Science.gov

Sample records for adequately powered prospective

  1. Prospects of thermionic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1978-01-01

    Potential thermionic power systems for space or terrestrial applications are described so that the development goals can be clearly identified. The thermionic power systems considered are a space nuclear power system, a fossil-fuel thermionic topping steam power system, a solar thermionic topping steam power system, and advanced systems. Attention is given to a discussion of the current status of technology development in thermionic converters and associated elements in power systems. Future prospects of thermionic power systems are also discussed. It is concluded that thermionic conversion has a great potential for a variety of applications.

  2. North American tidal power prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne, W. W., Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Prospects for North American tidal power electrical generation are reviewed. Studies by the US Army Corps of Engineers of 90 possible generation schemes in Cobscook Bay, ME, indicated that maximum power generation rather than dependable capacity was the most economic method. Construction cost estimates for 15 MW bulb units in a single effect mode from basin to the sea are provided; five projects were considered ranging from 110-160 MW. Additional tidal power installations are examined for: Half-Moon Cove, ME (12 MW, 18 ft tide); Cook Inlet, AK, which is shown to pose severe environmental and engineering problems due to fish migration, earthquake hazards, and 300 ft deep silt deposits; and the Bay of Fundy, Canada. This last has a 17.8 MW plant under construction in a 29 ft maximum tide area. Other tidal projects of the Maritime Provinces are reviewed, and it is noted that previous economic evaluations based on an oil price of $16/barrel are in need of revision.

  3. Can loss of balance from mesoscale eddies adequately power deep ocean mixing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.; Haine, T. W.; Read, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The global ocean thermohaline circulation is partly composed of the sinking of dense surface waters at high latitudes. But in order to close the circulation and maintain the abyssal stratification, the dense waters must rise up again through vertical mixing. This process requires a source of energy roughly estimated to be 2 TW. Previous work has concluded that tides and winds may adequately supply the required power, but the conceivable role of loss of balance from mesoscale eddies, resulting in the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves and associated vertical mixing, has hitherto been considered to be 'of unknown importance' (Wunsch and Ferrari, 2004). We investigate the potential role of loss of balance, by studying the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves by balanced flow in a rotating two-layer annulus laboratory experiment (Williams et al., 2008). A photograph from the experiment is shown in the figure. As the Rossby number of the balanced flow decreases, the amplitude of the emitted inertia-gravity waves also decreases, but much less rapidly than is predicted by several dynamical theories. This finding suggests that inertia-gravity waves might be far more energised than previously thought. The balanced flow leaks roughly one per cent of its energy each rotation period into internal inertia-gravity waves at the peak of their generation. Crude extrapolation of this result to the global ocean suggests that the flux of energy from mesoscale eddies into internal waves may be as large as 1.5 TW. We claim no accuracy for this figure which is only indicative. Nevertheless, we are persuaded that generation of inertia-gravity waves from the balanced mesoscale flow may be an important source of energy for deep interior mixing, and deserves further study. Reference Williams, PD, Haine, TWN and Read, PL (2008) Inertia-Gravity Waves Emitted from Balanced Flow: Observations, Properties, and Consequences. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 65(11), pp 3543

  4. Flower Power: Prospects for Photosynthetic Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Alan D.; Williams, Robert H.

    1976-01-01

    This report focuses on the prospects and possibilities for using biomass as an energy source for the United States. However, the greatest potential for utilizing biomass as fuel exists in energy-starved developing nations, since it appears possible to develop biomass technologies keeping capital inputs low in relation to labor inputs. (BT)

  5. Are Lateral Electronic Portal Images Adequate for Accurate On-Line Daily Targeting of the Prostate? Results of a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lometti, Michael W. Thurston, Damon; Aubin, Michele; Bock, Andrea; Verhey, Lynn; Lockhart, James M.; Bland, Roger; Pouliot, Jean; Roach, Mack

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the magnitude of the error that would be introduced if only a lateral (LAT) portal image, as opposed to a pair of orthogonal images, was used to verify and correct daily setup errors and organ motion in external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) of prostate cancer. The 3-dimensional (3D) coordinates of gold markers from 12 consecutive prostate patients were reconstructed using a pair of orthogonal images. The data were re-analyzed using only the LAT images. Couch moves from the 2-dimensional (2D)-only data were compared with the complete 3D data set. The 2D-only data provided couch moves that differed on average from the 3D data by 2.3 {+-} 3.0, 0.0 {+-} 0.0, and 0.8 {+-} 1.0 mm in the Lat, AP, and SI directions, respectively. Along AP and SI axes, the LAT image provided positional information similar to the orthogonal pair. The error along the LAT axis may be acceptable provided lateral margins are large enough. A LAT-only setup protocol reduces patient treatment times and increases patient throughput. In most circumstances, with exceptions such as morbidly obese patients, acquisition of only a LAT image for daily targeting of the prostate will provide adequate positional precision.

  6. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    also to be mentioned. The objective of this paper is to review some recent developments in ultrasonic processing to show the present situation and the prospective progresses of high-power ultrasonics as an innovative technology in many industrial sectors.

  7. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  8. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, D.; Vanderlaag, P. C.; Oudhuis, A. B. J.; Ribberink, J. S.

    1994-04-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R&D programs on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fueled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fueled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency.

  9. Prospects of long-distance HTS DC power transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romashov, M. A.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Shakarian, Y. G.; Ivanov, Y. V.

    2014-05-01

    Continual improvement of technologies for the safe use of power resources is a key to sustainable development of a human society. In particular, high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) should be used to meet the growing needs of the electric-power industry. It is known that HTS power cables allow us to increase the level of transmitted energy to several GW at voltage of 66-110 kV. HTS power cables of a coaxial design are almost ideal non-polluting system shielding electromagnetic field. In the present work we have tried to analyze various configurations of HTS power transmission systems, estimate the cable transmission capacitance depending on distance, and characterize reliability and efficiency of the systems.

  10. Power Sources for Micro-Autonomous Vehicles- Challenges and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, S. R.; Kisor, A.; Valdez, T. I.; Manohara, H.

    2009-01-01

    Micro-autonomous vehicle systems are expected to have expanded role in military missions by providing full spectrum intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support on the battlefield, suppression of enemy defenses, and enabling co-operative (swarm-like) configurations. Of the numerous demanding requirements of autonomy, sensing, navigation, mobility, etc., meeting the requirement of mission duration or endurance is a very challenging one. This requirement is demanding because of the constraints of mass and volume that limit the quantity of energy that can be stored on-board. Energy is required for mobility, payload operation, information processing, and communication. Mobility requirements typically place an extraordinary demand on the specific energy (Wh/kg) and specific power (W/kg) of the power source; the actual distribution of the energy between mobility and other system functions could vary substantially with the mission type. The power requirements for continuous mobility can vary from 100-1000 W/kg depending on the terrain, ground speed and flight speed. Even with the power source accounting for 30% of the mass of the vehicle, the best of rechargeable batteries can provide only up to 1-2 hours of run-time for a continuous power demand at 100W/kg. In the case of micro-aerial vehicles with flight speed requirements in the range of 5-15 m s-1, the mission times rarely exceed 20 minutes [2]. Further, the power required during take-off and hover can be twice or thrice that needed for steady level flight, and thus the number and sequence of such events is also limited by the mass and size of the power source. For operations such as "perch and stare" or "silent watch" the power demand is often only a tenth of that required during continuous flight. Thus, variation in power demand during various phases of the mission importantly affects the power source selection.

  11. Prospects for solving environmental problems pertinent to thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanovskii, A. G.; Kotler, V. R.

    2007-06-01

    Possible ways to protect the atmosphere and water basin against harmful emissions and effluent waters discharged from thermal power stations are considered. Data on the effectiveness of different methods for removing NO x , SO2, and ash particles, as well as heavy metals and CO2, from these emissions and discharges are presented.

  12. Prospective Physics Teachers' Level of Understanding Energy, Power and Force Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Kurnaz, Mehmet Altan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective physics teachers' level of understanding of the concepts of energy and the related concepts of force and power. The study was carried out with the participation of 56 physics education department students at a university in Karadeniz region. All participants had previously taken an introductory…

  13. PROSPECTS FOR A VERY HIGH POWER CW SRF LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Rimmer

    2010-06-01

    Steady development in SRF accelerator technology combined with the success of large scale installations such as CEBAF at Jefferson Laboratory and the SNS Linac at ORNL gives credibility to the concept of very high average power CW machines for light sources or Proton drivers. Such machines would be powerful tools for discovery science in themselves but could also pave the way to reliable cost effective drivers for such applications as neutrino factories, an energy-frontier muon collider, nuclear waste transmutation or accelerator driven subcritical reactors for energy production. In contrast to machines such as ILC that need maximum accelerating gradient, the challenges in these machines are mainly in efficiency, reliability, beam stability, beam loss and of course cost. In this paper the present state of the art is briefly reviewed and options for a multi-GeV, multi-MW CW linac are discussed.

  14. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries.

  15. Parametric study of prospective early commercial OCMHD power plants /PSPEC/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, C. H.; Bender, D. J.; Hnat, J. G.; Dellinger, T. C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a parametric study conducted to obtain the performance, economics, natural resource requirements, and environmental impact of moderate technology MHD/steam power plants that do not require development of direct-fired high-temperature air heaters. The study was divided into three base cases, each with a reference case and parametric variations. The case using recuperative air preheat in the range of 1000 F to 1300 F, combined with O2 enrichment to 42% by volume has been selected for conceptual design.

  16. Colorado's Prospects for Interstate Commerce in Renewable Power

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Colorado has more renewable energy potential than it is ever likely to need for its own in-state electricity consumption. Such abundance may suggest an opportunity for the state to sell renewable power elsewhere, but Colorado faces considerable competition from other western states that may have better resources and easier access to key markets on the West Coast. This report examines factors that will be important to the development of interstate commerce for electricity generated from renewable resources. It examines market fundamentals in a regional context, and then looks at the implications for Colorado.

  17. Wind Powering America: Goals, Approach, Perspectives, and Prospects; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L. T.; Dougherty, P. J.

    2002-03-01

    While wind development activity in the United States has dramatically increased over the last 3 years, it has been mainly driven by policy mandates in the investor owned utility community. Also, while significant wind development has and is now occurring in the Northwest, the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, Texas, and several eastern states, there remain a number of states that have excellent resources that are essentially undeveloped. Additionally, the U.S. federal agencies represent the largest institutional load in the world, and thus are a potential large market for green (wind) energy. Rural America is economically stressed and traditional agricultural incomes are seriously threatened; wind development in these windy regions offers one of the most promising''crops'' of the 21st century. Public power serves these communities, and local development of wind with low-cost financing appears to be competitive with new conventional fossil energy sources.

  18. Prospects on fuel economy improvements for hydrogen powered vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, A.; Wallner, T.; Pagerit, S.; Lohse-Bush, H.

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered. Although complete data related to port fuel injection were provided from engine testing, the map for the direct-injection engine was developed from single-cylinder data. The fuel cell system data represent the status of the current technology and the goals of FreedomCAR. For both port-injected and direct-injected hydrogen engine technologies, power split and series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) configurations were considered. For the fuel cell system, only a series HEV configuration was simulated.

  19. A Prospect on the Demonstration of Electric Power Production from Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Ogawa, Yuichi; Tobita, Kenji

    This paper describes a prospect toward electric power production by the Fusion energy. In the first part of the paper, a principle of TOKAMAK system which is the successful magnetic-confinement-systems for fusion reactors are shown, and then the ITER project based on TOKAMAK and the present status of ITER is reviewed. In the remainder of the paper, a roadmap for fusion energy and conceptual designs of Demonstration reactors are briefly described.

  20. Predictive Power of Prospective Physical Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Educational Technologies for Their Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varol, Yaprak Kalemoglu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research is to determine the predictive power of prospective physical education teachers' attitudes towards educational technologies for their technological pedagogical content knowledge. In this study, a relational research model was used on a study group that consisted of 529 (M[subscript age]=21.49, SD=1.44) prospective physical…

  1. Proceedings: Workshop on Prospects and Requirements for Geographic Expansion of Wind Power Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steitz, P.

    1986-11-01

    The proceedings of a workshop on the Prospects and Requirements for Geographic Expansion of Wind Power Usage held March 5-6, 1986, in Dallas, Texas are reported. The workshop was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in cooperation with the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). SERI is operated by Midwest Research Institute for the US Department of Energy. The workshop participants concluded that there are a number of areas in the United States with substantial wind resources. Determining the potential for development of these resources for wind power will require local, detailed wind measurements. The participants saw no technology barriers to more widespread usage of wind power. They considered the greatest potential for advancement of wind power technology to be in the application of power electronics to enable variable speed wind turbine operation and to integrate and improve wind power station control and protection. Although wind power stations were seen as posing no health hazards, public and utility acceptance of the technology, the participants agreed, will require strong educational activities in all aspects of wind power. The implications of these conclusions for the research programs of EPRI and other sectors are discussed.

  2. Prospects of development of the power industry in the zone of influence of the transcontinental railroad

    SciTech Connect

    Fel`dman, B.N.; Luk`yanov, V.A.

    1994-02-01

    The authors examine the possibilities of developing a power industry in the zone of influence of the transcontinental railroad (TCR). Two aspects of development are studied in particular: (1) the electric power supply for construction and subsequently for the operating railroad in coordination with simultaneous provision for the needs of adjacent regions; (2) the construction of a transcontinental transmission line with the use of a tunnel and railroad for its construction and with the creation of a unified transport--power corridor. Of great interest are the possibilities of constructing hydrostations in regions of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), Chukchi Peninsula, and in the southern part of the Magadan region. The route of the proposed main line is located in the zone of influence of a number of prospective hydropower installations. 2 tabs.

  3. Prospects for using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R.A.; Farrell, W.; Ma, Q.

    1997-09-01

    Third-generation, high-intensity, x-ray synchrotron radiation sources are capable of producing high heat-flux x-ray beams. In many applications finding ways to handle these powers is viewed as a burden. However, there are some technological applications where the deep penetration length of the x-rays may find beneficial uses as a volumetric heat source. In this paper the authors discuss the prospects for using high power x-rays for volumetric heating and report some recent experimental results. The particular applications they focus on are welding and surface heat treatment. The radiation source is an undulator at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Results of preliminary tests on aluminum, aluminum metal matrix composites, and steel will be presented.

  4. Prospective individual matching: covariate balance and power in a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Makuch, R W; Zhang, Z; Charpentier, P A; Inouye, S K

    1998-07-15

    In phase II to phase IV studies, randomization has gained widespread acceptance as a methodologic tool for the allocation of patients to treatment. However, randomization is not always feasible. At times, the treatment intervention occurs universally throughout one or more units (for example, a hospital unit), while the control therapy is the only intervention provided in other units. Patients may arrive randomly at a unit, based solely on availability of the unit to accept new subjects. Thus, the treatment assignment process is out of the investigator's control and not subject to selection bias. We describe a prospective individual matching procedure through which one can achieve balanced allocation of subjects to treatment groups in this comparative study setting. In this paper, we compare balance of baseline covariates and power for this design, in which the subject is selected at random and assigned to a treatment group, and the traditional randomized block design, in which the treatment is chosen at random and assigned to a subject. We show that the prospective individual matching procedure compares favourably to the traditional randomized blocked design with respect to both baseline covariate comparability and statistical power. PMID:9695196

  5. Prospects for the medium- and long-term development of China`s electric power industry and analysis of the potential market for superconductivity technology

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.

    1998-05-01

    First of all, overall economic growth objectives in China are concisely and succinctly specified in this report. Secondly, this report presents a forecast of energy supply and demand for China`s economic growth for 2000--2050. In comparison with the capability of energy construction in China in the future, a gap between supply and demand is one of the important factors hindering the sustainable development of Chain`s economy. The electric power industry is one of China`s most important industries. To adopt energy efficiency through high technology and utilizing energy adequately is an important technological policy for the development of China`s electric power industry in the future. After briefly describing the achievements of China`s electric power industry, this report defines the target areas and policies for the development of hydroelectricity and nuclear electricity in the 2000s in China, presents the strategic position of China`s electric power industry as well as objectives and relevant plans of development for 2000--2050. This report finds that with the discovery of superconducting electricity, the discovery of new high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, and progress in materials techniques, the 21st century will be an era of superconductivity. Applications of superconductivity in the energy field, such as superconducting storage, superconducting transmission, superconducting transformers, superconducting motors, its application in Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD), as well as in nuclear fusion, has unique advantages. Its market prospects are quite promising. 12 figs.

  6. Prospective active marker motion correction improves statistical power in BOLD fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Melvyn B.; Goldman, Robin I.; Krueger, Sascha; Thomas, William J.; Sajda, Paul; Brown, Truman R.

    2013-01-01

    Group level statistical maps of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals acquired using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have become a basic measurement for much of systems, cognitive and social neuroscience. A challenge in making inferences from these statistical maps is the noise and potential confounds that arise from the head motion that occurs within and between acquisition volumes. This motion results in the scan plane being misaligned during acquisition, ultimately leading to reduced statistical power when maps are constructed at the group level. In most cases, an attempt is made to correct for this motion through the use of retrospective analysis methods. In this paper, we use a prospective active marker motion correction (PRAMMO) system that uses radio frequency markers for real-time tracking of motion, enabling on-line slice plane correction. We show that the statistical power of the activation maps is substantially increased using PRAMMO compared to conventional retrospective correction. Analysis of our results indicates that the PRAMMO acquisition reduces the variance without decreasing the signal component of the BOLD (beta). Using PRAMMO could thus improve the overall statistical power of fMRI based BOLD measurements, leading to stronger inferences of the nature of processing in the human brain. PMID:23220430

  7. StarPower: Elevating Prospective Student Interest through Expert and Celebrity Endorsements--Relevant Message, Relevant Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucciarone, Kristy

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how universities can increase the effectiveness of the search process by featuring in their advertisements expert and celebrity endorsers who attended the institution. How can universities gain the attention of prospective students using the star power of experts and celebrities? Experts and celebrities promoting a…

  8. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  9. 29 CFR 98.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adequate evidence. 98.900 Section 98.900 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a...

  10. Retrospective and prospective analysis of policy incentives for wind power in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Cabra, Ivonne A.

    been decommissioned despite being in operation for more than 20 years, favoring from new, detailed and hard-to-follow agreements in the legislation. All wind parks that are currently in operation have received feed-in tariffs since they connected to the grid, and are expected to keep receiving them at least until December 2019, and up to December 2036 - depending on year of connection and agreement under the most recent legislation (Diario da Republica 2013). The 2020 renewable energy goals in Portugal include having 6.8 GW of installed wind capacity, which implies the connection of 2 GW in the next years. If no further grid investments are made and wind capacity increases up to 100 MW to the connection point that we analyze, total annual electricity spill is likely to range the 20% to 40%. If the connection grid policy is designed to allow for wind spill, already 'occupied' connection points will be available to new entrants, lowering the total investment costs for new wind parks and increasing their profitability. This thesis is divided in three main parts: a first introductory section, a retrospective study of wind power in Portugal and a prospective analysis of the Portuguese wind power sector. The introductory section is a brief overview of the global renewable status, described in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 compile a retrospective study of wind power and the policies that have incentivized wind diffusion. We include in the discussion some references to the future wind power goals, but the results and policy recommendations are directed towards the existing connected wind power capacity. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  11. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec....

  12. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  13. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  14. Status and future prospects of laser fusion and high power laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, Kunioki

    2010-08-01

    In Asia, there are many institutes for the R&D of high power laser science and applications. They are 5 major institutes in Japan, 4 major institutes in China, 2 institutes in Korea, and 3 institutes in India. The recent achievements and future prospects of those institutes will be over viewed. In the laser fusion research, the FIREX-I project in Japan has been progressing. The 10kJ short pulse LFEX laser has completed and started the experiments with a single beam. About 1kJ pulse energy will be injected into a cone target. The experimental results of the FIREX experiments will be presented. As the target design for the experiments, a new target, namely, a double cone target was proposed, in which the high energy electrons are well confined and the heating efficiency is significantly improved. Together with the fusion experiments, Osaka University has carried out laboratory astrophysics experiments on photo ionizing plasmas to observe a unique X-ray spectrum from non-LTE plasmas. In 2008, Osaka university has started a new Photon research center in relation with the new program: Consortium for Photon Science and Technology: C-PhoST, in which ultra intense laser plasmas research and related education will be carried out for 10 years. At APRI, JAEA, the fundamental science on the relativistic laser plasmas and the applications of laser particle acceleration has been developed. The application of laser ion acceleration has been investigated on the beam cancer therapy since 2007. In China, The high power glass laser: Shenguan-II and a peta watt beam have been operated to work on radiation hydro dynamics at SIOFM Shanghai. The laser material and optics are developed at SIOFM and LFRC. The IAPCM and the IOP continued the studies on radiation hydrodynamics and on relativistic laser plasmas interactions. At LFRC in China, the construction of Shenguan III glass laser of 200kJ in blue has progressed and will be completed in 2012. Together with the Korean program, I will

  15. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  16. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  17. Large-scale geophysical and geological-prospecting earth-crust investigation using high-power electromagnetic pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Panchenko, V. P.

    2005-12-01

    The paper presents the concept and physical/technical prerequisites for the use of multi-megawatt electromagnetic pulses created, for instance, by autonomous MHD facilities of short-term operation (3--12 seconds), in fundamental and applied in-depth geophysical and geological research. Location of geological sites and research regions; circuits and parameters of emitting and detecting devices; unique pulse MHD facilities of 10--100 MWe capacity using solid (powder) fuel, created in Russia; conditions and methods of conducting large-scale experiments and trial methodical works, performed in the last 30 years by a cooperative group of Russian institute in various regions of Russia, Kyrghizia and Tajikistan, are described. Results of the following large-scale experiments and methodical works are presented: Oil and gas deposits' searching (Caspian depression, East Siberia); Study of electric conduction of sediments near and on the sea shelf (Kola peninsula); Electrical prospecting of ore deposits at depths of up to 10 km (Kola peninsula); Study of geo-electrical composition (section) of the earth-crust and upper mantle at the Ural (up to 40 km), and in the Baltic (up to 150 km); Forecasting of earthquakes using the effective electric resistance of earth-crust blocks up to 20 km deep (Tajikistan, Kirghizia); Seismic earth-crust "unloading", and changing the time-dependent distribution of the seismic activity under high-power electromagnetic impact; Impact on the ionosphere and spreading of ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves emitted by a high-power source. The possibilities and prospects of research dedicated to developing the technologies for electrical prospecting, sorting and outlining hydrocarbon deposits on the shelf, as well as to monitoring and studying the processes occurring in the earth-crust under artificial high-power electromagnetic impact in seismic regions, are discussed.

  18. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  19. Prospective power calculations for the Four Lab study of a multigenerational reproductive/developmental toxicity rodent bioassay using a complex mixture of disinfection by-products in the low-response region.

    PubMed

    Dingus, Cheryl A; Teuschler, Linda K; Rice, Glenn E; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Narotsky, Michael G

    2011-10-01

    In complex mixture toxicology, there is growing emphasis on testing environmentally representative doses that improve the relevance of results for health risk assessment, but are typically much lower than those used in traditional toxicology studies. Traditional experimental designs with typical sample sizes may have insufficient statistical power to detect effects caused by environmentally relevant doses. Proper study design, with adequate statistical power, is critical to ensuring that experimental results are useful for environmental health risk assessment. Studies with environmentally realistic complex mixtures have practical constraints on sample concentration factor and sample volume as well as the number of animals that can be accommodated. This article describes methodology for calculation of statistical power for non-independent observations for a multigenerational rodent reproductive/developmental bioassay. The use of the methodology is illustrated using the U.S. EPA's Four Lab study in which rodents were exposed to chlorinated water concentrates containing complex mixtures of drinking water disinfection by-products. Possible experimental designs included two single-block designs and a two-block design. Considering the possible study designs and constraints, a design of two blocks of 100 females with a 40:60 ratio of control:treated animals and a significance level of 0.05 yielded maximum prospective power (~90%) to detect pup weight decreases, while providing the most power to detect increased prenatal loss. PMID:22073030

  20. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  1. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  2. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  3. The state and prospects of coal and nuclear power generation in Russia ( review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomatov, V. V.

    2009-12-01

    Data on the modern state and development trends for coal and nuclear power engineering in Russia up to 2030 are generalized. It is emphasized that from the viewpoint of strategy, coal and uranium fuel will be the main energy carriers. The forecast of energy consumption is made; the “roadmap” of new power-generating units of heat and nuclear power plants on the territory of Russia is presented.

  4. Are PPS payments adequate? Issues for updating and assessing rates

    PubMed Central

    Sheingold, Steven H.; Richter, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Declining operating margins under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) have focused attention on the adequacy of payment rates. The question of whether annual updates to the rates have been too low or cost increases too high has become important. In this article we discuss issues relevant to updating PPS rates and judging their adequacy. We describe a modification to the current framework for recommending annual update factors. This framework is then used to retrospectively assess PPS payment and cost growth since 1985. The preliminary results suggest that current rates are more than adequate to support the cost of efficient care. Also discussed are why using financial margins to evaluate rates is problematic and alternative methods that might be employed. PMID:10127450

  5. Prospective Validation of the Predictive Power of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index: A CIBMTR® Study

    PubMed Central

    Sorror, Mohamed L.; Logan, Brent R.; Zhu, Xiaochun; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Cooke, Kenneth R.; McCarthy, Philip L; Ho, Vincent T.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Pasquini, Marcelo C.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective validation of the hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) using contemporary patients treated with HCT across the Unites States is necessary to confirm its widespread applicability. We performed a prospective observational study including all patients (8115 recipients of allogeneic and 11,652 recipients of autologous HCT) who underwent first HCT that was reported to the CIBMTR between 2007 and 2009. In proportional hazards models, increased HCT-CI scores were independently associated with increases in hazard ratios for NRM (p<0.0001) and overall mortality (p<0.0001) among recipients of allogeneic HCT. HCT-CI Scores of ≥3 were uniformly associated with higher risks for outcomes in both allogeneic and autologous HCT, and all subgroups regardless of diagnoses, age, and conditioning intensity. Recipients of allogeneic HCT with scores of 1–2 who were aged <18 or were treated with lower intensity conditioning regimens had similar outcomes compared to those with score 0. Higher risks for overall mortality, but not for NRM, were observed among recipients of autologous HCT with scores of 1–2 versus 0. Our results confirm the validity the HCT-CI in both allogeneic and autologous HCT. The index should be used as a valid standard-of-care health measure in counseling patients for HCT, in clinical trial design, and in adjusting outcome analyses. PMID:25862591

  6. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  7. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate cost data and cost finding. 413.24 Section 413.24 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY...

