Science.gov

Sample records for adequate water supplies

  1. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  2. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  3. Do low standing biomass and leaf area index of sub-tropical coastal dunes ensure that plants have an adequate supply of water?

    PubMed

    Ripley, Brad S; Pammenter, Norman W

    2004-05-01

    Water status in relation to standing biomass and leaf area indices (LAI) of the subtropical foredune species Arctotheca populifolia, Ipomoea pes-caprae and Scaevola plumieri were studied in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The plants showed little evidence of water stress, never developing leaf water potentials more negative than -1.55 MPa, a value which is typical of mesophytes rather than xerophytes. The plants showed no seasonal changes in osmotic potential, an indication that they did not need to osmoregulate, nor were there significant alterations in tissue elasticity. Turgor potential for the most part remained positive throughout the day or recovered positive values at night, a condition suitable for the maintenance of growth that may be essential to cope with sand accretion. All three species show relatively high transpiration rates and only I. pes-caprae showed any evidence of strong limitations of transpiration rate through reductions in midday stomatal conductance. All three species had relatively high instantaneous water use efficiencies as a result of high assimilation rates rather than low transpiration rates. Simple water budgets, accounting for losses by transpiration and inputs from rainfall, suggest that the water stored in the dune sands is sufficient to meet the requirements of the plants, although water budgets calculated for I. pes-caprae suggest that this species may on occasion be water limited. The results suggest that it is the low biomass and LAI that lead to these favourable water relations. PMID:15042456

  4. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  5. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  6. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  7. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  8. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  9. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  10. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  11. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  12. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  13. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  14. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  15. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  16. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water spray devices; capacity; water supply... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices are... square foot over the top surface area of the equipment and the supply of water shall be adequate...

  17. Urbanization and water supplies for northeastern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.R.

    1981-03-01

    Increasing populations in northeastern Colorado have resulted in reductions in irrigated acreage and the proportionate quantities of water available to support that segment of the agricultural industry. The growth has caused increased demands for municipal-domestic and industrial water supplies from the South Platte and Colorado River Basins. These impacts have been determined by comparing hydrologic data in conjunction with water use for agricultural, municipal-domestic, and industrial purposes between the period 1975 to 1979. Pricing and water rights ownership were also compared for the same period, as were land conversion data, population data, and crop production valuation. Proper administration of nonconsumptive return flows coupled with the importation of water from the Colorado River Basin will provide adequate, industrial, and irrigation water supplies for this growth intense area and downstream farm lands. 8 figures.

  18. Potable water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  19. Water Supplies: Microbiological Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Producing high-quality drinking water that is free of harmful microorganisms and maintaining its purity through distribution systems are essential for public health. Drinking water quality standards and guidelines for microbial contaminants vary within and among countries but typ...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; minimum requirements. 75.1107-7 Section 75.1107-7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices are... square foot over the top surface area of the equipment and the supply of water shall be adequate...

  1. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... remaining sources, with reasonable conservation measures, cannot provide adequate supplies of drinking water... all cases, reasonable water conservation measures must be implemented. Local interests will...

  2. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... remaining sources, with reasonable conservation measures, cannot provide adequate supplies of drinking water... all cases, reasonable water conservation measures must be implemented. Local interests will...

  3. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... remaining sources, with reasonable conservation measures, cannot provide adequate supplies of drinking water... all cases, reasonable water conservation measures must be implemented. Local interests will...

  4. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    SciTech Connect

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  5. Industrial water supplies of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Samuel K.

    1954-01-01

    The availability of adequate supplies of water of suitable quality determines in large measure the potential for industrial development in any community. However, the pattern of availability of water for industrial use is not so generally recognized. It is the purpose of this paper to point out the more important factors affecting the distribution and quality of existing and potential sources of water with particular reference to industrial development. From a nation-wide standpoint our country is blessed with plenty of water. If the available water could be distributed completely in accordance with needs, it is probable that no part of the country would suffer from lack of water either now or in the foreseeable future. As nature has not dealt so providently however, or perhaps as man has not been able to cope with the vagaries of nature, we find ourselves beset with droughts and floods. Added to the natural deficiencies of nature are man-made difficulties such as lowered ground-water tables and salt-water encroachment of fresh water supplies resulting from overpumping of ground waters, pollution in all its forms, and wasteful use of water for many purposes. It becomes necessary, therefore, to study and evaluate our most important natural resource in order that we may use it more intelligently. This is particularly true in regard to continued industrial growth of our country.

  6. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  7. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  8. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  9. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  10. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  11. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water supply. 3285.603 Section 3285... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water... pressure and reduction. When the local water supply pressure exceeds 80 psi to the manufactured home,...

  12. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 3285.603 Section 3285... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water... pressure and reduction. When the local water supply pressure exceeds 80 psi to the manufactured home,...

  13. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply. 3285.603 Section 3285... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water... pressure and reduction. When the local water supply pressure exceeds 80 psi to the manufactured home,...

  14. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply. 3285.603 Section 3285... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water... pressure and reduction. When the local water supply pressure exceeds 80 psi to the manufactured home,...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply. 3285.603 Section 3285... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water... pressure and reduction. When the local water supply pressure exceeds 80 psi to the manufactured home,...

  16. Development of water quality standards criteria. [for consumables (spacecrew supplies)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Qualitative and semiquantitative analyses were made of volatile organic compounds in water supplies collected at various stages of processing in the space station prototype vacuum compression distillation unit to evaluate the process and the product water. Additional evaluation was made of specific ingredients required to adequately enhance the taste of the reclaimed water. A concept for the in-flight addition of these ingredients was developed. Revisions to previously recommended potable water criteria and specifications are included.

  17. Comparison of four standards for determining adequate water intake of nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Phyllis M

    2011-01-01

    Adequate hydration for nursing home residents is problematic. The purpose of this study was to compare four standards used to determine a recommended water intake among nursing home residents. Inconsistencies in the amount of water intake recommended based on the standards compared were identified. The standard based on height and weight provides the most individualized recommendation. An individualized recommendation would facilitate goal setting for the care plan of each older person and assist in the prevention of dehydration. It is essential that a cost-effective and clinically feasible approach to determine adequate water intake be determined for this population to prevent the adverse outcomes associated with dehydration. PMID:21469538

  18. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  19. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over...

  20. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over...

  1. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over...

  2. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in section 1... of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over a...

  3. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over...

  4. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply. 801.6 Section 801.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With...

  5. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 801.6 Section 801.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With...

  6. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply. 801.6 Section 801.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With...

  7. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply. 801.6 Section 801.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With...

  8. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Water supply. 801.6 Section 801.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With...

  9. Drinking Water Supplies: Protection Through Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, G. William

    1984-04-01

    The practice of purchasing land to protect surface water supply sources is rarely practical today. This is particularly true near urban areas. Therefore, Drinking Water Supplies attempts to provide an action-oriented guidebook on how to develop and implement watershed management strategies to protect surface water supplies from contamination under the constraints of today's economic, legal, institutional, and political conditions. The book succeeds in providing a very clear and useful guide to the process of developing such a strategy. It should be helpful to small and moderate-sized water supply systems and local governments interested in taking action to protect their surface water supply sources.

  10. OVERVIEW OF USEPA'S WATER SUPPLY & WATER RESOURCES DIVISION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) conducts a wide range of research on regulated and unregulated contaminants in drinking water, water distribution systems, homeland security, source water protection, and...

  11. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  12. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Wim; Prinsen, Geert.; Hoogewoud, Jacco; Veldhuizen, Ab; Ruijgh, Erik; Kroon, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with? by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses. Regional expertise is welcomed in the calibration phase of NHI. It aims to reduce uncertainties by improving the

  13. Improving access to adequate water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi; Sutomo, Sumengen

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of water problems faces nations and individuals around the world. These problems include international and regional disputes over water, water scarcity and contamination,unsustainable use of groundwater, ecological degradation,and the threat of climate change. At the heart of the world's water problems, however, is the failure to provide even the most basic water services for billions of people and the devastating human health problems associated with that failure. In 2000, the World Health Organization reported about regularly monitoring access to water and sanitation of 89%of the world's population, in which about 1.1 billion people lacked access to "improved water supply" and more than 2.4 billion lacked access to "improved sanitation". The development of water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia does not indicate any significant progress in the last two decades.The prevalence of water-borne diseases tends to increase yearly, which poses a risk for a population of over a million people. Therefore, it is not realistic to achieve the Millennium Development Goals target by 2015. Redefining approaches like providing integrated programs and action in water and sanitation services must be a priority to protect human health in Indonesia. PMID:23095182

  14. Wildfire and the future of water supply.

    PubMed

    Bladon, Kevin D; Emelko, Monica B; Silins, Uldis; Stone, Micheal

    2014-08-19

    In many parts of the world, forests provide high quality water for domestic, agricultural, industrial, and ecological needs, with water supplies in those regions inextricably linked to forest health. Wildfires have the potential to have devastating effects on aquatic ecosystems and community drinking water supply through impacts on water quantity and quality. In recent decades, a combination of fuel load accumulation, climate change, extensive droughts, and increased human presence in forests have resulted in increases in area burned and wildfire severity-a trend predicted to continue. Thus, the implications of wildfire for many downstream water uses are increasingly concerning, particularly the provision of safe drinking water, which may require additional treatment infrastructure and increased operations and maintenance costs in communities downstream of impacted landscapes. A better understanding of the effects of wildfire on water is needed to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to protect globally critical water supplies originating in forested environments. PMID:25007310

  15. Geohydrology and water supply, Shemya Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feulner, Alvin John; Zenone, Chester; Reed, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    Sheyma Island, Alaska, was occupied as a military base in 1942. Since that time, potable water has been supplied by streams, lakes, wells, and in the late 1950's, a gallery system. The island is a low-lying, wave-cut platform composed of pyroclastic and volcanic rocks with some intrusives. Bedrock is overlain by thin glacial deposits. Most of the island 's present surface is relatively thick peat deposits. On the southern and western sides of the island active sand dunes are present. Ground-water supplies are limited by the dense bedrock; only a small amount of water penetrates into fracture systems. Most ground-water movement is in the overlying glacial and peat deposits. Ground water moves generally from north to south across the island. Currently water supplies are drawn from the gallery system which is capable of providing about 200,000 gallons per day. An emergency water supply is available from two wells. Additional supplies could be developed by either adding to the existing gallery or constructing an additional gallery near the present gallery system. The chemical quality of water analyzed from the gallery well generally approximates that of surface water on the island. None of the constituents in samples from streams, lakes, or ground water, except the August 27, 1970, analysis for Lower Lake, exceed the recommended limits for drinking water (Environmental Protection Agency, 1973). (Woodard-USGS)

  16. VIRAL PATHOGENS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN GROUND WATER FROM SMALL PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES IN SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-eight public ground-water-supply wells serving less than 3,300 people were sampled from July 1999 through July 2001 in southeastern Michigan to determine (1) occurrence of viral pathogens and microbiological indicators, (2) whether indicators are adequate predictors of the...

  17. WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION - HOME PAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) conducts research to help prepare the primary and secondary regulations for drinking water and to develop technologies and strategies for controlling waterborne contaminants. The program integrates chemistry, engineering, micr...

  18. OPPORTUNISTIC ORGANISMS AND THE WATER SUPPLY CONNECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organisms that established in water supply may also be opportunistic pathogens. epresentative opportunistic pathogens that are waterborne include acid-fast bacteria, fecal klebsiellae, Legionella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. hese organisms may be found in the heterotroph ic bacter...

  19. STANDARDIZED COST FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a significant number of water supply distribution systems in the United States that are deteriorating, resulting in a potential threat to the future quality of drinking water. orrective measures will directly influence the cost of providing water. t would be useful to h...

  20. ESTIMATING COSTS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The issue of economic effects and the cost of water supply is a continuing factor in implementing the Safe Drinking Water Act. The cost of distributing water to the final user after it has been treated is of growing concern as well as its quality. There are a significant number o...

  1. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  2. Chemical contamination of water supplies.

    PubMed Central

    Shy, C M

    1985-01-01

    Man-made organic chemicals have been found in drinking water for many years. Their numbers and varieties increase as our analytical capabilities improve. The identified chemicals comprise 10 to 20% of the total organic matter present. These are volatile or low molecular weight compounds which are easily identified. Many of them are carcinogenic or mutagenic. Chlorinated compounds have been found in untreated well water at levels up to 21,300 micrograms/L and are generally present at higher levels in chlorine-treated water than in untreated water. Aggregate risk studies for cancer are summarized. The most common sites are: bladder, stomach, colon, and rectum. Such studies cannot be linked to individual cases. However, they are useful for identifying exposed populations for epidemiologic studies. Five case-control studies were reviewed, and significant associations with water quality were found for: bladder cancer in two studies, colon cancer in three and rectal cancer in four. A large study by the National Cancer Institute found that there had been a change in the source of raw water for 50% of the persons in one area between the years 1955 and 1975. Such flaws in the data may preclude finding a causal relation between cancer and contaminants in drinking water. Large case-control and cohort studies are needed because of the low frequency of the marker diseases, bladder and rectal cancer. Cohort studies may be precluded by variations in the kinds of water contaminants. Definitive questions about these issues are posed for cooperative effort and resolution by water chemists, engineers, and epidemiologists. PMID:4085442

  3. Fungi, Water Supply and Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann-Lacroix, Catherine; Costa, Damien; Imbert, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Even though it has been studied for many years, water-related infectious risk still exists in both care and community environments due to the possible presence of numerous microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and protists. People can be exposed directly to these microorganisms either through aerosols and water, after ingestion, inhalation, skin contact and entry through mucosal membranes, or indirectly usually due to pre-treatment of some medical devices. Species belonging to genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Pseudallesheria, Fusarium, Cuninghamella, Mucor and in some particular cases Candida have been isolated in water from health facilities and their presence is particularly related to the unavoidable formation of a polymicrobial biofilm in waterlines. Fungi isolation methods are based on water filtration combined with conventional microbiology cultures and/or molecular approaches; unfortunately, these are still poorly standardized. Moreover, due to inappropriate culture media and inadequate sampling volumes, the current standardized methods used for bacterial research are not suitable for fungal search. In order to prevent water-related fungal risk, health facilities have implemented measures such as ultraviolet radiation to treat the input network, continuous chemical treatment, chemical or thermal shock treatments, or microfiltration at points of use. This article aims to provide an overview of fungal colonization of water (especially in hospitals), involvement of biofilms that develop in waterlines and application of preventive strategies. PMID:27167410

  4. ACIDIC DEPOSITION AND CISTERN DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water quality charecteristics, including the trace element Cd, cu, Pb, and Zn, in rainwater cistern supplies representing an area receiving acidic deposition were compared to cistern water chemistry in a control area that does not receive a significant input of acidic deposit...

  5. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  6. Managing field water supply to increase water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field water supply (FWS) represents the three sources of water that a crop can use for evapotranspiration (ET), and consists of available soil water at planting (ASWP), rainfall, and irrigation. Because it integrates all sources of water available to a crop, it impacts crop water production function...

  7. Presence of Legionella in London's water supplies.

    PubMed

    Colbourne, J S; Trew, R M

    1986-09-01

    Legionella occurs frequently (52 to 54%) in domestic water and cooling water inside commercial, industrial and health care buildings, and these types of water systems are now regarded as a normal habitat for Legionella. The factors that predispose a particular water system to colonization by these organisms are ill-defined, although it is fairly certain that biological and physicochemical environmental factors play an important role in allowing Legionella to multiply in the circulating water. It has been postulated that the organism may gain access to water systems inside buildings by one of three routes: contact with air through open points such as uncovered storage tanks or vents, ingress of soil or surface water during construction or repair, or intermittent seeding with organisms present in low numbers in the public water supply. Three studies in the USA have found Legionella in 0.4 to 8.8% of drinking-water samples, but these were not representative of the public supply network as a whole. The aim of this study was to determine, over a period of 1 year, the frequency of Legionella in London's drinking water--from the treatment plant through to the consumer's tap. To date, Legionella has not been isolated from raw river water entering London's treatment works or from treated water entering the distribution network. Sixty-two monitoring taps in buildings located in 21 supply areas have been sampled twice for Legionella; only 2 (2.4%) have proved positive during the autumn and winter of 1985/86. The strain found was L. pneumophila serotype 1, subgroup Olda, and the numbers ranged from 10(2) to 10(4)/l. Although the survey is incomplete, it is already clear that the public water supplies in London are not a source of strains of Legionella associated with disease. PMID:3793445

  8. Activities in water supply and sanitation.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) held a regional workshop in Thailand in 1992 to demonstrate how women's involvement at all levels of environmentally sound and sustainable water supply and sanitation programs and projects could be made more effective, easier, and productive. Using the same modules, with the support of other organizations such as the Department of Development Support and Management Services, ESCAP conducted four more workshops in the Philippines, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Vietnam, and Thailand in 1995. In the Philippines, the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women expressed its intention to adapt the modules for the country. In the Lao PDR, three project ideas were proposed which would assist the Lao Women Union in gaining knowledge on the planning, implementation, operation, and management of water supply and sanitation projects at the national, regional and project levels. In Vietnam, three main directions for action were identified for the promotion of close and active cooperation between the Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Centres and the system of the Women Union of Vietnam. In Thailand, the National Committee on Health and Environment of the National Commission on Women's Affairs expressed its willingness to seek budgetary allocation for the promotion of women's role in water supply and sanitation. PMID:12157800

  9. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (<10 psi), elevated indicator bacteria were frequently detected even when there was a chlorine residual, suggesting persistent contamination had occurred through intrusion or backflow. At pressures between 10 and 17 psi, evidence of periodic contamination suggested that transient intrusion, backflow, release of particulates, or sloughing of biofilms from pipe walls had occurred. Few total coliform and no E. coli were detected when water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi. PMID:24459990

  10. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  11. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal and private water supplies consist of surface water or ground water which is directed to the intake...

  12. Intermittent Water Supply: Prevalence, Practice, and Microbial Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-01-19

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS), in which water is provided through pipes for only limited durations, serve at least 300 million people around the world. However, providing water intermittently can compromise water quality in the distribution system. In IWS systems, the pipes do not supply water for periods of time, supply periods are shortened, and pipes experience regular flow restarting and draining. These unique behaviors affect distribution system water quality in ways that are different than during normal operations in continuous water supplies (CWS). A better understanding of the influence of IWS on mechanisms causing contamination can help lead to incremental steps that protect water quality and minimize health risks. This review examines the status and nature of IWS practices throughout the world, the evidence of the effect of IWS on water quality, and how the typical contexts in which IWS systems often exist-low-income countries with under-resourced utilities and inadequate sanitation infrastructure-can exacerbate mechanisms causing contamination. We then highlight knowledge gaps for further research to improve our understanding of water quality in IWS. PMID:26670120

  13. Scheduling Future Water Supply Investments Under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E. S.; Harou, J. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertain hydrological impacts of climate change, population growth and institutional changes pose a major challenge to planning of water supply systems. Planners seek optimal portfolios of supply and demand management schemes but also when to activate assets whilst considering many system goals and plausible futures. Incorporation of scheduling into the planning under uncertainty problem strongly increases its complexity. We investigate some approaches to scheduling with many-objective heuristic search. We apply a multi-scenario many-objective scheduling approach to the Thames River basin water supply system planning problem in the UK. Decisions include which new supply and demand schemes to implement, at what capacity and when. The impact of different system uncertainties on scheme implementation schedules are explored, i.e. how the choice of future scenarios affects the search process and its outcomes. The activation of schemes is influenced by the occurrence of extreme hydrological events in the ensemble of plausible scenarios and other factors. The approach and results are compared with a previous study where only the portfolio problem is addressed (without scheduling).

  14. Climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmeczi, Pál; Homolya, Emese; Rotárné Szalkai, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather conditions in Hungary led to difficulties in drinking water management on diverse occasions in the past. Due to reduced water resources and the coexisting high demand for drinking water in dry summer periods the availability of a number of water supplies became insufficient therefore causing limitations in water access. In some other cases, as a result of floods and flash floods over karstic areas evolving in consequence of excessive precipitation, several water supplies had to be excluded in order to avoid the risk of infections. More frequent occurrence of extreme weather conditions and further possible changes in the future induce the necessity for an analysis of the vulnerability of drinking water resources to climate change. Since 95% of the total drinking water supply in Hungary originates from subsurface layers, significance of groundwater resources is outstanding. The aim of our work carried out in the frames of the NAGiS (National Adaptation Geo-information System) project was to build up a methodology for the study and determination of the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to climate. The task covered analyses of climatic parameters influencing drinking water supplies principally and hydrogeological characteristics of the geological media that significantly determines vulnerability. Effects on drinking water resources and their reduction or exclusion may imply societal and economic consequences therefore we extended the analyses to the investigation of possibilities concerning the adaptation capacity to changed conditions. We applied the CIVAS (Climate Impact and Vulnerability Assessment Scheme) model developed in the frames of the international climate research project CLAVIER (Climate Change and Variability: Impact on Central and Eastern Europe) to characterize climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies. The CIVAS model, being based on the combined evaluation of exposure, sensitivity and adaptability, provides a unified

  15. Water supply: Yield relationships developed for study of water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USA's west-central Great Plains is a semiarid region with irrigation largely from the Ogallala Aquifer, which has experienced extensive water-level declines. Farmers respond to reduced water supplies with alternative management, irrigation equipment, and crops; and, it is imperative the economic...

  16. Monterey peninsula water supply project supplemental draft environmental impact report/statement II. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-12

    The Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (MPWMD) has examined 5 alternatives with the basic project purpose of providing a municipal water supply to the Monterey Peninsula that would provide adequate drought protection for existing residents and meet the long term water supply needs of planned growth. The overall project purpose is to provide adequate instream flow to protect the public trust resources of the Carmel River. The 5 alternatives studied are; a 24,000 AF New Los Padres Reservoir, either alone or combined with a 3 MGD desalination plant; a 15,000 AF Canada Reservoir and 3 MGD Desalination Plant; a 7 MGD desalination Plant; and No project.... Water supply, Dams, Section 404 permits.

  17. Monterey peninsula water supply project supplemental draft environment impact report/statement II. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-12

    The Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (MPWMD) has examined 5 alternatives with the basic project purpose of providing a municipal water supply to the Monterey Peninsula that would provide adequate drought protection for existing residents and meet the long term water supply needs of planned growth. The overall project purpose is to provide adequate instream flow to protect the public trust resources of the Carmel River. The 5 alternatives studied are; a 24,000 AF New Los Padres Reservoir, either alone or combined with a 3 MGD desalination plant; a 15,000 AF Canada Reservoir and 3 MGD Desalination Plant; a 7 MGD desalination Plant; and No project.... Water supply, Dams, Section 404 permits.

  18. Monterey peninsula water supply project supplemental draft environment impact report/statement II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-12

    The Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (MPWMD) has examined 5 alternatives with the basic project purpose of providing a municipal water supply to the Monterey Peninsula that would provide adequate drought protection for existing residents and meet the long term water supply needs of planned growth. The overall project purpose is to provide adequate instream flow to protect the public trust resources of the Carmel River. The 5 alternatives studied are: a 24,000 AF New Los Padres Reservoir, either alone or combined with a 3 MGD desalination plant; a 15,000 AF Canada Reservoir and 3 MGD Desalination Plant; a 7 MGD desalination Plant; and No project.... Water supply, Dams, Section 404 permits.

  19. Yakima/Klickitat Production Preliminary Design Report, Appendix B: Water Supply Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bureau of Reclamation.

    1990-03-01

    From May 1988 to January 1990 the Bureau of Reclamation, under an interagency agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration, conducted the water supply analysis required by Task II of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) approval of predesign work on the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project. The purposes of the analysis were to (1) document the adequacy of water supplies (quantity and quality) for the proposed artificial production facilities, and for anadromous fish spawning, incubation, rearing, and migration in the Yakima and Klickitat Rivers and their tributaries; (2) determine the availability and quality of existing anadromous fish habitat in both basins; (3) document existing constraints to achieving anadromous fish production potentials in both basins; and (4) develop a listing of streams in both basins where existing water supplies, access, and habitat are adequate for anadromous fish production; where water supplies, access, and habitat would be adequate if improvements were made and agreements reached with existing water users; and where existing water supplies, access, and habitat are inadequate or unattainable in the near term (water supply analysis will be reviewed by project managers and a technical work group, and recommendations will be made to the Council for any changes needed in the location and/or design of the proposed production project facilities.

  20. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply... Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

  1. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply..., Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017,...

  2. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  3. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  4. ANALYSIS OF WATER SUPPLY COSTS IN THE WASHINGTON (D.C.) AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The crucial issue of assuring an adequate potable water supply to the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area (WMA) has been a subject of intense debate for at least 20 years and of concern for many more. Increased reliance on the Potomac River, which is subject to extreme fluctuatio...

  5. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal and private water supplies consist of surface water or ground water which is directed to the intake of... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Municipal and private water...

  6. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal and private water supplies consist of surface water or ground water which is directed to the intake of... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Municipal and private water...

  7. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal and private water supplies consist of surface water or ground water which is directed to the intake of... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Municipal and private water...

  8. Does limited data availability prevent adequate water use estimates on farm scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayatz, Benjamin; Kuster, Benjamin; Percy, Barbara; Hillier, Jonathan; Freese, Dirk; Wattenbach, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Increasing food production for a growing world population and at the same time mitigating climate change as well as adapting to its consequences is one of the key global challenges. Therefore producing crops with fewer resources such as water and fertilizers and less emissions of greenhouse gases is an important question that has to be answered on farm scale. The cool farm tool (CFT) is a farm scale emission calculator and was developed in 2010 to help farmers to reduce their carbon footprint. In order to adapt to future climate change an easy to use and at the same time robust water footprinting tool is needed for the CFT to take a more holistic approach on environmental sustainability. However data on farm level is often scarce. We investigated the effect of limited data on actual evapotranspiration using the FAO56 standard to assess the quality of farm water footprint estimates. Calculations are based on various agricultural sites from the Fluxnet database and estimates are compared to eddy covariance measurements. Results show that higher data availability is not directly linked to more accurate estimates of actual evapotranspiration. Estimates based only on temperature and relative humidity are still able to reproduce daily patterns. However cumulative values over one growing season show a considerable offset to eddy covariance observations for all data input levels. Finding the optimum between data requirements and an accuracy that fulfills farmer needs is crucial. Engagement of farmers and using a global network as the Fluxnet database will help to achieve this goal.

  9. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically controlled pump shall be provided to supply the sprinkling system and shall be used for no other purpose....

  10. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically controlled pump shall be provided to supply the sprinkling system and shall be used for no other purpose....

  11. Droughts, rainfall and rural water supply in northern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarhule, Aondover Augustine

    Knowledge concerning various aspects of drought and water scarcity is required to predict, and to articulate strategies to minimize the effects of future events. This thesis investigated different aspects of droughts and rainfall variability at several time scales and described the dynamics of water supply and use in a rural village in northeastern Nigeria. The parallel existence of measured climatic records and information on famine/folklore events is utilized to calibrate the historical information against the measured data. It is shown that famines or historical droughts occurred when the cumulative deficit of rainfall fell below 1.3 times the standard deviation of the long-term mean rainfall. The study demonstrated that famine chronologies are adequate proxy for drought events, providing a means for the reconstruction of the drought/climatic history of the region. Analysis of recent changes in annual rainfall characteristics show that the series of annual rainfall and number of rain days experienced a discontinuity during the 1960's, caused largely by the decrease in the frequency of moderate to high intensity rain events. The periods prior to and after the change point are homogenous and provide an objective basis for the estimation of changes in rainfall characteristics, drought parameters and for demarcating the region into sub-zones. Rainfall variability was unaffected by the abrupt change. Furthermore, the variability is independently distributed and adequately described by the normal distribution. This allows estimates of the probability of various magnitudes or thresholds of variability. The effects of droughts and rainfall variability are most strongly felt in rural areas. Analysis of the patterns of water supply and use in a typical rural village revealed that the hydrologic system is driven by the local rainfall. Perturbations in the rains propagate through the system with short lag time between the various components. Where fadama aquifers occur

  12. Oahu, Hawaii's Water Supply: 1848-2020 A.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, John Henry

    Demand projections indicate that Oahu's natural ground water supply will be fully developed by the year 2000. Supplementary water resources will need to be developed in keeping with the growth of the economy and population. The author, chairman of the Honolulu Board of Water Supply, authoritatively discusses types of ground water in Hawaii, and…

  13. Sustainable Water Supplies in Uppsala, Sweden?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Bert

    2014-05-01

    This is a description of a transdisciplinary three-day project with upper secondary school students around ecosystem services and sustainability. Uppsala (200 000 inhabitants) gets its municipal water from wells in the esker that dominates the landscape in and around the town. This esker was formed by glacial melt water around 11 000 BP, at the end of the latest glaciation and was lifted above sea level by post-glacial land rise from 6000 BP. To keep up the water table in the esker, water from river Fyris is pumped up and infiltrated in the esker. The river is also the recipient of wastewater downstream of the town, and the river runs out into Lake Mälaren that in its turn spills out into the Baltic Sea through Stockholm. The esker and river can thus be a central topic to work around, in Biology and Geography in upper secondary school, concerning recent and future water supplies, quaternary geology, limnology and landscape history. The fieldwork is carried out during three days in a period of three subsequent weeks. 1. One day is used to examine the water quality in the river above the town, organisms, pH, levels of nitrogen and phosphorous, conductivity and turbidity. Then the direction of the water is followed, first up to the infiltration dams on the esker, and then along the esker to the wells in the town. The formation of the esker and other traces in the landscape from the latest glaciation is also studied, as well as the historical use of the esker as a road and as a source of gravel and sand. The tap water that comes from the wells is finally tested in school in the same way as in the river. 2. The second day is used to follow the wastewater from households to the sewage plant, where the staff presents the plant. The water quality is tested in the same way as above in the outlet from the plant to the river. 3. The third day consists of a limnological excursion on the lake outside the mouth of the river where plankton and other organisms are studied, as

  14. Surface water supply for the Clearlake, California Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, A.R.

    1996-03-01

    It is proposed to construct a demonstration Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal plant in the vicinity of the City of Clearlake. An interim evaluation has been made of the availability of surface water to supply the plant. The evaluation has required consideration of the likely water consumption of such a plant. It has also required consideration of population, land, and water uses in the drainage basins adjacent to Clear Lake, where the HDR demonstration project is likely to be located. Five sources were identified that appear to be able to supply water of suitable quality in adequate quantity for initial filling of the reservoir, and on a continuing basis, as makeup for water losses during operation. Those sources are California Cities Water Company, a municipal supplier to the City of Clearlake; Clear Lake, controlled by Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Borax Lake, controlled by a local developer; Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, controlled by Lake County; and wells, ponds, and streams on private land. The evaluation involved the water uses, water rights, stream flows, precipitation, evaporation, a water balance, and water quality. In spite of California`s prolonged drought, the interim conclusion is that adequate water is available at a reasonable cost to supply the proposed HDR demonstration project.

  15. Sources of emergency water supplies in San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    San Mateo County has several densely populated urban areas that get most of their water supplies from surface-water sources that could by damaged by a major earthquake or other general disaster. In the event of such a disaster, limited supplies of potable water may be obtained from selected wells, springs, and perennial streams. This report outlines the principal sources of existing water supplies, gives information on the need for emergency water-supply procedures, presents general criteria needed for selecting emergency water-supply wells, summarizes information for 60 selected water wells, numerous springs, and perennial streams that can be used as sources of water, and describes emergency water-purification procedures that can be used by individuals or small groups of people.

  16. Public water supplies of North Carolina : a summary of water sources, use, treatment, and capacity of water-supply systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.T., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected during 1970-76 on 224 public water supply systems in North Carolina with 500 or more customers. This report summarizes these data that were previously published in five separate regional reports. The data are presented in order to Council of Government region, county, and water system name and include population served, average and maximum daily use, industrial use, water source, allowable draft of surface-water supplies, raw water pumping capacity, raw and finished water storage, type of water treatment, treatment plant capacity, and a summary of the chemical quality of finished water. Tables and maps provide cross references for system names, counties, Council of Government regions and water source.

  17. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  18. PLANNING WATER SUPPLY: COST-RATE DIFFERENTIALS AND PLUMBING PERMITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is concerned with measuring the cost of water supply and net revenue differences among customers by user class and location, and analyzing future water demand on the basis of plumbing permit application data. For water supply, a methodology based upon engineering princ...

  19. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically... water from the two highest fire hose outlets in a manner similar to that described in §...

  20. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically... water from the two highest fire hose outlets in a manner similar to that described in §...

  1. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  2. Constraining uncertainties in water supply reliability in a tropical data scarce basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaune, Alexander; Werner, Micha; Rodriguez, Erasmo; de Fraiture, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Assessing the water supply reliability in river basins is essential for adequate planning and development of irrigated agriculture and urban water systems. In many cases hydrological models are applied to determine the surface water availability in river basins. However, surface water availability and variability is often not appropriately quantified due to epistemic uncertainties, leading to water supply insecurity. The objective of this research is to determine the water supply reliability in order to support planning and development of irrigated agriculture in a tropical, data scarce environment. The approach proposed uses a simple hydrological model, but explicitly includes model parameter uncertainty. A transboundary river basin in the tropical region of Colombia and Venezuela with an approximately area of 2100 km² was selected as a case study. The Budyko hydrological framework was extended to consider climatological input variability and model parameter uncertainty, and through this the surface water reliability to satisfy the irrigation and urban demand was estimated. This provides a spatial estimate of the water supply reliability across the basin. For the middle basin the reliability was found to be less than 30% for most of the months when the water is extracted from an upstream source. Conversely, the monthly water supply reliability was high (r>98%) in the lower basin irrigation areas when water was withdrawn from a source located further downstream. Including model parameter uncertainty provides a complete estimate of the water supply reliability, but that estimate is influenced by the uncertainty in the model. Reducing the uncertainty in the model through improved data and perhaps improved model structure will improve the estimate of the water supply reliability allowing better planning of irrigated agriculture and dependable water allocation decisions.

  3. Water-Resources Manpower: Supply and Demand Patterns to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James E.

    Relating the supply of scientific manpower to the educational potential of the general population and the productive capacity of the educational system, this study disaggregates independent projections of scientific manpower supply and demand to yield projections for water resources manpower. This supply of engineers, natural scientists, and…

  4. Ground-water for public supply in St. Croix, Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendrickson, Garth Edison

    1963-01-01

    The ground-water resources of St. Croix, V.I., if properly developed should be adequate to supply the present and near-future demand for water for public supply. Ground water is obtained from weathered volcanic and intrusive rocks (bedrocks), from limestone, and from alluvium. The water obtained from weathered bedrocks and from alluvium in the valleys of the North Side Range is generally of better quality than that obtained elsewhere on the island. The greatest yields are obtained from the limestone and alluvium of the south-central coastal plain, but the water there is generally of poor to only fair quality. In the East End area no water, or salty water, is obtained from wells.

  5. Arsenic in Illinois ground water : community and private supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.; Martin, Angel; Arnold, Terri L.

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the distribution of arsenic in ground water from community-water supplies, private supplies, or monitoring wells is part of the process of determining the risk of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Illinois. Lifestyle, genetic, and environmental factors make certain members of the population more susceptible to adverse health effects from repeated exposure to drinking water with high arsenic concentrations (Ryker, 2001). In addition, such factors may have geographic distribution patterns that complicate the analysis of the relation between arsenic in drinking water and health effects. For example, arsenic may not be the only constituent affecting the quality of drinking water in a region (Ryker, 2001); however, determining the extent and distribution of arsenic in ground water is a starting place to assess the potential risk for persons drinking from a community or private supply. Understanding the potential sources and pathways that mobilize arsenic in ground water is a necessary step in protecting the drinking-water supply in Illinois.

  6. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  7. Water supply studies. [management and planning of water supplies in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Churchman, C. W.; Thomas, R. W.; Lauer, D. T.; Hoos, I.; Krumpe, P. F.; Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    The primary test site for water supply investigations continues to be the Feather River watershed in northeastern California. This test site includes all of the area draining into and including the Oroville Reservoir. The principal effort is to determine the extent to which remote sensing techniques, when properly employed, can provide information useful to those persons concerned with the management and planning of lands and facilities for the production of water, using the Oroville Reservoir and the California Water Project as the focus for the study. In particular, emphasis is being placed on determining the cost effectiveness of information derived through remote sensing as compared with that currently being derived through more conventional means.

  8. Sources of emergency water supplies in Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    Water distribution systems in Santa Clara County, Calif., may be damaged and rendered inoperable by a large earthquake or other disaster. In such an event, individual agencies may have to implement emergency measures to supply water for drinking, firefighting, decontamination, or other purposes. In Santa Clara County, 128 wells have been identified as potential water-supply sources in emergencies. The criteria used to select the wells are: yield of at least 3 liters per second (50 gallons per minute), good water quality, ready accessibility, and available emergency power. Purification methods of small water supplies are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. EMERGENCY RESPONSE FOR PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES AFTER HURRICANE KATRINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hurricane Katrina resulted in damage and destruction to local water supplies in Mississippi and Louisiana affecting millions of people. Immediately following the devastation, a multidisciplinary team of 30 EPA emergency response, research, and water program personnel joined force...

  10. ANALYTICAL CAPABILITY - ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY LABORATORY (WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT BRANCH, WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of NRMRL's Water Supply and Water Resources Division's Isotope Hydrology Laboratory is to resolve environmental hydrology problems through research and application of naturally occurring isotopes.Analytical capabilities at IHL include light stable isotope radio mass...

  11. ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY LABORATORY (WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT BRANCH, WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of NRMRL's Water Supply and Water Resources Division's Isotope Hydrology Laboratory (IHL) is to resolve environmental hydrology problems through research and application of naturally occurring isotopes.The emergent field of isotope hydrology follows advances in anal...

  12. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  13. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  14. Performance measurement factors for water supply: A systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balfaqih, Hasan; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd

    2015-02-01

    To ensure that the water supply utilities achieve optimal performance, an appropriate track of performance on water supply services' operations and outcomes is fundamentally required. This could be accomplished by developing and implementing a performance analysis framework that is rigorously defined, and performance indicators which could assess significant measurement factors of water supply performance. Various frameworks have been proposed which provide structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index. However, few have been rigorously examined. The objective of this paper is to provide an elaborated review of water supply performance, performance indicators, benchmarked water supply organizations and verified implementations. This provides a survey of the available academic studies in the scope of an organized compilation. Every research domain in this framework is deliberated, including specifying the advantages and drawbacks of prior studies and future research trends.

  15. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Medrano, Ma Jose; Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Palau, Margarita; Damian, Javier; Ramis, Rebeca; Barrio, Jose Luis del; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-07-15

    water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 {mu}g/L.

  16. Asbestos in water supplies of the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Millette, J R; Clark, P J; Stober, J; Rosenthal, M

    1983-01-01

    The review of available data on the concentrations of asbestos in U.S. water supplies suggests that the majority of water consumers are not exposed to asbestos concentrations over 1 million fibers/Liter. A few populations, however, may be exposed to concentrations over 1 billion fibers/L. Of the 538 water supplies for which waterborne asbestos data are available, 8% have concentrations of fibers over 10 million fibers/L. The vast majority of asbestos fibers found in U.S. water supplies are under 5 micron in length. PMID:6662093

  17. STANDARDIZED COSTS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented within this report are cost data for construction and operation/maintenance of domestic water distribution and transmission pipelines, domestic water pumping stations, and domestic water storage reservoirs. ipeline cost data include costs for commonly utilized pipe mate...

  18. STANDARDIZED COSTS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented within the report are cost data for construction and operation/maintenance of domestic water distribution and transmission pipelines, domestic water pumping stations, and domestic water storage reservoirs. To allow comparison of new construction with rehabilitation of e...

  19. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... contaminated water source. 203.61 Section 203.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not be less than the following: Type of equipment Water in gallons (1) Cutting machines 36 (2... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water spray devices; capacity; water supply... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices...

  1. Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prairie, J. R.; Jerla, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Colorado River Basin Water Supply & Demand Study (Study), part of the Basin Study Program under the Department of the Interior's WaterSMART Program, is being conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation and agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States. The purpose of the Study is to assess future water supply and demand imbalances in the Colorado River Basin over the next 50 years and develop and evaluate options and strategies to resolve those imbalances. The Study is being conducted over the period from January 2010 to September 2012 and contains four major phases: Water Supply Assessment, Water Demand Assessment, System Reliability Analysis, and Development and Evaluation of Opportunities for balancing supply and demand. To address the considerable amount of uncertainty in projecting the future state of the Colorado River system, the Study has adopted a scenario planning approach that has resulted in four water supply scenarios and up to six water demand scenarios. The water supply scenarios consider hydrologic futures derived from the observed historical and paleo-reconstructed records as well as downscaled global climate model (GCM) projections. The water demand scenarios contain differing projections of parameters such as population growth, water use efficiency, irrigated acreage, and water use for energy that result in varying projections of future demand. Demand for outdoor municipal uses as well as agricultural uses were adjusted based on changing rates of evapotranspiration derived from downscaled GCM projections. Water supply and demand scenarios are combined through Reclamation's long-term planning model to project the effects of future supply and demand imbalances on Colorado River Basin resources. These projections lend to an assessment of the effectiveness of a broad range of options and strategies to address future imbalances.

