acoustic neurinoma, cholesteatoma, otitis media, and middle fossa tumors, both methods demonstrated the abnormalities well. In two cases with lesions extending beyond the range of conventional projections, the broad orthopantomographic coverage was very valuable. Mastoid air cells, the mastoid process, petrous ridge, and internal auditory meatus were well demonstrated by both techniques. Orthopantomography was found to be superior in the demonstration of the petrous apex, while the superior semicircular canal was better demonstrated on the conventional views. Bilateral symmetry was particularly good and because of fewer films, radiation exposure was considerably less with orthopantomography. For many applications, orthopantomography is an adequate convenient substitute for conventional methods of examining the temporal bones.

  11. Phenological modelling: Can spatial data substitute temporal data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Caffarra, Amelia; Menzel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    Not only long-term information, but also urbanisation gradients may be supportive to assess phenological responses to global warming. A substitution of phenological data collected over a longer period with data collected over a spatial gradient might be appropriate if plant phenology responds to climate change over time similarly as climate variability over space. However, the inherent methodological, spatial and temporal peculiarities of different data sources could hinder generalisations. We investigated whether phenological responses of birch (Betula pendula Roth) assessed by temperature variations are comparable over time and space and whether spatially calibrated models can predict long-term phenological data adequately. Therefore, we used flowering data sampled along urbanisation gradients in Germany in 2010 and 2011 and long-term data (1991-2010) in Bavaria. These data was explored using linear regression models based on mean temperature as well as process-based models (DORMPHOT model) incorporating forcing and chilling temperatures and photoperiod. A time-for-space substitution might not always be suitable since models calibrated on spatial data were only found to be useful to predict spatial data, but not to predict long-term data. This finding was also confirmed by a comparison of temperature response rates. The temperature response derived from spatial data (-4.4 days/°C) was significantly higher than the response calculated from the long-term data (-1.9 days/°C). Furthermore, the predictive performance of the linear model was comparable to that of the DORMPHOT model. A possible explanation might be that the process-based DORMPHOT model also includes the description of the responses of trees to chilling and photoperiod and to their interaction, but there is not enough information in only two study years to adequately model this response. Consequently, models calibrated on spatial data cannot necessarily reflect changes that occur in phenological

  12. Sampling and Sample Preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawicki, Rubén O.

    Quality attributes in food products, raw materials, or ingredients are measurable characteristics that need monitoring to ensure that specifications are met. Some quality attributes can be measured online by using specially designed sensors and results obtained in real time (e.g., color of vegetable oil in an oil extraction plant). However, in most cases quality attributes are measured on small portions of material that are taken periodically from continuous processes or on a certain number of small portions taken from a lot. The small portions taken for analysis are referred to as samples, and the entire lot or the entire production for a certain period of time, in the case of continuous processes, is called a population. The process of taking samples from a population is called sampling. If the procedure is done correctly, the measurable characteristics obtained for the samples become a very accurate estimation of the population.

  13. Temporal Correlations and Neural Spike Train Entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Simon R.; Panzeri, Stefano

    2001-06-18

    Sampling considerations limit the experimental conditions under which information theoretic analyses of neurophysiological data yield reliable results. We develop a procedure for computing the full temporal entropy and information of ensembles of neural spike trains, which performs reliably for limited samples of data. This approach also yields insight to the role of correlations between spikes in temporal coding mechanisms. The method, when applied to recordings from complex cells of the monkey primary visual cortex, results in lower rms error information estimates in comparison to a {open_quotes}brute force{close_quotes} approach.

  14. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it. PMID:15260028

  15. A novel strategy to overcome resistance in stent placement at lesion site after adequate predilatation.

    PubMed

    Jain, D; Tolg, R; Katus, H A; Richardt, G

    2000-12-01

    Resistance was encountered in passing a 3 x 18 mm stent across a lesion in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. Successive changes in stent with repeated balloon dilatations did not succeed. Finally, a 9 mm stent was passed across the lesion and deployed at the site of maximal resistance. The 18 mm stent was then placed through this stent. A novel strategy to overcome resistance in the stent passage through the lesion after an adequate balloon predilatation is reported. PMID:11103034

  16. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  17. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  18. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  19. Self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction differences in women with adequate and inadequate prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M

    1994-03-01

    This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care. PMID:8155221

  20. High-resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, B.A.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1984-08-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) finding in 18 patients with temporal bone trauma were reviewed. Eight patients suffered longitudinal fractures of the petrous bone, which were associated with ossicular dislocation in two patients. Transverse fractures were detected in six patients, with a contralateral mastoid fracture in one patient. In four patients, the fractures were restricted to the mastoid region. Of the 14 patients in whom adequate neurologic evaluation was available, seven had a permanent facial nerve or hearing deficit while five suffered at least a transient neurologic deficit related to the temporal bone trauma. Routine head CT (10 mm sections) demonstrated only eight of 19 petrous bone injuries. Evidence of brain trauma or extra-axial hemotoma was seen in 12 patients. In 13 cases, high-resolution CT was also performed, demonstrating temporal bone injuries in all. This latter technique allows rapid and detailed evaluation of temporal bone trauma.

  1. Quantifying nitrous oxide emissions from sugarcane cropping systems: Optimum sampling time and frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Steven; Wang, Weijin; Salter, Barry; Halpin, Neil

    2016-07-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil are often measured using the manual static chamber method. Manual gas sampling is labour intensive, so a minimal sampling frequency that maintains the accuracy of measurements would be desirable. However, the high temporal (diurnal, daily and seasonal) variabilities of N2O emissions can compromise the accuracy of measurements if not addressed adequately when formulating a sampling schedule. Assessments of sampling strategies to date have focussed on relatively low emission systems with high episodicity, where a small number of the highest emission peaks can be critically important in the measurement of whole season cumulative emissions. Using year-long, automated sub-daily N2O measurements from three fertilised sugarcane fields, we undertook an evaluation of the optimum gas sampling strategies in high emission systems with relatively long emission episodes. The results indicated that sampling in the morning between 09:00-12:00, when soil temperature was generally close to the daily average, best approximated the daily mean N2O emission within 4-7% of the 'actual' daily emissions measured by automated sampling. Weekly sampling with biweekly sampling for one week after >20 mm of rainfall was the recommended sampling regime. It resulted in no extreme (>20%) deviations from the 'actuals', had a high probability of estimating the annual cumulative emissions within 10% precision, with practicable sampling numbers in comparison to other sampling regimes. This provides robust and useful guidance for manual gas sampling in sugarcane cropping systems, although further adjustments by the operators in terms of expected measurement accuracy and resource availability are encouraged. By implementing these sampling strategies together, labour inputs and errors in measured cumulative N2O emissions can be minimised. Further research is needed to quantify the spatial variability of N2O emissions within sugarcane cropping and to develop

  2. GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR VERTICAL PROFILING OF CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate delineation of plume boundaries and vertical contaminant distribution are necessary in order to adequately characterize waste sites and determine remedial strategies to be employed. However, it is important to consider the sampling objectives, sampling methods, and sampl...

  3. Chronic leg ulcer: does a patient always get a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment?

    PubMed

    Mooij, Michael C; Huisman, Laurens C

    2016-03-01

    Patients with chronic leg ulcers have severely impaired quality of life and account for a high percentage of annual healthcare costs. To establish the cause of a chronic leg ulcer, referral to a center with a multidisciplinary team of professionals is often necessary. Treating the underlying cause diminishes healing time and reduces costs. In venous leg ulcers adequate compression therapy is still a problem. It can be improved by training the professionals with pressure measuring devices. A perfect fitting of elastic stockings is important to prevent venous leg ulcer recurrence. In most cases, custom-made stockings are the best choice for this purpose. PMID:26916772

  4. Family Structure Types and Adequate Utilization of Antenatal Care in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Features of the health care delivery system may not be the only expounding factors of adequate utilization of antenatal care among women. Other social factors such as the family structure and its environment contribute toward pregnant women's utilization of antenatal care. An understanding of how women in different family structure types and social groups use basic maternal health services is important toward developing and implementing maternal health care policy in the post-Millennium Development Goal era, especially in the sub-Saharan Africa where maternal mortality still remains high. PMID:27214674

  5. Working group on the “adequate minimum” V=volcanic observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A working group consisting of R. I. Tilling (United States, Chairman), M. Espendola (Mexico), E. Malavassi (Costa Rica), L. Villari (Italy), and J.P Viode (France) met on the island of Guadeloupe on February 20, 1981, to discuss informally the requirements for a "Minimum" volcano observatory, one which would have the essential monitoring equipment and staff to provide reliable information on the state of an active volcno. Given the premise that any monitoring of a volcano is better than none at all, the owrking group then proceeded to consider the concept of an "adequate minimum" observatory. 

  6. Temporal Moments in Hydrogeophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, D.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2007-12-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) has been tested as monitoring tool for salt-tracer experiments by various authors. So far, the analysis of such experiments has been done by a two-step procedure [Kemna et al., 2002; Vanderborght et al., 2005; Singha and Gorelick, 2005]. In the first step, classical geophysical inversion methods have been used to infer the distribution of electrical conductivity, which is transferred to an estimated concentration distribution of the tracer. Subsequently, the inferred concentration images were analyzed to estimate hydraulic quantities such as the velocity distribution. This approach has two disadvantages: The concentration distribution is reconstructed with a high spatial resolution, but the estimate is uncertain, and the estimation uncertainty is spatially correlated. These correlated uncertainties should be accounted for in the estimation of hydraulic conductivity from concentration values. The latter, unfortunately, is not practical because the reconstructed data sets are very large. The geophysical inversion is not enforced to be in agreement with basic hydromechanical constraints. E.g., Singha and Gorelick [2005] observed an apparent loss of solute mass when using ERT as monitoring tool. We propose considering the temporal moments of potential-difference time series. These temporal moments depend on temporal moments of concentration, which have already been used in the inference of hydraulic- conductivity distributions (Cirpka and Kitanidis, 2000). In our contribution, we present the complete set of equations leading from hydraulic conductivity via hydraulic heads, velocities, temporal moments of concentrations to temporal moments of potential differences for given flow and transport boundary conditions and electrode configurations. We also present how the sensitivity of temporal moments of potential differences on the hydraulic conductivity field can be computed without the need of storing intermediate sensitivities

  7. Temporal steering inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yueh-Nan; Li, Che-Ming; Lambert, Neill; Chen, Shin-Liang; Ota, Yukihiro; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco

    2014-03-01

    Quantum steering is the ability to remotely prepare different quantum states by using entangled pairs as a resource. Very recently, the concept of steering has been quantified with the use of inequalities, leading to substantial applications in quantum information and communication science. Here, we highlight that there exists a natural temporal analog of the steering inequality when considering measurements on a single object at different times. We give nontrivial operational meaning to violations of this temporal inequality by showing that it is connected to the security bound in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and thus may have applications in quantum communication.

  8. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  9. Adequately-Sized Nanocarriers Allow Sustained Targeted Drug Delivery to Neointimal Lesions in Rat Arteries.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ryosuke; Miura, Yutaka; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Chida, Tsukasa; Anraku, Yasutaka; Kishimura, Akihiro; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    In atherosclerotic lesions, the endothelial barrier against the bloodstream can become compromised, resulting in the exposure of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and intimal cells beneath. In theory, this allows adequately sized nanocarriers in circulation to infiltrate into the intimal lesion intravascularly. We sought to evaluate this possibility using rat carotid arteries with induced neointima. Cy5-labeled polyethylene glycol-conjugated polyion complex (PIC) micelles and vesicles, with diameters of 40, 100, or 200 nm (PICs-40, PICs-100, and PICs-200, respectively) were intravenously administered to rats after injury to the carotid artery using a balloon catheter. High accumulation and long retention of PICs-40 in the induced neointima was confirmed by in vivo imaging, while the accumulation of PICs-100 and PICs-200 was limited, indicating that the size of nanocarriers is a crucial factor for efficient delivery. Furthermore, epirubicin-incorporated polymeric micelles with a diameter similar to that of PICs-40 showed significant curative effects in rats with induced neointima, in terms of lesion size and cell number. Specific and effective drug delivery to pre-existing neointimal lesions was demonstrated with adequate size control of the nanocarriers. We consider that this nanocarrier-based drug delivery system could be utilized for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:27183493

  10. Adequate Systemic Perfusion Maintained by a CentriMag during Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Favaloro, Roberto R.; Bertolotti, Alejandro; Diez, Mirta; Favaloro, Liliana; Gomez, Carmen; Peradejordi, Margarita; Trentadue, Julio; Hellman, Lorena; Arzani, Yanina; Otero, Pilar Varela

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support during severe acute heart failure presents options for myocardial recovery or cardiac replacement. Short-term circulatory support with the newest generation of magnetically levitated centrifugal-flow pumps affords several potential advantages. Herein, we present our experience with such a pump—the CentriMag® (Levitronix LLC; Waltham, Mass) centrifugal-flow ventricular assist device—in 4 critically ill patients who were in cardiogenic shock. From November 2007 through March 2008, 3 patients were supported after cardiac surgery, and 1 after chronic heart failure worsened. Two patients were bridged to heart transplantation, and 2 died during support. Perfusion during support was evaluated in terms of serum lactic acid levels and oxygenation values. In all of the patients, the CentriMag's pump flow was adequate, and continuous mechanical ventilation support was provided. Lactic acid levels substantially improved with CentriMag support and were maintained at near-normal levels throughout. At the same time, arterial pH, PO2, and carbon dioxide levels remained within acceptable ranges. No thromboembolic events or mechanical failures occurred. Our experience indicates that short-term use of the CentriMag ventricular assist device during acute heart failure can restore and adequately support circulation until recovery or until the application of definitive therapy. PMID:18941648

  11. [Factors associated with adequate prenatal care and delivery in São Tomé and Príncipe, 2008-2009].

    PubMed

    Reis, Patrícia Alexandra da Graça Dantas Dos; Pereira, Claudia Cristina de Aguiar; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-09-01

    We investigated factors associated with adequacy of prenatal and childbirth care for women in São Tomé and Príncipe. Data were analyzed from the Demographic and Health Survey on a sample of 1,326 newborn infants whose mothers were 15-49 years of age. The survey took place from September 2008 to March 2009. We used multilevel and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors and the target outcomes. Prenatal care was adequate in 26% of the sample, and 7% of deliveries were performed by physicians and 76% by nurses or nurse assistants. Statistically significant factors for prenatal care were birth order, maternal schooling, and index of economic well-being. The most important variables for adequate delivery were: birth order, maternal schooling, index of economic well-being, and place of residence. The study showed that socioeconomic factors have the greatest influence on adequate prenatal care and delivery. Future health policies should target social inequalities in São Tomé and Príncipe. PMID:26578017

  12. Visual and Auditory Temporal Processing and Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Michelle; Conlon, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of temporal processing measures obtained before school entry to predict early reading development in an unselected sample of 125 children (68 males, 57 females). Visual and auditory temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks measured at Preschool (mean age 5.36 years) significantly predicted letter and word…

  13. Nonclassicality of Temporal Correlations.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Stephen; Kosowski, Adrian; Markiewicz, Marcin; Paterek, Tomasz; Przysiężna, Anna

    2015-09-18

    The results of spacelike separated measurements are independent of distant measurement settings, a property one might call two-way no-signaling. In contrast, timelike separated measurements are only one-way no-signaling since the past is independent of the future but not vice versa. For this reason some temporal correlations that are formally identical to nonclassical spatial correlations can still be modeled classically. We propose a new formulation of Bell's theorem for temporal correlations; namely, we define nonclassical temporal correlations as the ones which cannot be simulated by propagating in time the classical information content of a quantum system given by the Holevo bound. We first show that temporal correlations between results of any projective quantum measurements on a qubit can be simulated classically. Then we present a sequence of general measurements on a single m-level quantum system that cannot be explained by propagating in time an m-level classical system and using classical computers with unlimited memory. PMID:26430975

  14. Temporal Aperture Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The two types of modulation techniques useful to X-ray imaging are reviewed. The use of optimum coded temporal aperature modulation is shown, in certain cases, to offer an advantage over a spatial aperture modulator. Example applications of a diffuse anisotropic X-ray background experiment and a wide field of view hard X-ray imager are discussed.

  15. Pediatric temporal bone rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Monica J

    2016-08-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas in children. Prompt diagnosis and treatment significantly improve survival; however, misdiagnosis is common because of this aggressive temporal bone lesion's similarity to more common benign diseases. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for rhabdomyosarcoma in patients with a presumed otologic infection not responsive to medical therapy. PMID:27467294

  16. Esmolol in a case of severe tetanus. Adequate haemodynamic control achieved despite markedly elevated catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Lipman, J; Bothma, P A; Joynt, G M

    1994-03-01

    A patient with severe tetanus, who had a sympathetic crisis while sedated with 30 mg/h diazepam and 30 mg/h morphine, is described. Satisfactory control of the haemodynamic crisis was achieved with bolus doses of esmolol to a total of 180 mg. A disturbing finding was that although there was adequate control of the tachycardia and hypertension, arterial catecholamine levels remained markedly elevated. Adrenaline levels of 531 pg/ml (normal 10-110 pg/ml) and noradrenaline levels of 1,036 pg/ml (normal 100-500 pg/ml) were recorded when the patient had a systolic arterial pressure of 110 mmHg and a heart rate of 97/min. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:11218441

  17. Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation), it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose). Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium. PMID:25309756

  18. Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for gg → h at NNLO and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höschele, Maik; Hoff, Jens; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-09-01

    We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.

  19. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  20. Are the Psychological Needs of Adolescent Survivors of Pediatric Cancer Adequately Identified and Treated?

    PubMed Central

    Kahalley, Lisa S.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Tyc, Vida L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Stancel, Heather H.; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the psychological needs of adolescent survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or brain tumor (BT), we examined: (a) the occurrence of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional concerns identified during a comprehensive psychological evaluation, and (b) the frequency of referrals for psychological follow-up services to address identified concerns. Methods Psychological concerns were identified on measures according to predetermined criteria for 100 adolescent survivors. Referrals for psychological follow-up services were made for concerns previously unidentified in formal assessment or not adequately addressed by current services. Results Most survivors (82%) exhibited at least one concern across domains: behavioral (76%), cognitive (47%), and emotional (19%). Behavioral concerns emerged most often on scales associated with executive dysfunction, inattention, learning, and peer difficulties. CRT was associated with cognitive concerns, χ2(1,N=100)=5.63, p<0.05. Lower income was associated with more cognitive concerns for ALL survivors, t(47)=3.28, p<0.01, and more behavioral concerns for BT survivors, t(48)=2.93, p<0.01. Of survivors with concerns, 38% were referred for psychological follow-up services. Lower-income ALL survivors received more referrals for follow-up, χ2(1,N=41)=8.05, p<0.01. Referred survivors had more concerns across domains than non-referred survivors, ALL: t(39)=2.96, p<0.01, BT: t(39)=3.52, p<0.01. Trends suggest ALL survivors may be at risk for experiencing unaddressed cognitive needs. Conclusions Many adolescent survivors of cancer experience psychological difficulties that are not adequately managed by current services, underscoring the need for long-term surveillance. In addition to prescribing regular psychological evaluations, clinicians should closely monitor whether current support services appropriately meet survivors’ needs, particularly for lower-income survivors and those treated with CRT. PMID:22278930

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  2. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  3. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  4. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  5. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  6. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  7. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  8. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  9. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  10. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  11. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  12. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  13. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  14. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  15. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  16. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  17. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  18. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  19. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  20. Estimation of temporal variability of survival in animal populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, W.R.; Nichols, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Temporal variation of demographic characteristics for animal populations is of interest to both ecologists and biological modelers. The standard deviation of a series of estimated parameter values (e.g., estimated population size) or some function thereof (e.g, log of the estimated parameters) is commonly used as a measure of temporal variability. These measures of temporal variation overestimate the true temporal variation by not accounting for sampling variability inherent to the estimation of unknown population parameters. Using a variance-components approach to partitioning the total variability of an estimated parameter, we demonstrate the ease with which sampling variation can be removed from the observed total variation of parameter estimates. Estimates of temporal variability of survival are given after removal of sampling variation for three bird species: the federally listed Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii), Black-capped Chickadees (Parus atricapillus), and Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Sampling variation accounted for the majority of the total variation in the survival estimates for nearly all of the populations studied. Substantial differences in observed significance levels were observed when testing for demographic differences in temporal variation using temporal variance estimates adjusted and unadjusted for sampling variance.

  1. Analysis of the temporal flame kernel development in an optically accessible IC engine using high-speed OH-PLIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, S. H. R.; Böhm, B.; Gleißner, M.; Arndt, S.; Dreizler, A.