  8. Renewable energy power in U. S. electric utility applications past progress, current status, future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    De Meo, E.A.

    1985-02-01

    During the past ten years, over two billion dollars of public and private funds have been applied toward the development of new renewable power sources. The efforts conducted over this period have led to several primary results: Lofty dreams of large energy contributions by year 2000 have been replaced by realistic projections and the realization that successful development of new power technologies takes a number of years. We have also come to realize that a contribution of one or two percent of U.S. energy needs by year 2000 from a new technology would represent a truly significant achievement, would imply productive capital investments of tens of billions of dollars, and would signal the emergence of a very healthy power option whose ultimate role would be influenced primarily by normal market forces.

  9. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  10. Prospects of very high power CO{sub 2} laser in welding

    SciTech Connect

    Goussain, J.C.; Vire, S.

    1996-12-31

    A 45 kW laser system was recently installed at Institut de Soudure (IS) in France in order to evaluate the possibilities of such high power beams in welding. Some results of welding various materials (Ta6V, C-steel, Cr-Ni alloys), different thicknesses (>30 mm) and large components (several meters) are presented. Some recent installations of high power laser equipment already integrated into production site or under development in shipbuilding and steel fabrication are described. Finally the objectives of an important R and D program launched recently for exploring the different aspects of laser welding in thick section steel fabrication is outlined.

  11. New Electric Power Technologies: Problems and Prospects for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report responds to a request from the House Committee on Science and Technology and its Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications to analyze a range of new electric power generating, storage, and load management technologies. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) examined these technologies in terms of their current and expected…

  12. Prospects of and requirements for nuclear power as a contributor toward managing greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Hassberger, J.A., Schock, R.N.; Isaacs, T.H.

    1997-10-23

    The world`s population, energy demand, and rate of carbon emissions are increasing, but the rates of increase are uncertain. Even modest growth rates present significant challenges to existing and developing technologies for reducing carbon and greenhouse gas emissions while meeting growing energy demands. Nuclear power is currently the most developed alternative to fossil fuel combustion and is one of the options for meeting these challenges. However, there remain significant technical, economic and institutional barriers inhibiting growth of nuclear capacity in the U.S. and slowing implementation worldwide. In the near-term, the major barriers to nuclear power, especially in the U.S., appear to be economic and institutional, with the risks such as safety, waste management and proliferation having reasonably acceptable limits considering the current installed capacity. Future growth of nuclear power, however, may well hinge on continuous evolutionary and perhaps revolutionary reduction of these risks such that the overall risk of nuclear power, aggregated over the entire installed capacity, remains at or below today`s risks.

  13. Current status and future prospects of power generators using dielectric elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Seiki; Waki, Mikio; Kornbluh, Roy; Pelrine, Ron

    2011-12-01

    Electroactive polymer artificial muscle (EPAM), known collectively as dielectric elastomers in the literature, has been shown to offer unique capabilities as an actuator and is now being developed for a wide variety of generator applications. EPAM has several characteristics that make it potentially well suited for wave, water current, wind, human motion, and other environmental energy harvesting systems including a high energy density allowing for minimal EPAM material quantities, high energy conversion efficiency independent of frequency of operation and non-toxic and low-cost materials not susceptible to corrosion. Experiments have been performed on push-button and heel-mounted generator devices powered by human motion, ocean wave power harvesters mounted on buoys and water turbines. While the power output levels of such demonstration devices is small, the performance of these devices has supported the potential benefits of EPAM. For example, an electrical energy conversion efficiency of over 70% was achieved with small wave heights. The ability of EPAM to produce hydrogen fuel for energy storage was also demonstrated. Because the energy conversion principle of EPAM is capacitive in nature, the performance is largely independent of size and it should eventually be possible to scale up EPAM generators to the megawatt level to address a variety of electrical power needs.

  14. Prospective technologies for using biohydrogen in power installations on the basis of fuel cells (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunikov, D. O.; Borzenko, V. I.; Malyshenko, S. P.; Blinov, D. V.; Kazakov, A. N.

    2013-03-01

    The present state of technology for obtaining hydrogen by biological methods and for purifying it is reviewed from the viewpoint of its possible use in kilowatt-class power installations. Hybrid membranesorption biohydrogen purification methods combining membrane-based pretreatment and sorption-based final treatment, also with the use of metal hydrides, should be regarded as the most efficient ones.

  15. Adequation of mini satellites to oceanic altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaieche, G.; Aguttes, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Association of the mini satellite concept and oceanic altimetry missions is discussed. Mission definition and most constraining requirements (mesoscale for example) demonstrate mini satellites to be quite adequate for such missions. Progress in altimeter characteristics, orbit determination, and position reporting allow consideration of oceanic altimetry missions using low Earth orbit satellites. Satellite constellation, trace keeping and orbital period, and required payload characteristics are exposed. The mission requirements covering Sun synchronous orbit, service area, ground system, and launcher characteristics as well as constellation maintenance strategy are specified. Two options for the satellite, orbital mechanics, propulsion, onboard power and stabilizing subsystems, onboard management, satellite ground linkings, mechanical and thermal subsystems, budgets, and planning are discussed.

  16. Prospects for using the fly ash produced at thermal power plants in the Rostov region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, N. V.; Shaforost, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the chemical composition of the fuel mineral component and admixtures in ash and slag materials is presented taking as an example some of coal-fired thermal power plants in the Rostov region. The physicochemical properties of ash and slag components from different coals that are of interest for industrial use are considered together with methods for separating them. The list of such components includes hollow aluminum silicate microspheres, inert mass of aluminum silicate composition, magnetite microballs, unburned coal particles, carbonate microspheres, heavy fraction containing ferrosilicium, admixtures of noble metals and rare and trace elements. Various ways of using these components directly at thermal power plants and enterprises in the Rostov region are proposed.

  17. Commercial nuclear power: prospects for the United States and the world. [2000 AD and 2020 AD

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, F.; Gielecki, M.; Diedrich, R.; Hewlett, J.; Murphy, T.

    1985-09-16

    This analysis report presents the current status and outlook for commercial nuclear power reactors for all countries in the world outside centrally planned economic areas (WOCA). Information regarding operable reactors in countries with centrally planned economies is also presented. The report provides documentation of the US middle-case nuclear capacity and generation projections through 1995 that are presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1984. Additionally, US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2020 are presented for various nuclear power supply scenarios. These long-term projections are provided in support of the Department of Energy's activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The projections for foreign nuclear capacity through 1990 supplant the preliminary foreign WOCA projections presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1984 and are supplemented by WOCA country-specific projections through the year 2000.

  18. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  19. Reflectance loss of prospective solar concentrator mirrors in erosive environments. The Crosbyton Solar Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bethea, R.M.; Barringer, M.T.; Chin, S.; Collier, E.G.; Cooper, A.M.; Reichert, J.D. Jr.; Williams, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    The problem addressed in this phase of the Crosbyton Solar Power Project was that of the effect of weathering of solar concentrator mirrors proposed for use in the fixed-mirror, distributed-focus (solar bowl) system with particular emphasis on erosion due to exposure during dust storms. The specific objectives of this research were to evaluate the mirrors with respect to initial reflectance, loss of reflectance due to dust storms and other outdoor exposure phenomena, and dimensional stability; and to develop a rapid technique for the simulation of dust storms so that a model for such reflectance loss as a function of exposure could be developed.

  20. Prospective communications research to support fly by light/power by wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Game, David

    1994-01-01

    A NASA Research Grant NAG-1-1309, Distributed Fiber Optic Systems for Commercial Aircraft, was awarded during July 1991. This report primarily constitutes a summary of findings of the original background research done at that time. NASA is embarking on a research project to design the next generation of commercial aircraft, fly by light/power by wire. The objectives of this effort are to improve commercial aircraft design by (1) reducing the weight of the aircraft to improve efficiency and (2) improving the fault tolerance and safety of the aircraft by enhancing current systems with new technologies or introducing new systems into the aircraft.

  1. Solar power plants - State of the art and prospects from the international point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faninger, G.

    Solar-thermal and photovoltaic systems are discussed. The possibilities for solar production of electricity is compared with those for alternative energy sources: running water, wind, waves, and heat gradients in oceans. Solar ponds are briefly discussed. The components of solar-thermal power plants are treated, including concentrators, refractors, collectors, and heliostats. The state of international cooperation and goal-setting is examined along with ways of optimizing solar-thermal systems. The tower and farm concepts of such systems are evaluated. For photovoltaic systems, the state of the art in solar cells, the structure of solar generators, cost factors, and system tests are discussed. The possible contributions of energy satellites are noted.

  2. [Prospects of systemic radioecology in solving innovative tasks of nuclear power engineering].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, S I

    2014-01-01

    A need of systemic radioecological studies in the strategy developed by the atomic industry in Russia in the XXI century has been justified. The priorities in the radioecology of nuclear power engineering of natural safety associated with the development of the radiation-migration equivalence concept, comparative evaluation of innovative nuclear technologies and forecasting methods of various emergencies have been identified. Also described is an algorithm for the integrated solution of these tasks that includes elaboration of methodological approaches, methods and software allowing dose burdens to humans and biota to be estimated. The rationale of using radioecological risks for the analysis of uncertainties in the environmental contamination impacts,at different stages of the existing and innovative nuclear fuel cycles is shown. PMID:25775830

  3. Prospects for Use of Synchronous Reluctance Motors in Low-Power Electrical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.; Dobriyan, R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on studying the synchronous reluctance motors as an alternative to low-power commutator motors. Analysis is done for the improved design of synchronous reluctance motor with a segmental external rotor. Relevant equations and a suitable method are proposed for calculating characteristics of the synchronous reluctance motors operating in a specific mode with electronic commutation as switched reluctance motors. It is concluded that synchronous reluctance motors in this mode can provide a wide range of characteristics and are quite competitive with commutator motors used in low-power devices. Aplūkoti sinhronie reaktīvie dzinēji kā mazjaudas kolektordzinēju alternatīva. Analizētas sinhrono reaktīvo dzinēju uzlabotas konstrukcijas ar segmentveida ārējo rotoru. Aprakstīti sinhrono reaktīvo dzinēju vienādojumi un raksturlīkņu aprēķināšanas metodika gadījumam, kad tie darbojas ventiļdzinēju sastāvā. Parādīts, ka sinhronie reaktīvie dzinēji šādos gadījumos var nodrošināt plašu mehānisko raksturlīkņu spektru un sekmīgi konkurēt ar kolektordzinējiem mazjaudas elektroierīcēs.

  4. Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel

    2013-08-01

    No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

  5. Technical and Political Assessment of Peaceful Nuclear Power Program Prospects in North Africa and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Windsor, Lindsay K.; Kessler, Carol E.

    2007-09-11

    An exceptional number of Middle Eastern and North African nations have recently expressed interest in developing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Many of these countries have explored nuclear research in limited ways in the past, but the current focused interest and application of resources towards developing nuclear-generated electricity and nuclear-powered desalination plants is unprecedented. Consequently, questions arise in response to this emerging trend: What instigated this interest? To what end(s) will a nuclear program be applied? Does the country have adequate technical, political, legislative, nonproliferation, and safety infrastructure required for the capability desired? If so, what are the next steps for a country in preparation for a future nuclear program? And if not, what collaboration efforts are possible with the United States or others? This report provides information on the capabilities and interests of 13 countries in the region in nuclear energy programs in light of safety, nonproliferation and security concerns. It also provides information useful for determining potential for offering technical collaboration, financial aid, and/or political support.

  6. Health responses to a new high-voltage power line route: design of a quasi-experimental prospective field study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background New high-voltage power transmission lines will be introduced due to increasing demand for reliable and renewable energy supplies. Some residents associate non-specific health complaints with exposure to electromagnetic fields from nearby power lines. This study protocol describes the design and rationale of a prospective study investigating whether the introduction of a new power line triggers health responses in residents living nearby. Methods/Design The study is designed as a quasi-experimental field study with two pretests during the construction of a new power line route, and two posttests after it has been put into operation. Key outcomes are self-reported non-specific somatic and cognitive health complaints, and attribution of these health complaints to a power line. The main determinant is proximity to the new power line route. One member of every household (n = 2379) residing in close proximity (0-500 meters) to the overhead parts of a new power line route in the Netherlands is invited to participate, as well as a sample of household members (n = 2382) residing farther away (500-2000 meters). Multilevel analysis will be employed to test whether an increase in key outcome measures is related to proximity to the line. Longitudinal structural equation models will be applied to test to what extent health responses are mediated by psychosocial health mechanisms and moderated by negative oriented personality traits. Discussion This is the first study to investigate health responses to a new power line route in a prospective manner. The results will provide theoretical insight into psychosocial mechanisms operating during the introduction of an environmental health risk, and may offer suggestions to policymakers and other stakeholders for minimizing adverse health responses when introducing new high-voltage power lines. PMID:24606914

  7. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  8. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  9. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200.14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and...

  10. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  11. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  12. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200....14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure...

  13. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  14. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  15. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  16. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  17. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  18. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  19. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  20. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  1. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  2. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  3. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  4. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  5. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  6. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  8. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  9. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  10. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  11. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  12. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  13. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  14. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    PubMed

    Zobel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for dicot plant root systems. PMID:26904040

  15. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  16. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  17. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  18. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  19. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  20. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  1. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...

  2. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  3. Finding Alternatives to the Dogma of Power Based Sample Size Calculation: Is a Fixed Sample Size Prospective Meta-Experiment a Potential Alternative?

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Elsa; Trinquart, Ludovic; Giraudeau, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Sample sizes for randomized controlled trials are typically based on power calculations. They require us to specify values for parameters such as the treatment effect, which is often difficult because we lack sufficient prior information. The objective of this paper is to provide an alternative design which circumvents the need for sample size calculation. In a simulation study, we compared a meta-experiment approach to the classical approach to assess treatment efficacy. The meta-experiment approach involves use of meta-analyzed results from 3 randomized trials of fixed sample size, 100 subjects. The classical approach involves a single randomized trial with the sample size calculated on the basis of an a priori-formulated hypothesis. For the sample size calculation in the classical approach, we used observed articles to characterize errors made on the formulated hypothesis. A prospective meta-analysis of data from trials of fixed sample size provided the same precision, power and type I error rate, on average, as the classical approach. The meta-experiment approach may provide an alternative design which does not require a sample size calculation and addresses the essential need for study replication; results may have greater external validity. PMID:27362939

  4. Kinesio Taping Does Not Alter Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength and Power in Healthy Nonathletic Men: A Prospective Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Rutkowski, Radosław; Gruszczyński, Jakub; Lewandowski, Jacek; Straburzyński-Lupa, Marcin; Łochyński, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The effects of Kinesio Taping (KT) on muscular performance remain largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of KT on the maximum concentric and eccentric quadriceps isokinetic strength. Study Design. This is a single-blinded, placebo crossover, repeated measures study. Methods. Maximum isokinetic concentric/eccentric extension torque, work, and power were assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer without taping (NT) and with KT or placebo taping (PT) in 17 healthy young men. Repeated measures one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analyses. Results. Testing concentric contractions at 60°/s or 180°/s isokinetic speed, no significant differences in peak torque (Nm), total work (J), or mean power (W) were noted among the application modes under different conditions. Testing eccentric contractions at 30°/s or 60°/s isokinetic speed, no significant differences in mentioned parameters were noted, respectively. KT on the quadriceps neither decreased nor increased muscle strength in the participants. Conclusion. KT application onto the skin overlying the quadriceps muscle does not enhance the strength or power of knee extensors in healthy men. PMID:26819953

  5. Prospects for High Resolution Neutron Spectroscopy on high power fusion devices in view of the recent diagnostic developments at JET

    SciTech Connect

    Ericsson, Goeran; Sunden, E. Andersson; Conroy, S.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Giacomelli, L.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ronchi, E.; Sjsoetrand, H.; Weiszflog, M.; Kaellne, J.; Gorini, G.; Ognissanto, F.; Tardocchi, M.; Angelone, M.; Popovichev, S.

    2008-03-12

    An evaluation of three different candidate techniques for a 14-MeV High Resolution Neutron Spectrometer for a high power fusion device is presented. The performance is estimated for a modelled neutron emission for ITER plasma scenario 4. As performance indicators we use the estimated time-resolution achieved in measurements of three plasma parameters, namely, the ion temperature, the intensity of neutron emission due to neutral beam--thermal plasma interactions and the intensity of the so-called alpha knock-on neutron tail. It is found that only the MPR technique can deliver results on all three parameters with reasonable time resolution.

  6. Maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the nutritional and fluid requirements of enterally-fed patients can be challenging and the practicalities of ensuring adequate delivery must be taken into consideration. Patients who are enterally fed can be more reliant on clinicians, family members and carers to meet their nutrition and hydration needs and identify any deficiencies, excesses or problems with delivery. Estimating a patient's requirements can be challenging due to the limitations of using predictive equations in the clinical setting. Close monitoring by all those involved in the patient's care, as well as regular review by a dietitian, is therefore required to balance the delivery of adequate feed and fluids to meet each patient's individual needs and prevent the complications of malnutrition and dehydration. Increasing the awareness of the signs of malnutrition and dehydration in patients receiving enteral tube feeding among those involved in a patient's care will help any deficiencies to be detected early on and rectified before complications occur. PMID:26087203

  7. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  8. Prospects for the development of independent power supply systems on the basis of solid fuel thermal conversion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanguzin, I. A.; Fedyukhin, A. V.; Kurzanov, S. Yu.; Gyulmaliev, A. M.; Stepanova, T. A.; Tumanovsky, V. A.; Titov, D. P.

    2015-05-01

    Theoretical principles of using solid fuel for organizing independent power supply to small settlements and industrial consumers are considered. Thermogravimetric experiments have been carried out for a few types of wood with determining the universal kinetic parameters characterizing the pyrolysis process. A procedure for describing the solid fuel thermal decomposition process has been proposed that is based on writing the equations of four independent parallel thermal decomposition reactions for each component of the initial raw material. A software package has been developed using which the calorific value, composition, and volume of the gas produced in the thermal conversion of solid fuels can be estimated. The impact of operating parameters on the synthesis gas composition has been evaluated. It has been found that increasing the thermal conversion temperature results in a higher calorific value of the obtained gas per unit weight of the feedstock. A qualitative and quantitative comparison of the computational model and the results obtained during experimental studies on the existing gasifier has been carried out. It is shown that the parameters of gas obtained on the test bench are consistent with the calculated ones in both the amount of gas and its chemical energy. The combined-cycle power plant flow chart involving the biomass gasification process has been numerically simulated in the Aspen Plus computer program, and calculations aimed at determining the optimal operating parameters of different thermal process circuit components and of the entire CCP system were performed.

  9. Current state, problems, and prospects of development of the fuel and power industry of the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Shatalov, A.T.

    1994-09-01

    Despite the political and territorial changes that have occurred in the former USSR, the Russian Federation as before remains the core of the entire energy supply system of countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the three Baltic States, as well as an exporter of oil and gas to European countries. Demonstrated gas reserves in Russia amount to 47 trillion cubic meters and coal reserves more than 200 billion tons. With the dissolution of the USSR, the infrastructure of the entire region was affected. The main production of pipes remained in Ukraine and 80% of the production of oil equipment remained in Azerbaijan. The majority of underground gas storage facilities, refineries, and electric-power installations constructed during the past 20 years remained in Belarus, Baltic Countries, and Ukraine. To solve some of the problems, laws were passed that aimed at the formation of market relations in the economy and power industry. The transition to a market economy in the oil and gas industry should take 5-7 years and has a large effect on the overall markets reforms taking place. The article also outlines the history and present state of petroleum reserves and development in Russia.

  10. Parametric study of prospective early commercial MHD power plants (PSPEC). General Electric Company, task 1: Parametric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, C. H.; Alyea, F. N.; Bender, D. J.; Davis, L. K.; Dellinger, T. C.; Hnat, J. G.; Komito, E. H.; Peterson, C. A.; Rogers, D. A.; Roman, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and cost of moderate technology coal-fired open cycle MHD/steam power plant designs which can be expected to require a shorter development time and have a lower development cost than previously considered mature OCMHD/steam plants were determined. Three base cases were considered: an indirectly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) subsystem delivering air at 2700 F, fired by a state of the art atmospheric pressure gasifier, and the HTAH subsystem was deleted and oxygen enrichment was used to obtain requisite MHD combustion temperature. Coal pile to bus bar efficiencies in ease case 1 ranged from 41.4% to 42.9%, and cost of electricity (COE) was highest of the three base cases. For base case 2 the efficiency range was 42.0% to 45.6%, and COE was lowest. For base case 3 the efficiency range was 42.9% to 44.4%, and COE was intermediate. The best parametric cases in bases cases 2 and 3 are recommended for conceptual design. Eventual choice between these approaches is dependent on further evaluation of the tradeoffs among HTAH development risk, O2 plant integration, and further refinements of comparative costs.

  11. Prospects in Nuclear Structure and Reactions with New Generation of High Power Accelerators and Innovative Instrumentation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.

    2014-09-01

    The advent of high power light and heavy ion accelerators producing intense secondary radioactive ion beams (RIB) made possible the exploration of a new territory of nuclei with extreme in Mass and/or N/Z ratios. To pursue the investigation of this "terra incognita" several projects, based on second generation accelerators producing intense stables and RIB, all aiming at the increase by several orders of magnitude of the RIB intensities are now under construction and/or planned for the end of this decade in the world. In Europe RIB production at SPES@Legnaro, SPIRAL2@GANIL, ALTO@Orsay and HIE-ISOLDE@CERN are based on the ISOL method, whereas FAIR@GSI with the new Super-FRS fragment-separator takes advantage of the "In Flight" technique. Projects of high intensity heavy ions, and low energy drivers (< 10 MeV/n) are also foreseen at Flerov Laboratory @DUBNA, GSI, and GANIL. Technical performances, innovative new instrumentation and methods, and keys experiments in connection with these second generation high intensity facilities will be reviewed.

  12. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  13. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  14. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  15. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  16. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    PubMed

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  17. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  18. Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) at Your Library Media Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Together administration and the library media center form a team that can make a difference in student learning and, in turn, in student achievement. The library media center can contribute to improve student learning, and there is an amazingly small cost that administration must pay for this powerful support. This article addresses…

  19. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  20. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  1. SNAP benefits: Can an adequate benefit be defined?

    PubMed

    Yaktine, Ann L; Caswell, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) increases the food purchasing power of participating households. A committee convened by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) examined the question of whether it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy. Total resources; individual, household, and environmental factors; and SNAP program characteristics that affect allotment adequacy were identified from a framework developed by the IOM committee. The committee concluded that it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy; however, such a definition must take into account the degree to which participants' total resources and individual, household, and environmental factors influence the purchasing power of SNAP benefits and the impact of SNAP program characteristics on the calculation of the dollar value of the SNAP allotment. The committee recommended that the USDA Food and Nutrition Service investigate ways to incorporate these factors and program characteristics into research aimed at defining allotment adequacy. PMID:24425718

  2. Biodiversity Prospecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sittenfeld, Ana; Lovejoy, Annie

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of biodiversity prospecting as a method for tropical countries to value biodiversity and contribute to conservation upkeep costs. Discusses the first agreement between a public interest organization and pharmaceutical company for the extraction of plant and animal materials in Costa Rica. (LZ)

  3. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  4. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  5. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  6. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  7. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  8. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  9. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  10. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  11. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  12. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  13. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  14. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  15. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  16. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  17. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  18. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  19. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  20. Prospective Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

  1. Pulsed power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, David H.

    Pulsed power systems are critical elements for such prospective weapons technologies as high-power microwaves, electrothermal and electromagnetic projectile launchers, neutral particle beams, space-based FELs, ground-based lasers, and charged particle beams. Pulsed power will also be essential for the development of nonweapon military systems such as lidars and ultrawideband radars, and could serve as the bases for nuclear weapon effect simulators. The pulsed power generation requirements for each of these systems is considered.

  2. Prospective Validation of the Predictive Power of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index: A Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Study.

    PubMed

    Sorror, Mohamed L; Logan, Brent R; Zhu, Xiaochun; Rizzo, J Douglas; Cooke, Kenneth R; McCarthy, Philip L; Ho, Vincent T; Horowitz, Mary M; Pasquini, Marcelo C

    2015-08-01

    Prospective validation of the hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) using contemporary patients treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) across the Unites States is necessary to confirm its widespread applicability. We performed a prospective observational study including all patients (8115 recipients of allogeneic and 11,652 recipients of autologous HCT) who underwent a first HCT that was reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 2007 and 2009. In proportional hazards models, increased HCT-CI scores were independently associated with increases in hazard ratios for nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (P < .0001) and overall mortality (P < .0001) among recipients of allogeneic HCT. HCT-CI scores of ≥3 were uniformly associated with higher risks for outcomes in both allogeneic and autologous HCT and in all subgroups, regardless of diagnoses, age, and conditioning intensity. Recipients of allogeneic HCT with scores of 1 and 2 who were ages < 18 years or were treated with lower intensity conditioning regimens had similar outcomes compared with those with a score of 0. Higher risks for overall mortality, but not for NRM, were observed among recipients of autologous HCT with scores of 1 and 2 versus 0. Our results confirm the validity the HCT-CI in both allogeneic and autologous HCT. The index should be used as a valid standard-of-care health measure in counseling patients for HCT, in clinical trial design, and in adjusting outcome analyses. PMID:25862591

  3. Design peculiarities prospects of the use of small-size low power RTG for investigating planets and small bodies of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustovalov, A. A.; Gusev, V. V.; Pankin, M. I.