  2. Ultraviolet disinfection of water for small water supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. A.; Seabloom, R. W.; Dewalle, F. B.; Wetzler, T. F.; Engeset, J.

    1985-07-01

    In the study ultraviolet radiation was considered as an alternative means of disinfection of small drinking water supplies. A major impetus for the study was the large increase in waterborne disease episodes in the United States whose etiologic agent, Giardia lamblia, was found to be highly resistant to conventional chlorination. While the germicidal effect of sunlight has long been known, it has been found that artificial UV radiation with a wavelength of 253.7 nm, can be produced by low pressure mercury vapor lamps. The inactivation of microorganisms by UV radiation is based upon photochemical reactions in DNA which result in errors in the coding system. Inactivation of microorganisms due to exposure to UV is proportional to the intensity multiplied by the time of exposure.

  3. Analysis of residual chlorine in simple drinking water distribution system with intermittent water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Roopali V.; Patel, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of residual chlorine concentration at various locations in drinking water distribution system is essential final check to the quality of water supplied to the consumers. This paper presents a methodology to find out the residual chlorine concentration at various locations in simple branch network by integrating the hydraulic and water quality model using first-order chlorine decay equation with booster chlorination nodes for intermittent water supply. The explicit equations are developed to compute the residual chlorine in network with a long distribution pipe line at critical nodes. These equations are applicable to Indian conditions where intermittent water supply is the most common system of water supply. It is observed that in intermittent water supply, the residual chlorine at farthest node is sensitive to water supply hours and travelling time of chlorine. Thus, the travelling time of chlorine can be considered to justify the requirement of booster chlorination for intermittent water supply.

  4. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  5. Monitoring systems for community water supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Brooks, R. R.; Jeffers, E. L.; Linton, A. T.; Poel, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    Water monitoring system includes equipment and techniques for waste water sampling sensors for determining levels of microorganisms, oxygen, chlorine, and many other important parameters. System includes data acquisition and display system that allows computation of water quality information for real time display.

  6. Modeling Integrated Water-User Decisions with Intermittent Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. R.; Rosenberg, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present an economic-engineering method to estimate urban water use demands with intermittent water supplies. A two-stage, probabilistic optimization formulation includes a wide variety of water supply enhancement and conservation actions that individual households can adopt to meet multiple water quality uses with uncertain water availability. We embed the optimization in Monte-Carlo simulations to show aggregate effects at a utility (citywide) scale for a population of user conditions and decisions. Parametric analysis provides derivations of supply curves to subsidize conservation, demand responses to alternative pricing, and customer willingness-to-pay to avoid shortages. Results show a good empirical fit for the average and distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Additional outputs give likely market penetration rates for household conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies required to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, market, and finance conservation programs and interpret a demand curve with block pricing.

  7. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed. PMID:19440440

  8. Drought-related impacts on municipal and major self-supplied industrial water withdrawals in Tennessee -- Part A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Frank M.; Keck, Lee A.; Conn, Lewis G.; Wentz, Stanley J.

    1984-01-01

    A state-wide water use survey was conducted of all public water suppliers and large, self-supplied industries in Tennessee. This report contains a summation of the data received from 463 public-water suppliers and 129 self-supplied water users. Analysis of the study results and findings indicate that many communities in Tennessee do experience occasional water supply, quantity-related shortages. A total of 142 problems were reported by 107 of the public water suppliers. However, only 22 of the problems were a result of inadequate source supply. Although only three industries reported a water shortage problem , 20 were identified as having a potential water-supply source problem. West Tennessee was the only section of the state where all communities and industries surveyed reported an adequate water supply. The effects of a drought on the environment--specifically, wetlands, fish wildlife, and recreational-users--are briefly described, although there was no evidence that water withdrawn by communities or industry would directly affect the environment. This study appears to verify the conclusions that an extended drought, although directly affecting the supply to some communities and industries, may actually affect water quality and wastewater treatment more accurately by decreasing the ability of the source to assimilate wastes. (USGS)

  9. Drought-related impacts on municipal and major self-supplied industrial water withdrawals in Tennessee -- Part B

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Frank M.; Keck, Lee A.; Conn, Lewis G.; Wentz, Stanley J.

    1984-01-01

    A state-wide water use survey was conducted of all public water suppliers and large, self-supplied industries in Tennessee. This report contains a summation of the data received from 463 public-water suppliers and 129 self-supplied water users. Analysis of the study results and findings indicate that many communities in Tennessee do experience occasional water supply, quantity-related shortages. A total of 142 problems were reported by 107 of the public water suppliers. However, only 22 of the problems were a result of inadequate source supply. Although only three industries reported a water shortage problem , 20 were identified as having a potential water-supply source problem. West Tennessee was the only section of the state where all communities and industries surveyed reported an adequate water supply. The effects of a drought on the environment--specifically, wetlands, fish wildlife, and recreational-users--are briefly described, although there was no evidence that water withdrawn by communities or industry would directly affect the environment. This study appears to verify the conclusions that an extended drought, although directly affecting the supply to some communities and industries, may actually affect water quality and wastewater treatment more accurately by decreasing the ability of the source to assimilate wastes. (USGS)

  10. Global analysis of urban surface water supply vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2014-10-01

    This study presents a global analysis of urban water supply vulnerability in 71 surface-water supplied cities, with populations exceeding 750 000 and lacking source water diversity. Vulnerability represents the failure of an urban supply-basin to simultaneously meet demands from human, environmental and agricultural users. We assess a baseline (2010) condition and a future scenario (2040) that considers increased demand from urban population growth and projected agricultural demand. We do not account for climate change, which can potentially exacerbate or reduce urban supply vulnerability. In 2010, 35% of large cities are vulnerable as they compete with agricultural users. By 2040, without additional measures 45% of cities are vulnerable due to increased agricultural and urban demands. Of the vulnerable cities in 2040, the majority are river-supplied with mean flows so low (1200 liters per person per day, l/p/d) that the cities experience ‘chronic water scarcity’ (1370 l/p/d). Reservoirs supply the majority of cities facing individual future threats, revealing that constructed storage potentially provides tenuous water security. In 2040, of the 32 vulnerable cities, 14 would reduce their vulnerability via reallocating water by reducing environmental flows, and 16 would similarly benefit by transferring water from irrigated agriculture. Approximately half remain vulnerable under either potential remedy.

  11. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as “Superfund” sites. A review of Superfund R...

  12. Flame Deflector Section, Elevation, Water Supply Flow Diagram, Exploded ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Flame Deflector - Section, Elevation, Water Supply Flow Diagram, Exploded Deflector Manifolds, and Interior Perspective - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  13. Considerations of the Skilled Manpower Needs for Water Supply Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Gregor

    1981-01-01

    General methods for determining skilled labor needs for water supply and wastewater treatment plant operation as applied in Turkey are outlined along with a model program for training personnel to meet these needs. (DC)

  14. TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR REMOVING RADON FROM SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and communities using groundwater supplies. resently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAG>, diffused bubble aeration, and packed ...

  15. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUNDSITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as "Superfund" sites. eview of Superfund Reco...

  16. Assessing the Vulnerability of Water Supply to Changing Streamflow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, Alireza (Ali); Wheater, Howard S.

    2014-08-01

    Natural streamflows are major water supplies globally and are sensitive to climate change. This has serious implications for water resource management: While changes in climate perturb water availability, human activities are developed around certain streamflow characteristics, such as flow seasonality and volume. Therefore, any shifts in streamflow regime can greatly affect human livelihoods.

  17. OCCURRENCE OF 'GIARDIA' IN CONNECTICUT WATER SUPPLIES AND WATERSHED ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objective of this research was to study the occurrence of Giardia in selected water supplies and watershed animals in Connecticut. Water samples were collected monthly using the E.P.A. approved Giardia sampling method at selected water utilities and analyzed for Giardia ...

  18. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... 411(a) of SMCRA may expend funds under §§ 872.16, 872.19, 872.23, and 872.31 of this chapter for...

  19. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... 411(a) of SMCRA may expend funds under §§ 872.16, 872.19, 872.23, and 872.31 of this chapter for...

  20. A summary view of water supply and demand in the San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, Saul E.

    1972-01-01

    This report presents a summary view of the water-supply situation in the nine counties that comprise the San Francisco Bay region, California, and thereby provides water data, based on 1970 conditions, that are needed for regional planning. For the purpose of this study the nine-county region has been divided into 15 subregions on the basis of hydrologic and economic considerations. Firm water supply is tabulated for each subregion by source--ground water, surface water, and imported water. Water demand in 1970 is tabulated for each subregion by type of use or demand--public supply, rural self-supply, irrigation, self-supplied industrial water and thermoelectric power generation. The San Francisco Bay region is dependent to a large degree on imported water. Under 1970 conditions of development, the firm water supply is 2.2 million acre-feet per year; of that quantity, almost 1 million acre-feet per year is imported water. The water demand in 1970 was 1.9 million acre-feet, about half of which was consumed. Under 1970 conditions of water development and use, a series of dry years would probably necessitate some curtailment of irrigation activities in four of the subregions, where the bulk of the demands i for irrigation water. Under those same conditions there is generally ample water for municipal and industrial use throughout the region, except in eastern Marin County where the firm municipal supple does not exceed the 1970 demand for municipal and industrial water. Although the firm water supply of the San Francisco Bay region, including imported water, is generally adequate to meet present needs, supplemental supply will be required to meet increased demand in the future. The expansion of existing surface-water facilities and the construction of new surface-water projects, now considered feasible, could provide a combined firm supplemental yield of slightly more than 1 million acre-feet per year, almost three-fourths of which would be available for import by

  1. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this project were to develop and test analytical methods that would allow the chemical form (i.e. valence state or compound) of arsenic in drinking waters to be determined, and to use the methods to analyze samples of drinking water from sources where adverse he...

  2. Dealing with uncertainty in modeling intermittent water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieb, A. M.; Rycroft, C.; Wilkening, J.

    2015-12-01

    Intermittency in urban water supply affects hundreds of millions of people in cities around the world, impacting water quality and infrastructure. Building on previous work to dynamically model the transient flows in water distribution networks undergoing frequent filling and emptying, we now consider the hydraulic implications of uncertain input data. Water distribution networks undergoing intermittent supply are often poorly mapped, and household metering frequently ranges from patchy to nonexistent. In the face of uncertain pipe material, pipe slope, network connectivity, and outflow, we investigate how uncertainty affects dynamical modeling results. We furthermore identify which parameters exert the greatest influence on uncertainty, helping to prioritize data collection.

  3. Water supply and demand in Sedgwick County, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bevans, Hugh E.

    1989-01-01

    Water supplies in Sedgwick County, Kansas, are derived from surface--and groundwater resources. During 1985, public supply, irrigation, and self-supplied industry required 38% of the 56 ,500 acre-ft of appropriated surface water and 57% of the 187 ,800 acre-ft of appropriated groundwater. If the historic (1920-80) annual population growth rate (2.8%) continues, the 126,100 acre ft of water appropriated for public-water supplies should meet demand until 2015. The quantity of potentially available water supplies was estimated by summing those resources having less than 1.00 mg/L dissolved solids. Surface water resources that meet this criterion are the Little Arkansas and Ninnescah Rivers and Cheney Reservoir. Subtracting legislated minimum streamflows for the rivers from their mean annual streamflow volumes leaves 532,000 acre-ft, which combined with the annual sustained yield of Cheney Reservoir (40,000 acre-ft) provides an estimated 572,000 acre-ft of surface water annually. Groundwater that meets the criterion was estimated by summing the annual precipitation recharge available to unconsolidated deposits in the county (78,400 acre-ft) and in the Harvey County part of the Wichita well field (13,000 acre-ft). Although more groundwater is available, withdrawals exceeding annual precipitation recharge would cause water level declines. Because less than 4% of the potentially available surface water was used for supplies in 1985 and because about 120% of the groundwater recharge was used, surface water resources have a greater potential for meeting future water use demands. (USGS)

  4. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  5. Bulawayo water supplies: Sustainable alternatives for the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkandla, Noel; Van der Zaag, Pieter; Sibanda, Peter

    Bulawayo is the second largest city in Zimbabwe with a population of nearly one million people. It is located on the watershed of Umzingwane and Gwayi catchments. The former is part of the Limpopo basin, while the latter drains into the Zambezi basin. Bulawayo has a good potential of economic development but has been stymied by lack of sufficient water. The city currently relies on five surface sources in the Umzingwane catchment where it has to compete with evaporation. The well field from the Nyamandlovu aquifer in the Gwayi catchment, which was constructed as an emergency measure during the 1992 drought, is currently not operational. Alternative water supply sources are far and expensive. A multilinear regression model was developed to analyse and quantify the factors affecting water consumption. It was found that per capita water consumption is very low, indicating suppressed demand. Water rationing, tariffs, rainfall, population growth and gross domestic product are the main factors influencing water consumption in Bulawayo. Assuming that these factors will continue to be influential, future water consumption was projected for intensive, regular and slack water demand management. Future water consumption was then compared with the current water supply capacity in order to determine the date by which the next water supply source is required. With slack demand management, the Nyamandlovu well field should have been operational by 2003, while by the year 2007 an additional source of water is required. With intensive demand management and assuming low population growth, current capacities may suffice to satisfy the suppressed demand until the year 2015, by which time Nyamandlovu wells should be operational again. The additional water supply sources that are currently being considered for Bulawayo (namely the Zambezi water pipeline; Gwayi Shangani dam; Mtshabezi dam; Lower Tuli dam; and Glass block dam) were then compared with an alternative water source not yet

  6. Incorporating public preferences in planning urban water supply reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Charles W.; Smith, Mark Griffin

    1993-10-01

    This study has two objectives: (1) to compare the attitudes of the water-using public, water officials, and elected officials toward the risk of water supply shortage; and (2) to develop a methodology for incorporating water users' valuation of reliability in system design. Using contingent valuation techniques, we have measured the benefits and costs of different reliability levels in terms of water users' willingness to pay (WTP) for increases in reliability and in terms of their willingness to accept (WTA) compensation in the form of lower water bills for lower levels of reliability. Three cities in northern Colorado with diverse baseline levels of water supply reliability (Aurora, Boulder, and Longmont) are the study sites. Contrary to our hypothesis that water managers are unjustifiably risk averse, we find that water managers' preferences are consistent with customer WTP (WTA) values associated with the risk of water shortages and the system costs associated with reliability. Water managers in Boulder (high reliability) were willing to consider reductions in the level of system reliability while water managers in Aurora and Longmont (low reliability) favored the status quo or increased reliability. While these attitudes were sometimes contrary to a majority of customers' expressed interests in change, they were shown to be justified by comparison of supply system costs (savings) with aggregate WTP for additional reliability (WTA for less reliability).

  7. Compliance Monitoring of Drinking Water Supplies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haukebo, Thomas; Bernius, Jean

    1977-01-01

    The most frequent testing required under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 is for turbidity and coliform. Free chlorine residual testing can be substituted for part of the coliform requirement. Described are chemical procedures for performing this test. References are given. (Author/MA)

  8. DRINKING WATER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT: AN INTERACTIVE APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In February 1977, a massive discharge of carbon tetrachloride into the Kanawha River in West Virginia threatened much of the Ohio River Valley with contaminated drinking water potentially affecting over one million consumers. The episode heightened the awareness of consumers and ...

  9. COST FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major challenge for the society in the twenty-first century will be design, rehabilitation, replacement, and optimal management of drinking water distribution systems. A recent survey conducted by the USEPA found that $138B will be needed to maintain and replace existing drinki...

  10. SUSTAINABLE WATER SUPPLY FOR LA GARRUCHA, GUATEMALA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The team was able to provide two options for water sources and two for treatment processes to the community. The source options were a spring and a lagoon, and the treatment options were a slow sand filter and a chlorination tank. During a site visit in January 2008, the commu...

  11. Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko

    2013-04-01

    Immediately after securing an endangered population, the first priority of aid workers following a disaster is the distribution of drinking water. Such emergency situations are reported from many parts of the world following regional chemical or nuclear pollution accidents, floods, droughts, rain-induced landslides, tsunami, and other extreme events. It is often difficult to organise a replacement water supply when regular water systems with short residence times are polluted, infiltrated or even flooded by natural or man-made disasters. They are either unusable or their restoration may take months or even years. Groundwater resources, proven safe and protected by the geological environment, with long residence times and the necessary infrastructure for their exploitation, would provide populations with timeous replacement of vulnerable water supply systems and make rescue activities more rapid and effective. Such resources have to be identified and investigated, as a substitute for affected drinking water supplies thereby eliminating or reducing the impact of their failure following catastrophic events. Even in many areas such water resources with long residence times in years or decades are difficult to find it should be known which water supply facilities in the region are matching these requirements to allow in emergency situation the transport of water in tankers to the affected regions to prevent epidemics, importing large quantities of bottled water. One should know the residence time of the water supply to have sufficient time to plan and install new safe water supply facilities. Development of such policy and strategy for human security - both long term and short term - is therefore needed to decrease the vulnerability of populations threatened by extreme events and water supplies with short residence times. Generally: The longer the residence time of groundwater in the aquifer, the lower its vulnerability. The most common and economic methods to estimate

  12. Sea water magnesium fuel cell power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Robert; Mainert, Jan; Glaw, Fabian; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-08-01

    An environmentally friendly magnesium fuel cell system using seawater electrolyte and atmospheric oxygen was tested under practical considerations for use as maritime power supply. The hydrogen rate and therefore the power density of the system were increased by a factor of two by using hydrogen evolution cathodes with a gas separation membrane instead of submerged cathodes without gas separation. Commercial magnesium AZ31 rolled sheet anodes can be dissolved in seawater for hydrogen production, down to a thickness below 100 μm thickness, resulting in hydrogen generation efficiency of the anode of over 80%. A practical specific energy/energy density of the alloy of more than 1200 Wh/kg/3000 Wh/l was achieved when coupled to a fuel cell with atmospheric air breathing cathode. The performance of several AZ31 alloy anodes was tested as well as the influence of temperature, electrolyte concentration and anode - cathode separation. The excess hydrogen produced by the magnesium hydrogen evolving cell, due to the negative difference effect, is proportional to the cell current in case of the AZ31 alloys, which simplifies system control considerably. Stable long-term operation of the system was demonstrated at low pressures which can be maintained in an open-seawater-submerged hydrogen generator.

  13. Alternatives for reducing nitrate in municipal water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Guter, G.A.; Kartinen, E.O. )

    1989-01-01

    A project to reduce nitrate levels in drinking water supplied to the community of McFarland, California is described. Intense irrigation of the surrounding area subjects the community to ground water pollution from agricultural chemicals and by products. Nitrates ranged from 40 to 100mg/L (as NO3) in water supplied from wells. Costs and operational data of a 1 mgd ion exchange plant are presented. Costs and data for a recently constructed 1 mgd plant are also reviewed. Data from other nitrate plants now under construction are presented. Future research involving the use of nitrate selective resins and waste brine recovery and recycling is reviewed.

  14. INPUT SUBSTITUTION AND DEMAND IN THE WATER SUPPLY PRODUCTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The structure of input demand for U.S. water utilities is analyzed by estimating a translog cost function. An important feature of the model includes the multiproduct specification of the water supply production process. Operating variables are also specified to include capacity ...

  15. EVOLUTION OF A REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was done to describe the development of a regional water supply system around the City of Dallas, Texas, and to summarize the issues surrounding the regionalization process. Data were gathered from written histories of Dallas, the City of Dallas Water Utilities Department...

  16. BENEFICIAL USE OF INDUSTRIAL STORMWATER RUNOFF: NONPOTABLE WATER SUPPLY PURPOSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As population and industry grow, water demand increases, and water supply becomes more of a problem. While reclamation of municipal wastewater for industry, subpotable domestic usage, and groundwater recharge has been practiced in the United States over the past several decades ...

  17. Volumetric Pricing of Agricultural Water Supplies: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Ronald C.; Perry, Gregory M.

    1985-07-01

    Models of water consumption by rice producers are conceptualized and then estimated using cross-sectional time series data obtained from 16 Texas canal operators for the years 1977-1982. Two alternative econometric models demonstrate that both volumetric and flat rate water charges are strongly and inversely related to agricultural water consumption. Nonprice conservation incentives accompanying flat rates are hypothesized to explain the negative correlation of flat rate charges and water consumption. Application of these results suggests that water supply organizations in the sample population converting to volumetric pricing will generally reduce water consumption.

  18. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY SOURCE WATER ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    BENNETT,D.B.; PAQUETTE,D.E.; KLAUS,K.; DORSCH,W.R.

    2000-12-18

    The BNL water supply system meets all water quality standards and has sufficient pumping and storage capacity to meet current and anticipated future operational demands. Because BNL's water supply is drawn from the shallow Upper Glacial aquifer, BNL's source water is susceptible to contamination. The quality of the water supply is being protected through (1) a comprehensive program of engineered and operational controls of existing aquifer contamination and potential sources of new contamination, (2) groundwater monitoring, and (3) potable water treatment. The BNL Source Water Assessment found that the source water for BNL's Western Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 4, 6, and 7) has relatively few threats of contamination and identified potential sources are already being carefully managed. The source water for BNL's Eastern Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 10, 11, and 12) has a moderate number of threats to water quality, primarily from several existing volatile organic compound and tritium plumes. The g-2 Tritium Plume and portions of the Operable Unit III VOC plume fall within the delineated source water area for the Eastern Well Field. In addition, portions of the much slower migrating strontium-90 plumes associated with the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, Waste Concentration Facility and Building 650 lie within the Eastern source water area. However, the rate of travel in the aquifer for strontium-90 is about one-twentieth of that for tritium and volatile organic compounds. The Laboratory has been carefully monitoring plume migration, and has made adjustments to water supply operations. Although a number of BNL's water supply wells were impacted by VOC contamination in the late 1980s, recent routine analysis of water samples from BNL's supply wells indicate that no drinking water standards have been reached or exceeded. The high quality of the water supply strongly indicates that the operational and engineered controls implemented over the past

  19. Pressure: the politechnics of water supply in Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Anand, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    In Mumbai, most all residents are delivered their daily supply of water for a few hours every day, on a water supply schedule. Subject to a more precarious supply than the city's upper-class residents, the city's settlers have to consistently demand that their water come on “time” and with “pressure.” Taking pressure seriously as both a social and natural force, in this article I focus on the ways in which settlers mobilize the pressures of politics, pumps, and pipes to get water. I show how these practices not only allow settlers to live in the city, but also produce what I call hydraulic citizenship—a form of belonging to the city made by effective political and technical connections to the city's infrastructure. Yet, not all settlers are able to get water from the city water department. The outcomes of settlers' efforts to access water depend on a complex matrix of socionatural relations that settlers make with city engineers and their hydraulic infrastructure. I show how these arrangements describe and produce the cultural politics of water in Mumbai. By focusing on the ways in which residents in a predominantly Muslim settlement draw water despite the state's neglect, I conclude by pointing to the indeterminacy of water, and the ways in which its seepage and leakage make different kinds of politics and publics possible in the city. PMID:22171410

  20. Low-cost water supplies and their contribution to health.

    PubMed

    Watts, R

    1992-11-01

    The importance of low cost water supplies and sanitation facilities is heightened in drought conditions such as occurred in Zimbabwe during 1991-92. A summary of water and toilet systems is given. Zimbabwe must recognize that it is a dry country and adopt water and sanitation services appropriate to the climate. Since 1980, 10,000 water sources have been protected. The Blair Latrine has been installed in 300,000 locations and uses little or no flush system, is odorless, free of insects, and doubles as a bathroom. The target is to install 1.4 million Blair toilets, 576 piped water supplies, and 36,000 primary water supplies between 1985-2005. When piped water supplies are used in conjunction with the Blair toilet, a tank replaces the soil-lined pit. A Harare based company is currently manufacturing a 1-liter flush toilet instead of a 10-liter one. The Vonder Rig is another technological improvement being tested by the Blair Research Institute, which is effective in drilling through soils and rocky areas in the Epworth area which has a high water table. However, Epworth water supplies were installed in just a few homes; wells currently in use are placed too close to pit latrines and are dry due to the drought. Save the Children Fund (SCF) has been involved with rural water programs, but finds hauling water to rural areas too expensive. People must move into the city with friends and relatives. A SCF engineer has upgraded and dug 1000 wells in the past year, and finds that the Vonder Rig is suitable only where the water is near the surface and soil conditions are right. The SCF has improved existing wells by reinforcing the well lining and headworks and adding a long-lasting windlass plus an apron and cover for prevention of contamination. The SCF develops ways of obtaining water through rural participation. Africare, a US nongovernmental organization, prefers digging boreholes and has completed 800 at a cost of $10 million. However, boreholes dry out, suffer

  1. Renewable energy water supply - Mexico program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a program directed by the US Agency for International Development and Sandia National Laboratory which installed sustainable energy sources in the form of photovoltaic modules and wind energy systems in rural Mexico to pump water and provide solar distillation services. The paper describes the guidelines which appeared most responsible for success as: promote an integrated development program; install quality systems that develop confidence; instill local project ownership; train local industry and project developers; develop a local maintenance infrastructure; provide users training and operations guide; develop clear lines of responsibilities for system upkeep. The paper emphasizes the importance of training. It also presents much collected data as to the characteristics and performance of the installed systems.

  2. Method for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, Kirk J.; Barrie, Scott L.; Buttner, William J.

    1999-01-01

    A system for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies. A sampling unit is employed which includes a housing having at least one opening therein and a tubular member positioned within the housing having a central passageway surrounded by a side wall. The side wall is made of a composition designed to absorb the contaminants. In use, the sampling unit is immersed in a water supply. The water supply contacts the tubular member through the opening in the housing, with any contaminants being absorbed into the side wall of the tubular member. A carrier gas is then passed through the central passageway of the tubular member. The contaminants will diffuse out of the side wall and into the central passageway where they will subsequently combine with the carrier gas, thereby yielding a gaseous product. The gaseous product is then analyzed to determine the amount and type of contaminants therein.

  3. Method for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, K.J.; Barrie, S.L.; Buttner, W.J.

    1999-08-24

    A system is described for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies. A sampling unit is employed which includes a housing having at least one opening therein and a tubular member positioned within the housing having a central passageway surrounded by a side wall. The side wall is made of a composition designed to absorb the contaminants. In use, the sampling unit is immersed in a water supply. The water supply contacts the tubular member through the opening in the housing, with any contaminants being absorbed into the side wall of the tubular member. A carrier gas is then passed through the central passageway of the tubular member. The contaminants will diffuse out of the side wall and into the central passageway where they will subsequently combine with the carrier gas, thereby yielding a gaseous product. The gaseous product is then analyzed to determine the amount and type of contaminants therein. 5 figs.

  4. Mapping Climate Change Vulnerability Distribution of Water Resources in a Regional Water Supply System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Tung, C.; Li, M.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, the threat of increasing frequency of extreme weather rise up human attention on climate change. It is important to know how climate change might effect regional water resources, however, there is not much information to help government understanding how climate change will effect the water resources locally. To a regional water supply system, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable to climate. For example, the water supply of some area is from the water of river. When the storm occurred, the water can't be treated due to high density of suspended sediment in the river. Then the water supply in this area is more vulnerable to climate. This study used an integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources, which includes 10 GCMs output of SRES A2, A1B, B2 scenarios, weather generator, GWLF model, and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) tool. A water supply system is very complex which needs dynamic modeling to determine the vulnerability distribution. This study used a system dynamics model- VENSIM connected with TaiWAP to simulate a water supply system and evaluate vulnerability of each unit in a water supply system. The vulnerable hotspots will be indicated in the system and the adaptive strategies will be applied to strengthen the local vulnerable area. The adaptive capacity will be enhanced to mitigate climate change impacts on water supply system locally to achieve sustainable water uses.

  5. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply...

  6. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply...

  7. Optimization of urban water supply portfolios combining infrastructure capacity expansion and water use decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Fraga, C. C. S.; Marques, G.; Mendes, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion and operation of urban water supply systems under rapidly growing demands, hydrologic uncertainty, and scarce water supplies requires a strategic combination of various supply sources for added reliability, reduced costs and improved operational flexibility. The design and operation of such portfolio of water supply sources merits decisions of what and when to expand, and how much to use of each available sources accounting for interest rates, economies of scale and hydrologic variability. The present research provides a framework and an integrated methodology that optimizes the expansion of various water supply alternatives using dynamic programming and combining both short term and long term optimization of water use and simulation of water allocation. A case study in Bahia Do Rio Dos Sinos in Southern Brazil is presented. The framework couples an optimization model with quadratic programming model in GAMS with WEAP, a rain runoff simulation models that hosts the water supply infrastructure features and hydrologic conditions. Results allow (a) identification of trade offs between cost and reliability of different expansion paths and water use decisions and (b) evaluation of potential gains by reducing water system losses as a portfolio component. The latter is critical in several developing countries where water supply system losses are high and often neglected in favor of more system expansion. Results also highlight the potential of various water supply alternatives including, conservation, groundwater, and infrastructural enhancements over time. The framework proves its usefulness for planning its transferability to similarly urbanized systems.

  8. Potable water supply in U.S. manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Straub, John E., II

    1992-01-01

    A historical review of potable water supply systems used in the U.S. manned flight program is presented. This review provides a general understanding of the unusual challenges these systems have presented to the designers and operators of the related flight hardware. The presentation concludes with the projection of how water supply should be provided in future space missions - extended duration earth-orbital and interplanetary missions and lunar and Mars habitation bases - and the challenges to the biomedical community that providing these systems can present.

  9. Concentration and size of asbestos in water supplies.

    PubMed Central

    Millette, J R; Clark, P J; Pansing, M F; Twyman, J D

    1980-01-01

    A review of the results of over 1500 asbestos analyses from U.S. water supplies suggests that the majority of water consumers are not exposed to asbestos concentrations in their drinking water over 1 x 10(6) fibers per liter. There are, however, some populations that are exposed to waterborne asbestos concentrations over 10 x 10(6) fibers per liter caused by natural erosion, mine processing wastes, waste pile erosion, corrosion of asbestos cement pipe, or disintegration of asbestos tile roofs running into cisterns. The distribution of fiber sizes in the water is dependent on the source of the fibers. The average length of chrysotile fibers found in an asbestos cement distribution system was 4 micrometers, while the average fiber length of chrysotile fibers contributed to a water supply by natural erosion was 1 micrometer. PMID:7389681

  10. Bacteriological examination of the water supply on an Antarctic base.

    PubMed Central

    Harker, C.

    1989-01-01

    Faraday Base represents a small isolated community producing its own domestic water by desalination of sea water. During the Antarctic winter of 1986 (April to October), regular bacteriological examination of the water supply and surrounding sea took place. Samples were collected and examined every 2 weeks by the methods described in the Department of Health and Social Security Report No. 71, on the Bacteriological Examination of Drinking Water Supplies (DHSS, 1982), for membrane filtration and colony counting. The results of these examinations are presented in this paper. The results obtained suggest that water of good bacteriological quality was produced by the desalination plant, but some samples from the distribution system contained coliforms or presumptive Escherichia coli in small numbers. The possible reasons for this low-level contamination are discussed. No cases of gastroenteritis occurred on the base during this time. PMID:2645151

  11. Predicting Trihalomethanes (THMs) in the New York City Water Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundan, R.; Van Dreason, R.

    2013-12-01

    Chlorine, a commonly used disinfectant in most water supply systems, can combine with organic carbon to form disinfectant byproducts including carcinogenic trihalomethanes (THMs). We used water quality data from 24 monitoring sites within the New York City (NYC) water supply distribution system, measured between January 2009 and April 2012, to develop site-specific empirical models for predicting total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels. Terms in the model included various combinations of the following water quality parameters: total organic carbon, pH, specific conductivity, and water temperature. Reasonable estimates of TTHM levels were achieved with overall R2 of about 0.87 and predicted values within 5 μg/L of measured values. The relative importance of factors affecting TTHM formation was estimated by ranking the model regression coefficients. Site-specific models showed improved model performance statistics compared to a single model for the entire system most likely because the single model did not consider locational differences in the water treatment process. Although never out of compliance in 2011, the TTHM levels in the water supply increased following tropical storms Irene and Lee with 45% of the samples exceeding the 80 μg/L Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) in October and November. This increase was explained by changes in water quality parameters, particularly by the increase in total organic carbon concentration and pH during this period.

  12. Sodium Content of Community Water Supplies in California

    PubMed Central

    Steinkamp, Ruth C.; Young, Clarence L.; Nyhus, Dolores; Greenberg, Arnold E.

    1968-01-01

    The amount of sodium ion in water used for ingestion may be critical in effective use of a low sodium dietary regimen. Waters containing not over 20 mg of sodium per liter are provided for in the sodium restricted diets set forth by the American Heart Association. For diets containing more than 500 mg of sodium a day, waters of greater sodium content may be used if proper dietary adjustments are made. While assessment of the long-term average sodium content of a community water supply is difficult, the determined values for sodium lend to classification within range categories. The larger community water supplies in California are presented within several range categories of sodium content. The more commonly used water softeners add sodium to water. The sodium-restricted patient should be cautioned against their use. Similar consideration should probably be given to water supplies of retirement communities where the potential for disorders requiring sodium restriction is greater than in the general population. PMID:5673988

  13. Hydroeconomic optimization of integrated water management and transfers under stochastic surface water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tingju; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Lund, Jay R.

    2015-05-01

    Efficient reallocation and conjunctive operation of existing water supplies is gaining importance as demands grow, competitions among users intensify, and new supplies become more costly. This paper analyzes the roles and benefits of conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and market-based water transfers in an integrated regional water system where agricultural and urban water users coordinate supply and demand management based on supply reliability and economic values of water. Agricultural users optimize land and water use for annual and perennial crops to maximize farm income, while urban users choose short-term and long-term water conservation actions to maintain reliability and minimize costs. The temporal order of these decisions is represented in a two-stage optimization that maximizes the net expected benefits of crop production, urban conservation and water management including conjunctive use and water transfers. Long-term decisions are in the first stage and short-term decisions are in a second stage based on probabilities of water availability events. Analytical and numerical analyses are made. Results show that conjunctive use and water transfers can substantially stabilize farmer's income and reduce system costs by reducing expensive urban water conservation or construction. Water transfers can equalize marginal values of water across users, while conjunctive use minimizes water marginal value differences in time. Model results are useful for exploring the integration of different water demands and supplies through water transfers, conjunctive use, and conservation, providing valuable insights for improving system management.

  14. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1987: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Stoker, A.K.; Maes, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    Municipal and industrial water supply during 1987 was 1594 /times/ 10W gal from wells in three fields and 34 /times/ 10W gal from the spring gallery in Water Canyon. About 2.8 /times/ 10W gal of nonpotable water from the Guaje Reservoir and 3.2 /times/ 10W gal from the Los Alamos Reservoir were used for irrigation; thus, the total water usage in 1987 was about 1634 /times/ 10W gal. Water supply was satisfactory in that the production met demand and water quality in the distribution system was in compliance with state and federal regulations. However, in 1987 two wells were lost because of deterioration of the casing and screen. In spite of rehabilitation attempts to maintain the yield, production from the older wells continued to decline. A comprehensive evaluation of the wells and well fields made in late 1987 concluded that replacement wells and new wells were needed soon to ensure a reliable water supply for the Laboratory and the county of Los Alamos. 25 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. The development of community water supplies in Ghana.

    PubMed

    FERGUSON, W R

    1962-01-01

    Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives. PMID:13892347

  16. The development of community water supplies in Ghana*

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, W. R. W.

    1962-01-01

    Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives. PMID:13892347

  17. Public water supply and distribution at the FEMP

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, C.

    1997-10-01

    On February 17th, 1996, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), a former Department of Energy uranium processing facility near the rural town of Fernald, Ohio, became a ``user`` instead of a ``producer``, of potable water by tying into the Cincinnati Water Works new Public Water Supply System. This satisfied the future site needs of potable water and nullified the need to follow the sampling requirements set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Safe Drinking Water Act for potable water producers. This transformation into a customer also reduced the long water transmission time from the Cincinnati Water Works station to the small community that would have occurred without a large user such as the FEMP being on line.

  18. Dependable water supplies from valley alluvium in arid regions.

    PubMed

    Van Haveren, Bruce P

    2004-12-01

    Reliable sources of high-quality water for domestic use are much needed in arid regions. Valley alluvium, coarse sand and gravel deposited by streams and rivers, provides an ideal storage medium for water in many regions of the world. However, river sediments will not accumulate in a valley without a natural or artificial barrier to slow the water. Sediments will deposit upstream of a barrier dam and form an alluvial deposit of relatively well-sorted material. The alluvium then acts as both an underground water-supply reservoir and a water filter, yielding a constant flow of high-quality water. Trap dams that store water in alluvial sediments and slowly release the filtered water represent an appropriate and inexpensive technology for combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought at the community level. Small trap dams may be built as a community project using local materials and local labor. PMID:15641388

  19. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  20. Contamination of piped medical gas supply with water.

    PubMed

    Hay, H

    2000-08-01

    The failure of anaesthetic equipment as a result of maintenance is extremely rare. The ingress of water into the flowmeters of an anaesthetic machine from the piped medical air supply is reported and is possibly unique. The piped medical air supply was open to the atmosphere during maintenance. Water condensed in the gas pipeline and this was not noticed during subsequent testing. Water was seen leaking from the orthopaedic air tools used for surgery but was assumed to be from the autoclaving process. Later the same day, when medical air from the piped source was used as part of the gas mixture for a general anaesthetic, water was seen filling the barrel of the flowmeter air control valve. This could have had far-reaching and dangerous consequences for the patient, which were fortunately averted. PMID:10998035

  1. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1985: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Becker, N.M.; Maes, M.N.

    1986-10-01

    Well field operations during 1985 were satisfactory with municipal and industrial supplies consisting of 1587 x 10/sup 6/ gal from wells in three well fields and 37 x 10/sup 6/ gal from the gallery in Water Canyon. About 2.8 x 10/sup 6/ gal of water from Guaje Reservoir and 0.9 x 10/sup 6/ gal from Los Alamos Reservoir were used for irrigation; thus the total water usage in 1985 was about 1628 x 10/sup 6/ gal. Primary and secondary chemical quality of water in the distribution system is in compliance with federal regulations.

  2. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 1977, the project shall remain eligible, notwithstanding the criteria specified in 30 CFR 874.12(b), if... project shall remain eligible, notwithstanding the criteria specified in 30 CFR 874.12(b), if the State or... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section...

  3. Western U.S. Water Supply Forecasting: A Tradition Evolves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Thomas; Wood, Andrew; Werner, Kevin; Tama-Sweet, Rashawn

    2014-01-01

    Since 2011, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and three major river forecasting centers of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) have discontinued a long-standing practice of publishing consensus water supply forecasts in western U.S. river basins.

  4. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies. 230.50 Section 230.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics...

  5. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  6. Determining the Utility Value of Water-Supply Interconnections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, James L.; Cheremisinoff, Paul N.

    1979-01-01

    This article is the third in a series which discusses a mathematical methodology for evaluating interconnections of water supply systems. The model can be used to analyze the carrying capacity of proposed links or predict the impact of abandoning interconnections. (AS)

  7. NITRATE REMOVAL FROM WATER SUPPLIES BY ION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anion exchange using synthetic organic resins is a proven and practical technology for the removal of nitrate from water supplies. However, disposal of the spent regenerant brine solution containing nitrate is a potential problem. Two processes were examined in detail in this rep...

  8. NITRATE REMOVAL FROM WATER SUPPLIES BY ION EXCHANGE - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anion exchange using synthetic organic resins is a proven and practical technology for the removal of nitrate from water supplies. However, disposal of the spent regenerant brime solution containing nitrate is a potential problem. Two processes were examined in detail in this rep...

  9. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 1977, the project shall remain eligible, notwithstanding the criteria specified in 30 CFR 874.12(b), if... project shall remain eligible, notwithstanding the criteria specified in 30 CFR 874.12(b), if the State or... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section...

  10. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) with a Pitot tube pressure of at least 15 p.s.i. at all heads (approximately 20 GPM per head). There... water from the two highest fire hose outlets in a manner similar to that described in § 76.10-5(c... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section...