    2010-09-01

    The investigation of the combustion process of a direct injection spark-ignition internal combustion (IC) engine is crucial in modern engine development. The present study is aimed at inspecting the temporal development of the spark induced flame kernel within single combustion cycles using high-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). The analysis is based upon the excitation of OH radicals, which are an indicator of the transient flame front. To achieve an adequate temporal resolution of the early combustion phase, the image sampling rate was set to 6 kHz, recording one image per crank-angle (CA) degree at 1000 rpm. A further feature of the technique is a large field of view spanning ˜54×53 mm. The performance of the transient combustion process is characterized by temporally tracking subsequential engine cycles individually. Flame front dynamics with different dilution levels of the intake air, simulating exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are investigated. Resolving flame front dynamics especially with varying EGR is an important step towards an improved understanding of cyclic variations and pollutant formation.

  2. Minimally adequate mental health care and latent classes of PTSD symptoms in female Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

    PubMed

    Hebenstreit, Claire L; Madden, Erin; Koo, Kelly H; Maguen, Shira

    2015-11-30

    Female veterans of Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) represent a growing segment of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care users. A retrospective analysis used national VA medical records to identify factors associated with female OEF/OIF/OND veterans' completion of minimally adequate care (MAC) for PTSD, defined as the completion of at least nine mental health outpatient visits within a 15-week period or at least twelve consecutive weeks of medication use. The sample included female OEF/OIF/OND veterans with PTSD who initiated VA health care between 2007-2013, and were seen in outpatient mental health (N=2183). Multivariable logistic regression models examined factors associated with completing MAC for PTSD, including PTSD symptom expression (represented by latent class analysis), sociodemographic, military, clinical, and VA access factors. Within one year of initiating mental health care, 48.3% of female veterans completed MAC. Race/ethnicity, age, PTSD symptom class, additional psychiatric diagnoses, and VA primary care use were significantly associated with completion of MAC for PTSD. Results suggest that veterans presenting for PTSD treatment should be comprehensively evaluated to identify factors associated with inadequate completion of care. Treatments that are tailored to PTSD symptom class may help to address potential barriers. PMID:26330305

  3. Adequate Hand Washing and Glove Use Are Necessary To Reduce Cross-Contamination from Hands with High Bacterial Loads.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew L; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Junehee; Todd, Ewen; Rodriguez, Fernando Perez; Ryu, Dojin

    2016-02-01

    Hand washing and glove use are the main methods for reducing bacterial cross-contamination from hands to ready-to-eat food in a food service setting. However, bacterial transfer from hands to gloves is poorly understood, as is the effect of different durations of soap rubbing on bacterial reduction. To assess bacterial transfer from hands to gloves and to compare bacterial transfer rates to food after different soap washing times and glove use, participants' hands were artificially contaminated with Enterobacter aerogenes B199A at ∼9 log CFU. Different soap rubbing times (0, 3, and 20 s), glove use, and tomato dicing activities followed. The bacterial counts in diced tomatoes and on participants' hands and gloves were then analyzed. Different soap rubbing times did not significantly change the amount of bacteria recovered from participants' hands. Dicing tomatoes with bare hands after 20 s of soap rubbing transferred significantly less bacteria (P < 0.01) to tomatoes than did dicing with bare hands after 0 s of soap rubbing. Wearing gloves while dicing greatly reduced the incidence of contaminated tomato samples compared with dicing with bare hands. Increasing soap washing time decreased the incidence of bacteria recovered from outside glove surfaces (P < 0.05). These results highlight that both glove use and adequate hand washing are necessary to reduce bacterial cross-contamination in food service environments. PMID:26818993

  4. Interrogation of Temporal Planetary Analogs for Biosignature Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Arevalo, R. D.; Fa, K. A.; Rice, M. S.; Gupta, S.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Getty, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    We present an approach and an instrument for identifying promising temporal horizons for preservation of organic materials in the martian rock record. Time After Time uses radiometric and exposure age dates to optimize candidate sample location.

  5. Spatial and temporal variation in efficiency of the Moore egg collector

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Farless, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The Moore egg collector (MEC) was developed for quantitative and nondestructive capture of semibuoyant fish eggs. Previous studies have indicated that capture efficiency of the MEC was low and the use of one device did not adequately represent the spatial distribution within the water column of egg surrogates (gellan beads) of pelagic broadcast-spawning cyprinids. The objective of this study was to assess whether use of multiple MECs showed differences in spatial and temporal distribution of bead catches. Capture efficiency of three MECs was tested at four 500-m sites on the South Canadian River, a Great Plains river in Oklahoma. For each trial, approximately 100,000 beads were released and mean capture efficiency was 0.47–2.16%. Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests indicated the spatial distributions of bead catches were different among multiple MECs at three of four sites. Temporal variability in timing of peak catches of gellan beads was also evident between MECs. We concluded that the use of multiple MECs is necessary to properly sample eggs of pelagic broadcast-spawning cyprinids.

  6. Coverage centralities for temporal networks*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yano, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex based on the fastest temporal paths which use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bottleneck time at which most information sent in the temporal network passes through a small number of temporal vertices, which suggests an important role of these temporal vertices in spreading phenomena. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-60498-7

  7. Temporal, spectral, and spatial study of the automated vicarious calibration test site at Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Cocilovo, Byron R.; McCorkel, Joel T.; Buchanan, John H.

    2008-08-01

    The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has developed an automated methodology and instrument suite to measure the surface reflectance of the vicarious calibration test site at Railroad Valley, Nevada. Surface reflectance is a critical variable used as one of the inputs into a radiative transfer code to predict the top-of-atmosphere radiance, and inexpensive and robust ground-viewing radiometers have been present at the site since 2004. The goal of the automated approach is to retain RSG's current 2-3% level of uncertainty while increasing the number of data sets collected throughout the year without the need for on-site personnel. A previous study was completed to determine if the number and positions of the four radiometers were adequate to spatially sample the 1-km2 large-footprint site at Railroad Valley. The preliminary study utilized one set of panchromatic data from Digital Globe's QuickBird satellite. Results from this one day showed that the positions of the four ground-viewing radiometers adequately sample the site. The work presented here expands in a spectral and temporal sense by using high-spatial-resolution data from Ikonos, QuickBird, and Landsat-7 ETM+ to determine if the locations of the ground-viewing radiometers correctly sample the site. The multispectral capability of these sensors is used to establish if there are any spectral effects, which will also help RSG to determine what spectral bands should be chosen for the new ground-viewing radiometers that are currently in development for the automated test site at Railroad Valley.

  8. Fair Balance and Adequate Provision in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Online Banner Advertisements: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The current direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) guidelines were developed with print, television, and radio media in mind, and there are no specific guidelines for online banner advertisements. Objective This study evaluates how well Internet banner ads comply with existing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for DTCA in other media. Methods A content analysis was performed of 68 banner advertisements. A coding sheet was developed based on (1) FDA guidance documents for consumer-directed prescription drug advertisements and (2) previous DTCA content analyses. Specifically, the presence of a brief summary detailing the drug’s risks and side effects or of a “major statement” identifying the drug’s major risks, and the number and type of provisions made available to consumers for comprehensive information about the drug were coded. In addition, the criterion of “fair balance,” the FDA’s requirement that prescription drug ads balance information relating to the drug’s risks with information relating to its benefits, was measured by numbering the benefit and risk facts identified in the ads and by examining the presentation of risk and benefit information. Results Every ad in the sample included a brief summary of risk information and at least one form of adequate provision as required by the FDA for broadcast ads that do not give audiences a brief summary of a drug’s risks. No ads included a major statement. There were approximately 7.18 risk facts for every benefit fact. Most of the risks (98.85%, 1292/1307) were presented in the scroll portion of the ad, whereas most of the benefits (66.5%, 121/182) were presented in the main part of the ad. Out of 1307 risk facts, 1292 were qualitative and 15 were quantitative. Out of 182 benefit facts, 181 were qualitative and 1 was quantitative. The majority of ads showed neutral images during the disclosure of benefit and risk facts. Only 9% (6/68) of the ads displayed positive images and

  9. Identifying relationships between baseflow geochemistry and land use with synoptic sampling and R-mode factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Wayland, Karen G; Long, David T; Hyndman, David W; Pijanowski, Bryan C; Woodhams, Sarah M; Haack, Sheridan K

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between land use and stream chemistry is often explored through synoptic sampling of rivers at baseflow conditions. However, baseflow chemistry is likely to vary temporally and spatially with land use. The purpose of our study is to examine the usefulness of the synoptic sampling approach for identifying the relationship between complex land use configurations and stream water quality. This study compares biogeochemical data from three synoptic sampling events representing the temporal variability of baseflow chemistry and land use using R-mode factor analysis. Separate R-mode factor analyses of the data from individual sampling events yielded only two consistent factors. Agricultural activity was associated with elevated levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, alkalinity, and frequently K+, SO4(2-), and NO3-. Urban areas were associated with higher concentrations of Na+, K+, and Cl-. Other retained factors were not consistent among sampling events, and some factors were difficult to interpret in the context of biogeochemical sources and processes. When all data were combined, further associations were revealed such as an inverse relationship between the proportion of wetlands and stream nitrate concentrations. We also found that barren lands were associated with elevated sulfate levels. This research suggests that an individual sampling event is unlikely to characterize adequately the complex processes controlling interactions between land use and stream chemistry. Combining data collected over two years during three synoptic sampling events appears to enhance our ability to understand processes linking stream chemistry and land use. PMID:12549557

  10. Audiotactile temporal order judgments.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Massimiliano; Brown, Timothy; Shore, David I; Maravita, Angelo; Röder, Brigitte; Spence, Charles

    2005-03-01

    We report a series of three experiments in which participants made unspeeded 'Which modality came first?' temporal order judgments (TOJs) to pairs of auditory and tactile stimuli presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) using the method of constant stimuli. The stimuli were presented from either the same or different locations in order to explore the potential effect of redundant spatial information on audiotactile temporal perception. In Experiment 1, the auditory and tactile stimuli had to be separated by nearly 80 ms for inexperienced participants to be able to judge their temporal order accurately (i.e., for the just noticeable difference (JND) to be achieved), no matter whether the stimuli were presented from the same or different spatial positions. More experienced psychophysical observers (Experiment 2) also failed to show any effect of relative spatial position on audiotactile TOJ performance, despite having much lower JNDs (40 ms) overall. A similar pattern of results was found in Experiment 3 when silent electrocutaneous stimulation was used rather than vibrotactile stimulation. Thus, relative spatial position seems to be a less important factor in determining performance for audiotactile TOJ than for other modality pairings (e.g., audiovisual and visuotactile). PMID:15698825

  11. The Interaction of Temporal Generalization Gradients Predicts the Context Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castro, Ana Catarina; Machado, Armando

    2012-01-01

    In a temporal double bisection task, animals learn two discriminations. In the presence of Red and Green keys, responses to Red are reinforced after 1-s samples and responses to Green are reinforced after 4-s samples; in the presence of Blue and Yellow keys, responses to Blue are reinforced after 4-s samples and responses to Yellow are reinforced…

  12. Understanding in-stream temporal coupling of macronutrients based on high-frequency monitoring in groundwater dominated rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieroza, M. Z.; Heathwaite, A. L.

    2012-04-01

    time series analysis methods to provide insights into how temporal patterns of nutrient signatures might be related to hydrological and biochemical processes. This study recognises the importance of high-frequency sampling schemes in providing the understanding of complexities of patterns and processes controlling the nutrient cycling in river ecosystems. This knowledge is essential to deliver adequate programmes of measures focusing on restoration of good ecological health of the rivers and to model the in-stream responses to the changing environment.

  13. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-02-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  14. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  15. [Rhythmic nuclear growth of adequately stimulated ganglia cells of acoustic nuclei (rat)].

    PubMed

    Köpf-Maier, P; Wüstenfeld, E

    1975-01-01

    Ganglia cells of the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei of white rats were irritated adequately for different periods or left untreated, respectively, and investigated karyometrically. The frequency distribution curves of the nuclear volumes were separated by means of an electronic curve resolver into the component curves, i.e. into groups of nuclei obeying exactly a Gaussian normal distribution and thus representing biologically uniform populations. The analysis of the mean values of the component curves led to the following results: 1. The mean values of the component curves can be arranged in 2 series having the pattern V1, V1 square root 2, V2, V2 square root 2, V4, V4 square root 2...2. The series V1, V1 square root 2, V2, V2 square root 2...is based on a geometrical series of the general formula an = k-qn. 3. It follows from these results that the nuclear volumes grow rhythmically by a factor of square root 2 and, consequently, that there is a periodical doubling in in the growth of the surface. PMID:1200386

  16. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  17. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  18. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  19. [Level of awareness and the adequate application of sunscreen by beauticians].

    PubMed

    Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Machado, Érica Simionato; Vermelho, Sonia Cristina Soares Dias; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Cortez, Lucia Elaine Ranieri

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to establish the level of awareness of beauticians regarding the importance of the application of sunscreen and to identify whether their patients had been properly instructed by these professionals. It involved a descriptive and exploratory study with interviews applying qualitative methodology among 30 beauticians. Data were gathered using the semi-structured interview technique in Maringá, in the southern state of Paraná. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software after applying quantitative analysis and response classification. Of those interviewed, 83.33% had a degree in Aesthetics, 20% attended ongoing training activities on sunscreen and 73.17% acquired sunscreen for its quality, though 86.67% were not familiar with sunscreens with natural anti-free radical components. Of those interviewed, 80% had never treated patients with skin cancer, though they reported having knowledge of care in relation to sun exposure and how to use the sunscreen and the relationship of these practices with the disease. The results showed that the recommendations and use of sunscreen by beauticians and users has been conducted in an adequate and conscientious manner. PMID:27383359

  20. The menopause, hormone replacement therapy and informed consent: are women in an underresourced country adequately aware?

    PubMed

    Maharaj, N R; Gangaram, R; Moodley, J

    2007-04-01

    Recent evidence on the long-term effects of HRT have resulted in increased emphasis being placed on individualised counselling, patient choice and informed consent when managing the menopause. We assessed whether women in an underresourced country have adequate knowledge of the menopause/HRT to engage in patient - provider discussions and provide full informed consent for HRT. Specific 'knowledge scores' for the menopause and HRT were developed and utilised in structured questionnaires to determine the existing levels of knowledge in 150 women from different racial, educational and occupational backgrounds. Some 92% were aware of the menopause and 54% were aware of HRT. Specific knowledge about the menopause and HRT overall was low (39% and 38%, respectively). There was a significant association between higher education levels, race and occupational status on the knowledge of the menopause but not of HRT. Television, radio and pamphlets were the preferred sources to gain further information. There is a need to create awareness and provide further education to women in underresourced countries about the menopause and HRT to empower them to make informed choices about their health during this period. PMID:17464817

  1. [Adequate attention is required to the diagnosis and treatment of mild-symptom erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Deng, Chun-hua; Zhang, Ya-dong; Chen, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Mild-symptom erectile dysfunction (MSED) is commonly seen in clinical practice, but receives inadequate attention from both the patients and clinicians. Increasing researches have indicated that MSED is associated with not only unhealthy living habits and psychological factors but also the early progression of endothelial, metabolic and endocrine diseases. The diagnosis and treatment of MSED should be based on the relevant guidelines, with consideration of both its specific and common features. The therapeutic principle is a combination of integrated and individual solutions aimed at the causes of the disease. Drug intervention should be initiated if psychological therapy fails. Negligence of MSED may affect the quality of life of the patients and their partners, and what's more, might delay the management of some other severe underlying diseases. Adequate attention to the early diagnosis and treatment for MSED is of great significance for a deeper insight into the etiology of ED, the prevention of potential cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and the improvement of the overall health of males. PMID:25707132

  2. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  3. Evaluation of catheter-manometer systems for adequate intravascular blood pressure measurements in small animals.

    PubMed

    Idvall, J; Aronsen, K F; Lindström, K; Ulmsten, U

    1977-09-30

    Various catheter-manometer systems possible for intravascular blood pressure measurments on rats have been elaborated and tested in vitro and in vivo. Using a pressure-step calibrator, it was observed from in vitro studies that microtransducers had superior frequency response compared to conventional transducers. Of the catheters tested, Pe-90 tapered to a 40 mm tip with an inner diameter of 0.3 mm had the best frequency response as judged from fall and settling times. Because of the damping effect, tapering increased fall time to 1.8 ms, which was still quite acceptable. By the same token settling time was minimized to 22.4 ms. With a special calculation method the theoretical percentile fault of the recordings was estimated to be 9.66%. When the measurement error was calculated from the actual in vivo recordings, it was found to be no more than 2.7%. These results show that the technique described is adequate for continuous intravascular blood pressure recordings on small animals. Finally it is emphasized that careful handling of the catheters and avoidance of stopcocks and air bubbles are essential for obtaining accurate and reproducible values. PMID:928971

  4. Is reimbursement for childhood immunizations adequate? evidence from two rural areas in colorado.

    PubMed Central

    Glazner, J. E.; Steiner, J. F.; Haas, K. J.; Renfrew, B.; Deutchman, M.; Berman, S.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess adequacy of reimbursement for childhood vaccinations in two rural regions in Colorado, the authors measured medical practice costs of providing childhood vaccinations and compared them with reimbursement. METHODS: A "time-motion" method was used to measure labor costs of providing vaccinations in 13 private and public practices. Practices reported non-labor costs. The authors determined reimbursement by record review. RESULTS: The average vaccine delivery cost per dose (excluding vaccine cost) ranged from $4.69 for community health centers to $5.60 for private practices. Average reimbursement exceeded average delivery costs for all vaccines and contributed to overhead in private practices. Average reimbursement was less than total cost (vaccine-delivery costs + overhead) in private practices for most vaccines in one region with significant managed care penetration. Reimbursement to public providers was less than the average vaccine delivery costs. CONCLUSIONS: Current reimbursement may not be adequate to induce private practices to provide childhood vaccinations, particularly in areas with substantial managed care penetration. PMID:12034911

  5. Adequate Vitamin D3 Supplementation During Pregnancy: Decreasing the Prevalence of Asthma and Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Jonathan; Cira, Courtney; Mazzella, Leanne; Bartyzel, Jim; Ramanna, Annisce; Strimel, Kayla; Waturuocha, Amara; Musser, Nathan; Burress, James; Brammer, Sarah; Wetzel, Robert; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a secosterol that is naturally synthesized in the skin upon contact with ultraviolet rays. This vitamin can also be acquired from dietary and nutritional supplements. The active form, vitamin D3, is primarily responsible for calcium homeostasis and bone health. However, many recent studies have associated low levels of vitamin D3 with asthma and food allergies. In this review, we discuss literature to explore the potential that vitamin D3 deficiency may be contributing toward the development of asthma and food allergies. These studies indicate that mothers who supplement with doses of vitamin D3 recommended for daily consumption (400 IU) by the United States Food and Drug Administration is not enough to deliver adequate levels to breastfed infants. Because sufficient vitamin D3 serum levels correlate with a low incidence of asthma and food allergies, high dose vitamin D3 supplementation (4000 IU) by pregnant and breastfeeding women may limit the development of asthma and food allergies in newborns. PMID:27213185

  6. Neurocysticercosis, familial cerebral cavernomas and intracranial calcifications: differential diagnosis for adequate management.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Alves-Leon, Soniza; Domingues, Flavio Sampaio; Frossard, João Thiago; Lopes, Selva Paraguassu; Souza, Jorge Marcondes de

    2016-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an endemic disease and important public health problem in some areas of the World and epilepsy is the most common neurological manifestation. Multiple intracranial lesions, commonly calcified, are seen on cranial computed tomography (CT) in the chronic phase of the disease and considered one of the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the test that better depicts the different stages of the intracranial cysts but does not show clearly calcified lesions. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), also known as cerebral cavernomas, are frequent vascular malformations of the brain, better demonstrated by MRI and have also epilepsy as the main form of clinical presentation. When occurring in the familial form, cerebral cavernomas typically present with multiple lesions throughout the brain and, very often, with foci of calcifications in the lesions when submitted to the CT imaging. In the countries, and geographic areas, where NCC is established as an endemic health problem and neuroimaging screening is done by CT scan, it will be important to consider the differential diagnosis between the two diseases due to the differences in adequate management. PMID:27332076

  7. Splenic autotransplantation and the immune system. Adequate testing required for evaluation of effect.

    PubMed Central

    Timens, W; Leemans, R

    1992-01-01

    The risk of severe infections after splenectomy, even after many years, is now well established. In attempts to prevent these infections, spleen-saving techniques, including autotransplantation of spleen fragments, have been performed, when possible in combination with vaccination. The problem in autotransplantation is the evaluation of functional activity. The results of the tests used until now often do not seem to correlate very well with the risk of developing an overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI). This may be related to the fact that the tests used evaluate general functions, and not specific spleen-related functions, such as the capacity to mount a primary response to certain polysaccharide antigens present in the capsule of bacteria known to cause OPSI. In this review, the significance of the spleen in the human immune system is discussed and the effects of splenectomy are described, including the precautions that can be taken to diminish the risk of postsplenectomy infections and sepsis. It appears that postsplenectomy vaccination is more successful when recently developed protein-conjugated polysaccharide vaccines are used. Because the present testing of the function of spleen autotransplants is not adequate, we suggest that new tests should be developed, employing appropriate polysaccharide antigens. PMID:1543398

  8. COMPARISON OF BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of biological communities or assemblages to make richness or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Traditionally, sample size is based on numbers of replicates or area collected or numbers of individuals enum...