    1998-01-01

    The paper considers some aspects of the development of the space plutonium-238 radionuclide thermoelectrical generators (RTG) of low power. Such autonomous sources of electrical power can be first be used for electrical supply and heating of the equipment of small stations, penetrators, probes descending on the planets and asteroids, where a low illumination and low temperatures make it difficult to use solar batteries and chemical current sources.

  4. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants ≤ 1250 grams birth weight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth velocities and incidence of extrauterine growth restriction in infants ≤ 1250 grams (g) birth weight (BW) receiving an exclusive human milk-based diet with early and rapid advancement of fortification using a donor human milk derived fortifier. Methods In a single center, prospective observational cohort study, preterm infants weighing ≤ 1250 g BW were fed an exclusive human milk-based diet until 34 weeks postmenstrual age. Human milk fortification with donor human milk derived fortifier was started at 60 mL/kg/d and advanced to provide 6 to 8 additional kilocalories per ounce (or 0.21 to 0.28 kilocalories per gram). Data for growth were compared to historical growth standards and previous human milk-fed cohorts. Results We consecutively evaluated 104 infants with mean gestational age of 27.6 ± 2.0 weeks and BW of 913 ± 181 g (mean ± standard deviation). Weight gain was 24.8 ± 5.4 g/kg/day with length 0.99 ± 0.23 cm/week and head circumference 0.72 ± 0.14 cm/week. There were 3 medical NEC cases and 1 surgical NEC case. 22 infants (21%) were small for gestational age at birth. Overall, 45 infants (43%) had extrauterine growth restriction. Weight velocity was affected by day of fortification (p = 0.005) and day of full feeds (p = 0.02). Our cohort had significantly greater growth in weight and length compared to previous entirely human milk-fed cohorts. Conclusions A feeding protocol for infants ≤ 1250 g BW providing an exclusive human milk-based diet with early and rapid advancement of fortification leads to growth meeting targeted standards with a low rate of extrauterine growth restriction. Consistent

  5. Prospect redux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquemoud, S.; Ustin, S. L.; Verdebout, J.; Schmuck, G.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.

    1995-01-01

    The remote estimation of leaf biochemical content from spaceborne platforms has been the subject of many studies aimed at better understanding of terrestrial ecosystem functioning. The major ecological processes involved in exchange of matter and energy, like photosynthesis, primary production, evaportranspiration, respiration, and decomposition can be related to plant properties e.g., chlorophyll, water, protein, cellulose and lignin contents. As leaves represent the most important plant surfaces interacting with solar energy, a top priority has been to relate optical properties to biochemical constituents. Two different approaches have been considered: first, statistical correlations between the leaf reflectance (or transmittance) and biochemical content, and second, physically based models of leaf scattering and absorption developed using the laws of optics. Recently reviewed by Verdebout et al., the development of models of leaf optical properties has resulted in better understanding of the interaction of light with plant leaves. Present radiative transfer models mainly use chlorophyll and/or water contents as input parameters to calculate leaf reflectance. Inversion of these models allows to retrieve these constituents from spectrophotometric measurements. Conel et al. recently proposed a two-stream Kubelka-Munk model to analyze the influence of protein, cellulose, lignin, and starch on leaf reflectance, but in fact, the estimation of leaf biochemistry from remote sensing is still an open question. In order to clarify it, a laboratory experiment associating visible/infrared spectra of plan leaves both with physical measurements and biochemical analyses was conducted at the Joint Research Center during the summer of 1993. This unique data set has been used to upgrade the PROSPECT model, by including leaf biochemistry.

  6. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-evident (general anesthetics, drug metabolism). (3) The method of selection of subjects provides adequate... respect to pertinent variables such as age, sex, severity of disease, duration of disease, and use of... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies....

  7. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  8. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  9. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  10. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a)...

  11. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care §...

  12. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... safety analysis, or DSA, is to be prepared for every DOE nuclear facility. This DSA, once approved by...

  13. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  14. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  15. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  16. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

  17. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  18. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  19. German energy technology prospects.

    PubMed

    Popp, M

    1982-12-24

    After more than 25 years of development of nuclear power and almost 10 years of research and development in numerous areas of nonnuclear energy, there is now a good basis for judging the future prospects of energy technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany. The development of nuclear power has provided an important and economically advantageous new source of energy. Further efforts are needed to establish the nuclear fuel cycle in all stages and to exploit the potential of advanced reactors. In all other areas of energy technology, including energy conservation, new energy sources, and coal, economics has turned out to be the key problem, even at today's energy prices. Opportunities to overcome these economic problems through additional R & D are limited. There is some potential for special applications, and there are many technologies that could contribute to the energy supply of developing countries. In general, however, progress in energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources will depend on the degree to which energy policy measures can improve their economic basis. For some technologies, such as solar thermal power stations and coal liquefaction, large-scale economic deployment cannot be foreseen today. Instead of establishing costly demonstration projects, emphasis will be put on improving key components of these technologies with the aim of having the most advanced technology available when the economic parameters are more favorable. PMID:17770150

  20. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Rivastigmine in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease Not Responding Adequately to Donepezil: An Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Figiel, Gary S.; Sadowsky, Carl H.; Strigas, John; Koumaras, Barbara; Meng, Xiangyi; Gunay, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Switching patients with Alzheimer's disease from one cholinesterase inhibitor to another represents a viable option for patients not responding to current therapy. The objective of this large U.S.-based study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a treatment switch to rivastigmine in patients not responding adequately to or declining on treatment with donepezil. Method: In this 26-week, prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study conducted from April 24, 2003, to June 25, 2004, patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were not responding to donepezil were treated with rivastigmine 3–12 mg/day. Safety and tolerability were measured by the occurrence of adverse events and patient disposition. Treatment effects on global functioning were assessed using the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) scale. Results: Two hundred seventy patients with a mean age of 78.5 (SD = 7.56) years and a mean duration of dementia of 3.5 (SD = 2.06) years were included in the study. Sixty-nine percent of patients completed the study with 17.8% discontinuing due to adverse events. Eighty-three percent of patients reported at least 1 adverse event, with the most frequently occurring adverse events affecting the gastrointestinal system (54%). The majority of patients were reported to have either improvement or no decline on the CGIC. A limitation of the study is that the interpretation of the results is based on an overall completion rate of 69%. Conclusion: Immediately switching patients from donepezil to rivastigmine without a washout period was safe and well tolerated in the current study. Additionally, these results suggest that patients not responding adequately to or declining while taking donepezil may improve or stabilize after switching to rivastigmine. PMID:18787673

  2. Telotristat etiprate, a novel serotonin synthesis inhibitor, in patients with carcinoid syndrome and diarrhea not adequately controlled by octreotide.

    PubMed

    Kulke, Matthew H; O'Dorisio, Thomas; Phan, Alexandria; Bergsland, Emily; Law, Linda; Banks, Phillip; Freiman, Joel; Frazier, Kenny; Jackson, Jessica; Yao, James C; Kvols, Larry; Lapuerta, Pablo; Zambrowicz, Brian; Fleming, Douglas; Sands, Arthur

    2014-10-01

    Serotonin produced by neuroendocrine tumors is believed to be a principal cause of the diarrhea in carcinoid syndrome. We assessed the safety and efficacy of telotristat etiprate, an oral serotonin synthesis inhibitor, in patients with diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. In this prospective, randomized study, patients with evidence of carcinoid tumor and ≥4 bowel movements (BMs)/day despite stable-dose octreotide LAR depot therapy were enrolled in sequential, escalating, cohorts of four patients per cohort. In each cohort, one patient was randomly assigned to placebo and three patients to telotristat etiprate, at 150, 250, 350, or 500 mg three times a day (tid). In a subsequent cohort, one patient was assigned to placebo and six patients to telotristat etiprate 500 mg tid. Patients were assessed for safety, BM frequency (daily diary), 24 h urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (u5-HIAA), and adequate relief of carcinoid gastrointestinal symptoms (using a weekly questionnaire). Twenty-three patients were treated: 18 received telotristat etiprate and five received placebo. Adverse events were generally mild. Among evaluable telotristat etiprate-treated patients, 5/18 (28%) experienced a ≥30% reduction in BM frequency for ≥2 weeks, 9/16 (56%) experienced biochemical response (≥50% reduction or normalization in 24-h u5-HIAA) at week 2 or 4, and 10/18 (56%) reported adequate relief during at least 1 of the first 4 weeks of treatment. Similar activity was not observed in placebo-treated patients. Telotristat etiprate was well tolerated. Our observations suggest that telotristat etiprate has activity in controlling diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. Further studies confirming these findings are warranted. PMID:25012985

  3. Telotristat Etiprate, a Novel Serotonin Synthesis Inhibitor, in Patients with Carcinoid Syndrome and Diarrhea Not Adequately Controlled by Octreotide

    PubMed Central

    Kulke, Matthew H.; O’Dorisio, Thomas; Phan, Alexandria; Bergsland, Emily; Law, Linda; Banks, Phillip; Freiman, Joel; Frazier, Kenny; Jackson, Jessica; Yao, James C.; Kvols, Larry; Lapuerta, Pablo; Zambrowicz, Brian; Fleming, Douglas; Sands, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin produced by neuroendocrine tumors is believed to be a principal cause of the diarrhea in carcinoid syndrome. We assessed the safety and efficacy of telotristat etiprate, an oral serotonin synthesis inhibitor, in patients with diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. In this prospective, randomized study, patients with evidence of carcinoid tumor and ≥4 bowel movements (BMs)/day despite stable-dose octreotide LAR depot therapy were enrolled in sequential, escalating, cohorts of 4 patients/cohort. In each cohort, 1 patient was randomly assigned to placebo and 3 patients to telotristat etiprate, at 150, 250, 350, or 500 mg 3x/day (tid). In a subsequent cohort, 1 patient was assigned to placebo and 6 patients to telotristat etiprate 500 mg tid. Patients were assessed for safety, BM frequency (daily diary), 24-hour urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (u5-HIAA), and adequate relief of carcinoid gastrointestinal symptoms (using a weekly questionnaire). Twenty-three patients were treated; 18 received telotristat etiprate and 5 received placebo. Adverse events were generally mild. Among evaluable telotristat etiprate-treated patients, 5/18 (28%) experienced a ≥30% reduction in BM frequency for ≥2 weeks, 9/16 (56%) experienced biochemical response (≥50% reduction or normalization in 24-hour u5-HIAA) at Week 2 or 4, and 10/18 (56%) reported adequate relief during at least 1 of the first 4 weeks of treatment. Similar activity was not observed in placebo-treated patients. Telotristat etiprate was well tolerated. Our observations suggest that telotristat etiprate has activity in controlling diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. Further studies confirming these findings are warranted. PMID:25012985

  4. Performance and Prospects of Khayyam, A Tunable Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) for High Spectral Resolving Power Observation of Extended Planetary Targets in Optical Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, S.; Harris, W.

    2014-12-01

    We present initial results, calibration and data reduction process from observations of wide-field targets using Khayyam at Mt. Hamilton, a new instrument based on a reflective spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) at the focus of the Coudé Auxiliary Telescope (CAT). SHS instruments are common path two-beam Fourier transform spectrometers that produce 2-D spatial interference patterns without the requirement for moving parts. The utility of SHS comes from its combination of a wide input acceptance angle (0.5-1°), high resolving power (of order ~105), compact format, high dynamic range, and relaxed optical tolerances compared with other interferometer designs. This combination makes them extremely useful for velocity resolved for observations of wide field targets from both small and large telescopes. This report focuses on the tunable instrument at Mt Hamilton, The CAT provides a test case for on-axis use of SHS, and the impact of the resulting field non-uniformity caused by the spider pattern will be discussed. Observations of several targets will be presented that demonstrate the capabilities of SHS, including comet C/2014 E2 (Jacques), Jupiter, and both the day sky and night glow. Raw interferometric data and transformed power spectra will be shown and evaluated in terms of instrumental stability.

  5. Waxy crude oil handling in Nigeria; Practices, problems, and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Ajienka, J.A.; Ikoku, C.U. )

    1990-01-01

    With case studies, the practices, problems, and prospects of handling waxy crude oils in Nigeria are discussed. Using a rotational viscometer, the temperature dependence of rheological properties and thixotropy of these crudes were determined. Suggestions are given on how to improve handling practices. These suggestions include adequate screening and ranking of wax inhibitors, taking into account pour-point depression, viscosity, and yield value.

  6. Prospect theory in the valuation of health.

    PubMed

    Moffett, Maurice L; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2005-08-01

    Prospect theory is the prominent nonexpected utility theory in the estimation of health state preference scores for quality-adjusted life year calculation. Until recently, the theory was not considered to be developed to the point of implementation in economic analysis. This review focuses on the research and evidence that tests the implementation of prospect theory into health state valuation. The typical application of expected utility theory assumes that a decision maker has stable preferences under conditions of risk and uncertainty. Under prospect theory, preferences are dependent on whether the decision maker regards the outcome of a choice as a gain or loss, relative to a reference point. The conceptual preference for standard gamble utilities in the valuation of health states has led to the development of elicitation techniques. Empirical evidence using these techniques indicates that when individual preferences are elicited, a prospect theory consistent framework appears to be necessary for adequate representation of individual health utilities. The relevance of prospect theory to policy making and resource allocation remains to be established. Societal preferences may not need the same attitudes towards risks as individual preferences, and may remain largely risk neutral. PMID:19807267

  7. Prospects for a soft x-ray FEL powered by a relativistic-klystron high-gradient accelerator (RK-HGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, H.D.; Barletta, W.A.; Yu, S.S.; Schlueter, R.; Deis, G.A.

    1989-09-28

    We present here the concept of x-ray FELs using high gain, single-pass amplifiers with electron beams accelerated in high gradient structures powered by relativistic klystrons. Other authors have also considered x-ray FELs; the unique aspect of this paper is the use of high gradient acceleration. One of the authors has previously presented preliminary studies on this concept. The intent in this paper is to display the results of a top level design study on a high gain FEL, to present its sensitivity to a variety of fabrication and tuning errors, to discuss several mechanisms for increasing gain yet more, and to present explicitly the output characteristics of such an FEL. The philosophy of the design study is to find a plausible operating point which employs existing or nearly existing state-of-the-art technologies while minimizing the accelerator and wiggler lengths. The notion is to distribute the technical risk as evenly as possible over the several technologies so that each must advance only slightly in order to make this design feasible. This study entailed no systematic investigation of possible costs so that, for example, the sole criterion for balancing the trade-off between beam energy and wiggler length is that the two components have comparable lengths. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Prospective errors determine motor learning.

    PubMed

    Takiyama, Ken; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    Diverse features of motor learning have been reported by numerous studies, but no single theoretical framework concurrently accounts for these features. Here, we propose a model for motor learning to explain these features in a unified way by extending a motor primitive framework. The model assumes that the recruitment pattern of motor primitives is determined by the predicted movement error of an upcoming movement (prospective error). To validate this idea, we perform a behavioural experiment to examine the model's novel prediction: after experiencing an environment in which the movement error is more easily predictable, subsequent motor learning should become faster. The experimental results support our prediction, suggesting that the prospective error might be encoded in the motor primitives. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this model has a strong explanatory power to reproduce a wide variety of motor-learning-related phenomena that have been separately explained by different computational models. PMID:25635628

  9. A method for determining adequate resistance form of complete cast crown preparations.

    PubMed

    Weed, R M; Baez, R J

    1984-09-01

    A diagram with various degrees of occlusal convergence, which takes into consideration the length and diameter of complete crown preparations, was designed as a guide to assist the dentist to obtain adequate resistance form. To test the validity of the diagram, five groups of complete cast crown stainless steel dies were prepared (3.5 mm long, occlusal convergence 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees). Gold copings were cast for each of the 50 preparations. Displacement force was applied to the casting perpendicularly to a simulated 30-degree cuspal incline until the casting was displaced. Castings were deformed at margins except for the 22-degree group. Castings from this group were displaced without deformation, and it was concluded that there was a lack of adequate resistance form as predicted by the diagram. The hypothesis that the diagram could be used to predict adequate or inadequate resistance form was confirmed by this study. PMID:6384470

  10. Comparison of four standards for determining adequate water intake of nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Phyllis M

    2011-01-01

    Adequate hydration for nursing home residents is problematic. The purpose of this study was to compare four standards used to determine a recommended water intake among nursing home residents. Inconsistencies in the amount of water intake recommended based on the standards compared were identified. The standard based on height and weight provides the most individualized recommendation. An individualized recommendation would facilitate goal setting for the care plan of each older person and assist in the prevention of dehydration. It is essential that a cost-effective and clinically feasible approach to determine adequate water intake be determined for this population to prevent the adverse outcomes associated with dehydration. PMID:21469538

  11. Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters.

    PubMed

    Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Wehner, Martin; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Lampert, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart; Hermans, Martin; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of introducing ultra-short pulsed lasers (USPL) in restorative dentistry by maintaining the well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also overcoming disadvantages, such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. USPL ablation of dental hard tissues was investigated in two phases. Phase 1--different wavelengths (355, 532, 1,045, and 1,064 nm), pulse durations (picoseconds and femtoseconds) and irradiation parameters (scanning speed, output power, and pulse repetition rate) were assessed for enamel and dentin. Ablation rate was determined, and the temperature increase measured in real time. Phase 2--the most favorable laser parameters were evaluated to correlate temperature increase to ablation rate and ablation efficiency. The influence of cooling methods (air, air-water spray) on ablation process was further analyzed. All parameters tested provided precise and selective tissue ablation. For all lasers, faster scanning speeds resulted in better interaction and reduced temperature increase. The most adequate results were observed for the 1064-nm ps-laser and the 1045-nm fs-laser. Forced cooling caused moderate changes in temperature increase, but reduced ablation, being considered unnecessary during irradiation with USPL. For dentin, the correlation between temperature increase and ablation efficiency was satisfactory for both pulse durations, while for enamel, the best correlation was observed for fs-laser, independently of the power used. USPL may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, since effective ablation and low temperature increase were observed. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this technique seems to be promising for promoting the laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach. PMID:22565342

  12. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  13. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  14. Calculating and Reducing Errors Associated with the Evaluation of Adequate Yearly Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    In the Spring, 1996, issue of "CRESST Line," E. Baker and R. Linn commented that, in efforts to measure the progress of schools, "the fluctuations due to differences in the students themselves could conceal differences in instructional effects." This is particularly true in the context of the evaluation of adequate yearly progress required by…

  15. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  16. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  17. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...

  18. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  19. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  20. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  1. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  2. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  3. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  4. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  5. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  7. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  8. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  9. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  10. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  11. Special or Not so Special: Special Education Background Experiences of Principals and Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study researched the special education background experience of principals and the effect on students in the subgroup of Students with Disabilities in making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). In the state of Ohio, schools and districts are expected to make AYP as a whole and additionally make AYP for each subgroup (various…

  12. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6-12 (n = 1,203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in…

  13. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the State's requirements for availability of services, as set forth in § 438.206. (e) CMS' right... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and Performance... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services....

  14. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  15. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  16. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  17. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  18. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conducting clinical investigations of a drug is to distinguish the effect of a drug from other influences... recognized by the scientific community as the essentials of an adequate and well-controlled clinical... randomization and blinding of patients or investigators, or both. If the intent of the trial is to...

  19. Final 2004 Report on Adequate Yearly Progress in the Montgomery County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jose W.

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of Montgomery County public schools made sufficient progress on state testing and accountability standards in 2004 to comply with the adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements under the "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001." Information released by the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) in October 2004 shows that…

  20. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  1. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  2. Estimates of Adequate School Spending by State Based on National Average Service Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Jerry

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a method for estimating expenditures per student needed to provide educational adequacy in each state. Illustrates the method using U.S., Arkansas, New York, Texas, and Washington State data, covering instruction, special needs, operations and maintenance, administration, and other costs. Estimates ratios of "adequate" to actual spending…

  3. Leadership Style and Adequate Yearly Progress: A Correlational Study of Effective Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leapley-Portscheller, Claudia Iris

    2008-01-01

    Principals are responsible for leading efforts to reach increasingly higher levels of student academic proficiency in schools associated with adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to identify the degree to which perceptions of principal transformational, transactional, and…

  4. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...

  5. Principals' Perceptions of Effective Strategies in Meeting Adequate Yearly Progress in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jadie K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of principals who have met Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) with the special education subgroup. This was a qualitative study, utilizing interviews to answer the research questions. The first three research questions analyzed the areas of assessment, building-level leadership, and curriculum…

  6. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  7. 75 FR 74022 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... November 15, 2010 (75 FR 69648). The corrected text of the recommendation approved by the Board is below... or telephone number (202) 694-7000. Correction: In the Federal Register of November 15, 2010 (75 FR... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the...

  8. Evaluating Rural Progress in Mathematics Achievement: Threats to the Validity of "Adequate Yearly Progress"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    2003-01-01

    This article examines major threats to the validity of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in the context of rural schools. Although rural students and their schools made significant academic progress in the past on national and state assessments, the current goal of AYP turns out to be highly unrealistic for them unless states set far lower…

  9. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  10. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  11. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  12. What Is the Cost of an Adequate Vermont High School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Access to an adequate education has been widely considered an undeniable right since Chief Justice Warren stated in his landmark decision that "Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments...it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an…

  13. Elementary Science Methods Courses and the "National Science Education Standards": Are We Adequately Preparing Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leigh K.; Gess-Newsome, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Despite the apparent lack of universally accepted goals or objectives for elementary science methods courses, teacher educators nationally are autonomously designing these classes to prepare prospective teachers to teach science. It is unclear, however, whether science methods courses are preparing teachers to teach science effectively or to…

  14. Utero-placental vascularisation in normal and preeclamptic and intra-uterine growth restriction pregnancies: third trimester quantification using 3D power Doppler with comparison to placental vascular morphology (EVUPA): a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jie; Chabot-Lecoanet, Anne-Claire; Perdriolle-Galet, Estelle; Christov, Christophe; Hossu, Gabriela; Cherifi, Aboubaker; Morel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are two major pregnancy complications related to chronic utero-placental hypoperfusion. Three-dimensional power Doppler (3DPD) angiography has been used for the evaluation of utero-placental vascularisation and three vascular indices have been calculated: the vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation-FI (VFI). However, several technical endpoints hinder the clinical use of 3DPD as physical characteristics and machine settings may affect 3DPD indices, and so its clinical significance is not yet clear. Objectives The primary objective is to better understand the clinical significance of 3DPD indices by evaluating the relationship between these indices and placental morphometry. Secondary objectives are (i) to determine the impact of machine settings and physical characteristics on 3DPD indices, and (ii) to evaluate physio-pathological placental vascularisation patterns. Methods and analysis This is a prospective controlled study. We expect to include 112 women: 84 with normal pregnancies and 28 with PE and/or IUGR (based on our former cohort study on 3DPD indices for PE and/or IUGR prediction (unpublished data)). Within 72 h before planned or semi-urgent caesarean section, utero-placental 3DPD images with five different machine settings will be acquired. Placentas will be collected and examined after surgery and stereological indices (volume density, surface density, length density) calculated. The 3DPD indices (VI, FI and VFI) of the placenta and adjacent myometrium will be calculated. Correlation between Doppler and morphological indices will be evaluated by Pearson or Spearman tests. Agreement between 3DPD indices and morphological indices will be assessed by Bland and Altman plots. The impact of Doppler settings and maternal characteristics on 3DPD indices will be evaluated with a multivariate linear regression model. Ethics The study and related consent forms have

  15. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it. PMID:15260028

  16. A novel strategy to overcome resistance in stent placement at lesion site after adequate predilatation.

    PubMed

    Jain, D; Tolg, R; Katus, H A; Richardt, G

    2000-12-01

    Resistance was encountered in passing a 3 x 18 mm stent across a lesion in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. Successive changes in stent with repeated balloon dilatations did not succeed. Finally, a 9 mm stent was passed across the lesion and deployed at the site of maximal resistance. The 18 mm stent was then placed through this stent. A novel strategy to overcome resistance in the stent passage through the lesion after an adequate balloon predilatation is reported. PMID:11103034

  17. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  18. A blast without power - cell death induced by the tuberculosis-necrotizing toxin fails to elicit adequate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Maueröder, C; Chaurio, R A; Dumych, T; Podolska, M; Lootsik, M D; Culemann, S; Friedrich, R P; Bilyy, R; Alexiou, C; Schett, G; Berens, C; Herrmann, M; Munoz, L E

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we deploy a doxycycline-dependent suicide switch integrated in a tumor challenge model. With this experimental setup, we characterized the immunological consequences of cells dying by four distinct cell death stimuli in vivo. We observed that apoptotic cell death induced by expression of the truncated form of BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (tBid) and a constitutively active form of caspase 3 (revC3), respectively, showed higher immunogenicity than cell death induced by expression of the tuberculosis-necrotizing toxin (TNT). Our data indicate that the early release of ATP induces the silent clearance of dying cells, whereas the simultaneous presence of 'find me' signals and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) promotes inflammatory reactions and increased immunogenicity. This proposed model is supported by findings showing that the production and release of high concentrations of IL-27 by bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) is limited to BMDM exposed to those forms of death that simultaneously released ATP and the DAMPs heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) and high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1). These results demonstrate that the tissue microenvironment generated by dying cells may determine the subsequent immune response. PMID:26943324

  19. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  20. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  1. Self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction differences in women with adequate and inadequate prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M

    1994-03-01

    This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care. PMID:8155221

  2. Resolution in Electromagnetic Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Schramm, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) signals are commonly used in geophysical exploration of the shallow subsurface. Sensitivity to conductivity implies they are particularly useful for inferring fluid content of porous media. However, low-frequency EM wavefields are diffusive, and have significantly larger wavelengths compared to seismic signals of equal frequency. The wavelength of a 30 Hz sinusoid propagating with seismic velocity 3000 m/s is 100 m, whereas an analogous EM signal diffusing through a conductive body of 0.1 S/m (clayey shale) has wavelength 1825 m. The larger wavelength has implications for resolution of the EM prospecting method. We are investigating resolving power of the EM method via theoretical and numerical experiments. Normal incidence plane wave reflection/transmission by a thin geologic bed is amenable to analytic solution. Responses are calculated for beds that are conductive or resistive relative to the host rock. Preliminary results indicate the classic seismic resolution/detection limit of bed thickness ~1/8 wavelength is not achieved. EM responses for point or line current sources recorded by general acquisition geometries are calculated with a 3D finite-difference algorithm. These exhibit greater variability which may allow inference of bed thickness. We also examine composite responses of two point scatterers with separation when illuminated by an incident EM field. This is analogous to the Rayleigh resolution problem of estimating angular separation between two light sources. The First Born Approximation implies that perturbations in permittivity, permeability, and conductivity have different scattering patterns, which may be indicators of EM medium properties. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  4. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  5. Chronic leg ulcer: does a patient always get a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment?