  11. COMMUNITY WATER QUALITY INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR A NEW AND SUSTAINABLE WATER SUPPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clearwater Renewable Resource Facility. The Clearwater facility will provide a carefully selected blend of recharged Colorado River water and groundwater to the community beginning in 2001, thereby providing a renewable drinking water supply, lessening dependence on Tucson's p...

  12. Vulnerability Assessment of Water Supply Systems: Status, Gaps and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional frameworks for assessing the impacts of climate change on water resource systems use cascades of climate and hydrological models to provide 'top-down' projections of future water availability, but these are subject to high uncertainty and are model and scenario-specific. Hence there has been recent interest in 'bottom-up' frameworks, which aim to evaluate system vulnerability to change in the context of possible future climate and/or hydrological conditions. Such vulnerability assessments are generic, and can be combined with updated information from top-down assessments as they become available. While some vulnerability methods use hydrological models to estimate water availability, fully bottom-up schemes have recently been proposed that directly map system vulnerability as a function of feasible changes in water supply characteristics. These use stochastic algorithms, based on reconstruction or reshuffling methods, by which multiple water supply realizations can be generated under feasible ranges of change in water supply conditions. The paper reports recent successes, and points to areas of future improvement. Advances in stochastic modeling and optimization can address some technical limitations in flow reconstruction, while various data mining and system identification techniques can provide possibilities to better condition realizations for consistency with top-down scenarios. Finally, we show that probabilistic and Bayesian frameworks together can provide a potential basis to combine information obtained from fully bottom-up analyses with projections available from climate and/or hydrological models in a fully integrated risk assessment framework for deep uncertainty.

  13. Isotopic Fingerprint for Phosphorus in Drinking Water Supplies.

    PubMed

    Gooddy, Daren C; Lapworth, Dan J; Ascott, Matthew J; Bennett, Sarah A; Heaton, Timothy H E; Surridge, Ben W J

    2015-08-01

    Phosphate dosing of drinking water supplies, coupled with leakage from distribution networks, represents a significant input of phosphorus to the environment. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate (δ(18)OPO4), a novel stable isotope tracer for phosphorus, offers new opportunities to understand the importance of phosphorus derived from sources such as drinking water. We report the first assessment of δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies. A total of 40 samples from phosphate-dosed distribution networks were analyzed from across England and Wales. In addition, samples of the source orthophosphoric acid used for dosing were also analyzed. Two distinct isotopic signatures for drinking water were identified (average = +13.2 or +19.7‰), primarily determined by δ(18)OPO4 of the source acid (average = +12.4 or +19.7‰). Dependent upon the source acid used, drinking water δ(18)OPO4 appears isotopically distinct from a number of other phosphorus sources. Isotopic offsets from the source acid ranging from -0.9 to +2.8‰ were observed. There was little evidence that equilibrium isotope fractionation dominated within the networks, with offsets from temperature-dependent equilibrium ranging from -4.8 to +4.2‰. While partial equilibrium fractionation may have occurred, kinetic effects associated with microbial uptake of phosphorus or abiotic sorption and dissolution reactions may also contribute to δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies. PMID:26042958

  14. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source. 203.61 Section 203.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Emergency Water...

  15. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute. (USGS)

  16. Epidemic giardiasis caused by a contaminated public water supply.

    PubMed

    Kent, G P; Greenspan, J R; Herndon, J L; Mofenson, L M; Harris, J A; Eng, T R; Waskin, H A

    1988-02-01

    In the period November 1, 1985 to January 31, 1986, 703 cases of giardiasis were reported in Pittsfield, Massachusetts (population 50,265). The community obtained its water from two main reservoirs (A and B) and an auxiliary reservoir (C). Potable water was chlorinated but not filtered. The incidence of illness peaked approximately two weeks after the city began obtaining a major portion of its water from reservoir C, which had not been used for three years. The attack rate of giardiasis for residents of areas supplied by reservoir C was 14.3/1000, compared with 7.0/1000 in areas that received no water from reservoir C. A case-control study showed that persons with giardiasis were more likely to be older and to have drunk more municipal water than household controls. A community telephone survey indicated that over 3,800 people could have had diarrhea that might have been caused by Giardia, and 95 per cent of households were either using alternate sources of drinking water or boiling municipal water. Environmental studies identified Giardia cysts in the water of reservoir C. Cysts were also detected in the two other reservoirs supplying the city, but at lower concentrations. This investigation highlights the risk of giardiasis associated with unfiltered surface water systems. PMID:3276234

  17. Adapting military field water supplies to the asymmetric battlefield.

    PubMed

    Lundquist, Arthur H; White, George H; Bonilla, Alejandro; Richards, Todd E; Richards, Stephen C

    2011-01-01

    Army transformation to a brigade-centric force has created a distributed battlefield, challenging the surveillance and logistical supply of field water. The daily requirement of up to 15 gal of potable water per person per day from bulk water supplies has been achievable for many years using currently fielded ROWPUs. However, the need to reduce the transport of water and move towards a sustainable force has created a gap in materiel capable of producing safe water at the individual and unit level. While materiel development is slow, the PM community, tasked with doctrine development and battlefield oversight of field water, is beginning to address the requirements of field water on the changed battlefield. In addition to materiel gaps, the transformed battlefield has created a lack of trained personnel for water production and oversight. Without trained operators and PM oversight, to what level of health risk are consumers of this water exposing themselves? Currently PM is unable to answer this question but is working diligently with the RDT&E community to develop materiel solutions, and with the medical community to provide interim guidance to reduce the potential health risks to using such equipment. PMID:21805456

  18. Ground-water supplies in the Murfreesboro area, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert; Moran, Mary S.; Woods, E. Jean

    1977-01-01

    Ground water occurs in the Murfreesboro area in solution openings in the otherwise dense paleozoic limestones that underlie most of central Tennessee. Test drilling based on conceptual models of ground-water occurrence in carbonate-rock aquifers indicate that multimillion-gallon-per-day supplies could be developed from strategically located production wells in the Shiloh and Overall Creek localities. The Shiloh locality which encompasses an elongated synclinal depression in the bedrock has the potential to supply 5 to 8 million gallons per day. The Overall Creek locality which straddles a joint-oriented lineament has the potential to supply 3 to 6 million gallons per day. Some local springs could be used as a supplemental source of potable water, but storage facilities would be needed to offset poorly sustained flows during dry periods. An exception is Fox Camp Spring which appears to be a natural well. The quality of ground water in the Murfreesboro area is typically hard, moderately mineralized and moderately to highly alkaline. Although the shallowest aquifers are subject to bacterial contamination from the land surface, aquifers beneath a depth of 100 feet are prone to yield potable water. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. An inexact-stochastic dual water supply programming model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. H.; Zhang, H. W.; Chen, B.; Guo, H. C.; Chen, G. Q.; Zhao, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces an inexact-stochastic dual water supply programming (ISDWSP) model based on analysis of the inexact characteristics in demand and supply subsystems of dual water supply system and their dynamic interactions. The model is based on an inexact chance-constrained programming (ICCP) method allowing both distribution information in B (right parameter in the model constrain) and uncertainties in A (left parameter in the model constrain) and C (parameter in the model function) with objective of maximizing economic return, and constrained to available water resource, economical, environmental and social constrains. The decision-making variables of ISDWSP model are water demanded amount by different sectors and waterworks building scale. In the solution process, the ISDWSP is transformed into two deterministic sub-models, which correspond to the upper and lower bounds of the objective function, and the reasonable interval solution set in the given decision space can be obtained by solving the two sub-models. Thus, decision alternatives can be obtained by adjusting decision variable values within their solution intervals and will be useful for decision makers to choose the projected applicable conditions considering tradeoffs between eco-environmental and economic objectives. The model is also applied in a new developing zone of North China with the results of the case study providing reasonable solutions for dynamic planning of different source water (DSW) allocation in a regional system. Finally, waterworks building plan is generated based on the projected applicable conditions.

  20. Fluoride occurrence in publicly supplied drinking water in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karro, Enn; Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Haamer, Kadri; Marandi, Andres

    2006-06-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the content and spatial distribution of fluoride in drinking water. Water samples (735) from public water systems covering all Estonian territory were analysed using SPADNS method. In order to specify the natural source of fluoride, the chemistry data from five aquifer systems utilised for water supply were included into the study. Fluoride concentrations in tap water, to a great extent, ranged from 0.01 to 6.95 mg/l. Drinking water in southern Estonia, where terrigenous Middle-Devonian aquifer system is exploited, has a fluoride concentration lower than recommended level (0.5 mg/l), thus promoting susceptibility to dental caries. The western part of the country is supplied by water with excess fluoride content (1.5-6.9 mg/l). Groundwater abstracted for drinking purposes originates from Ordovician and Silurian carbonate rocks. The content of fluoride in Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is associated with the groundwater abstraction depth and the main controlling factors of dissolved fluoride are the pH value and the chemical type of water.

  1. Environment and health: environmental sanitation and community water supply.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies important features of two 5-Year Plans in India. Currently, only about 200 cities have even a partial sewage system. Elementary sewage systems are nonexistent in rural villages. In 1990, under 5% of rural population had access to sanitary facilities. The result is widespread soil and water pollution and its accompanying disease. The Rural Water Supply Program was proposed in the 5th Plan, but was implemented in the 7th Plan (1985-90). Construction of latrines is still too low. Resources were insufficiently mobilized for latrine construction. An alternative would be to institute cost recovery and user pays principles. Low cost technology could be substituted. Low cost latrine systems should conform with users' social habits, local culture, and the customs of the community. The system should be affordable to users. The technology should be user-friendly and rely on use of local materials and workers. Over 90% of the population rely on community water supply facilities. Health has not benefited from the access to water supplies. The reasons are low hygienic standards, lack of water quality surveillance, and poor maintenance of equipment. The community does not participate. By 1996, people's access to water was reduced to 1 km in the plains, and 50 m in hilly areas. Surface waters are contaminated by fecal matter, fluoride, nitrate, and arsenic. The Water Quality Surveillance Program lacks an institutional framework and human resource development. There is a need for education about hygiene, unsafe drinking water, and poor sanitation for people and agency staff. PMID:12293893

  2. Water-soluble pesticides in finished water of community water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coupe, R.H.; Blomquist, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Although considerable data have been published on the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in surface water, there is little information from full-scale studies on how pesticides in source water are affected by the treatment process. In this pilot study, source water and finished (treated) water samples were collected from 12 community water systems (CWSs) across the United States and analyzed for water-soluble pesticides. The facilities were selected in part because they relied on surface water as their source water and their supplies were considered vulnerable to pesticide contamination. A treatment plant's, ability to remove or degrade a pesticide has been shown to be dependent on numerous variables, including surface water characteristics, pH, oxidant type, contact time, and operational procedures. Among the 12 CWSs tracked by this research, the treatment processes effectiveness varied significantly. Although some pesticides in the source water were removed by treatment, others passed through the treatment process and into the distribution system. Future study is needed to examine exactly how the treatment process within each of the participating systems affected pesticide concentration. None of the pesticides, analyzed in this research were found at concentrations above standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency for treated water. However, this work should serve as a wake-up call for treatment personnel and facility managers: If their source water is contaminated with pesticides, then the treatment process may not be completely effective at removing these pesticides from the water. - MPM.

  3. BOTTLED WATER: MICROBIAL QUALITY OF ALTERNATIVE WATER SUPPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bottled water, in general, is an excellent source of drinking water, but is subject to contamination if not properly protected at the source, during bottling operations, transit to retail outlets and storage at home. hese facts dictate a need for a uniform national policy to moni...

  4. Hydropower and water supply: competing water uses under a future drier climate modeling scenarios for the Tagus River basin, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre Diogo, Paulo; Nunes, João Pedro; Carmona Rodrigues, António; João Cruz, Maria; Grosso, Nuno

    2014-05-01

    drought periods, probably more acute by the year 2100 and in scenario A2. As a result, a decrease in inflows to the Castelo de Bode reservoir between 20 to 34% is expected, with emphasis in autumn. While for the near-term scenarios this is mostly due to a decrease in median annual inflow; for the long-term scenarios this is accompanied by lower inter-annual variability and a decrease of magnitude of wet year inflows. Associated with increased precipitation erosion potential, watershed sediment transport will probably tend to increase, enhancing phosphorous transport into surface water and thus contributing to potential eutrophication problems. However, modeling results do not indicate compromising water quality degradation. Decreased reservoir inflows should nevertheless be sufficient to sustain water supply, considering an average annual consumption of 160 hm3 y-1 and the legal prioritization of water supply over hydropower production, as worst case average annual inflows scenarios are estimated between 1 000 and 1 500 hm3 y-1. On the other hand, considering that hydropower comprises downstream releases averaging 1 400 hm3 y-1, restrictions to energy production will probably be required to compensate lower inflow periods and guaranty necessary water supply storage volumes. The presented modeling framework provided an adequate tool for assessing climate change impacts on water resources, demonstrating that climate scenarios are not likely to threaten Lisbon's water supply system but emphasizing the need for adequate reservoir management strategies contemplating the risk of competitive water uses in the Castelo de Bode reservoir.

  5. Providing Data and Modeling to Help Manage Water Supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    The Sonoma County Water Agency (SCWA) and other local water purveyors have partnered with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to assess hydrologic conditions and to quan-tify the county-wide interconnections between surface water and ground water. Through this partnership, USGS scientists have completed assessments of the geohydrology and geochemistry of the Sonoma and Alexander Valley ground-water basins. Now, the USGS is constructing a detailed ground-water flow model of the Santa Rosa Plain. It will be used to help identify strategies for surface-water/ground-water management and help to ensure long-term viability of the water supply. The USGS is also working with the SCWA to help meet future demand in the face of possible new restrictions on its main source of water, the Russian River. SCWA draws water from the alluvial aquifer underlying and adjacent to the Russian River and may want to extend riverbank filtration facilities to new areas. USGS scientists are conducting research to charac-terize riverbank filtration processes and changes in water quality during reduced river flows.

  6. [Rules to control ddrinking water supply systems in livestock farming].

    PubMed

    Hartung, J

    2000-08-01

    Water is regarded as one of the most important distributors of infectious diseases. Moreover it can carry chemical compounds and toxic substances. Presently there are no specific legal regulations which define the quality of the drinking water for animals in Germany. However, some rules and criteria exist which help to survey and secure the water supply of animals on farm level. When controlling the hygienic quality of water on the farm it is necessary to investigate not only the water itself but also the local facilities around the water well. If health problems occur in the stock the water tanks, the tubing system which distributes the water in the animal houses and the drinkers have to be checked carefully. Water samples for the analysis on microorganisms and chemical contaminants should be taken according to a strict protocol. The regulations of the German drinking water directive for humans can be used as an orientation to characterise the drinking water quality for the animals. Nevertheless it seems useful to elaborate animal species specific thresholds for water contaminants particularly for food producing animals. A proposal for some threshold values is reported. PMID:11036779

  7. Public perceptions of drinking water: a postal survey of residents with private water supplies

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andria Q; Dewey, Catherine E; Doré, Kathryn; Majowicz, Shannon E; McEwen, Scott A; David, Waltner-Toews; Eric, Mathews; Carr, Deborah J; Henson, Spencer J

    2006-01-01

    Background In Canada, the legal responsibility for the condition of private water supplies, including private wells and cisterns, rests with their owners. However, there are reports that Canadians test these water supplies intermittently and that treatment of such water is uncommon. An estimated 45% of all waterborne outbreaks in Canada involve non-municipal systems. An understanding of the perceptions and needs of Canadians served by private water supplies is essential, as it would enable public health professionals to better target public education and drinking water policy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the public perceptions of private water supplies in the City of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada), with the intent of informing public education and outreach strategies within the population. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey of 246 residences with private water supplies was conducted in May 2004. Questions pertained to the perceptions of water quality and alternative water sources, water testing behaviours and the self-identified need for further information. Results Private wells, cisterns or both, were the source of household water for 71%, 16% and 13% of respondents, respectively. Although respondents rated their water quality highly, 80% also had concerns with its safety. The most common concerns pertained to bacterial and chemical contamination of their water supply and its potential negative effect on health. Approximately 56% and 61% of respondents used in-home treatment devices and bottled water within their homes, respectively, mainly due to perceived improvements in the safety and aesthetic qualities compared to regular tap water. Testing of private water supplies was performed infrequently: 8% of respondents tested at a frequency that meets current provincial guidelines. Two-thirds of respondents wanted more information on various topics related to private water supplies. Flyers and newspapers were the two media reported most likely to

  8. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, N.; Scheidegger, Y.; Brennwald, M. S.; Fleitmann, D.; Figura, S.; Wieler, R.; Kipfer, R.

    2012-07-01

    In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure for its total water content. The stalagmites' water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite). Low δ18Ocalcite values are thereby accompanied by low water yields and vice versa. Based on the paleoclimatic interpretation of the δ18Ocalcite records, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. High drip water supply caused by high precipitation rates supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleoclimate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated precipitation rates.

  9. Assessment of adequate quality and collocation of reference measurements with space-borne hyperspectral infrared instruments to validate retrievals of temperature and water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbet, X.

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented to assess whether a given reference ground-based point observation, typically a radiosonde measurement, is adequately collocated and sufficiently representative of space-borne hyperspectral infrared instrument measurements. Once this assessment is made, the ground-based data can be used to validate and potentially calibrate, with a high degree of accuracy, the hyperspectral retrievals of temperature and water vapour.

  10. Water supply risk on the Colorado River: Can management mitigate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, Balaji; Nowak, Kenneth; Prairie, James; Hoerling, Martin; Harding, Benjamin; Barsugli, Joseph; Ray, Andrea; Udall, Bradley

    2009-08-01

    Population growth and a changing climate will tax the future reliability of the Colorado River water supply. Using a heuristic model, we assess the annual risk to the Colorado River water supply for 2008-2057. Projected demand growth superimposed upon historical climate variability results in only a small probability of annual reservoir depletion through 2057. In contrast, a scenario of 20% reduction in the annual Colorado River flow due to climate change by 2057 results in a near tenfold increase in the probability of annual reservoir depletion by 2057. However, our analysis suggests that flexibility in current management practices could mitigate some of the increased risk due to climate change-induced reductions in flows.

  11. Water Supply at Los Alamos 1998-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Richard J. Koch; David B. Rogers

    2003-03-01

    impacts by production on long-term water supply sustainability at Los Alamos. This report summarizes production data and aquifer conditions for water production and monitor wells in the Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) area (Figure 1). Water production wells are grouped within the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi fields, the locations of which are shown on Figure 1. Wells from these fields supply all the potable water used for municipal and most industrial purposes in Los Alamos County (LAC), at LANL, and at Bandelier National Monument. This report has three primary objectives: (1) Provide a continuing historical record of metered well production and overall water usage; (2) Provide data to the Department of Energy (DOE) and LANL management, and Los Alamos County planners for operation of the water supply system and for long-range water resource planning; and (3) Provide water-level data from regional aquifer production wells, test wells, and monitoring wells.

  12. Water-supply systems for rural areas and small communities in Colombia.

    PubMed

    PACHON-ROJAS, L

    1954-01-01

    As part of a rural-sanitation campaign in Colombia, the National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia (NFCG) in 1942 initiated a scheme for ensuring an adequate provision of water to coffee-growers in rural, mountainous areas, both for domestic use and for coffee-processing. Where farms are reasonably closely grouped collective water-supply systems are used, but it is also frequently necessary to construct individual systems. In either case, the cost of installation is shared by the NFCG and those who directly benefit. The average cost of the collective system has been Colombian pesos 12,000 per system, while the cost of individual installations has varied between Colombian pesos 650 and 935. Each collective system is administered and operated by a rural water board composed of local farmers, while technical problems are referred to the engineering staff of the NFCG.In general, the cheaper gravity system is preferred, but in individual installations it has often proved necessary to provide hand pumps or hydraulic rams.Through improvement in the water supply, the prevalence of water-borne diseases has considerably decreased, while the rate of coffee-production has increased. PMID:13160759

  13. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John

    1973-01-01

    report includes an analysis of test drilling costs leading to a production well field. The discussion shows that test drilling is a relatively low cost item and that more than a minimum of test holes in a previously unexplored area is, above all, simple insurance in keeping down costs and may easily result in final lower costs for the system. Use of the jet drill for testing is considered short sighted and may result in higher total costs and possibly failure to discover good aquifers. Economic development of ground water supplies will depend on obtaining qualified hydrologic and engineering advice, on carrying out adequate test drilling, and on utilizing high-quality (at times, more costly) material.

  14. Are the defined substrate-based methods adequate to determine the microbiological quality of natural recreational waters?

    PubMed

    Valente, Marta Sofia; Pedro, Paulo; Alonso, M Carmen; Borrego, Juan J; Dionísio, Lídia

    2010-03-01

    Monitoring the microbiological quality of water used for recreational activities is very important to human public health. Although the sanitary quality of recreational marine waters could be evaluated by standard methods, they are time-consuming and need confirmation. For these reasons, faster and more sensitive methods, such as the defined substrate-based technology, have been developed. In the present work, we have compared the standard method of membrane filtration using Tergitol-TTC agar for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, and Slanetz and Bartley agar for enterococci, and the IDEXX defined substrate technology for these faecal pollution indicators to determine the microbiological quality of natural recreational waters. ISO 17994:2004 standard was used to compare these methods. The IDEXX for total coliforms and E. coli, Colilert, showed higher values than those obtained by the standard method. Enterolert test, for the enumeration of enterococci, showed lower values when compared with the standard method. It may be concluded that more studies to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the rapid tests are required in order to apply them for routine monitoring of marine and freshwater recreational bathing areas. The main advantages of these methods are that they are more specific, feasible and simpler than the standard methodology. PMID:20009243

  15. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  16. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].

    PubMed

    Él'piner, L I

    2013-01-01

    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined. PMID:24624819

  17. Incorporating long-term trends in water availability in water supply planning.

    PubMed

    Luketina, D; Bender, M

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines factors affecting water availability and hydrological trends of water supply. The relative impacts of the different factors have been assessed on a planning time frame of around 30 years. It is demonstrated that the non-greenhouse processes of multi-decadal climate change and el Niño-la Niña climate change will almost certainly be more significant than greenhouse induced climate change. Further, in developing countries, increased water consumption, population growth, and urbanization are likely to be the dominant factors when considering water availability. The type of responses that a water supply organization can make are discussed. PMID:12380982

  18. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process. PMID:19475934

  19. Public perception of drinking water from private water supplies: focus group analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andria Q; Dewey, Catherine E; Doré, Kathryn; Majowicz, Shannon E; McEwen, Scott A; Waltner-Toews, David; Henson, Spencer J; Mathews, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Background Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, and numerous studies report that these supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for contamination. Canadians in rural areas test their water intermittently, if at all, and treatment of water from private supplies is not common. Understanding the perceptions of drinking water among residents served by private systems will enable public health professionals to better target education and outreach activities, and to address the needs and concerns of residents in their jurisdictions. The purpose of this study was to explore the drinking water perceptions and self-described behaviours and needs of participants served by private water systems in the City of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Methods In September 2003, three focus group discussions were conducted; two with men and women aged 36–65 years, and one with men and women 20–35 years of age. Results Overall, participants had positive perceptions of their private water supplies, particularly in the older age group. Concerns included bacterial and chemical contamination from agricultural sources. Testing of water from private supplies was minimal and was done less frequently than recommended by the provincial government. Barriers to water testing included the inconvenience of the testing process, acceptable test results in the past, resident complacency and lack of knowledge. The younger participants greatly emphasized their need for more information on private water supplies. Participants from all groups wanted more information on water testing, and various media for information dissemination were discussed. Conclusion While most participants were confident in the safety of their private water supply, the factual basis for these opinions is uncertain. Improved dissemination of information pertaining to private water supplies in this population is needed. Observed differences in the concerns expressed by

  20. PROTECTION OF PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES FROM GROUND-WATER CONTAMINATION. SEMINAR PUBLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The publication contains material from technology transfer seminars presented for the water supply community. The document provides utility managers and operators, regulators and technical specialists with guidance for preventing contamination and alternatives for treating public...

  1. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  2. Energy development scenarios and water demands and supplies: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of average mean annual flows, ample water exists in the upper Missouri River basin for energy development. The lack of storage and diversion works upstream as well as State compacts preclude the ready use of this surplus water. These surplus flows are impounded in mainstream reservoirs on the Missouri downstream from coal mining areas but could be transported back at some expense for use in Wyoming and North Dakota. There are limited water supplies available for the development of coal and oil shale industries in the upper Colorado River Basin. Fortunately oil shale mining, retorting and reclamation do not require as much water as coal conversion; in-situ oil shale retorting would seem to be particularly desirable in the light of reduced water consumption. Existing patterns of energy production, transport, and conversion suggest that more of the coal to be mined out West is apt to be transmitted to existing load centers rather than converted to electricity or gas in the water-short West. Scenarios of development of the West 's fossil fuels may be overestimating the need for water since they have assumed that major conversion industries would develop in the West. Transport of coal to existing users will require all means of coal movement including unit trains, barges, and coal slurry pipelines. The latter is considered more desirable than the development of conversion industries in the West when overall water consumption is considered. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Performance of constructed wetland system for public water supply.

    PubMed

    Elias, J M; Salati Filho, E; Salati, E

    2001-01-01

    The project is being conducted in the town of Analândia, São Paulo, Brazil. The constructed wetlands system for water supply consists of a channel with floating aquatic macrophytes, HDS system (Water Decontamination with Soil-Patent PI 850.3030), chlorinating system, filtering system and distribution. The project objectives include investigating the process variables to further optimize design and operation factors, evaluating the relation of nutrients and plants development, biomass production, shoot development, nutrient cycling and total and fecal coliforms removal, comparing the treatment efficiency among the seasons of the year; and moreover to compare the average values obtained between February and June 1998 (Salati et al., 1998) with the average obtained for the same parameters between March and June 2000. Studies have been developed in order to verify during one year the drinking quality of the water for the following parameters: turbidity, color, pH, dissolved oxygen, total of dissolved solids, COD, chloride, among others, according to the Ministry of Health's Regulation 36. This system of water supply projected to treat 15 L s(-1) has been in continuous operation for 2 years, it was implemented with support of the National Environment Fund (FNMA), administered by the Center of Environmental Studies (CEA-UNESP), while the technical supervision and design were performed by the Institute of Applied Ecology. The actual research project is being supported by FAPESP. PMID:11804153

  4. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the water heater to the amount of energy consumed by the water heater as measured during the thermal... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the water heater to the amount of energy consumed by the water heater as measured during the thermal... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. Establishing Vulnerability Map of Water Resources in Regional Water Supply System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. M.; Tung, C. P.; Li, M. H.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, the threat of increasing frequency of extreme weather rise up human attention on climate change. To reduce the threat of water scarcity, it is important to know how climate change might affect regional water resources and where the hotspots, the vulnerability points, are. However, there is not much information to help government understanding how climate change will affect the water resources locally. To a regional water supply system, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable to climate due to the lack of water treatment plants or tape water pipe system. And also, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable due to high population and high industrial product value when they expose to the same threat of water scarcity. This study aims to evaluate the spatial vulnerability distribution of water resources and propose the adaptive plan for southern region of Taiwan. An integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources, which includes 10 GCMs output of SRES A2, A1B, B2 scenarios, weather generator, GWLF model, and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) tool is used for climate impact assessment. For the simulation of the complex water supply system, the system dynamics model- VENSIM which is connected with TaiWAP is adopted to simulate a water supply system and evaluate vulnerability of each unit in a water supply system. The vulnerable hotspots will be indicated in the system and the adaptive strategies will be applied to strengthen the local vulnerable area. The adaptive capacity will be enhanced to mitigate climate change impacts on water supply system locally to achieve sustainable water uses.

  7. A management and optimisation model for water supply planning in water deficit areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Mocholí-Arce, Manuel; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2014-07-01

    The integrated water resources management approach has proven to be a suitable option for efficient, equitable and sustainable water management. In water-poor regions experiencing acute and/or chronic shortages, optimisation techniques are a useful tool for supporting the decision process of water allocation. In order to maximise the value of water use, an optimisation model was developed which involves multiple supply sources (conventional and non-conventional) and multiple users. Penalties, representing monetary losses in the event of an unfulfilled water demand, have been incorporated into the objective function. This model represents a novel approach which considers water distribution efficiency and the physical connections between water supply and demand points. Subsequent empirical testing using data from a Spanish Mediterranean river basin demonstrated the usefulness of the global optimisation model to solve existing water imbalances at the river basin level.

  8. Climate change, water rights, and water supply: The case of irrigated agriculture in Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenchao; Lowe, Scott E.; Adams, Richard M.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a hedonic analysis to estimate the response of agricultural land use to water supply information under the Prior Appropriation Doctrine by using Idaho as a case study. Our analysis includes long-term climate (weather) trends and water supply conditions as well as seasonal water supply forecasts. A farm-level panel data set, which accounts for the priority effects of water rights and controls for diversified crop mixes and rotation practices, is used. Our results indicate that farmers respond to the long-term surface and ground water conditions as well as to the seasonal water supply variations. Climate change-induced variations in climate and water supply conditions could lead to substantial damages to irrigated agriculture. We project substantial losses (up to 32%) of the average crop revenue for major agricultural areas under future climate scenarios in Idaho. Finally, farmers demonstrate significantly varied responses given their water rights priorities, which imply that the distributional impact of climate change is sensitive to institutions such as the Prior Appropriation Doctrine.

  9. Calculation of available water supply in crop root zone and the water balance of crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, Jan; Svoboda, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Determination of the water supply available in soils for crops is important for both the calculation of water balance and the prediction of water stress. An approach to calculations of available water content in layers of the root zone, depletion of water during growth, and water balance, with limited access to data on farms, is presented. Soil water retention was calculated with simple pedotransfer functions from the texture of soil layers, root depth, and depletion function were derived from observed data; and the potential evapotranspiration was calculated from the temperature. A comparison of the calculated and experimental soil water contents showed a reasonable fit.

  10. 1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY TREATMENT HOUSE, ON PENSTOCK ABOVE SAR-1. VIEW TO NORTWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Domestic Water Supply Treatment House, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. Water demand and supply co-adaptation to mitigate climate change impacts in agricultural water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mainardi, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Agriculture is the main land use in the world and represents also the sector characterised by the highest water demand. To meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades. Moreover, water availability is nowadays a limiting factor for agricultural production, and is expected to decrease over the next century due to climate change impacts. To effectively face a changing climate, agricultural systems have therefore to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crops, shifting sowing and harvesting dates, adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques). Yet, farmer adaptation is only one part of the equation because changes in water supply management strategies, as a response to climate change, might impact on farmers' decisions as well. Despite the strong connections between water demand and supply, being the former dependent on agricultural practices, which are affected by the water available that depends on the water supply strategies designed according to a forecasted demand, an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Most of the recent studies has indeed considered the two problems separately, either analysing the impact of climate change on farmers' decisions for a given water supply scenario or optimising water supply for different water demand scenarios. In this work, we explicitly connect the two systems (demand and supply) by activating an information loop between farmers and water managers, to integrate the two problems and study the co-evolution and co-adaptation of water demand and water supply systems under climate change. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). In particular, given an expectation of water availability, the farmers are able to solve a yearly planning problem to decide the most profitable crop to plant. Knowing the farmers

  12. Water supply at Los Alamos: Current status of wells and future water supply

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Stoker, A.K.

    1988-08-01

    The municipal and industrial use of groundwater at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Los Alamos County was about 1.5 billion gallons during 1986. From a total of 19 wells that range in age from 5 to 41 years, the water was pumped from 3 well fields. The life expectancy of a well in the area ranges from 30 to 50 years, dependent on the well construction and rate of corrosion of the casing and screen. Twelve of the wells are more than 30-years old and, of these, four cannot be used for production, three because of well damage and one because the quality of water is not suitable for use. Eight of the twelve oldest wells are likely to be unsuitable for use in the next 10 years because of well deterioration and failure. The remaining 7 wells include 2 that are likely to fail in the next 20 years. Five of the younger wells in the Pajarito well field are in good condition and should serve for another two or three decades. The program of maintenance and rehabilitation of pumps and wells has extended production capabilities for short periods of time. Pumps may be effectively repaired or replaced; however, rehabilitation of the well is only a short-term correction to increase the yield before it starts to decline again. The two main factors that prevent successful well rehabilitation are: (1) chemicals precipitated in the gravel pack and screen restrict or reduce the entrance of water to the well, which reduces the yield of the well, and (2) the screen and casing become corroded to a point of losing structural strength and subsequent failure allows the gravel pack and formation sand to enter the well. Both factors are due to long-term use and result in extensive damage to the pump and reduce the depth of the well, which in turn causes the yield to decline. Once such well damage occurs, rehabilitation is unlikely to be successful and the ultimate result is loss of the well. Two wells were lost in 1987 because of such damage. 29 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, N.; Scheidegger, Y.; Brennwald, M. S.; Fleitmann, D.; Figura, S.; Wieler, R.; Kipfer, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and δ18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite). Within each stalagmite lower δ18Ocalcite values are accompanied by lower water yields and vice versa. The δ18Ocalcite records of the studied stalagmites have previously been interpreted to predominantly reflect the amount of rainfall in the area; thus, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. Higher, and therefore more continuous drip water supply caused by higher rainfall rates, supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a dry tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleo-climate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated rainfall rates.

  14. Assessment of climate change impact on water diversion strategies of Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Babel, Mukand S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyzes the climate change impact on water diversion plan of Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) in Nepal. The MWSP is an interbasin water transfer project aimed at diverting water from the Melamchi River of the Indrawati River basin to Kathmandu Valley for drinking water purpose. Future temperature and precipitation of the basin were predicted using the outputs of two regional climate models (RCMs) and two general circulation models (GCMs) under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios which were then used as inputs to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the water availability and evaluate the water diversion strategies in the future. The average temperature of the basin is projected to increase by 2.35 to 4.25 °C under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by 2085s. The average precipitation in the basin is projected to increase by 6-18 % in the future. The annual water availability is projected to increase in the future; however, the variability is observed in monthly water availability in the basin. The water supply and demand scenarios of Kathmandu Valley was also examined by considering the population increase, unaccounted for water and water diversion from MWSP in the future. It is observed that even with the additional supply of water from MWSP and reduction of unaccounted for water, the Kathmandu Valley will be still under water scarcity in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful to formulate water supply and demand management strategies in Kathmandu Valley in the context of climate change in the future.

  15. The role of ground water in water-supply emergency planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichard, E. G.; Li, Z.; Hermans, C.

    2008-12-01

    Catastrophic events, such as earthquakes or floods, can result in water-supply disruptions. Such disruptions can cause large economic losses and pose threats to public health. Water managers seek to develop cost- effective strategies for reducing these risks and ensuring water security. In many areas, ground water can play an important role in such water-supply emergency planning. We present a probabilistic framework for estimating the hydraulic impacts and associated costs of using ground water as a backup supply in the event of a disruption in imported-water deliveries. We also estimate the benefits of ground-water management strategies, such as artificial recharge, in terms of reduced costs of responding to water-supply emergencies. The magnitude of these benefits will depend on the expected severity and duration of the imported-water disruption, the functioning of the hydrogeologic system, and economic parameters. We apply the framework to address water-supply emergency planning in the Los Angeles area. A simulation model is used to generate response functions, which relate emergency ground-water pumpage to potential adverse effects, such as increased pumping lifts, subsidence, and seawater intrusion. These response functions are incorporated into a Monte Carlo analysis, along with cost coefficients and information on the probable severity of the disruption. Disruption severity is represented by a probability distribution, which can be elicited from water managers. In the example, the primary emergency-related benefits of artificial recharge are reductions in potential subsidence costs. The framework could be extended to consider additional engineering factors (e.g., well capacities and integrity of local distribution systems), institutional arrangements, and regulatory requirements.

  16. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY... Water Supply Project, Clarke County, Iowa. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Sims, State... comments by NRCS information related to water supply demand requirements for permitting by the State...

  17. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? 404.3 Section 404.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply...

  18. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? 404.3 Section 404.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply...

  19. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the...

  20. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the...

  1. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the...

  2. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the...

  3. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the...

  4. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? This program addresses domestic, municipal, and industrial...

  5. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the amount of energy consumed by the water heater as measured during the thermal efficiency test... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. Water supply of Rome in antiquity and today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, P.; Boni, C.

    1996-03-01

    In ancient Rome, water was considered a deity to be worshipped and most of all utilized in health and art. The availability of huge water supplies was considered a symbol of opulence and therefore an expression of power. The countryside around Rome offered a spectacular view: it was adorned with an incalculable number of monuments, temples, and villas, and it was crossed by sturdy aqueducts with magnificent arcades. The aqueduct as a superelevated monumental work is a typical concept of the Roman engineering, although it is possible to recognize that the inspiration and the basic ideas came from Etruscan technology. The Etruscans did not construct real aqueducts, even though they built hydraulic works as irrigation channels, drainage systems, dams, etc. The Greeks had also built similar hydraulic structures, before the Roman influence. Interesting aqueduct remains are in Rome, Segovia (Spain), Nimes (France), and Cologne (Germany), among other places.

  7. Perchlorate in Water Supplies: Sources, Exposures, and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Steinmaus, Craig M

    2016-06-01

    Perchlorate exposure occurs from ingestion of natural or man-made perchlorate in food or water. Perchlorate is used in a variety of industrial products including missile fuel, fireworks, and fertilizers, and industrial contamination of drinking water supplies has occurred in a number of areas. Perchlorate blocks iodide uptake into the thyroid and decreases the production of thyroid hormone, a critical hormone for metabolism, neurodevelopment, and other physiologic functions. Occupational and clinical dosing studies have not identified clear adverse effects, but may be limited by small sample sizes, short study durations, and the inclusion of mostly healthy adults. Expanding evidence suggests that young children, pregnant women, fetuses, and people co-exposed to similarly acting agents may be especially susceptible to perchlorate. Given the ubiquitous nature of perchlorate exposure, and the importance of thyroid hormone for brain development, studying the impact of perchlorate on human health could have far-reaching public health implications. PMID:27026358

  8. Quality of water from public-supply wells in Massachusetts, 1975-86. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Trombley, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    The purposes of the report are (1) to describe the water quality of the public ground-water supplies in Massachusetts; (2) to evaluate the areal and temporal trends in water quality; and (3) to relate the water-quality trends to general causative factors, such as geology, population density, highway deicing salts, and others. The scope of the study was to evaluate statistically water quality and water-quality trends from a data set consisting of 8,300 annual inorganic analyses of samples from public-supply wells in 233 municipalities throughout the Commonwealth for the period 1975-86. The data were grouped for analysis into 31 Commonwealth water-resources planning basins and major subbasins.

  9. [Uranium Concentration in Drinking Water from Small-scale Water Supplies in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany].

    PubMed

    Ostendorp, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study the drinking water of 212 small-scale water supplies, mainly situated in areas with intensive agriculture or fruit-growing, was analysed for uranium. The median uranium concentration amounted to 0.04 µg/lL, the 95(th) percentile was 2.5 µg/L. The maximum level was 14 µg/L. This sample exceeded the guideline value for uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in small-scale water supplies was found to be slightly higher than that in central water works in Schleswig-Holstein. Water containing more than 10 mg/L nitrate showed significantly higher uranium contents. The results indicate that the uranium burden in drinking water from small wells is mainly determined by geological factors. An additional anthropogenic effect of soil management cannot be excluded. Overall uranium concentrations were low and not causing health concerns. However, in specific cases higher concentrations may occur. PMID:25356561

  10. Forecasting Seasonal Water Supply Impacts from High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celestino, M. J.; Lowry, C.

    2014-12-01

    With a current moratorium on High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) in New York State, we have a critical opportunity to make baseline predictions of how HVHF development will impact water supplies. Our research focuses on Broome and Tioga counties in New York State's southern tier. Both counties share a border with Pennsylvania, where heavy HVHF development is currently taking place. It is anticipated that both counties will also experience heavy HVHF development if the moratorium ceases. Through the use of GIS linked with a transient finite difference groundwater model, we created various HVHF well development scenarios. These scenarios represent historical HVHF development rates from nearby Pennsylvania counties of Bradford, Susquehanna, and Tioga from 2008-2012 as well as an average Pennsylvania rate. The transient finite difference groundwater model simulates how water extraction for HVHF purposes may impact the two study counties water resources over a five-year initial development period. Results of this research are presented as a first step in water resource management in Broome and Tioga County and define where state and local policies may need further investigation or modification of proposed regulations. In addition results point to future work that needs to be in place should the moratorium lift in order to take advantage of the small window of opportunity to study HVHF water usage through an entire well development lifespan.

  11. Proposed water-supply investigations in Sidamo Province, Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1966-01-01

    The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.