  9. [Temporal meaning of suffering].

    PubMed

    Porée, J

    2015-09-01

    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  10. Temporal filters for isolating steady photospheric flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of temporal filters are tested on artificial data with 60 and 75 s sampling intervals to determine their accuracy in separating the nearly-steady photospheric flows from the p-mode oscillations in Doppler velocity data. Longer temporal averages are better at reducing the residual signal due to p-modes but they introduce additional errors from the rotation of the supergranule pattern across the solar disk. Unweighted filters (boxcar averages) leave residual rms errors of about 6 m/s from the p-modes after 60 min of averaging. Weighted filters, with nearly Gaussian shapes, leave similar residual errors after only 20 min of averaging and introduce smaller errors from the rotation of the supergranule pattern. The best filters found are weighted filters that use data separated by 150 or 120 s so that the p-modes are sampled at opposite phases.

  11. Temporal and seasonal variability of arsenic in drinking water wells in Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh: a preliminary evaluation on the basis of a 4 year study.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Prosun; Hossain, Mohammed; Rahman, Shamsun Naima; Robinson, Clare; Nath, Bibhash; Rahman, Marina; Islam, M Mainul; Von Brömssen, Mattias; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Jacks, Gunnar; Chowdhury, Dulaly; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Jakariya, Mohammed; Persson, Lars Åke; Vahter, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and seasonal variability of As concentrations in groundwater were evaluated in As-affected areas of Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh. Groundwater samples from 61 randomly selected tubewells were analyzed for As concentrations over a period of three years and four months (from July 2002 to November 2005) and monitored seasonally (three times a year). The mean As concentrations in the sampled tubewells decreased from 153 to 123 μg/L during July 2002 to November 2005. Such changes were pronounced in tubewells with As concentration >50 μg/L than those with As concentrations <50 μg/L. Similarly, individual wells revealed temporal variability, for example some wells indicated a decreasing trend, while some other wells indicated stable As concentration during the monitoring period. The mean As concentrations were significantly higher in Matlab North compared with Matlab South. The spatial variations in the mean As concentrations may be due to the differences in local geological conditions and groundwater flow patterns. The variations in mean As concentrations were also observed in shallow (<40 m) and deep (>40 m) wells. However, to adequately evaluate temporal and seasonal variability of As concentration, it is imperative to monitor As concentrations in tubewells over a longer period of time. Such long-term monitoring will provide important information for the assessment of human health risk and the sustainability of safe drinking water supplies. PMID:21879850

  12. Spectral and temporal phase measurement by optical frequency-domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robillart, Bruno; Calò, Cosimo; Fall, Abdoulaye; Lamare, François; Gottesman, Yaneck; Benkelfat, Badr-Eddine

    2014-03-01

    The capability of measuring the spectral and temporal phase of an optical signal is of fundamental importance for the advanced characterization of photonic and optoelectronic components, biochemical sensors, structural monitoring sensors and distributed sensor networks. To address this problem, several techniques have been developed (frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER), stepped-heterodyne technique, laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) and Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT)). However, such techniques often lack of versatility for the mentioned applications. Swept-wavelength interferometric techniques and, among these, optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) are flexible and highly sensitive tools for complete characterization of amplitude and phase of target devices. In this work, we investigate the spectral and temporal phase measurement capabilities of OFDR. Precise characterization of spectral phase information is demonstrated by retrieving the phase response of a commercial optical filter, the Finisar Waveshaper 1000 S/X, programmable in attenuation and phase over C+L band (1530- 1625 nm). The presented results show accurate retrieval of group delay dispersion (GDD) and discrete phase shift as well as filter attenuation profile. Although some intrinsic accuracy limitations of OFDR phase measurements may be encountered (and herein specified), we show that information encoded in OFDR reflectogram data is very rich when adequately exploited. In addition to previously published results, we demonstrate the high sensitivity of the technique to Doppler effects. From practical point of view, such sensitivity can be beneficially exploited for the characterisation of dynamical aspects of samples under test. Unlike LDV, OFDR allows the simultaneous retrieval of the temporal position of several localised reflecting target along the beam path. All these aspects make OFDR a highly

  13. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record..., and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and...

  14. Prioritising pharmaceuticals for environmental risk assessment: Towards adequate and feasible first-tier selection.

    PubMed

    Roos, V; Gunnarsson, L; Fick, J; Larsson, D G J; Rudén, C

    2012-04-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, and the concerns for negative effects on aquatic organisms, has gained increasing attention over the last years. As ecotoxicity data are lacking for most active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), it is important to identify strategies to prioritise APIs for ecotoxicity testing and environmental monitoring. We have used nine previously proposed prioritisation schemes, both risk- and hazard-based, to rank 582 APIs. The similarities and differences in overall ranking results and input data were compared. Moreover, we analysed how well the methods ranked seven relatively well-studied APIs. It is concluded that the hazard-based methods were more successful in correctly ranking the well-studied APIs, but the fish plasma model, which includes human pharmacological data, also showed a high success rate. The results of the analyses show that the input data availability vary significantly; some data, such as logP, are available for most API while information about environmental concentrations and bioconcentration are still scarce. The results also suggest that the exposure estimates in risk-based methods need to be improved and that the inclusion of effect measures at first-tier prioritisation might underestimate risks. It is proposed that in order to develop an adequate prioritisation scheme, improved data on exposure such as degradation and sewage treatment removal and bioconcentration ability should be further considered. The use of ATC codes may also be useful for the development of a prioritisation scheme that includes the mode of action of pharmaceuticals and, to some extent, mixture effects. PMID:22361586

  15. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  16. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  17. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  18. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  19. Biocompatible, smooth, plasma-treated nickel-titanium surface--an adequate platform for cell growth.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowski, W; Szade, J; Hart, A D; Knowles, J C; Dalby, M J

    2012-02-01

    High nickel content is believed to reduce the number of biomedical applications of nickel-titanium alloy due to the reported toxicity of nickel. The reduction in nickel release and minimized exposure of the cell to nickel can optimize the biocompatibility of the alloy and increase its use in the application where its shape memory effects and pseudoelasticity are particularly useful, e.g., spinal implants. Many treatments have been tried to improve the biocompatibility of Ni-Ti, and results suggest that a native, smooth surface could provide sufficient tolerance, biologically. We hypothesized that the native surface of nickel-titanium supports cell differentiation and insures good biocompatibility. Three types of surface modifications were investigated: thermal oxidation, alkali treatment, and plasma sputtering, and compared with smooth, ground surface. Thermal oxidation caused a drop in surface nickel content, while negligible chemistry changes were observed for plasma-modified samples when compared with control ground samples. In contrast, alkali treatment caused significant increase in surface nickel concentration and accelerated nickel release. Nickel release was also accelerated in thermally oxidized samples at 600 °C, while in other samples it remained at low level. Both thermal oxidation and alkali treatment increased the roughness of the surface, but mean roughness R(a) was significantly greater for the alkali-treated ones. Ground and plasma-modified samples had 'smooth' surfaces with R(a)=4 nm. Deformability tests showed that the adhesion of the surface layers on samples oxidized at 600 °C and alkali treatment samples was not sufficient; the layer delaminated upon deformation. It was observed that the cell cytoskeletons on the samples with a high nickel content or release were less developed, suggesting some negative effects of nickel on cell growth. These effects were observed primarily during initial cell contact with the surface. The most favorable

  20. Performance on Temporal Information Processing as an Index of General Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Brandler, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    The relation between general intelligence (psychometric "g") and temporal resolution capacity of the central nervous system was examined by assessing performance on eight different temporal tasks in a sample of 100 participants. Correlational and principal component analyses suggested a unitary timing mechanism, referred to as temporal "g".…

  1. Temporal logics meet telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutten, Eric; Marce, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The specificity of telerobotics being the presence of a human operator, decision assistance tools are necessary for the operator, especially in hostile environments. In order to reduce execution hazards due to a degraded ability for quick and efficient recovery of unexpected dangerous situations, it is of importance to have the opportunity, amongst others, to simulate the possible consequences of a plan before its actual execution, in order to detect these problematic situations. Hence the idea of providing the operator with a simulator enabling him to verify the temporal and logical coherence of his plans. Therefore, the power of logical formalisms is used for representation and deduction purposes. Starting from the class of situations that are represented, a STRIPS (the STanford Research Institute Problem Solver)-like formalism and its underlying logic are adapted to the simulation of plans of actions in time. The choice of a temporal logic enables to build a world representation, on which the effects of plans, grouping actions into control structures, will be transcribed by the simulation, resulting in a verdict and information about the plan's coherence.

  2. Can loss of balance from mesoscale eddies adequately power deep ocean mixing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.; Haine, T. W.; Read, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The global ocean thermohaline circulation is partly composed of the sinking of dense surface waters at high latitudes. But in order to close the circulation and maintain the abyssal stratification, the dense waters must rise up again through vertical mixing. This process requires a source of energy roughly estimated to be 2 TW. Previous work has concluded that tides and winds may adequately supply the required power, but the conceivable role of loss of balance from mesoscale eddies, resulting in the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves and associated vertical mixing, has hitherto been considered to be 'of unknown importance' (Wunsch and Ferrari, 2004). We investigate the potential role of loss of balance, by studying the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves by balanced flow in a rotating two-layer annulus laboratory experiment (Williams et al., 2008). A photograph from the experiment is shown in the figure. As the Rossby number of the balanced flow decreases, the amplitude of the emitted inertia-gravity waves also decreases, but much less rapidly than is predicted by several dynamical theories. This finding suggests that inertia-gravity waves might be far more energised than previously thought. The balanced flow leaks roughly one per cent of its energy each rotation period into internal inertia-gravity waves at the peak of their generation. Crude extrapolation of this result to the global ocean suggests that the flux of energy from mesoscale eddies into internal waves may be as large as 1.5 TW. We claim no accuracy for this figure which is only indicative. Nevertheless, we are persuaded that generation of inertia-gravity waves from the balanced mesoscale flow may be an important source of energy for deep interior mixing, and deserves further study. Reference Williams, PD, Haine, TWN and Read, PL (2008) Inertia-Gravity Waves Emitted from Balanced Flow: Observations, Properties, and Consequences. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 65(11), pp 3543

  3. Planning 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) Cannot Adequately Represent Daily Intrafractional Motion of Abdominal Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Jiajia; Santanam, Lakshmi; Noel, Camille; Parikh, Parag J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether planning 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can adequately represent daily motion of abdominal tumors in regularly fractionated and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional tumor motion of 10 patients with abdominal tumors (4 pancreas-fractionated and 6 liver-stereotactic patients) with implanted fiducials was measured based on daily orthogonal fluoroscopic movies over 38 treatment fractions. The needed internal margin for at least 90% of tumor coverage was calculated based on a 95th and fifth percentile of daily 3-dimensional tumor motion. The planning internal margin was generated by fusing 4DCT motion from all phase bins. The disagreement between needed and planning internal margin was analyzed fraction by fraction in 3 motion axes (superior-inferior [SI], anterior-posterior [AP], and left-right [LR]). The 4DCT margin was considered as an overestimation/underestimation of daily motion when disagreement exceeded at least 3 mm in the SI axis and/or 1.2 mm in the AP and LR axes (4DCT image resolution). The underlying reasons for this disagreement were evaluated based on interfractional and intrafractional breathing variation. Results: The 4DCT overestimated daily 3-dimensional motion in 39% of the fractions in 7 of 10 patients and underestimated it in 53% of the fractions in 8 of 10 patients. Median underestimation was 3.9 mm, 3.0 mm, and 1.7 mm in the SI axis, AP axis, and LR axis, respectively. The 4DCT was found to capture irregular deep breaths in 3 of 10 patients, with 4DCT motion larger than mean daily amplitude by 18 to 21 mm. The breathing pattern varied from breath to breath and day to day. The intrafractional variation of amplitude was significantly larger than intrafractional variation (2.7 mm vs 1.3 mm) in the primary motion axis (ie, SI axis). The SBRT patients showed significantly larger intrafractional amplitude variation than fractionated patients (3.0 mm vs 2

  4. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants ≤ 1250 grams birth weight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth velocities and incidence of extrauterine growth restriction in infants ≤ 1250 grams (g) birth weight (BW) receiving an exclusive human milk-based diet with early and rapid advancement of fortification using a donor human milk derived fortifier. Methods In a single center, prospective observational cohort study, preterm infants weighing ≤ 1250 g BW were fed an exclusive human milk-based diet until 34 weeks postmenstrual age. Human milk fortification with donor human milk derived fortifier was started at 60 mL/kg/d and advanced to provide 6 to 8 additional kilocalories per ounce (or 0.21 to 0.28 kilocalories per gram). Data for growth were compared to historical growth standards and previous human milk-fed cohorts. Results We consecutively evaluated 104 infants with mean gestational age of 27.6 ± 2.0 weeks and BW of 913 ± 181 g (mean ± standard deviation). Weight gain was 24.8 ± 5.4 g/kg/day with length 0.99 ± 0.23 cm/week and head circumference 0.72 ± 0.14 cm/week. There were 3 medical NEC cases and 1 surgical NEC case. 22 infants (21%) were small for gestational age at birth. Overall, 45 infants (43%) had extrauterine growth restriction. Weight velocity was affected by day of fortification (p = 0.005) and day of full feeds (p = 0.02). Our cohort had significantly greater growth in weight and length compared to previous entirely human milk-fed cohorts. Conclusions A feeding protocol for infants ≤ 1250 g BW providing an exclusive human milk-based diet with early and rapid advancement of fortification leads to growth meeting targeted standards with a low rate of extrauterine growth restriction. Consistent

  5. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  6. Shoulder Arthroscopy Does Not Adequately Visualize Pathology of the Long Head of Biceps Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Saithna, Adnan; Longo, Alison; Leiter, Jeff; Old, Jason; MacDonald, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulling the long head of the biceps tendon into the joint at arthroscopy is a common method for evaluation of tendinopathic lesions. However, the rate of missed diagnoses when using this technique is reported to be as high as 30% to 50%. Hypothesis: Tendon excursion achieved using a standard arthroscopic probe does not allow adequate visualization of extra-articular sites of predilection of tendinopathy. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Seven forequarter amputation cadaveric specimens were evaluated. The biceps tendon was tagged to mark the intra-articular length and the maximum excursions achieved using a probe and a grasper in both beach-chair and lateral positions. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance to compare means. Results: The mean intra-articular and extra-articular lengths of the tendons were 23.9 and 82.3 mm, respectively. The length of tendon that could be visualized by pulling it into the joint with a probe through the anterior midglenoid portal was not significantly different when using either lateral decubitus (mean ± SD, 29.9 ± 3.89 mm; 95% CI, 25.7-34 mm) or beach-chair positions (32.7 ± 4.23 mm; 95% CI, 28.6-36.8 mm). The maximum length of the overall tendon visualized in any specimen using a standard technique was 37 mm. Although there was a trend to greater excursion using a grasper through the same portal, this was not statistically significant. However, using a grasper through the anterosuperior portal gave a significantly greater mean excursion than any other technique (46.7 ± 4.31 mm; 95% CI, 42.6-50.8 mm), but this still failed to allow evaluation of Denard zone C. Conclusion: Pulling the tendon into the joint with a probe via an anterior portal does not allow visualization of distal sites of predilection of pathology. Surgeons should be aware that this technique is inadequate and can result in missed diagnoses. Clinical Relevance: This study demonstrates that glenohumeral

  7. Audiotactile interactions in temporal perception.

    PubMed

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2011-06-01

    In the present review, we focus on how commonalities in the ontogenetic development of the auditory and tactile sensory systems may inform the interplay between these signals in the temporal domain. In particular, we describe the results of behavioral studies that have investigated temporal resolution (in temporal order, synchrony/asynchrony, and simultaneity judgment tasks), as well as temporal numerosity perception, and similarities in the perception of frequency across touch and hearing. The evidence reviewed here highlights features of audiotactile temporal perception that are distinctive from those seen for other pairings of sensory modalities. For instance, audiotactile interactions are characterized in certain tasks (e.g., temporal numerosity judgments) by a more balanced reciprocal influence than are other modality pairings. Moreover, relative spatial position plays a different role in the temporal order and temporal recalibration processes for audiotactile stimulus pairings than for other modality pairings. The effect exerted by both the spatial arrangement of stimuli and attention on temporal order judgments is described. Moreover, a number of audiotactile interactions occurring during sensory-motor synchronization are highlighted. We also look at the audiotactile perception of rhythm and how it may be affected by musical training. The differences emerging from this body of research highlight the need for more extensive investigation into audiotactile temporal interactions. We conclude with a brief overview of some of the key issues deserving of further research in this area. PMID:21400125

  8. Temporal uncertainty of geographical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Hong; Qi, Cuihong

    2005-10-01

    Temporal uncertainty is a crossing point of temporal and error-aware geographical information systems. In Geoinformatics, temporal uncertainty is of the same importance as spatial and thematic uncertainty of geographical information. However, until very recently, the standard organizations of ISO/TC211 and FGDC subsequently claimed that temporal uncertainty is one of geospatial data quality elements. Over the past decades, temporal uncertainty of geographical information is modeled insufficiently. To lay down a foundation of logically or physically modeling temporal uncertainty, this paper is aimed to clarify the semantics of temporal uncertainty to some extent. The general uncertainty is conceptualized with a taxonomy of uncertainty. Semantically, temporal uncertainty is progressively classified into uncertainty of time coordinates, changes, and dynamics. Uncertainty of multidimensional time (valid time, database time, and conceptual time, etc.) has been emphasized. It is realized that time scale (granularity) transition may lead to temporal uncertainty because of missing transition details. It is dialectically concluded that temporal uncertainty is caused by the complexity of the human-machine-earth system.

  9. Kernel Averaged Predictors for Spatio-Temporal Regression Models.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Matthew J; Gelfand, Alan E

    2012-12-01

    In applications where covariates and responses are observed across space and time, a common goal is to quantify the effect of a change in the covariates on the response while adequately accounting for the spatio-temporal structure of the observations. The most common approach for building such a model is to confine the relationship between a covariate and response variable to a single spatio-temporal location. However, oftentimes the relationship between the response and predictors may extend across space and time. In other words, the response may be affected by levels of predictors in spatio-temporal proximity to the response location. Here, a flexible modeling framework is proposed to capture such spatial and temporal lagged effects between a predictor and a response. Specifically, kernel functions are used to weight a spatio-temporal covariate surface in a regression model for the response. The kernels are assumed to be parametric and non-stationary with the data informing the parameter values of the kernel. The methodology is illustrated on simulated data as well as a physical data set of ozone concentrations to be explained by temperature. PMID:24010051

  10. Influenza-A Viruses in Ducks in Northwestern Minnesota: Fine Scale Spatial and Temporal Variation in Prevalence and Subtype Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Knutsen, Gregory A.; Berdeen, James; Goekjian, Virginia; Poulson, Rebecca; Goyal, Sagar; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Cardona, Carol; Berghaus, Roy D.; Swayne, David E.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl from northwestern Minnesota were sampled by cloacal swabbing for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from July – October in 2007 and 2008. AIV was detected in 222 (9.1%) of 2,441 ducks in 2007 and in 438 (17.9%) of 2,452 ducks in 2008. Prevalence of AIV peaked in late summer. We detected 27 AIV subtypes during 2007 and 31 during 2008. Ten hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes were detected each year (i.e., H1, 3–8, and 10–12 during 2007; H1-8, 10 and 11 during 2008). All neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were detected during each year of the study. Subtype diversity varied between years and increased with prevalence into September. Predominant subtypes during 2007 (comprising ≥5% of subtype diversity) included H1N1, H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H7N3, H10N7, and H11N9. Predominant subtypes during 2008 included H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H4N8, H6N1, and H10N7. Additionally, within each HA subtype, the same predominant HA/NA subtype combinations were detected each year and included H1N1, H3N8, H4N6, H5N2, H6N1, H7N3, H8N4, H10N7, and H11N9. The H2N3 and H12N5 viruses also predominated within the H2 and H12 subtypes, respectively, but only were detected during a single year (H2 and H12 viruses were not detected during 2007 and 2008, respectively). Mallards were the predominant species sampled (63.7% of the total), and 531 AIV were isolated from this species (80.5% of the total isolates). Mallard data collected during both years adequately described the observed temporal and spatial prevalence from the total sample and also adequately represented subtype diversity. Juvenile mallards also were adequate in describing the temporal and spatial prevalence of AIV as well as subtype diversity. PMID:21931636

  11. Time, Temporality, Now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Ruhnau, Eva

    The essays in this topical volume inquire into one of the most fundamental issues of philosophy and of the cognitive and natural sciences: the riddle of time. The central feature is the tension between the experience and the conceptualization of time, reflecting an apparently unavoidable antinomy of subjective first-person accounts and objective traditional science. Is time based in the physics of inanimate matter, or does it originate in the operation of our minds? Is it essential for the constitution of reality, or is it just an illusion? Issues of time, temporality, and nowness are paradigms for interdisciplinary work in many contemporary fields of research. The authors of this volume discuss profoundly the mutual relationships and inspiring perspectives. They address a general audience.