    PubMed

    Mooij, Michael C; Huisman, Laurens C

    2016-03-01

    Patients with chronic leg ulcers have severely impaired quality of life and account for a high percentage of annual healthcare costs. To establish the cause of a chronic leg ulcer, referral to a center with a multidisciplinary team of professionals is often necessary. Treating the underlying cause diminishes healing time and reduces costs. In venous leg ulcers adequate compression therapy is still a problem. It can be improved by training the professionals with pressure measuring devices. A perfect fitting of elastic stockings is important to prevent venous leg ulcer recurrence. In most cases, custom-made stockings are the best choice for this purpose. PMID:26916772

  6. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  7. Family Structure Types and Adequate Utilization of Antenatal Care in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Features of the health care delivery system may not be the only expounding factors of adequate utilization of antenatal care among women. Other social factors such as the family structure and its environment contribute toward pregnant women's utilization of antenatal care. An understanding of how women in different family structure types and social groups use basic maternal health services is important toward developing and implementing maternal health care policy in the post-Millennium Development Goal era, especially in the sub-Saharan Africa where maternal mortality still remains high. PMID:27214674

  8. Working group on the “adequate minimum” V=volcanic observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A working group consisting of R. I. Tilling (United States, Chairman), M. Espendola (Mexico), E. Malavassi (Costa Rica), L. Villari (Italy), and J.P Viode (France) met on the island of Guadeloupe on February 20, 1981, to discuss informally the requirements for a "Minimum" volcano observatory, one which would have the essential monitoring equipment and staff to provide reliable information on the state of an active volcno. Given the premise that any monitoring of a volcano is better than none at all, the owrking group then proceeded to consider the concept of an "adequate minimum" observatory. 

  9. [The meaning of specialist and adequate documentation for retrospective analysis of sicknesses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Scheibe, O

    1981-01-01

    The example of a historic comparative study on the value of the application of inhibitions on thrombocyte aggregation (inhibition of thrombocyte function) was used to prove how important such data can be. Mistakes can also be discovered. Clinical comparisons can only be made when investigations have been made using a planned form to note anamnesis and other data. Special pre-illness history, the findings and course of the illness are not noted on a planned form. These conditions also allow an opinion to be formed from retrospective study of a case. The results help to build a prospective and randomized work. PMID:7339378

  10. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  11. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  12. Adequately-Sized Nanocarriers Allow Sustained Targeted Drug Delivery to Neointimal Lesions in Rat Arteries.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ryosuke; Miura, Yutaka; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Chida, Tsukasa; Anraku, Yasutaka; Kishimura, Akihiro; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    In atherosclerotic lesions, the endothelial barrier against the bloodstream can become compromised, resulting in the exposure of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and intimal cells beneath. In theory, this allows adequately sized nanocarriers in circulation to infiltrate into the intimal lesion intravascularly. We sought to evaluate this possibility using rat carotid arteries with induced neointima. Cy5-labeled polyethylene glycol-conjugated polyion complex (PIC) micelles and vesicles, with diameters of 40, 100, or 200 nm (PICs-40, PICs-100, and PICs-200, respectively) were intravenously administered to rats after injury to the carotid artery using a balloon catheter. High accumulation and long retention of PICs-40 in the induced neointima was confirmed by in vivo imaging, while the accumulation of PICs-100 and PICs-200 was limited, indicating that the size of nanocarriers is a crucial factor for efficient delivery. Furthermore, epirubicin-incorporated polymeric micelles with a diameter similar to that of PICs-40 showed significant curative effects in rats with induced neointima, in terms of lesion size and cell number. Specific and effective drug delivery to pre-existing neointimal lesions was demonstrated with adequate size control of the nanocarriers. We consider that this nanocarrier-based drug delivery system could be utilized for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:27183493

  13. Adequate Systemic Perfusion Maintained by a CentriMag during Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Favaloro, Roberto R.; Bertolotti, Alejandro; Diez, Mirta; Favaloro, Liliana; Gomez, Carmen; Peradejordi, Margarita; Trentadue, Julio; Hellman, Lorena; Arzani, Yanina; Otero, Pilar Varela

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support during severe acute heart failure presents options for myocardial recovery or cardiac replacement. Short-term circulatory support with the newest generation of magnetically levitated centrifugal-flow pumps affords several potential advantages. Herein, we present our experience with such a pump—the CentriMag® (Levitronix LLC; Waltham, Mass) centrifugal-flow ventricular assist device—in 4 critically ill patients who were in cardiogenic shock. From November 2007 through March 2008, 3 patients were supported after cardiac surgery, and 1 after chronic heart failure worsened. Two patients were bridged to heart transplantation, and 2 died during support. Perfusion during support was evaluated in terms of serum lactic acid levels and oxygenation values. In all of the patients, the CentriMag's pump flow was adequate, and continuous mechanical ventilation support was provided. Lactic acid levels substantially improved with CentriMag support and were maintained at near-normal levels throughout. At the same time, arterial pH, PO2, and carbon dioxide levels remained within acceptable ranges. No thromboembolic events or mechanical failures occurred. Our experience indicates that short-term use of the CentriMag ventricular assist device during acute heart failure can restore and adequately support circulation until recovery or until the application of definitive therapy. PMID:18941648

  14. Using Vascular Quality Initiative as a Platform for Organizing Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trials: OVERPAR Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Mohammad H.; Doros, Gheorghe; Goodney, Philip P.; Elderup-Jorgenson, Jens; Cronenwett, Jack L.; Malikova, Marina; Farber, Alik

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe the organization of a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial comparing the effectiveness of open popliteal artery aneurysm repair (OPAR) and endovascular popliteal artery aneurysm repair (EPAR) of asymptomatic popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) as an example for how to use the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) framework. Given that many centers participate in the VQI, this model can be used to perform multicenters’ prospective trials on very modest budget. Methods VQI prospectively collects data on many vascular procedures. These data include many important perioperative, intraoperative, and postoperative details regarding both patients and their procedures. We describe a study where minimal changes to the collected data by participating centers can provide level-1 evidence regarding a significant clinical question. Data will be collected using modified VQI forms within the existing VQI data reporting structure. We plan to enroll 148 patients with asymptomatic PAAs into the open and endovascular surgery cohorts. Patients from participating VQI centers will be randomized 1:1 to either OPAR or EPAR and will be followed for an average of 2.5 years. Our primary hypothesis is that major adverse limb event–free survival is lower in the EPAR cohort and that EPAR is associated with more secondary interventions, improved quality of life, and decreased length of stay. The budget for this trial is fixed at $10,000/year for the course of the study, and the trial is judged to be feasible because of the functionality of the VQI platform. Conclusions Using the existing VQI infrastructure, Open versus Endovascular Repair of Popliteal Artery Aneurysm will provide level 1 data for PAA treatment on a modest budget. The proposed trial has an adequately powered comparative design that will use objective performance goals to describe limb-related morbidity and procedural reintervention rates. PMID:25311746

  15. Power from Ocean Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  16. Do measures commonly used in body image research perform adequately with African American college women?

    PubMed

    Kashubeck-West, Susan; Coker, Angela D; Awad, Germine H; Stinson, Rebecca D; Bledman, Rashanta; Mintz, Laurie

    2013-07-01

    This study examines reliability and validity estimates for 3 widely used measures in body image research in a sample of African American college women (N = 278). Internal consistency estimates were adequate (α coefficients above .70) for all measures, and evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was found. Confirmatory factor analyses failed to replicate the hypothesized factor structures of these measures. Exploratory factor analyses indicated that 4 factors found for the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire were similar to the hypothesized subscales, with fewer items. The factors found for the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 were not similar to the subscales developed by the scale authors. Validity and reliability evidence is discussed for the new factors. PMID:23731233

  17. Esmolol in a case of severe tetanus. Adequate haemodynamic control achieved despite markedly elevated catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Lipman, J; Bothma, P A; Joynt, G M

    1994-03-01

    A patient with severe tetanus, who had a sympathetic crisis while sedated with 30 mg/h diazepam and 30 mg/h morphine, is described. Satisfactory control of the haemodynamic crisis was achieved with bolus doses of esmolol to a total of 180 mg. A disturbing finding was that although there was adequate control of the tachycardia and hypertension, arterial catecholamine levels remained markedly elevated. Adrenaline levels of 531 pg/ml (normal 10-110 pg/ml) and noradrenaline levels of 1,036 pg/ml (normal 100-500 pg/ml) were recorded when the patient had a systolic arterial pressure of 110 mmHg and a heart rate of 97/min. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:11218441

  18. Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation), it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose). Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium. PMID:25309756

  19. Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for gg → h at NNLO and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höschele, Maik; Hoff, Jens; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-09-01

    We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.

  20. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  1. Are the Psychological Needs of Adolescent Survivors of Pediatric Cancer Adequately Identified and Treated?

    PubMed Central

    Kahalley, Lisa S.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Tyc, Vida L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Stancel, Heather H.; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the psychological needs of adolescent survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or brain tumor (BT), we examined: (a) the occurrence of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional concerns identified during a comprehensive psychological evaluation, and (b) the frequency of referrals for psychological follow-up services to address identified concerns. Methods Psychological concerns were identified on measures according to predetermined criteria for 100 adolescent survivors. Referrals for psychological follow-up services were made for concerns previously unidentified in formal assessment or not adequately addressed by current services. Results Most survivors (82%) exhibited at least one concern across domains: behavioral (76%), cognitive (47%), and emotional (19%). Behavioral concerns emerged most often on scales associated with executive dysfunction, inattention, learning, and peer difficulties. CRT was associated with cognitive concerns, χ2(1,N=100)=5.63, p<0.05. Lower income was associated with more cognitive concerns for ALL survivors, t(47)=3.28, p<0.01, and more behavioral concerns for BT survivors, t(48)=2.93, p<0.01. Of survivors with concerns, 38% were referred for psychological follow-up services. Lower-income ALL survivors received more referrals for follow-up, χ2(1,N=41)=8.05, p<0.01. Referred survivors had more concerns across domains than non-referred survivors, ALL: t(39)=2.96, p<0.01, BT: t(39)=3.52, p<0.01. Trends suggest ALL survivors may be at risk for experiencing unaddressed cognitive needs. Conclusions Many adolescent survivors of cancer experience psychological difficulties that are not adequately managed by current services, underscoring the need for long-term surveillance. In addition to prescribing regular psychological evaluations, clinicians should closely monitor whether current support services appropriately meet survivors’ needs, particularly for lower-income survivors and those treated with CRT. PMID:22278930

  2. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  3. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  4. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  5. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  7. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  8. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  9. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  10. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  11. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  12. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  13. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  14. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  15. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  16. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  17. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  18. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  19. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  20. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  1. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  2. Prospecting Rovers for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Jerry B.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Farmer, Jeffery T.

    2007-01-01

    A study of lunar rover options for exploring the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar environment is presented. The potential for nearly continuous solar illumination coupled with the potential for water ice, focus exploration planner's attention on the polar regions of the moon. These regions feature craters that scientists have reason to believe may contain water ice. Water ice can be easily converted to fuel cell reactants, breathing oxygen, potable water, and rocket propellant. For these reasons, the NASA Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP) sponsored a study of potential prospecting rover concepts as one part of the RLEP-2 Pre-Phase A. Numerous vehicle configurations and power, thermal, and communication options are investigated. Rover options in the 400kg to 530kg class are developed which are capable of either confirming the presence of water ice at the poles, or conclusively demonstrating its absence.

  3. Remote sensing for wind power potential: a prospector's handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, J.E.; Maule, P.A.; Bodvarsson, G.; Rosenfeld, C.L.; Woolley, S.G.; McClenahan, M.R.

    1983-02-01

    Remote sensing can aid in identifying and locating indicators of wind power potential from the terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric environments (i.e.: wind-deformed trees, white caps, and areas of thermal flux). It is not considered as a tool for determining wind power potential. A wide variety of remotely sensed evidence is described in terms of the scale at which evidence of wind power can be identified, and the appropriate remote sensors for finding such evidence. Remote sensing can be used for regional area prospecting using small-scale imagery. The information from such small-scale imagery is most often qualitative, and if it is transitory, examination of a number of images to verify presistence of the feature may be required. However, this evidence will allow rapid screening of a large area. Medium-scale imagery provides a better picture of the evidence obtained from small-scale imagery. At this level it is best to use existing imagery. Criteria relating to land use, accessibility, and proximity of candidate sites to nearby transmission lines can also be effectively evaluated from medium-scale imagery. Large-scale imagery provides the most quantitative evidence of the strength of wind. Wind-deformed trees can be identified at a large number of sites using only a few hours in locally chartered aircraft. A handheld 35mm camera can adequately document any evidence of wind. Three case studies that employ remote sensing prospecting techniques are described. Based on remotely sensed evidence, the wind power potential in three geographically and climatically diverse areas of the United States is estimated, and the estimates are compared to actual wind data in those regions. In addition, the cost of each survey is discussed. The results indicate that remote sensing for wind power potential is a quick, cost effective, and fairly reliable method for screening large areas for wind power potential.

  4. Prospective memory: A comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Wilson, A. George

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. PMID:25101562

  5. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-02-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  6. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  7. [Rhythmic nuclear growth of adequately stimulated ganglia cells of acoustic nuclei (rat)].

    PubMed

    Köpf-Maier, P; Wüstenfeld, E

    1975-01-01

    Ganglia cells of the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei of white rats were irritated adequately for different periods or left untreated, respectively, and investigated karyometrically. The frequency distribution curves of the nuclear volumes were separated by means of an electronic curve resolver into the component curves, i.e. into groups of nuclei obeying exactly a Gaussian normal distribution and thus representing biologically uniform populations. The analysis of the mean values of the component curves led to the following results: 1. The mean values of the component curves can be arranged in 2 series having the pattern V1, V1 square root 2, V2, V2 square root 2, V4, V4 square root 2...2. The series V1, V1 square root 2, V2, V2 square root 2...is based on a geometrical series of the general formula an = k-qn. 3. It follows from these results that the nuclear volumes grow rhythmically by a factor of square root 2 and, consequently, that there is a periodical doubling in in the growth of the surface. PMID:1200386

  8. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with “specific” reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties. PMID:20298639

  9. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  10. A negative cranial computed tomographic scan is not adequate to support a diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri.

    PubMed

    Said, Rana R; Rosman, N Paul

    2004-08-01

    A 10-year-old boy with daily headache for 1 month and intermittent diplopia for 1 week was found to have a unilateral partial abducens palsy and bilateral papilledema; otherwise, his neurologic examination showed no abnormalities. A cranial computed tomographic (CT) scan was normal. Lumbar puncture disclosed a markedly elevated opening pressure of > 550 mm of cerebrospinal fluid with normal cerebrospinal fluid. Medical therapy with acetazolamide for presumed pseudotumor cerebri was begun. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, done several days later because of continuing symptoms, unexpectedly showed multiple hyperintensities of cerebral white matter on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Despite high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone for possible demyelinating disease, he failed to improve. A left temporal brain biopsy followed and disclosed an anaplastic oligodendroglioma. In a patient with features indicating pseudotumor cerebri, a negative cranial CT scan is not adequate to rule out underlying pathology; thus, MRI of the brain should probably always be performed. A revised definition of pseudotumor cerebri could better include "normal MRI of the brain" rather than "normal neuroimaging." PMID:15605471

  11. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  12. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  13. [Level of awareness and the adequate application of sunscreen by beauticians].

    PubMed

    Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Machado, Érica Simionato; Vermelho, Sonia Cristina Soares Dias; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Cortez, Lucia Elaine Ranieri

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to establish the level of awareness of beauticians regarding the importance of the application of sunscreen and to identify whether their patients had been properly instructed by these professionals. It involved a descriptive and exploratory study with interviews applying qualitative methodology among 30 beauticians. Data were gathered using the semi-structured interview technique in Maringá, in the southern state of Paraná. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software after applying quantitative analysis and response classification. Of those interviewed, 83.33% had a degree in Aesthetics, 20% attended ongoing training activities on sunscreen and 73.17% acquired sunscreen for its quality, though 86.67% were not familiar with sunscreens with natural anti-free radical components. Of those interviewed, 80% had never treated patients with skin cancer, though they reported having knowledge of care in relation to sun exposure and how to use the sunscreen and the relationship of these practices with the disease. The results showed that the recommendations and use of sunscreen by beauticians and users has been conducted in an adequate and conscientious manner. PMID:27383359

  14. The menopause, hormone replacement therapy and informed consent: are women in an underresourced country adequately aware?

    PubMed

    Maharaj, N R; Gangaram, R; Moodley, J

    2007-04-01

    Recent evidence on the long-term effects of HRT have resulted in increased emphasis being placed on individualised counselling, patient choice and informed consent when managing the menopause. We assessed whether women in an underresourced country have adequate knowledge of the menopause/HRT to engage in patient - provider discussions and provide full informed consent for HRT. Specific 'knowledge scores' for the menopause and HRT were developed and utilised in structured questionnaires to determine the existing levels of knowledge in 150 women from different racial, educational and occupational backgrounds. Some 92% were aware of the menopause and 54% were aware of HRT. Specific knowledge about the menopause and HRT overall was low (39% and 38%, respectively). There was a significant association between higher education levels, race and occupational status on the knowledge of the menopause but not of HRT. Television, radio and pamphlets were the preferred sources to gain further information. There is a need to create awareness and provide further education to women in underresourced countries about the menopause and HRT to empower them to make informed choices about their health during this period. PMID:17464817

  15. A high UV environment does not ensure adequate Vitamin D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Brodie, A.; Harrison, S.; Nowak, M.; Moore, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Queensland has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world and due to the high levels of solar UV in this region it is assumed that incidental UV exposure should provide adequate vitamin D status for the population. This research was undertaken to test this assumption among healthy free-living adults in south-east Queensland, Australia (27°S), at the end of winter. This research was approved by Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee and conducted under the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. 10.2% of the sample had serum vitamin D levels below 25nm/L (deficiency) and a further 32.3% had levels between 25nm/L and 50nm/L (insufficiency). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency can occur at the end of winter, even in sunny climates. The wintertime UV levels in south-east Queensland (UV index 4-6) are equivalent to summertime UV levels in northern regions of Europe and the USA. These ambient UV levels are sufficient to ensure synthesis of vitamin D requirements. We investigated individual UV exposure (through a self reported sun exposure questionnaire) and found correlations between exposure and Vitamin D status. Further research is needed to explore the interactions between the solar UV environment and vitamin D status, particularly in high UV environments, such as Queensland.

  16. [Adequate attention is required to the diagnosis and treatment of mild-symptom erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Deng, Chun-hua; Zhang, Ya-dong; Chen, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Mild-symptom erectile dysfunction (MSED) is commonly seen in clinical practice, but receives inadequate attention from both the patients and clinicians. Increasing researches have indicated that MSED is associated with not only unhealthy living habits and psychological factors but also the early progression of endothelial, metabolic and endocrine diseases. The diagnosis and treatment of MSED should be based on the relevant guidelines, with consideration of both its specific and common features. The therapeutic principle is a combination of integrated and individual solutions aimed at the causes of the disease. Drug intervention should be initiated if psychological therapy fails. Negligence of MSED may affect the quality of life of the patients and their partners, and what's more, might delay the management of some other severe underlying diseases. Adequate attention to the early diagnosis and treatment for MSED is of great significance for a deeper insight into the etiology of ED, the prevention of potential cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and the improvement of the overall health of males. PMID:25707132

  17. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana A.

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  18. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  19. Evaluation of catheter-manometer systems for adequate intravascular blood pressure measurements in small animals.

    PubMed

    Idvall, J; Aronsen, K F; Lindström, K; Ulmsten, U

    1977-09-30

    Various catheter-manometer systems possible for intravascular blood pressure measurments on rats have been elaborated and tested in vitro and in vivo. Using a pressure-step calibrator, it was observed from in vitro studies that microtransducers had superior frequency response compared to conventional transducers. Of the catheters tested, Pe-90 tapered to a 40 mm tip with an inner diameter of 0.3 mm had the best frequency response as judged from fall and settling times. Because of the damping effect, tapering increased fall time to 1.8 ms, which was still quite acceptable. By the same token settling time was minimized to 22.4 ms. With a special calculation method the theoretical percentile fault of the recordings was estimated to be 9.66%. When the measurement error was calculated from the actual in vivo recordings, it was found to be no more than 2.7%. These results show that the technique described is adequate for continuous intravascular blood pressure recordings on small animals. Finally it is emphasized that careful handling of the catheters and avoidance of stopcocks and air bubbles are essential for obtaining accurate and reproducible values. PMID:928971

  20. Is reimbursement for childhood immunizations adequate? evidence from two rural areas in colorado.

    PubMed Central

    Glazner, J. E.; Steiner, J. F.; Haas, K. J.; Renfrew, B.; Deutchman, M.; Berman, S.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess adequacy of reimbursement for childhood vaccinations in two rural regions in Colorado, the authors measured medical practice costs of providing childhood vaccinations and compared them with reimbursement. METHODS: A "time-motion" method was used to measure labor costs of providing vaccinations in 13 private and public practices. Practices reported non-labor costs. The authors determined reimbursement by record review. RESULTS: The average vaccine delivery cost per dose (excluding vaccine cost) ranged from $4.69 for community health centers to $5.60 for private practices. Average reimbursement exceeded average delivery costs for all vaccines and contributed to overhead in private practices. Average reimbursement was less than total cost (vaccine-delivery costs + overhead) in private practices for most vaccines in one region with significant managed care penetration. Reimbursement to public providers was less than the average vaccine delivery costs. CONCLUSIONS: Current reimbursement may not be adequate to induce private practices to provide childhood vaccinations, particularly in areas with substantial managed care penetration. PMID:12034911

  1. Adequate Vitamin D3 Supplementation During Pregnancy: Decreasing the Prevalence of Asthma and Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Jonathan; Cira, Courtney; Mazzella, Leanne; Bartyzel, Jim; Ramanna, Annisce; Strimel, Kayla; Waturuocha, Amara; Musser, Nathan; Burress, James; Brammer, Sarah; Wetzel, Robert; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a secosterol that is naturally synthesized in the skin upon contact with ultraviolet rays. This vitamin can also be acquired from dietary and nutritional supplements. The active form, vitamin D3, is primarily responsible for calcium homeostasis and bone health. However, many recent studies have associated low levels of vitamin D3 with asthma and food allergies. In this review, we discuss literature to explore the potential that vitamin D3 deficiency may be contributing toward the development of asthma and food allergies. These studies indicate that mothers who supplement with doses of vitamin D3 recommended for daily consumption (400 IU) by the United States Food and Drug Administration is not enough to deliver adequate levels to breastfed infants. Because sufficient vitamin D3 serum levels correlate with a low incidence of asthma and food allergies, high dose vitamin D3 supplementation (4000 IU) by pregnant and breastfeeding women may limit the development of asthma and food allergies in newborns. PMID:27213185

  2. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties. PMID:20298639

  3. Neurocysticercosis, familial cerebral cavernomas and intracranial calcifications: differential diagnosis for adequate management.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Alves-Leon, Soniza; Domingues, Flavio Sampaio; Frossard, João Thiago; Lopes, Selva Paraguassu; Souza, Jorge Marcondes de

    2016-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an endemic disease and important public health problem in some areas of the World and epilepsy is the most common neurological manifestation. Multiple intracranial lesions, commonly calcified, are seen on cranial computed tomography (CT) in the chronic phase of the disease and considered one of the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the test that better depicts the different stages of the intracranial cysts but does not show clearly calcified lesions. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), also known as cerebral cavernomas, are frequent vascular malformations of the brain, better demonstrated by MRI and have also epilepsy as the main form of clinical presentation. When occurring in the familial form, cerebral cavernomas typically present with multiple lesions throughout the brain and, very often, with foci of calcifications in the lesions when submitted to the CT imaging. In the countries, and geographic areas, where NCC is established as an endemic health problem and neuroimaging screening is done by CT scan, it will be important to consider the differential diagnosis between the two diseases due to the differences in adequate management. PMID:27332076

  4. Splenic autotransplantation and the immune system. Adequate testing required for evaluation of effect.

    PubMed Central

    Timens, W; Leemans, R

    1992-01-01

    The risk of severe infections after splenectomy, even after many years, is now well established. In attempts to prevent these infections, spleen-saving techniques, including autotransplantation of spleen fragments, have been performed, when possible in combination with vaccination. The problem in autotransplantation is the evaluation of functional activity. The results of the tests used until now often do not seem to correlate very well with the risk of developing an overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI). This may be related to the fact that the tests used evaluate general functions, and not specific spleen-related functions, such as the capacity to mount a primary response to certain polysaccharide antigens present in the capsule of bacteria known to cause OPSI. In this review, the significance of the spleen in the human immune system is discussed and the effects of splenectomy are described, including the precautions that can be taken to diminish the risk of postsplenectomy infections and sepsis. It appears that postsplenectomy vaccination is more successful when recently developed protein-conjugated polysaccharide vaccines are used. Because the present testing of the function of spleen autotransplants is not adequate, we suggest that new tests should be developed, employing appropriate polysaccharide antigens. PMID:1543398

  5. Reliable Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children for Adequate Hospital Infection Control Management

    PubMed Central

    Abels, Susanne; Nadal, David; Stroehle, Angelika; Bossart, Walter

    2001-01-01

    By using a rapid test for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) detection (Abbott TestPack RSV), a number of patients were observed, showing repeatedly positive results over a period of up to 10 weeks. A prospective study was initiated to compare the rapid test with an antigen capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a nested reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) protocol for detection of RSV serotypes A and B. Only respiratory samples from children exhibiting the prolonged presence of RSV (≥5 days) as determined by the rapid test were considered. A total of 134 specimens from 24 children was investigated by antigen capture EIA and nested RT-PCR. Using RT-PCR as the reference method, we determined the RSV rapid test to have a specificity of 63% and a sensitivity of 66% and the antigen capture EIA to have a specificity of 96% and a sensitivity of 69% for acute-phase samples and the homologous virus serotype A. In 7 (29%) of 24 patients, the positive results of the RSV rapid test could not be confirmed by either nested RT-PCR or antigen capture EIA. In these seven patients a variety of other respiratory viruses were detected. For general screening the RSV rapid test was found to be a reasonable tool to get quick results. However, its lack of specificity in some patients requires confirmation by additional tests to rule out false-positive results and/or detection of other respiratory viruses. PMID:11526141

  6. Geothermal Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of the renewed market interest in using geothermal for power generation including a concise look at what's driving interest in geothermal power generation, the current status of geothermal power generation, and plans for the future. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of geothermal power generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in geothermal power generation; an analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of geothermal power generation projects; a description of geothermal power generation technologies; a review of the economic drivers of geothermal power generation project success; profiles of the major geothermal power producing countries; and, profiles of the major geothermal power project developers.