  12. LINKING LAND COVER AND WATER QUALITY IN NEW YORK CITY'S WATER SUPPLY WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Catskill/Delaware reservoirs supply 90% of New York City's drinking water. The City has implemented as series of watershed protection measures, including land acquisition, aimed at preserving water quality in the Catskill/Delaware watersheds. The objective of this study was...

  13. POINT-OF-CONTACT/EXPERTISE LIST (WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Water Supply and Water Resources Division's (WSWRD's)Expertise/Point-of-Contact page lists research areas in the Division along with the names and telephone numbers for responsible individuals and their expertise.WSWRD conducts research to help prepare the primary and s...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. 75.1107-7 Section 75.1107-7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices...

  15. Implications of land disturbance on drinking water treatability in a changing climate: demonstrating the need for "source water supply and protection" strategies.

    PubMed

    Emelko, Monica B; Silins, Uldis; Bladon, Kevin D; Stone, Micheal

    2011-01-01

    Forests form the critical source water areas for downstream drinking water supplies in many parts of the world, including the Rocky Mountain regions of North America. Large scale natural disturbances from wildfire and severe insect infestation are more likely because of warming climate and can significantly impact water quality downstream of forested headwaters regions. To investigate potential implications of changing climate and wildfire on drinking water treatment, the 2003 Lost Creek Wildfire in Alberta, Canada was studied. Four years of comprehensive hydrology and water quality data from seven watersheds were evaluated and synthesized to assess the implications of wildfire and post-fire intervention (salvage-logging) on downstream drinking water treatment. The 95th percentile turbidity and DOC remained low in streams draining unburned watersheds (5.1 NTU, 3.8 mg/L), even during periods of potential treatment challenge (e.g., stormflows, spring freshet); in contrast, they were elevated in streams draining burned (15.3 NTU, 4.6 mg/L) and salvage-logged (18.8 NTU, 9.9 mg/L) watersheds. Persistent increases in these parameters and observed increases in other contaminants such as nutrients, heavy metals, and chlorophyll-a in discharge from burned and salvage-logged watersheds present important economic and operational challenges for water treatment; most notably, a potential increased dependence on solids and DOC removal processes. Many traditional source water protection strategies would fail to adequately identify and evaluate many of the significant wildfire- and post-fire management-associated implications to drinking water "treatability"; accordingly, it is proposed that "source water supply and protection strategies" should be developed to consider a suppliers' ability to provide adequate quantities of potable water to meet demand by addressing all aspects of drinking water "supply" (i.e., quantity, timing of availability, and quality) and their relationship

  16. Bioinspired materials for water supply and management: water collection, water purification and separation of water from oil.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-08-01

    Access to a safe supply of water is a human right. However, with growing populations, global warming and contamination due to human activity, it is one that is increasingly under threat. It is hoped that nature can inspire the creation of materials to aid in the supply and management of water, from water collection and purification to water source clean-up and rehabilitation from oil contamination. Many species thrive in even the driest places, with some surviving on water harvested from fog. By studying these species, new materials can be developed to provide a source of fresh water from fog for communities across the globe. The vast majority of water on the Earth is in the oceans. However, current desalination processes are energy-intensive. Systems in our own bodies have evolved to transport water efficiently while blocking other molecules and ions. Inspiration can be taken from such to improve the efficiency of desalination and help purify water containing other contaminants. Finally, oil contamination of water from spills or the fracking technique can be a devastating environmental disaster. By studying how natural surfaces interact with liquids, new techniques can be developed to clean up oil spills and further protect our most precious resource.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. PMID:27354732

  17. Hard water problems and soft water paths: The "supply versus demand" conundrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Water problems are complex, interdisciplinary, and have profound effects on human and ecosystem health and well-being. And they are classic "hard" problems. Good science is necessary to solve these problems, but it is rarely sufficient. One of these hard problems is that of "perception" and "frame" - traditional water planners and managers frame freshwater as a "supply" problem, i.e., how can we access and deliver sufficient quantities of water of suitable quality, to satisfy perceived demand. In recent years, however, as water scarcity in different regions has increased due to growing populations and expanding economies, "peak water" limits (including peak renewable, non-renewable, and ecological limits) have started to constrain development of traditional "supply" options (Figure 1). That has led to new thinking about the other side of the equation: what is meant by water "demand" and can demand management tools and approaches offer a way to solve water problems. The "soft path for water" addresses this issue of water demand directly, but implementing demand-side solutions faces serious barriers. This talk will expound on the soft path approach and its potential to overcome some of the gridlock and stagnation in current water policy debates, with examples from both developed and developing countries, and different economic sectors.umulative global reservoir storage (major reservoirs) from 1900 to 2010, showing leveling off of traditional supply expansion. Data from the GRanD database.

  18. Automatic estimation of aquifer parameters using long-term water supply pumping and injection records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ning; Illman, Walter A.

    2016-04-01

    Analyses are presented of long-term hydrographs perturbed by variable pumping/injection events in a confined aquifer at a municipal water-supply well field in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Such records are typically not considered for aquifer test analysis. Here, the water-level variations are fingerprinted to pumping/injection rate changes using the Theis model implemented in the WELLS code coupled with PEST. Analyses of these records yield a set of transmissivity (T) and storativity (S) estimates between each monitoring and production borehole. These individual estimates are found to poorly predict water-level variations at nearby monitoring boreholes not used in the calibration effort. On the other hand, the geometric means of the individual T and S estimates are similar to those obtained from previous pumping tests conducted at the same site and adequately predict water-level variations in other boreholes. The analyses reveal that long-term municipal water-level records are amenable to analyses using a simple analytical solution to estimate aquifer parameters. However, uniform parameters estimated with analytical solutions should be considered as first rough estimates. More accurate hydraulic parameters should be obtained by calibrating a three-dimensional numerical model that rigorously captures the complexities of the site with these data.

  19. Point-of-entry treatment of petroleum contaminated water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Malley, J.P. Jr.; Eliason, P.A.; Wagler, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    Contamination of individual wells in rural area from leaking petroleum storage tanks poses unique problems for regulatory agencies utilities, and potentially responsible parties. A potential solution is the use of point-of-entry (POE) treatment techniques. Results indicate POE systems using aeration followed by granular activated carbon (GAC) are a viable, cost effective, short-term solution while ground water remediation is performed or an alternate drinking water supply is secured. Selection and design of POE systems should consider variations in water usage and contaminant concentrations. Iron and manganese did not affect POE system performance at the ten sites studied. However, iron precipitation was observed and may pose problems in some POE applications. Increased concentrations of nonpurgeable dissolved organic carbon consisting primarily of methy-t-butyl ether (MTBE) and hydrophilic petroleum hydrocarbons were found in the raw waters but did not affect volatile organic chemical (VOC) removals by aeration of GAC. Microbial activity as measured by heterotrophie plate count significantly increased through four of the ten POE systems studied. Reliability of the POE systems will best be achieved by specifying top quality system components, educating POE users, and providing routine maintenance and VOC monitoring. 20 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. River Restoration Within Water Supply Areas - Problems and Solution Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regli, C.; Huggenberger, P.; Guldenfels, L.

    2004-05-01

    The demand of river restoration in many areas of Europe and North America clarifies the existing problems of a sustainable use of water resources. River restoration generally intensifies the exchange between surface- and groundwater and related dissolved compounds or particles. Recommendations concerning ecological measures of river restoration within water supply areas should allow differentiated solutions, which take into account groundwater and flood protection. Model scenarios play an important role in decision-making processes. An application of this approach is given for the groundwater production system of the city of Basel, Switzerland: The former channelized river Wiese should be restored to more natural conditions to re-establish the biological connectivity and to increase the recreational value of this area. These initiatives might conflict with the requirements of groundwater protection, especially during flood events. Therefore, processes of river-groundwater interaction have been characterized by analyses of physical, chemical, and microbiological data sampled in several well clusters between the river and production wells. The well clusters allow sampling of groundwater in different depths of the aquifer. These data together with data from tracer experiments are used for modeling the river-groundwater interaction. The large- and medium-scaled, transient groundwater models are used to evaluate the well capture zones in the different river restoration scenarios. Well capture zones have to satisfy the safety requirements of groundwater protection. A further step includes optimizations of water supply operation such as artificial recharge and pumping. At the small scale, uncertainty estimations concerning delineation of well capture zones are made by stochastic approaches including geological and geophysical data of the aquifer. The methods presented can be used to define and evaluate groundwater protection zones in heterogeneous aquifers associated with

  1. Modeling the influence of various water stressors on regional water supply infrastructures and their embodied energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-06-01

    Water supply consumes a substantial amount of energy directly and indirectly. This study aims to provide an enhanced understanding of the influence of water stressors on the embodied energy of water supply (EEWS). To achieve this goal, the EEWS in 75 North Carolina counties was estimated through an economic input-output based hybrid life cycle assessment. Ten water stressor indicators related to population, economic development, climate, water source, and land use were obtained for the 75 counties. A multivariate analysis was performed to understand the correlations between water stressor indicators and the EEWS. A regression analysis was then conducted to identify the statistically significant indicators in describing the EEWS. It was found that the total amount of water supply energy varies significantly among selected counties. Water delivery presents the highest energy use and water storage presents the least. The total embodied energy was found to be highly correlated with total population. The regression analysis shows that the total embodied energy can be best described by total population and temperature indicators with a relatively high R square value of 0.69.

  2. Global net irrigation water requirements from various water supply sources during past and future periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Cho, J.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation (e.g. rivers and reservoirs) are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use is considered unsustainable and threatens food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during past (1960-2001) and future (2002-2050) periods using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model can simulate water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° latitude and longitude. The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR), medium-size reservoirs (MSR), and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). The simulated results from 1960 to 2001 showed that RIV, MSR and NNBW increased significantly from the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, the increase in RIV declined as it approached a critical limit, due to the continued expansion of irrigation area. MSR and NNBW increased significantly, during the same time period, following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as a future increase in NNBW. After the 2020s, MSR was predicted to approach the critical limit, and ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s.

  3. Application of the Pump in the Tube in Secondary Water Supply Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. C.; Tan, S. W.; Zhang, J. M.

    At present, secondary water supply demand increases, there are more and more forms of secondary water supply equipment, and became the necessary tools of residential water consumption. Our country has been advocating the concept of energy conservation and environmental protection. Based on the analysis of it and its application in water equipment, and the comparison with other water supply equipment's advantages and disadvantages, explain the characteristic of pump in the tube in water supply equipment and problems that should be paid attention to in application.

  4. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the...

  5. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the...

  6. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the...

  7. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the...

  8. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit.

    PubMed

    Rygaard, M; Arvin, E; Bath, A; Binning, P J

    2011-06-01

    It is possible to optimize drinking water composition based on a valuation of the impacts of changed water quality. This paper introduces a method for assessing the potential for designing an optimum drinking water composition by the use of membrane desalination and remineralization. The method includes modeling of possible water quality blends and an evaluation of corrosion indices. Based on concentration-response relationships a range of impacts on public health, material lifetimes and consumption of soap have been valued for Perth, Western Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark. In addition to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO(2)-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.3 ± 0.2 per delivered m(3) for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water supply planning and management. PMID:21565384

  9. Operational Water Supply Outlook Verification at the NRCS-USDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, T. C.; Garen, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    For 99 years, seasonal streamflow forecasts have assisted in Western US water management. Such water supply outlooks are currently issued jointly by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the National Weather Service, and local cooperating agencies (such as the Salt River Project in Arizona). They predict the volume of streamflow to pass by a designated point on a stream over a specific period of time, e.g., April-July. Many operational products present the forecasts in deterministic terms although the forecasts have been probabilistic since the mid 1980s. The NRCS maintains a database of historical forecasts which is freely available on the Internet. This archive has been used to measure performance and establish goals for the operational unit. For example, the westwide average moving window Nash Sutcliffe score of 27 geographically and climatically diverse forecast points is calculated. This score is then placed in the context of the last 60. Unknown precipitation falling after the forecast issue date is the most significant source of uncertainty. Spring temperatures and the timing of melt in the context of spring rainfall can also affect runoff efficiency. Isolating the changes in skill associated with operational investments in science and technology is a significant challenge. Much of the interannual changes in forecast skill can be linked to year to year climate variability. The agency is keenly interested in employing methods to separate the "unknown" and "unknowable" aspects of forecast uncertainty. For example, in the absence of skillful seasonal summer precipitation forecasts, there will be an unavoidable limit to the uncertainty in the water supply outlook. These predictions serve as a test and verification of the science going into them, and it must be a goal of the agency to monitor performance in a meaningful way that facilitates the adaptation and improvement of the forecasting system as well as the broader science that supports it. For

  10. TDS-Eh graph analysis: a new water quality index and rural water supply implications of a river affected by mining in south-eastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezekwe, I. C.; Aisubeogun, A. O.; Chima, G. N.; Odubo, E.

    2012-03-01

    The Ivo River Basin of south-eastern Nigeria is a water scarce and mining region, which suffers from water scarcity. The influence of mining activities on the quality of the Ivo River and its capacity for community water supply was investigated. Also the efficacy of TDS-Eh graph in explaining water quality was presented. Results indicated that the TDS-Eh graph highlights subtle chemical relationships which control water quality and provide a simple but generic pollution index for rapid water quality assessment. It was also discovered that the Ivo River could become an adequate alternative to groundwater as a source of rural water supply in the study area with an estimated average daily discharge of 6726000 L and a rural population of less than 200000 persons. The Ivo River meets the WHO drinking water standards in 20 physicochemical water quality parameters (pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, salinity, TDS, Eh, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, lead and cadmium) analyzed and can therefore (with little treatment) provide up to 133.4% of average community water demand and 83.8% of maximum community water demand. The impact of mining on Ivo River quality was found to have been moderated by the presence of carbonate rocks which may have enhanced the precipitation of heavy metals from the river.

  11. An Assessment of Global Net Irrigation Water Requirements from Various Water Supply Sources to Sustain Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Cho, Jail; Yamada, Hannah; Khajuria, Anupam; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2014-05-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during the period 1960-2050 using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model simulates water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° . The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR) with a storage capacity greater than 1.0 km3, medium-size reservoirs (MSR) with storage capacities ranging from 1.0 km3 to 3.0 M m3, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as the difference between NNBW in the 1990s and NNBW in the 2040s, because it was difficult to distinguish the types of future water supply sources except for RIV. The simulated results showed that RIV, MSR, and NNBW increased significantly through the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, RIV approached a critical limit due to the continued expansion of the irrigation area. Furthermore, MSR and NNBW increased significantly following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. After the 2020s, MSR could be expected to approach the critical limit without the construction of medium-size reservoirs. ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s. We found that an expansion of

  12. STRATEGIES FOR MONITORING THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF WATER SUPPLY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring strategies for characterizing the bacteriological quality of water in the distribution system require a complete understanding of a variety of interrelated aspects that include treated water quality, water supply retention in storage and infrastructure deterioration in...

  13. Cities as Water Supply Catchments to deliver microclimate benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beringer, J.; Tapper, N. J.; Coutts, A.; Loughnan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Urban development extensively modifies the natural hydrology, biodiversity, carbon balance, air quality and climate of the local and regional environment mainly due to increased impervious surface area (roads, pavements, roofs, etc.). Impervious surface are a legacy of urban infrastructure planning based on a ‘drained city’ to minimise flood risk. The result is a modification of the microclimate around buildings and on a city scale results in the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect where the urban areas are much hotter than the surrounding rural areas. Such heating comes on top of 20th century human induced climate change, namely decreased rainfall and higher temperatures. Drought conditions have triggered water restrictions in many Australian cities that have dramatically reduced ‘irrigation’ in urban areas. Ironically the drying influence from climate change has now been compounded by the drying influence of water restrictions and the efficient removal of stormwater resulting in desert like climates during summer. This will be further exacerbated by the projected increases in hot days, extreme hot days, heat waves, etc. In turn this excessive heating will compromise the health and liveability of urban dwellers. Stormwater is a potential critical resource that could be used to keep water in the landscape to irrigate urban areas to improve urban micro-climates, sustain vegetation and provide other multiple benefits to create more liveable and resilient urban environments. In Australia's major cities, stormwater harvesting has the potential to provide a low cost, low energy, fit-for-purpose source of water to help secure city supplies. Stormwater reuse not only provides a potential mitigation tool for the UHI and global climate change but has multiple benefits to provide resilience such as 1) Improved human thermal comfort to reduce heat related stress and mortality, 2) Healthy and productive vegetation and increased carbon sequestration, 3) Decreased stormwater

  14. WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION'S RESPONSE TO WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WSWRD in NRMRL/ORD has had a successful collaborative relationship with the Cetners for Disease Control & Prevention (CDCP) for over twenty years. When invited, EPA has supplied technical assistance and advice on traking causative events, evaluation of drinking water problems...

  15. Source-Water Protection and Water-Quality Investigations in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Supply System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Norton, Chip; MacDonald, Timothy W.D.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction The Cambridge Water Department (CWD) supplies about 15 million gallons of water each day to more than 95,000 customers in the City of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Most of this water is obtained from a system of reservoirs located in Cambridge and in parts of five other suburban-Boston communities. The drainage basin that contributes water to these reservoirs includes several potential sources of drinking-water contaminants, including major highways, secondary roads, areas of commercial and industrial development, and suburban residential tracts. The CWD is implementing a comprehensive Source-Water Protection Plan to ensure that the highest quality water is delivered to the treatment plant. A key element of this plan is a program that combines systematic monitoring of the drainage basin with detailed investigations of the effects of nonpoint-source contaminants, such as highway-deicing chemicals, nutrients, oxygen-demanding organic compounds, bacteria, and trace metals arising from stormwater runoff. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working with the CWD and the Massachusetts Highway Department (MassHighway) to develop a better understanding of the sources, transport, and fate of many of these contaminants. This Fact Sheet describes source-water protection and water-quality investigations currently underway in the Cambridge drinking-water supply system. The investigations are designed to complement a national effort by the USGS to provide water suppliers and regulatory agencies with information on the vulnerability of water supplies and the movement and fate of source-water contaminants.

  16. Water supply development and tariffs in Tanzania: From free water policy towards cost recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashauri, Damas A.; Katko, Tapio S.

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the historical development of water tariff policy in Tanzania from the colonial times to present. After gaining independence, the country introduced “free” water policy in its rural areas. Criticism against this policy was expressed already in the 1970s, but it was not until the late 1980s that change became unavoidable. All the while urban water tariffs continued to decline in real terms. In rural and periurban areas of Tanzania consumers often have to pay substantial amounts of money for water to resellers and vendors since the public utilities are unable to provide operative service. Besides, only a part of the water bills are actually collected. Now that the free water supply policy has been officially abandoned, the development of water tariffs and the institutions in general are a great challenge for the country.

  17. A model of household choice of water supply systems in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madanat, Samer; Humplick, Frannie

    1993-05-01

    Studies of pipe water demand in developing countries have traditionally analyzed household connection decisions to the pipe water system. On the other hand, empirical observations have revealed that often, after connecting, households do not use their pipe water supply, or augment it with alternative sources. Due to deficiencies in pipe water quality, pressure, or availability, households invest in coping strategies in the form of alternative supplies and storage facilities. Because these strategies have important economic implications, there is a need to develop an understanding of households' water demand that goes beyond connection decisions. This paper presents a model system of household water supply choices. The system accounts for the fact that households may use different supply systems for different uses of water. Moreover, the relation between households' choices of water supply and their connection decisions is explicitly modeled. The approach is illustrated using data from Faisalabad, Pakistan.

  18. 76 FR 45253 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to the EPA's Ground Water Rule. The EPA has determined that...

  19. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy... Water, ] 243 Israel Road SE., 2nd floor, Tumwater, Washington 98501 and between the hours of 9:00...

  20. 76 FR 5157 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term Regulatory Revisions... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... that the State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy...

  1. Using an Integrated Hydrologic-Economic Model to Develop Minimum Cost Water Supply Portfolios and Manage Supply Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Characklis, G. W.; Ramsey, J.

    2004-12-01

    Water scarcity has become a reality in many areas as a result of population growth, fewer available sources, and reduced tolerance for the environmental impacts of developing the new supplies that do exist. As a result, successfully managing future water supply risk will become more dependent on coordinating the use of existing resources. Toward that end, flexible supply strategies that can rapidly respond to hydrologic variability will provide communities with increasing economic advantages, particularly if the frequency of more extreme events (e.g., drought) increases due to global climate change. Markets for established commodities (e.g., oil, gas) often provide a framework for efficiently responding to changes in supply and demand. Water markets, however, have remained relatively crude, with most transactions involving permanent transfers and long regulatory processes. Recently, interest in the use of flexible short-term transfers (e.g., leases, options) has begun to motivate consideration of more sophisticated strategies for managing supply risk, strategies similar to those used in more mature markets. In this case, communities can benefit from some of the advantages that water enjoys over other commodities, in particular, the ability to accurately characterize the stochastic nature of supply and demand through hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic-economic models are developed for two different water scarce regions supporting active water markets: Edward Aquifer and Lower Rio Grande Valley. These models are used to construct portfolios of water supply transfers (e.g., permanent transfers, options, and spot leases) that minimize the cost of meeting a probabilistic reliability constraint. Real and simulated spot price distributions allow each type of transfer to be priced in a manner consistent with financial theory (e.g., Black-Scholes). Market simulations are integrated with hydrologic models such that variability in supply and demand are linked with price behavior

  2. Groundwater for urban water supplies in northern China - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaisheng, Han

    Groundwater plays an important role for urban and industrial water supply in northern China. More than 1000 groundwater wellfields have been explored and installed. Groundwater provides about half the total quantity of the urban water supply. Complete regulations and methods for the exploration of groundwater have been established in the P.R. China. Substantial over-exploitation of groundwater has created environmental problems in some cities. Some safeguarding measures for groundwater-resource protection have been undertaken. Résumé Les eaux souterraines jouent un rôle important dans l'approvisionnement en eau des agglomérations et des industries du nord de la Chine. Les explorations ont conduit à mettre en place plus de 1000 champs de puits captant des eaux souterraines. Les eaux souterraines satisfont environ la moitié des besoins en eau des villes. Une réglementation complète et des méthodes d'exploration des eaux souterraines ont étéétablies en République Populaire de Chine. Une surexploitation très nette est à l'origine de problèmes environnementaux dans certaines villes. Des mesures ont été prises pour protéger la ressource en eau souterraine. Resumen El agua subterránea desempeña un papel importante en el suministro de agua para uso doméstico e industrial en la China septentrional. Se han explorado y puesto en marcha más de 1000 campos de explotación de aguas subterráneas, que proporcionan cerca de la mitad del total del suministro urbano. En la República Popular de China se han definido totalmente la legislación y la metodología para realizar estas explotaciones. La gran sobreexplotación en algunas ciudades ha creado algunos problemas medioambientales. Como consecuencia, se han llevado a cabo algunas medidas de protección de los recursos de aguas subterráneas.

  3. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, A. J.; Newell, Joshua P.; Cousins, Joshua J.

    2015-11-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water-energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal.

  4. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is...

  5. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is...

  6. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is...

  7. Nanotechnology for a safe and sustainable water supply: enabling integrated water treatment and reuse.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaolei; Brame, Jonathon; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2013-03-19

    Ensuring reliable access to clean and affordable water is one of the greatest global challenges of this century. As the world's population increases, water pollution becomes more complex and difficult to remove, and global climate change threatens to exacerbate water scarcity in many areas, the magnitude of this challenge is rapidly increasing. Wastewater reuse is becoming a common necessity, even as a source of potable water, but our separate wastewater collection and water supply systems are not designed to accommodate this pressing need. Furthermore, the aging centralized water and wastewater infrastructure in the developed world faces growing demands to produce higher quality water using less energy and with lower treatment costs. In addition, it is impractical to establish such massive systems in developing regions that currently lack water and wastewater infrastructure. These challenges underscore the need for technological innovation to transform the way we treat, distribute, use, and reuse water toward a distributed, differential water treatment and reuse paradigm (i.e., treat water and wastewater locally only to the required level dictated by the intended use). Nanotechnology offers opportunities to develop next-generation water supply systems. This Account reviews promising nanotechnology-enabled water treatment processes and provides a broad view on how they could transform our water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The extraordinary properties of nanomaterials, such as high surface area, photosensitivity, catalytic and antimicrobial activity, electrochemical, optical, and magnetic properties, and tunable pore size and surface chemistry, provide useful features for many applications. These applications include sensors for water quality monitoring, specialty adsorbents, solar disinfection/decontamination, and high performance membranes. More importantly, the modular, multifunctional and high-efficiency processes enabled by nanotechnology provide a

  8. Decade of clean water. [Declaration of 1980s as International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.

    1980-11-06

    A 10-year United Nations program will attempt to improve drinking water quality for 1.8 billion people and sanitation facilities for 2.4 billion people who represent an increasing share of Third World populations that lacks these necessities. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD) addresses issues of both moral and economic implications if it succeeds in developing a social framework in which population growth can be controlled. Obstacles to this massive undertaking include its high cost, a stubborn adherence to expensive sewerage systems, poor understanding of how a community organizes to maintain and operate water-supply and sanitation systems, difficulty in linking the two programs, and the lack of institutions and skilled labor to carry out the program. A strategy adaptable to urban areas can use existing institutions to develop the system on a paid basis, while a free or easy-access concept should be adopted for rural areas. (DCK)

  9. Optimal crop selection and water allocation under limited water supply in irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stange, Peter; Grießbach, Ulrike; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with limited water resources in irrigation systems, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand at the same time. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). These functions take into account different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. The SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies.

  10. Integrated water resource management under water supply and irrigation development uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, E.; Elshorbagy, A. A.; Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.; Gober, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada, supports various water demands including municipal, industrial, irrigated agriculture, hydropower and environmental sectors. Proposals for future development include significantly increased irrigation. However, proposing an appropriate level of irrigation development requires incorporation of water supply uncertainties in the water resources management analysis, including effects of climate variability and change. To evaluate potential climate change effects, a feasible range of shifts in annual volume and peak timing of headwater flows are considered to stochastically generate flows at the Alberta/Saskatchewan border. This envelope of flows, 30,800 realizations, is further combined with various irrigation expansion areas to form various future scenarios. Using an integrated water resources model developed for Saskatchewan, the impact of irrigation development on the system is assessed under the changing water supply conditions. The results of this study show that level of irrigation development as well as variation in volume and peak timing of flows can all contribute to change the water availability, vulnerability and economic productivity of the water resources system in Saskatchewan. In particular, the combined effect of large irrigation expansion, reduction in the volume of flows and earlier timing of the annual peak can exacerbate water resources system vulnerability, produce unstable net revenues, and decrease flood frequency in the Saskatchewan River Delta.

  11. Large-scale water resources management within the framework of GLOWA-Danube—The water supply model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Darla; Barthel, Roland; Braun, Juergen

    The research project GLOWA-Danube, financed by the German Federal Government, investigates long-term changes in the water cycle of the upper Danube river basin in light of global climatic change. Its aim is to build a fully integrated decision support tool “DANUBIA” that combines the competence of eleven institutes in domains covering all major aspects governing the water cycle. The research group “Groundwater and Water Supply” at the Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (IWS), Universitaet Stuttgart, contributes a three-dimensional groundwater flow model and a large-scale water supply model which simulate both water availability and quality and water supply and the related costs for global change scenarios. This article addresses the task of creating an agent-based model of the water supply sector. The water supply model links the various physical models determining water quality and availability on the one hand and the so-called “Actor” models calculating water demand on the other by determining the actual water supply and the costs related, which underlie both technical and physical constraints (e.g., existing infrastructure and its capacity, water availability and quality, geology, elevation, etc.). In reality, water supply within the study is organised through a three-tiered structure: long-distance, regional, and a multitude of community-based suppliers. In order to model this system in which each supply company defines its own optimum, an agent-based modelling approach (implemented using JAVA) was chosen. This approach is novel to modelling water supply in that not only water supply infrastructure but more importantly the decision makers (communities, water supply companies) are represented as generalised objects, capable of performing actions following rules that are determined by the class they belong to.

  12. Post-fire water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for potable water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Nyman, Petter; Haydon, Shane

    2010-05-01

    In many locations fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. For example, in south-eastern Australia, wildfires have burned part or all of forest catchments supplying drinking water to Sydney (2001 wildfire), Canberra (2003), Adelaide (2007), Melbourne (2009), as well as various regional towns. Generally, undisturbed forest catchments are a source of high quality water. However, increases in erosion and sediment flux, runoff generation, and changes to the supply of key constituents after wildfire may result in contamination of water supplies. In this review, we present key physical and chemical constituents from a drinking water perspective that may be generated in burned forest catchments and examine post-fire changes to concentrations of these constituents in streams and reservoirs. The World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water guideline values were used to assess reported post-fire constituent concentrations. Constituents examined include suspended sediment, ash, nutrients, trace metals, anions (Cl-, SO42-), cyanides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Constituent concentrations in streams and reservoirs vary substantially following wildfire. In streams, maximum reported total suspended solid concentrations (SSC) in the first year after fire ranged from 11 to 143,000 mg L-1. SSC is often measured in studies of post-fire stream water quality, whereas turbidity is used in drinking water guidelines and more commonly monitored in water supply reservoirs. For burned catchment reservoirs in south-eastern Australia, peak turbidities increased over pre-fire conditions, as did the frequency of exceedance of the turbidity guideline. NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ may increase after wildfire but maximum recorded concentrations have not exceeded WHO guideline values. Large post-fire increases in total N and total P concentrations in streams and reservoirs have been observed, although there are no

  13. Isotopic metrics for structure, connectivity, and residence time in urban water supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Gabriel; Kennedy, Casey; Good, Stephen; Ehleringer, James

    2014-05-01

    Public water supply systems are the life-blood of urban areas, accessing, managing, and distributing water from an often complex array of sources to provide on-demand access to safe, potable water at the point-of-use. Water managers are faced with a wide range of potential threats, ranging from climate change to infrastructure failure to supply contamination. Information on the structure of supply and conveyance systems, connectivity within these systems, and links between the point-of-use and environmental water sources are thus critical to assessing the stability of water supplies and responding efficiently and effectively to water supply threats. We report datasets documenting stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of public supply water in cities of the United States across a range of scales. The data show a wide range of spatial and temporal variability that can be attributed to a combination of regional hydroclimate and water supply characteristics. Comparisons of public supply waters with model-based estimates of the isotopic composition of regional water sources suggests that major factors reflected in the tap water data include the degree of fragmentation of natural and man-made storage and conveyance systems, inter-basinal transfer of water, evaporative losses, and the total residence time of the natural and artificial systems being exploited. Because each of these factors contributes to determining the sustainability of water supply systems and their sensitivity to environmental disturbance, we propose a set of isotope-based metrics that can be used to efficiently assess and monitor the characteristics of public-supply systems in water security assessments and in support of management, planning, and outreach activities.

  14. Photovoltaic water pumps, an attractive tool for rural drinking water supply

    SciTech Connect

    Posorski, R.

    1996-10-01

    Photovoltaic water pumps (PVP) are an attractive tool for a rural drinking water supply. An international field testing programme verified the technical maturity of PVP and their reliable field operation. Within well defined site selection criteria, the PVP are competitive with or the least-cost option for replacing small diesel-driven pumps. Introduced to the users through an appropriate community participation concept, the PVP achieved a high level of acceptance by the users, as evidenced by their willingness to pay for the consumed water. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Beyond extreme temperatures: soil water supply and yield variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, D.; Lobell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme weather events have profound consequences for both the mean and interannual variability of agricultural production, but while the role of extreme heat has been convincingly demonstrated, soil water supply has received less attention. In particular, there is debate over the extent to which damages attributed to extreme heat are confounded with drought conditions. In a pair of studies, we examine the effect of extreme moisture conditions, both wet and dry, on maize and soybean yields in the U.S. We find significant effects of waterlogging during the planting season, when crops are most vulnerable to excess moisture, as well as evidence for a strong interaction between high temperatures and low moisture during during the critical stages of the summer growing season. Using both precipitation and model-derived soil moisture data, our results suggest that considering temperature and moisture independently will underestimate yield damages during hot, dry conditions. Many warming scenarios project increases in both extreme summer temperatures and soil dryness, and considering these effects jointly can be important in estimating future yield variability.

  16. Pattern Scaling for Developing Change Scenarios in Water Supply Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandhi, A.; Pierson, D.; Frie, A.

    2014-12-01

    Change factor methodology (CFM), or delta change factor methodology, is a type of pattern scaling. Although a variety of methods are available to develop scenarios, CFMs are widely used for their ease and speed of application and their capability to directly scale local data according to changes suggested by the global climate model (GCM) scenarios. Change factors (CFs) can be calculated and used in a number of ways to estimate future climate scenarios, but no clear guidelines are available in the literature to decide which methodologies are most suitable for different applications. This study compares and contrasts several categories of CFM (additive versus multiplicative and single versus multiple) for a number of climate variables. The study employs several theoretical examples as well as an applied study from the New York City water supply. Results show that in cases where the frequency distribution of the GCM baseline climate is close to the frequency distribution of the observed climate, or when the frequency distribution of the GCM future climate is close to the frequency distribution of the GCM baseline climate, additive and multiplicative single CFMs provide comparable results. Two options to guide the choice of CFM are suggested: the first is a detailed methodological analysis for choosing the most appropriate CFM, and the second is a default method for circumstances in which a detailed methodological analysis is too cumbersome.

  17. Many-objective optimization and visual analytics reveal key trade-offs for London's water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Huskova, Ivana; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Harou, Julien J.; Lambert, Chris; Reed, Patrick M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we link a water resource management simulator to multi-objective search to reveal the key trade-offs inherent in planning a real-world water resource system. We consider new supplies and demand management (conservation) options while seeking to elucidate the trade-offs between the best portfolios of schemes to satisfy projected water demands. Alternative system designs are evaluated using performance measures that minimize capital and operating costs and energy use while maximizing resilience, engineering and environmental metrics, subject to supply reliability constraints. Our analysis shows many-objective evolutionary optimization coupled with state-of-the art visual analytics can help planners discover more diverse water supply system designs and better understand their inherent trade-offs. The approach is used to explore future water supply options for the Thames water resource system (including London's water supply). New supply options include a new reservoir, water transfers, artificial recharge, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and seasonal tariffs. The Thames system's Pareto approximate portfolios cluster into distinct groups of water supply options; for example implementing a pipe refurbishment program leads to higher capital costs but greater reliability. This study highlights that traditional least-cost reliability constrained design of water supply systems masks asset combinations whose benefits only become apparent when more planning objectives are considered.

  18. Can groundwater secure drinking-water supply and supplementary irrigation in new settlements of North-West Cambodia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouillamoz, Jean Michel; Valois, Rémi; Lun, Sambo; Caron, Delphine; Arnout, Ludovic

    2016-02-01

    Since the end of the Cambodian Civil War in 1998, the population of the Oddar Meanchey province has drastically increased despite the lack of adequate infrastructure, including basic amenities such as drinking-water supply. To improve the access to drinking water, governmental and aid agencies have focussed on drilling shallow boreholes. The use of groundwater for irrigation is also a growing concern to cope with the occasional late arrival of the rainy season or to produce food during the dry season. Since the groundwater resource in the province has not been documented, a 4-year study was undertaken (2011-2014), aiming to estimate the capability of groundwater to supply domestic needs and supplementary irrigation for rice production. Aquifer properties were estimated by combined use of hydrogeological techniques with the geophysical magnetic resonance sounding method. Groundwater storage and recharge were estimated based on new developments in the application of the geophysical method for quantifying specific yield. The median groundwater storage of the targeted sandstone aquifer is 173 mm, the recharge is diffuse and annually ranges from 10 to 70 mm, and the transmissivity is low to medium. Simulations of pumping indicate that the aquifer can easily supply 100 L of drinking water per capita daily, even considering the estimated population in 2030. However, the shallow aquifer can generally not deliver enough water to irrigate paddy fields of several hectares during a 2-month delay in the onset of the monsoon.

  19. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  20. What works in water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries with EWB-USA.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Melissa J

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) reports some progress on the global problem of a lack of improved water and sanitation. Between 1990 and 2012, the number of people that gained improved access to improved drinking water reached 2.3 billion people, while the number of children that have died from diarrheal diseases has fallen from 1.5 million deaths to just above 600,000 deaths (1, 2). However, it is estimated that there are still 1.8 billion people using a fecally contaminated source of drinking water (3). In addition, 748 million people continue to lack clean water, 1 billion continue to practice open defecation, and 2.5 billion people still lack adequate sanitation (3). In response to this global issue, Engineers Without Borders USA (EWB-USA) began with a mission to build a better world through engineering projects that empower communities to meet their basic human needs and equip leaders to solve the world's most pressing challenges. Their 15,000+ members work with communities to find appropriate solutions to improve water supply, sanitation, energy, agriculture, civil works and structures. Their development approach is based on standard engineering methodology, including problem identification, assessment, alternatives analysis, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. EWB-USA began in 2002 and currently has members working in over 40 countries around the world. The majority of their work is focused in Latin America and Africa, but their programs are expanding to Asia and the Pacific Basin. Currently, EWB-USA members are working in 17 programs in six countries, including the Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia, India, Nepal, and Fiji. Success in these programs is defined by measuring overall impact and learning from failure. Impact is measured through Standard Monitoring Indicators and learning is accomplished by documenting failures and lessons learned. Through this work, the organization has impacted 2.5 million lives through primarily water supply and

  1. Allocation of Augmented Water Supply Under a Priority Water Rights System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, L. P.; Labadie, J. W.; Hutchison, I. P. G.; Ferguson, K. A.

    1986-07-01

    A generalized network flow model has been developed to simulate the allocation of additional water supplies in a river basin with observance of the prior appropriation doctrine of water rights and other legal requirements such as interstate compact agreements. The computer model, called MODSIMR, is capable of simulating complex river basin morphology while incorporating a relational data base management system for efficiently accessing prioritized water rights. Program MODSIMR is a generalized model designed to be applicable to a wide variety of river basins operating under an appropriative water rights system. As a demonstration of its usage, MODSIMR was applied to the Rio Grande Basin of Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas for predicting allocation and use of increased runoff from simulated silvicultural activities on the Rio Grande National Forest. Results indicate that under the current institutional framework, increased runoff would primarily be allocated to agricultural users in Colorado. Computer results also showed the potential value to Colorado of the Closed Basin Project in the San Luis Valley and the possibility of determining optimal pumping schemes for the Project using MODSIMR. Program MODSIMR will be useful in future economic studies to determine the benefits of the augmented water supply under various water use scenarios.

  2. Optimal demand reponse to water pricing policies under limited water supply in irrigation: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grießbach, Ulkrike; Stange, Peter; Schuetze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with the higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local stochastic water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. These functions take into account different soil types, crops, stochastically generated climate scenarios considering different economic conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed and applied for a case study in Saxony which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies on a regional level.

  3. Linking land cover and water quality in New York City's water supply watersheds.

    PubMed

    Mehaffey, M H; Nash, M S; Wade, T G; Ebert, D W; Jones, K B; Rager, A

    2005-08-01

    The Catskill/Delaware reservoirs supply 90% of New York City's drinking water. The City has implemented a series of watershed protection measures, including land acquisition, aimed at preserving water quality in the Catskill/Delaware watersheds. The objective of this study was to examine how relationships between landscape and surface water measurements change between years. Thirty-two drainage areas delineated from surface water sample points (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria concentrations) were used in step-wise regression analyses to test landscape and surface-water quality relationships. Two measurements of land use, percent agriculture and percent urban development, were positively related to water quality and consistently present in all regression models. Together these two land uses explained 25 to 75% of the regression model variation. However, the contribution of agriculture to water quality condition showed a decreasing trend with time as overall agricultural land cover decreased. Results from this study demonstrate that relationships between land cover and surface water concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria counts over a large area can be evaluated using a relatively simple geographic information system method. Land managers may find this method useful for targeting resources in relation to a particular water quality concern, focusing best management efforts, and maximizing benefits to water quality with minimal costs. PMID:16418903

  4. Evaluation of the apparent losses caused by water meter under-registration in intermittent water supply.

    PubMed

    Criminisi, A; Fontanazza, C M; Freni, G; Loggia, G La

    2009-01-01

    Apparent losses are usually caused by water theft, billing errors, or revenue meter under-registration. While the first two causes are directly related to water utility management and may be reduced by improving company procedures, water meter inaccuracies are considered to be the most significant and hardest to quantify. Water meter errors are amplified in networks subjected to water scarcity, where users adopt private storage tanks to cope with the intermittent water supply. The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of two variables influencing the apparent losses: water meter age and the private storage tank effect on meter performance. The study was carried out in Palermo (Italy). The impact of water meter ageing was evaluated in laboratory by testing 180 revenue meters, ranging from 0 to 45 years in age. The effects of the private water tanks were determined via field monitoring of real users and a mathematical model. This study demonstrates that the impact on apparent losses from the meter starting flow rapidly increases with meter age. Private water tanks, usually fed by a float valve, overstate meter under-registration, producing additional apparent losses between 15% and 40% for the users analysed in this study. PMID:19901469

  5. On-plot drinking water supplies and health: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Overbo, Alycia; Williams, Ashley R; Evans, Barbara; Hunter, Paul R; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have found that household access to water supplies near or within the household plot can reduce the probability of diarrhea, trachoma, and other water-related diseases, and it is generally accepted that on-plot water supplies produce health benefits for households. However, the body of research literature has not been analyzed to weigh the evidence supporting this. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the impacts of on-plot water supplies on diarrhea, trachoma, child growth, and water-related diseases, to further examine the relationship between household health and distance to water source and to assess whether on-plot water supplies generate health gains for households. Studies provide evidence that households with on-plot water supplies experience fewer diarrheal and helminth infections and greater child height. Findings suggest that water-washed (hygiene associated) diseases are more strongly impacted by on-plot water access than waterborne diseases. Few studies analyzed the effects of on-plot water access on quantity of domestic water used, hygiene behavior, and use of multiple water sources, and the lack of evidence for these relationships reveals an important gap in current literature. The review findings indicate that on-plot water access is a useful health indicator and benchmark for the progressive realization of the Sustainable Development Goal target of universal safe water access as well as the human right to safe water. PMID:27118130

  6. Numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in a sea bay water area used for water supply to nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, A. S.