  12. Temporal dark polariton solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Skryabin, Dmitry V.

    2016-04-01

    We predict that strong coupling between waveguide photons and excitons of quantum well embedded into waveguide results in the formation of hybrid dark and anti-dark light-matter solitons. Such temporal solitons exist due to interplay between repulsive excitonic nonlinearity and giant group velocity dispersion arising in the vicinity of excitonic resonance. Such fully conservative states do not require external pumping to counteract losses and form continuous families parameterized by the power-dependent phase shift and velocity of their motion. Dark solitons are stable in the considerable part of their existence domain, while anti-dark solitons are always unstable. Both families exist outside forbidden frequency gap of the linear system.

  13. Temporal dark polariton solitons.

    PubMed

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Skryabin, Dmitry V

    2016-04-15

    We predict that strong coupling between waveguide photons and excitons of quantum well embedded into waveguide results in the formation of hybrid-dark and antidark light-matter solitons. Such temporal solitons exist due to interplay between repulsive excitonic nonlinearity and giant group-velocity dispersion arising in the vicinity of excitonic resonance. Such fully conservative states do not require external pumping to counteract losses and form continuous families parameterized by the power-dependent phase shift and velocity of their motion. Dark solitons are stable in the considerable part of their existence domain, while antidark solitons are always unstable. Both families exist outside the forbidden frequency gap of the linear system. PMID:27082338

  14. Temporal dispersion of a spectrometera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visco, A.; Drake, R. P.; Froula, D. H.; Glenzer, S. H.; Pollock, B. B.

    2008-10-01

    The temporal dispersion of an optical spectrometer has been characterized for a variety of conditions related to optical diagnostics to be fielded at the National Ignition Facility (e.g., full-aperture backscatter station, Thomson scattering). Significant time smear is introduced into these systems by the path length difference through the spectrometer. The temporal resolution is shown to depend only on the order of the grating, wavelength, and the number of grooves illuminated. To enhance the temporal resolution, the spectral gratings can be masked limiting the number of grooves illuminated. Experiments have been conducted to verify these calculations. The size and shape of masks are investigated and correlated with the exact shape of the temporal instrument function, which is required when interpreting temporally resolved data. The experiments used a 300 fs laser pulse and a picosecond optical streak camera to determine the temporal dispersion. This was done for multiple spectral orders, gratings, and optical masks.

  15. Temporal dispersion of a spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Visco, A; Drake, R P; Froula, D H; Glenzer, S H; Pollock, B B

    2008-10-01

    The temporal dispersion of an optical spectrometer has been characterized for a variety of conditions related to optical diagnostics to be fielded at the National Ignition Facility (e.g., full-aperture backscatter station, Thomson scattering). Significant time smear is introduced into these systems by the path length difference through the spectrometer. The temporal resolution is shown to depend only on the order of the grating, wavelength, and the number of grooves illuminated. To enhance the temporal resolution, the spectral gratings can be masked limiting the number of grooves illuminated. Experiments have been conducted to verify these calculations. The size and shape of masks are investigated and correlated with the exact shape of the temporal instrument function, which is required when interpreting temporally resolved data. The experiments used a 300 fs laser pulse and a picosecond optical streak camera to determine the temporal dispersion. This was done for multiple spectral orders, gratings, and optical masks. PMID:19044687

  16. Temporal waveguides for optical pulses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Plansinis, Brent W.; Donaldson, William R.; Agrawal, Govind P.

    2016-05-12

    Here we discuss, temporal total internal reflection (TIR), in analogy to the conventional TIR of an optical beam at a dielectric interface, is the total reflection of an optical pulse inside a dispersive medium at a temporal boundary across which the refractive index changes. A pair of such boundaries separated in time acts as the temporal analog of planar dielectric waveguides. We study the propagation of optical pulses inside such temporal waveguides, both analytically and numerically, and show that the waveguide supports a finite number of temporal modes. We also discuss how a single-mode temporal waveguide can be created inmore » practice. In contrast with the spatial case, the confinement can occur even when the central region has a lower refractive index.« less

  17. Capillary sample

    MedlinePlus

    ... using capillary blood sampling. Disadvantages to capillary blood sampling include: Only a limited amount of blood can be drawn using this method. The procedure has some risks (see below). Capillary ...

  18. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  19. Temporal clustering of paleoearthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    The character of the earthquake cycle is important in understanding and modeling behavior of seismogenic sources. Of particular importance is the question of whether the cyclic tectonic loading and release process is periodic or aperiodic, because recurrence data are incorporated into most seismic hazard estimates. Most probabilistic seismic hazard models utilize a periodic recurrence model, in which it is assumed that the average long-term recurrence interval adequately represents real fault behavior. This is essentially the classical Reid concept where uniform stress accumulation is used to estimate the timing of regular, periodic earthquakes having uniform stress drops. Within the last decade, however, a growing body of seismic data, largely derived from plate boundary faults, suggests that actual fault behavior is far more complex than that suggested by the original Reid concept, and that the seismic cycle is not so simple. For example, Shimazaki and Nakata proposed two additional earthquake recurrence models based on studied of less-regular Japanese earthquakes: the time-predictable and the slip-predictable models. Thatcher further illustrated that some major plate-boundary faults do not display periodic behavior as commonly assumed, and that such activity is actually the exception rather than the rule.

  20. The Temporal Spectrum of Adult Mosquito Population Fluctuations: Conceptual and Modeling Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yun; Silvestri, Sonia; Brown, Jeff; Hickman, Rick; Marani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An improved understanding of mosquito population dynamics under natural environmental forcing requires adequate field observations spanning the full range of temporal scales over which mosquito abundance fluctuates in natural conditions. Here we analyze a 9-year daily time series of uninterrupted observations of adult mosquito abundance for multiple mosquito species in North Carolina to identify characteristic scales of temporal variability, the processes generating them, and the representativeness of observations at different sampling resolutions. We focus in particular on Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura and, using a combination of spectral analysis and modeling, we find significant population fluctuations with characteristic periodicity between 2 days and several years. Population dynamical modelling suggests that the observed fast fluctuations scales (2 days-weeks) are importantly affected by a varying mosquito activity in response to rapid changes in meteorological conditions, a process neglected in most representations of mosquito population dynamics. We further suggest that the range of time scales over which adult mosquito population variability takes place can be divided into three main parts. At small time scales (indicatively 2 days-1 month) observed population fluctuations are mainly driven by behavioral responses to rapid changes in weather conditions. At intermediate scales (1 to several month) environmentally-forced fluctuations in generation times, mortality rates, and density dependence determine the population characteristic response times. At longer scales (annual to multi-annual) mosquito populations follow seasonal and inter-annual environmental changes. We conclude that observations of adult mosquito populations should be based on a sub-weekly sampling frequency and that predictive models of mosquito abundance must include behavioral dynamics to separate the effects of a varying mosquito activity from actual changes in the abundance of the

  1. Glycemic penalty index for adequately assessing and comparing different blood glucose control algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Van Herpe, Tom; De Brabanter, Jos; Beullens, Martine; De Moor, Bart; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Blood glucose (BG) control performed by intensive care unit (ICU) nurses is becoming standard practice for critically ill patients. New (semi-automated) 'BG control' algorithms (or 'insulin titration' algorithms) are under development, but these require stringent validation before they can replace the currently used algorithms. Existing methods for objectively comparing different insulin titration algorithms show weaknesses. In the current study, a new approach for appropriately assessing the adequacy of different algorithms is proposed. Methods Two ICU patient populations (with different baseline characteristics) were studied, both treated with a similar 'nurse-driven' insulin titration algorithm targeting BG levels of 80 to 110 mg/dl. A new method for objectively evaluating BG deviations from normoglycemia was founded on a smooth penalty function. Next, the performance of this new evaluation tool was compared with the current standard assessment methods, on an individual as well as a population basis. Finally, the impact of four selected parameters (the average BG sampling frequency, the duration of algorithm application, the severity of disease, and the type of illness) on the performance of an insulin titration algorithm was determined by multiple regression analysis. Results The glycemic penalty index (GPI) was proposed as a tool for assessing the overall glycemic control behavior in ICU patients. The GPI of a patient is the average of all penalties that are individually assigned to each measured BG value based on the optimized smooth penalty function. The computation of this index returns a number between 0 (no penalty) and 100 (the highest penalty). For some patients, the assessment of the BG control behavior using the traditional standard evaluation methods was different from the evaluation with GPI. Two parameters were found to have a significant impact on GPI: the BG sampling frequency and the duration of algorithm application. A higher BG

  2. Medical Temporal-Knowledge Discovery via Temporal Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Moskovitch, Robert; Shahar, Yuval

    2009-01-01

    Medical knowledge includes frequently occurring temporal patterns in longitudinal patient records. These patterns are not easily detectable by human clinicians. Current knowledge could be extended by automated temporal data mining. However, multivariate time-oriented data are often present at various levels of abstraction and at multiple temporal granularities, requiring a transformation into a more abstract, yet uniform dimension suitable for mining. Temporal abstraction (of both the time and value dimensions) can transform multiple types of point-based data into a meaningful, time-interval-based data representation, in which significant, interval-based temporal patterns can be discovered. We introduce a modular, fast time-interval mining method, KarmaLego, which exploits the transitivity inherent in temporal relations. We demonstrate the usefulness of KarmaLego in finding meaningful temporal patterns within a set of records of diabetic patients; several patterns seem to have a different frequency depending on gender. We also suggest additional uses of the discovered patterns for temporal clustering of the mined population and for classifying multivariate time series. PMID:20351898

  3. A General Investigation of Optimized Atmospheric Sample Duration

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Miley, Harry S.

    2012-11-28

    ABSTRACT The International Monitoring System (IMS) consists of up to 80 aerosol and xenon monitoring systems spaced around the world that have collection systems sensitive enough to detect nuclear releases from underground nuclear tests at great distances (CTBT 1996; CTBTO 2011). Although a few of the IMS radionuclide stations are closer together than 1,000 km (such as the stations in Kuwait and Iran), many of them are 2,000 km or more apart. In the absence of a scientific basis for optimizing the duration of atmospheric sampling, historically scientists used a integration times from 24 hours to 14 days for radionuclides (Thomas et al. 1977). This was entirely adequate in the past because the sources of signals were far away and large, meaning that they were smeared over many days by the time they had travelled 10,000 km. The Fukushima event pointed out the unacceptable delay time (72 hours) between the start of sample acquisition and final data being shipped. A scientific basis for selecting a sample duration time is needed. This report considers plume migration of a nondecaying tracer using archived atmospheric data for 2011 in the HYSPLIT (Draxler and Hess 1998; HYSPLIT 2011) transport model. We present two related results: the temporal duration of the majority of the plume as a function of distance and the behavior of the maximum plume concentration as a function of sample collection duration and distance. The modeled plume behavior can then be combined with external information about sampler design to optimize sample durations in a sampling network.

  4. Reliable Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children for Adequate Hospital Infection Control Management

    PubMed Central

    Abels, Susanne; Nadal, David; Stroehle, Angelika; Bossart, Walter

    2001-01-01

    By using a rapid test for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) detection (Abbott TestPack RSV), a number of patients were observed, showing repeatedly positive results over a period of up to 10 weeks. A prospective study was initiated to compare the rapid test with an antigen capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a nested reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) protocol for detection of RSV serotypes A and B. Only respiratory samples from children exhibiting the prolonged presence of RSV (≥5 days) as determined by the rapid test were considered. A total of 134 specimens from 24 children was investigated by antigen capture EIA and nested RT-PCR. Using RT-PCR as the reference method, we determined the RSV rapid test to have a specificity of 63% and a sensitivity of 66% and the antigen capture EIA to have a specificity of 96% and a sensitivity of 69% for acute-phase samples and the homologous virus serotype A. In 7 (29%) of 24 patients, the positive results of the RSV rapid test could not be confirmed by either nested RT-PCR or antigen capture EIA. In these seven patients a variety of other respiratory viruses were detected. For general screening the RSV rapid test was found to be a reasonable tool to get quick results. However, its lack of specificity in some patients requires confirmation by additional tests to rule out false-positive results and/or detection of other respiratory viruses. PMID:11526141

  5. TEMPORAL SELF-ORGANIZATION IN GALAXY FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Cen, Renyue

    2014-04-20

    We report on the discovery of a relation between the number of star formation (SF) peaks per unit time, ν{sub peak}, and the size of the temporal smoothing window function, Δt, used to define the peaks: ν{sub peak}∝Δt {sup 1} {sup –} {sup φ} (φ ∼ 1.618). This relation holds over the range of Δt = 10-1000 Myr that can be reliably computed here, using a large sample of galaxies obtained from a state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. This means that the temporal distribution of SF peaks in galaxies as a population is fractal with a Hausdorff fractal dimension equal to φ – 1. This finding reveals, for the first time, that the superficially chaotic process of galaxy formation is underlined by temporal self-organization up to at least one gigayear. It is tempting to suggest that, given the known existence of spatial fractals (such as the power-law two-point function of galaxies), there is a joint spatio-temporal self-organization in galaxy formation. From an observational perspective, it will be urgent to devise diagnostics to probe the SF histories of galaxies with good temporal resolution to facilitate a test of this prediction. If confirmed, it would provide unambiguous evidence for a new picture of galaxy formation that is interaction driven, cooperative, and coherent in and between time and space. Unravelling its origin may hold the key to understanding galaxy formation.

  6. [The pregnant employee in anaesthesia and intensive care - An evidence-based approach to designing adequate workplaces].

    PubMed

    Röher, Katharina; Göpfert, Matthias S

    2015-07-01

    In the light of a rising percentage of women among employees in anaesthesia and intensive care designing adequate workplaces for pregnant employees plays an increasingly important role. Here it is necessary to align the varied interests of the pregnant employee, fellow employees and the employer, where the legal requirements of the Maternity Protection Act ("Mutterschutzgesetz") form the statutory framework. This review describes how adequate workplaces for pregnant employees in anaesthesia and intensive care can be established considering the scientific evidence on the subject. PMID:26230896

  7. Three not adequately understood lunar phenomena investigated by the wave planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    Three not adequately understood lunar phenomena investigated by the wave planetology G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru The lunar science notwithstanding rather numerous researches of the last 50 years still debates some important issues. Three of them concern an origin of mascons, the deepest but low ferruginous South Pole-Aitken depression, a strange character of the frequency-crater size curve. Prevailing approaches are mainly based on impacts having made the present geomorphology of the Moon. However practically are ignored the fact of antipodality of basins and marea, a complex character of the frequency-crater size curve obviously implying an involvement of different sources and reasons responsible for crater formation. Attempts to find impactor sources in various sometimes very remote parts of the Solar system are too artificial, besides they do not explain very intensive, like lunar cratering of Mercury. Saturation of the lunar surface by ~70-km diameter craters is very strange for random impacts from any source; to find a time interval for this saturation is difficult if not possible because it affects formations of various ages. Lunar basins and marea completely contradict to a classical frequency- crater size curve. Their presumed ( and measured) different ages make dubious existence of one specialized impactor source. So, if one accepts an impact process as the only process responsible for cratering (ring forms development) then the real mess in crater statistics and timing never will be overcome. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] examined by many planets and satellites of the Solar system proved to be real. In a case of the Moon it can help in answering the above questions. First of all it should be admitted that the complex lunar crater (ring forms) statistics is due to a superposition and mixing of two main processes (a minor involvement of volcanic features is also present): impacts and wave

  8. Polarity and Excursion Transitions: Can they be Adequately Recorded in High-Sedimentation-Rate Marine Sediments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, J. E. T.

    2014-12-01

    Polarity transitions and magnetic excursions have durations of a few thousand years, or less. Transition/excursion records in volcanic sequences are, at best, partial snap-shots of the transition/excursion field. Records from high-sedimentation-rate marine sediments may be more continuous but they are always smoothed by progressive acquisition of detrital remanent magnetization (DRM), and by sampling/measurement limitations. North Atlantic records of the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) polarity transition are compared with records of the Iceland Basin excursion (190 ka). Virtual geomagnetic polar (VGP) paths are used to map characteristic magnetization directions during the transition/excursion. Relative paleointensity (RPI) proxies indicate partial recovery of field intensity during the transition/excursion, with RPI minima coinciding with abrupt VGP shifts at the onset and end of the transition/excursion. Discrepancies in VGP paths among holes at the same site, among sites, and a comparison of u-channel and discrete sample measurements, reveal limitations in resolution of the transition/excursion fields. During the M-B polarity transition, VGP clusters appear in the NW Pacific, NE Asia and in the South Atlantic. Similarities in VGP clustering for the M-B boundary and the Iceland Basin excursion imply that the polarity transition and excursion fields had common characteristics. Similarities with the modern non-axial dipole (NAD) field imply that polarity transitions and excursions involve the demise of the Earth's axial dipole relative to the NAD field, and that the NAD field has long-lasting features locked in place by the lowermost mantle.

  9. Cellular imaging using temporally flickering nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ilovitsh, Tali; Danan, Yossef; Meir, Rinat; Meiri, Amihai; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the surface plasmon resonance effect in gold nanoparticles enables their use as contrast agents in a variety of applications for compound cellular imaging. However, most techniques suffer from poor signal to noise ratio (SNR) statistics due to high shot noise that is associated with low photon count in addition to high background noise. We demonstrate an effective way to improve the SNR, in particular when the inspected signal is indistinguishable in the given noisy environment. We excite the temporal flickering of the scattered light from gold nanoparticle that labels a biological sample. By preforming temporal spectral analysis of the received spatial image and by inspecting the proper spectral component corresponding to the modulation frequency, we separate the signal from the wide spread spectral noise (lock-in amplification). PMID:25650019

  10. Cellular imaging using temporally flickering nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ilovitsh, Tali; Danan, Yossef; Meir, Rinat; Meiri, Amihai; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the surface plasmon resonance effect in gold nanoparticles enables their use as contrast agents in a variety of applications for compound cellular imaging. However, most techniques suffer from poor signal to noise ratio (SNR) statistics due to high shot noise that is associated with low photon count in addition to high background noise. We demonstrate an effective way to improve the SNR, in particular when the inspected signal is indistinguishable in the given noisy environment. We excite the temporal flickering of the scattered light from gold nanoparticle that labels a biological sample. By preforming temporal spectral analysis of the received spatial image and by inspecting the proper spectral component corresponding to the modulation frequency, we separate the signal from the wide spread spectral noise (lock-in amplification). PMID:25650019

  11. Phytase improves apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in piglets fed diets with adequate or reduced phosphorus content.

    PubMed

    Kühn, I; Partanen, K

    2012-12-01

    The effect of a thermotolerant 6-phytase produced by Trichoderma reesei on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was evaluated in 192 weaned piglets (randomized block design; 16 replicates; 2 piglets each). Diets based on wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa), soybean (Glycine max) meal, and whey protein with adequate [positive control (PC)] or reduced [negative control (NC)] Ca and P levels were fed for 46 d after weaning. The PC and NC diets contained 8.0 and 6.4 g/kg Ca and 2.9 and 1.9 g/kg digestible P, respectively. Pelleted diets contained 0, 500, or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg. Growth performance and G:F were measured during starter (25 d) and weaner pig (21 d) periods. The ATTD of Ca and P was determined by spot sampling at the end of the weaner pig period (8 pens per treatment over 5 consecutive d). Data were analyzed using a mixed model with random block effect and fixed effect of dietary P and phytase level and their interaction. Dietary P level did not affect ADG or G:F of piglets over the entire feeding period (P > 0.10) whereas phytase increased G:F (P < 0.05). During the starter period, phytase linearly enhanced (P < 0.05) ADG (258, 266, and 292 g) and G:F (639, 677, and 664 g gain/kg feed DM) without further increase in the weaner pig period (P > 0.10). A P × phytase interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for ATTD of P, more so for NC (48, 61, and 68%, respectively) than PC diets (52, 62, and 61%). The ATTD of Ca was higher (P < 0.05) for PC than NC diets (68 vs. 58%) and increased quadratically by phytase (61, 65, and 63%). In conclusion, the phytase tested enhanced piglet performance during the postweaning period and increased ATTD of P and Ca. PMID:23365327

  12. Temporal Scattering And Response

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R. R.; Ray, S. L.; Laguna, G.; Allison, M.; Cabral, B.

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided to easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.