  7. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record..., and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and...

  8. Prioritising pharmaceuticals for environmental risk assessment: Towards adequate and feasible first-tier selection.

    PubMed

    Roos, V; Gunnarsson, L; Fick, J; Larsson, D G J; Rudén, C

    2012-04-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, and the concerns for negative effects on aquatic organisms, has gained increasing attention over the last years. As ecotoxicity data are lacking for most active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), it is important to identify strategies to prioritise APIs for ecotoxicity testing and environmental monitoring. We have used nine previously proposed prioritisation schemes, both risk- and hazard-based, to rank 582 APIs. The similarities and differences in overall ranking results and input data were compared. Moreover, we analysed how well the methods ranked seven relatively well-studied APIs. It is concluded that the hazard-based methods were more successful in correctly ranking the well-studied APIs, but the fish plasma model, which includes human pharmacological data, also showed a high success rate. The results of the analyses show that the input data availability vary significantly; some data, such as logP, are available for most API while information about environmental concentrations and bioconcentration are still scarce. The results also suggest that the exposure estimates in risk-based methods need to be improved and that the inclusion of effect measures at first-tier prioritisation might underestimate risks. It is proposed that in order to develop an adequate prioritisation scheme, improved data on exposure such as degradation and sewage treatment removal and bioconcentration ability should be further considered. The use of ATC codes may also be useful for the development of a prioritisation scheme that includes the mode of action of pharmaceuticals and, to some extent, mixture effects. PMID:22361586

  9. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  10. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  11. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  12. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  13. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  14. Harnessing Power from Tides: State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the current, world-wide status of tidal energy as a potential power source. Potential sites and global tidal power prospects are identified. New engineering concepts relevant to the harnessing of tidal power are identified and described. (BT)

  15. Planning 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) Cannot Adequately Represent Daily Intrafractional Motion of Abdominal Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Jiajia; Santanam, Lakshmi; Noel, Camille; Parikh, Parag J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether planning 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can adequately represent daily motion of abdominal tumors in regularly fractionated and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional tumor motion of 10 patients with abdominal tumors (4 pancreas-fractionated and 6 liver-stereotactic patients) with implanted fiducials was measured based on daily orthogonal fluoroscopic movies over 38 treatment fractions. The needed internal margin for at least 90% of tumor coverage was calculated based on a 95th and fifth percentile of daily 3-dimensional tumor motion. The planning internal margin was generated by fusing 4DCT motion from all phase bins. The disagreement between needed and planning internal margin was analyzed fraction by fraction in 3 motion axes (superior-inferior [SI], anterior-posterior [AP], and left-right [LR]). The 4DCT margin was considered as an overestimation/underestimation of daily motion when disagreement exceeded at least 3 mm in the SI axis and/or 1.2 mm in the AP and LR axes (4DCT image resolution). The underlying reasons for this disagreement were evaluated based on interfractional and intrafractional breathing variation. Results: The 4DCT overestimated daily 3-dimensional motion in 39% of the fractions in 7 of 10 patients and underestimated it in 53% of the fractions in 8 of 10 patients. Median underestimation was 3.9 mm, 3.0 mm, and 1.7 mm in the SI axis, AP axis, and LR axis, respectively. The 4DCT was found to capture irregular deep breaths in 3 of 10 patients, with 4DCT motion larger than mean daily amplitude by 18 to 21 mm. The breathing pattern varied from breath to breath and day to day. The intrafractional variation of amplitude was significantly larger than intrafractional variation (2.7 mm vs 1.3 mm) in the primary motion axis (ie, SI axis). The SBRT patients showed significantly larger intrafractional amplitude variation than fractionated patients (3.0 mm vs 2

  16. Is serum or sputum eosinophil cationic protein level adequate for diagnosis of mild asthma?

    PubMed

    Khakzad, Mohammad Reza; Mirsadraee, Majid; Sankian, Mojtaba; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Meshkat, Mojtaba

    2009-09-01

    Spirometry has been used as a common diagnostic test in asthma. Most of the patients with a mild asthma have a FEV1 within normal range. Hence, other diagnostic methods are usually used. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) could be an accurate diagnostic marker of mild asthma. In this study diagnosis of asthma was made according to internationally accepted criteria. Asthma severity was evaluated according to frequency of symptoms and FEV1.Adequate sputum samples were obtained in 50 untreated subjects. A control group of 12 normal subjects that showed PC20 more than 8 mg/dl was also examined. Sputum was induced by inhalation of hypertonic saline. Inflammatory cells in sputum smears were assessed semi-quantitatively. ECP and IgE concentrations, eosinophil (EO) percentage and ECP/EO ratio in serum and sputum were also determined. The results revealed that Cough and dyspnea were the most frequent clinical findings. Dyspnea and wheezing were the symptoms that correlated with staging of asthma. FEV1 was within normal range (more than 80% of predicted) in 22 (44%) subjects.Asthmatic patients showed significantly higher numbers of blood eosinophils (4.5+/- 3.1% vs. 1.2+/-0.2%, P=0.009), and higher levels of serum ECP than control group (3.1+/- 2.6 % and 22.6+/- 15.8 ng/ml, respectively). Sputum ECP level in asthmatics was significantly higher than non- asthmatics (55.3+/-29.8ng/mL vs. 25.0+/-24.7ng/mL, P=0.045). Regression analysis showed no significant correlation between spirometric parameters and biomarkers, the only exception was significant correlation between FEF(25-75) and serum ECP (r= 0.28, P 0.041). Regarding clinical symptoms, wheezing was significantly correlated with elevation of most of biomarkers. Since, serum and sputum ECP levels are elevated in untreated asthmatics, the ECP level could be used for accurate diagnosis of mild form of asthma in which spirometry is unremarkable. PMID:20124607

  17. Shoulder Arthroscopy Does Not Adequately Visualize Pathology of the Long Head of Biceps Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Saithna, Adnan; Longo, Alison; Leiter, Jeff; Old, Jason; MacDonald, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulling the long head of the biceps tendon into the joint at arthroscopy is a common method for evaluation of tendinopathic lesions. However, the rate of missed diagnoses when using this technique is reported to be as high as 30% to 50%. Hypothesis: Tendon excursion achieved using a standard arthroscopic probe does not allow adequate visualization of extra-articular sites of predilection of tendinopathy. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Seven forequarter amputation cadaveric specimens were evaluated. The biceps tendon was tagged to mark the intra-articular length and the maximum excursions achieved using a probe and a grasper in both beach-chair and lateral positions. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance to compare means. Results: The mean intra-articular and extra-articular lengths of the tendons were 23.9 and 82.3 mm, respectively. The length of tendon that could be visualized by pulling it into the joint with a probe through the anterior midglenoid portal was not significantly different when using either lateral decubitus (mean ± SD, 29.9 ± 3.89 mm; 95% CI, 25.7-34 mm) or beach-chair positions (32.7 ± 4.23 mm; 95% CI, 28.6-36.8 mm). The maximum length of the overall tendon visualized in any specimen using a standard technique was 37 mm. Although there was a trend to greater excursion using a grasper through the same portal, this was not statistically significant. However, using a grasper through the anterosuperior portal gave a significantly greater mean excursion than any other technique (46.7 ± 4.31 mm; 95% CI, 42.6-50.8 mm), but this still failed to allow evaluation of Denard zone C. Conclusion: Pulling the tendon into the joint with a probe via an anterior portal does not allow visualization of distal sites of predilection of pathology. Surgeons should be aware that this technique is inadequate and can result in missed diagnoses. Clinical Relevance: This study demonstrates that glenohumeral

  18. Quasi-Isotropic Approximation of Geometrical Optics Method as Adequate Electrodynamical Basis for Tokamak Plasma Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieg, Bohdan; Chrzanowski, Janusz; Kravtsov, Yury A.; Orsitto, Francesco

    Basic principles and recent findings of quasi-isotropic approximation (QIA) of a geometrical optics method are presented in a compact manner. QIA was developed in 1969 to describe electromagnetic waves in weakly anisotropic media. QIA represents the wave field as a power series in two small parameters, one of which is a traditional geometrical optics parameter, equal to wavelength ratio to plasma characteristic scale, and the other one is the largest component of anisotropy tensor. As a result, "" QIA ideally suits to tokamak polarimetry/interferometry systems in submillimeter range, where plasma manifests properties of weakly anisotropic medium.

  19. Prospective prediction of husband marital aggression within newlywed couples.

    PubMed

    Leonard, K E; Senchak, M

    1996-08-01

    This study prospectively examined a social interactional model of husband marital aggression. Young couples were assessed at the time of their 1st marriage with respect to marital conflict styles, alcohol consumption, hostility, gender identity, perceived power inequity, and history of family violence. Couples were reassessed at their 1-year anniversary, and information concerning marital aggression was collected. Most of the constructs were prospectively related to husband aggression, but these relationships were largely mediated through marital conflict styles and husband alcohol consumption, which in turn were influenced by husband's hostility, gender identity, and perceived power inequity. PMID:8772007

  20. International prospects for clean coal technologies (Focus on Asia)

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaspy, D.T.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to propose Asia as a focus market for commercialization of CCT`s; describe the principles for successful penetration of CCT`s in the international market; and summarize prospects for CCT`s in Asia and other international markets. The paper outlines the following: Southern Company`s clean coal commitment; acquisition of Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA); the prospects for CCT`s internationally; requirements for CCT`s widespread commercialization; CEPA`s application of CCT`s; and gas turbine power plants as a perfect example of a commercialization driver.

  1. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  2. Applied Astronomy: Asteroid Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.

    2013-09-01

    In the age of asteroid mining the ability to find promising ore-bearing bodies will be valuable. This will give rise to a new discipline- "Applied Astronomy". Just as most geologists work in industry, not in academia, the same will be true of astronomers. Just how rare or common ore-rich asteroids are likely to be, and the skills needed to assay their value, are discussed here, with an emphasis on remote - telescopic - methods. Also considered are the resources needed to conduct extensive surveys of asteroids for prospecting purposes, and the cost and timescale involved. The longer-term need for applied astronomers is also covered.

  3. Prospective bonding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancenay, H.; Benazet, D.

    1981-07-01

    Adhesive bonding in industry and in the laboratory is surveyed and prospects for its wider utilization are assessed. The economic impact of bonding technology on industry is discussed. Research is reviewed, centering on the development of nondestructive testing and inspection techniques. Traditional (wood) as well as new materials susceptible to bonding are considered. Applications in construction and civil engineering, in aeronautics, and in the automobile industry are covered. The use of glues in mechanical constructions, in assembling cylindrical parts, and in metal-metal bonding are examined. Hybrid assembling and bonding of composite materials are included.

  4. [The pregnant employee in anaesthesia and intensive care - An evidence-based approach to designing adequate workplaces].

    PubMed

    Röher, Katharina; Göpfert, Matthias S

    2015-07-01

    In the light of a rising percentage of women among employees in anaesthesia and intensive care designing adequate workplaces for pregnant employees plays an increasingly important role. Here it is necessary to align the varied interests of the pregnant employee, fellow employees and the employer, where the legal requirements of the Maternity Protection Act ("Mutterschutzgesetz") form the statutory framework. This review describes how adequate workplaces for pregnant employees in anaesthesia and intensive care can be established considering the scientific evidence on the subject. PMID:26230896

  5. Three not adequately understood lunar phenomena investigated by the wave planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    Three not adequately understood lunar phenomena investigated by the wave planetology G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru The lunar science notwithstanding rather numerous researches of the last 50 years still debates some important issues. Three of them concern an origin of mascons, the deepest but low ferruginous South Pole-Aitken depression, a strange character of the frequency-crater size curve. Prevailing approaches are mainly based on impacts having made the present geomorphology of the Moon. However practically are ignored the fact of antipodality of basins and marea, a complex character of the frequency-crater size curve obviously implying an involvement of different sources and reasons responsible for crater formation. Attempts to find impactor sources in various sometimes very remote parts of the Solar system are too artificial, besides they do not explain very intensive, like lunar cratering of Mercury. Saturation of the lunar surface by ~70-km diameter craters is very strange for random impacts from any source; to find a time interval for this saturation is difficult if not possible because it affects formations of various ages. Lunar basins and marea completely contradict to a classical frequency- crater size curve. Their presumed ( and measured) different ages make dubious existence of one specialized impactor source. So, if one accepts an impact process as the only process responsible for cratering (ring forms development) then the real mess in crater statistics and timing never will be overcome. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] examined by many planets and satellites of the Solar system proved to be real. In a case of the Moon it can help in answering the above questions. First of all it should be admitted that the complex lunar crater (ring forms) statistics is due to a superposition and mixing of two main processes (a minor involvement of volcanic features is also present): impacts and wave

  6. Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Views about Socioscientific Issues: A Concurrent Parallel Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özden, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers' perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective…

  7. Rectal cancer delivery of radiotherapy in adequate time and with adequate dose is influenced by treatment center, treatment schedule, and gender and is prognostic parameter for local control: Results of study CAO/ARO/AIO-94

    SciTech Connect

    Fietkau, Rainer . E-mail: rainer.fietkau@med.uni-rostock.de; Roedel, Claus; Hohenberger, Werner; Raab, Rudolf; Hess, Clemens; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Wittekind, Christian; Hutter, Matthias; Hager, Eva; Karstens, Johann; Ewald, Hermann; Christen, Norbert; Jagoditsch, Michael; Martus, Peter; Sauer, Rolf

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: The impact of the delivery of radiotherapy (RT) on treatment results in rectal cancer patients is unknown. Methods and Materials: The data from 788 patients with rectal cancer treated within the German CAO/AIO/ARO-94 phase III trial were analyzed concerning the impact of the delivery of RT (adequate RT: minimal radiation RT dose delivered, 4300 cGy for neoadjuvant RT or 4700 cGy for adjuvant RT; completion of RT in <44 days for neoadjuvant RT or <49 days for adjuvant RT) in different centers on the locoregional recurrence rate (LRR) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years. The LRR, DFS, and delivery of RT were analyzed as endpoints in multivariate analysis. Results: A significant difference was found between the centers and the delivery of RT. The overall delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for the LRR (no RT, 29.6% {+-} 7.8%; inadequate RT, 21.2% {+-} 5.6%; adequate RT, 6.8% {+-} 1.4%; p = 0.0001) and DFS (no RT, 55.1% {+-} 9.1%; inadequate RT, 57.4% {+-} 6.3%; adequate RT, 69.1% {+-} 2.3%; p = 0.02). Postoperatively, delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for LRR on multivariate analysis (together with pathologic stage) but not for DFS (independent parameters, pathologic stage and age). Preoperatively, on multivariate analysis, pathologic stage, but not delivery of RT, was an independent prognostic parameter for LRR and DFS (together with adequate chemotherapy). On multivariate analysis, the treatment center, treatment schedule (neoadjuvant vs. adjuvant RT), and gender were prognostic parameters for adequate RT. Conclusion: Delivery of RT should be regarded as a prognostic factor for LRR in rectal cancer and is influenced by the treatment center, treatment schedule, and patient gender.

  8. Methane Clathrate Hydrate Prospecting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, N.; Romanovsky, V.

    2003-01-01

    A method of prospecting for methane has been devised. The impetus for this method lies in the abundance of CH4 and the growing shortages of other fuels. The method is intended especially to enable identification of subpermafrost locations where significant amounts of methane are trapped in the form of methane gas hydrate (CH4(raised dot)6H2O). It has been estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey that the total CH4 resource in CH4(raised dot) 6H2O exceeds the energy content of all other fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas from non-hydrate sources). Also, CH4(raised dot)6H2O is among the cleanest-burning fuels, and CH4 is the most efficient fuel because the carbon in CH4 is in its most reduced state. The method involves looking for a proxy for methane gas hydrate, by means of the combination of a thermal-analysis submethod and a field submethod that does not involve drilling. The absence of drilling makes this method easier and less expensive, in comparison with prior methods of prospecting for oil and natural gas. The proposed method would include thermoprospecting in combination with one more of the other non-drilling measurement techniques, which could include magneto-telluric sounding and/or a subsurface-electrical-resistivity technique. The method would exploit the fact that the electrical conductivity in the underlying thawed region is greater than that in the overlying permafrost.

  9. 21 CFR 1.283 - What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dealt with as set forth in CBP regulations relating to general order merchandise (19 CFR part 127... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice? 1.283 Section 1.283 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  10. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...

  11. Understanding Unresponsiveness to Tier 2 Reading Intervention: Exploring the Classification and Profiles of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toste, Jessica R.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Eunsoo; Barquero, Laura A.; Bouton, Bobette D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine academic and cognitive profiles of first graders who responded adequately and inadequately to intensive small-group reading intervention (Tier 2), as well as assess how these profiles differ based on the criteria used for classification of unresponsiveness. Nonresponders were identified using two…

  12. Are Substance Use Prevention Programs More Effective in Schools Making Adequate Yearly Progress? A Study of Project ALERT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to determine if a popular school-based drug prevention program might be effective in schools that are making adequate yearly progress (AYP). Thirty-four schools with grades 6 through 8 in 11 states were randomly assigned either to receive Project ALERT (n = 17) or to a control group (n = 17); of these, 10 intervention…

  13. Using Fuzzy Logic to Identify Schools Which May Be Misclassified by the No Child Left Behind Adequate Yearly Progress Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation developed, tested, and prototyped a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) that would assist decision makers in identifying schools that may have been misclassified by existing Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) methods. This prototype was then used to evaluate Louisiana elementary schools using published school data for Academic Year 2004. …

  14. Students' Use of Tutoring Services, by Adequate Yearly Progress Status of School. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2010-023

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warkentien, Siri; Grady, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief contributes to current research by investigating the use of tutoring services among a nationally representative group of public school students enrolled in grades K-12. The report compares students in schools that have not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for 3 or more years, and were thereby enrolled in schools that…

  15. 33 CFR 151.2065 - What is the standard of adequate compliance determined by the ANSTF for this subpart? [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the standard of adequate... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management...

  16. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P.; Woodruff, Bradley A.; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S.; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  17. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women's education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  18. Funding an Adequate Education for America's Youth: A Plan for Melding Political and Market Definitions of Educational Adequacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.

    Noting that American society has conventionally relied on both the political process and the marketplace to arrive at a "definition" of adequate education, but that the political process fails to account for individual preferences while the marketplace can cater to many individual preferences, this paper attempts to combine the two processes in a…

  19. 36 CFR 79.9 - Standards to determine when a repository possesses the capability to provide adequate long-term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards to determine when a repository possesses the capability to provide adequate long-term curatorial services. 79.9 Section 79.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CURATION OF FEDERALLY-OWNED AND...

  20. Adequate Funding of Education Programs for At-Risk Children: An Econometric Application of Research-Based Cost Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern; Wall, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This article contributes to the ongoing discussion of the adequacy of funding for public schools, specifically with regard to the provision of programs for at-risk children. Of particular concern is the determination of realistic, research-based costs of adequately funded programs. This article has three basic parts: the definition and measurement…

  1. Evaluating Rural Progress in Mathematics Achievement: Is "Adequate Yearly Progress" (AYP) Feasible, Valid, Reliable, and Fair? Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires standards-based accountability for school districts and schools receiving Title I funds. A major component of this policy is to report whether districts and schools are making "adequate yearly progress" (AYP) based on their performance goals. This paper raises questions for rural schools using the National…

  2. Factors associated with adequate weekly reporting for disease surveillance data among health facilities in Nairobi County, Kenya, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mwatondo, Athman Juma; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Maina, Caroline; Makayotto, Lyndah; Mwangi, Moses; Njeru, Ian; Arvelo, Wences

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Kenya adopted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in 1998 to strengthen disease surveillance and epidemic response. However, the goal of weekly surveillance reporting among health facilities has not been achieved. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of adequate reporting and factors associated with IDSR reporting among health facilities in one Kenyan County. Methods Health facilities (public and private) were enrolled using stratified random sampling from 348 facilities prioritized for routine surveillance reporting. Adequately-reporting facilities were defined as those which submitted >10 weekly reports during a twelve-week period and a poor reporting facilities were those which submitted <10 weekly reports. Multivariate logistic regression with backward selection was used to identify risk factors associated with adequate reporting. Results From September 2 through November 30, 2013, we enrolled 175 health facilities; 130(74%) were private and 45(26%) were public. Of the 175 health facilities, 77 (44%) facilities classified as adequate reporting and 98 (56%) were reporting poorly. Multivariate analysis identified three factors to be independently associated with weekly adequate reporting: having weekly reporting forms at visit (AOR19, 95% CI: 6-65], having posters showing IDSR functions (AOR8, 95% CI: 2-12) and having a designated surveillance focal person (AOR7, 95% CI: 2-20). Conclusion The majority of health facilities in Nairobi County were reporting poorly to IDSR and we recommend that the Ministry of Health provide all health facilities in Nairobi County with weekly reporting tools and offer specific trainings on IDSR which will help designate a focal surveillance person. PMID:27303581

  3. The Prospects Study and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that greater caution is required when drawing conclusions from statistical results than the Armor study has done, and describes the "Prospects" study (begun in 1989), the largest longitudinal study of educational outcomes conducted in the United States. "Prospects" provides much data useful in evaluating the school desegregation situation…

  4. Prospective Memory Performance across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Kliegel, Matthias; Yang, Zhiliang; Liu, Wei

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the authors explored age differences in event-based prospective memory (PM) across adolescence. The tasks consisted of an ongoing task (OT; i.e., personality questionnaire items, math problems) and an embedded prospective task that required participants to remember to make a special response whenever they encountered a PM cue…

  5. Prospect Theory and Coercive Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Christopher K.

    2007-01-01

    Despite many applications of prospect theory's concepts to explain political and strategic phenomena, formal analyses of strategic problems using prospect theory are rare. Using Fearon's model of bargaining, Tversky and Kahneman's value function, and an existing probability weighting function, I construct a model that demonstrates the differences…

  6. Prospects at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs.

  7. Prospecting with neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    One of the latest attempts to explore the interface between physics and geophysics is the extravagant scheme of Alvaro De Rújula, Sheldon Glashow, Robert Wilson, and Georges Charpak, to be published in Physics Reports. In what these theoretical and experimental physicists described recently as “our mad project” (Physics Today, August 1983), a high-energy neutrino beam is to be used as a geophysical prospecting tool.The beam would be able to look for oil, natural gas, and high-atomic-number metal ores, and it would be able to profile the vertical density distribution of the earth. De Rújula et al. come to this project from the world of big physics machines, so it is natural to expect that the “Geotron,” the field instrument to supply and focus the neutrino beam, is to be big also.

  8. The Leap of a Provincial SME into the Global Market Using E-commerce: The Success of Adequate Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; García Salcines, Enrique; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; López Coronado, Miguel; de Castro Lozano, Carlos

    The leap into the global market is not easy when it involves a provincial family business. This article demonstrates how adequate planning is fundamental in a small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) with the tight budget they have available to them, in order to be able to differentiate themselves in a highly competitive market, taking into accounts the benefits and risks involved. The Information Technology (IT) tools put in place will give the necessary support and allow for the possibility of increasing and improving the infrastructure as the company requires. An adequate strategy for the future to increases sales would be e-marketing techniques as well as the current promotions which contribute to diffusing the brand.

  9. Cognitive Attributes, Attention, and Self-Efficacy of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in a Fourth Grade Reading Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eunsoo; Roberts, Garrett J.; Capin, Philip; Roberts, Greg; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    We examined cognitive attributes, attention, and self-efficacy of fourth grade struggling readers who were identified as adequate responders (n = 27), inadequate responders with comprehension only deficits (n = 46), and inadequate responders with comprehension and word reading deficits (n = 52) after receiving a multicomponent reading intervention. We also included typical readers (n = 40). These four groups were compared on measures of nonverbal reasoning, working memory, verbal knowledge, listening comprehension, phonological awareness, and rapid naming as well as on teacher ratings of attention problems and self-reported self-efficacy. The two inadequate responder groups demonstrated difficulties primarily with verbal knowledge and listening comprehension compared to typical readers and adequate responders. Phonological awareness and rapid naming differentiated the two inadequate responder groups. In addition, both inadequate responder groups showed more attention problems and low self-efficacy compared to typical readers. PMID:26997755

  10. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on free surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized; however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems.