    2013-07-15

    Consideration is given to the numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in sea water areas used for both water supply to and dissipation of low-grade heat from a nuclear power plant on the shore of a sea bay.

  7. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration? 404.51 Section 404.51 Public Lands: Interior... SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies § 404.51 Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program... the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322...

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMICS OF WATER SUPPLY IN THE WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a result of a controversy arising over available water supply in the Washington Metropolitan Area, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, administrator for Region III, requested that a cost analysis of the water supply system in the Washington, D.C. area be made. The analys...

  9. DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR PIGNON, HAITI

    EPA Science Inventory

    In conducting a survey of the population we found that Pignon is in need of a sustainable water supply and distribution system. We had no prior available data on the town, so we collected elevation data, figured water demand and modeled it against the supply, mapped the entire...

  10. Water Supply. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-9-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on water supply is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 4-hour unit is to assist the firefighter in the proper use of water supplies and the understanding of the…

  11. 7 CFR 612.6 - Application for water supply forecast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application for water supply forecast service. 612.6 Section 612.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY...

  12. 7 CFR 612.6 - Application for water supply forecast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for water supply forecast service. 612.6 Section 612.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY...

  13. 7 CFR 612.6 - Application for water supply forecast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application for water supply forecast service. 612.6 Section 612.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY...

  14. 7 CFR 612.6 - Application for water supply forecast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application for water supply forecast service. 612.6 Section 612.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY...

  15. 7 CFR 612.6 - Application for water supply forecast service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application for water supply forecast service. 612.6 Section 612.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY...

  16. Characterization and Ground Water Management of two Rural Water Supply Sources in Kentucky and Illinois.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, S.

    2007-05-01

    Ground water flow and particle tracking simulations were performed to characterize ground water flow trends in two aquifers that serve as water supply sources for two rural communities in Kentucky and Illinois respectively. The objective was to evaluate ground water management issues related to well head protection and the potential of increasing withdrawal rates in high-yield wells to meet future demands in water supply. Also, the water quality implications of potential increases in yield were analyzed. The impact of future expansion of residential developments and sewage disposal systems on the migration of contaminants into the aquifer was considered. The aquifers mainly are composed of sand and gravel overlain by clay and silt sediments. Well log data and ground water measurements of the alluvial aquifer in western Kentucky indicated that it is semi-confined and can be as thick as 80 feet in most areas. The alluvial aquifer in south central Illinois essentially is unconfined with an average thickness of about 70 feet. The U.S. Geological Survey computer codes MODFLOW and MODPATH were used for all the model simulations. For the aquifer in Kentucky, the Ohio River formed the western boundary of the model area with the bluffs in the eastern part being modeled as a flux boundary. For the aquifer in Illinois, the Illinois River formed the eastern boundary with the bluffs in the western boundary serving as a flux boundary. An unconfined conceptual model and a two-layer unconfined/semi-confined model were considered. The observed field ground water levels matched the latter model better for the alluvial aquifer in Kentucky. However, a one layer model was best suited for the aquifer in Illinois. The sensitivity of hydraulic conductivity, river conductance and recharge to the flow simulations were performed. Capture zone and areas of recharge were demarcated for each aquifer. Withdrawal rates of existing wells were increased to mimic increased future water supply. The

  17. Longitudinal Study of Microbial Diversity and Seasonality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area Water Supply System

    PubMed Central

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Rojo-Callejas, Francisco; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    In the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA), 70% of the water for 18 million inhabitants is derived from the Basin of Mexico regional aquifer. To provide an overview of the quality of the groundwater, a longitudinal study was conducted, in which 30 sites were randomly selected from 1,575 registered extraction wells. Samples were taken before and after chlorine disinfection during both the rainy and dry seasons (2000-2001). Microbiological parameters (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, streptococci, and Vibrio spp.), the presence of Helicobacter pylori, and physicochemical parameters, including the amount of trihalomethanes (THMs), were determined. Although microorganisms and inorganic and organic compounds were evident, they did not exceed current permissible limits. Chlorine levels were low, and the bacterial counts were not affected by chlorine disinfection. Eighty-four bacterial species from nine genera normally associated with fecal contamination were identified in water samples. H. pylori was detected in at least 10% of the studied samples. About 40% of the samples surpassed the THM concentration allowed by Mexican and U.S. regulations, with levels of chloroform being high. The quality of the water distributed to the MCMA varied between the rainy and dry seasons, with higher levels of pH, nitrates, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, total organic carbon, and fecal streptococci during the dry season. This study showed that the groundwater distribution system is susceptible to contamination and that there is a need for a strict, year-round disinfection strategy to ensure adequate drinking-water quality. This situation in one of the world's megacities may reflect what is happening in large urban centers in developing countries which rely on a groundwater supply. PMID:16151096

  18. Hydrologic Analysis of Ungauged Catchments For The Supply of Water For Irrigation On Railway Embankment Batters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Y.; Nissen, D.

    Water has been identified as a key component to the success of grass establishment on railway embankment batters (side slope) within Central Queensland, Australia, to control erosion. However, the region under study being semi-arid experiences less than 600 mm average annual rainfall occurring on about 60 days of the year. Culverts and bridges are integral part of railway embankments. They are used to cross water courses, be it an ephemeral creek or just a surface runoff path. Surface runoff through an ungauged railway embankment culvert is diverted to a temporary excavated pond located at the downstream side of the hydraulic structure. The temporary excavated pond water is used to feed an automated drip irrigation system, with solar as a source of energy to drive a pump. Railway embankment batter erosion remediation is timed in the wet season when irrigation is used to supplement natural rainfall. Hydrologic analysis of ungauged catchments for sizing the temporary excavated pond is presented. It is based on scenarios of runoff coefficient and curve number, and mass curve (Rippl diagram). Three years of continuous rainfall data (1997/1998 -1999/2000) were used to design a pond. The performance of the designed pond was evaluated in a field experiment during the next wet season (2000/2001). It supplied adequate water for irrigation as predicted by the hydrologic analysis during the grass establishment. This helped to achieve 100% grass cover on the railway embankment batter within 12 weeks. The proposed irrigation system has been demonstrated t o be feasible and cost effective.

  19. Effects of modifying water environments on water supply and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, S.; Nguyen, H. T.; Takeda, T.; Tran, N. T.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increasing population and per-capita water demand, demands for water are increasing in many parts of the world. Consequently, overuse of limited water resources leaves only small amounts of water in rivers and is bringing about rapid drawdown of groundwater tables. Water resources are affected by human activities such as excessive inputs of nutrients and other contaminants, agriculture and aquaculture expansions, and many development activities. The combined effects of modifying the water environments, both in terms of quantity and quality, on water supply and human health are presented in the paper with some examples from the Asian countries. In rural and sub-urban areas in Bangladesh and Vietnam, for example, the traditional way of obtaining surface water from ponds had been replaced by taking groundwaters to avert the microbial health risks that had arisen from contamination by human wastes. Such a change of water sources, however, has brought about human health impact caused by arsenic on a massive scale. In Thailand, the industrial development has driven the residents to get groundwater leaden with very high fluoride. Monitoring the urine fluoride levels reveal the risk of drinking fluoride-laden groundwaters. Rivers are also affected by extensive exploitation such as sand mining. As a result, turbidity changes abruptly after a heavy rainfall. In cities, due to shrinking water resources they have to take poor quality waters from contaminated sources. Algal blooms are seen in many reservoirs and lakes due to increasing levels of nutrients. Hence, it is likely that algal toxins may enter the water supply systems. Because most of the water treatment plants are not designed to remove those known and unknown contaminants, it is estimated that quite a large number of people are now under the threat of the public health "gtime bomb,"h which may one day bring about mass-scale health problems. In order to mitigate the negative impacts of modifying the water

  20. Land use impact on water quality: valuing forest services in terms of the water supply sector.

    PubMed

    Fiquepron, Julien; Garcia, Serge; Stenger, Anne

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of the forest on raw water quality within the framework of other land uses. On the basis of measurements of quality parameters that were identified as being the most problematic (i.e., pesticides and nitrates), we modeled how water quality is influenced by land uses. In order to assess the benefits provided by the forest in terms of improved water quality, we used variations of drinking water prices that were determined by the operating costs of water supply services (WSS). Given the variability of links between forests and water quality, we chose to cover all of France using data observed in each administrative department (France is divided into 95 départements), including a description of WSS and information on land uses. We designed a model that describes the impact of land uses on water quality, as well as the operation of WSS and prices. This bioeconomic model was estimated by the generalized method of moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity and heteroscedasticity issues. We showed that the forest has a positive effect on raw water quality compared to other land uses, with an indirect impact on water prices, making them lower for consumers. PMID:23681358

  1. A survey of the microbiological quality of private water supplies in England.

    PubMed Central

    Rutter, M.; Nichols, G. L.; Swan, A.; De Louvois, J.

    2000-01-01

    Results from statutory testing of private water supplies in nine Public Health Laboratories in England were compiled, and the effects of supply class, source, treatment and location on water quality were examined. A total of 6551 samples from 2911 supplies was examined, over a 2-year period, of which 1342 (21%) samples, and 949 (33%) supplies on at least one occasion, failed current regulations for Escherichia coli. Total coliforms, including E. coli, were detected in 1751 (27%) samples from 1215 (42%) supplies. The percentage of samples positive for E. coli was highest in summer and autumn, and lowest in winter. Samples taken from larger supplies and from boreholes were less frequently contaminated than those from other sources. Chlorination, filtration or UV light treatment improved the bacteriological quality of supplies, but still resulted in a low level of compliance with the regulations. The public health implications of the study are discussed. PMID:10982065

  2. Stable isotope investigation of the Columbus, Ohio, water supply by examining precipitation, tap water, and surface/reservoir waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, D. L.; Lyons, W. B.

    2011-12-01

    Management of our water resources requires that human intervention as well as natural processes in the hydrologic cycle be fully understood, and integrated watershed management strategies be implemented to monitor variation and to maximize water resources. In this study of regional water supply, we utilize the stable isotopes of water to characterize the flow and relative residence time of water within a human-dominated watershed-reservoir system. Tap water, precipitation, and water from three reservoirs used for domestic water supply were collected in Franklin County, Ohio, from August 2010 until July 2011. Samples were analyzed for δ18O and δD by a Picarro WS-CRDS Analyzer for Isotopic Water - Model L1102-i at The Ohio State University. Reservoir waters (δ18O= -9.0% to -4.8% and δD= -61% to -30%) are more enriched during the spring/summer months and more depleted during the fall/winter months, following changes in precipitation and capacity of each reservoir. Tap water samples (δ18O= -9.1% to -4.3% and δD= -58% to -29%), distributed from the Dublin Road Water Plant (DRWP) which utilizes surface water from Griggs and O'Shaughnessy Reservoirs on the Scioto River, display an isotopic mixture of these reservoir waters and precipitation. These data demonstrates how quickly precipitation moves through the water conveyance system. Previously collected Columbus, Ohio, tap water samples reported by Bowen et al. (2007) demonstrated a seasonal lag in the city's water supply with more enriched precipitation from the summer months showing up in the water supply during the fall/winter seasons, and more depleted precipitation from winter months being part of the water supply in the spring/summer seasons. The tap water samples from the Bowen et al. (2007) study were distributed by Hap Cremean Water Plant (HPWP) that utilizes surface water from Hoover Reservoir on Big Walnut Creek. This isotopic signature of seasonal enrichment and depletion in the tap water that does not

  3. Occurrence of selected volatile organic compounds and soluble pesticides in Texas public water-supply source waters, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara June; Canova, Michael G.; Gary, Marcus O.

    2002-01-01

    During 1999?2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, collected samples of untreated water from 48 public water-supply reservoirs and 174 public water-supply wells. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and soluble pesticides; in addition, well samples were analyzed for nitrite plus nitrate and tritium. This fact sheet summarizes the findings of the source-water sampling and analyses. Both VOCs and pesticides were detected much more frequently in surface water than in ground water. The only constituent detected at concentrations exceeding the maximum contaminant level for drinking water was nitrate. These results will be used in the Texas Source-Water Assessment Program to evaluate the susceptibility of public water-supply source waters to contamination.

  4. Water supply, demand, and quality indicators for assessing the spatial distribution of water resource vulnerability in the Columbia River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Strecker, Angela; Wise, Daniel; Lafrenz, Martin; Shandas, Vivek; Moradkhani; Yeakley, Alan; Pan, Yangdong; Johnson, Gunnar; Psaris, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We investigated water resource vulnerability in the US portion of the Columbia River basin (CRB) using multiple indicators representing water supply, water demand, and water quality. Based on the US county scale, spatial analysis was conducted using various biophysical and socio-economic indicators that control water vulnerability. Water supply vulnerability and water demand vulnerability exhibited a similar spatial clustering of hotspots in areas where agricultural lands and variability of precipitation were high but dam storage capacity was low. The hotspots of water quality vulnerability were clustered around the main stem of the Columbia River where major population and agricultural centres are located. This multiple equal weight indicator approach confirmed that different drivers were associated with different vulnerability maps in the sub-basins of the CRB. Water quality variables are more important than water supply and water demand variables in the Willamette River basin, whereas water supply and demand variables are more important than water quality variables in the Upper Snake and Upper Columbia River basins. This result suggests that current water resources management and practices drive much of the vulnerability within the study area. The analysis suggests the need for increased coordination of water management across multiple levels of water governance to reduce water resource vulnerability in the CRB and a potentially different weighting scheme that explicitly takes into account the input of various water stakeholders.

  5. Estimate of self-supplied domestic water use in Oklahoma during 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoner, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Reported or measured water-use data for the domestic self-supplied user were not available for Oklahoma; therefore estimates of water use within this classification were derived. The total self-supplied population in Oklahoma during 1980 was estimated to be 343,615, which was 11.4 percent of the total 1980 State population. The rate of water use by this group was estimated to be 56 gallons per capita per day. The estimated annual domestic self-supplied water use by county ranged from 10 to 1,180 acre-feet, with a total statewide use of 21,610 acre-feet.

  6. [EXPERIMENTAL GROUNDS ON POSSIBILITY TO MAKE AND TO USE PREDICTION MODELS OF PESTICIDES DESIGN STANDARD IN THE WATER OF PONDS USED FOR HOUSEHOLD AND DRINKING WATER SUPPLY].

    PubMed

    Vavrinevych, O P; Omel'chuk, S T

    2015-01-01

    Taking into account the fact that current calculation methods for substantiation of standards in the water of water reservoirs valid in Ukraine are outdated the aim of our research was to scientifically substantiate the possibility to make and to use prediction models of pesticides design standard in the water of ponds used for household and drinking water supply. Array of experimentally substantiated and approved to use in Ukraine maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) of organic pesticides active ingredients in the water was analyzed (n = 201). Analysis of dependence between MAC value of pesticides in the water and its physical and chemical properties, indices of ecotoxicological hazard and persistency in the water was carried out using correlation and regression analysis methods. Twelve regression equations to establish design value of pesticides MAC in the water were proposed on the grounds of performed analysis. The results of reliability testing of proposed procedure on pesticides design tentatively allowable levels (TAL) in the water indicate on needs to apply the least value of TAL obtained in the process of calculations using proposed equations. It was proved that mathematical models proposed for prediction of pesticide design standard in the water are adequate and significant by Fisher's test (P < 0.05). Proposed algorithm allows considerably simplify procedure of obtaining temporary hygienic standard in the water for new pesticides. PMID:27491169

  7. Sustainable energy development and water supply security in Kamojang Geothermal Field: The Energy-Water Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofyan, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Fujimitsu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Kamojang Geothermal Field (KGF) is a typical vapor dominated hydrothermal system in West Java, Indonesia. This geothermal field is the oldest exploited geothermal field in Indonesia. From 1983 to 2005, more than 160 million tons of steam have been exploited from the KGF and more than 30 million tons of water were injected into the reservoir system. The injected water come from condensed water, local river and ground water. Sustainable production in the geothermal energy development is the ability of the production system applied to sustain the stable production level over long times and to manage the mass balance between production, injection and natural recharge in the geothermal reservoir during exploitation. Mass balance in the reservoir system can be monitored by using time lapse gravity monitoring. Mass variation of hydrodynamic in the reservoir of KGF from 1999 to 2005 is about -3.34 Mt/year while is about -3.78 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Another period between 2009 and 2010, mass variation decreased about -8.24 Mt. According to the history of production and injection, natural recharge to the KGF's reservoir is estimated at about 2.77 Mt/year from 1999 to 2005 and 2.75 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Between 2009 and 2010, KGF has a bigger mass deficiency rate throughout 200 MWe maintain production. Large amount of fresh water is needed for sustainable geothermal energy production, while the domestic water supply need is also increased. Natural recharge, about 50% of injected water, cooling system, drilling and other production activities in KGF spend large amounts of fresh water. Water consumption for local people around KGF is about 1.46 MT/year. The water volume around KGF of total runoff is the range between dry season 0.07 MT/month and rainy season 4.4 MT/month. The water demands for sustainable geothermal production of KGF and for local people's consumption will increase in the future. Integrated planning between the energy and water sectors in KGF

  8. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rygaard, M; Godskesen, B; Jørgensen, C; Hoffmann, B

    2014-11-01

    Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields. A former industrial harbor area in Copenhagen, Denmark, is currently under development and all infrastructure will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. To reduce stress on water resources it has been proposed to establish a secondary water supply in the area as an alternative to the conventional groundwater-based drinking water supply. Four alternative concepts for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) slightly polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3) desalinated brackish water for all uses, including drinking water, and 4) local reclamation of rain and gray water for use in toilets and laundry. The concepts have been evaluated for their technical feasibility, economy, health risks, and public acceptance, while the concepts' environmental sustainability has been assessed using lifecycle assessment and freshwater use impact methods. The holistic assessment method exposes conflicting preference solutions depending on assessment criteria, and reveals multi-faceted consequences for choices in urban water management. Not one concept turns out unambiguously positive based on the evaluation criteria included here, but the systematic evaluation will leave decision-makers informed on the consequences of their choices. PMID:25150737

  9. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Project Review Under Section 3.8 of the Compact § 401.36 Water...

  10. Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women. Women in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roark, Paula

    As the traditional water carriers and water managers, third world women are crucial to the success of rural water supply projects whose short term goal is increased water quality and quantity and whose long term goal is improved family health. Change depends on the utilization of local learning systems of the society and women are most often the…

  11. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... County Rural Water Project Appraisal Report addresses the County's extremely low recharge into and high... groundwater supplies with an alternative source of water. The proposed alternative includes water treatment... system from a field of groundwater wells in the Utica, Montana area. Water pumped from the...

  12. Meeting the Water Supply Challenges of Climate Change: Water User Perspectives and Institutional Hurdles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.; Behar, D.; Ozekin, K.; Brown, E.; Fleming, P.

    2008-12-01

    Many of the impacts of climate change will be manifested through modifications to the water cycle including changes in precipitation amounts and intensity, snowpack, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation. In the last few years many Western water providers have begun to take notice of these impacts and have initiated the process of analyzing their vulnerabilities, incorporating the science, and engaging the public. One such group is the Water Utility Climate Alliance, a consortium of 8 large utilities including Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Metropolitan Water District (Greater Los Angeles), San Diego, Las Vegas, Denver, and New York City. Water trade groups such as The Water Research Foundation (WRF, formerly AWWARF) and the Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA) are also pursuing climate change strategies. WRF now has a $1m/year Climate Change Strategic Initiative focused on providing usable science for its members. The Western Water Assessment, one of the NOAA-funded Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments, functions as a boundary organization by facilitating the interaction between the scientific and water provider communities and by providing usable science. At times this process is rapid, uncertain, uncomfortable, and discomforting given the different cultures, knowledge bases, and constantly evolving science. The process can be enormously fruitful as well. Water providers have the political power, incentives and opportunities to influence federal and state funding as well as scientific research priorities. Overlaid over all of these activities is the possibility of a new National Climate Service which would provide substantial and much needed resources for adapting our critical water supply systems to the impacts of climate change.

  13. An Integrated Framework for Analysis of Water Supply Strategies in a Developing City: Chennai, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Goulder, L.

    2009-12-01

    Indian cities are facing a severe water crisis: rapidly growing population, low tariffs, high leakage rates, inadequate reservoir storage, are straining water supply systems, resulting in unreliable, intermittent piped supply. Conventional approaches to studying the problem of urban water supply have typically considered only centralized piped supply by the water utility. Specifically, they have tended to overlook decentralized actions by consumers such as groundwater extraction via private wells and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We present an innovative integrative framework for analyzing urban water supply in Indian cities. The framework is used in a systems model of water supply in the city of Chennai, India that integrates different components of the urban water system: water flows into the reservoir system, diversion and distribution by the public water utility, groundwater flow in the urban aquifer, informal water markets and consumer behavior. Historical system behavior from 2002-2006 is used to calibrate the model. The historical system behavior highlights the buffering role of the urban aquifer; storing water in periods of surplus for extraction by consumers via private wells. The model results show that in Chennai, distribution pipeline leaks result in the transfer of water from the inadequate reservoir system to the urban aquifer. The systems approach also makes it possible to evaluate and compare a wide range of centralized and decentralized policies. Three very different policies: Supply Augmentation (desalination), Efficiency Improvement (raising tariffs and fixing pipe leaks), and Rainwater Harvesting (recharging the urban aquifer by capturing rooftop and yard runoff) were evaluated using the model. The model results suggest that a combination of Rainwater Harvesting and Efficiency Improvement best meets our criteria of welfare maximization, equity, system reliability, and utility profitability. Importantly, the study shows that

  14. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER... eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not limited to,...

  15. 'LEGIONELLA' INCIDENCE AND DENSITY IN POTABLE DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The incidence and density of Legionella spp. in raw water, water at various stages of treatment, and in potable distribution water were determined by direct immunofluorescence. The number of cells reacting with Legionella-specific fluorescent antibody conjugates in raw waters ran...

  16. BENEFITS OF MAINTAINING A CHLORINE RESIDUAL IN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protection afforded the water consumer by the maintenance of a chlorine residual in water distribution systems was evaluated in laboratory holding tanks and reservoirs and existing municipal water distribution systems. In the laboratory studies, tap water, adjusted to the app...

  17. Quantitative assessment of resilience of a water supply system under rainfall reduction due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarasinghe, Pradeep; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Barnes, Paul; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-01

    A water supply system can be impacted by rainfall reduction due to climate change, thereby reducing its supply potential. This highlights the need to understand the system resilience, which refers to the ability to maintain service under various pressures (or disruptions). Currently, the concept of resilience has not yet been widely applied in managing water supply systems. This paper proposed three technical resilience indictors to assess the resilience of a water supply system. A case study analysis was undertaken of the Water Grid system of Queensland State, Australia, to showcase how the proposed indicators can be applied to assess resilience. The research outcomes confirmed that the use of resilience indicators is capable of identifying critical conditions in relation to the water supply system operation, such as the maximum allowable rainfall reduction for the system to maintain its operation without failure. Additionally, resilience indicators also provided useful insight regarding the sensitivity of the water supply system to a changing rainfall pattern in the context of climate change, which represents the system's stability when experiencing pressure. The study outcomes will help in the quantitative assessment of resilience and provide improved guidance to system operators to enhance the efficiency and reliability of a water supply system.

  18. Residents’ perceptions of institutional performance in water supply in Dar es Salaam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    This paper addresses the performance of institutions in water supply systems for improving social and economic benefits of people living in Dar es Salaam city. The methods employed in field data and information collection included interviews, questionnaire, focus group discussions and participatory observation. Kinondoni and Ilala Districts were used as case study. The study revealed that, the main water sources in the study areas are boreholes, shallow wells, rain water and water vendors. Other minor sources are piped water and natural water sources, such as rivers and streams. The supply of piped water by Dar es Salaam Water Sewerage and Sanitation Company (DAWASA/DAWASCO) meets only 45% of the total water demands. Individuals own and sell water from boreholes, shallow wells, piped water connected to their individual houses and natural wells located in their individual plots. The price of one 20 l bucket of water from a water vendor depends on the availability of water and the distance walked from the water source to the customer. Majority of the respondents (77.5%) indicated that individual water delivery systems provide sufficient water as compared to five years ago in the study areas. Few of the respondents (6.3%) said individual water delivery systems have no capacity to provide sufficient water while 16.3% indicate that individual water delivery systems provide moderate water supply but are important in supplementing other water providers in the study areas. The study reveals that a majority of the local population are satisfied with the capacity of individual water delivery systems in providing water for household uses. This paper recommends some improvements to be done to water supply systems in the Dar es Salaam city.

  19. Economic concepts to address future water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellegers, Petra; Immerzeel, Walter; Droogers, Peter

    2013-10-01

    In Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, renewable groundwater and surface water supply are limited while demand for water is growing rapidly. Climate change is expected to increase water demand even further. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia in 2040-2050 under dry, average and wet climate change projections and to show on the basis of the marginal cost and marginal value of water the optimum mix of supply-side and demand-side adjustments to address the imbalance. A hydrological model has been used to estimate the water supply-demand imbalance. Water supply and demand curves have been used to explore for which (marginal value of) water usage the marginal cost of supply-enhancement becomes too expensive. The results indicate that in the future in all cases, except in Iran under the wet climate projection, the quantity of water demanded has to be reduced considerably to address the imbalance, which is indeed what is currently happening already.

  20. Chemical, physical, and radiological quality of selected public water supplies in Florida, February-April 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franks, Bernard J.; Irwin, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Virtually all treated public water supplies in Florida meet the National Interim Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. These findings are based on a water-quality reconnaissance of 126 raw and treated public water supplies throughout the State during the period February through April 1980. Primary drinking water regulations maximum contaminant levels were rarely exceeded, although mercury (1 site), fluoride (2 sites), and radionuclides (3 sites) in water supplies were above established maximum contaminant levels. Dissolved solids, chloride, copper, manganese, iron, color, sulfate, and pH, were occasionally slightly in excess of the recommended maximum contaminant levels of the secondary drinking water regulation. The secondary regulations, however, pertain mainly to the esthetic quality of drinking water and not directly to public health aspects. (USGS)

  1. Microbial contamination of groundwater at small community water supplies in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Tarja; Karinen, Päivi; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Lettojärvi, Heidi; Heikkilä, Annika; Maunula, Reetta; Aula, Vesa; Kuronen, Henry; Vepsäläinen, Asko; Nousiainen, Liina-Lotta; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2011-06-01

    The raw water quality and associations between the factors considered as threats to water safety were studied in 20 groundwater supplies in central Finland in 2002-2004. Faecal contaminations indicated by the appearance of Escherichia coli or intestinal enterococci were present in five small community water supplies, all these managed by local water cooperatives. Elevated concentrations of nutrients in raw water were linked with the presence of faecal bacteria. The presence of on-site technical hazards to water safety, such as inadequate well construction and maintenance enabling surface water to enter into the well and the insufficient depth of protective soil layers above the groundwater table, showed the vulnerability of the quality of groundwater used for drinking purposes. To minimize the risk of waterborne illnesses, the vulnerable water supplies need to be identified and appropriate prevention measures such as disinfection should be applied. PMID:21809781

  2. Implementation of the national desalination and water purification technology roadmap : structuring and directing the development of water supply solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Kevin M.; Dorsey, Zachary; Miller, G. Wade; Brady, Patrick Vane; Mulligan, Conrad; Rayburn, Chris

    2006-06-01

    In the United States, economic growth increasingly requires that greater volumes of freshwater be made available for new users, yet supplies of freshwater are already allocated to existing users. Currently, water for new users is made available through re-allocation of xisting water supplies-for example, by cities purchasing agricultural water rights. Water may also be made available through conservation efforts and, in some locales, through the development of ''new'' water from non-traditional sources such as the oceans, deep aquifer rackish groundwater, and water reuse.

  3. Quantitative sustainability and qualitative concerns in an irrigations system using recycled water to supplement limited groundwater supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowing, John; Alataway, Abed

    2013-04-01

    Sustainability of irrigation in a country facing water scarcity depends upon adoption of best management practices to deliver 'more crop per drop' together with use of recycled waste-water from urban sewage systems. Saudi Arabia is a country facing extreme water scarcity and in this paper we report on research conducted at an extensive irrigation system where a concerted effort over several years has been devoted to achieving a high level of water productivity. Al-Ahsa oasis is located about 60 km inland from the Persian Gulf and has been inhabited since prehistoric times, due to the abundance of water in an otherwise arid region. It is one of the largest oases in the world with 12,000 hectares of irrigated land and more than 2 million palm trees. Historically the oasis was watered by over 60 artesian springs, but water is now pumped from the aquifer. To supplement this groundwater source, treated waste-water reuse has been practiced since 1992 and now comprises 30% of total supply. In addition, a comparable amount of agricultural drainage water is collected and recycled, so that the 'first-use' water represents only 40% of total irrigation supply. While this re-use system permits sustained irrigation with greatly reduced groundwater abstraction, there is a potential down-side in that fertilizers and contaminants applied with irrigation water move through the soil and return to the irrigation supply enhancing the risk for human and animal health. We investigated this problem using E coli and helminth eggs as indicators of human health risk. We sampled each of the three sources which are delivered separately to the head of the main irrigation canal where they are blended. The groundwater was free from E coli and helminths and the treated wastewater source was generally within designated quality standards. The recycled drainage water was delivered untreated into the canal system and was found to be contaminated with both E coli and helminths above acceptable

  4. Prolonged exposure to arsenic in UK private water supplies: toenail, hair and drinking water concentrations.

    PubMed

    Middleton, D R S; Watts, M J; Hamilton, E M; Fletcher, T; Leonardi, G S; Close, R M; Exley, K S; Crabbe, H; Polya, D A

    2016-05-18

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in drinking water is an established cause of cancer and other adverse health effects. Arsenic concentrations >10 μg L(-1) were previously measured in 5% of private water supplies (PWS) in Cornwall, UK. The present study investigated prolongued exposure to As by measuring biomarkers in hair and toenail samples from 212 volunteers and repeated measurements of As in drinking water from 127 households served by PWS. Strong positive Pearson correlations (rp = 0.95) indicated stability of water As concentrations over the time period investigated (up to 31 months). Drinking water As concentrations were positively correlated with toenail (rp = 0.53) and hair (rp = 0.38) As concentrations - indicative of prolonged exposure. Analysis of washing procedure solutions provided strong evidence of the effective removal of exogenous As from toenail samples. Significantly higher As concentrations were measured in hair samples from males and smokers and As concentrations in toenails were negatively associated with age. A positive association between seafood consumption and toenail As and a negative association between home-grown vegetable consumption and hair As was observed for volunteers exposed to <1 As μg L(-1) in drinking water. These findings have important implications regarding the interpretation of toenail and hair biomarkers. Substantial variation in biomarker As concentrations remained unaccounted for, with soil and dust exposure as possible explanations. PMID:27120003

  5. Large-Scale Water Resources Management within the Framework of GLOWA-Danube - Part B: The Water Supply Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, D.; Barthel, R.; Schmid, C.; Braun, J.

    2003-04-01

    The research project GLOWA-Danube, financed by the German Federal Government, investigates long-term changes in the water cycle of the Upper Danube river basin in light of global climatic change. Its concrete aim is to build a fully integrated decision support tool that combines the competence of eleven different institutes in domains covering all major aspects governing the water cycle - from the formation of clouds to groundwater flow patterns to the behaviour of the water consumer. The research group "Water Supply" at the Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (IWS), Universitaet Stuttgart, has the central task of creating an agent-based model of the water supply sector. The Water Supply model will act as a link between the various physical models determining water quality and availability on the one hand and the actors models determining water demand on the other, which together form the tool DANUBIA. Ultimately, with the help of scenario testing, the water supply model will indicate the ability of the water supply system in the Upper Danube catchment to adapt to changing boundary conditions using different management approaches. The specific aim of the Water Supply model is the creation of a model which is not only able to simulate the present day system of water extraction, treatment and distribution but also its development and change with time. As most changes to the system are brought about by decisions made by relevant actors in the field of water management or their behaviour (in response to political and economic boundary conditions, changes in water demand or water quality, advances in technology etc.), the use of agent-based modelling was chosen, whereby an agent is seen as a computer system (in our case representing a human or group of humans) which is aware of its environment, has defined objectives and is able to act independently in order to meet these objectives. Whereas agent-based modelling has received much attention over the past decades, the use

  6. WATER SUPPLY PIPE REPLACEMENT CONSIDERING SUSTAINABLE TRANSITION TO POPULATION DECREASED SOCIETY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iwasaki, Yoji; Aklog, Dagnachew; Masuda, Takanori

    Social infrastructures are aging and population is decreasing in Japan. The aged social infrastructures should be renewed. At the same time, they are required to be moved into new framework suitable for population decreased societies. Furthermore, they have to continue to supply sufficient services even during transition term that renewal projects are carried out. Authors propose sustainable soft landing management of infrastructures and it is tried to apply to water supply pipe replacement in this study. Methodology to replace aged pipes not only aiming for the new water supply network which suits for population decreased condition but also ensuring supply service and feasibility while the project is carried out was developed. It is applied for a model water supply network and discussions were carried out.

  7. Emergency ground-water supplies in the Seattle-Tacoma urban complex and adjacent areas, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxworthy, B.L.

    1972-01-01

    Urban areas that are supplied from surface-water sources are especially vulnerable to major disruption of their water supplies. Such disruption could result from natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, or landslides or from such other causes as dam failures fallout of radioactive material or other toxic substance from the atmosphere or other toxic substances from the atmosphere or direct introduction (either accidental or deliberate) of any substance that would render the water unfit for use. Prolonged disruption of public water supplies not only causes personal hardships but also endangers health and safety unless suitable alternative emergency supplies can be provided. The degree of hardship and danger generally increases in direct relation to the population density. Ground water because it occurs beneath protective soil and rock materials is less subject to sudden major contamination than are surface-water bodies. For this reason and also because of its widespread availability in the Puget Sound region ground water is especially desireable as a sources of emergency supplies for drinking or other uses requiring water of good quality. In much of the area existing wells would be suitable as safe sources of emergency supplies.

  8. Basic environmental technology: Water supply, waste disposal, pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes hydrology, hydraulics, water management and water quality. It also discusses solid and hazardous waste, and air and noise pollution. Fundamental scientific concepts are introduced as needed - the text does not assume extensive knowledge of chemistry or biology.

  9. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cooperative demonstration project was funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to enable the Village of Cayuga, N.Y. to install and demonstrate water filtration technology that may be appropriate for small water systems that use surface water sources. A prefabri...

  10. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  11. Chemical, physical, and radiological quality of selected public water supplies in Florida, November 1977-February 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, G.A.; Hull, Robert W.

    1979-01-01

    Virtually all treated public water supplies sampled in Florida meet the National Interim Primary and Proposed Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. These findings are based on a water-quality reconnaissance of 129 treated public supplies throughout the State during the period November 1977 through February 1978. While primary drinking water regulation exceedences were infrequent, lead, selenium, and gross alpha radioactivity in a very few water supplies were above established maximum contaminant levels. Additionally, the secondary drinking water regulation parameters--dissolved solids , chloride, sulfate, iron, color, and pH--were occasionally detected in excess of the proposed Federal regulations. The secondary regulations, however, pertain mainly to the aesthetic quality of drinking water and not directly to public health aspects. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Sustainability of water-supply at military installations, Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2014-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, including the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, is host to several military installations of Afghanistan, the United States, and other nations that depend on groundwater resources for water supply. These installations are within or close to the city of Kabul. Groundwater also is the potable supply for the approximately four million residents of Kabul. The sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin is a concern to military operations, and Afghan water-resource managers, owing to increased water demands from a growing population and potential mining activities. This study illustrates the use of chemical and isotopic analysis, groundwater flow modeling, and hydrogeologic investigations to assess the sustainability of groundwater resources in the Kabul Basin.Water supplies for military installations in the southern Kabul Basin were found to be subject to sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow-water supply wells as a result of declining water levels. Model simulations indicate that new withdrawals from deep aquifers may have less of an impact on surrounding community water supply wells than increased withdrawals from near- surface aquifers. Higher rates of recharge in the northern Kabul Basin indicate that military installations in that part of the basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Simulations of groundwater withdrawals may be used to evaluate different withdrawal scenarios in an effort to manage water resources in a sustainable manner in the Kabul Basin.

  13. Mutagenicity of the drinking water supply in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Kusamran, Wannee R; Tanthasri, Nopsarun; Meesiripan, Nuntana; Tepsuwan, Anong

    2003-01-01

    Seventeen samples of tap water in Bangkok and 2 neighboring provinces were collected in winter and summer, concentrated and tested for mutagenic activity using the Ames Salmonella mutagenesis assay. Preliminary results demonstrated that concentrated tap water exhibited clear mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA100 and YG1029, but not towards TA98 and YG1024, in the absence of S9 mix, and the addition of S9 mix markedly decreased the mutagenicity to both tester strains. Amberlite( ) XAD-2 resin, but not blue rayon, was able to adsorb mutagens from water at pH 2. Our data clearly demonstrated that all tap water samples prepared by chlorination of Chao Phraya River water were mutagenic to strain TA100 without S9 mix, inducing 3,351 + 741 and 2,216 + 770 revertants/l, in winter and summer, respectively. On the other hand, however, tap water samples prepared from ground water were not mutagenic. Furthermore, it was found that boiling for only 5 min and filtration through home purifying system containing activated charcoal and mixed resin units were very effective to abolish the mutagenicity of water. Storage of water also significantly decreased the mutagenicity, however, it took 2-3 weeks to totally abolish it. Additionally, we also found 1 out of 6 brands of commercially available bottled drinking water to be mutagenic, with about 26 % of the average mutagenicity of tap water. The results in the present study clearly demonstrated that chlorinated tap water in Bangkok and neighboring provinces contain direct-acting mutagens causing capable of causing base-pair substitution. Boiling and filtration of tap water through home purifying systems may be the most effective means to abolish the mutagenicity. Some brands of commercial bottled waters may also contain mutagens which may be derived from tap water. PMID:12718698

  14. RESEARCH NEEDS TO SUSTAIN AGRICULTURE ON THE HIGH PLAINS WITH LIMITED IRRIGATION WATER SUPPLIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated agriculture in the West is facing declining water supplies. Many aquifers are being pumped at non-sustainable rates. Increasing realization of the inter-connectivity of surface and groundwater supplies are resulting in legal restrictions on groundwater use. Downstream (or upstream) user...

  15. Contaminant transport pathways between urban sewer networks and water supply wells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water supply wells and sanitary sewers are critical components of urban infrastructure, but sewer leakage threatens the quality of groundwater in sewered areas. Previous work by our group has documented the presence of human enteric viruses in deep public supply wells. Our current research uses such...

  16. RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM - INFRASTRUCTURE INITIATIVE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current problem in the United States is that the water infrastructure is aging and spending has not been adequate to repair, replace, or rehabilitate drinking water distribution systems and wastewater collection systems. The American Society of Civil Engineers Report Card in...

  17. Water supply for the Nuclear Rocket Development Station at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Richard Arden

    1972-01-01

    consumption of water is 520,000 gallons per day--all supplied by one well. This supply well and a standby well have a production capability of 1.6 million gallons per day--adequate for present needs. Water in the welded-tuff aquifer is of the sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids content of the water in Jackass Flats is in the general range 230 milligrams per liter in the western part to 890 milligrams per liter in the eastern part.

  18. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in surface water supplies.