  13. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Waidyasekara, Pasan; Dowthwaite, Samuel A.; Stephenson, Ellison; Bhuta, Sandeep; McMonagle, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation. PMID:25821620

  14. Temporal Scattering And Response

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided tomore » easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.« less

  15. Spatial Grouping Determines Temporal Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermens, Frouke; Scharnowski, Frank; Herzog, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    To make sense out of a continuously changing visual world, people need to integrate features across space and time. Despite more than a century of research, the mechanisms of features integration are still a matter of debate. To examine how temporal and spatial integration interact, the authors measured the amount of temporal fusion (a measure of…

  16. Temporal Processing and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Share, David L.; Jorm, Anthony F.; Maclean, Rod; Matthews, Russell

    2002-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that early auditory temporal processing deficits cause later specific reading disability by impairing phonological processing. Suggests that auditory temporal deficits in dyslexics may be associated with dysphasic-type symptoms observed by Tallal and her colleagues in specific language-impaired populations, but do not cause…

  17. Effectiveness of Temporal Augmentation Using a Calvarial Onlay Graft during Pterional Craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Soo; Yi, Hyung Suk; Kim, Han Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Temporal hollowing occurs to varying degrees after pterional craniotomy. The most common cause of temporal hollowing is a bony defect of the pterional and temporal regions due to the resection of the sphenoid ridge and temporal squama for adequate exposure without overhang. The augmentation of such bony defects is important in preventing craniofacial deformities and postoperative hollowness. Temporal cranioplasty has been performed using a range of materials, such as acrylics, porous polyethylene, bone cement, titanium, muscle flaps, and prosthetic dermis. These methods are limited by the risk of damage to adjacent tissue and infection, a prolonged preparation phase, the possibility of reabsorption, and cost inefficiency. We have developed a method of temporal augmentation using a calvarial onlay graft as a single-stage neurosurgical reconstructive operation in patients requiring craniotomy. In this report, we describe the surgical details and review our institutional outcomes. The patients were divided into pterional craniotomy and onlay graft groups. Clinical temporal hollowing was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Temporal soft tissue thickness was measured on preoperative and postoperative computed tomography (CT) studies. Both the VAS and CT-based assessments were compared between the groups. Our review indicated that the use of an onlay graft was associated with a lower VAS score and left-right discrepancy in the temporal contour than were observed in patients undergoing pterional craniotomy without an onlay graft. PMID:27019813

  18. Rectal cancer delivery of radiotherapy in adequate time and with adequate dose is influenced by treatment center, treatment schedule, and gender and is prognostic parameter for local control: Results of study CAO/ARO/AIO-94

    SciTech Connect

    Fietkau, Rainer . E-mail: rainer.fietkau@med.uni-rostock.de; Roedel, Claus; Hohenberger, Werner; Raab, Rudolf; Hess, Clemens; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Wittekind, Christian; Hutter, Matthias; Hager, Eva; Karstens, Johann; Ewald, Hermann; Christen, Norbert; Jagoditsch, Michael; Martus, Peter; Sauer, Rolf

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: The impact of the delivery of radiotherapy (RT) on treatment results in rectal cancer patients is unknown. Methods and Materials: The data from 788 patients with rectal cancer treated within the German CAO/AIO/ARO-94 phase III trial were analyzed concerning the impact of the delivery of RT (adequate RT: minimal radiation RT dose delivered, 4300 cGy for neoadjuvant RT or 4700 cGy for adjuvant RT; completion of RT in <44 days for neoadjuvant RT or <49 days for adjuvant RT) in different centers on the locoregional recurrence rate (LRR) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years. The LRR, DFS, and delivery of RT were analyzed as endpoints in multivariate analysis. Results: A significant difference was found between the centers and the delivery of RT. The overall delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for the LRR (no RT, 29.6% {+-} 7.8%; inadequate RT, 21.2% {+-} 5.6%; adequate RT, 6.8% {+-} 1.4%; p = 0.0001) and DFS (no RT, 55.1% {+-} 9.1%; inadequate RT, 57.4% {+-} 6.3%; adequate RT, 69.1% {+-} 2.3%; p = 0.02). Postoperatively, delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for LRR on multivariate analysis (together with pathologic stage) but not for DFS (independent parameters, pathologic stage and age). Preoperatively, on multivariate analysis, pathologic stage, but not delivery of RT, was an independent prognostic parameter for LRR and DFS (together with adequate chemotherapy). On multivariate analysis, the treatment center, treatment schedule (neoadjuvant vs. adjuvant RT), and gender were prognostic parameters for adequate RT. Conclusion: Delivery of RT should be regarded as a prognostic factor for LRR in rectal cancer and is influenced by the treatment center, treatment schedule, and patient gender.

  19. Sampling Development

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of the enterprise. This article discusses how to sample development in order to accurately discern the shape of developmental change. The ideal solution is daunting: to summarize behavior over 24-hour intervals and collect daily samples over the critical periods of change. We discuss the magnitude of errors due to undersampling, and the risks associated with oversampling. When daily sampling is not feasible, we offer suggestions for sampling methods that can provide preliminary reference points and provisional sketches of the general shape of a developmental trajectory. Denser sampling then can be applied strategically during periods of enhanced variability, inflections in the rate of developmental change, or in relation to key events or processes that may affect the course of change. Despite the challenges of dense repeated sampling, researchers must take seriously the problem of sampling on a developmental time scale if we are to know the true shape of developmental change. PMID:22140355

  20. Temporal Cognition: A Key Ingredient of Intelligent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Maniadakis, Michail; Trahanias, Panos

    2011-01-01

    Experiencing the flow of time is an important capacity of biological systems that is involved in many ways in the daily activities of humans and animals. However, in the field of robotics, the key role of time in cognition is not adequately considered in contemporary research, with artificial agents focusing mainly on the spatial extent of sensory information, almost always neglecting its temporal dimension. This fact significantly obstructs the development of high-level robotic cognitive skills, as well as the autonomous and seamless operation of artificial agents in human environments. Taking inspiration from biological cognition, the present work puts forward time perception as a vital capacity of artificial intelligent systems and contemplates the research path for incorporating temporal cognition in the repertoire of robotic skills. PMID:21954384

  1. Temporal cognition: a key ingredient of intelligent systems.

    PubMed

    Maniadakis, Michail; Trahanias, Panos

    2011-01-01

    Experiencing the flow of time is an important capacity of biological systems that is involved in many ways in the daily activities of humans and animals. However, in the field of robotics, the key role of time in cognition is not adequately considered in contemporary research, with artificial agents focusing mainly on the spatial extent of sensory information, almost always neglecting its temporal dimension. This fact significantly obstructs the development of high-level robotic cognitive skills, as well as the autonomous and seamless operation of artificial agents in human environments. Taking inspiration from biological cognition, the present work puts forward time perception as a vital capacity of artificial intelligent systems and contemplates the research path for incorporating temporal cognition in the repertoire of robotic skills. PMID:21954384

  2. Are current screening protocols for chronic hepatitis B virus infection adequate?

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Eva; Kamali, Amanda; Schirmer, Patricia L; Lucero-Obusan, Cynthia; Winston, Carla A; Oda, Gina; Winters, Mark A; Durfee, Janet; Martinello, Richard A; Davey, Victoria J; Holodniy, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection screening usually includes only HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) testing; HBV core and surface antibody (anti-HBc, anti-HBs) assays, indicating resolved infection and immunity, are not routinely performed. Yet, serum HBV DNA is measurable in approximately 10% of HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive cases, representing occult HBV infection (OBI). Patient blood samples from 2 Veterans Affairs medical center look-back investigations were screened for HBV infection using HBsAg enzyme immunoassays. Supplementary testing included anti-HBc and anti-HBs enzyme immunoassays. For anti-HBc-positive samples, HBV DNA testing was performed. Background OBI prevalence was further estimated at these 2 facilities based on HBV serology testing results from 1999-2012. Finally, a literature review was performed to determine OBI prevalence in the published literature. Of 1887 HBsAg-negative cohort patients, 98 (5.2%) were anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs negative; and 175 (9.3%), anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs positive. Six of 273 were HBV DNA positive, representing 0.3% of the total tested and 2.2% who were anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs negative or anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs positive. Among 32,229 general population veterans at these 2 sites who had any HBV testing, 4/108 (3.7%) were HBV DNA positive, none of whom were part of the cohort. In 129 publications with HBsAg-negative patients, 1817/1,209,426 (0.15%) had OBI. However, excluding blood bank studies with greater than 1000 patients, the OBI rate increased to 1800/17,893 (10%). OBI is not rare and has implications for transmission and disease detection. HBsAg testing alone is insufficient for detecting all chronic HBV infections. These findings may impact blood donation, patient HBV screening, follow-up protocols for patients assumed to have cleared the infection, and initiation of immunosuppression in patients with distant or undetected HBV. PMID:27009896

  3. Updating Norman's "Adequate Taxonomy": intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and in questionnaires.

    PubMed

    McCrae, R R; Costa, P T

    1985-09-01

    Research on the dimensions of personality represented in the English language has repeatedly led to the identification of five factors (Norman, 1963). An alternative classification of personality traits, based on analyses of standardized questionnaires, is provided by the NEO (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness) model (Costa & McCrae, 1980b). In this study we examined the correspondence between these two systems in order to evaluate their comprehensiveness as models of personality. A sample of 498 men and women, participants in a longitudinal study of aging, completed an instrument containing 80 adjective pairs, which included 40 pairs proposed by Goldberg to measure the five dimensions. Neuroticism and extraversion factors from these items showed substantial correlations with corresponding NEO Inventory scales; however, analyses that included psychometric measures of intelligence suggested that the fifth factor in the Norman structure should be reconceptualized as openness to experience. Convergent correlations above .50 with spouse ratings on the NEO Inventory that were made three years earlier confirmed these relations across time, instrument, and source of data. We discuss the relations among culture, conscientiousness, openness, and intelligence, and we conclude that mental ability is a separate factor, though related to openness to experience. PMID:4045699

  4. Are rehabilitation services for patients in UK eye clinics adequate? A survey of eye care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie-Gallery, H; Conway, M L; Subramanian, A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine whether specific services such as emotional and family support are currently available in the United Kingdom for people with visual impairment. Methods A validated online survey was created and distributed to clinical staff in eye clinics (for example, ophthalmologists and optometrists) and rehabilitation staff (for example, social and rehabilitation workers) in the community, who worked with people with visual impairment. A total of 67 clinical and 42 rehabilitation staff completed the entire survey online. Results Only 67% of the respondents claimed their clinics provide emotional support and 44% of respondent's clinics provided family support. Clinical and rehabilitation staff have differences in opinion over what constitutes an essential service for a visually impaired patient. Rehabilitation staff considered emotional support and referral to social services as essential more often than clinical staff (P<0.05). There is some confusion over the type of personnel who provides each type of service, with some services showing substantial repetition. Conclusion In the clinics sampled, there appears to be an underprovision of emotional support (attentive listening plus constructive suggestions) and family support (emotional support and advice for family members) for visually impaired patients in the United Kingdom. There also seems to be some discrepancy in services that eye care professionals feel are available and previous reports by visually impaired patients of the service they receive. There is a need to develop standardised pathways across the United Kingdom, to solve some of these issues. PMID:22814804

  5. 21 CFR 1.283 - What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dealt with as set forth in CBP regulations relating to general order merchandise (19 CFR part 127... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice? 1.283 Section 1.283 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  6. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...

  7. Understanding Unresponsiveness to Tier 2 Reading Intervention: Exploring the Classification and Profiles of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toste, Jessica R.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Eunsoo; Barquero, Laura A.; Bouton, Bobette D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine academic and cognitive profiles of first graders who responded adequately and inadequately to intensive small-group reading intervention (Tier 2), as well as assess how these profiles differ based on the criteria used for classification of unresponsiveness. Nonresponders were identified using two…

  8. Are Substance Use Prevention Programs More Effective in Schools Making Adequate Yearly Progress? A Study of Project ALERT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to determine if a popular school-based drug prevention program might be effective in schools that are making adequate yearly progress (AYP). Thirty-four schools with grades 6 through 8 in 11 states were randomly assigned either to receive Project ALERT (n = 17) or to a control group (n = 17); of these, 10 intervention…

  9. Using Fuzzy Logic to Identify Schools Which May Be Misclassified by the No Child Left Behind Adequate Yearly Progress Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation developed, tested, and prototyped a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) that would assist decision makers in identifying schools that may have been misclassified by existing Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) methods. This prototype was then used to evaluate Louisiana elementary schools using published school data for Academic Year 2004. …

  10. Students' Use of Tutoring Services, by Adequate Yearly Progress Status of School. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2010-023

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warkentien, Siri; Grady, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief contributes to current research by investigating the use of tutoring services among a nationally representative group of public school students enrolled in grades K-12. The report compares students in schools that have not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for 3 or more years, and were thereby enrolled in schools that…

  11. 33 CFR 151.2065 - What is the standard of adequate compliance determined by the ANSTF for this subpart? [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the standard of adequate... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management...

  12. Funding an Adequate Education for America's Youth: A Plan for Melding Political and Market Definitions of Educational Adequacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.

    Noting that American society has conventionally relied on both the political process and the marketplace to arrive at a "definition" of adequate education, but that the political process fails to account for individual preferences while the marketplace can cater to many individual preferences, this paper attempts to combine the two processes in a…

  13. 36 CFR 79.9 - Standards to determine when a repository possesses the capability to provide adequate long-term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards to determine when a repository possesses the capability to provide adequate long-term curatorial services. 79.9 Section 79.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CURATION OF FEDERALLY-OWNED AND...

  14. Adequate Funding of Education Programs for At-Risk Children: An Econometric Application of Research-Based Cost Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern; Wall, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This article contributes to the ongoing discussion of the adequacy of funding for public schools, specifically with regard to the provision of programs for at-risk children. Of particular concern is the determination of realistic, research-based costs of adequately funded programs. This article has three basic parts: the definition and measurement…

  15. Evaluating Rural Progress in Mathematics Achievement: Is "Adequate Yearly Progress" (AYP) Feasible, Valid, Reliable, and Fair? Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires standards-based accountability for school districts and schools receiving Title I funds. A major component of this policy is to report whether districts and schools are making "adequate yearly progress" (AYP) based on their performance goals. This paper raises questions for rural schools using the National…

  16. Improved estimates of boreal Fire Radiative Energy using high temporal resolution data and a modified active fire detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    Reliable estimates of biomass combusted during wildfires can be obtained from satellite observations of fire radiative power (FRP). Total fire radiative energy (FRE) is typically estimated by integrating instantaneous measurements of fire radiative power (FRP) at the time of orbital satellite overpass or geostationary observation. Remotely-sensed FRP products from orbital satellites are usually global in extent, requiring several thresholding and filtering operations to reduce the number of false fire detections. Some filters required for a global product may not be appropriate to fire detection in the boreal forest resulting in errors of omission and increased data processing times. We evaluate the effect of a boreal-specific active fire detection algorithm and estimates of FRP/FRE. Boreal fires are more likely to escape detection due to lower intensity smouldering combustion and sub canopy fires, therefore improvements in boreal fire detection could substantially reduce the uncertainty of emissions from biomass combustion in the region. High temporal resolution data from geostationary satellites have led to improvements in FRE estimation in tropical and temperate forests, but such a perspective is not possible for high latitude ecosystems given the equatorial orbit of geostationary observation. The increased density of overpasses in high latitudes from polar-orbiting satellites, however, may provide adequate temporal sampling for estimating FRE.

  17. Temporal spike pattern learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talathi, Sachin S.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Ditto, William L.

    2008-09-01

    Sensory systems pass information about an animal’s environment to higher nervous system units through sequences of action potentials. When these action potentials have essentially equivalent wave forms, all information is contained in the interspike intervals (ISIs) of the spike sequence. How do neural circuits recognize and read these ISI sequences? We address this issue of temporal sequence learning by a neuronal system utilizing spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP). We present a general architecture of neural circuitry that can perform the task of ISI recognition. The essential ingredients of this neural circuit, which we refer to as “interspike interval recognition unit” (IRU) are (i) a spike selection unit, the function of which is to selectively distribute input spikes to downstream IRU circuitry; (ii) a time-delay unit that can be tuned by STDP; and (iii) a detection unit, which is the output of the IRU and a spike from which indicates successful ISI recognition by the IRU. We present two distinct configurations for the time-delay circuit within the IRU using excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively, to produce a delayed output spike at time t0+τ(R) in response to the input spike received at time t0 . R is the tunable parameter of the time-delay circuit that controls the timing of the delayed output spike. We discuss the forms of STDP rules for excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively, that allow for modulation of R for the IRU to perform its task of ISI recognition. We then present two specific implementations for the IRU circuitry, derived from the general architecture that can both learn the ISIs of a training sequence and then recognize the same ISI sequence when it is presented on subsequent occasions.

  18. Temporal spike pattern learning.

    PubMed

    Talathi, Sachin S; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Ditto, William L

    2008-09-01

    Sensory systems pass information about an animal's environment to higher nervous system units through sequences of action potentials. When these action potentials have essentially equivalent wave forms, all information is contained in the interspike intervals (ISIs) of the spike sequence. How do neural circuits recognize and read these ISI sequences? We address this issue of temporal sequence learning by a neuronal system utilizing spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP). We present a general architecture of neural circuitry that can perform the task of ISI recognition. The essential ingredients of this neural circuit, which we refer to as "interspike interval recognition unit" (IRU) are (i) a spike selection unit, the function of which is to selectively distribute input spikes to downstream IRU circuitry; (ii) a time-delay unit that can be tuned by STDP; and (iii) a detection unit, which is the output of the IRU and a spike from which indicates successful ISI recognition by the IRU. We present two distinct configurations for the time-delay circuit within the IRU using excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively, to produce a delayed output spike at time t_{0}+tau(R) in response to the input spike received at time t_{0} . R is the tunable parameter of the time-delay circuit that controls the timing of the delayed output spike. We discuss the forms of STDP rules for excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively, that allow for modulation of R for the IRU to perform its task of ISI recognition. We then present two specific implementations for the IRU circuitry, derived from the general architecture that can both learn the ISIs of a training sequence and then recognize the same ISI sequence when it is presented on subsequent occasions. PMID:18851076

  19. Ancestry, Temporality, and Potentiality

    PubMed Central

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I examine the variety of ways potential is articulated, entailed, and produced in how the field of cancer genetics is being constituted as a domain of transnational research and an emerging site of health-care intervention in southern Brazil. Drawing on analysis of fieldwork in Brazilian cancer-genetics clinics, I explore how different expressions of potential come to inform dynamically the pursuit of prevention, care, and research as diversely scaled investments for those working and living with cancer-genetics knowledge and technologies. It illustrates how specific temporalities help to constitute and “abductively” frame the meaning of these different potentials particularly as this relates to a focus on ancestry. Colonial histories of migration, the embodied effects of dietary habits, or the moral failings of near and distant ancestors as well as promissory futures and the contingency of lived lives become at different times templates for identifying, materializing, and transforming how the potential of cancer genetics in Brazil is articulated. Potential is also expressed through an idiom of “choice” in different efforts to situate participation in cancer-genetics research as prevention or to negotiate access to basic public health. I explore how these expressions of cancer genetics as potential powerfully yet unevenly work to sustain knowledge practices as well as propel patients and their families into fledgling domains of clinical practice and scientific research. At the same time there is always an “excess of meaning” in these endeavors that make visible lines of fracture and disjuncture in collective efforts to make future histories of and from the pursuit of cancer genetics in southern Brazil. PMID:25018561

  20. Adequate vitamin D levels in a Swedish population living above latitude 63°N: The 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA study

    PubMed Central

    Ramnemark, Anna; Norberg, Margareta; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Eliasson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background Even though vitamin D is mainly produced by exposure to sunlight, little is known regarding vitamin D levels in populations living in sub-Arctic areas with little or no daylight during winter. Objective We describe distributions of vitamin D3 and the prevalence of adequate levels in a population living above 63°N. Design We sampled 1,622 randomly selected subjects, aged 25–74 years, between January and May, 2009, as part of the Northern Sweden MONICA study (69.2% participation rate). By using HPLC, 25(OH) vitamin D3 was analysed. Levels used for definitions were deficient, D3<25 nmol/l (<10 ng/ml); insufficient, D3 25–49.9 nmol/l (10–20 ng/ml); and adequate, D3≥50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml). Results Mean (median) level of vitamin D3 was 65.2 (63.6) nmol/l in men and 71.0 (67.7) nmol/l in women. Adequate levels were found in 79.2%, more often in women (82.7%) than in men (75.6%). Only 0.7% of the population were vitamin D3–deficient but 23.1% of men and 17.1% of women had insufficient levels. Levels of vitamin D3 increased with age and insufficient status was most common among those aged 25–34 years, 41.0% in men and 22.3% in women. If subjects using vitamin D-supplementation are excluded, the population level of D3 is 1–2 nmol/l lower than in the general population across sex- and age groups. There were no differences between the northern or the southern parts, between urban or rural living or according to educational attainment. Those subjects born outside of Sweden or Finland had lower levels. Conclusion The large majority living close to the Arctic Circle in Sweden have adequate D3 levels even during the second half of the dark winter. Subjects with D3 deficiency were uncommon but insufficient levels were often found among young men. PMID:25976742

  1. Sampling Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  2. Predictors of prognosis in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy after anterior temporal lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    SUN, ZHENXING; ZUO, HUANCONG; YUAN, DAN; SUN, YAXING; ZHANG, KAI; CUI, ZHIQIANG; WANG, JIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of prognostic factors for the surgical outcome of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) using Engel seizure classification. The clinical data of 121 patients with MTLE who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and received a 1-year minimum follow-up were collected between January 2005 and December 2008. Patients were divided into seizure and seizure-free groups according to the Engel seizure classification. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the potential predictive and prognostic factors, including medical history, clinical features of seizures, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and video-electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring results. Univariate analysis indicated no statistically significant differences in gender, age at seizure onset, age at surgery, history of traumatic brain injury, perinatal anoxia, intracranial infection, family history of seizure, auras or site of surgery between the two groups; however, significant differences were detected in pre-surgical seizure duration, history of febrile seizures, seizure types, MRI and video-EEG results. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a pre-surgical seizure duration of <10 years, history of positive febrile seizures, simple complex partial seizure, positive MRI results and unilateral local video-EEG spikes may be considered as predictors of a good prognosis. These results indicate that remission may be achieved in patients with MTLE via the collection of accurate clinical information and adequate pre-surgical evaluation. PMID:26640569

  3. Is fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of malignancy adequate prior to major lung resections including pneumonectomy?