  11. A model for determining when an analysis contains sufficient detail to provide adequate NEPA coverage for a proposed action

    SciTech Connect

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1994-11-01

    Neither the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) nor its subsequent regulations provide substantive guidance for determining the Level of detail, discussion, and analysis that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. Yet, decisionmakers are routinely confronted with the problem of making such determinations. Experience has shown that no two decisionmakers are Likely to completely agree on the amount of discussion that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. one decisionmaker may determine that a certain Level of analysis is adequate, while another may conclude the exact opposite. Achieving a consensus within the agency and among the public can be problematic. Lacking definitive guidance, decisionmakers and critics alike may point to a universe of potential factors as the basis for defending their claim that an action is or is not adequately covered. Experience indicates that assertions are often based on ambiguous opinions that can be neither proved nor disproved. Lack of definitive guidance slows the decisionmaking process and can result in project delays. Furthermore, it can also Lead to inconsistencies in decisionmaking, inappropriate Levels of NEPA documentation, and increased risk of a project being challenged for inadequate coverage. A more systematic and less subjective approach for making such determinations is obviously needed. A paradigm for reducing the degree of subjectivity inherent in such decisions is presented in the following paper. The model is specifically designed to expedite the decisionmaking process by providing a systematic approach for making these determination. In many cases, agencies may find that using this model can reduce the analysis and size of NEPA documents.

  12. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    SciTech Connect

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-05

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10/sup -6/ was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study.

  13. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-07-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  14. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  15. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  16. Prospects of photoacoustic tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong V.

    2008-01-01

    Commercially available high-resolution three-dimensional optical imaging modalities—including confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography—have fundamentally impacted biomedicine. Unfortunately, such tools cannot penetrate biological tissue deeper than the optical transport mean free path (∼1 mm in the skin). Photoacoustic tomography, which combines strong optical contrast and high ultrasonic resolution in a single modality, has broken through this fundamental depth limitation and achieved superdepth high-resolution optical imaging. In parallel, radio frequency-or microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography is being actively developed to combine radio frequency or microwave contrast with ultrasonic resolution. In this Vision 20∕20 article, the prospects of photoacoustic tomography are envisaged in the following aspects: (1) photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption emerging as a mainstream technology, (2) melanoma detection using photoacoustic microscopy, (3) photoacoustic endoscopy, (4) simultaneous functional and molecular photoacoustic tomography, (5) photoacoustic tomography of gene expression, (6) Doppler photoacoustic tomography for flow measurement, (7) photoacoustic tomography of metabolic rate of oxygen, (8) photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes, (9) multiscale photoacoustic imaging in vivo with common signal origins, (10) simultaneous photoacoustic and thermoacoustic tomography of the breast, (11) photoacoustic and thermoacoustic tomography of the brain, and (12) low-background thermoacoustic molecular imaging. PMID:19175133

  17. ANAIS: Status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2016-07-01

    ANAIS experiment will look for dark matter annual modulation with large mass of ultra-pure NaI(Tl) scintillators at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), aiming to confirm the DAMA/LIBRA positive signal in a model-independent way. Two 12.5 kg each NaI(Tl) crystals provided by Alpha Spectra are currently taking data at the LSC. Present status of ANAIS detectors background and general performance is summarized; in particular, thanks to the high light collection efficiency prospects of lowering the threshold down to 1 keVee are reachable. Crystal radiopurity goals are fulfilled for 232Th and 238U chains and 40K activity, although higher than original goal, could be accepted; however, high 210Pb contamination out-of-equilibrium has been identified. More radiopure detectors are being built by Alpha Spectra. The ongoing high quantum efficiency PMT tests and muon veto characterization are also presented. Finally, the sensitivity of the experiment for the annual modulation in the WIMP signal, assuming the already achieved threshold and background in ANAIS-25 is shown. Further improvement should be achieved by reducing both threshold and background, as expected.

  18. Electrophysiological evidence during episodic prospection implicates medial prefrontal and bilateral middle temporal gyrus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Fen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2016-08-01

    fMRI studies have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe, components of the default mode network (DMN), in episodic prospection. This study compared quantitative EEG localized to these DMN regions during prospection and during resting and while waiting for rewards. EEG was recorded in twenty-two adults while they were asked to (i) envision future monetary episodes; (ii) wait for rewards and (iii) rest. Activation sources were localized to core DMN regions. EEG power and phase coherence were compared across conditions. Prospection, compared to resting and waiting, was associated with reduced power in the medial prefrontal gyrus and increased power in the bilateral medial temporal gyrus across frequency bands as well as greater phase synchrony between these regions in the delta band. The current quantitative EEG analysis confirms prior fMRI research suggesting that medial prefrontal and medial temporal gyrus interactions are central to the capacity for episodic prospection. PMID:27026652

  19. Challenges and coping strategies of orphaned children in Tanzania who are not adequately cared for by adults.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Marguerite; Mathias, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Orphaned children in poor rural communities sometimes have no adult who is able to care for them or else the adult caregiver is not able to provide adequate care. Tanzania remains one of the poorest countries in the world, and poverty frequently constrains foster care. Although HIV prevalence is declining, AIDS is still a major cause of orphaning. This article explores the challenges and coping strategies accompanying two possible life trajectories for orphaned children without adequate adult care: 1) that they remain in rural areas in child-headed households, or 2) that they are trafficked to an urban area. Antonovsky's salutogenic model is used as the theoretical framework. The data come from two separate phenomenological studies with vulnerable children. In the first study, in-depth interviews were held with 12 orphaned children in a poor rural area; data concerning three child heads of households are included here. In the second study, 15 girls who were trafficked from rural areas to Dar es Salaam gave extended life-history narrations; data are included for nine of the girls who were orphaned. Loss of parents, a lack of cash, and the need to balance school attendance with food production were chronic stressors for the children heading households, while resources included income-generation strategies and the ability to negotiate with teachers for time to cultivate. For the trafficked girls chronic stressors included exploitation, long working hours, little or no pay, isolation and rape. Resources for them, although limited, included faith networks and neighbours; escape from the exploitative situation frequently involved external help. We conclude that given physical and social assets the child-headed households were able to cope with the challenges of caring for themselves and a younger child, but isolation and dependency on employers made it difficult for the trafficked girls to cope with this exploitation. The salutogenic model proved a useful tool in

  20. Phentolamine as a treatment for poor mixing in transposition of the great arteries with adequate intraatrial communication.

    PubMed

    Galal, M O; El-Naggar, W I; Sharfi, M H

    2005-01-01

    Patients with transposition of the great arteries often show poor mixing for different reasons, even after adequate balloon atrial septostomy. We present a patient with such a lesion whose clinical status improved dramatically after phentolamine was applied. We believe this improvement is due to reduction in afterload caused by the alpha(2) blocker and also possibly as a response to a presumptive effect of the drug on the diastolic function of the right ventricle, allowing more left-to-right shunt across the atrial septal defect. Both phenomena can improve cardiac output in such a situation. PMID:16374695

  1. Barriers to help-seeking, detection, and adequate treatment for anxiety and mood disorders: implications for health care policy.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, David

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the focus of health policies and initiatives has been directed toward mental health. More precisely, depressive and anxiety disorders have received particular attention because of their disabling outcomes and prevalence among most populations. Despite this increased interest, numerous issues regarding patients' willingness to seek treatment and the adequate recognition and treatment of these disorders by clinicians remain to be addressed. This article considers the factors that influence patients and physicians in their reticence to acknowledge and adequately treat depression and anxiety disorders. It also reviews the impact of society and the media, together with other factors relating to health care organization and administration that affect the treatment of depression and anxiety. In view of the multifaceted challenge involved, efforts to achieve a consensus in determining treatment for those with depressive and anxiety disorders are essential. A consensus will require easy, measurable, and reliable disability indicators; evidence that treatment of patients with varying levels of need is cost effective; and that persons who most need and would benefit from care can be reliably identified among the highly prevalent population of persons with more transient symptoms. Governments and other policymakers should be encouraged to provide appropriate coverage for access to primary and secondary care, the treatments required, and sufficient resources so that care is available when necessary. An important aspect of the challenge is to incorporate these efforts within the realistic constraints of primary care. PMID:17288503

  2. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  3. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  4. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  5. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....1331 Instruments using a power supply. For category A rotorcraft— (a) Each required flight instrument... power source; and (3) A visual means integral with each instrument to indicate when the power adequate to sustain proper instrument performance is not being supplied. The power must be measured at or...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1331 Instruments using a power supply. For category A rotorcraft— (a) Each required flight instrument... power source; and (3) A visual means integral with each instrument to indicate when the power adequate to sustain proper instrument performance is not being supplied. The power must be measured at or...

  7. Organizing person-centred care in paediatric diabetes: multidisciplinary teams, long-term relationships and adequate documentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes is one of the most frequent long-term endocrine childhood disorders and the Swedish National Diabetes Register for children states that adolescents (12–18 years) constitute the most vulnerable patient group in terms of metabolic control. The aim of this study was to examine how a multidisciplinary team functions when caring for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods Qualitative interviews were performed with 17 health professionals at a Paediatric Diabetes Care Unit in a Swedish university hospital. The interviews were analysed to gain insight into a multidisciplinary care team’s experiences of various organizational processes and circumstances related to the provision of person-centred paediatric diabetes care. Results Building long-term relationships with adolescents, the establishment of a multidisciplinary care team and ensuring adequate documentation are vital for the delivery of person-centred care (PCC). Furthermore, a PCC process and/or practice requires more than the mere expression of person-centred values. The contribution of this study is that it highlights the necessity of facilitating and safeguarding the organization of PCC, for which three processes are central: 1. Facilitating long-term relationships with adolescents and their families; 2. Facilitating multi-professional teamwork; and 3. Ensuring adequate documentation. Conclusion Three processes emerged as important for the functioning of the multidisciplinary team when caring for adolescents with type 1 diabetes: building a long-term relationship, integrating knowledge by means of multidisciplinary team work and ensuring adequate documentation. This study demonstrates the importance of clearly defining and making use of the specific role of each team member in the paediatric diabetes care unit (PDCU). Team members should receive training in PCC and a PCC approach should form the foundation of all diabetes care. Every adolescent suffering from type 1 diabetes

  8. Magnetic mirror fusion: status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1980-02-11

    Two improved mirror systems, the tandem mirror (TM) and the field-reversed mirror (FRM) are being intensively studied. The twin practical aims of these studies: to improve the economic prospects for mirror fusion power plants and to reduce the size and/or complexity of such plants relative to earlier approaches to magnetic fusion. While at the present time the program emphasis is still strongly oriented toward answering scientific questions, the emphasis is shifting as the data accumulates and as larger facilities - ones with a heavy technological and engineering orientation - are being prepared. The experimental and theoretical progress that led to the new look in mirror fusion research is briefly reviewed, the new TM and the FRM ideas are outlined, and the projected future course of mirror fusion research is discussed.

  9. Gamma-ray spectroscopy - Requirements and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The only previous space instrument which had sufficient spectral resolution and directionality for the resolution of astrophysical sources was the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer carried by HEAO-3. A broad variety of astrophysical investigations entail gamma-ray spectroscopy of E/Delta-E resolving power of the order of 500 at 1 MeV; it is presently argued that a sensitivity to narrow gamma-ray lines of a few millionths ph/sq cm, from about 10 keV to about 10 MeV, should typify the gamma-ray spectrometers of prospective missions. This performance is achievable with technology currently under development, and could be applied to the NASA's planned Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer.

  10. Prospects for Breakthrough Propulsion From Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2004-01-01

    "Space drives", "Warp drives", and "Wormholes:" these concepts may sound like science fiction, but they are being written about in reputable journals. To assess the implications of these emerging prospects for future spaceflight, NASA supported the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project from 1996 through 2002. This Project has three grand challenges: (1) Discover propulsion that eliminates the need for propellant; (2) Discover methods to achieve hyper-fast travel; and (3) Discover breakthrough methods to power spacecraft. Because these challenges are presumably far from fruition, and perhaps even impossible, a special emphasis is placed on selecting incremental and affordable research that addresses the critical issues behind these challenges. Of 16 incremental research tasks completed by the project and from other sponsors, about a third were found not to be viable, a quarter have clear opportunities for sequels, and the rest remain unresolved.

  11. Power options for lunar exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; Gaustad, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the types of power systems available for providing power on the moon. Lunar missions of exploration, in situ resource utilization, and colonization will be constrained by availability of adequate power. The length of the lunar night places severe limitations on solar power system designs, because a large portion of the system mass is devoted to energy storage. The selection of the ideal power source hardware will require compatibility with not only the lunar base power requirements and environment, but also with the conversion, storage, and transmission equipment. In addition, further analysis to determine the optimum operating parameters for a given power system should be conducted so that critical technologies can be identified in the early stages of base development. This paper describes the various concepts proposed for providing power on the lunar surface and compare their ranges of applicability. The importance of a systems approach to the integration of these components will also be discussed.

  12. Power options for lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Judith Ann; Gaustad, Krista L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the types of power systems available for providing power on the moon. Lunar missions of exploration, in situ resource utilization, and colonization will be constrained by availability of adequate power. The length of the lunar night places severe limitations on solar power system designs, because a large portion of the system mass is devoted to energy storage. The selection of the ideal power source hardware will require compatibility with not only the lunar base power requirements and environment, but also with the conversion, storage, and transmission equipment. In addition, further analysis to determine the optimum operating parameters for a given power system should be conducted so that critical technologies can be identified in the early stages of base development. This paper describes the various concepts proposed for providing power on the lunar surface and compares their ranges of applicability. The importance of a systems approach to the integration of these components will also be discussed.

  13. Miniature Radioisotope Thermoelectric Power Cubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Jagdish U.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Caillat, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Cube-shaped thermoelectric devices energized by a particles from radioactive decay of Cm-244 have been proposed as long-lived sources of power. These power cubes are intended especially for incorporation into electronic circuits that must operate in dark, extremely cold locations (e.g., polar locations or deep underwater on Earth, or in deep interplanetary space). Unlike conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators used heretofore as central power sources in some spacecraft, the proposed power cubes would be small enough (volumes would range between 0.1 and 0.2 cm3) to play the roles of batteries that are parts of, and dedicated to, individual electronic-circuit packages. Unlike electrochemical batteries, these power cubes would perform well at low temperatures. They would also last much longer: given that the half-life of Cm-244 is 18 years, a power cube could remain adequate as a power source for years, depending on the power demand in its particular application.

  14. Bacterial Exopolysaccharides: Functionality and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Green, Ezekiel; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Diverse structural, functional and valuable polysaccharides are synthesized by bacteria of all taxa and secreted into the external environment. These polysaccharides are referred to as exopolysaccharides and they may either be homopolymeric or heteropolymeric in composition and of diverse high molecular weights (10 to 1000 kDa). The material properties of exopolysaccharides have revolutionized the industrial and medical sectors due to their retinue of functional applications and prospects. These applications have been extensive in areas such as pharmacological, nutraceutical, functional food, cosmeceutical, herbicides and insecticides among others, while prospects includes uses as anticoagulant, antithrombotic, immunomodulation, anticancer and as bioflocculants. Due to the extensive applications of bacterial exopolysaccharides, this overview provides basic information on their physiologic and morphologic functions as well as their applications and prospects in the medical and industrial sectors. PMID:23203046

  15. Prospects for Sustainable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassedy, Edward S., Jr.

    2000-04-01

    Fossil fuels are a finite resource, and their continued use as the world's dominant energy supply is damaging the environment. Future use of alternative methods of energy supply is inescapable. This book offers a critical assessment of all possible sustainable energy technologies and energy storage. Coverage explores the historical origins, technical features, marketability, and environmental impacts of the complete range of sustainable energy technologies: solar, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal power, ocean-energy sources, solar-derived hydrogen fuel, and energy storage. The aim is to inform policy analysts and decision makers of the options available for sustainable energy production. This accessible volume will be a valuable resource for a broad group of academics and researchers with a wide range of backgrounds and scientific training. It will also be an ideal supplementary next for advanced courses in environmental studies, energy economics and policy, and engineering.

  16. Tale of three prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, Wendell A.

    1992-01-01

    Most high-temperature, hydrothermal-convection systems probably are heated by bodies of magma (and/or hot plutons), whose presence is suggested by geologically young, if not active volcanism. Study of a young volcanic area provides information about the general thermal status of the underlying heat source, and detailed information about the time-space-volume-composition (TSVC) characteristics for a volcanic area can help define temperature at least semi-quantitatively when interpreted within the framework of published magma-cooling models. Thus, TSVC study is a fairly powerful and cost effective tool in the pre-drilling phase of an exploration program in young volcanic terrane. Examples are described for Coso, California; Agua de Pau, Azores; and Tecuamburro, Guatemala.

  17. Fluoride glass fibers: applications and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulain, Marcel

    1998-09-01

    Fluoride glass fibers have been intensively developed for the last 20 years. A major effort was devoted to the fabrication of low loss fibers for repeaterless long haul telecommunications. This step which ended in the late eighties provided the basic technology for the manufacturing of multimode and single mode fibers with minimum losses below 10 dB/km. Such fibers area now used for various passive applications requiring the handling of IR signal. In this respect, fluoride fibers are complementary to silica fibers when wavelength exceeds 2 micrometers . Some practical set ups are operating for IR imaging, remote spectroscopy and thermometry. Special fibers such as polarization maintaining fibers have been developed for interferometric astronomy, which could also apply to sensors. UV transmission has still to be developed. Laser power delivery is another field of application for these fibers. YAG:Er laser at 2.9 micrometers attracts a growing interest for medical applications, ophthalmology and dentistry, while prospects for CO laser are positive. Active fibers are based on rare earth doped single mode fibers. They lead to the definition of numerous new laser lines and emphasized the potential of up conversion for the generation of visible light using IR pumping laser diodes. High power output has been achieved in the blue and the red light, which open prospects for compact and all solid state fiber lasers for a wide range of applications, from displays to medical uses. Optical amplification makes another field of R and D centered on telecommunication needs. Pr3+ doped fluoride fibers have been used for the 1.3 micrometers band, and Er based fluoride fiber amplifiers exhibit wider and flatter gain than those made from silica. Optical amplification may be implemented at other wavelengths for more general purposes.

  18. Supplemental Escherichia coli phytase and strontium enhance bone strength of young pigs fed a phosphorus-adequate diet.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Angela R; Yasuda, Koji; Roneker, Karl R; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Lei, Xin Gen

    2007-07-01

    Young pigs represent an excellent model of youth to assess potentials of dietary factors for improving bone structure and function. We conducted 2 experiments to determine whether adding microbial phytase (2,000 U/kg, OptiPhos, JBS United) and Sr (50 mg/kg, SrCO3 Alfa Aesar) into a P-adequate diet further improved bone strength of young pigs. In Expt. 1, 24 gilts (8.6 +/- 0.1 kg body wt) were divided into 2 groups (n = 12), and fed a corn-soybean-meal basal diet (BD, 0.33% available P) or BD + phytase for 6 wk. In Expt. 2, 32 pigs (11.4 +/- 0.2 kg) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8), and fed BD, BD + phytase, BD + Sr, or BD + phytase and Sr for 5 wk. Both supplemental phytase and Sr enhanced (P < 0.05) breaking strengths (11-20%), mineral content (6-15%), and mineral density (6-11%) of metatarsals and femurs. Supplemental phytase also resulted in larger total bone areas (P < 0.05) and a larger cross-sectional area of femur (P = 0.06). Concentrations of Sr were elevated 4-fold (P < 0.001) in both bones by Sr, and moderately increased (P = 0.05-0.07) in metatarsal by phytase. In conclusion, supplemental phytase at 2000 U/kg of P-adequate diets enhanced bone mechanical function of weanling pigs by modulating both geometrical and chemical properties of bone. The similar benefit of supplemental Sr was mainly due to an effect on bone chemical properties. PMID:17585033

  19. Technical basis for flawed cylinder test specification to assure adequate fracture resistance of ISO high-strength steel cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, M.D.; Smith, J.H.; Tribolet, R.O.

    1997-11-01

    High-pressure industrial gases (such as oxygen, nitrogen, argon, hydrogen, etc.) are stored and transported in portable cylinders. ISO TC58 SC3 has developed a draft specification 9809 for design and fabrication of high-pressure cylinders with maximum tensile strength limitation of 1,100 N/mm{sup 2}. In order to extend the ISO 9809 rules for higher than 1,100 N/mm{sup 2} strength level cylinders, a working group WG14 was formed in 1989 to develop new rules to assure adequate fracture resistance. In 1994, WG14 recommended a simple, but unique flawed cylinder test method for design qualification of the cylinder and acceptance criteria to assure adequate fracture resistance. WG14 also recommended Charpy-V-notch impact tests to control the required fracture resistance on production cylinders. This paper presents the technical basis that was employed in developing the flawed cylinder test method and acceptance criteria. The specification was developed for seamless steel cylinders having actual strength in the range of 1,100 to 1,400 N/mm{sup 2} and cylindrical section wall thickness in the range of 3 to 10 mm. Flawed cylinder tests were conducted on several hundred cylinders of varying sizes and strength levels. The specification requires to demonstrate LEAK-BEFORE-BREAK performance of the cylinder having flaw length equal to 1.6 (o.d. {times} t{sub design}){sup 0.5} at failure pressure = (t{sub design}/t{sub actual}) x Design Pressure.

  20. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained. PMID:16614427

  1. Nuclear Power and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are the major environmental effects resulting from the production of electricity by nuclear power plants. Discussed are effects of waste heat, radioactivity, radioactive waste elimination, costs, and future prospects. Included are diagrams illustrating cooling tower operation, effects of thermal discharge into water systems, radioactive…

  2. A prospective, quantitative study of the natural history of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD): implications for therapeutic trials. The FSH-DY Group.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal-dominant disorder localized to 4q35. Neither the gene nor the gene product has been identified. There is presently no established treatment for FSHD. Prospective data on the natural history of this disorder are essential for the effective design of therapeutic trials. We systematically followed 81 well defined FSHD patients for up to 3 years using a standardized protocol that included manual muscle testing (MMT), maximum voluntary isometric contraction testing (MVICT), and functional testing. Muscle strength was strongly associated with measures of muscle mass, age at onset, and duration of disease. Decline in strength over time was slow but detectable with both MVICT and MMT. The magnitude of decline was not associated with either age, gender, age at onset, or duration of disease. This study establishes reliable and valid measures of disease state and progression for use as outcome variables in clinical trials in FSHD, and also provides guidelines for determining sample size and duration of follow-up. A two-armed clinical trial involving 160 patients per group and 1 year of follow-up would provide 80% power to detect complete arrest of the progression of the disease. Trials with fewer patients would thus have adequate power to detect only improvements in strength, unless follow-up duration were extended well beyond 1 year. PMID:9008491

  3. Virtual Hydropower Prospecting – Searching for Hydropower Gold

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2007-12-01

    The availability of geographic information system (GIS) tools and analytical modeling of natural streams has made it possible to perform virtual “river inventories” that were formerly done using topographic maps, stream flow estimates, and physical reconnaissance. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) virtually assessed the gross power potential of all natural streams in the United States of America and identified feasible potential project sites and estimated their developable power potential. The results of this virtual prospecting have been incorporated into a GIS application called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector that is available for public use on the Internet.

  4. Remote sensors - Prospects and limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmann, J.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the history, present status, and future prospects and limitations of remote sensing systems for satellite-based earth resources surveys. The objectives and special areas of interest of ongoing sensor development experiments are summarized, and the measurement and performance goals of current potential sensor research is discussed.

  5. 2007 NCLB Prospects Are Fading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Supporters and critics of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) agree on only one thing and that the law should be fixed and quickly. However, it looks that Congress will not be able to make much progress in addressing the flaws of NCLB this year. This circumstance will endanger the prospects that the revision of the law might not be completed…

  6. Job Prospects for Aerospace Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the recent trends in job opportunities for aerospace engineers. Mentions some of the political, technological, and economic factors affecting the overall employment picture. Includes a description of the job prospects created by the general upswing of the large commercial aircraft market. (TW)

  7. Prospects: Student Outcomes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.; Karweit, Nancy; Price, Cristofer; Ricciuti, Anne; Thompson, William; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael

    This report is one of a series presenting findings from "Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity." This study, conducted in response to the 1988 Hawkins-Stafford Amendments, was a major effort to examine the effects of Chapter 1 on student achievement and other school-related educational outcomes. Data…

  8. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…

  9. Job Prospects for Electrical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the career outlook for electrical/electronics engineers. Explains that the number of bachelor degree graduates continues to rise, along with average starting salaries. Reveals that although the availability of jobs in the computer industry is leveling off, prospects in the robotics and telecommunication fields are growing. (TW)

  10. Job Prospects for Metallurgical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Job prospects in mining, metal-extraction, steel, and refining industries are depressed, but technological discoveries are opening up new fields for metallurgical engineers. Enrollment/employment opportunities and salaries in these areas are discussed a well as the roles of foreign competition, plastics applications, and ceramics research and…

  11. Job Prospects for Marine Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Marine engineering is one of the smaller disciplines that have grown during recent decades. Job prospects in this field, salaries, types of employers (particularly Navy shipbuilding and infrastructure work), and marine/ocean engineers involvement with environmental issues are discussed. (JN)

  12. Scientific knowledge and modern prospecting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuerburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Modern prospecting is the systematic search for specified and generally ill-exposed components of the Earth's crust known as ore. This prospecting depends entirely on reliable, or scientific knowledge for guidance and for recognition of the search objects. Improvement in prospecting results from additions and refinements to scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge is an ordered distillation of observations too numerous and too complex in themselves for easy understanding and for effective management. The ordering of these observations is accomplished by an evolutionary hierarchy of abstractions. These abstractions employ simplified descriptions consisting of characterization by selected properties, sampling to represent much larger parts of a phenomenon, generalized mappings of patterns of geometrical and numerical relations among properties, and explanation (theory) of these patterns as functional relations among the selected properties. Each abstraction is predicated on the mode of abstraction anticipated for the next higher level, so that research is a deductive process in which the highest level, theory, is indispensible for the growth and refinement of scientific knowledge, and therefore of prospecting methodology. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Handbook for Prospective Single Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marindin, Hope

    This handbook for prospective single adoptive parents provides information on locating and adopting a child, necessary clothing and supplies for children of various ages, health and day care arrangements, expenses incurred after adoption, various financial benefits and subsidies available to the adoptive parent, and legal and financial provisions…

  14. Electron Polarimetry: Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Eugene Chudakov

    2005-04-01

    Polarized electron beams are used widely for DIS, parity violation, and other experiments. I discuss the methods and instrumentation used to measure the electron beam polarization, as well as the prospects for the future facilities. A number of recent achievements and projects are discussed.