    PubMed Central

    LeChevallier, M W; Norton, W D; Lee, R G

    1991-01-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium levels were determined by using a combined immunofluorescence test for source waters of 66 surface water treatment plants in 14 states and 1 Canadian province. The results showed that cysts and oocysts were widely dispersed in the aquatic environment. Giardia spp. were detected in 81% of the raw water samples. Cryptosporidium spp. were found in 87% of the raw water locations. Overall, Giardia or Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 97% of the raw water samples. Higher cyst and oocyst densities were associated with source waters receiving industrial or sewage effluents. Significant correlations were found between Giardia and Cryptosporidium densities and raw water quality parameters such as turbidity and total and fecal coliform levels. Statistical modeling suggests that cyst and oocyst densities could be predicted on the basis of watershed and water quality characteristics. The occurrence of high levels of Giardia cysts in raw water samples may require water utilities to apply treatment beyond that outlined in the Surface Water Treatment Rule of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:1822675

  19. [Water supply for Peking ducks--possible alternatives for bathing].

    PubMed

    Heyn, E; Damme, K; Manz, M; Remy, F; Erhard, M H

    2006-03-01

    In order to investigate possible advantages of open water drinkers such as troughs and bells in the intensive husbandry of ducks, we evaluated in this study the effect of open water systems on the behavior and health of peking ducks. In this investigation six fattening trials each with 1152 Cherry Valley Peking ducks were analyzed. The average fattening period was 47 to 49 days. The ducks were kept on straw in six standardized compartments each 32 qm with 192 ducks. 25% of the compartment with perforated grid, with one of the tested water systems. In contrast to pens with nipple-drinkers only, the ducks in pens with open water troughs/showers had the opportunity to exhibit their natural drinking behavior and water associated activities in accordance with the animal welfare requirements. In the free-choice pens the open water systems were significantly preferred, and over a 24-hour period the ducks in watering areas with open water troughs showed higher activity. Limiting the access to the open water systems to eight, four or two hours per day led to an increased use per time unit. Ducks with access to nipple drinkers only showed a significantly higher percentage of plugged up nostrils than animals from pens with open water drinkers. Open water drinkers had also a positive impact on the plumage condition. PMID:16669187

  20. [Comparison of different types automatic water-supply system for mouse rearing (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, S; Suzuki, M; Tagashira, Y

    1979-04-01

    Rearing and breeding scores were compared between groups of mice (JCL : ICR and ddN strains) raised with two different types of automatic water-supply systems; the Japanese type and the American type, using manual water-supply system as control. The mice raised with the manual water-supply system were superior in body weight gain as compared to those with two automatic water-supply systems. As to the survival rate, however, the m; anual water-supply system and the Japanese type gave better results than the American type. As to weanling rate in the breeding test, the manual water-supply system gave somewhat better result than either of the two automatic types. Accidental water leaks, which are serious problems of automatic systems, occurred frequently only when the American type was used. Only one defect of the Japanese type revealed was that it was unfavorable for mice with smaller size (e.g., young ddN mice), resulting in lower body weight gain as well as lower breeding scores. PMID:477745

  1. 43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with the requirements in this rule... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.58 Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply...

  2. FIREFLY LUCIFERASE ATP ASSAY DEVELOPMENT FOR MONITORING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATIONS IN WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was initiated to develop a rapid, automatable system for measuring total viable microorganisms in potable drinking water supplies using the firefly luciferase ATP assay. The assay was adapted to an automatable flow system that provided comparable sensitivity...

  3. MYCOBACTERIA IN PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES: COMPARATIVE RESISTANCE TO CHLORINE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The isolation of mycobacteria from municipal and hospital water supplies prompted an investigation of the susceptibility of environmental and clinical isolates of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis to free chlorine. Experiments revealed tha...

  4. Modular Porous Plate Sublimator /MPPS/ requires only water supply for coolant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathbun, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    Modular porous plate sublimators, provided for each location where heat must be dissipated, conserve the battery power of a space vehicle by eliminating the coolant pump. The sublimator requires only a water supply for coolant.

  5. Geography in the Social Studies: High School Simulation on Water Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James M.

    2009-01-01

    This is a ready-to-use simulation that has high school students portraying all of the key players that decide how water from the Colorado River will be allocated. Students act as judges, lobbyists, news analysts, and even protesters during a mock water conference. Water supply is promised beyond nature's delivery, so the problem is real and will…

  6. Health risks of rural water supply due to lack of proper sanitation in southeast Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, S; Tran, T V; Fu, L

    2000-01-01

    A comparative study on the effects of lack of sanitation and inappropriate waste handling on water supply was carried out in several Southeast Asian countries that have problems such as inadequate water resources, water supply and sanitation. Though the degree and the cause varied in each country, all the countries investigated had problems arising from contamination of water resources. It was found that there are several sources of water contamination, such as human and animal excreta, solid wastes from nearby houses, graveyards, contaminated river flows, and large-scale landfills for big cities. It was revealed that even when water is clean at the point of production, it could be easily contaminated through broken pipelines or improperly maintained containers. It is still rare to put chlorine into piped water supply and both the inhabitants' and water engineers' understanding of the importance of disinfection should be reemphasised. Although it is urgent to provide piped water supply to those who have only contaminated water sources, such as surface water and dug wells, it is also important to protect these limited water sources from the above-mentioned contamination. PMID:10842845

  7. Drought and Water Supply. Implications of the Massachusetts Experience for Municipal Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Clifford S.; And Others

    This book uses the 1962-66 Massachusetts drought data as a base of information to build a planning model of water resources that is of interest to students and professionals involved with water management. Using a demand-supply ratio to measure the relative inadequacy of a given water system, the authors then project demand into the drought period…

  8. NEW YORK CITY'S WATER SUPPLY: A 25 YEAR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS OF THE CATSKILL/DELAWARE WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of water bodies located within the New York City's water supply system are impaired
    by nutrients, pathogens and sediment. The objective of this study was to investigate long term
    landscape and water quality trends using multiple snap shots in time spanning two deca...

  9. 78 FR 42945 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ...Notice is hereby given that the State of Oregon has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Oregon has adopted regulations analogous to EPA's Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Ground Water Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term Regulatory Revisions and Clarifications Rule and has adopted......

  10. Credit BG. View looks south (174°) at Deluge Water Supply ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View looks south (174°) at Deluge Water Supply complex, including Water Pumping Booster Station (Building 4317) in foreground, with Deluge Water Storage (Building 4316) in background at right. Pole on roof of Building 4316 is a gauge board used to indicate water level in the reservoir. Structure in left background is Building 4311 (Well No. 2) - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Deluge Water Storage Building, Near Second & D Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in filtered drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    LeChevallier, M W; Norton, W D; Lee, R G

    1991-09-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium levels were determined by using a combined immunofluorescence test for filtered drinking water samples collected from 66 surface water treatment plants in 14 states and 1 Canadian province. Giardia cysts were detected in 17% of the 83 filtered water effluents. Cryptosporidium oocysts, were observed in 27% of the drinking water samples. Overall, cysts or oocysts were found in 39% of the treated effluent samples. Despite the frequent detection of parasites in drinking water, microscopic observations of the cysts and oocysts suggested that most of the organisms were nonviable. Compliance with the filtration criteria outlined by the Surface Water Treatment Rule of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency did not ensure that treated water was free of cysts and oocysts. The average plant effluent turbidity for sites which were parasite positive was 0.19 nephelometric turbidity units. Of sites that were positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium spp., 78% would have been able to meet the turbidity regulations of the Surface Water Temperature Rule. Evaluation of the data by using a risk assessment model developed for Giardia spp. showed that 24% of the utilities examined would not meet a 1/10,000 annual risk of Giardia infection. For cold water conditions (0.5 degree C), 46% of the plants would not achieve the 1/10,000 risk level. PMID:1768135

  12. Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in filtered drinking water supplies.

    PubMed Central

    LeChevallier, M W; Norton, W D; Lee, R G

    1991-01-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium levels were determined by using a combined immunofluorescence test for filtered drinking water samples collected from 66 surface water treatment plants in 14 states and 1 Canadian province. Giardia cysts were detected in 17% of the 83 filtered water effluents. Cryptosporidium oocysts, were observed in 27% of the drinking water samples. Overall, cysts or oocysts were found in 39% of the treated effluent samples. Despite the frequent detection of parasites in drinking water, microscopic observations of the cysts and oocysts suggested that most of the organisms were nonviable. Compliance with the filtration criteria outlined by the Surface Water Treatment Rule of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency did not ensure that treated water was free of cysts and oocysts. The average plant effluent turbidity for sites which were parasite positive was 0.19 nephelometric turbidity units. Of sites that were positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium spp., 78% would have been able to meet the turbidity regulations of the Surface Water Temperature Rule. Evaluation of the data by using a risk assessment model developed for Giardia spp. showed that 24% of the utilities examined would not meet a 1/10,000 annual risk of Giardia infection. For cold water conditions (0.5 degree C), 46% of the plants would not achieve the 1/10,000 risk level. PMID:1768135

  13. Groundwater-surface water interactions in a glacierized catchment and their influence on proglacial water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, R. P.; Lautz, L. K.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    The tropical glaciers of the Cordillera Blanca of Peru are retreating rapidly due to climate change, which threatens water resources for the quarter-million inhabitants of the upper Rio Santa river valley and many more downstream. Recent studies have shown that glacial melt supplies approximately half of dry season stream discharge in Cordillera Blanca valleys. The remainder of streamflow is supplied by groundwater stored in alpine meadows, moraines and talus slopes. In the future, when glacier loss has reduced the influence of melt water on streams, groundwater discharge will be the primary dry-season source of stream water for irrigation, municipalities, and hydropower in the Santa watershed. A better understanding of the dynamics of alpine groundwater, including sources and exchange fluxes, is therefore important for future planning in this region. Understanding these groundwater-surface water interactions is necessary for making accurate estimates of meltwater contributions to the hydrologic budget, and for our ability to make predictions about future water resources under deglaciating conditions. We combined measurements of groundwater-surface water exchange during the dry season with synoptic sampling of stream water and end-members in order to quantify the groundwater contributions to streamflow from an alpine meadow, debris fan, and moraine complex in a glacierized valley of the Cordillera Blanca. Using stream tracer-dilution techniques, we calculated channel water balances for 9 stream reaches of 100-200 m throughout the meadow and measured the discharge of glacial meltwater into debris fan and moraine units. We used vertical heat tracing to measure stream-groundwater exchange at 2-hour increments over 2 weeks in 13 stream locations in the meadow, debris fan, and moraine units. Channel water balance and heat tracing results show that, during the studied portion of the dry season, the stream loses water (2.5 l/s or ~25% of flow) to the subsurface in the

  14. 43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than one Indian tribe, is the approval of... Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.56 If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project...

  15. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    SciTech Connect

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P.

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  16. [The origin of long-distance water supply in the central German area and its significance from a hygienic viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Malyska, G

    1994-08-01

    By means of the climatic, hydrological and hydrogeological conditions in the middle German area the unfavorable water household also due to anthropogenic influences caused through mining and industry will be described. These conditions have, already in the first half of this century, lead to disadvantages concerning the drinking water supply for the population in this territory. Based on older ideas for improving the water supply in the middle German area the long-distance water supply system Elbaue-Ostharz was built after the 2. world war using the water supplies of the river Bode in the Harz, of the Elbaue as well as water from the Dübener Heide to overcome the bad water supply situation in middle Germany. In this connection the efforts of the public health service for improving the drinking water quality in the former country of Sachsen-Anhalt in the DDR will be described. Due to an increased connection of the population in the middle German area with local central water supplies as well as with the long-distance water supply up to 1990 92% of the population could be supplied with drinking water from central water supplies. Nevertheless it was not possible to manage all problems of drinking water quality up to 1990. These problems concerned local central water supplies due to not existing or inadequate plants for water refinement in waterworks and poor conditions of the drinking water pipe nets. Despite all an increasing improvement of the drinking water could be registered as a result of decrease in drinking water consumption, the shutting of water works with water catchments on hygienic unfavorable places, the refurbishment of water works and the further connection from communes with long-distance water supplies. At present and in future too the long-distance water supply will be necessary for the middle German area to guarantee a sufficient quantity as well as quality of drinking water for the population in this territory. PMID:7802894

  17. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON WATER SUPPLIES IN THE NORTHEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of the first study concerning the impact of acid precipitation on drinking water are reported in terms of health effects in humans as measured by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels. The study focused on sampling surface water and groundwat...

  18. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  19. Integrating irrigation water demand, supply, and delivery management in a stochastic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Scott, Bradley W.

    1993-09-01

    Previously developed suites of models integrate irrigation water supply and demand management for simplified surface reservoir supply systems. A central stochastic dynamic programming model is supported by simulation models, including a soil water-plant growth model. That modeling is extended herein to include decisions about timing and quantity of reservoir water releases into the delivery system, resulting in the integration of supply, demand, and delivery management. Irrigators have rights to percentages of reservoir capacity, reservoir inflows, and downstream tributary flows. Natural rivers are the supply channels in the study area. Large on-farm water storages exist for storing regulated and unregulated river flows available to the irrigators. Farms can be many days flow from the reservoir, requiring orders for reservoir releases to be lodged before the arrival of a previous order. The probability of unregulated flows from tributaries downstream of the reservoir further complicates ordering decisions. Abandonment of irrigated area to rain-fed status occurs at two levels, forced abandonment if insufficient water is available at the farm when the irrigation-trigger soil water deficit is reached, and planned abandonment to save water for possible later use. The need for forced abandonment is determined by simulation models; planned abandonment decisions are derived by stochastic dynamic programming. Results show annual net revenue means and standard deviations as functions of different capacities of the on-farm storages and water supplies from either regulated or unregulated flows, or both.

  20. Summary of water-quality data for City of Albuquerque drinking-water supply wells, 1988-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindberg, William E.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque has collected and analyzed more than 5,000 water-quality samples from 113 water-supply wells in the Albuquerque area, including many drinking-water supply wells, since May of 1988. As a result, a large water-quality data base has been compiled that includes data for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, carbon, volatile organic compounds, radiological constituents, and bacteria. These data are intended to improve the understanding and management of the ground-water resources of the region, rather than demonstrate compliance with Federal and State drinking-water standards. This report gives summary statistics for selected physical properties and chemical constituents for ground water from wells used by the City of Albuquerque for drinking-water supply between 1988 and 1997. Maps are provided to show the general spatial distribution of selected parameters and water types around the region. Although the values of some parameters vary substantially across the city, median values for all parameters included in this report are less than their respective maximum contaminant levels in each drinking-water supply well. The dominant water types are sodium plus potassium / carbonate plus bicarbonate in the western part of the city and calcium / carbonate plus bicarbonate in the eastern part of the city.

  1. Water reuse introduces the need to integrate both water supply and wastewater management at local and regulatory levels.

    PubMed

    Okun, D A

    2002-01-01

    Growing population and increasing urbanization is resulting in shortages of water supply for communities even in water-rich areas of the world. An approach to addressing this problem has been the introduction of wastewater reclamation and reuse for nonpotable purposes through dual distribution systems in municipalities in the United States on a significant scale in the 1970s and more recently in Japan and Australia. Many hundreds of communities, some very small and others very large, have adopted dual systems to add to their water resources and to reduce the burden of water pollution. Two issues deserve attention. The first is that the provision of water supply and its regulation by government is generally entirely separated from the provision of sewerage and wastewater treatment, so that the management of a reclaimed water service requires new arrangements both on the part of communities and of the government agencies that are concerned with the oversight of water supply and pollution control. The second issue is that the availability of new technology for treating waters drawn from polluted sources has led to proposals for purposefully using reclaimed water for potable purposes. The integration of water supply and wastewater disposal functions in professional organizations, such as IWA, is a useful step towards integrating water management in practice. PMID:12381001

  2. Fragmented Flows: Water Supply in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Pincetl, Stephanie; Porse, Erik; Cheng, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    In the Los Angeles metropolitan region, nearly 100 public and private entities are formally involved in the management and distribution of potable water-a legacy rooted in fragmented urban growth in the area and late 19th century convictions about local control of services. Yet, while policy debates focus on new forms of infrastructure, restructured pricing mechanisms, and other technical fixes, the complex institutional architecture of the present system has received little attention. In this paper, we trace the development of this system, describe its interconnections and disjunctures, and demonstrate the invisibility of water infrastructure in LA in multiple ways-through mapping, statistical analysis, and historical texts. Perverse blessings of past water abundance led to a complex, but less than resilient, system with users accustomed to cheap, easily accessible water. We describe the lack of transparency and accountability in the current system, as well as its shortcomings in building needed new infrastructure and instituting new water rate structures. Adapting to increasing water scarcity and likely droughts must include addressing the architecture of water management. PMID:27174451

  3. Optimal Management of the Israeli National Water Supply System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, U.; Housh, M.; Kronaveter-Goldstein, L.; Dvoskin, D.; Feldman, M.; Shoval, R.

    2014-12-01

    Our team is developing for the Operations Division of the Israel Water Authority a suite of models for optimal operation of parts of the national water systems, and eventually of the entire system. At this time we have elaborated and are testing two components, one for long-term monthly operation the Kinneret and the other for determining the purchase of monthly quantities from the five existing desalination plants. In parallel, we are preparing the model for the national system, based on data received from the Planning Division of the Water Authority. In each case, the first phase is a deterministic model that is tested and run under a range of hydrologic conditions, scenarios, economic parameters and management rules. The models are being used to support ongoing decision making by the Water Authority, as they are being tested for stability and ease of use through tailor-made interfaces. In the following phase, one or more approaches and methods for optimizing under uncertainty will be employed. This work encounters challenges of several kinds - uncertainty in water availability, demands, economic functions and parameters, non-linearity and size of the models, and - most important - the imperative of making the models useful and usable in practice by the Water Authority teams at the professional and management levels.The work is conducted by AGAT Engineering for the Operations Division of the Israeli National Water Authority, led by Mr. Zeev Achipaz and aided by Dr. Avichai Haddad.

  4. Striving for success in sanitation, hygiene, and water supply.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 800,000 people do not have access to improved water sources, and 2.5 billion are without access to improved sanitation. As a result, an estimated 1800 children under 5 years of age die every day from preventable diseases related to water, sanitation & hygiene; more are ill or stunted. To sustainably improve people's health, actors in the water sector at all levels should use flexible, integrated approaches focused on behavior change and service delivery. Approaches and technologies should be as simple as possible while still protecting human health and the environment. Remember, it's not just about the toilet. PMID:24566351

  5. Modeling Migration of Chemical Impurities in Drinking Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercea, P.; Tosa, V.; Kovacs, Katalin; Piringer, O.

    2010-09-01

    A numerical method based on finite differences was developed to solve the problem of impurities' migration from a hollow core multilayer cylinder (pipe) filled with water. The numerical method is based on finite differences (FD) and the developed application is presented. The migration modeling is focused on the estimation of water contamination in a single household over a long period of time (up to 50 years). The input parameters for the FD algorithm are generated by Monte-Carlo sampling of a short term water consumption pattern in the household.

  6. Hydrological WEAP Modeling of the Upper Basin of the Apurimac River Basin, in Peru. An Assessment of Available Water Resources and Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S.; Sandoval Solis, S.

    2015-12-01

    Designing sustainable water resources systems is challenging given the natural scarcity of this resources in certain region and the increasing anthropogenic water demand for economic purposes. The overall goal of this study is to develop an empirical hydrologic model (one bucket model) that can adequately represent the hydrology and water resources management in the Apurimac River Basin (ARB) in Peru. The specific objectives are to: (a) develop the empirical hydrologic model, calibrate and validate it (b) build a water allocation model (c) evaluate their water supply performance with different series of scenarios (i) current and future water demands, (ii) with and without the construction of the reservoir under different hydrologic conditions (normal, dry and wet). Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) was used to build the model and evaluate different water allocation strategies, new infrastructure, and assess current and future water needs based on the requirement of the Regional Government of Cuzco and Arequipa. The proposed hydrologic model is a one-bucket model, where the processes of direct runoff, interflow and baseflow are represented and the process of groundwater recharge is the vertical outflow from the bottom of the bucket. Also, this model includes groundwater component which is an imperative process to consider in the valley of this basin because it provides adequate results, as shown later for this basin. Water allocation model estimate the quantity of water available to different demand sites within a river basin at different times. This study explains their impact in the analysis of the water availability and water supply for current and future water demands in the ARB with and without reservoir.

  7. Fragmented Flows: Water Supply in Los Angeles County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincetl, Stephanie; Porse, Erik; Cheng, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    In the Los Angeles metropolitan region, nearly 100 public and private entities are formally involved in the management and distribution of potable water—a legacy rooted in fragmented urban growth in the area and late 19th century convictions about local control of services. Yet, while policy debates focus on new forms of infrastructure, restructured pricing mechanisms, and other technical fixes, the complex institutional architecture of the present system has received little attention. In this paper, we trace the development of this system, describe its interconnections and disjunctures, and demonstrate the invisibility of water infrastructure in LA in multiple ways—through mapping, statistical analysis, and historical texts. Perverse blessings of past water abundance led to a complex, but less than resilient, system with users accustomed to cheap, easily accessible water. We describe the lack of transparency and accountability in the current system, as well as its shortcomings in building needed new infrastructure and instituting new water rate structures. Adapting to increasing water scarcity and likely droughts must include addressing the architecture of water management.

  8. Biodegradation of multiple cyanobacterial metabolites in drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lionel; Tang, Tim; Monis, Paul T; Hoefel, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The fate of multiple cyanobacterial metabolites was assessed in two Australian source waters. The saxitoxins were the only metabolites shown to be non-biodegradable in Myponga Reservoir water, while microcystin-LR (MCLR) and geosmin were biodegradable in this water source. Likewise, cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was shown to be biodegradable in River Murray water. The order of ease of biodegradability followed the trend: MCLR>CYN>geosmin>saxitoxins. Biodegradation of the metabolites was affected by temperature and seasonal variations with more rapid degradation at 24°C and during autumn compared with 14°C and during winter. A microcystin-degrading bacterium was isolated and shown to degrade four microcystin variants within 4 h. This bacterium, designated as TT25, was shown to be 99% similar to a Sphingopyxis sp. based on a 16S rRNA gene fragment. Isolate TT25 was shown to contain a homologue of the mlrA gene; the sequence of which was 99% similar to that of a previously reported microcystin-degrader. Furthermore, isolate TT25 could degrade the microcystins in the presence of copper sulphate (0.5 mg L(-1) as Cu(2+)) which is advantageous for water authorities dosing such algicides into water bodies to control cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:22386459

  9. Application of a risk management framework to a drinking water supply augmented by stormwater recharge.

    PubMed

    Vanderzalm, J L; Page, D W; Dillon, P J

    2011-01-01

    The Blue Lake is an important water resource for the city of Mount Gambier and the surrounding region, primarily as the drinking water supply source, but also as a tourist attraction. Mount Gambier's stormwater is discharged directly via drainage wells into the unconfined, karstic Gambier Limestone aquifer, which in turn provides the majority of recharge to Blue Lake. Discharge of urban runoff to the aquifer commenced in the 1800s as a means of stormwater management, but is now recognised as contributing to the drinking water supply in Blue Lake. Recently, guidelines for managing the risks associated with water recycling and augmenting drinking water supplies have been developed. This paper examines the organic chemical hazards associated with a stormwater to potable recycling scheme as an example of the current risk management framework. PMID:21330719

  10. Development and implementation of water safety plans for small water supplies in Bangladesh: benefits and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, S G; Shamsuddin, Sk Abu Jafar; Ahmed, M Feroze; Davison, Annette; Deere, Dan; Howard, Guy

    2007-12-01

    Water safety plans (WSPs) are promoted by the WHO as the most effective means of securing drinking water safety. To date most experience with WSPs has been within utility supplies, primarily in developed countries. There has been little documented experience of applying WSPs to small community-managed systems, particularly in developing countries. This paper presents a case study from Bangladesh describing how WSPs can be developed and implemented for small systems. Model WSPs were developed through consultation with key water sector practitioners in the country. Simplified tools were developed to translate the formal WSPs into a format that was meaningful and accessible for communities to use. A series of pilot projects were implemented by Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) across the country covering all major water supplies. The results show that WSPs can be developed and implemented for small community managed water supplies and improve the sanitary condition and water quality of water sources. Hygiene behaviour improved and household water quality showed a significant reduction in contamination. Chlorination was found to be important for some technologies, thus increasing the costs of water supply and raising important problems with respect to transfer to the communities. Simple tools for community monitoring were found to be effective in supporting better water safety management. PMID:17878569

  11. Microcystins contamination of surface water supply sources in Zaria-Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chia, Mathias Ahii; Kwaghe, Mndepawe Jonah

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacterial contamination of public water supply systems is a worldwide problem. The present study investigated water quality and microcystins (MCs) contamination of four public water supply systems in Zaria, Nigeria. The water bodies were eutrophic in the rainy and dry season and supported high phytoplankton biomass with chlorophyll a concentrations generally higher than 20.0 μg/L. The biomass of the predominant species (Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena subcylindrica) of cyanobacteria had a significant positive correlation with particulate and dissolved MCs. Dissolved MCs concentrations were higher (>1.0 μg/L) than the maximum permissible limits for drinking water in all the water bodies in the dry season and three of them in the rainy season. These results suggest that there is the need to have a regular monitoring program for these water bodies to prevent acute and chronic health hazards associated with MCs contamination of drinking and irrigation water. PMID:26329267

  12. Earthquake damage scenario simulation of a water supply system in Taipei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ji-Hao; Chen, Walter W.

    2008-10-01

    Taiwan is located in the Circum-Pacific Belt and at the junction of the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The island is squeezed over a long period of time, so the frequency of the occurrence of earthquakes is very high. Changes of terrain due to seismic forces such as fault ruptures and surface uplifts could cause extensive damage to water pipeline networks. The 921 Ji-Ji earthquake was one of the most serious disasters in recent years in Taiwan, and it indeed resulted in the most severe damage of water supply systems. The urban water supply network is very important for municipal water management in Taiwan. If the water supply systems break down, hospitals and fire stations will not have enough water to carry out the rescue work, and the results may worsen the disasters. This study took the water supply system of the West District in Taipei City as an example. First, the metro-Taipei area was split into three hundred and twenty-seven 1 km by 1 km cells. Second, the location of a simulated earthquake was determined. Third, the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) value of each cell was calculated by an empirical formula. Fourth, the Repair Rate (RR) of each cell was calculated based on its PGA value. Fifth, using the GIRAFFE software developed by Cornell University, the Monte Carlo simulation method was used to simulate the possible damage to the water supply system. And finally, the EPANET program developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency was applied to compute the distribution of flow volumes and water pressures of the damaged water supply system. Results of the pipeline network under different scenarios of earthquake magnitudes are shown in this study, and they provide an evaluation basis to decision makers to improve the pipeline infrastructures for fire protection after major earthquakes.

  13. Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Decentralized drinking water systems represent an important element in the process of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often inefficient or nonexistent in developing countries. In those countries, most water quality related problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A potential solution might include decentralized systems, which might rely on thermal and/or UV disinfection methods as well as physical and chemical treatments to provide drinking water from rainwater. For application in developing countries, decentralized systems major constraints include low cost, ease of use, environmental sustainability, reduced maintenance and independence from energy sources. This work focuses on an innovative decentralized system that can be used to collect and treat rainwater for potable use (drinking and cooking purposes) of a single household, or a small community. The experimented treatment system combines in one compact unit a Filtration process with an adsorption step on GAC and a UV disinfection phase in an innovative design (FAD - Filtration Adsorption Disinfection). All tests have been carried out using a full scale FAD treatment unit. The efficiency of FAD technology has been discussed in terms of pH, turbidity, COD, TOC, DOC, Escherichia coli and Total coliforms. FAD technology is attractive since it provides a total barrier for pathogens and organic contaminants, and reduces turbidity, thus increasing the overall quality of the water. The FAD unit costs are low, especially if compared to other water treatment technologies and could become a viable option for developing countries.

  14. Characterization of Water Quality Changes During Storm Events: New Methods to Protect Drinking Water Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdevant-Rees, P. L.; Long, S. C.; Barten, P. K.

    2002-05-01

    A forty-month investigation to collect microbial and water-quality measurements during storm events under a variety of meteorological and land-use conditions is in its initial stages. Intense sampling during storm event periods will be used to optimize sampling and analysis strategies for accurate determination of constituent loads. Of particular interest is identification of meteorological and hydrologic conditions under which sampling and analysis of surface waters for traditional microbial organisms, emerging microbial organisms and non-bacterial pathogens are critical to ensure the integrity of surface-water drinking supplies. This work is particular to the Quabbin-Ware-Wachusett reservoir system in Massachusetts, which provides unfiltered drinking water to 2.5 million people in Boston and surrounding communities. Sampling and analysis strategies will be optimized in terms of number of samples over the hydrograph, timing of sample collection (including sample initiation), constituents measured, volumes analyzed, and monetary and personnel costs. Initial water-quality analyses include pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl-nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and total and fecal coliforms. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts will also be measured at all sample sites. Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, Rhodococcus coprophilus, Clostridium perfringens spores, and Somatic and F-specific coliphages are measured at select sites as potential alternative source-specific indicator organisms. It is anticipated that the final database will consist of transport data for the above parameters during twenty-four distinct storm-events in addition to monthly baseline data. Results and analyses for the first monitored storm-event will be presented.

  15. Detection of toxic industrial chemicals in water supplies using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Kevin M.; Sylvia, James M.; Spencer, Sarah A.; Clauson, Susan L.

    2010-04-01

    An effective method to create fear in the populace is to endanger the water supply. Homeland Security places significant importance on ensuring drinking water integrity. Beyond terrorism, accidental supply contamination from a spill or chemical residual increases is a concern. A prominent class of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) is pesticides, which are prevalent in agricultural use and can be very toxic in minute concentrations. Detection of TICs or warfare agents must be aggressive; the contaminant needs to be rapidly detected and identified to enable isolation and remediation of the contaminated water while continuing a clean water supply for the population. Awaiting laboratory analysis is unacceptable as delay in identification and remediation increases the likelihood of infection. Therefore, a portable or online water quality sensor is required that can produce rapid results. In this presentation, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is discussed as a viable fieldable sensor that can be immersed directly into the water supply and can provide results in <5 minutes from the time the instrument is turned on until analysis is complete. The ability of SERS to detect several chemical warfare agent degradation products, simulants and toxic industrial chemicals in distilled water, tap water and untreated water will be shown. In addition, results for chemical warfare agent degradation products and simulants will be presented. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves will also be presented.

  16. Evaporation reduction in stock tanks for increasing water supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A.; Issac, V. C.

    1990-11-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of shading and floating materials in reducing evaporation from a free water surface. White polyethene sheet used for shading the water surface reduced evaporation by 91% and cost Rs.2.54 (US0.15) per 10001. Floating materials evaluated were polyethene sheet, foam rubber sheet, polystyrene sheet, bamboo, and Sacchrum munja. Evaporation reduction for a 19-month test period ranged from 37% for S. munja to 82% for polystyrene sheet. Foam rubber sheet, polyethene sheet and bamboo reduced evaporation by 74, 66 and 53%, respectively. The polystyrene sheet and polyethene sheet covers were the most economical, saving water at a cost of Rs.3.07 (US0.19) and Rs.4.44 (US$0.27) per 10001, respectively.

  17. The child health implications of privatizing Africa's urban water supply.

    PubMed

    Kosec, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Can private sector participation (PSP) in the piped water sector improve child health? I use child-level data from 39 African countries during 1986-2010 to show that PSP decreases diarrhea among urban-dwelling, under-five children by 2.6 percentage points, or 16% of its mean prevalence. Children from the poorest households benefit most. PSP is also associated with a 7.8 percentage point increase in school attendance of 7-17 year olds. Importantly, PSP increases usage of piped water by 9.7 percentage points, suggesting a possible causal channel explaining health improvements. To attribute causality, I exploit time-variation in the private water market share controlled by African countries' former colonizers. A placebo analysis reveals that PSP does not affect respiratory illness, nor does it affect a control group of rural children. PMID:24583179

  18. Optimum contracted-for water supply for hotels in arid coastal regions.

    PubMed

    Lamei, A; von Münch, E; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water for their domestic water demands, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their domestic water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum requirement that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). This paper describes a model to determine what value a hotel should choose for its contracted-for water supply in order to minimize its total annual water costs. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.The managers of hotels with expected high occupancy rates (74% and above) can contract for more than 80%. On the other hand, hotels with expected lower occupancy rates (60% and less) can contract for less than 70% of the peak daily domestic water demand. With a green area ratio of 40 m(2)/room or less, an on-site wastewater treatment plant can satisfy the required irrigation demand for an occupancy rate as low as 42%. Increasing the ratio of green irrigated area to 100 m(2)/room does not affect the contracted-for water supply at occupancy rates above 72%; at lower occupancy rates, however, on-site treated wastewater is insufficient for irrigating the green areas. Increasing the green irrigated area to 120 m(2)/room increases the need for additional water, either from externally sourced treated wastewater or potable water. The cost of the former is much lower than the latter (0.58 versus 1.52 to 2.14 US$/m(3) in the case study area). PMID:19403967

  19. Assessing the Impact of Active Land Management in Mitigating Wildfire Threat to Source Water Supply Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Flannigan, M.; Dupont, D.; Robinne, F.; Wang, X.; Parisien, M. A.; Stone, M.; Thompson, D. K.; Tymstra, C.; Schroeder, D.; Kienzle, S. W.; Anderson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The vast majority of surface water supplies in Alberta originates in forested regions of the province, and supports approximately 94 municipal utilities, 208 communities, and 67% of the provincial population. These surface water supplies are highly vulnerable to contamination inputs and changing water conditions associated with wildfires. A provincial scale risk analysis framework is being used to investigate the magnitude and likelihood of wildfire occurrence in source water regions to evaluate the potential for altered water quality and quantity. The initial analysis identified which forested regions and which municipal drinking water treatment facilities are most at risk from wildfire. The efficacy of several current and potential landscape treatments to mitigate wildfire threats, along with the likely outcome of these treatments on mitigation of potential impacts of wildfire to drinking water treatment, are being modeled. A Monte Carlo modeling approach incorporating wildfire regime characteristics is used to simulate the ignition and growth of wildfires and generate outcome distributions for the different mitigation strategies. Cumulative changes in water quality at large river basin scales are being modeled and linked to water treatment impacts with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A critical foundation of this approach is the close interaction of a large, trans-disciplinary team of researchers capable of integrating highly diverse issues of landscape wildfire dynamics, cross-scale water supply issues, and their linkage to downstream risks to drinking water treatment engineering.

  20. Climate threats, water supply vulnerability and the risk of a water crisis in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (Northeastern Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisto, Nicholas P.; Ramírez, Aldo I.; Aguilar-Barajas, Ismael; Magaña-Rueda, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    This paper evaluates the risk of a water crisis - a substantial, sudden reduction in water supply - in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA), posed by climate threats and the vulnerability of its water supply system. Our analysis of long-term precipitation, water supply and water availability data reveals that the MMA is highly vulnerable to recurring periods of exceptionally low precipitation and scarce surface water availability. We identify two episodes in the recent past (1998 and 2013) when the MMA water supply system almost collapsed as reservoirs neared depletion in the face of abnormally dry weather. Furthermore our climate projections point to warmer and drier future conditions for the region and consequently, heightened climate threats. We conclude that the risk of a water crisis in the MMA is substantial and probably will increase due to climate change. This establishes a clear and pressing need for a comprehensive package of adaptation measures to mitigate the consequences of a water crisis should one occur as well as to reduce the likelihood of such an event.

  1. SNOW: THE REAL WATER SUPPLY FOR THE RIO GRANDE BASIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande basin in Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico is an important drainage in southwestern North America, vital for water consumption by a rapidly growing population, irrigated agriculture, economic development, preservation of endangered species, and energy generation. The most impor...

  2. Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan: Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; El-Naser, H.; Hagan, R. E.; Hijazi, A.

    2001-05-01

    Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 170 cubic meters per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands for water. Given the natural climatological conditions, demographic pressure, and transboundary nature of water resources, all renewable water resources of suitable quality are being exploited and some non-renewable aquifers are being depleted. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the level of the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particularly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure on agricultural and environmental uses of water, both of which must continue to adapt to reduced volumes and lower quality water. The agricultural sector has begun to respond by improving irrigation efficiency and increasing the use of recycled water. Total demand for water still exceeds renewable supplies while inadequate treatment of sewage used for irrigation creates potential environmental and health risks and presents agricultural marketing challenges that undermine the competitiveness of exports. The adaptive capability of the natural environment may already be past sustainable limits with groundwater discharge oasis wetlands that have been seriously affected. Development of new water resources is extremely expensive in Jordan with an average investment cost of US\\$ 4-5 per cubic meter. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) that incorporates factors external to the 'water sector' as conventionally defined will help to assure sustainable future water supplies in Jordan. This paper examines four IWRM approaches of relevance to Jordan: water reuse, demand management, energy-water linkages, and transboundary water management. While progress in Jordan has been made, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation continues to be concerned about the acute water scarcity the country faces as well as the need to continue working with

  3. Nationwide occurrence of radon and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, T. R.

    1985-10-01

    The nationwide study, which began in November of 1980, was designed to systematically sample water supplies in all 48 contiguous states. The results of the study will be used, in cooperation with EPA's Office of Drinking Water, to estimate population exposures nationwide and to support possible future standards for radon, uranium, and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies. Samples from more than 2500 public water supplies representing 35 states were collected. Although we sampled only about five percent of the total number of groundwater supplies in the 48 contiguous states of the US, those samples represent nearly 45 percent of the water consumed by US groundwater users in the 48 contiguous states. Sample results are summarized by arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and population weighted arithmetic mean for each state and the entire US. Results include radon, gross alpha, gross beta, Ra-226, Ra-228, total Ra, U-234, U-238, total U, and U-234/U-238 ratios. Individual public water supply results are found in the appendices. 24 refs., 91 figs., 51 tabs.

  4. Socioeconomic impacts of climate change on U.S. water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, K.D.; Schwarz, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    A greenhouse warming would have major effects on water supplies and demands. A framework for examining the socioeconomic impacts associated with changes in the long-term availability of water is developed and applied to the hydrologic implications of the Canadian and British Hadley2 general circulation models (GCMs) for the 18 water resource regions in the conterminous United States. The climate projections of these two GCMs have very different implications for future water supplies and costs. The Canadian model suggests most of the nation would be much drier in the year 2030. Under the least-cost management scenario the drier climate could add nearly $105 billion to the estimated costs of balancing supplies and demands relative to the costs without climate change. Measures to protect instream flows and irrigation could result in significantly higher costs. In contrast, projections based on the Hadley model suggest water supplies would increase throughout much of the nation, reducing the costs of balancing water supplies with demands relative to the no-climate-change case.

  5. Quantitative bacterial examination of domestic water supplies in the Lesotho Highlands: water quality, sanitation, and village health.

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, J. D.; Nyaphisi, M.; Mandel, R.; Petersen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of an examination of domestic water supplies for microbial contamination in the Lesotho Highlands, the site of a 20-year-old hydroelectric project, as part of a regional epidemiological survey of baseline health, nutritional and environmental parameters. The population's hygiene and health behaviour were also studied. A total of 72 village water sources were classified as unimproved (n = 23), semi-improved (n = 37), or improved (n = 12). Based on the estimation of total coliforms, which is a nonspecific bacterial indicator of water quality, all unimproved and semi-improved water sources would be considered as not potable. Escherichia coli, a more precise indicator of faecal pollution, was absent (P < 0.001) in most of the improved water sources. Among 588 queried households, only 38% had access to an "improved" water supply. Sanitation was a serious problem, e.g. fewer than 5% of villagers used latrines and 18% of under-5-year-olds had suffered a recent diarrhoeal illness. The study demonstrates that protection of water sources can improve the hygienic quality of rural water supplies, where disinfection is not feasible. Our findings support the WHO recommendation that E. coli should be the principal microbial indicator for portability of untreated water. Strategies for developing safe water and sanitation systems must include public health education in hygiene and water source protection, practical methods and standards for water quality monitoring, and a resource centre for project information to facilitate programme evaluation and planning. PMID:10593031

  6. Social Status Variations in Attitudes and Conceptualization Pertaining to Water Pollution and Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Irving A.

    Data, secured by questionnaire from single household dwelling units in Warwick, Rhode Island, were used to ascertain differences among social status groups with respect to attitudes and conceptualization pertaining to water pollution and water supply. A social status index was used to delineate three status groups having high, middle, and low rank…

  7. Concerns in Water Supply and Pollution Control: Legal, Social, and Economic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, D. Barlow, Jr.; And Others

    This bulletin contains three articles which focus on ground water's potential as a dependable supply source and some of the problems impeding the development of that potential. The authors' concerns are discussed from the vantage point of their areas of specialization: law, sociology, and economics. The first author states that water law abounds…

  8. A Fuzzy Set Risk Analysis Technique for Water Supply under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogardi, I.