    PubMed

    Khorsandi, Maziar; Shaikhrezai, Kasra; Wallace, William; Brackenbury, Edward

    2012-08-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis is of sufficient reliability for the diagnosis of lung cancer prior to a major lung resection. Altogether, 112 papers were found using the reported search, of which 13 papers presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. The tabulated studies include two meta-analyses, one systematic review, one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and nine cohort studies. The specificity reported for FNA in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer ranged from 96.2 to 100%. One meta-analysis reported a specificity of 97%. Another meta-analysis reported a specificity of 98.8%. A systematic review reported a specificity of 97%. An RCT reported a specificity of 96.2-100%. We conclude that the FNA for lung cancer is reported to be highly specific prior to major lung resection with a very low false positive rate. However, although a false positive may occasionally be acceptable in lobectomies, where the lobes are often removed without histology, all steps should be taken to avoid a false positive result in pneumonectomy considering the serious consequences of embarking upon such an operation in the small number of patients with a false positive result, and we recommend that a positive FNA result should be confirmed by means of alternative sampling methods. We also acknowledge that obtaining an additional biopsy specimen would add to the risk of morbidity and costs; therefore, any benefits should be weighed against risks and additional costs. PMID:22611184

  4. Can spatial data substitute temporal data in phenological modelling? A survey using birch flowering.

    PubMed

    Jochner, Susanne; Caffarra, Amelia; Menzel, Annette

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the evaluation of long-term series, the analysis of spatial gradients, such as urbanization gradients, may be helpful in assessing phenological responses to global warming. But are phenological responses of birch (Betula pendula Roth) assessed by temperature variations comparable over time and space and can spatially calibrated models predict long-term phenological data adequately? We calibrated and tested linear regression models and the process-based DORMPHOT model on phenological and temperature data sampled along an urbanization gradient in 2010 and 2011 in the German cities Munich and Ingolstadt (spatial data). Additionally, we analysed data from the German Meteorological Service for the period 1991-2010 (long-term data). The model comparison showed that the DORMPHOT model performed better than the linear model. Therefore, the importance of forcing and chilling sums as well as photoperiod, factors which were all considered in the DORMPHOT model, was evident. Models calibrated on spatial data produced good predictions of spatial data, but they were less adequate for predicting long-term data. Therefore, a time-for-space substitution might not always be appropriate. This finding was also confirmed by a comparison of temperature response rates. The rate of change in the spatial data (-4.4 days °C(-1)) did not match the changes observed in the long-term data (-1.9 days °C(-1)). Consequently, it is important not to generalize results derived from one specific study method, but their inherent methodological, spatial and temporal peculiarities have to be considered. PMID:24169102

  5. 7 CFR 57.350 - Procedures for selecting appeal samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... original samples are not available or have been altered, such as removing the undergrades, the sample size shall be double the number of samples required in 7 CFR 56.4. ... maintained under adequate refrigeration when applicable. (b) The appeal sample shall consist of product...

  6. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    over temporal aggregation, temporal accumulation, spatio-temporal statistics, spatio-temporal sampling, temporal algebra, temporal topology analysis, time series animation and temporal topology visualization to time series import and export capabilities with support for NetCDF and VTK data formats. We will present several temporal modules that support parallel processing of raster and 3D raster time series. [1] GRASS GIS Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling In Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling, Vol. 2 (2008), pp. 171-199, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74831-19 by M. Neteler, D. Beaudette, P. Cavallini, L. Lami, J. Cepicky edited by G. Brent Hall, Michael G. Leahy [2] Gebbert, S., Pebesma, E., 2014. A temporal GIS for field based environmental modeling. Environ. Model. Softw. 53, 1-12. [3] Zambelli, P., Gebbert, S., Ciolli, M., 2013. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS). ISPRS Intl Journal of Geo-Information 2, 201-219. [4] Löwe, P., Klump, J., Thaler, J. (2012): The FOSS GIS Workbench on the GFZ Load Sharing Facility compute cluster, (Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 14, EGU2012-4491, 2012), General Assembly European Geosciences Union (Vienna, Austria 2012). [5] Akhter, S., Aida, K., Chemin, Y., 2010. "GRASS GIS on High Performance Computing with MPI, OpenMP and Ninf-G Programming Framework". ISPRS Conference, Kyoto, 9-12 August 2010

  7. Hanford Sampling Quality Management Plan (HSQMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hyatt, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    HSQMP establishes quality requirements in response to DOE Order 5700. 6C and to 10 Code of Federal Regulations 830.120. HSQMP is designed to meet the needs of Richland Operations Office for controlling the quality of services provided by sampling operations. It is issued through the Analytical Services Program of the Waste Programs Division. This document describes the Environmental Sampling and Analysis Program activities considered to represent the best management activities necessary to achieve a sampling program with adequate control.

  8. Temporal and structural heterogeneities emerging in adaptive temporal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Takaaki; Rocha, Luis E. C.; Gross, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a model of adaptive temporal networks whose evolution is regulated by an interplay between node activity and dynamic exchange of information through links. We study the model by using a master equation approach. Starting from a homogeneous initial configuration, we show that temporal and structural heterogeneities, characteristic of real-world networks, spontaneously emerge. This theoretically tractable model thus contributes to the understanding of the dynamics of human activity and interaction networks.

  9. Elevating sampling

    PubMed Central

    Labuz, Joseph M.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Sampling – the process of collecting, preparing, and introducing an appropriate volume element (voxel) into a system – is often under appreciated and pushed behind the scenes in lab-on-a-chip research. What often stands in the way between proof-of-principle demonstrations of potentially exciting technology and its broader dissemination and actual use, however, is the effectiveness of sample collection and preparation. The power of micro- and nanofluidics to improve reactions, sensing, separation, and cell culture cannot be accessed if sampling is not equally efficient and reliable. This perspective will highlight recent successes as well as assess current challenges and opportunities in this area. PMID:24781100

  10. Anatomical pathways for auditory memory II: information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, M; Insausti, R; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Mishkin, M; Saunders, R C

    2015-01-01

    Auditory recognition memory in non-human primates differs from recognition memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition memory lasting 10-20 min. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30-40 s. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys' auditory memory performance. The anatomical pathways for auditory memory may differ from those in vision. Long-term visual recognition memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC). We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for auditory processing, or that poor auditory recognition memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an auditory pathway for recognition memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG), and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY) and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 mW) tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38 DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex (EC), and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor auditory memory of rhesus monkeys. PMID:26041980

  11. Anatomical pathways for auditory memory II: information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-López, M.; Insausti, R.; Mohedano-Moriano, A.; Mishkin, M.; Saunders, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory recognition memory in non-human primates differs from recognition memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition memory lasting 10–20 min. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30–40 s. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys' auditory memory performance. The anatomical pathways for auditory memory may differ from those in vision. Long-term visual recognition memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC). We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for auditory processing, or that poor auditory recognition memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an auditory pathway for recognition memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG), and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY) and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 mW) tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex (EC), and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor auditory memory of rhesus monkeys. PMID:26041980

  12. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Temporal Bone.

    PubMed

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Johnson, Daniel N; Cipriani, Nicole A

    2016-06-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving the temporal bone region is uncommon and can resemble malignant neoplasms on imaging due to high cellularity. Although recognizing the presence of sharp margins with beveled-edges can be helpful, tissue sampling is often necessary for confirming the diagnosis. Cytology classically demonstrates kidney-bean shaped nuclei within the Langerhans cells and immunohistochemical staining is positive for S-100, peanut agglutinin (PNA), MHC class II, CD1a, and Langerin (CD 207). These features are exemplified in this sine qua non radiology-pathology correlation article. PMID:25903273

  13. SAMPLING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

    1961-01-17

    An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

  14. Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiu-Jie; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Liu, Wu; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

    2014-01-01

    One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one relative to the lateral one. These discussions have not included full paleontological data on eastern Eurasian Pleistocene human temporal labyrinths, which have the potential to provide a broader context for assessing Pleistocene Homo trait polarities. We present the temporal labyrinths of four eastern Eurasian Pleistocene Homo, one each of Early (Lantian 1), Middle (Hexian 1), and Late (Xujiayao 15) Pleistocene archaic humans and one early modern human (Liujiang 1). The labyrinths of the two earlier specimens and the most recent one conform to the proportions seen among western early and recent modern humans, reinforcing the modern human pattern as generally ancestral for the genus Homo. The labyrinth of Xujiayao 15 is in the middle of the Neandertal variation and separate from the other samples. This eastern Eurasian labyrinthine dichotomy occurs in the context of none of the distinctive Neandertal external temporal or other cranial features. As such, it raises questions regarding possible cranial and postcranial morphological correlates of Homo labyrinthine variation, the use of individual “Neandertal” features for documenting population affinities, and the nature of late archaic human variation across Eurasia. PMID:25002467

  15. The temporal characteristics of humpback whale songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Lammers, Marc O.; Stimpert, Alison; Schotten, Michiel

    2005-09-01

    Songs sung by male humpback whales consist of distinct, pulsed sounds that are designated as units. Units are produced in some sequence to form a phrase, a repeated set of phrases forms a theme, and repeated themes form a song. A song can last from minutes to hours. The songs of eight humpback whales were recorded with a vertical array of five hydrophones spaced 7 m apart with the array located within 100 m of the whales. At least seven distinct units were identified aurally from this data set obtained during the 2002 winter humpback whale session in Hawaii. Four distinct recurring themes were found in the songs, and for each whale at least two themes were recorded. The average duration of each unit sampled and the silent interval following the unit were determined in order to describe the temporal characteristics of the songs. From the data the temporal consistency and cadence control of unit production by each humpback whale and between whales were determined. Understanding the temporal and spectral characteristics of units within songs and how these units vary between whales could ultimately help in the design of computer algorithms to automatically identify individual whales.

  16. Fluidic sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, E.D.

    1992-04-20

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate.

  17. Fluidic sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, E. D.

    1992-04-01

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2-39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02-0.05 gpm (77-192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016-0.026 gpm (60-100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140-150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate.

  18. Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehotay, Steven J; Cook, Jo Marie

    2015-05-13

    Proper sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis of food and soil have always been essential to obtain accurate results, but the subject is becoming a greater concern as approximately 100 mg test portions are being analyzed with automated high-throughput analytical methods by agrochemical industry and contract laboratories. As global food trade and the importance of monitoring increase, the food industry and regulatory laboratories are also considering miniaturized high-throughput methods. In conjunction with a summary of the symposium "Residues in Food and Feed - Going from Macro to Micro: The Future of Sample Processing in Residue Analytical Methods" held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, this is an opportune time to review sampling theory and sample processing for pesticide residue analysis. If collected samples and test portions do not adequately represent the actual lot from which they came and provide meaningful results, then all costs, time, and efforts involved in implementing programs using sophisticated analytical instruments and techniques are wasted and can actually yield misleading results. This paper is designed to briefly review the often-neglected but crucial topic of sample collection and processing and put the issue into perspective for the future of pesticide residue analysis. It also emphasizes that analysts should demonstrate the validity of their sample processing approaches for the analytes/matrices of interest and encourages further studies on sampling and sample mass reduction to produce a test portion. PMID:25677085

  19. Optical communications: Temporal ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccio, Daniele

    2016-03-01

    Ghost imaging allows the creation of images using light that never interacts with the object. Researchers now show that this technique can be applied to reconstruct temporal 'images' of rapidly varying, picosecond signals in telecommunication systems.

  20. Validation and Temporal Analysis of Lai and Fapar Products Derived from Medium Resolution Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claverie, M.; Vermote, E. F.; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Hagolle, O.; Demarez, V.

    2012-12-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) have been defined as Essential Climate Variables. Many Earth surface monitoring applications are based on global estimation combined with a relatively high frequency. The medium spatial resolution sensors (MRS), such as SPOT-VGT, MODIS or MERIS, have been widely used to provide land surface products (mainly LAI and FAPAR) to the scientific community. These products require quality assessment and consistency. However, due to consistency of the ground measurements spatial sampling, the medium resolution is not appropriate for direct validation with in situ measurements sampling. It is thus more adequate to use high spatial resolution sensors which can integrate the spatial variability. The recent availability of combined high spatial (8 m) and temporal resolutions (daily) Formosat-2 data allows to evaluate the accuracy and the temporal consistency of medium resolution sensors products. In this study, we proposed to validate MRS products over a cropland area and to analyze their spatial and temporal consistency. As a matter of fact, this study belongs to the Stage 2 of the validation, as defined by the Land Product Validation sub-group of the Earth Observation Satellites. Reference maps, derived from the aggregation of Formosat-2 data (acquired during the 2006-2010 period over croplands in southwest of France), were compared with (i) two existing global biophysical variables products (GEOV1/VGT and MODIS-15 coll. 5), and (ii) a new product (MODdaily) derived from the inversion of PROSAIL radiative transfer model (EMMAH, INRA Avignon) applied on MODIS BRDF-corrected daily reflectance. Their uncertainty was calculated with 105 LAI and FAPAR reference maps, which uncertainties (22 % for LAI and 12% for FAPAR) were evaluated with in situ measurements performed over maize, sunflower and soybean. Inter-comparison of coarse resolution (0.05°) products showed that LAI and FAPAR have

  1. Temporal Stability and Authenticity of Self-Representations in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Manfred; Jacobs, Laurie M.; Hastings, Catherine T.

    2008-01-01

    The temporal stability of role-specific self-representations was examined in a sample of 188 young, middle-aged, and older adults. Considerable stability was observed for all self-representations. Central self-descriptors showed significantly greater temporal stability than peripheral self-descriptors. Temporal stability of self-representations was positively associated with self-concept clarity, self-esteem, and positive affect (PA). Age differences were obtained for three of the five self-representations, with older adults showing significantly lower stabilities for self with family, self with friend, and self with significant other compared to young and middle-aged adults. Assessment of the authenticity of adults’ role-specific self-representations showed that greater authenticity tended to be associated with greater temporal stability. Authenticity and the number of positive daily events were significant positive predictors of the stability of self-representations. PMID:18820732

  2. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Allison K.; Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Boersma, Kate S.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Lindsley, Amy J.; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N.; Rowe, Jennifer C.; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A.; Heppell, Selina S.

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon’s diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  3. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  4. Neuropathology of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Al Sufiani, Fahd; Ang, Lee Cyn

    2012-01-01

    Pathologic findings in surgical resections from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy include a wide range of diagnostic possibilities that can be categorized into different groups on the basis of etiology. This paper outlines the various pathologic entities described in temporal lobe epilepsy, including some newly recognized epilepsy-associated tumors, and briefly touch on the recent classification of focal cortical dysplasia. This classification takes into account coexistent pathologic lesions in focal cortical dysplasia. PMID:22957233

  5. Decision processes in temporal discrimination.

    PubMed

    Balcı, Fuat; Simen, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The processing dynamics underlying temporal decisions and the response times they generate have received little attention in the study of interval timing. In contrast, models of other simple forms of decision making have been extensively investigated using response times, leading to a substantial disconnect between temporal and non-temporal decision theories. An overarching decision-theoretic framework that encompasses existing, non-temporal decision models may, however, account both for interval timing itself and for time-based decision-making. We sought evidence for this framework in the temporal discrimination performance of humans tested on the temporal bisection task. In this task, participants retrospectively categorized experienced stimulus durations as short or long based on their perceived similarity to two, remembered reference durations and were rewarded only for correct categorization of these references. Our analysis of choice proportions and response times suggests that a two-stage, sequential diffusion process, parameterized to maximize earned rewards, can account for salient patterns of bisection performance. The first diffusion stage times intervals by accumulating an endogenously noisy clock signal; the second stage makes decisions about the first-stage temporal representation by accumulating first-stage evidence corrupted by endogenous noise. Reward-maximization requires that the second-stage accumulation rate and starting point be based on the state of the first-stage timer at the end of the stimulus duration, and that estimates of non-decision-related delays should decrease as a function of stimulus duration. Results are in accord with these predictions and thus support an extension of the drift-diffusion model of static decision making to the domain of interval timing and temporal decisions. PMID:24726447

  6. The Leap of a Provincial SME into the Global Market Using E-commerce: The Success of Adequate Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; García Salcines, Enrique; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; López Coronado, Miguel; de Castro Lozano, Carlos

    The leap into the global market is not easy when it involves a provincial family business. This article demonstrates how adequate planning is fundamental in a small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) with the tight budget they have available to them, in order to be able to differentiate themselves in a highly competitive market, taking into accounts the benefits and risks involved. The Information Technology (IT) tools put in place will give the necessary support and allow for the possibility of increasing and improving the infrastructure as the company requires. An adequate strategy for the future to increases sales would be e-marketing techniques as well as the current promotions which contribute to diffusing the brand.

  7. Cognitive Attributes, Attention, and Self-Efficacy of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in a Fourth Grade Reading Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eunsoo; Roberts, Garrett J.; Capin, Philip; Roberts, Greg; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    We examined cognitive attributes, attention, and self-efficacy of fourth grade struggling readers who were identified as adequate responders (n = 27), inadequate responders with comprehension only deficits (n = 46), and inadequate responders with comprehension and word reading deficits (n = 52) after receiving a multicomponent reading intervention. We also included typical readers (n = 40). These four groups were compared on measures of nonverbal reasoning, working memory, verbal knowledge, listening comprehension, phonological awareness, and rapid naming as well as on teacher ratings of attention problems and self-reported self-efficacy. The two inadequate responder groups demonstrated difficulties primarily with verbal knowledge and listening comprehension compared to typical readers and adequate responders. Phonological awareness and rapid naming differentiated the two inadequate responder groups. In addition, both inadequate responder groups showed more attention problems and low self-efficacy compared to typical readers. PMID:26997755

  8. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF MERCURY IN CRUDE OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling and analytical procedures used to determine total mercury content in crude oils were examined. Three analytical methods were compared with respect to accuracy, precision and detection limit. The combustion method and a commercial extraction method were found adequate to...