  15. GIS-based urban modelling: practices, problems, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Sui, D Z

    1998-01-01

    "This paper reviews the practices, problems, and prospects of GIS-based urban modelling. The author argues that current stand-alone and various loose/tight coupling approaches for GIS-based urban modelling are essentially technology-driven without adequate justification and verification for the urban models being implemented. The absolute view of space and time embodied in the current generation of GIS also imposes constraints on the type of new urban models that can be developed. By reframing the future research agenda from a geographical information science (GISci) perspective, the author contends that the integration of urban modelling with GIS must proceed with the development of new models for the informational cities, the incorporation of multi-dimensional concepts of space and time in GIS, and the further extension of the feature-based model to implement these new urban models and spatial-temporal concepts according to the emerging interoperable paradigm." PMID:12294534

  16. Increasing dental student diversity through the UNLV Dental Prospects Program.

    PubMed

    McClain, Mildred A; Jones, Francis R; McClain, Clifford R; Curd, Francis M

    2013-05-01

    Adequately providing for the health care of the growing minority population in the United States requires increased racial and ethnic diversity of the health care workforce. Long-term diversity in the dental profession depends on a more diverse student population in dental schools. The University of Nevada, Las Vegas School of Dental Medicine's (UNLV SDM) Dental Prospects Club is a predental education program that has increased the number of underrepresented minority and disadvantaged students in the school by concentrating on outreach, recruitment, and retention initiatives. The approaches used by the club members and faculty advisors to increase the number of underrepresented minority students recruited to and enrolled in the UNLV SDM are discussed in this report. Also described are the strategies, methods, internal infrastructure, and organizational support used to increase the number of underrepresented minority students at the school. PMID:23658399

  17. The two-layer geochemical structure of modern biogeochemical provinces and its significance for spatially adequate ecological evaluations and decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Contamination of the environment has reached such a scale that ecogeochemical situation in any area can be interpreted now as a result of the combined effect of natural and anthropogenic factors. The areas that appear uncomfortable for a long stay can have natural and anthropogenic genesis, but the spatial structure of such biogeochemical provinces is in any case formed of a combination of natural and technogenic fields of chemical elements. Features of structural organization and the difference in factors and specific time of their formation allow their separation on one hand and help in identification of areas with different ecological risks due to overlay of the two structures on the other. Geochemistry of soil cover reflects the long-term result of the naturally balanced biogeochemical cycles, therefore the soil geochemical maps of the undisturbed areas may serve the basis for evaluation of the natural geochemical background with due regard to the main factors of geochemical differentiation in biosphere. Purposeful and incidental technogenic concentrations and dispersions of chemical elements of specific (mainly mono- or polycentric) structure are also fixed in soils that serve as secondary sources of contamination of the vegetation cover and local food chains. Overlay of the two structures forms specific heterogeneity of modern biogeochemical provinces with different risk for particular groups of people, animals and plants adapted to specific natural geochemical background within particular concentration interval. The developed approach is believed to be helpful for biogeochemical regionalizing of modern biosphere (noosphere) and for spatially adequate ecogeochemical evaluation of the environment and landuse decisions. It allows production of a set of applied geochemical maps such as: 1) health risk due to chemical elements deficiency and technogenic contamination accounting of possible additive effects; 2) adequate soil fertilization and melioration with due

  18. Fair Balance and Adequate Provision in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Online Banner Advertisements: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The current direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) guidelines were developed with print, television, and radio media in mind, and there are no specific guidelines for online banner advertisements. Objective This study evaluates how well Internet banner ads comply with existing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for DTCA in other media. Methods A content analysis was performed of 68 banner advertisements. A coding sheet was developed based on (1) FDA guidance documents for consumer-directed prescription drug advertisements and (2) previous DTCA content analyses. Specifically, the presence of a brief summary detailing the drug’s risks and side effects or of a “major statement” identifying the drug’s major risks, and the number and type of provisions made available to consumers for comprehensive information about the drug were coded. In addition, the criterion of “fair balance,” the FDA’s requirement that prescription drug ads balance information relating to the drug’s risks with information relating to its benefits, was measured by numbering the benefit and risk facts identified in the ads and by examining the presentation of risk and benefit information. Results Every ad in the sample included a brief summary of risk information and at least one form of adequate provision as required by the FDA for broadcast ads that do not give audiences a brief summary of a drug’s risks. No ads included a major statement. There were approximately 7.18 risk facts for every benefit fact. Most of the risks (98.85%, 1292/1307) were presented in the scroll portion of the ad, whereas most of the benefits (66.5%, 121/182) were presented in the main part of the ad. Out of 1307 risk facts, 1292 were qualitative and 15 were quantitative. Out of 182 benefit facts, 181 were qualitative and 1 was quantitative. The majority of ads showed neutral images during the disclosure of benefit and risk facts. Only 9% (6/68) of the ads displayed positive images and

  19. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  20. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Wim; Prinsen, Geert.; Hoogewoud, Jacco; Veldhuizen, Ab; Ruijgh, Erik; Kroon, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with? by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses. Regional expertise is welcomed in the calibration phase of NHI. It aims to reduce uncertainties by improving the

  1. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany—in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar—and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002–2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3–24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0–12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2–7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million—4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR. PMID:26352606

  2. Adequate dietary vitamin D and calcium are both required to reduce bone turnover and increased bone mineral volume.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alice M C; Sawyer, Rebecca K; Moore, Alison J; Morris, Howard A; O'Loughlin, Peter D; Anderson, Paul H

    2014-10-01

    Clinical studies indicate that the combination of vitamin D and dietary calcium supplementation is more effective for reducing fracture risk than either supplement alone. Our previous dietary studies demonstrated that an adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) of 80nmol/L or more reduces bone RANKL expression, osteoclastogenesis and maintains the optimal levels of trabecular bone volume (BV/TV%) in young rats. The important clinical question of the interaction between vitamin D status, dietary calcium intake and age remains unclear. Hence, 9 month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=5-6/group) were pair-fed a semi-synthetic diet containing varying levels of vitamin D (0, 2, 12 or 20IU/day) and dietary calcium (0.1% or 1%) for 6 months. At 15 months of age, animals were killed, for biochemical and skeletal analyses. While changes to serum 25D were determined by both dietary vitamin D and calcium levels, changes to serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) were consistently raised in animals fed 0.1% Ca regardless of dietary vitamin D or vitamin D status. Importantly, serum cross-laps levels were significantly increased in animals fed 0.1% Ca only when combined with 0 or 2 IUD/day of vitamin D, suggesting a contribution of both dietary calcium and vitamin D in determining bone resorption activity. Serum 25(OH)D3 levels were positively correlated with both femoral mid-diaphyseal cortical bone volume (R(2)=0.24, P<0.01) and metaphyseal BV/TV% (R(2)=0.23, P<0.01, data not shown). In multiple linear regressions, serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were a negative determinant of CBV (R(2)=0.24, P<0.01) and were not a determinant of metaphyseal BV/TV% levels. These data support clinical data that reduced bone resorption and increased bone volume can only be achieved with adequate 25D levels in combination with high dietary calcium and low serum 1,25D levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:24309068

  3. Prospective Memory Training in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Iris W.; Berg, Ina J.; Deelman, Betto G.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty adults received training in prospective memory; 23 who received training in reducing worries about forgetfulness and 22 controls formed a comparison group. Results of a telephone task and a prospective categorization task revealed significant but small effects for the prospective memory group. After 3 months, the comparison group's…

  4. Knowledge and Informed Decision-Making about Population-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation in Groups with Low and Adequate Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Essink-Bot, M. L.; Dekker, E.; Timmermans, D. R. M.; Uiters, E.; Fransen, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze and compare decision-relevant knowledge, decisional conflict, and informed decision-making about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening participation between potential screening participants with low and adequate health literacy (HL), defined as the skills to access, understand, and apply information to make informed decisions about health. Methods. Survey including 71 individuals with low HL and 70 with adequate HL, all eligible for the Dutch organized CRC screening program. Knowledge, attitude, intention to participate, and decisional conflict were assessed after reading the standard information materials. HL was assessed using the Short Assessment of Health Literacy in Dutch. Informed decision-making was analyzed by the multidimensional measure of informed choice. Results. 64% of the study population had adequate knowledge of CRC and CRC screening (low HL 43/71 (61%), adequate HL 47/70 (67%), p > 0.05). 57% were informed decision-makers (low HL 34/71 (55%), adequate HL 39/70 (58%), p > 0.05). Intention to participate was 89% (low HL 63/71 (89%), adequate HL 63/70 (90%)). Respondents with low HL experienced significantly more decisional conflict (25.8 versus 16.1; p = 0.00). Conclusion. Informed decision-making about CRC screening participation was suboptimal among both individuals with low HL and individuals with adequate HL. Further research is required to develop and implement effective strategies to convey decision-relevant knowledge about CRC screening to all screening invitees. PMID:27200089

  5. Knowledge and Informed Decision-Making about Population-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation in Groups with Low and Adequate Health Literacy.

    PubMed

    Essink-Bot, M L; Dekker, E; Timmermans, D R M; Uiters, E; Fransen, M P

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze and compare decision-relevant knowledge, decisional conflict, and informed decision-making about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening participation between potential screening participants with low and adequate health literacy (HL), defined as the skills to access, understand, and apply information to make informed decisions about health. Methods. Survey including 71 individuals with low HL and 70 with adequate HL, all eligible for the Dutch organized CRC screening program. Knowledge, attitude, intention to participate, and decisional conflict were assessed after reading the standard information materials. HL was assessed using the Short Assessment of Health Literacy in Dutch. Informed decision-making was analyzed by the multidimensional measure of informed choice. Results. 64% of the study population had adequate knowledge of CRC and CRC screening (low HL 43/71 (61%), adequate HL 47/70 (67%), p > 0.05). 57% were informed decision-makers (low HL 34/71 (55%), adequate HL 39/70 (58%), p > 0.05). Intention to participate was 89% (low HL 63/71 (89%), adequate HL 63/70 (90%)). Respondents with low HL experienced significantly more decisional conflict (25.8 versus 16.1; p = 0.00). Conclusion. Informed decision-making about CRC screening participation was suboptimal among both individuals with low HL and individuals with adequate HL. Further research is required to develop and implement effective strategies to convey decision-relevant knowledge about CRC screening to all screening invitees. PMID:27200089

  6. Comparison of prospective and retrospective measurements of frequency of sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Huber, Larissa R Brunner; Lyerly, Jordan E; Young, Ashley M; Dmochowski, Jacek; Vick, Tara M; Scholes, Delia

    2014-08-01

    Measurements of sexual intercourse frequency are informative for research on pregnancy, contraception, and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections; however, efficiently collecting data on this sensitive topic is complex. The purpose of this study was to determine whether retrospective recall of sexual intercourse frequency was consistent with information obtained through the use of prospective daily diary methods corresponding to the same time period in a diverse sample of women. A total of 185 women participated in a longitudinal, prospective cohort study of oral contraceptive users and 98 of these women provided complete information on sexual intercourse frequency on diaries (prospective) and postcards (retrospective). Linear mixed models were used to test for variation in response within categories of demographic and other variables. The mean number of days women had sexual intercourse per week was 1.5 days using prospective diary information versus 2.0 days when using 3-month retrospective recall (p < 0.001). Mean differences for the various sociodemographic subgroups were positive for all groups indicating that women consistently reported a higher frequency of sexual intercourse on the retrospective postcards than they recorded on their prospective diaries; however, these mean differences did not vary significantly. If confirmed in other samples, the use of retrospective methods may be adequate to accurately collect data on sexual intercourse frequency-and may be preferable. Using only retrospective measurements could decrease study costs, the burden to participants, and have a higher response rate. PMID:24281849

  7. Comparison of Prospective and Retrospective Measurements of Frequency of Sexual Intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Lyerly, Jordan E.; Young, Ashley M.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Vick, Tara M.; Scholes, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of sexual intercourse frequency are informative for research on pregnancy, contraception, and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections; however, efficiently collecting data on this sensitive topic is complex. The purpose of this study was to determine whether retrospective recall of sexual intercourse frequency was consistent with information obtained through the use of prospective daily diary methods corresponding to the same time period in a diverse sample of women. A total of 185 women participated in a longitudinal, prospective cohort study of oral contraceptive users and 98 of these women provided complete information on sexual intercourse frequency on diaries (prospective) and postcards (retrospective). Linear mixed models were used to test for variation in response within categories of demographic and other variables. The mean number of days women had sexual intercourse per week was 1.5 days using prospective diary information versus 2.0 days when using 3-month retrospective recall (p <0.001). Mean differences for the various sociodemographic subgroups were positive for all groups indicating that women consistently reported a higher frequency of sexual intercourse on the retrospective postcards than they recorded on their prospective diaries; however, these mean differences did not vary significantly. If confirmed in other samples, the use of retrospective methods may be adequate to accurately collect data on sexual intercourse frequency—and may be preferable. Using only retrospective measurements could decrease study costs, the burden to participants, and have a higher response rate. PMID:24281849

  8. Minimally adequate mental health care and latent classes of PTSD symptoms in female Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

    PubMed

    Hebenstreit, Claire L; Madden, Erin; Koo, Kelly H; Maguen, Shira

    2015-11-30

    Female veterans of Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) represent a growing segment of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care users. A retrospective analysis used national VA medical records to identify factors associated with female OEF/OIF/OND veterans' completion of minimally adequate care (MAC) for PTSD, defined as the completion of at least nine mental health outpatient visits within a 15-week period or at least twelve consecutive weeks of medication use. The sample included female OEF/OIF/OND veterans with PTSD who initiated VA health care between 2007-2013, and were seen in outpatient mental health (N=2183). Multivariable logistic regression models examined factors associated with completing MAC for PTSD, including PTSD symptom expression (represented by latent class analysis), sociodemographic, military, clinical, and VA access factors. Within one year of initiating mental health care, 48.3% of female veterans completed MAC. Race/ethnicity, age, PTSD symptom class, additional psychiatric diagnoses, and VA primary care use were significantly associated with completion of MAC for PTSD. Results suggest that veterans presenting for PTSD treatment should be comprehensively evaluated to identify factors associated with inadequate completion of care. Treatments that are tailored to PTSD symptom class may help to address potential barriers. PMID:26330305

  9. Detailed NMR, Including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and Anticancer Studies of Compounds from the Echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Anthony D.; Nielson, Jonathan L.; Tapiolas, Dianne M.; Motti, Cherie A.; Ovenden, Simon P. B.; Kearns, Philip S.; Liptrot, Catherine H.

    2009-01-01

    From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara), Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1′-hydroxypropyl)-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1)], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3), 2-[(phenylacetyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid (4), and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5) were isolated. Comparison of 1H- and 13C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1) with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned 1H- and 13C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent 13C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5. PMID:20098598

  10. Combination and triple therapy in patients with stable angina pectoris not adequately controlled by optimal β-blocker therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kok, W.E.M.; Visser, F.C.; Visser, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 60 to 80% of patients with stable angina pectoris at low risk for future coronary events, monotherapy with a β-blocker is an effective treatment. When patients with stable angina pectoris and low risk for events do not respond adequately to optimal β-blocker monotherapy, combination therapy or even triple therapy is may be recommended, but little is known of the actual benefit of such a strategy. We reviewed the evidence from the literature on the effectiveness of combination and triple therapy. Combination therapy with a calcium antagonist or nitrate was found to be more effective than β-blocker monotherapy in the majority of studies, but only an estimated 30% of patients objectively benefit from these combination therapies. Direct comparison shows that combination therapy of a β-blocker with a calcium antagonist is more effective than the combination of a β-blocker with a nitrate. An inadequate response to β-blocker monotherapy is more effectively improved by addition of a calcium antagonist than by alternative use of a calcium antagonist. The use of triple therapy is controversial and not recommended in patients with mild angina pectoris, while for patients with severe angina pectoris not responding to combination therapy of a β-blocker with a nitrate, triple therapy may be of advantage, although the number of patients studied has been small. PMID:25696045

  11. Adequate trust avails, mistaken trust matters: on the moral responsibility of doctors as proxies for patients' trust in biobank research.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Linus; Helgesson, Gert; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In Sweden, most patients are recruited into biobank research by non-researcher doctors. Patients' trust in doctors may therefore be important to their willingness to participate. We suggest a model of trust that makes sense of such transitions of trust between domains and distinguishes adequate trust from mistaken trust. The unique position of doctors implies, we argue, a Kantian imperfect duty to compensate for patients' mistaken trust. There are at least three kinds of mistaken trust, each of which requires a different set of countermeasures. First, trust is mistaken when necessary competence is lacking; the competence must be developed or the illusion dispelled. Second, trust is irrational whenever the patient is mistaken about his actual reasons for trusting. Care must therefore be taken to support the patient's reasoning and moral agency. Third, some patients inappropriately trust doctors to recommend only research that will benefit them directly. Such trust should be counteracted by nurturing a culture where patients expect to be asked occasionally to contribute to the common good. PMID:22681564

  12. Adequate Hand Washing and Glove Use Are Necessary To Reduce Cross-Contamination from Hands with High Bacterial Loads.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew L; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Junehee; Todd, Ewen; Rodriguez, Fernando Perez; Ryu, Dojin

    2016-02-01

    Hand washing and glove use are the main methods for reducing bacterial cross-contamination from hands to ready-to-eat food in a food service setting. However, bacterial transfer from hands to gloves is poorly understood, as is the effect of different durations of soap rubbing on bacterial reduction. To assess bacterial transfer from hands to gloves and to compare bacterial transfer rates to food after different soap washing times and glove use, participants' hands were artificially contaminated with Enterobacter aerogenes B199A at ∼9 log CFU. Different soap rubbing times (0, 3, and 20 s), glove use, and tomato dicing activities followed. The bacterial counts in diced tomatoes and on participants' hands and gloves were then analyzed. Different soap rubbing times did not significantly change the amount of bacteria recovered from participants' hands. Dicing tomatoes with bare hands after 20 s of soap rubbing transferred significantly less bacteria (P < 0.01) to tomatoes than did dicing with bare hands after 0 s of soap rubbing. Wearing gloves while dicing greatly reduced the incidence of contaminated tomato samples compared with dicing with bare hands. Increasing soap washing time decreased the incidence of bacteria recovered from outside glove surfaces (P < 0.05). These results highlight that both glove use and adequate hand washing are necessary to reduce bacterial cross-contamination in food service environments. PMID:26818993

  13. New vessel formation in the context of cardiomyocyte regeneration – the role and importance of an adequate perfusing vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Michelis, Katherine C.; Boehm, Manfred; Kovacic, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    The history of revascularization for cardiac ischemia dates back to the early 1960's when the first coronary artery bypass graft procedures were performed in humans. With this 50 year history of providing a new vasculature to ischemic and hibernating myocardium, a profound depth of experience has been amassed in clinical cardiovascular medicine as to what does, and does not work in the context of cardiac revascularization, alleviating ischemia and adequacy of myocardial perfusion. These issues are of central relevance to contemporary cell-based cardiac regenerative approaches. While the cardiovascular cell therapy field is surging forward on many exciting fronts, several well accepted clinical axioms related to the cardiac arterial supply appear to be almost overlooked by some of our current basic conceptual and experimental cell therapy paradigms. We present here information drawn from five decades of the clinical revascularization experience, review relevant new data on vascular formation via cell therapy, and put forward the case that for optimal cell-based cardiac regeneration due attention must be paid to providing an adequate vascular supply. PMID:24841067

  14. Status of inertial fusion and prospects for practical power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J.A.; Monsler, M.J.

    1982-06-30

    We have produced a series of reactor designs to meet the variety of driver-target combinations that could possibly result from the inertial-confinement fusion program. In this paper we discuss four reactor designs, the goals of which are low cost; a low probability of risk to the public, the plant employees, and the utility investment; and a minimal environmental impact under normal plant operation. HYLIFE is a low pulse rate, lithium-cooled reactor. Pulse*Star and Cascade are high pulse rate reactors. In Pulse*Star, fusion energy is absorbed in the PbLi pool; in Cascade it is absorbed by Li/sub 2/O particles. Sunburst, a very low pulse rate, lithium-cooled reactor, directly converts over 40% of the fusion energy to electricity using a pulsed magnetic field.

  15. Prospect of HIP application in aerospace and power plant industry

    SciTech Connect

    Boris, B.I.; Genrikh, G.S.; Oleg, F.Ch.

    1996-12-31

    Technology used in production of PM superalloy disks and shafts for military and civil aircraft engines was proposed in published works of Academicians A.F. Bewlov, A.I. Tselicov, Professor N.F. Anoshkin, their disciples and associates about 20 years ago. This technology determined progress in this field for all preceding years and played a remarkable role in both aviation material science and aerospace. This technology contributed to successful development of gas turbine engines for such dazzling specimens of Soviet aircraft and space vehicles as MiG-29, MiG-31, IL-096, TU-204, IL-114, Energia-Buran rocket-space shuttle system, etc.

  16. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) solid-state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A low loss power-combining microstrip antenna suitable for solid state solar power satellite (SPS) application was developed. A unique approach for performing both the combining and radiating function in a single cavity-type circuit was verified, representing substantial refinements over previous demonstration models in terms of detailed geometry to obtain good matching and adequate bandwidth at the design frequency. The combiner circuit was designed, built, and tested and the overall results support the view that the solid state power-combining antenna approach is a viable candidate for a solid state SPS antenna building block.

  17. Prospective risk of intrauterine fetal death in monoamniotic twin pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Mamoru; Yamada, Takashi; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Shoji; Minakami, Hisanori

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to review the overall short-term outcome of monoamniotic twins in Japan and to determine the prospective risk of fetal death so as to adequately counsel parents with monoamniotic twins. Study subjects were 101 women with monoamniotic twins who were registered with the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology Successive Pregnancy Birth Registry System and who had given birth at ≥22 weeks of gestation during 2002-2009. The gestational week at delivery (mean±SD) was 31.8±3.7. Fourteen women experienced intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). Short-term outcomes of co-twins born to the 14 women included 8 IUFDs, one early neonatal death within 7 days of life (END), and 5 survivors. Four other women experienced 5 ENDs. Thus, 13.9% (28/202) of infants died perinatally (22 IUFDs and 6 ENDs), 13.9% (14/101) of women experienced IUFD, and 82.2% (83/101) of women experienced neither IUFD nor END. Structural anomalies and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome explained 17.9% (five infants) and 10.7% (three infants) of the 28 perinatal deaths, respectively. The prospective risk of IUFD was 13.9% (14/101) for women who reached gestational week 22(-0/7), gradually decreasing thereafter but remaining at between 4.5% and 8.0% between gestational week 30(-0/7) and 36(-0/7). PMID:22853819

  18. Assessment of commercial prospects of molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicks, Andrew; Siddle, Angie

    The commercial prospects of molten carbonate fuel cells have been evaluated. Market applications, and the commercial criteria that the MCFC will need to satisfy for these applications, were identified through interviews with leading MCFC developers. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses were carried out to critically evaluate the prospects for commercialisation. There are many competing technologies, but it is anticipated that MCFCs can make significant penetration into markets where their attributes, such as quality of power, low emissions and availability, give them a leading position in comparison with, for example, engine and turbine-based power generation systems. Analysis suggests that choosing the size for MCFC plant is more important than the target market sector/niche. Opportunities will exist in many market sectors, though the commercial market would be easier to penetrate initially. Developers are optimistic about the commercial prospects for the MCFC. Most believe that early commercial MCFC plants may start to appear in the first decade of the next century, the earliest date suggested for initial market entry being 2002.

  19. Febrile neutropenia in French emergency departments: results of a prospective multicentre survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Febrile neutropenia (FN) is common in cancer patients receiving myelotoxic therapy. The procedures to treat FN are well established in oncology, but it is unclear whether management is adequate in the emergency department (ED). Methods This prospective, multicentre, observational study was carried out in 47 French EDs for 6 months. Patients were adults presenting at the ED with FN after myelotoxic treatment for cancer. Severity of infection was defined according to Bone criteria for severe sepsis and septic shock (SS/SSh) and risk was determined according to Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) criteria. The end point was the implementation of guidelines. Management of patients with SS/SSh required: (i) adequate intravenous (IV) antimicrobial therapy for the first 90 min (broad-spectrum beta-lactam with or without an aminoglycoside); (ii) fluid challenge (500 mL); (iii) lactate measurement; (iv) at least one blood culture; and (v) hospitalization. Management of patients without SS/SSh required: (1) no initiation of granulocyte - cell stimulating factor (G-CSF); (2) adequate IV antimicrobial therapy (broad-spectrum beta-lactam) and hospitalization if the patient was high-risk according to MASCC criteria; (3) adequate oral antimicrobial therapy (quinolone or amoxicillin/clavulanate or cephalosporin) and hospital discharge if the patient was low-risk. Results 198 patients were enrolled; 89 patients had SS/SSh, of whom 19 received adequate antimicrobial therapy within 90 min and 42 received appropriate fluid challenge. Blood cultures were obtained from 87 and lactate concentration was measured in 29. Overall, only 6 (7%) patients with SS/SSh received adequate management. Among 108 patients without SS/SSh, 38 (35%) were high-risk and 70 (65%) low-risk. In the high-risk group, adequate antimicrobial therapy was given to 31 patients, G-CSF was initiated in 4 and 35 were hospitalized. In the low-risk group, 4 patients received

  20. U.S. Solar Power Market

    SciTech Connect

    2007-08-15

    The report provides an overview of the domestic market for solar, including a concise look at the steps being taken to grow solar power in the U.S. Topics covered include: an overview of solar power including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving interest in solar power; a description of solar power technologies; a review of the economics of solar power; a discussion of the key markets for solar power; and, profiles of domestic solar cell/module manufacturers.