    2012-04-01

    The main purpose of the risk analysis techniques is to select/rank management actions for local waterworks/water authorities under climate change. Risk of water supply is influenced by the available water supply, water demand and consequences of water shortage. Due to the inherently uncertain climate change estimation, all these quantities influenced by climate change are also uncertain. Thus, the combination of water shortages and consequences may be accomplished in a risk analysis framework. Often, frequency based statistical information is unavailable so common probabilistic risk analysis may not be applicable. To this end, a non-probabilistic risk analysis is presented that is relatively simple, practical and applicable with available data/information. The method is based on simplified fuzzy set mathematics. Thus, supply, demand and consequences are represented as uncertain (fuzzy) numbers. Four main parts of the methodology include 1. formulation of alternative management actions, 2. definition of the structure of ranking criteria, 3. estimation of ranking criteria values for each management action, and 4. ranking of the management actions according to the ranking criteria. Management actions are evaluated according to several criteria. One group of criteria considers water supply risk reduction for the various users. Another group of criteria may be also necessary: one related to the realization of the actions. Both water quantity and quality risk are considered. The use of the risk analysis techniques is illustrated by a case example.

  9. [Surveillance of drinking water supply systems on markets and in vehicles].

    PubMed

    Rädel, U; Puchert, W; Suchenwirth, R

    2007-03-01

    The new German Drinking Water Ordinance (TrinkwV 2001) demands that the requirements of water intended for human consumption be met up to the intrinsic tap, at which the water is used. This also applies to water supply systems for food trade aboard non-stationary facilities and in vehicles for commercial purposes. In contrast to stationary units for drinking water supply, the nonstationary units relocate and the responsibility changes with each public health authority agent. Therefore, a coordinated action between the federal states is desirable and necessary. The experience of the public health departments presents many non-compliant parameters of microbiology in water supply systems on markets and in vehicles. The development of practical and consistent recommendations for the surveillance of non-stationary units is required to give consistent standards to the users. The article gives a review about legal foundations and technical rules in order to define the drinking water supply systems on markets and in vehicles in compliance with the German Drinking Water Ordinance. Examples of laboratory results from different monitoring episodes from three federal states are shown. PMID:17334887

  10. SPECIATION AND PRESERVATION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES WITH IC-ICP-MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The speciation of inorganic arsenic in drinking water supplies is an essential part of devising an appropriate treatment process. Arsenate, because of its anion characteristics at drinking water pHs, is effectively removed by anion exchange treatment while arsenite remains in the...

  11. Water-supply assessment of the Laramie-Fox Hills aquifer in parts of Adams, Boulder, Jefferson, and Weld counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Paul A.

    1980-01-01

    Groundwater in the Laramie-Fox Hills aquifer is a potential source of supplemental municipal water supplies for the communities of Erie, Lafayette, Louisville, and Superior in Colorado. The present water supplies for these communities are not always adequate to meet current demands. The U.S. Geological Survey made a water-supply assessment of the Laramie-Fox Hills aquifer for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, which is investigating and evaluating alternative sources of water for the communities. Recharge to the aquifer is mostly in the western and southwestern parts of the study area. Groundwater movement is generally from the southwest to northeast. Groundwater discharge in the study area is primarily by pumping wells. Since 1961, this pumping has caused water-level declines of about 250 to 300 feet from Broomfield to east of Erie, Colorado. Generally, water levels in other parts of the area have remained the same. The aggregate sand thickness determined from well logs ranges from 42 to 360 feet and the mean thickness is 229 feet. The volume of groundwater in storage in the study area is about 5 million acre-feet. Reported yields from 93 wells ranged from 1 to 90 gallons per minute and averaged 22 gallons per minute. Well yields tended to be larger in the areas where aggregate sand thickness is the greatest. The water generally changes from a sodium calcium bicarbonate type to a sodium calcium sulfate type as it moves through the aquifer away from the recharge areas. The maximum limit established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for nitrite plus nitrate in public-water supplies was exceeded in water from three wells, the maximum limit for fluoride was exceeded in water from two wells, and the maximum limit for selenium was exceeded in water from three wells. (USGS)

  12. How does network design constrain optimal operation of intermittent water supply?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieb, Anna; Wilkening, Jon; Rycroft, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Urban water distribution systems do not always supply water continuously or reliably. As pipes fill and empty, pressure transients may contribute to degraded infrastructure and poor water quality. To help understand and manage this undesirable side effect of intermittent water supply--a phenomenon affecting hundreds of millions of people in cities around the world--we study the relative contributions of fixed versus dynamic properties of the network. Using a dynamical model of unsteady transition pipe flow, we study how different elements of network design, such as network geometry, pipe material, and pipe slope, contribute to undesirable pressure transients. Using an optimization framework, we then investigate to what extent network operation decisions such as supply timing and inflow rate may mitigate these effects. We characterize some aspects of network design that make them more or less amenable to operational optimization.

  13. The Value of Forest and Pasture to Water Supply in Kona, HI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Daily, G. C.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2007-12-01

    By quantifying the supply and value of ecosystem services flowing from private land, we can provide a mechanism for sustaining ecosystem services by compensating landowners for their supply. In order for compensation to occur, however, both suppliers and users of ecosystem services require information about the way different land management scenarios will affect ecosystem service flows. This case study in Kona, HI, takes advantage of the direct link between upland water source areas and municipal drinking water users in Kailua-Kona to explore the value of one type of hydrologic service. By quantifying the difference in aquifer recharge under paired forest and pasture sites, we assess the impact of each land-cover type on the volume of water potentially available to municipal water users. We use a water balance approach - measuring rainfall interception and water use by plants, then calculating the balance to be aquifer recharge because of the absence of surface runoff. We aim to integrate these biophysical measurements with information, including costs of pumping, well construction, and land-cover maintenance, provided by the water utility and landowners to ascertain the value of forest and pasture to water supply. By determining the value to water users in Kailua-Kona of the increase or decrease in water quantity that would result from upland land-cover change, we aim both to protect drinking water quantity and to help landowners offset financial pressure to convert their land.

  14. Integrated Economic Modeling of Water Supply-Quality Tradeoffs: An Application to the Central Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bair, L.; MacEwan, D.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable water management in the San Joaquin Valley, California involves the complex interaction of agricultural, municipal and industrial, and environmental water use. California's Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) of 2014 requires groundwater basins historically in a state of overdraft to bring the basin into a sustainable balance over the next 20 years. In addition to limiting groundwater availability, implementation of the SGMA has implications for surface and groundwater quality. Availability of groundwater influences agricultural production decisions, resulting in variation in agricultural runoff and changes to surface and groundwater quality. Changes in water quality have economic impacts on agricultural production and urban water use. These impacts range from reductions in crop productivity to costs of alternative water supplies to amend declining water quality. We model the impact of agricultural and urban groundwater availability on surface water quality within the San Joaquin and Kings River watersheds in the Central Valley, downriver to the Mendota Pool by linking SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), an integrated water supply-quality model, with SWAP (Statewide Agricultural Production Model), a regional agricultural economics model. The integrated model specifies the relationship between changes in groundwater availability, groundwater elevation, agricultural production, and surface water quality. We link the SWAT-SWAP model output to urban and agricultural economic loss calculations that are a function of water quality. Model results demonstrate the economic tradeoffs between groundwater availability and water quality. The results of the integrated economic water supply-quality model are applicable to other regions in California and elsewhere that contain complex water supply-quality interactions.

  15. How Can Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Facilities Build Resilience to Climate and Weather Induced Water Supply Variability?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Water supplies are vulnerable to a host of climate- and weather-related stressors such as droughts, intense storms/flooding, snowpack depletion, sea level changes, and consequences from fires, landslides, and excessive heat or cold. Surface water resources (lakes, reser...

  16. Future Water-Supply Scenarios, Cape May County, New Jersey, 2003-2050

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Carleton, Glen B.; Pope, Daryll A.; Rice, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Stewards of the water supply in New Jersey are interested in developing a plan to supply potable and non-potable water to residents and businesses of Cape May County until at least 2050. The ideal plan would meet projected demands and minimize adverse effects on currently used sources of potable, non-potable, and ecological water supplies. This report documents past and projected potable, non-potable, and ecological water-supply demands. Past and ongoing adverse effects to production and domestic wells caused by withdrawals include saltwater intrusion and water-level declines in the freshwater aquifers. Adverse effects on the ecological water supplies caused by groundwater withdrawals include premature drying of seasonal wetlands, delayed recovery of water levels in the water-table aquifer, and reduced streamflow. To predict the effects of future actions on the water supplies, three baseline and six future scenarios were created and simulated. Baseline Scenarios 1, 2, and 3 represent withdrawals using existing wells projected until 2050. Baseline Scenario 1 represents average 1998-2003 withdrawals, and Scenario 2 represents New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) full allocation withdrawals. These withdrawals do not meet projected future water demands. Baseline Scenario 3 represents the estimated full build-out water demands. Results of simulations of the three baseline scenarios indicate that saltwater would intrude into the Cohansey aquifer as much as 7,100 feet (ft) to adversely affect production wells used by Lower Township and the Wildwoods, as well as some other near-shore domestic wells; water-level altitudes in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand would decline to -156 ft; base flow in streams would be depleted by 0 to 26 percent; and water levels in the water-table aquifer would decline as much as 0.7ft. [Specific water-level altitudes, land-surface altitudes, and present sea level when used in this report are referenced to the North American

  17. Seven years of external control of fluoride levels in the public water supply in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; MORAES, Camila Mascarenhas; OLYMPIO, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; PESSAN, Juliano Pelim; GRIZZO, Larissa Tercília; SILVA, Thelma Lopes; MAGALHÃES, Ana Carolina; de OLIVEIRA, Rodrigo Cardoso; GROISMAN, Sonia; RAMIRES, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Fluoridation of the public water supplies is recognized as among the top ten public health achievements of the twentieth century. However, the positive aspects of this measure depend on the maintenance of fluoride concentrations within adequate levels. Objective: To report the results of seven years of external control of the fluoride (F) concentrations in the public water supply in Bauru, SP, Brazil in an attempt to verify, on the basis of risk/benefit balance, whether the levels are appropriate. Material and Methods: From March 2004 to February 2011, 60 samples were collected every month from the 19 supply sectors of the city, totaling 4,641 samples. F concentrations in water samples were determined in duplicate, using an ion-specific electrode (Orion 9609) coupled to a potentiometer after buffering with TISAB II. After the analysis, the samples were classified according to the best risk-benefit adjustment. Results: Means (±standard deviation) of F concentrations ranged between 0.73±0.06 and 0.81±0.10 mg/L for the different sectors during the seven years. The individual values ranged between 0.03 and 2.63 mg/L. The percentages of the samples considered "low risk" for dental fluorosis development and of "maximum benefit" for dental caries prevention (0.55-0.84 mg F/L) in the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh years of the study were 82.0, 58.5, 37.4, 61.0, 89.9, 77.3, and 72.4%, respectively, and 69.0% for the entire period. Conclusions: Fluctuations of F levels were found in the public water supply in Bauru during the seven years of evaluation. These results suggest that external monitoring of water fluoridation by an independent assessor should be implemented in cities where there is adjusted fluoridation. This measure should be continued in order to verify that fluoride levels are suitable and, if not, to provide support for the appropriate adjustments. PMID:23559119

  18. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China. PMID:26619399

  19. Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O.G.

    1981-04-01

    Technical and economic assessments are given of solar water heaters, both circulating, and of air-based and liquid-based solar space heating systems. Both new and retrofit systems are considered. The technical status of flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors and of thermal storage is also covered. Non-technical factors are also briefly discussed, including the participants in the use of solar heat, incentives and deterrents. Policy implications are considered as regards acceleration of solar use, goals for solar use, means for achieving goals, and interaction of governments, suppliers, and users. Government actions are recommended. (LEW)

  20. The Impact of Forest Thinning on the Reliability of Water Supply in Central Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Simonit, Silvio; Connors, John P.; Yoo, James; Kinzig, Ann; Perrings, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in Central Arizona, as in other semiarid systems characterized by low and variable rainfall, has historically depended on the effectiveness of strategies to manage water supply risks. Traditionally, the management of supply risks includes three elements: hard infrastructures, landscape management within the watershed, and a supporting set of institutions of which water markets are frequently the most important. In this paper we model the interactions between these elements. A forest restoration initiative in Central Arizona (the Four Forest Restoration Initiative, or 4FRI) will result in thinning of ponderosa pine forests in the upper watershed, with potential implications for both sedimentation rates and water delivery to reservoirs. Specifically, we model the net effect of ponderosa pine forest thinning across the Salt and Verde River watersheds on the reliability and cost of water supply to the Phoenix metropolitan area. We conclude that the sediment impacts of forest thinning (up to 50% of canopy cover) are unlikely to compromise the reliability of the reservoir system while thinning has the potential to increase annual water supply by 8%. This represents an estimated net present value of surface water storage of $104 million, considering both water consumption and hydropower generation. PMID:25835003

  1. The impact of forest thinning on the reliability of water supply in central Arizona.

    PubMed

    Simonit, Silvio; Connors, John P; Yoo, James; Kinzig, Ann; Perrings, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in Central Arizona, as in other semiarid systems characterized by low and variable rainfall, has historically depended on the effectiveness of strategies to manage water supply risks. Traditionally, the management of supply risks includes three elements: hard infrastructures, landscape management within the watershed, and a supporting set of institutions of which water markets are frequently the most important. In this paper we model the interactions between these elements. A forest restoration initiative in Central Arizona (the Four Forest Restoration Initiative, or 4FRI) will result in thinning of ponderosa pine forests in the upper watershed, with potential implications for both sedimentation rates and water delivery to reservoirs. Specifically, we model the net effect of ponderosa pine forest thinning across the Salt and Verde River watersheds on the reliability and cost of water supply to the Phoenix metropolitan area. We conclude that the sediment impacts of forest thinning (up to 50% of canopy cover) are unlikely to compromise the reliability of the reservoir system while thinning has the potential to increase annual water supply by 8%. This represents an estimated net present value of surface water storage of $104 million, considering both water consumption and hydropower generation. PMID:25835003

  2. Public supply water use, Palm Beach County, Florida, 1978-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W.L.; Alvarez, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Public supply water-use data are listed for 32 utilities in Palm Beach County, Florida, for 1978 through 1982. The data are tabulated as monthly and yearly untreated water withdrawals from each public supply utility. Utilities using ground water as a source are listed separately from those using surface-water sources. In 1978, the total public supply water withdrawal in the county was 37,580.64 million gallons, of which 74.0 percent (27,823.22 million gallons) was ground water. By 1982, the total withdrawal had increased to 43,264.16 million gallons, of which 77.5 percent (33,544.52 million gallons) was ground water. Nearly 57 percent of the ground-water withdrawal was in southeast Palm Beach County (Zone 1) during 1982. The greatest surface-water withdrawal during this time was from Clear Lake and Lake Mangonia (Zone 2) and amounted to 79.3 percent of the county 's total surface-water withdrawal. (USGS)

  3. Experimental study on mixing efficiency in water supply rectangular tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, A.; Medina, V.; Mujal, A.

    2009-04-01

    Phenomenon of mixing in drinking water storage tanks and reservoirs has a direct effect on the quality of water. Creation of poor mixing zones and volume stratification can have negative effects in public health. The design of a storage tank must consider the conditions of the inlet and outlets, and also their orientation (vertical or horizontal) to prevent the formation of these zones. Experiments done in a reduced scaled-model with a rectangular base and three different inlets (two waterfalls and a pipe inlet) had the objective to decide which of these inlets achieved the best mixing efficiency. Four situations were considered while three entrances, two unsteady: filling and drawing, and two steady with different outlets. Moreover the effects of columns that support the roof of the tank were studied by running the three entrances with and without columns in the four situations. Neglecting the viscous scale effects, the time taken to mix the volume stored depends on the distance between the inlet and the opposite wall as though as its orientation. Taking into account the whole tank columns have a negative effect on mixing efficiency although they divide the flux and create local zones of turbulence around them, increasing local mixing. Using a digital treating image technique the results are found in a quantitative way.

  4. Future water supply management adaptation measures - case study of Ljubljana field aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čenčur Curk, B.; Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Bogardi, I.

    2012-04-01

    The main drinking water supply problems are related to the significant change of groundwater quantity and quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices and very likely also climate change. The latter may affect the ability of drinking water suppliers to provide enough water of sufficient quality to the consumers. These topics were studied in the frame of SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impact on Water Supply) with the main goal to develop a water supply management system regarding optimisation of water extraction and land use restrictions under climate change scenarios for water suppliers, since existing management practices are mostly inadequate to reduce impacts of CC on water supply reliability. The main goal was a designation of appropriate measures and risk assessment to adapt water supply to changing climate and land use activities considering socio-economic aspects. This was accomplished by using 'Fuzzy Decimaker', which is a tool for selecting and ranking risk reduction measures or management actions for local waterworks or water authorities under the pressure of climate change. Firstly, management options were selected and ranked. For public water supply of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, several management options were selected. For improvement of water supply and preservation of water resource quantities there is a need for engineering interventions, such as reducing water losses on pipelines. For improving drinking water safety and preserving water resource quality farmers are not allowed to use fertilisers in the first safeguarding zone and they get compensations for income reduction because of lower farming production. Compensations for farming restrictions in the second safeguarding zone were applied as additional management option. On the other hand, drinking water treatment is another management option to be considered. Trends in groundwater level are decreasing, above all recharge areas of waterworks

  5. Static Characteristics of Absorption Chiller-Heater Supplying Cold and Hot Water Simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Irie, Tomoyoshi

    Absorption chiller-heaters which can supply both chilled water and hot water at the same time, are used for cooling and heating air conditioning systems. In this paper, we classified absorption cold and hot water generating cycles and control methods, studied these absorption cycles by cycle simulation. In economizer cycle, condensed refrigerant which heats hot water is transported to cooling cycle and used effectively for cooling chilled water, Concerning with transported condensed refrigerant, there are two methods, all condensed refrigerant or required refrigerant for cooling are transported to cooling cycle, and required refrigerant method is better for energy saving. Adding improvement of solution control to this economizer cycle, simultaneous cold and hot water supplying chiller-heaters have good characteristics of energy saving in the all region.

  6. Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The high demand for water, the recent multiyear drought (1999-2007), and projections of global warming have raised questions about the long-term sustainability of water supply in the southwestern United States. In this study, the potential effects of specific levels of atmospheric warming on water-year streamflow in the Colorado River basin are evaluated using a water-balance model, and the results are analyzed within the context of a multi-century tree-ring reconstruction (1490-1998) of streamflow for the basin. The results indicate that if future warming occurs in the basin and is not accompanied by increased precipitation, then the basin is likely to experience periods of water supply shortages more severe than those inferred from the longterm historical tree-ring reconstruction. Furthermore, the modeling results suggest that future warming would increase the likelihood of failure to meet the water allocation requirements of the Colorado River Compact.

  7. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  8. Anthropogenic warming has decreased water supply in North Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brikowski, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    North Central Texas, including Dallas-Ft. Worth, the 4th largest metropolitan area in the U.S., has been in a state of drought for most of this 21st Century. Seven million residents there depend almost exclusively on surface water resources, and net water storage declined precipitously until record rainfall in early 2015. Part of the decline in water availability can be attributed to reduced runoff, where despite slightly above normal precipitation, natural basin runoff has declined almost 20% since its peak in the mid-1990's. These changes have coincided with 0.85oC warming above the historical 20th Century mean. Prevalent Vertisol (cracking) soils in the region make runoff especially sensitive to climate variations, and make it difficult to apply traditional hydrologic models to investigate climate-runoff links. Non-parametric (empirical) runoff elasticity methods circumvent these limitations, and are applied here, focusing on the Upper Trinity River basin (UTB). Diagrammatic assessment of UTB temperature-precipitation (T-Pr) runoff elasticity indicates persistent warming greatly increases the risk of reduced runoff, based on historical experience. Evaluation of individual parameter elasticity indicates dry periods since 2000 have primarily been T-driven, in contrast to the Pr-driven 1951-6 drought of record. Observed decline in runoff during 2000-2010 is entirely attributable to increased T. Additional runoff declines from 2011-14 were driven by reduced Pr, augmenting the T-driven reductions. These T effects are most prominent to the west, and decline to minimal extent just east of the UTB. The observed warming can be related to anthropogenic CO2 increase with >95% certainty based on comparison of CMIP5 climate model results for the UTB with and without CO2 forcing. UTB runoff fraction of Pr decreased after 1980 with >97.5% certainty. These results strongly indicate that 21st Century 20% decline in runoff from previous century norms is largely attributable to

  9. [Do we need regulation of drinking water for animals? Recommendations for the water supply of farm animals and pets].

    PubMed

    Hartung, J; Kamphues, J

    2000-08-01

    The role of water as an essential nutrient for the animals, their health, performance and welfare is often underestimated. Presently there exists no specific legal regulation which defines the water quality for animal consumption. Some local recommendations make reference to the German regulation for the drinking water of humans. This seems to be useful in respect to food producing animals at a first glance. However, significant practical difficulties can occur. Therefore it is necessary to include in a possible regulation for the drinking water of animals additional animal and management specific aspects such as the type of animal, the keeping system, the water supply system, the distribution systems and the drinkers which are used. It may also be useful to define animal specific thresholds for certain groups of compounds and contaminants. As a first step towards a possible regulation 12 recommendations are given to improve and standardise the water supply of farm and pet animals. PMID:11036789

  10. Understanding the influence of climate change on the embodied energy of water supply.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Wang, Haiying; Jacobs, Jennifer M

    2016-05-15

    The current study aims to advance understandings on how and to what degree climate change will affect the life cycle chemical and energy uses of drinking water supply. A dynamic life cycle assessment was performed to quantify historical monthly operational embodied energy of a selected water supply system located in northeast US. Comprehensive multivariate and regression analyses were then performed to understand the statistical correlation among monthly life cycle energy consumptions, three water quality indicators (UV254, pH, and water temperature), and five climate indicators (monthly mean temperature, monthly mean maximum/minimum temperatures, total precipitation, and total snow fall). Thirdly, a calculation was performed to understand how volumetric and total life cycle energy consumptions will change under two selected IPCC emission scenarios (A2 and B1). It was found that volumetric life cycle energy consumptions are highest in winter months mainly due to the higher uses of natural gas in the case study system, but total monthly life cycle energy consumptions peak in both July and January because of the increasing water demand in summer months. Most of the variations in chemical and energy uses can be interpreted by water quality and climate variations except for the use of soda ash. It was also found that climate change might lead to an average decrease of 3-6% in the volumetric energy use of the case study system by the end of the century. This result combined with conclusions reached by previous climate versus water supply studies indicates that effects of climate change on drinking water supply might be highly dependent on the geographical location and treatment process of individual water supply systems. PMID:27010784

  11. Hydrologic feasibility of water-supply-development alternatives in Cape May County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spitz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing public-supply withdrawals in Cape May County, New Jersey associated with increasing residential and seasonal tourist populations have led to regionally lowered ground-water levels, a reversal of ground-water flow directions toward onshore, and landward encroachment of saltwater in the shallow aquifer system. The three aquifers composing the shallow system are, in order of increasing depth, the unconfined Holly Beach water-bearing zone and the confined estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers. The changes to the ground-water system have been greatest in the confined aquifers near the three major well fields on the Cape May peninsula. Formerly productive water-supply wells have been abandoned because of saltwater contamination. Concern about anthropogenic contamination has prevented shifting of withdrawals to the unconfined aquifer. Surface- water sources have also been little used. Further development on the peninsula involving increased water demand will exacerbate the current saltwater-encroachment problems. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of possible water-supply-development alternatives by use of predictive ground-water flow simulations. The alternatives involve (1) injection of tertiary- treated wastewater to replenish aquifer storage and create a hydraulic barrier to saltwater encroachment, (2) withdrawal of brackish water in order to create a hydraulic barrier, (3) conjunctive use of ground water and surface water, enabling the reduction of ground-water withdrawals, and (4) redistribution of withdrawals inland to the unconfined aquifer. Results of these simulations can potentially be used in the design of a water-supply-development strategy that preserves supply and a monitoring program that ensures early warning of saltwater encroachment, thereby allowing sufficient time for development of an alternative supply. The water-supply- development alternatives were evaluated by comparison of results of predictive simulations made with

  12. The uncertainty of future water supply adequacy in megacities: Effects of population growth and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, T.; Garcia, M. E.; Small, D. L.; Portney, K.; Islam, S.

    2013-12-01

    Providing water to the expanding population of megacities, which have over 10 million people, with a stressed and aging water infrastructure creates unprecedented challenges. These challenges are exacerbated by dwindling supply and competing demands, altered precipitation and runoff patterns in a changing climate, fragmented water utility business models, and changing consumer behavior. While there is an extensive literature on the effects of climate change on water resources, the uncertainty of climate change predictions continues to be high. This hinders the value of these predictions for municipal water supply planning. The ability of water utilities to meet future water needs will largely depend on their capacity to make decisions under uncertainty. Water stressors, like changes in demographics, climate, and socioeconomic patterns, have varying degrees of uncertainty. Identifying which stressors will have a greater impact on water resources, may reduce the level of future uncertainty for planning and managing water utilities. Within this context, we analyze historical and projected changes of population and climate to quantify the relative impacts of these two stressors on water resources. We focus on megacities that rely primarily on surface water resources to evaluate (a) population growth pattern from 1950-2010 and projected population for 2010-2060; (b) climate change impact on projected climate change scenarios for 2010-2060; and (c) water access for 1950-2010; projected needs for 2010-2060.

  13. Uncertainty in future water supplies from forests: hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. A.; Achterman, G. L.; Alexander, L. E.; Brooks, K. N.; Creed, I. F.; Ffolliott, P. F.; MacDonald, L.; Wemple, B. C.

    2008-12-01

    Forests account for 33 percent of the U.S. land area, process nearly two-thirds of the fresh water supply, and provide water to 40 percent of all municipalities or about 180 million people. Water supply management is becoming more difficult given the increasing demand for water, climate change, increasing development, changing forest ownership, and increasingly fragmented laws governing forest and watershed management. In 2006, the US National Research Council convened a study on the present understanding of forest hydrology, the hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape, and research and management needs for sustaining water resources from forested landscapes. The committee concluded that while it is possible to generate short-term water yield increases by timber harvesting, there are a variety of reasons why active forest management has only limited potential to sustainably increase water supplies. These include the short-term nature of the increases in most environments, the timing of the increases, the need for downstream storage, and that continuing ground- based timber harvest can reduce water quality. At the same time, past and continuing changes in forest structure and management may be altering water supplies at the larger time and space scales that are of most interest to forest and water managers. These changes include the legacy of past forest management practices, particularly fire suppression and clearcutting; exurban sprawl, which permanently converts forest land to nonforest uses; effects of climate change on wildfires, insect outbreaks, forest structure, forest species composition, snowpack depth and snowmelt; road networks; and changes in forest land ownership. All of these changes have the potential to alter water quantity and quality from forests. Hence, the baseline conditions that have been used to estimate sustained water yields from forested watersheds may no longer be applicable. Stationarity also can no longer be assumed for the

  14. An appraisal of public water supply and coverage in Mzuzu City, northern Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Gulula, Lewis C.; Phiri, Gift

    Literature on water supply and coverage is mixed about whether Malawi will achieve the MDGs by 2015. Mzuzu City is one of the most rapidly growing urban areas that is faced with public water supply and coverage challenges in Malawi. In view of this, an appraisal was done through documentation review, field visits and face to face interviews in order to evaluate problems of public water supply and coverage. It was observed that inequitable distribution of water points, unreliability of the water supply services and financial losses are some of the problems affecting public water supply in Mzuzu City. The financial losses were attributed to poor financial performance resulting from accrued debts by some individual customers and most government institutions, the board’s reliance on loans for expansion of services which has led into more revenue being spent servicing the loan and accrued interests, and high levels of unaccounted for water. This study found out that only 17% of the study population has piped water in their dwelling homes and yards. It was also observed that 51% of the population accesses the water from community stand pipes supplied by the NRWB. This means that only 68% of the study population in Mzuzu City (mostly those from planned settlements) is covered by NRWB and 32% is not covered and relies on boreholes (13.6%), unprotected wells (16.5%) and rivers (1.9%) as sources of water. The percentage composition of the population not covered by NRWB is of great concern and threat to public health and safety. The study recommends that NRWB should ensure that available funds, which would otherwise have been paid out in form of interest, are used on projects in phases to improve water supply and coverage in Mzuzu City. The study also recommends that the government of Malawi should consider converting the NRWB’s loans into grants in order to alleviate the NRWB’s financial losses. Furthermore, the study recommends that the NRWB should equitably increase

  15. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, R.R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N.R.; Creel, B.J.

    1981-07-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict for water now used by the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. In the Green River Basin, we found that Duchesne and Uintah Counties, Utah, would experience the greatest economic impacts when agricultural water supplies were reduced by 50%. In the Upper Yellowstone River Basin, Treasure and Rosebud Counties, Montana, would experience the greatest total income and employment reductions when water supplies were reduced less than or equal to 40%. When these supplies were reduced by more than 40%, Stillwater, Carbon, Yellowstone, and Big Horn Counties, Montana, would experience the greatest reductions.

  16. Effects of Burial in Sand and Water Supply Regime on Seedling Emergence of Six Species

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, YUANRUN; XIE, ZHIXIAO; YU, YI; JIANG, LIANHE; SHIMIZU, HIDEYUKI; RIMMINGTON, GLYN M.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Air seeding has long been regarded as a quick and successful measure for vegetation rehabilitation in China. However, seedling emergence of often-used species including Agriophyllum squarrosum, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Artemisia ordosica, Hedysarum fruticosum, Caragana korshinskii and Medicago sativa is low. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions to study the effects of sowing depth and water supply on seedling emergence, in order to understand the requirements for increasing seedling emergence. • Methods Seeds were exposed to different environments of burial and water supply regimes in PVC pots (7 cm in diameter and 11 cm in height) under the same light intensity and alternating temperature regimes in a growth chamber. • Key Results Seedlings of three species (Agriophyllum squarrosum, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Artemisia ordosica) with relatively light seeds emerged well at a 0·5 cm sowing depth under a 7·5 and 10 mm water supply regime. However, few seedlings of these species emerged when the sowing depth was over 1 cm or when water supply was 5 mm. Seedlings of Caragana korshinskii, Hedysarum fruticosum and Medicago sativa emerged from sowing depths of 0·5–4 cm, 0·5–3 cm, and 0·5–4 cm, respectively, under both 7·5 and 10 mm water supply regimes. Under a 5 mm water supply regime, seedlings of these species also emerged at over 1 cm sowing depth. Seeds of all six species sown on the surface of sand did not germinate, and seedlings did not emerge when they were sown at depths greater than 6 cm. • Conclusions Based on these experiments, a 0·5 cm sowing depth resulted in the highest seedling emergence and it is concluded that this is the optimal sowing depth for seedling emergence of all six species. PMID:15820988

  17. Improved biostability assessment of drinking water with a suite of test methods at a water supply treating eutrophic lake water.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, Dick; Martijn, Bram; Schaap, Peter G; Hoogenboezem, Wim; Veenendaal, Harm R; van der Wielen, Paul W J J

    2015-12-15

    Assessment of drinking-water biostability is generally based on measuring bacterial growth in short-term batch tests. However, microbial growth in the distribution system is affected by multiple interactions between water, biofilms and sediments. Therefore a diversity of test methods was applied to characterize the biostability of drinking water distributed without disinfectant residual at a surface-water supply. This drinking water complied with the standards for the heterotrophic plate count and coliforms, but aeromonads periodically exceeded the regulatory limit (1000 CFU 100 mL(-1)). Compounds promoting growth of the biopolymer-utilizing Flavobacterium johnsoniae strain A3 accounted for c. 21% of the easily assimilable organic carbon (AOC) concentration (17 ± 2 μg C L(-1)) determined by growth of pure cultures in the water after granular activated-carbon filtration (GACF). Growth of the indigenous bacteria measured as adenosine tri-phosphate in water samples incubated at 25 °C confirmed the low AOC in the GACF but revealed the presence of compounds promoting growth after more than one week of incubation. Furthermore, the concentration of particulate organic carbon in the GACF (83 ± 42 μg C L(-1), including 65% carbohydrates) exceeded the AOC concentration. The increased biomass accumulation rate in the continuous biofouling monitor (CBM) at the distribution system reservoir demonstrated the presence of easily biodegradable by-products related to ClO2 dosage to the GACF and in the CBM at 42 km from the treatment plant an iron-associated biomass accumulation was observed. The various methods applied thus distinguished between easily assimilable compounds, biopolymers, slowly biodegradable compounds and biomass-accumulation potential, providing an improved assessment of the biostability of the water. Regrowth of aeromonads may be related to biomass-turnover processes in the distribution system, but establishment of quantitative relationships is needed for

  18. Sources of seasonal water-supply forecast skill in the western US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Many water supplies in the western US depend on water that is stored in snowpacks and reservoirs during the cool, wet seasons for release and use in the following warm seasons. Managers of these water supplies must decide each winter how much water will be available in subsequent seasons so that they can proactively capture and store water and can make reliable commitments for later deliveries. Long-lead water-supply forecasts are thus important components of water managers' decisionmaking. Present-day operational water-supply forecasts draw skill from observations of the amount of water in upland snowpacks, along with estimates of the amount of water otherwise available (often via surrogates for antecedent precipitation, soil moisture or baseflows). Occasionally, the historical hydroclimatic influences of various global climate conditions may be factored in to forecasts. The relative contributions of (potential) forecast skill for January-March and April-July seasonal water- supply availability from these sources are mapped across the western US as lag correlations among elements of the inputs and outputs from a physically based, regional land-surface hydrology model of the western US from 1950-1999. Information about snow-water contents is the most valuable predictor for forecasts made through much of the cool-season but, before the snows begin to fall, indices of El Nino-Southern Oscillation are the primary source of whatever meager skill is available. The contributions to forecast skill made available by knowledge of antecedent flows (a traditional predictor) and soil moisture at the time the long-lead forecast is issued are compared, to gain insights into the potential usefulness of new soil-moisture monitoring options in the region. When similar computations are applied to simulated flows under historical conditions, but with a uniform +2°C warming imposed, the widespread diminution of snowpacks reduces forecast skills, although skill contributed by measures

  19. Individual household water supplies as a control measure against Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Unrau, G. O.

    1975-01-01

    As part of a programme to evaluate single control measures for reducing the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, household water supplies were installed in 5 rural settlements in the Riche Fond Valley of St Lucia. About 2 000 persons who previously were dependent on rivers and streams are now receiving safe water at their homes. The systems provide useful design data on individual water requirements in rural areas. This experience suggests that future rural water systems can be designed more economically and efficiently by using consumption rates that are closer to the actual requirements and by eliminating water wastage at the taps. PMID:1082378

  20. Comparative study of water quality of rivers used for raw water supply & ex-mining lakes in Perak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orji, K. U.; Sapari, N.; Yusof, K. W.; Asadpour, R.; Olisa, E.

    2013-06-01

    Ex-mining lakes are seldom used as sources of raw water for the treatment of public water supply due to the general view that they are highly polluted. This study examined the water quality of these lakes, compared and contrasted them to the water quality of the rivers used for Perak drinking water supply. Ten water samples were analyzed from different ex-mining lakes. Two water samples were from Kinta and Perak rivers. They were analyzed for physico-chemical properties such as temperature, pH, EC, TDS, SO42- COD, Cl- Na+ Fe, As, and Pb. The results showed that temperature varied from 28.1°C to 34.1°C, pH 6.2 to 9.0, EC 55 to 400 μs/cm, turbidity 5.6 to 74.2 NTU, TDS 36.8 to 268mg/l, Cl- 0.483 to 3.339mg/l, SO42- 0.051 to 15.307mg/l, Na 0.669 to 3.668mg/l, Fe 0 to 0.14mg/l, As 0 to 0.004mg/l, and Pb 0.019 to 0.075mg/l. All the samples were highly turbid, had slightly high concentration of Pb, and had common water quality problem. The ex-mining lakes can also be used to supply water after treatment since these rivers are already being used by the Metropolitan Utilities Corporation for water treatment. The ex-mining pools can be used as alternative sources of drinking water supply to the people of Perak.

  1. Innovative Approaches to Teaching Packaging Design Using the Example of Mineral Water Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestyánszka Škůrková, Katarína; Bajor, Peter; Trafela, Sabrina

    2013-12-01

    Designing the packaging of a product has many critical factors. In our paper, we present some of them on the example of a simple product: mineral water. In spite of the fact that today not only products, but also supply chains are competing with each other, designers sometimes pay little attention to considering the packaging system not only from the customer and the producer side, but for warehousing and transportation as well. We cover a lot of "what can go wrong" scenarios on the example of mineral water packaging for the purpose of defining the critical points in the supply chain.

  2. Geographic information system programs for use in the water-supply-allocation permitting process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, Paul; Price, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    Computer programs designed for use in a geographic information system as an aid in the water-supply- allocation permitting process are described. These programs were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey during a project conducted in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. The programs enable a user to display proposed water-supply-allocation sites in a defined area together with present sites and important hydrologic and geographic features on a computer screen or on hardcopy plots. The programs are menu-driven and do not require familiarity with geographic information systems. Source codes for the programs are included in appendixes.

  3. Distribution of aquifers, liquid-waste impoundments, and municipal water-supply sources, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, David F.; Maevsky, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Impoundments of liquid waste are potential sources of ground-water contamination in Massachusetts. The map report, at a scale of 1 inch equals 4 miles, shows the idstribution of aquifers and the locations of municipal water-supply sources and known liquid-waste impoundments. Ground water, an important source of municipal water supply, is produced from shallow sand and gravel aquifers that are generally unconfined, less than 200 feet thick, and yield less than 2,000 gallons per minute to individual wells. These aquifers commonly occupy lowlands and stream valleys and are most extensive in eastern Massachusetts. Surface impoundments of liquid waste are commonly located over these aquifers. These impoundments may leak and allow waste to infiltrate underlying aquifers and alter their water quality. (USGS)

  4. Chemical and physical quality of selected public water supplies in Florida, August-September 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, G.A.; Healy, Henry G.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a 1976 water-quality reconnaissance made by the U.S. Geological Survey indicated that, with few exceptions, all public water supplies in Florida are of high quality and meet the standards set forth in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Occasionally the concentrations of fluoride, turbidity, cadmium, chromium, and lead approximated, equaled, or exceeded maximum contaminant levels with exceedences occurring very infrequently. The pesticides 2,4-D and silvex, were detected in some public supplies throughout the State mainly in surface water. Although pesticides were not detected in concentrations approaching the maximum levels established in the regulations, their presence does signal that the activities of man are beginning to affect some water resources. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Towards risk-based drought management in the Netherlands: making water supply levels transparent to water users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens; Vuren Saskia, Van; der Vat Marnix, Van

    2016-04-01

    To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, assessed the impact of climate change and socio-economic development, and explored strategies to deal with these impacts. The Programme initiated a joint approach to water supply management with stakeholders and developed a national adaptation plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions. The adaptation plan consists of a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of possible actions and measures through time - to achieve targets while responding in a flexible manner to uncertain developments over time, allowing room to respond to new opportunities and insights. With regard to fresh water allocation, the Delta Programme stated that supplying water of sufficient quality is a shared responsibility that requires cohesive efforts among users in the main and regional water system. The national and local authorities and water users involved agreed that the water availability and, where relevant, the water quality should be as transparent and predictable as possible under normal, dry and extremely dry conditions. They therefore introduced the concept of "water supply service levels", which should describe water availability and quality that can be delivered with a certain return period, for all regions and all relevant water users in the Netherlands. The service levels form an addition to the present policy and should be decided on by 2021. At present water allocation during periods of (expected) water shortage occurs according to a prearranged ranking system (a water hierarchy scheme based on a list of priorities), if water availability drops below a critical low level. The aim is to have supply levels available that are based on the probability of occurrence and economic impact of water shortage, and that are transparent for all water users in the regional water systems and the main water system. As part of the European project

  6. Kentucky Public Water-Supply Withdrawals During 1995, 2000, and 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downs, Aimee C.; Caldwell, William E.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Division of Water, has compiled the reported permitted public water-supply-withdrawal data for Kentucky for 2005. Water-withdrawal data for 1995 and 2000 were previously published in Solley and others (1998) and Hutson and others (2004), respectively. This report is a graphical representation of permitted withdrawals for 1995, 2000, and 2005. Public suppliers that are regulated through the Kentucky Division of Water, Water-Withdrawal Permitting Program, withdrew a total of 496, 525, and 558 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 1995, 2000, and 2005, respectively. In 2005, 489 Mgal/d (88 percent) came from surface-water sources, and 69 Mgal/d (12 percent) came from ground-water sources. Small increases and decreases in permitted public water-supply withdrawals can be attributed to population changes. Large increases and decreases can be attributed to merging of supply systems, change(s) in source, or purchases from other counties.