  9. The grounding of temporal metaphors.

    PubMed

    Lai, Vicky T; Desai, Rutvik H

    2016-03-01

    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (The hours crawled until the release of the news) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (The trail crawled until the end of the hills) and literal motion (The caterpillar crawled towards the top of the tree), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus (ITS). These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. PMID:26854961

  10. Stereopsis after anterior temporal lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Decramer, Thomas; van Loon, Johannes; Goffin, Jan; Van Paesschen, Wim; Janssen, Peter; Theys, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Brain areas critical for stereopsis have been investigated in non-human primates but are largely unknown in the human brain. Microelectrode recordings and functional MRI (fMRI) studies in monkeys have shown that in monkeys the inferior temporal cortex is critically involved in 3D shape categorization. Furthermore, some human fMRI studies similarly suggest an involvement of visual areas in the temporal lobe in depth perception. We aimed to investigate the role of the human anterior temporal neocortex in stereopsis by assessing stereoscopic depth perception before and after anterior temporal lobectomy. Eighteen epilepsy surgery patients were tested, pre- and postoperatively, in 3 different depth discrimination tasks. Sensitivity for local and global disparity was tested in a near-far discrimination task and sensitivity for 3D curvature was assessed in a convex-concave discrimination task, where 3D shapes were presented at different positions in depth. We found no evidence that temporal lobe epilepsy surgery has a significant effect on stereopsis. In contrast with earlier findings, we conclude that local as well as global stereopsis is maintained after unilateral resection of the temporal pole in epilepsy surgery patients. Our findings, together with previous studies, suggest that in humans more posterior visual regions underlie depth perception. PMID:27344239

  11. A model for determining when an analysis contains sufficient detail to provide adequate NEPA coverage for a proposed action

    SciTech Connect

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1994-11-01

    Neither the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) nor its subsequent regulations provide substantive guidance for determining the Level of detail, discussion, and analysis that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. Yet, decisionmakers are routinely confronted with the problem of making such determinations. Experience has shown that no two decisionmakers are Likely to completely agree on the amount of discussion that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. one decisionmaker may determine that a certain Level of analysis is adequate, while another may conclude the exact opposite. Achieving a consensus within the agency and among the public can be problematic. Lacking definitive guidance, decisionmakers and critics alike may point to a universe of potential factors as the basis for defending their claim that an action is or is not adequately covered. Experience indicates that assertions are often based on ambiguous opinions that can be neither proved nor disproved. Lack of definitive guidance slows the decisionmaking process and can result in project delays. Furthermore, it can also Lead to inconsistencies in decisionmaking, inappropriate Levels of NEPA documentation, and increased risk of a project being challenged for inadequate coverage. A more systematic and less subjective approach for making such determinations is obviously needed. A paradigm for reducing the degree of subjectivity inherent in such decisions is presented in the following paper. The model is specifically designed to expedite the decisionmaking process by providing a systematic approach for making these determination. In many cases, agencies may find that using this model can reduce the analysis and size of NEPA documents.

  12. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    SciTech Connect

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-05

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10/sup -6/ was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study.

  13. Knowledge-data integration for temporal reasoning in a clinical trial system.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Martin J; Shankar, Ravi D; Parrish, David B; Das, Amar K

    2009-04-01

    Managing time-stamped data is essential to clinical research activities and often requires the use of considerable domain knowledge. Adequately representing and integrating temporal data and domain knowledge is difficult with the database technologies used in most clinical research systems. There is often a disconnect between the database representation of research data and corresponding domain knowledge of clinical research concepts. In this paper, we present a set of methodologies for undertaking ontology-based specification of temporal information, and discuss their application to the verification of protocol-specific temporal constraints among clinical trial activities. Our approach allows knowledge-level temporal constraints to be evaluated against operational trial data stored in relational databases. We show how the Semantic Web ontology and rule languages OWL and SWRL, respectively, can support tools for research data management that automatically integrate low-level representations of relational data with high-level domain concepts used in study design. PMID:18789876

  14. Temporal generalization gradients following an interdimensional discrimination protocol.

    PubMed

    Vieira de Castro, Ana Catarina; Vasconcelos, Marco; Machado, Armando

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the effects of interdimensional discrimination training in the temporal generalization gradient. In a matching-to-sample task, pigeons learned to choose key S after a T-s houselight sample and key NS in the absence of the houselight sample. For one group of pigeons, T = 20 s; for another, T = 10 s. Subsequently, houselight duration was varied to obtain temporal generalization gradients. Results showed that (a) proportion S increased as houselight duration ranged from 0 s to T s and then remained high for houselight durations longer than T; (b) the gradients were well described by negative-exponential functions; (c) these non-flat gradients were present from the beginning of testing, and; (d) the average gradients obtained with T = 20 s and T = 10 s overlapped when plotted in relative time. We conclude that temporal control does not require explicit discrimination training along the temporal dimension, and that temporal generalization gradients obtained with an interdimensional protocol show the scalar property of timing. We discuss how these findings challenge current models of timing. PMID:26605786

  15. Sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Norman R.; King, Lloyd L.; Jackson, Peter O.; Zulich, Alan W.

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

  16. Sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

    1989-07-18

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

  17. SAMPLING OSCILLOSCOPE

    DOEpatents

    Sugarman, R.M.

    1960-08-30

    An oscilloscope is designed for displaying transient signal waveforms having random time and amplitude distributions. The oscilloscopc is a sampling device that selects for display a portion of only those waveforms having a particular range of amplitudes. For this purpose a pulse-height analyzer is provided to screen the pulses. A variable voltage-level shifter and a time-scale rampvoltage generator take the pulse height relative to the start of the waveform. The variable voltage shifter produces a voltage level raised one step for each sequential signal waveform to be sampled and this results in an unsmeared record of input signal waveforms. Appropriate delay devices permit each sample waveform to pass its peak amplitude before the circuit selects it for display.

  18. Spatial and temporal variation in age and growth in juvenile Loligo forbesi and relationships with recruitment in the English Channel and Scottish waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challier, Laurence; Pierce, Graham J.; Robin, Jean-Paul

    2006-04-01

    In many cephalopod stocks, resource abundance and fishing yields depend on the recruitment of the annual cohort. Loliginid squids such as Loligo forbesi are present in the English Channel and in Scottish waters. Variation in age and growth in juvenile Loligo forbesi of these two areas was investigated at the spatial and temporal scale, and inter-annual differences in growth were related to recruitment variation to test density dependence in squid growth in both populations. Spatial and temporal differences in growth were analysed in five cohorts that showed marked differences in recruitment abundance. Biological sampling showed that recruitment occurred in late autumn and spring in Scottish waters and in summer in the English Channel. In both fishing seasons, monthly samples collected at fish markets were analysed and ages of juveniles (mantle length < 200 mm) were determined using daily statolith growth increments. Age determination indicated that recruits were older than previously thought (about 8 to 11 months). Back-calculated hatching dates were used to estimate growth variation during the pre-recruitment stage. Exponential growth models adequately described size-at-age data. Linear modelling demonstrated inter-annual and spatial significant differences in growth rates. Influence of the hatching month (within or between cohorts) on growth was detected. To improve our understanding of recruitment variability, this study addresses the question: Does early growth vary in relation with recruitment? Available recruitment estimates appeared to be related to annual growth rates; density dependence in squid growth is suggested for the English Channel population.

  19. Effects of Temporal Context and Temporal Expectancy on Neural Activity in Inferior Temporal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Britt; Sheinberg, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Timing is critical. The same event can mean different things at different times and some events are more likely to occur at one time than another. We used a cued visual classification task to evaluate how changes in temporal context affect neural responses in inferior temporal cortex, an extrastriate visual area known to be involved in object processing. On each trial a first image cued a temporal delay before a second target image appeared. The animal’s task was to classify the second image by pressing one of two buttons previously associated with that target. All images were used as both cues and targets. Whether an image cued a delay time or signaled a button press depended entirely upon whether it was the first or second picture in a trial. This paradigm allowed us to compare inferior temporal cortex neural activity to the same image subdivided by temporal context and expectation. Neuronal spiking was more robust and visually evoked local field potentials (LFP’s) larger for target presentations than for cue presentations. On invalidly cued trials, when targets appeared unexpectedly early, the magnitude of the evoked LFP was reduced and delayed and neuronal spiking was attenuated. Spike field coherence increased in the beta-gamma frequency range for expected targets. In conclusion, different neural responses in higher order ventral visual cortex may occur for the same visual image based on manipulations of temporal attention. PMID:18206961

  20. Temporal variation and lack of host specificity among bacterial endosymbionts of Osedax bone worms (Polychaeta: Siboglinidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Osedax worms use a proliferative root system to extract nutrients from the bones of sunken vertebrate carcasses. The roots contain bacterial endosymbionts that contribute to the nutrition of these mouthless and gutless worms. The worms acquire these essential endosymbionts locally from the environment in which their larvae settle. Here we report on the temporal dynamics of endosymbiont diversity hosted by nine Osedax species sampled during a three-year investigation of an experimental whale fall at 1820-m depth in the Monterey Bay, California. The host species were identified by their unique mitochondrial COI haplotypes. The endosymbionts were identified by ribotyping with PCR primers specifically designed to target Oceanospirillales. Results Thirty-two endosymbiont ribotypes associated with these worms clustered into two distinct bacterial ribospecies that together comprise a monophyletic group, mostly restricted to deep waters (>1000 m). Statistical analyses confirmed significant changes in the relative abundances of host species and the two dominant endosymbiont ribospecies during the three-year sampling period. Bone type (whale vs. cow) also had a significant effect on host species, but not on the two dominant symbiont ribospecies. No statistically significant association existed between the host species and endosymbiont ribospecies. Conclusions Standard PCR and direct sequencing proved to be an efficient method for ribotyping the numerically dominant endosymbiont strains infecting a large sample of host individuals; however, this method did not adequately represent the frequency of mixed infections, which appears to be the rule rather than an exception for Osedax individuals. Through cloning and the use of experimental dilution series, we determined that minority ribotypes constituting less than 30% of a mixture would not likely be detected, leading to underestimates of the frequency of multiple infections in host individuals. PMID:23006795

  1. Learning in the temporal bisection task: Relative or absolute?

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinheiro; Machado, Armando; Tonneau, François

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether temporal learning in a bisection task is absolute or relational. Eight pigeons learned to choose a red key after a t-seconds sample and a green key after a 3t-seconds sample. To determine whether they had learned a relative mapping (short→Red, long→Green) or an absolute mapping (t-seconds→Red, 3t-seconds→Green), the pigeons then learned a series of new discriminations in which either the relative or the absolute mapping was maintained. Results showed that the generalization gradient obtained at the end of a discrimination predicted the pattern of choices made during the first session of a new discrimination. Moreover, most acquisition curves and generalization gradients were consistent with the predictions of the learning-to-time model, a Spencean model that instantiates absolute learning with temporal generalization. In the bisection task, the basis of temporal discrimination seems to be absolute, not relational. PMID:26752233

  2. Simultaneous Spectral Temporal Adaptive Raman Spectrometer - SSTARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacksberg, Jordana

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a prime candidate for the next generation of planetary instruments, as it addresses the primary goal of mineralogical analysis, which is structure and composition. However, large fluorescence return from many mineral samples under visible light excitation can render Raman spectra unattainable. Using the described approach, Raman and fluorescence, which occur on different time scales, can be simultaneously obtained from mineral samples using a compact instrument in a planetary environment. This new approach is taken based on the use of time-resolved spectroscopy for removing the fluorescence background from Raman spectra in the laboratory. In the SSTARS instrument, a visible excitation source (a green, pulsed laser) is used to generate Raman and fluorescence signals in a mineral sample. A spectral notch filter eliminates the directly reflected beam. A grating then disperses the signal spectrally, and a streak camera provides temporal resolution. The output of the streak camera is imaged on the CCD (charge-coupled device), and the data are read out electronically. By adjusting the sweep speed of the streak camera, anywhere from picoseconds to milliseconds, it is possible to resolve Raman spectra from numerous fluorescence spectra in the same sample. The key features of SSTARS include a compact streak tube capable of picosecond time resolution for collection of simultaneous spectral and temporal information, adaptive streak tube electronics that can rapidly change from one sweep rate to another over ranges of picoseconds to milliseconds, enabling collection of both Raman and fluorescence signatures versus time and wavelength, and Synchroscan integration that allows for a compact, low-power laser without compromising ultimate sensitivity.

  3. A Flexible Spatio-Temporal Model for Air Pollution with Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Covariates

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Johan; Szpiro, Adam A; Sampson, Paul D; Oron, Assaf P; Richards, Mark; Larson, Tim V; Sheppard, Lianne

    2013-01-01

    The development of models that provide accurate spatio-temporal predictions of ambient air pollution at small spatial scales is of great importance for the assessment of potential health effects of air pollution. Here we present a spatio-temporal framework that predicts ambient air pollution by combining data from several different monitoring networks and deterministic air pollution model(s) with geographic information system (GIS) covariates. The model presented in this paper has been implemented in an R package, SpatioTemporal, available on CRAN. The model is used by the EPA funded Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) to produce estimates of ambient air pollution; MESA Air uses the estimates to investigate the relationship between chronic exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular disease. In this paper we use the model to predict long-term average concentrations of NOx in the Los Angeles area during a ten year period. Predictions are based on measurements from the EPA Air Quality System, MESA Air specific monitoring, and output from a source dispersion model for traffic related air pollution (Caline3QHCR). Accuracy in predicting long-term average concentrations is evaluated using an elaborate cross-validation setup that accounts for a sparse spatio-temporal sampling pattern in the data, and adjusts for temporal effects. The predictive ability of the model is good with cross-validated R2 of approximately 0.7 at subject sites. Replacing four geographic covariate indicators of traffic density with the Caline3QHCR dispersion model output resulted in very similar prediction accuracy from a more parsimonious and more interpretable model. Adding traffic-related geographic covariates to the model that included Caline3QHCR did not further improve the prediction accuracy. PMID:25264424

  4. A Flexible Spatio-Temporal Model for Air Pollution with Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Covariates.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Johan; Szpiro, Adam A; Sampson, Paul D; Oron, Assaf P; Richards, Mark; Larson, Tim V; Sheppard, Lianne

    2014-09-01

    The development of models that provide accurate spatio-temporal predictions of ambient air pollution at small spatial scales is of great importance for the assessment of potential health effects of air pollution. Here we present a spatio-temporal framework that predicts ambient air pollution by combining data from several different monitoring networks and deterministic air pollution model(s) with geographic information system (GIS) covariates. The model presented in this paper has been implemented in an R package, SpatioTemporal, available on CRAN. The model is used by the EPA funded Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) to produce estimates of ambient air pollution; MESA Air uses the estimates to investigate the relationship between chronic exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular disease. In this paper we use the model to predict long-term average concentrations of NOx in the Los Angeles area during a ten year period. Predictions are based on measurements from the EPA Air Quality System, MESA Air specific monitoring, and output from a source dispersion model for traffic related air pollution (Caline3QHCR). Accuracy in predicting long-term average concentrations is evaluated using an elaborate cross-validation setup that accounts for a sparse spatio-temporal sampling pattern in the data, and adjusts for temporal effects. The predictive ability of the model is good with cross-validated R (2) of approximately 0.7 at subject sites. Replacing four geographic covariate indicators of traffic density with the Caline3QHCR dispersion model output resulted in very similar prediction accuracy from a more parsimonious and more interpretable model. Adding traffic-related geographic covariates to the model that included Caline3QHCR did not further improve the prediction accuracy. PMID:25264424

  5. Chaotic itinerancy, temporal segmentation and spatio-temporal combinatorial codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Juliana R.; Oliveira, Rodrigo F.; Kinouchi, Osame

    2008-01-01

    We study a deterministic dynamics with two time scales in a continuous state attractor network. To the usual (fast) relaxation dynamics towards point attractors (“patterns”) we add a slow coupling dynamics that makes the visited patterns lose stability, leading to an itinerant behavior in the form of punctuated equilibria. One finds that the transition frequency matrix for transitions between patterns shows non-trivial statistical properties in the chaotic itinerant regime. We show that mixture input patterns can be temporally segmented by the itinerant dynamics. The viability of a combinatorial spatio-temporal neural code is also demonstrated.

  6. Spontaneous bursting: From temporal to spatio-temporal intermittency

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, N.; Hammel, S.M.

    1996-06-01

    A simple model for temporal bursting is introduced. This model invokes either dynamic or random forcing of a bifurcation parameter of some simple dynamical system in a way that makes the bifurcation parameter spend suitable amounts of time below and above the bifurcation threshold. This model is extended to coupled map lattices to produce spontaneous spatio-temporal burstings. It models physical systems which are embedded in a random background that is statistically homogeneous in space and time. An application of this model to optical turbulence is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Sampling designs for heterogeneous snow distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive snow surveys of mountain basins are the most accurate means of characterizing the heterogeneous mosaic of snow distribution typically present. The collection of survey data is however costly and time-consuming and important decisions are required to adequately sample larger basins. In this...

  8. Temporal processing dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Christine A; Boggs, Jennifer; O'Donnell, Brian F; Shekhar, Anantha; Hetrick, William P

    2008-07-01

    Schizophrenia may be associated with a fundamental disturbance in the temporal coordination of information processing in the brain, leading to classic symptoms of schizophrenia such as thought disorder and disorganized and contextually inappropriate behavior. Despite the growing interest and centrality of time-dependent conceptualizations of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, there remains a paucity of research directly examining overt timing performance in the disorder. Accordingly, the present study investigated timing in schizophrenia using a well-established task of time perception. Twenty-three individuals with schizophrenia and 22 non-psychiatric control participants completed a temporal bisection task, which required participants to make temporal judgments about auditory and visually presented durations ranging from 300 to 600 ms. Both schizophrenia and control groups displayed greater visual compared to auditory timing variability, with no difference between groups in the visual modality. However, individuals with schizophrenia exhibited less temporal precision than controls in the perception of auditory durations. These findings correlated with parameter estimates obtained from a quantitative model of time estimation, and provide evidence of a fundamental deficit in temporal auditory precision in schizophrenia. PMID:18262701

  9. The mechanisms of temporal inference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, B. R.; Green, S. R.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of a temporal language are determined by its constituent elements: the temporal objects which it can represent, the attributes of those objects, the relationships between them, the axioms which define the default relationships, and the rules which define the statements that can be formulated. The methods of inference which can be applied to a temporal language are derived in part from a small number of axioms which define the meaning of equality and order and how those relationships can be propagated. More complex inferences involve detailed analysis of the stated relationships. Perhaps the most challenging area of temporal inference is reasoning over disjunctive temporal constraints. Simple forms of disjunction do not sufficiently increase the expressive power of a language while unrestricted use of disjunction makes the analysis NP-hard. In many cases a set of disjunctive constraints can be converted to disjunctive normal form and familiar methods of inference can be applied to the conjunctive sub-expressions. This process itself is NP-hard but it is made more tractable by careful expansion of a tree-structured search space.

  10. Sampling Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Three locations to the right of the test dig area are identified for the first samples to be delivered to the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA), the Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL), and the Optical Microscope (OM) on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. These sampling areas are informally labeled 'Baby Bear', 'Mama Bear', and 'Papa Bear' respectively. This image was taken on the seventh day of the Mars mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008) by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Subpicosecond electrooptic sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, David M.

    1993-01-01

    The electro-optic sampling system developed under AFOSR contract no. F49620-85-0016 has been the workhorse for high speed measurements made in this lab. This report documents the continuing effort to improve this tool and highlights its most recent uses. In addition, we report the development of a time-lens, a new tool that gives us electronic control of the shape of optical pulses. The development of a time-lens has opened up a new field of research. It is a tool to electronically control the temporal characteristics of optical pulses just like glass lenses control the spatial characteristics. Our results to date include the creation of 7 ps pulses from a CW laser, active focusing (compression) of 55 ps pulses down to 2 ps, and demonstration of the time-reversal properties of time-lenses. A Ph.D. thesis detailing the Stanford time-lens and pulse compression experiments is included as an appendix.

  12. Irrational Beliefs, Life Orientation and Temporal Perspective of Prison Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, G. Barry; Zingle, Harvey

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated the psychological health of criminals based on Albert Ellis' Rational-Emotive Theory. Other dimensions of mental health examined were the criminals' life orientation, and temporal perspective. Findings indicated that the criminal sample possessed significantly more irrational beliefs and were less future oriented than…

  13. Challenges and coping strategies of orphaned children in Tanzania who are not adequately cared for by adults.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Marguerite; Mathias, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Orphaned children in poor rural communities sometimes have no adult who is able to care for them or else the adult caregiver is not able to provide adequate care. Tanzania remains one of the poorest countries in the world, and poverty frequently constrains foster care. Although HIV prevalence is declining, AIDS is still a major cause of orphaning. This article explores the challenges and coping strategies accompanying two possible life trajectories for orphaned children without adequate adult care: 1) that they remain in rural areas in child-headed households, or 2) that they are trafficked to an urban area. Antonovsky's salutogenic model is used as the theoretical framework. The data come from two separate phenomenological studies with vulnerable children. In the first study, in-depth interviews were held with 12 orphaned children in a poor rural area; data concerning three child heads of households are included here. In the second study, 15 girls who were trafficked from rural areas to Dar es Salaam gave extended life-history narrations; data are included for nine of the girls who were orphaned. Loss of parents, a lack of cash, and the need to balance school attendance with food production were chronic stressors for the children heading households, while resources included income-generation strategies and the ability to negotiate with teachers for time to cultivate. For the trafficked girls chronic stressors included exploitation, long working hours, little or no pay, isolation and rape. Resources for them, although limited, included faith networks and neighbours; escape from the exploitative situation frequently involved external help. We conclude that given physical and social assets the child-headed households were able to cope with the challenges of caring for themselves and a younger child, but isolation and dependency on employers made it difficult for the trafficked girls to cope with this exploitation. The salutogenic model proved a useful tool in

  14. Contact process with temporal disorder.

    PubMed

    Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the influence of time-varying environmental noise, i.e., temporal disorder, on the nonequilibrium phase transition of the contact process. Combining a real-time renormalization group, scaling theory, and large scale Monte-Carlo simulations in one and two dimensions, we show that the temporal disorder gives rise to an exotic critical point. At criticality, the effective noise amplitude diverges with increasing time scale, and the probability distribution of the density becomes infinitely broad, even on a logarithmic scale. Moreover, the average density and survival probability decay only logarithmically with time. This infinite-noise critical behavior can be understood as the temporal counterpart of infinite-randomness critical behavior in spatially disordered systems, but with exchanged roles of space and time. We also analyze the generality of our results, and we discuss potential experiments. PMID:27627250

  15. [Diagnostic evaluation of temporal paragangliomas].

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Anna; Gołabek, Wiesław; Szymański, Marcin; Morshed, Kamal; Trojanowska, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    Paragangliomas are rare tumours deriving from paraganglia--small bodies of neuroendocrine tissue. Approximately 3% of paragangliomas occur in the head and neck area accounting for about 0,6% of all tumours of this region. Head and neck paragangliomas are divided into two groups: neck tumours (carotid body tumor and vagal paraganglioma) and temporal paragangliomas (jugular bulb tumor and tympanic paraganglioma). Temporal paragangliomas arise from paraganglia located in the petrous part of the temporal bone. Radiological evaluation of these lesions is essential for confirming the diagnosis and surgery planning. Most useful methods are magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. These modalities deliver important information about tumour location, extension and the state of the surrounding structures. Carotid angiography is a second step diagnostic method, performed in patients with jugular bulb paraganglioma. It has a diagnostic value and allows palliative or preoperative embolization of the tumor. Ultrasonographic evaluation and scintigraphy also provide advantages in diagnostic management. PMID:18546938

  16. Contact process with temporal disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the influence of time-varying environmental noise, i.e., temporal disorder, on the nonequilibrium phase transition of the contact process. Combining a real-time renormalization group, scaling theory, and large scale Monte-Carlo simulations in one and two dimensions, we show that the temporal disorder gives rise to an exotic critical point. At criticality, the effective noise amplitude diverges with increasing time scale, and the probability distribution of the density becomes infinitely broad, even on a logarithmic scale. Moreover, the average density and survival probability decay only logarithmically with time. This infinite-noise critical behavior can be understood as the temporal counterpart of infinite-randomness critical behavior in spatially disordered systems, but with exchanged roles of space and time. We also analyze the generality of our results, and we discuss potential experiments.

  17. Processing Temporal Constraints: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggio, Giosue

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates how linguistic expressions of time--in particular, temporal adverbs and verb tense morphemes--are used to establish temporal reference at the level of brain physiology. First, a formal semantic analysis of tense and temporal adverbs is outlined. It is argued that computing temporal reference amounts to solving a…

  18. A novel temporal filtering strategy for functional MRI using UNFOLD.

    PubMed

    Domsch, S; Lemke, A; Weingärtner, S; Schad, L R

    2012-08-01

    A major challenge for fMRI at high spatial resolution is the limited temporal resolution. The UNFOLD method increases image acquisition speed and potentially enables high acceleration factors in fMRI. Spatial aliasing artifacts due to interleaved k-space sampling are to be removed from the image time series by temporal filtering before statistical mapping in the time domain can be carried out. So far, low-pass filtering and multi-band filtering have been proposed. Particularly at high UNFOLD factors both methods are non-optimal. Low-pass filtering severely degrades temporal resolution and multi-band filtering leads to temporal autocorrelations affecting statistical modelling of activation. In this work, we present a novel temporal filtering strategy that significantly reduces temporal autocorrelations compared to multi-band filtering. Two datasets (finger-tapping and resting state) were post-processed using the proposed and the multi-band filter with varying set-ups (i.e. transition bands). When the proposed filtering strategy was used, a linear regression analysis revealed that the number of false positives was significantly decreased up to 34% whereas the number of activated voxels was not significantly affected for most filter parameters. In total, this led to an effective increase in the number of activated voxels per false positive for each filter set-up. At a significance level of 5%, the number of activated voxels was increased up to 41% by using the proposed filtering strategy. PMID:22484204

  19. Phentolamine as a treatment for poor mixing in transposition of the great arteries with adequate intraatrial communication.

    PubMed

    Galal, M O; El-Naggar, W I; Sharfi, M H

    2005-01-01

    Patients with transposition of the great arteries often show poor mixing for different reasons, even after adequate balloon atrial septostomy. We present a patient with such a lesion whose clinical status improved dramatically after phentolamine was applied. We believe this improvement is due to reduction in afterload caused by the alpha(2) blocker and also possibly as a response to a presumptive effect of the drug on the diastolic function of the right ventricle, allowing more left-to-right shunt across the atrial septal defect. Both phenomena can improve cardiac output in such a situation. PMID:16374695

  20. Assessment of Different Sampling Methods for Measuring and Representing Macular Cone Density Using Flood-Illuminated Adaptive Optics

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shu; Gale, Michael J.; Fay, Jonathan D.; Faridi, Ambar; Titus, Hope E.; Garg, Anupam K.; Michaels, Keith V.; Erker, Laura R.; Peters, Dawn; Smith, Travis B.; Pennesi, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe a standardized flood-illuminated adaptive optics (AO) imaging protocol suitable for the clinical setting and to assess sampling methods for measuring cone density. Methods Cone density was calculated following three measurement protocols: 50 × 50-μm sampling window values every 0.5° along the horizontal and vertical meridians (fixed-interval method), the mean density of expanding 0.5°-wide arcuate areas in the nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior quadrants (arcuate mean method), and the peak cone density of a 50 × 50-μm sampling window within expanding arcuate areas near the meridian (peak density method). Repeated imaging was performed in nine subjects to determine intersession repeatability of cone density. Results Cone density montages could be created for 67 of the 74 subjects. Image quality was determined to be adequate for automated cone counting for 35 (52%) of the 67 subjects. We found that cone density varied with different sampling methods and regions tested. In the nasal and temporal quadrants, peak density most closely resembled histological data, whereas the arcuate mean and fixed-interval methods tended to underestimate the density compared with histological data. However, in the inferior and superior quadrants, arcuate mean and fixed-interval methods most closely matched histological data, whereas the peak density method overestimated cone density compared with histological data. Intersession repeatability testing showed that repeatability was greatest when sampling by arcuate mean and lowest when sampling by fixed interval. Conclusions We show that different methods of sampling can significantly affect cone density measurements. Therefore, care must be taken when interpreting cone density results, even in a normal population. PMID:26325414

  1. Simultaneous Spatial and Temporal Focusing in Nonlinear Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Durst, M. E.; Zhu, G.; Xu, C.

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF), when combined with nonlinear microscopy, can improve the axial excitation confinement of wide-field and line-scanning imaging. Because two-photon excited fluorescence depends inversely on the pulse width of the excitation beam, SSTF decreases the background excitation of the sample outside of the focal volume by broadening the pulse width everywhere but at the geometric focus of the objective lens. This review theoretically describes the beam propagation within the sample using Fresnel diffraction in the frequency domain, deriving an analytical expression for the pulse evolution. SSTF can scan the temporal focal plane axially by adjusting the GVD in the excitation beam path. We theoretically define the axial confinement for line-scanning SSTF imaging using a time-domain understanding and conclude that line-scanning SSTF is similar to the temporally-decorrelated multifocal multiphoton imaging technique. Recent experiments on the temporal focusing effect and its axial confinement, as well as the axial scanning of the temporal focus by tuning the GVD, are presented. We further discuss this technique for axial-scanning multiphoton fluorescence fiber probes without any moving parts at the distal end. The temporal focusing effect in SSTF essentially replaces the focusing of one spatial dimension in conventional wide-field and line-scanning imaging. Although the best axial confinement achieved by SSTF cannot surpass that of a regular point-scanning system, this trade-off between spatial and temporal focusing can provide significant advantages in applications such as high-speed imaging and remote axial scanning in an endoscopic fiber probe. PMID:18496597

  2. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus

    PubMed Central

    Noesselt, Tömme; Bergmann, Daniel; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Münte, Thomas; Spence, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects judged the temporal relation of (a)synchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c) and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (a)synchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects' perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the “auditory leading (AL)” and “visual leading (VL) areas” lie closer to “synchrony areas” than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects' perception of (a)synchrony. PMID:22973202

  3. A Structural Characterization of Temporal Dynamic Controllability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Paul

    2006-01-01

    An important issue for temporal planners is the ability to handle temporal uncertainty. Recent papers have addressed the question of how to tell whether a temporal network is Dynamically Controllable, i.e., whether the temporal requirements are feasible in the light of uncertain durations of some processes. Previous work has presented an O(N5) algorithm for testing this property. Here, we introduce a new analysis of temporal cycles that leads to an O(N4) algorithm.

  4. Barriers to help-seeking, detection, and adequate treatment for anxiety and mood disorders: implications for health care policy.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, David

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the focus of health policies and initiatives has been directed toward mental health. More precisely, depressive and anxiety disorders have received particular attention because of their disabling outcomes and prevalence among most populations. Despite this increased interest, numerous issues regarding patients' willingness to seek treatment and the adequate recognition and treatment of these disorders by clinicians remain to be addressed. This article considers the factors that influence patients and physicians in their reticence to acknowledge and adequately treat depression and anxiety disorders. It also reviews the impact of society and the media, together with other factors relating to health care organization and administration that affect the treatment of depression and anxiety. In view of the multifaceted challenge involved, efforts to achieve a consensus in determining treatment for those with depressive and anxiety disorders are essential. A consensus will require easy, measurable, and reliable disability indicators; evidence that treatment of patients with varying levels of need is cost effective; and that persons who most need and would benefit from care can be reliably identified among the highly prevalent population of persons with more transient symptoms. Governments and other policymakers should be encouraged to provide appropriate coverage for access to primary and secondary care, the treatments required, and sufficient resources so that care is available when necessary. An important aspect of the challenge is to incorporate these efforts within the realistic constraints of primary care. PMID:17288503

  5. Early Surgical Therapy for Drug-Resistant Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Jerome; McDermott, Michael P.; Wiebe, Samuel; Langfitt, John T.; Stern, John M.; Dewar, Sandra; Sperling, Michael R.; Gardiner, Irenita; Erba, Giuseppe; Fried, Itzhak; Jacobs, Margaret; Vinters, Harry V.; Mintzer, Scott; Kieburtz, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Context Despite reported success, surgery for pharmacoresistant seizures is often seen as a last resort. Patients are typically referred for surgery after 20 years of seizures, often too late to avoid significant disability and premature death. Objective We sought to determine whether surgery soon after failure of 2 antiepileptic drug (AED) trials is superior to continued medical management in controlling seizures and improving quality of life (QOL). Design, Setting, and Participants The Early Randomized Surgical Epilepsy Trial (ERSET) is a multicenter, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial performed at 16 US epilepsy surgery centers. The 38 participants (18 men and 20 women; aged ≥ 12 years) had mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and disabling seizues for no more than 2 consecutive years following adequate trials of 2 brand-name AEDs. Eligibility for anteromesial temporal resection (AMTR) was based on a standardized presurgical evaluation protocol. Participants were randomized to continued AED treatment or AMTR 2003–2007, and observed for 2 years. Planned enrollment was 200, but the trial was halted prematurely due to slow accrual. Intervention Receipt of continued AED treatment (n=23) or a standardized AMTR plus AED treatment (n = 15). In the medical group, 7 participants underwent AMTR prior to the end of follow-up and 1 participant in the surgical group never received surgery. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome variable was freedom from disabling seizures during year 2 of follow-up. Secondary outcome variables were health-related QOL (measured primarily by the 2-year change in the Quality of Life in Epilepsy 89 [QOLIE-89] overall T-score), cognitive function, and social adaptation. Results Zero of 23 participants in the medical group and 11 of 15 in the surgical group were seizure free during year 2 of follow-up (odds ratio=∞; 95% CI, 11.8 to ∞;P <.001). In an intention-to-treat analysis, the mean improvement in QOLIE-89 overall T-score was

  6. The Identification and Teaching of Selected Temporal Constructions to Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Joyce Helen

    This study examines children's understanding of temporal markers and explores a strategy for teaching such understanding when it is absent. The original sample for this study consisted of 22 first graders and 85 kindergarten children. All subjects were individually pretested with the Temporal Marker Test (TMT) which evaluates performance on eight…

  7. Dynamics of temporal learning rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Patrick D.

    2000-09-01

    The changes of synaptic strength are analyzed on two time scales: the fast local field dynamics, and the slow synaptic modification dynamics. The fast dynamics are determined by the synaptic strengths and background noise in the system. The slow dynamics are determined by the functional form of a temporal learning rule. Temporal learning rules are defined to be functions yielding state dependent changes in synaptic strengths depending on the timing of pre- and postsynaptic states in the network. The evolution of local field dynamics that result from various learning rules are analyzed for a stochastic, discrete time neural model with no relative refractory period that receives a series of delayed adaptive inputs. A fixed point is found in the learning dynamics, and conditions for two types of instabilities are analyzed. Four universality classes of dynamics are found that are independent of the details of the temporal learning rules. Examples are given of biological systems in which these temporal learning rules have been identified, and their functional consequences are discussed.

  8. Temporal scaling in information propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-06-01

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  9. Combining Simultaneous with Temporal Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermens, Frouke; Herzog, Michael H.; Francis, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous and temporal masking are two frequently used techniques in psychology and vision science. Although there are many studies and theories related to each masking technique, there are no systematic investigations of their mutual relationship, even though both techniques are often applied together. Here, the authors show that temporal…

  10. Temporal resolution in fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2014-01-01

    Temporal resolution is a key factor for imaging rapidly occurring events in biology. In this feature article, I investigate an approximate estimate for determining the temporal resolution limit. The condition that led to this limit is, the time taken by the ensemble (99.9%) of excited molecules to relax to ground state, assuming all the emitted photons are detected. In a simplistic three-level system, the temporal resolution is, ≈3τp, where τp = (loge10)/(kf + knr) and, kf and knr are respectively the radiative and non-radiative emission rates. This further assumes the ideal condition that, the quantum efficiency of the detector is unity and there are no other loses. We discuss few state-of-art microscopy techniques that are capable of high temporal resolution. This includes techniques such as multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM), multifocal plane microscopy, multiple excitation spot optical microscopy (MESO), multiplane microscopy and multiple light-sheet microscopy (MLSM). PMID:25988152

  11. Entities on a Temporal Scale.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christopher M; Crother, Brian I

    2016-03-01

    Ontological understanding of biological units (i.e. what kinds of things are they) is crucial to their use in experimental design, analysis, and interpretation. Conceptualizing fundamental units in biology as individuals or classes is important for subsequent development of discovery operations. While the criteria for diagnosing individuals are acknowledged, temporal boundedness is often misinterpreted and temporal minima are applied to units in question. This results in misdiagnosis or abandonment of ontological interpretation altogether. Biological units such as areas of endemism in biogeography and species in evolutionary biology fall victim to such problems. Our goal here is to address the misconception that biological individuals such as species and areas of endemism have a temporal minimum. Areas of endemism can persist within small temporal boundaries in the context of metapopulation dynamics, island biogeography, and range expansion and contraction. Similarly, lineage reticulation illustrates examples of short-lived species. Here, examples of known entities are provided to illustrate their persistence on short time scales in attempt to rescue future interpretation of biological units from ontological misdiagnosis, elucidate the philosophical individuality of areas of endemism and species with short lifespans, and provide justification for the "snapshot in time" diagnostic approach. PMID:26342483

  12. Temporal Processing Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Christine A.; Boggs, Jennifer; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Shekhar, Anantha; Hetrick, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia may be associated with a fundamental disturbance in the temporal coordination of information processing in the brain, leading to classic symptoms of schizophrenia such as thought disorder and disorganized and contextually inappropriate behavior. Despite the growing interest and centrality of time-dependent conceptualizations of the…

  13. Temporal scaling in information propagation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers. PMID:24939414

  14. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    PubMed

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings. PMID:26303026

  15. Temporal sleep patterns in adults using actigraph.

    PubMed

    Matuzaki, Lia; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m(2), and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences. PMID:26483920

  16. Temporal sleep patterns in adults using actigraph

    PubMed Central

    Matuzaki, Lia; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m2, and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences. PMID:26483920

  17. Temporal Characterization of Aircraft Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    Current aircraft source noise prediction tools yield time-independent frequency spectra as functions of directivity angle. Realistic evaluation and human assessment of aircraft fly-over noise require the temporal characteristics of the noise signature. The purpose of the current study is to analyze empirical data from broadband jet and tonal fan noise sources and to provide the temporal information required for prediction-based synthesis. Noise sources included a one-tenth-scale engine exhaust nozzle and a one-fifth scale scale turbofan engine. A methodology was developed to characterize the low frequency fluctuations employing the Short Time Fourier Transform in a MATLAB computing environment. It was shown that a trade-off is necessary between frequency and time resolution in the acoustic spectrogram. The procedure requires careful evaluation and selection of the data analysis parameters, including the data sampling frequency, Fourier Transform window size, associated time period and frequency resolution, and time period window overlap. Low frequency fluctuations were applied to the synthesis of broadband noise with the resulting records sounding virtually indistinguishable from the measured data in initial subjective evaluations. Amplitude fluctuations of blade passage frequency (BPF) harmonics were successfully characterized for conditions equivalent to take-off and approach. Data demonstrated that the fifth harmonic of the BPF varied more in frequency than the BPF itself and exhibited larger amplitude fluctuations over the duration of the time record. Frequency fluctuations were found to be not perceptible in the current characterization of tonal components.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of the particulate size distribution and chemical composition over Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinlade, Grace O; Olaniyi, Hezekiah B; Olise, Felix S; Owoade, Oyediran K; Almeida, Susana M; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Hopke, Philip K

    2015-08-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of suspended particulate matter was measured in Ibadan, Nigeria during the raining and dry months of 2013 and 2014, respectively. Six different locations were considered, reflecting city-spread, population density, lifestyle, and vehicular- and industrial-related activities. Elemental characterisation of the samples were carried out using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectroscopy, while the black carbon content was determined using an optical transmissometer. Backward trajectory analysis indicated that most air mass was of maritime origin except on few occasions that suggested the Sahara desert origin. Average PM2.5/PM10 ratio for the entire sampling period was 0.32 ± 0.04. This is slightly lower than the reported values in the coastal city of Lagos, partly because of more adequately paved and better road networks resulting in lower dust re-suspension and/or there are relatively finer fraction particulates from other sources, which might include marine, industrial, and secondary emission-related sources. Black carbon showed predominance in the fine fractions and was, majorly, of traffic origin. Major enriched elements of concern are S, Zn, As, and Pb aside from those of sea origin. Refuse burning was observed to be the principal source of Pb and Zn in all the sites except one, which showed major industrial-related activities source. This study will provide data for future measurement and modelling works as well as providing a benchmark for relevant agencies for policy making on setting emission standards for the country. PMID:26228620

  19. Organizing person-centred care in paediatric diabetes: multidisciplinary teams, long-term relationships and adequate documentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes is one of the most frequent long-term endocrine childhood disorders and the Swedish National Diabetes Register for children states that adolescents (12–18 years) constitute the most vulnerable patient group in terms of metabolic control. The aim of this study was to examine how a multidisciplinary team functions when caring for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods Qualitative interviews were performed with 17 health professionals at a Paediatric Diabetes Care Unit in a Swedish university hospital. The interviews were analysed to gain insight into a multidisciplinary care team’s experiences of various organizational processes and circumstances related to the provision of person-centred paediatric diabetes care. Results Building long-term relationships with adolescents, the establishment of a multidisciplinary care team and ensuring adequate documentation are vital for the delivery of person-centred care (PCC). Furthermore, a PCC process and/or practice requires more than the mere expression of person-centred values. The contribution of this study is that it highlights the necessity of facilitating and safeguarding the organization of PCC, for which three processes are central: 1. Facilitating long-term relationships with adolescents and their families; 2. Facilitating multi-professional teamwork; and 3. Ensuring adequate documentation. Conclusion Three processes emerged as important for the functioning of the multidisciplinary team when caring for adolescents with type 1 diabetes: building a long-term relationship, integrating knowledge by means of multidisciplinary team work and ensuring adequate documentation. This study demonstrates the importance of clearly defining and making use of the specific role of each team member in the paediatric diabetes care unit (PDCU). Team members should receive training in PCC and a PCC approach should form the foundation of all diabetes care. Every adolescent suffering from type 1 diabetes

  20. Temporal motifs in time-dependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovanen, Lauri; Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János; Saramäki, Jari

    2011-11-01

    Temporal networks are commonly used to represent systems where connections between elements are active only for restricted periods of time, such as telecommunication, neural signal processing, biochemical reaction and human social interaction networks. We introduce the framework of temporal motifs to study the mesoscale topological-temporal structure of temporal networks in which the events of nodes do not overlap in time. Temporal motifs are classes of similar event sequences, where the similarity refers not only to topology but also to the temporal order of the events. We provide a mapping from event sequences to coloured directed graphs that enables an efficient algorithm for identifying temporal motifs. We discuss some aspects of temporal motifs, including causality and null models, and present basic statistics of temporal motifs in a large mobile call network.