  7. Assessing protozoan risks for surface drinking water supplies in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Krkosek, Wendy; Reed, Victoria; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-02-01

    Protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, pose a human health risk when present in drinking water. To minimize health risks, the Nova Scotia Treatment Standards for surface water and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water require a 3-log reduction for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. This study determined the protozoan risk of municipal surface source waters in Nova Scotia, through the use of a pre-screening risk analysis of water supplies, followed by subsequent water quality analysis of the seven highest risk supplies. The water supplies were monitored monthly for 1 year to obtain baseline data that could be used for a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The QMRA model outcomes were compared to the Health Canada health target of 10(-6) disability-adjusted life years/person/year. QMRA modeling shows that the treatment facilities meet the required log reductions and disability-adjusted life year target standards under current conditions. Furthermore, based on the results of this work, Nova Scotia should maintain the current 3-log reduction standard for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. The results of this study show that a pre-screening step can help to inform water sources that are particularly vulnerable to protozoan contamination, which can lead to more focused, cost-effective sampling, and monitoring programs. PMID:26837839

  8. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in a water supply system and related human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Gaffney, Vanessa; Almeida, Cristina M M; Rodrigues, Alexandre; Ferreira, Elisabete; Benoliel, Maria João; Cardoso, Vitor Vale

    2015-04-01

    A monitoring study of 31 pharmaceuticals along Lisbon's drinking water supply system was implemented, which comprised the analysis of 250 samples including raw water (surface water and groundwater), and drinking water. Of the 31 pharmaceutical compounds, only sixteen were quantified in the analyzed samples, with levels ranging from 0.005 to 46 ng/L in raw water samples and 0.09-46 ng/L in drinking water samples. The human health risk assessment performed showed that appreciable risks to the consumer's health arising from exposure to trace levels of pharmaceuticals in drinking water are extremely unlikely, as RQs values were all below 0.001. Also, pharmaceuticals were selected as indicators to be used as a tool to control the quality of raw water and the treatment efficiency in the drinking water treatment plants. PMID:25453834

  9. Development and Use of the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System by the National Weather Service to Support the New York City Water Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shedd, R.; Reed, S. M.; Porter, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has been working for several years on the development of the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System (HEFS). The objective of HEFS is to provide ensemble river forecasts incorporating the best precipitation and temperature forcings at any specific time horizon. For the current implementation, this includes the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) and the Climate Forecast System (CFSv2). One of the core partners that has been working with the NWS since the beginning of the development phase of HEFS is the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) which is responsible for the complex water supply system for New York City. The water supply system involves a network of reservoirs in both the Delaware and Hudson River basins. At the same time that the NWS was developing HEFS, NYCDEP was working on enhancing the operations of their water supply reservoirs through the development of a new Operations Support Tool (OST). OST is designed to guide reservoir system operations to ensure an adequate supply of high-quality drinking water for the city, as well as to meet secondary objectives for reaches downstream of the reservoirs assuming the primary water supply goals can be met. These secondary objectives include fisheries and ecosystem support, enhanced peak flow attenuation beyond that provided natively by the reservoirs, salt front management, and water supply for other cities. Since January 2014, the NWS Northeast and Middle Atlantic River Forecast Centers have provided daily one year forecasts from HEFS to NYCDEP. OST ingests these forecasts, couples them with near-real-time environmental and reservoir system data, and drives models of the water supply system. The input of ensemble forecasts results in an ensemble of model output, from which information on the range and likelihood of possible future system states can be extracted. This type of probabilistic information provides system managers with additional

  10. The influence of supply and sewerage area characteristics on water and sewerage companies responses to the Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Spiller, M; McIntosh, B S; Seaton, R A F

    2009-01-01

    Using the example of raw water quality this paper examines the relationship between different spatial characteristics (geographical and physical properties) of Water and Sewerage Companies (WaSCs) supply and sewage areas and response to the Water Framework Directive. Results were obtained from thematic analysis and content analysis of 14 interviews with WaSCs representatives. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of 51 WaSCs business function characteristics was employed to derive groups of similar WaSCs. Results indicate that there is difference in how WaSCs approach raw water quality issues. It appears that small WaSCs with relatively large agricultural areas in their supply catchments are more likely to seek managerial solutions to raw water quality problems. PMID:19809144

  11. Nitrate, sulphate and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi; Maugeri, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Water samples collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily were analysed for electric conductivity and for their chloride, sulphate and nitrate contents. The samples were collected as uniformly as possible from throughout the Sicilian territory, with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. Chloride contents that ranged from 5.53 to 1,302 mg/l were correlated strongly with electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values are attributable to seawater contamination along the coasts of the island. High chloride and sulphate values attributable to evaporitic rock dissolution were found in the central part of Sicily. The nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 296 mg/l, with 31 samples (4.7% of the total) exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l. Anomalous samples always came from areas of intensive agricultural usage, indicating a clear anthropogenic origin. The same parameters were also measured in bottled water sold in Sicily, and they all were within the ranges for public drinking water supplies. The calculated mean nitrate intake from consuming public water supplies (16.1 mg/l) did not differ significantly from that of bottled water (15.2 mg/l). Although the quality of public water supplies needs to be improved by eliminating those that do not comply with the current drinking water limits, at present it does not justify the high consumption of bottled water (at least for nitrate contents). PMID:21717203

  12. Water Supply in the Mojave River Ground-Water Basin, 1931-99, and the Benefits of Artificial Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamos, Christina L.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The Mojave River and the associated aquifer system are important water supplies in the Mojave Desert of southern California. The river and aquifer system are in hydraulic connection in many areas, and when flow conditions change in one, the other usually is affected. The river is an unpredictable source of water; therefore, residents of the basin rely almost entirely on ground water for their water supply. This reliance on ground water has resulted in overdraft conditions that have caused water-level declines, changes in the quantity and spatial distribution of recharge from the Mojave River, and loss of riparian habitat. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Mojave Water Agency (MWA), has completed several studies to determine the likely effects of overdraft on the ground-water and surface-water relations along the Mojave River. This report summarizes those studies, highlighting some of the simulation results from a ground-water flow model, and describes the ground-water and surface-water conditions of the Mojave River Basin.

  13. A triangular fuzzy TOPSIS-based approach for the application of water technologies in different emergency water supply scenarios.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Yu, Huan; You, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Because of the increasing frequency and intensity of unexpected natural disasters, providing safe drinking water for the affected population following a disaster has become a global challenge of growing concern. An onsite water supply technology that is portable, mobile, or modular is a more suitable and sustainable solution for the victims than transporting bottled water. In recent years, various water techniques, such as membrane-assisted technologies, have been proposed and successfully implemented in many places. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically identify the optimum options for different disaster scenarios. Hence, a fuzzy triangular-based multi-criteria, group decision-making tool was developed in this research. The approach was then applied to the selection of the most appropriate water technologies corresponding to the different emergency water supply scenarios. The results show this tool capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency water technologies for enduring security drinking water supply in disaster relief. PMID:27221588

  14. Water supply and not nitrate concentration determines primary root growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nick; Whalley, W Richard; Lindsey, Keith; Miller, Anthony J

    2011-10-01

    Understanding how root system architecture (RSA) adapts to changing nitrogen and water availability is important for improving acquisition. A sand rhizotron system was developed to study RSA in a porous substrate under tightly regulated nutrient supply. The RSA of Arabidopsis seedlings under differing nitrate (NO₃⁻) and water supplies in agar and sand was described. The hydraulic conductivity of the root environment was manipulated by using altered sand particle size and matric potentials. Ion-selective microelectrodes were used to quantify NO₃⁻ at the surface of growing primary roots in sands of different particle sizes. Differences in RSA were observed between seedlings grown on agar and sand, and the influence of NO₃⁻ (0.1-10.0 mm) and water on RSA was determined. Primary root length (PRL) was a function of water flux and independent of NO₃⁻. The percentage of roots with laterals correlated with water flux, whereas NO₃⁻ supply was important for basal root (BR) growth. In agar and sand, the NO₃⁻ activities at the root surface were higher than those supplied in the nutrient solution. The sand rhizotron system is a useful tool for the study of RSA, providing a porous growth environment that can be used to simulate the effects of hydraulic conductivity on growth. PMID:21707650

  15. Quantifying the crucial role of snow in supplying human water demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, J. S.; Viviroli, D.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2014-12-01

    Snow is considered essential to ecosystems, people, and climate, regulating water availability by mediating runoff and soil moisture throughout the year, and altering planetary radiative balance. Like canary in a coalmine, snow also serves as a kind of sentinel system, providing a benchmark by which we can measure the advance of global warming. Yet recent analyses reveal that the relationship between snow and warming is more complex: Despite warming, for example, the magnitude of internal climate variability suggests some Northern Hemisphere regions may experience snow increases for at least the next 50 years. While studies demonstrate that snow supply is vital and in critical danger, such assessments are based only on projections of annualized supply-side changes, such as the fraction of total annual runoff coming from snowfall. These measures do not consider a region's unique seasonal patterns of water supply and, in particular, water demand. We therefore do not know snow's relative importance to each region's water supply portfolio, and thus how great a risk global warming presents to regional water availability. Here we present the first quantification of snow's observed role in fulfilling monthly water demand for people in the Northern Hemisphere given each basin's unique sub-annual patterns of snow accumulation and melt. This quantification also reconciles the requirements of ecosystems and includes the buffering capacity of existing artificial storage, such as dams and reservoirs. Our results provide a meaningful baseline against which projected snow changes (from global warming) or demand changes (from population or land-use change) can be evaluated to identify regions at acute risk of disequilibria between future snow water supply and its demand.

  16. The challenges of supplying water to small, scattered communities in the Lower Okavango Basin (LOB), Ngamiland, Botswana: An evaluation of government policy and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swatuk, Larry A.; Kgomotso, Phemo K.

    Supplying adequate water and sanitation facilities to small, scattered rural communities and/or large, fast growing settlements in remote areas is a challenge not easily met anywhere in the world. This article focuses on just such a challenge in the remote, rural area of Ngamiland District in north-western Botswana. Drawing on a combination of critical analysis of government and secondary data, participant observation, and key stakeholder interviews conducted over the period 2004-2006, the article shows that despite a good aggregate record of supplying water and sanitation throughout the country, there are abiding, often serious, problems with supply in remote areas. The research reveals that due to a combination of limited human and financial resource capacity, government policy that deliberately under-serves remote areas in order to encourage resettlement, and complacence among key decision-takers, supply problems go unresolved. The article suggests four key interventions as possible ways forward: using the Okavango Delta Management Plan (ODMP) process as a guiding framework for institutional reform; linking research directly to human resource capacity development; treating water as both a social and an economic good; and soliciting an IWRM ‘champion’ to drive the political process.

  17. GIS-based analysis of drinking-water supply structures: a module for microbial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kistemann, T; Herbst, S; Dangendorf, F; Exner, M

    2001-05-01

    Water-related infections constitute an important health impact world-wide. A set of tools serving for Microbial Risk Assessment (MRA) of waterborne diseases should comprise the entire drinking-water management system and take into account the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept which provides specific Critical Control Points (CCPs) reflecting each step of drinking-water provision. A Geographical Information System (GIS) study concerning water-supply structure (WSS) was conducted in the Rhein-Berg District (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany). As a result, suitability of the existing water databases HYGRIS (hydrological basis geo-information system) and TEIS (drinking-water recording and information system) for the development of a WSS-GIS module could be demonstrated. Spatial patterns within the integrated raw and drinking-water data can easily be uncovered by GIS-specific options. The application of WSS-GIS allows a rapid visualization and analysis of drinking-water supply structure and offers huge advantages concerning microbial monitoring of raw and drinking water as well as recognition and investigation of incidents and outbreaks. Increasing requests regarding health protection and health reporting, demands for a better outbreak management and water-related health impacts of global climate change are major challenges of future water management to be tackled with methods including spatial analysis. GIS is assumed to be a very useful tool to meet these requirements. PMID:11434210

  18. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Maui Pumped Storage Project, which would use effluent water from the existing West Maui sewage... Energy Regulatory Commission West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... April 1, 2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary...

  19. Optimal reconstruction of historical water supply to a distribution system: A. Methodology.

    PubMed

    Aral, M M; Guan, J; Maslia, M L; Sautner, J B; Gillig, R E; Reyes, J J; Williams, R C

    2004-09-01

    The New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services (NJDHSS), with support from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted an epidemiological study of childhood leukaemia and nervous system cancers that occurred in the period 1979 through 1996 in Dover Township, Ocean County, New Jersey. The epidemiological study explored a wide variety of possible risk factors, including environmental exposures. ATSDR and NJDHSS determined that completed human exposure pathways to groundwater contaminants occurred in the past through private and community water supplies (i.e. the water distribution system serving the area). To investigate this exposure, a model of the water distribution system was developed and calibrated through an extensive field investigation. The components of this water distribution system, such as number of pipes, number of tanks, and number of supply wells in the network, changed significantly over a 35-year period (1962--1996), the time frame established for the epidemiological study. Data on the historical management of this system was limited. Thus, it was necessary to investigate alternative ways to reconstruct the operation of the system and test the sensitivity of the system to various alternative operations. Manual reconstruction of the historical water supply to the system in order to provide this sensitivity analysis was time-consuming and labour intensive, given the complexity of the system and the time constraints imposed on the study. To address these issues, the problem was formulated as an optimization problem, where it was assumed that the water distribution system was operated in an optimum manner at all times to satisfy the constraints in the system. The solution to the optimization problem provided the historical water supply strategy in a consistent manner for each month of the study period. The non-uniqueness of the selected historical water supply strategy was addressed by the formulation of a second

  20. [Concentration and form of asbestos fibers in tap drinking water contaminated from a water supply pipe with asbestos-cement].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, K; Takizawa, Y; Muto, H; Hirano, K

    1992-10-01

    The identification and concentration of asbestos fibers in tap drinking water supplied in a central area of Akita Prefecture, Japan, were determined by phase-contrast microscopy and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. The following results were obtained. 1. Asbestos fibers were found in the tap water from two areas in which an asbestos-cement pipe was used for public water supply. The concentrations of asbestos fibers in the tap water were 2.7 x 10(4) to 27.0 x 10(4) fibers per liter of water in area A and 10.0 x 10(4) to 21.0 x 10(4) in area B. On the other hand, no asbestos fiber contamination was observed in tap water of area C, which shared a common water source with area A. A vinyl chloride pipe was used over the entire length of the water supply in route C. 2. Crocidolite was the predominant type of asbestos fiber detected in the tap water. Chrysotile and a mixture of chrysotile and amosite were also observed. 3. Almost all asbestos fibers detected in the tap water possessed the form of thick or sheaved fibers with lengths ranging from ca. 5 to 10 microns. Their shapes were very different from those of asbestos fibers found in the atmosphere. The typical form of the latter is short (ca. 1 micron in length) and needle-like. 4. It was suggested that the contamination of asbestos fibers in the tap water was caused by erosion and peeling off of the inner wall of the asbestos-cement pipe used as a conduit. In order to evaluate the safety of drinking water in Japan, an extensive survey on asbestos-fiber contamination in tap water is necessary. PMID:1464953

  1. Multi-dimensional Conjunctive Operation Rule for the Water Supply System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Y.; Tan, C. A.; CHEN, Y.; Tung, C.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, with the increment of floods and droughts, not only in numbers but also in intensities, floods were severer during the wet season and the droughts were more serious during the dry season. In order to reduce their impact on agriculture, industry, and even human being, the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater has been paid much attention and become a new direction for the future research. Traditionally, the reservoir operation usually follows the operation rule curve to satisfy the water demand and considers only water levels at the reservoirs and time series. The strategy used in the conjunctive-use management model is that the water demand is first satisfied with the reservoirs operated based on the rule curves, and the deficit between demand and supply, if exists, is provided by the groundwater. In this study, we propose a new operation rule, named multi-dimensional conjunctive operation rule curve (MCORC), which is extended from the concept of reservoir operation rule curve. The MCORC is a three-dimensional curve and is applied to both surface water and groundwater. Three sets of parameters, water levels and the supply percentage at reservoirs, groundwater levels and the supply percentage, and time series, are considered simultaneously in the curve. The zonation method and heuristic algorithm are applied to optimize the curve subject to the constraints of the reservoir operation rules and the safety yield of groundwater. The proposed conjunctive operation rule was applied to the water supply system which is analogue to the area in northern Taiwan. The results showed that the MCORC could increase the efficiency of water use and reduce the risk of serious water deficits.

  2. Intrauterine growth retardation in Iowa communities with herbicide-contaminated drinking water supplies.

    PubMed Central

    Munger, R; Isacson, P; Hu, S; Burns, T; Hanson, J; Lynch, C F; Cherryholmes, K; Van Dorpe, P; Hausler, W J

    1997-01-01

    In a statewide survey of 856 Iowa municipal drinking water supplies in 1986-1987 the Rathbun rural water system was found to contain elevated levels of triazine herbicides. Rates of low birth weight, prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in live singleton births during the period 1984-1990 by women living in 13 communities served by the Rathbun water system were compared to other communities of similar size in the same Iowa counties. The Rathbun communities had a greater risk of IUGR than southern Iowa communities with other surface sources of drinking water (relative risk = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.7). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that levels of the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and cyanzinc were each significant predictors of community IUGR rates in southern Iowa after controlling for several potentially confounding factors including maternal smoking and socioeconomic variables. The association with IUGR was strongest for atrazine, but all three herbicides were intercorrelated and the independent contributions of each to IUGR risk could not be determined. We conclude that communities in southern Iowa with drinking water supplies contaminated with herbicides have elevated rates of IUGR compared to neighboring communities with different water supplies. Because of the limitations of the ecologic design of this study, including aggregate rather than individual measures of exposure and limited ability to control for confounding factors related to source of drinking water and risk of IUGR, a strong causal relationship between any specific water contaminant and risk of IUGR cannot yet be inferred. The association between the water supplied to the Rathbun communities and the increased risk of IUGR should be considered a preliminary finding that needs to be verified by more detailed epidemiologic studies. PMID:9171992

  3. Intrauterine growth retardation in Iowa communities with herbicide-contaminated drinking water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munger, R.; Isacson, P.; Hu, S.; Burns, T.; Hanson, J.; Lynch, C.F.; Cherryholmes, K.; Van Dorpe, P.; Hausler, W.J., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    In a statewide survey of 856 Iowa municipal drinking water supplies in 1986-1987 the Rathbun rural water system was found to contain elevated levels of triazine herbicides. Rates of low birth weight, prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in live singleton births during the period 1984-1990 by women living in 13 communities served by the Rathbun water system were compared to other communities of similar size in the same Iowa counties. The Rathbun communities had a greater risk of IUGR than southern Iowa communities with other surface sources of drinking water (relative risk = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.7). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that levels of the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and cyanazine were each significant predictors of community IUGR rates in southern Iowa after controlling for several potentially confounding factors including maternal smoking and socioeconomic variables. The association with IUGR was strongest for atrazine, but all three herbicides were intercorrelated and the independent contributions of each to IUGR risk could not be determined. We conclude that communities in southern Iowa with drinking water supplies contaminated with herbicides have elevated rates of IUGR compared to neighboring communities with different water supplies. Because of the limitations of the ecologic design of this study, including aggregate rather than individual measures of exposure and limited ability to control for confounding factors related to source of drinking water and risk of IUGR, a strong causal relationship between any specific water contaminant and risk of IUGR cannot yet be inferred. The association between the water supplied to the Rathbun communities and the increased risk of IUGR should be considered a preliminary finding that needs to be verified by more detailed epidemiologic studies.

  4. The urgent need for environmental sanitation and a safe drinking water supply in Mbandjock, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, P B; Lantum, D M; Monkiedje, A; Takougang, I; Barbazan, P

    1997-07-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the physical, chemical, and bacteriological qualities of drinking water in Mbandjock, Cameroon. Study results indicated that the vast majority of drinking water sources possessed acceptable physical and chemical qualities, according to the World Health Organization standards. However, microbiological analyses revealed that only the waters treated by the Cameroon National Water Company (SNEC) and the Sugar Processing Company (SOSUCAM) were acceptable for human consumption. All spring and well waters presented evidences of fecal contamination from human and/or animal origin. Water from these sources should, therefore, be treated before use for drinking. Since the majority of the population gets its water from wells and springs, there is an urgent need to develop a health education program, within the framework of primary health care, with respect to environmental sanitation and safe drinking water supply in this community. PMID:9216865

  5. Is the Pungwe water supply project a solution to water accessibility and sanitation problems for the households of Sakubva, Zimbabwe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukheli, Azwidowi; Mosupye, Gilbert; Swatuk, Larry A.

    Following the severe drought of 1991-92, the City of Mutare embarked upon a concerted search for a secure water supply. This search culminated in the decision to transfer water from the Pungwe River via pipeline to the City of Mutare. This project was heralded as bringing ‘purity, security, and prosperity’ to the people of Mutare. Once again, and as is typical of Southern Africa today, a new ‘supply’ was presented as the ‘solution’ to the city’s water problems. In this paper, we challenge this claim by presenting the case of Sakubva, a low income, and high-density suburb of Mutare, Zimbabwe. Residents of Sakubva face many problems relating to water supply and sanitation. Has the Pungwe-Mutare Water Project ‘solved’ these problems? In short, we argue that while the Pungwe project has ensured a steady supply of clean water to Sakubva, this water inadvertently worsens many of Sakubva’s extant water and sanitation problems. In the absence of appropriate water demand management measures, supply alone is as much burden as it is blessing. In terms of methodology, between July 2000 and July 2001, members of the research team made several visits to the study area. This included a two-week home stay for two of the researchers--one in a private home in New Dangare, one in a shack in Muchena. Aside from direct participation and informal observation, a variety of methods were used: formal, semi-/structured interviews with key informants; informal, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with a cross-section of residents in Sakubva; transect walks where interviews were carried out both on formal and informal bases. Two peer educators from the Voices of Concerned Youth, City Health Department, Mutare assisted researchers. In addition, primary and secondary data were consulted.

  6. Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

  7. The physico-chemistry of biofilm-mediated pitting corrosion of copper pipe supplying potable water.

    PubMed

    Keevil, C W

    2004-01-01

    Copper is a generally robust material that has beneficial properties to reduce biofilm formation and pathogen colonisation of pipes supplying potable water. However, a rare pitting corrosion can occur in soft, poorly buffered waters that can lead to pipe failure. This has been shown to be mediated by a copper-tolerant biofilm whose physical and chemical heterogeneity can establish microenvironments for corrosion potentials, causing micro pits that eventually coalesce into large perforations through the pipe wall. Control of the biofilm, for example through reduced cold water or elevated hot water temperatures, can suppress this corrosion phenomenon. PMID:14982168

  8. Average daily withdrawals of water for public supply in Kings, Queens, and Nassau Counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brashears, M.L., Jr.

    1950-01-01

    Since 1932 the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York Water Power and Control Commission, the Nassau County Department of Public Works, the Suffolk County Water Authority, and the Suffolk County Board of Supervisors has conducted studies dealing with the occurrence, movement, quantity, quality, and temperature of ground water on Long Island. Also, as a part of three investigations, data on the withdrawals by pumpage for public water supply are assembled an analyzed. Previously, pumpage records for periods from 1904 through 1946 have been released.

  9. Issues of water supply and contemporary urban society: the case of Greater Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Potter, Robert B; Darmame, Khadija; Nortcliff, Stephen

    2010-11-28

    Over the last two decades, Jordan has suffered a chronic water crisis, and is the tenth most water-scarce nation on Earth. Such water stress has been well illustrated in the case of Greater Amman, the capital, which has grown dramatically from a population of around 2000 in the 1920s, to 2.17 million today. One of the distinctive characteristics of the water supply regime of Greater Amman is that since 1987 it has been based on a system of rationing, with households receiving water once a week for various durations. Amman is highly polarized socio-economically, and by means of household surveys, both quantitative and qualitative, conducted in high- and low-income divisions of the city, a detailed empirical evaluation of the storage and use of water, the strategies used by households to manage water and overall satisfaction with water supply issues is provided in this paper, looking specifically at issues of social equity. The analysis demonstrates the social and economic costs of water rationing and consequent management to be high, as well as emphasizing that issues of water quality are of central importance to all consumers regardless of their socio-economic status within the city. PMID:20956372

  10. Developing system robustness analysis for drought risk management: an application on a water supply reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mens, M. J. P.; Gilroy, K.; Williams, D.

    2015-08-01

    Droughts will likely become more frequent, greater in magnitude and longer in duration in the future due to climate change. Already in the present climate, a variety of drought events may occur with different exceedance frequencies. These frequencies are becoming more uncertain due to climate change. Many methods in support of drought risk management focus on providing insight into changing drought frequencies, and use water supply reliability as a key decision criterion. In contrast, robustness analysis focuses on providing insight into the full range of drought events and their impact on a system's functionality. This method has been developed for flood risk systems, but applications on drought risk systems are lacking. This paper aims to develop robustness analysis for drought risk systems, and illustrates the approach through a case study with a water supply reservoir and its users. We explore drought characterization and the assessment of a system's ability to deal with drought events, by quantifying the severity and socio-economic impact of a variety of drought events, both frequent and rare ones. Furthermore, we show the effect of three common drought management strategies (increasing supply, reducing demand and implementing hedging rules) on the robustness of the coupled water supply and socio-economic system. The case is inspired by Oologah Lake, a multipurpose reservoir in Oklahoma, United States. Results demonstrate that although demand reduction and supply increase may have a comparable effect on the supply reliability, demand reduction may be preferred from a robustness perspective. To prepare drought management plans for dealing with current and future droughts, it is thus recommended to test how alternative drought strategies contribute to a system's robustness rather than relying solely on water reliability as the decision criterion.

  11. Developing system robustness analysis for drought risk management: an application on a water supply reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mens, M. J. P.; Gilroy, K.; Williams, D.

    2015-01-01

    Droughts will likely become more frequent, of greater magnitude and of longer duration in the future due to climate change. Already in the present climate, a variety of drought events may occur with different exceedance frequencies. These frequencies are becoming more uncertain due to climate change. Many methods in support of drought risk management focus on providing insight into changing drought frequencies, and use water supply reliability as key decision criterion. In contrast, robustness analysis focuses on providing insight into the full range of drought events and their impact on a system's functioning. This method has been developed for flood risk systems, but applications on drought risk systems are lacking. This paper aims to develop robustness analysis for drought risk systems, and illustrates the approach through a case study with a water supply reservoir and its users. We explore drought characterization and the assessment of a system's ability to deal with drought events, by quantifying the severity and socio-economic impact of a variety of drought events, both frequent and rare ones. Furthermore, we show the effect of three common drought management strategies (increasing supply, reducing demand and implementing hedging rules) on the robustness of the coupled water supply and socio-economic system. The case is inspired by Oologah Lake, a multipurpose reservoir in Oklahoma, United States. Results demonstrate that although demand reduction and supply increase may have a comparable effect on the supply reliability, demand reduction may be preferred from a robustness perspective. To prepare drought management plans for dealing with current and future droughts, it is thus recommended to test how alternative drought strategies contribute to a system's robustness rather than relying solely on water reliability as the decision criterion.

  12. Regulation as a tool for improving the management of water supply and sanitation companies.

    PubMed

    Lee, T

    2000-01-01

    The establishment of a strong independent regulator appears to be the most successful means to remedy the endemic poor management of water supply and sanitation services. This paper discusses why this is so and illustrates the argument with reference to recent experience in Chile. PMID:10842800

  13. 12. VIEW OF THE PROPOSED RAILWAY AND INTAKE/EFFLUENT WATER SUPPLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE PROPOSED RAILWAY AND INTAKE/EFFLUENT WATER SUPPLY CORRIDOR THAT WILL CROSS THE DITCH AT THIS LOCATION, LOOKING NORTH - Calispell Diversion Canal, 1.2 miles southeast of I-20 & Flowery Trail, Usk, Pend Oreille County, WA

  14. 13. VIEW OF THE PROPOSED RAILWAY AND INTAKE/EFFLUENT WATER SUPPLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE PROPOSED RAILWAY AND INTAKE/EFFLUENT WATER SUPPLY CORRIDOR THAT WILL CROSS THE DITCH AT THIS LOCATION, LOOKING EAST - Calispell Diversion Canal, 1.2 miles southeast of I-20 & Flowery Trail, Usk, Pend Oreille County, WA

  15. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252

  16. Water Supply Deficiency and Implications for Rural Development in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkwocha, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the marginalization of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in terms of infrastructural and social services provision. This study examined the water supply deficiency and its general implications for rural development within the region. Data and other study characteristics were extracted from 501 subjects drawn from…

  17. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. CONTROL PANEL SUPPLIES STATUS INDICATORS. CARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. CONTROL PANEL SUPPLIES STATUS INDICATORS. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4219. Unknown Photographer, 2/13/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. ECONOMIC MODELLING OF WATER SUPPLY: AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE MULTIPRODUCT FIRM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to develop a comprehensive economic model that could use the neoclassical theory of the multiproduct firm to analyze the production structure of water supply. The project attempts to meet the need for in-depth analysis of the cost and economic structure of ...

  19. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... as required by 46 CFR part 52 or part 53, as applicable. Electric hot water supply boilers that meet... requirements of UL 174 or UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 63.05-1), and are protected by the relief device(s) required in 46 CFR 53.05-2 do not have to meet any other requirements of...

  20. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... as required by 46 CFR part 52 or part 53, as applicable. Electric hot water supply boilers that meet... requirements of UL 174 or UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 63.05-1), and are protected by the relief device(s) required in 46 CFR 53.05-2 do not have to meet any other requirements of...

  1. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... as required by 46 CFR part 52 or part 53, as applicable. Electric hot water supply boilers that meet... requirements of UL 174 or UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 63.05-1), and are protected by the relief device(s) required in 46 CFR 53.05-2 do not have to meet any other requirements of...

  2. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... as required by 46 CFR part 52 or part 53, as applicable. Electric hot water supply boilers that meet... requirements of UL 174 or UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 63.05-1), and are protected by the relief device(s) required in 46 CFR 53.05-2 do not have to meet any other requirements of...

  3. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... as required by 46 CFR part 52 or part 53, as applicable. Electric hot water supply boilers that meet... requirements of UL 174 or UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 63.05-1), and are protected by the relief device(s) required in 46 CFR 53.05-2 do not have to meet any other requirements of...

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF ACTIVATED CARBON FOR REMOVAL OF TOXIC AND/OR CARCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS FROM WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research addressed quantification of the performance of fixed-bed granular activated carbon processes for treatment of public water supplies. It included evaluation of the adsorption of selected toxic and/or carcinogenic trace compounds of man-related origin, including carbo...

  5. SEARCHING FOR A WATER SUPPLY CONNECTION IN THE CABOOL, MISSOURI OUTBREAK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recent disease outbreak resulting in 4 deaths, 32 hospitalization and a total of 243 documented cases of diarrhea was linked epidemiologically and by on-site data gathering supported by the use of a distribution system model to the public water supply. The pathogenic agent, Esc...

  6. Design Manual: Removal of Fluoride from Drinking Water Supplies by Activated Alumina

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an updated version of the Design Manual: Removal of Fluoride from Drinking Water Supplies by Activated Alumina (Rubel, 1984). The manual is an in-depth presentation of the steps required to design and operate a fluoride removal plant using activated alumina (AA)...

  7. Landscape influences on soil nitrogen supply and water holding capacity for irrigated corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water and nitrogen (N) supply to a crop can interact throughout the growing season to influence yield potential. The increasing availability of variable rate irrigation systems to growers in irrigated regions, along with existing capacity for variable rate fertilization, provides the opportunity for...

  8. 7 CFR 612.5 - Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data. 612.5 Section 612.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND...

  9. 7 CFR 612.5 - Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data. 612.5 Section 612.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND...

  10. 7 CFR 612.5 - Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data. 612.5 Section 612.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND...

  11. 7 CFR 612.5 - Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data. 612.5 Section 612.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND...

  12. 7 CFR 612.5 - Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data. 612.5 Section 612.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND...

  13. CLIMATE, STREAMFLOW AND WATER SUPPLY IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES. (R824992)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most previous investigations of the impact of potential climatic change on water supply systems have focused on individual systems so that their conclusions only apply to a particular system. Recent advances in computer technology, regional hydrology and our understanding of wate...

  14. Viruses in non-disinfected groundwater supplying municipal drinking water and the human health risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Groundwater supplies for drinking water are frequently contaminated with human gastrointestinal viruses. Stemming from this knowledge, the US EPA promulgated the Groundwater Rule, yet the number of illnesses in the nation that can be attributed to groundwater-borne viruses is unmeasured....

  15. Estimating water supply arsenic levels in the New England bladder cancer study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuckols, J.R.; Beane, Freeman L.E.; Lubin, J.H.; Airola, M.S.; Baris, D.; Ayotte, J.D.; Taylor, A.; Paulu, C.; Karagas, M.R.; Colt, J.; Ward, M.H.; Huang, A.-T.; Bress, W.; Cherala, S.; Silverman, D.T.; Cantor, K.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ingestion of inorganic arsenic in drinking water is recognized as a cause of bladder cancer when levels are relatively high (??? 150 ??g/L). The epidemiologic evidence is less clear at the low-to-moderate concentrations typically observed in the United States. Accurate retrospective exposure assessment over a long time period is a major challenge in conducting epidemiologic studies of environmental factors and diseases with long latency, such as cancer. Objective: We estimated arsenic concentrations in the water supplies of 2,611 participants in a population-based case-control study in northern New England. Methods: Estimates covered the lifetimes of most study participants and were based on a combination of arsenic measurements at the homes of the participants and statistical modeling of arsenic concentrations in the water supply of both past and current homes. We assigned a residential water supply arsenic concentration for 165,138 (95%) of the total 173,361 lifetime exposure years (EYs) and a workplace water supply arsenic level for 85,195 EYs (86% of reported occupational years). Results: Three methods accounted for 93% of the residential estimates of arsenic concentration: direct measurement of water samples (27%; median, 0.3 ??g/L; range, 0.1-11.5), statistical models of water utility measurement data (49%; median, 0.4 ??g/L; range, 0.3-3.3), and statistical models of arsenic concentrations in wells using aquifers in New England (17%; median, 1.6 ??g/L; range, 0.6-22.4). Conclusions: We used a different validation procedure for each of the three methods, and found our estimated levels to be comparable with available measured concentrations. This methodology allowed us to calculate potential drinking water exposure over long periods.

  16. Estimating Water Supply Arsenic Levels in the New England Bladder Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Lubin, Jay H.; Airola, Matthew S.; Baris, Dalsu; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Taylor, Anne; Paulu, Chris; Karagas, Margaret R.; Colt, Joanne; Ward, Mary H.; Huang, An-Tsun; Bress, William; Cherala, Sai; Silverman, Debra T.; Cantor, Kenneth P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ingestion of inorganic arsenic in drinking water is recognized as a cause of bladder cancer when levels are relatively high (≥ 150 µg/L). The epidemiologic evidence is less clear at the low-to-moderate concentrations typically observed in the United States. Accurate retrospective exposure assessment over a long time period is a major challenge in conducting epidemiologic studies of environmental factors and diseases with long latency, such as cancer. Objective: We estimated arsenic concentrations in the water supplies of 2,611 participants in a population-based case–control study in northern New England. Methods: Estimates covered the lifetimes of most study participants and were based on a combination of arsenic measurements at the homes of the participants and statistical modeling of arsenic concentrations in the water supply of both past and current homes. We assigned a residential water supply arsenic concentration for 165,138 (95%) of the total 173,361 lifetime exposure years (EYs) and a workplace water supply arsenic level for 85,195 EYs (86% of reported occupational years). Results: Three methods accounted for 93% of the residential estimates of arsenic concentration: direct measurement of water samples (27%; median, 0.3 µg/L; range, 0.1–11.5), statistical models of water utility measurement data (49%; median, 0.4 µg/L; range, 0.3–3.3), and statistical models of arsenic concentrations in wells using aquifers in New England (17%; median, 1.6 µg/L; range, 0.6–22.4). Conclusions: We used a different validation procedure for each of the three methods, and found our estimated levels to be comparable with available measured concentrations. This methodology allowed us to calculate potential drinking water exposure over long periods. PMID:21421449

  17. Rhode Island Water Supply System Management Plan Database (WSSMP-Version 1.0)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    In Rhode Island, the availability of water of sufficient quality and quantity to meet current and future environmental and economic needs is vital to life and the State's economy. Water suppliers, the Rhode Island Water Resources Board (RIWRB), and other State agencies responsible for water resources in Rhode Island need information about available resources, the water-supply infrastructure, and water use patterns. These decision makers need historical, current, and future water-resource information. In 1997, the State of Rhode Island formalized a system of Water Supply System Management Plans (WSSMPs) to characterize and document relevant water-supply information. All major water suppliers (those that obtain, transport, purchase, or sell more than 50 million gallons of water per year) are required to prepare, maintain, and carry out WSSMPs. An electronic database for this WSSMP information has been deemed necessary by the RIWRB for water suppliers and State agencies to consistently document, maintain, and interpret the information in these plans. Availability of WSSMP data in standard formats will allow water suppliers and State agencies to improve the understanding of water-supply systems and to plan for future needs or water-supply emergencies. In 2002, however, the Rhode Island General Assembly passed a law that classifies some of the WSSMP information as confidential to protect the water-supply infrastructure from potential terrorist threats. Therefore the WSSMP database was designed for an implementation method that will balance security concerns with the information needs of the RIWRB, suppliers, other State agencies, and the public. A WSSMP database was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the RIWRB. The database was designed to catalog WSSMP information in a format that would accommodate synthesis of current and future information about Rhode Island's water-supply infrastructure. This report documents the design and implementation of

  18. SOURCE WATER AREA DELINEATION OF PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY WELLS USING WHAEM2000. INTERNATIONAL GROUND WATER MODELING CENTER NEWSLETTER, V.19(1):4

    EPA Science Inventory

    WhAEM2000 is computer program that solves steady state ground-water flow and advective streamlines in homogeneous, single layer aquifers. The program was designed for capture zone delineation in support of protection of the source water area surrounding public water supply well...

  19. Managing drought risk with a computer model of the Raritan River Basin water-supply system in central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, Paul; Tasker, Gary

    1996-01-01

    The reservoirs and pumping stations that comprise the Raritan River Basin water-supply system and its interconnections to the Delaware-Raritan Canal water-supply system, operated by the New Jersey Water Supply Authority (NJWSA), provide potable water to central New Jersey communities. The water reserve of this combined system can easily be depleted by an extended period of below-normal precipitation. Efficient operation of the combined system is vital to meeting the water-supply needs of central New Jersey. In an effort to improve the efficiency of the system operation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the NJWSA, has developed a computer model that provides a technical basis for evaluating the effects of alternative patterns of operation of the Raritan River Basin water-supply system. This fact sheet describes the model, its technical basis, and its operation.

  20. Managing Boulder Colorado's Water Supply to Address Risks from Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. B.; Strzepek, K.; Rozaklis, L.; Ellinghouse, C.; Hallett, K. C.

    2008-12-01

    Stratus Consulting, the City of Boulder, the University of Colorado and AMEC Consulting (formerly Hydrosphere) studied the impacts of climate change on Boulder, Colorado's water supply. The City of Boulder's Water Resources Coordinator was closely involved in the design of the study and the analysis of results. The work, funded by a grant from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration to Stratus Consulting, is an example of a successful collaboration between municipal, academic, government, and professional institutes. This study combines the potential impacts of climate change with long-term climate variability to examine their effects on the water supply of one community. The study team examined outputs from general circulation models (GCMs; supplied by the National Center for Atmospheric Research) for grid boxes that include Boulder, Colorado, and selected the wettest model, the driest model, and a middle model. Estimates of climate change for 20-year periods centering on 2030 and 2070 were used. In addition, 437-year (1566- 2002) reconstructions of streamflow in Boulder Creek, South Boulder Creek, and the Colorado River (conducted by Connie Woodhouse) were used. A "nearest neighbor" approach was used to select years in the observed climate record that resemble the paleoclimate reconstructions. Average monthly GCM changes in temperature and precipitation for 2030 and 2070 were combined with multiple recreations of the paleoclimate record to simulate the combined effects of change in climate and paleoclimate variability. Using Boulder's water management model (which incorporates supply and demand for water and water rights) and accounting for population growth in Boulder and changes in demand for crop irrigation, the study found that wet and "middle" scenarios had little effect on the reliability of Boulder's water supply. But reduced precipitation scenarios resulted in violations of some of Boulder's water supply reliability criteria, which give