  1. Study to Determine Adequate Margins in Radiotherapy Planning for Esophageal Carcinoma by Detailing Patterns of Recurrence After Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Button, Michael R. Morgan, Carys A.; Croydon, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, S. Ashley; Crosby, Thomas D.L.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the adequacy of radiotherapy (RT) margins by studying the relapse patterns after definitive chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study assessing the first site of disease relapse after definitive chemoradiotherapy that included four 3-weekly cycles of cisplatin and continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil, with conformal RT (50 Gy in 25 fractions) concurrent with Cycles 3 and 4. The RT planning target volume was the endoscopic ultrasonography/computed tomography-defined gross tumor volume with 1.5-cm lateral and 3-cm superoinferior margins. Results: A total of 145 patients were included. Their average age was 65.4 years, 45% had adenocarcinoma, 61% had lower third esophageal tumors, and 75% had Stage III-IVA disease. After RT, of 142 patients, 85 (60%) had evidence of relapse at a median follow-up of 18 months. The relapse was local (within the RT field) in 55; distant (metastatic) in 13, and a combination of local and distant in 14. The local relapse rates were not influenced by tumor stage, lymph node status, or disease length. Three patients developed a relapse in regions adjacent to the RT fields; however, it is unlikely that larger field margins would have been clinically acceptable or effective in these cases. The median overall survival was 15 months. Conclusion: The gross tumor volume-planning target volume margins in this study appeared adequate. Future efforts to improve outcomes using definitive chemoradiotherapy should be directed toward reducing the high rates of in-field and distant relapses.

  2. The feasibility of producing adequate feedstock for year–round cellulosic ethanol production in an intensive agricultural fuelshed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Allen, Craig R.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    To date, cellulosic ethanol production has not been commercialized in the United States. However, government mandates aimed at increasing second-generation biofuel production could spur exploratory development in the cellulosic ethanol industry. We conducted an in-depth analysis of the fuelshed surrounding a starch-based ethanol plant near York, Nebraska that has the potential for cellulosic ethanol production. To assess the feasibility of supplying adequate biomass for year-round cellulosic ethanol production from residual maize (Zea mays) stover and bioenergy switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) within a 40-km road network service area of the existing ethanol plant, we identified ∼14,000 ha of marginally productive cropland within the service area suitable for conversion from annual rowcrops to switchgrass and ∼132,000 ha of maize-enrolled cropland from which maize stover could be collected. Annual maize stover and switchgrass biomass supplies within the 40-km service area could range between 429,000 and 752,000 metric tons (mT). Approximately 140–250 million liters (l) of cellulosic ethanol could be produced, rivaling the current 208 million l annual starch-based ethanol production capacity of the plant. We conclude that sufficient quantities of biomass could be produced from maize stover and switchgrass near the plant to support year-round cellulosic ethanol production at current feedstock yields, sustainable removal rates and bioconversion efficiencies. Modifying existing starch-based ethanol plants in intensive agricultural fuelsheds could increase ethanol output, return marginally productive cropland to perennial vegetation, and remove maize stover from productive cropland to meet feedstock demand.

  3. Adequate Selection of a Therapeutic Site Enables Efficient Development of Collateral Vessels in Angiogenic Treatment With Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Masaru; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Ayako; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Miyata, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Induction of angiogenic mechanisms to promote development of collateral vessels is considered promising for the treatment of peripheral arterial diseases. Collateral vessels generally develop from preexisting arteriolar connections, bypassing the diseased artery. We speculated that induction of angiogenic mechanisms should be directed to such arteriolar connections to achieve efficient collateral development. The aim of this study was to verify this hypothesis using autologous transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells in the rabbit model of chronic limb ischemia. Methods and Results The left femoral artery was excised to induce limb ischemia in male rabbits. In this model, arteriolar connections in the left coccygeofemoral muscle tend to develop into collateral vessels, although this transformation is insufficient to alleviate the limb ischemia. In contrast, arteriolar connections in the closely located adductor muscle do not readily develop into collateral vessels. At 21 days after ischemia initiation, a sufficient number of automononuclear cells were selectively injected in the left coccygeofemoral muscle (coccygeo group) or left adductor muscle (adductor group). Evaluation of calf blood pressure ratios, blood flow in the left internal iliac artery, and angiographic scores at day 28 after injection revealed that collateral development and improvement of limb ischemia were significantly more efficient in the coccygeo group than in the adductor group. Morphometric analysis of the coccygeofemoral muscle at day 14 showed similar results. Conclusions Specific delivery of mononuclear cells to the coccygeofemoral but not the adductor muscle effectively improves collateral circulation in the rabbit model of limb ischemia and suggests that adequate site selection can facilitate therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:26370447

  4. Prospects for nuclear safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a paper presented by Eric S. Beckjord (Director, Nuclear Regulatory Research/NRC) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 1994. The following topics are briefly reviewed: (1) Reactor vessel research, (2) Probabilistic risk assessment, (3) Direct containment heating, (4) Advanced LWR research, (5) Nuclear energy prospects in the US, and (6) Future nuclear safety research. Subtopics within the last category include economics, waste disposal, and health and safety.

  5. Prospects for de-automatization.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2011-06-01

    Research by Raz and his associates has repeatedly found that suggestions for hypnotic agnosia, administered to highly hypnotizable subjects, reduce or even eliminate Stroop interference. The present paper sought unsuccessfully to extend these findings to negative priming in the Stroop task. Nevertheless, the reduction of Stroop interference has broad theoretical implications, both for our understanding of automaticity and for the prospect of de-automatizing cognition in meditation and other altered states of consciousness. PMID:20356765

  6. Ocean energy - Forms and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, J. D.; Schmitt, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The primary nonpetroleum power sources of the sea can be classified as mechanical (waves, tides and currents), chemical (salinity gradients and biomass), and thermal (temperature gradients, including ice). Power potential of each of these sources, their particular characteristics, geographic distribution, energy density and feasibility of practical utilization are analyzed. Waves, tides and currents are already employed to produce power. Examples of some existing practical devices which utilize tidal and wave power are: wave pumps, Salter's Duck power plants, and tidal power plants. Different approaches to utilizing other marine power sources are discussed. The complexity of practical devices for the extraction of power seems to vary with energy density, the salinity gradient requiring the most complex approaches and the currents the simplest. Even more important than direct utilization of ocean energy may be the use of seawater as a coolant and of the sediments below the seabed for the disposal of nuclear wastes.

  7. Technical analysis of prospective photovoltaic systems in Utah.

    SciTech Connect

    Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Cameron, Christopher P.

    2012-02-01

    This report explores the technical feasibility of prospective utility-scale photovoltaic system (PV) deployments in Utah. Sandia National Laboratories worked with Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), a division of PacifiCorp operating in Utah, to evaluate prospective 2-megawatt (MW) PV plants in different locations with respect to energy production and possible impact on the RMP system and customers. The study focused on 2-MW{sub AC} nameplate PV systems of different PV technologies and different tracking configurations. Technical feasibility was evaluated at three different potential locations in the RMP distribution system. An advanced distribution simulation tool was used to conduct detailed time-series analysis on each feeder and provide results on the impacts on voltage, demand, voltage regulation equipment operations, and flicker. Annual energy performance was estimated.

  8. O7.02RADIOSURGERY AND BRAIN METASTASES: ADEQUATE SEQUENCE OF BRAIN MRI CAN SIGNIFICANTLY CHANGE THE INTRACRANIAL DISEASE STAGING

    PubMed Central

    Scoccianti, S.; Greto, D.; Bordi, L.; Bono, P.; Pecchioli, G.; Casati, M.; Vanzi, E.; Compagnucci, A.; Gadda, D.; Livi, L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accurate assessment of the exact number of brain metastases is of utmost importance in the decision-making process for the appropriate treatment. The diagnostic efficacy in the detection of additional brain metastases of a double dose contrast three-dimensional, T1-Weighted Gradient-Echo Imaging was evaluated. METHODS: Before undergoing radiosurgical treatment, patients underwent a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to be used during the treatment planning in order to contour the targets and to locate the brain lesions as they relate to the stereotactic frame. All the patients underwent a post-contrast study with T1-weighted, 3D Magnetization-Prepared Rapid Acquisition Gradient Echo (MP RAGE) sequence. We used a double dose of gadobenate dimeglumine and slice thickness of 0.9 mm. RESULTS: Starting from October 2012 to February 2014, we treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) 62 patients with brain metastases. On the diagnostic MRI, all the patients had a number of lesions ≤4. Median time interval between diagnostic MRI scan and the day of GKRS was 11 days (range 5-20) A total of 54 additional lesions were detected on MR imaging performed in the same day of the GKRS in twenty-two patients out of 62 (35.5%). A median number of 2 additional lesions were detected (range 1-8). Among these 22 patients only 14 patients had a number of lesions ≤4 on the day of treatment. Patients with a total number of lesions ≤10 were treated with GKRS. Two patients with a total number of lesions > 10 were treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). CONCLUSIONS: A double-contrast study with T1-weighted, volumetric MPRAGE sequence may offer better staging for patients with brain metastases. In our opinion, it should be recommended in all the patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases because the detection of the real number of lesions is crucial for an adequate treatment and it also may lead to choose different therapeutic strategies.

  9. AnnAGNPS model as a potential tool for seeking adequate agriculture land management in Navarre (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahor, Y.; Giménez, R.; Casalí, J.

    2012-04-01

    runoff was. On the other hand, a significant increment (30%) on annual sediment yield was predicted when rapeseed is the alternative major crop. Besides, a large decrease in annual runoff (up to 41%) and sediment (up to 98%) was predicted as the watershed is gradually occupied by shrubs. Finally, no-tillage appears as an interesting management method for cereals, with an over 90% reduction of in sediment yield -but only 4% in runoff. This is a first approach to evaluate AnnAGNPS as a management tool under local conditions. The above results may be then taking with caution especially in terms of absolute predicted values. However, AnnAGNPS can be considered as a promising tool for assessing the effect of the agricultural activities and implementing adequate land management alternatives in Mediterranean environment.

  10. The Effectiveness of Clinician Education on the Adequate Completion of Laboratory Test Request Forms at a Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Osegbe, ID; Afolabi, O; Onyenekwu, CP

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequately completed laboratory test request forms contribute to preanalytical errors and limit the advice of pathologists when interpreting laboratory test results. Educating clinicians about this has been proposed by several studies as a strategy to reduce the occurrence. Aim: We aimed to determine the effectiveness of such education on the prevalence of adequately completed laboratory test request forms. Subjects and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted at the chemical pathology laboratory of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Incoming laboratory request forms were audited for a period of 1 month looking out for eight data variables. Subsequently, intensive clinician education was undertaken via seminars, publications, and orientation programs on 670 clinicians for 6 weeks duration. After that, a repeat audit for the same data variables was conducted for another period of 1 month. A Z-test of significance for the comparison of independent proportions was conducted for form errors pre- and post-intervention. Results: Error rates for missing variables pre- and post-clinician education were: Name pre = 0 (0%), post = 0 (0%); age pre = 330 (21.6%), post = 28 (1.9%), P < 0.001; gender pre = 64 (4.2%), post = 53 (3.6%), P = 0.37; hospital number pre = 848 (55.6%), post = 524 (35.3%), P < 0.001; clinician name pre = 165 (10.8%), post = 64 (4.3%), P < 0.001; ward/clinic pre = 311 (20.4%), post = 235 (15.8%), P < 0.01; clinical diagnosis pre = 220 (14.4%), post = 33 (2.2%), P < 0.001; specimen type pre = 169 (11.1%), post = 116 (7.8%), P < 0.01, respectively. Conclusion: There was an improvement in the inadequate completion of laboratory request forms after clinicians were educated on proper completion using various interactive media, showing that it is an effective strategy. However, further studies are required to identify which educational strategy is most effective in reducing error rates in laboratory test request forms

  11. Total thyroidectomy without prophylactic central neck dissection in clinically node-negative papillary thyroid cancer: is it an adequate treatment?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid cancer are common. Although central neck dissection is indicated in clinically nodal-positive disease, it remains controversial in patients with no clinical evidence of nodal metastasis. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcomes of clinically lymph node-negative patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroidectomy without a central neck dissection, in order to determine the rates of recurrence and reoperation in these patients compared with a group of patients submitted to total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection. Methods Two-hundred and eighty-five patients undergoing total thyroidectomy with preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer, in the absence of suspicious nodes, were divided in two groups: those who underwent a thyroidectomy only (group A; n = 220) and those who also received a central neck dissection (group B; n = 65). Results Six cases (2.1%) of nodal recurrence were observed: 4 in group A and 2 in group B. Tumor histology was associated with risk of recurrence: Hürthle cell-variant and tall cell-variant carcinomas were associated with a high risk of recurrence. Multifocality and extrathyroidal invasion also presented a higher risk, while smaller tumors were at lower risk. Conclusions The role of prophylactic central lymph node dissection in the management of papillary thyroid cancer remains controversial. Total thyroidectomy appears to be an adequate treatment for clinically node-negative papillary thyroid cancer. Prophylactic central neck dissection could be considered for the more appropriate selection of patients for radioiodine treatment and should be reserved for high-risk patients only. No clinical or pathological factors are able to predict with any certainty the presence of nodal metastasis. In our experience, tumor size, some histological types, multifocality, and locoregional infiltration are related to an

  12. Phytase improves apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in piglets fed diets with adequate or reduced phosphorus content.

    PubMed

    Kühn, I; Partanen, K

    2012-12-01

    The effect of a thermotolerant 6-phytase produced by Trichoderma reesei on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was evaluated in 192 weaned piglets (randomized block design; 16 replicates; 2 piglets each). Diets based on wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa), soybean (Glycine max) meal, and whey protein with adequate [positive control (PC)] or reduced [negative control (NC)] Ca and P levels were fed for 46 d after weaning. The PC and NC diets contained 8.0 and 6.4 g/kg Ca and 2.9 and 1.9 g/kg digestible P, respectively. Pelleted diets contained 0, 500, or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg. Growth performance and G:F were measured during starter (25 d) and weaner pig (21 d) periods. The ATTD of Ca and P was determined by spot sampling at the end of the weaner pig period (8 pens per treatment over 5 consecutive d). Data were analyzed using a mixed model with random block effect and fixed effect of dietary P and phytase level and their interaction. Dietary P level did not affect ADG or G:F of piglets over the entire feeding period (P > 0.10) whereas phytase increased G:F (P < 0.05). During the starter period, phytase linearly enhanced (P < 0.05) ADG (258, 266, and 292 g) and G:F (639, 677, and 664 g gain/kg feed DM) without further increase in the weaner pig period (P > 0.10). A P × phytase interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for ATTD of P, more so for NC (48, 61, and 68%, respectively) than PC diets (52, 62, and 61%). The ATTD of Ca was higher (P < 0.05) for PC than NC diets (68 vs. 58%) and increased quadratically by phytase (61, 65, and 63%). In conclusion, the phytase tested enhanced piglet performance during the postweaning period and increased ATTD of P and Ca. PMID:23365327

  13. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  14. Distributed Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to assess the feasibility of safely collecting solar power at geostationary orbit and delivering it to earth. A strategy which could harness a small fraction of the millions of gigawatts of sunlight passing near earth could adequately supply the power needs of earth and those of space exploration far into the future. Light collected and enhanced both spatially and temporally in space and beamed to earth provides probably the only practical means of safe and efficient delivery of this space solar power to earth. In particular, we analyzed the feasibility of delivering power to sites on earth at a comparable intensity, after conversion to a usable form, to existing power needs. Two major obstacles in the delivery of space solar power to earth are safety and the development of a source suitable for space. We focused our approach on: (1) identifying system requirements and designing a strategy satisfying current eye and skin safety requirements; and (2) identifying a concept for a potential space-based source for producing the enhanced light.

  15. Prospects and status of low-aspect-ratio tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Y.K.M.

    1994-12-31

    The prospects for the low-aspect-ratio (A) tokamak to fulfill the requirements of viable fusion power plants are considered relative to the present status in data and modeling. Desirable physics and design features for an attractive Blanket Test Facility and power reactors are estimated for low-A tokamaks based on calculations improved with the latest data from small pioneering experiments. While these experiments have confirmed some of the recent predictions for low-A, they also identify the remaining issues that require verification before reliable projections can be made for these deuterium-tritium applications. The results show that the low-A regime of small size, modest field, and high current offers a path complementary to the standard and high A tokamaks in developing the full potential of fusion power.

  16. Atmospheric neutrinos: Status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Sandhya

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of the current status of neutrino oscillation studies at atmospheric neutrino experiments. While the current data gives some tantalising hints regarding the neutrino mass hierarchy, octant of θ23 and δCP, the hints are not statistically significant. We summarise the sensitivity to these sub-dominant three-generation effects from the next-generation proposed atmospheric neutrino experiments. We next present the prospects of new physics searches such as non-standard interactions, sterile neutrinos and CPT violation studies at these experiments.

  17. Pulsed Power Driven Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.

    1999-11-22

    Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology for obtaining high powers. Considerable progress has been made on developing light ion beams as a means of transporting this power to inertial fusion capsules. However, further progress is hampered by the lack of an adequate ion source. Alternatively, z-pinches can efficiently convert pulsed power into thermal radiation, which can be used to drive an inertial fusion capsule. However, a z-pinch driven fusion explosion will destroy a portion of the transmission line that delivers the electrical power to the z-pinch. They investigate several options for providing standoff for z-pinch driven fusion. Recyclable Transmission Lines (RTLs) appear to be the most promising approach.

  18. Prospects for carbon capture and storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Soren Anderson; Richard Newell

    2003-01-15

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies remove carbon dioxide from flue gases for storage in geologic formations or the ocean. The study found that CCS is technically feasible and economically attractive within the range of carbon policies discussed domestically and internationally. Current costs are about $200 to $250 per ton of carbon, although costs are sensitive to fuel prices and other assumptions and could be reduced significantly through technical improvements. Near-term prospects favor CCS for certain industrial sources and electric power plants, with storage in depleted oil and gas reservoirs. Deep aquifers may provide an attractive longer-term storage option, whereas ocean storage poses greater technical and environmental uncertainty. Vast quantities of economically recoverable fossil fuels, sizable political obstacles to their abandonment, and inherent delay associated with developing alternative energy sources suggest that CCS should be seriously considered in the portfolio of options for addressing climate change, alongside energy efficiency and carbon-free energy. 61 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  20. Examining prospective mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge on fractions in terms of students' mistakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Ömer; Gökkurt, Burçin; Soylu, Yasin

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is to examine prospective mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in terms of knowledge of understanding students and knowledge of instructional strategies which are the subcomponents of pedagogical content knowledge. The participants of this research consist of 98 prospective teachers who are studying in two universities in Turkey. The participants were selected with the purposive sampling method which is one of the non-random sampling methods. Case study method, which is based on the qualitative research approach, was used. The answers given by secondary school students to fraction-related open-ended questions in the study of Soylu and Soylu were used as the data collection tool. The obtained data were analyzed via the content analysis technique. The analyses showed that the prospective mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge on fractions was not at an adequate level in identifying and correcting students' errors. However, it was observed that the prospective teachers experienced more difficulty in the knowledge of instructional strategies compared to the knowledge of understanding students.

  1. Advance and prospect of bionanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Cui, Daxiang; Gao, Huajian

    2003-01-01

    Over the past few years, bionanomaterial science has emerged as a new exciting field in which theoretical and experimental studies of structure and function of bionanomaterials have become a focus, and the importance of DNA, RNA, and peptides as bionanomaterials to the fundamental development in biology and nanomaterials has begun to be recognized. In particular, biochemistry, biophysics, biomechanics, thermodynamics, and electronic properties of DNA, RNA, and peptides, as well as intelligent composite biological materials, have become a new interdisciplinary frontier in life science and material science. There is an increasing need for a more systematic study of the basic issues involved in bionanomaterials and a more active participation of researchers in the application domain of such novel materials. Great advances have been and are being made in nanobiochip materials, nanoscale biomimetic materials, nanomotors, nanocomposite materials, interface biomaterials, and nanobiosensor and nano drug delivery systems, with enormous prospect in industrial, defense, and clinical medicine applications. Here we review some of the main advances in this field over the past few years, explore the application prospects, and discuss the concepts, issues, approaches, and challenges, with the aim of stimulating a broader interest in developing bionanomaterials technology. PMID:12790626

  2. Nanocarbon Technologies: Prospects and Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, S.; Yakutseni, P.

    In this paper we review the current state and prospects of carbon nano-technologies as a new emerging point for atomic-molecular manipulation, design and discovery connected with fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and biology. The merging nanoscale interface between carbon and biology structures are shortly discussed in terms of fundamental insights and possible applications encompassing nanobionics as lessons from animate nature, artificial modifications of living systems as well as multicomponent molecular structures for biology, physics, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. Protein-based as well as carbohydrates-, lipids-, or DNA-based molecular assemblies loaded with nanocarbon are addressed in the context of the engineering systems design. Several examples from our collaborative work are used to demonstrate connections between points of nano and bio and to show how such an interdisciplinary approach has led us to new ideas and applications. Nanocarbons have little similarity with the well-known biologically active substances. There is no oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous-containing or other typical moieties, such as common pharmacophoric anchors or groups. In the same time fullerenes demonstrated a wide spectrum of biological activity. Mechanisms of their biological action are still unknown. For this reason our work was focused on the computer-based molecular modeling of the action of nanocarbon structures on the well-known biological structures: proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and lipid molecules. Possible biological hazards, fundamental questions and prospects associated with nano-carbon technologies are highlighted.

  3. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  4. Prospective payment for Medicare hospital capital: Implications of the research

    PubMed Central

    Cotterill, Philip G.

    1992-01-01

    The special characteristics of capital have an important effect on the cross-section variation in hospitals' capital costs. Variables reflecting capital age and financing differences perform as expected and add substantial explanatory power to capital cost models. However, even with the inclusion of these variables, the capital-cost models perform poorly compared with total-cost models. The empirical findings of this article support using the total-cost models to develop a common set of adjustment factors for capital and operating payment amounts in the Medicare prospective payment system. PMID:25372157

  5. Investigating Data Motion Power Trends to Enable Power-Efficient OpenSHMEM Implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, Tiffany M; D'Azevedo, Eduardo F.; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath; Hsu, Chung-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    As we continue to develop extreme-scale systems, it is becoming increasingly important to be mindful and more in control of power consumed by these systems. With high performance requirements being more constrained by power and data movement quickly becoming the critical concern for both power and performance, now is an opportune time for OpenSHMEM implementations to address the need for more power-efficient data movement. In order to enable power efficient OpenSHMEM implementations, we have formulated power trend studies that emphasize power consumption for one-sided communications and the disparities in power consumption across multiple implementations. In this paper, we present power trend analysis, generate targeted hypotheses for increasing power efficiency with OpenSHMEM, and discuss prospective research for power efficient OpenSHMEM implementations.

  6. Nuclear Power - Post Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Jose, Jr.

    2011-10-01

    The extreme events that led to the prolonged power outage at the Fukushima Daiicchi nuclear plant have highlighted the importance of assuring a means for stable long term cooling of the nuclear fuel and containment following a complete station blackout. Legislative bodies, regulatory agencies and industry are drawing lessons from those events and considering what changes, if any, are needed to nuclear power, post Fukushima. The enhanced safety of a new class of reactor designed by NuScale Power is drawing significant attention in light of the Fukushima events. During normal operation, each NuScale containment is fully immersed in a water-filled stainless steel lined concrete pool that resides underground. The pool, housed in a Seismic Category I building, is large enough to provided 30 days of core and containment cooling without adding water. After 30 days, the decay heat generations coupled with thermal radiation heat transfer is completely adequate to remove core decay heat for an unlimited period of time. These passive power systems can perform their function without requiring an external supply of water of power. An assessment of the NuScale passive systems is being performed through a comprehensive test program that includes the NuScale integral system test facility at Oregon State University

  7. Petroleum prospecting in the Arab world

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses about oil and gas exploration in the Arab countries. After describing the chemistry and formation of petroleum and steps involved in prospecting, the book surveys the history and results of prospecting in each country. It also provides diagrams, maps, appended reserves and production data, and English equivalent terms.

  8. Prospective Elemantary Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaroglu Akgul, Esra; Oztuna Kaplan, Aysun

    2009-01-01

    This research study examined "prospective elementary science teachers' epistemological beliefs". Forty-nine prospective elementary science teachers participated into research. The research was designed in both quantitative and qualitative manner, within the context of "Special Methods in Science Teaching I" course. Participants' epistemological…

  9. 36 CFR 228.60 - Prospecting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the extent necessary for testing and analysis or for the demonstration of the existence of a suitable deposit. (c) Environmental analysis. Prospecting permits will be issued only after submission by... prospecting permit may not cover more than 640 acres. No individual or group may have an interest at any...

  10. Prospect Research: A How-to Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Bobbie J., Ed.; Hunt, Susan, Ed.

    Advice on prospect research to help colleges raise more money from major donors is provided in 14 chapters, and 15 sample forms for processing research are appended. The advice covers how to discover prospects' interests and assets, and the potential match of a donor to the college's needs. Chapters address: collecting, organizing, and evaluating…

  11. Change, Stability and Context: Prospective Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Abdurrahman; Cokadar, Hulusi

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore and compare first-year and fourth-year prospective teachers' perceptions of good teaching, a good teacher, and a good student. A questionnaire with close- and open-ended questions was administered to 142 first-year and 138 fourth-year prospective teachers enrolled in the Faculty of Education at Pamukkale University.…

  12. Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria L.; Robinson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] is a cooperative learning experience that we felt could challenge our prospective teachers thinking about teaching and support their connection of theory and practice during an initial course on learning to teach mathematics. We studied seventy-four prospective teachers' perspectives on MLS over four sections of…

  13. Prospective Science Teachers' Conceptions about Astronomical Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify prospective science teachers' conceptions on basic astronomical phenomena. A questionnaire consisting of nine open-ended questions was administered to 327 prospective science teachers. The questionnaire was constructed after extensive review of the literature and took into consideration the reported…

  14. Do special constables in London feel that they are adequately prepared to meet their first aid responsibilities? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Meakin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study's aims were to explore the views of special constables in the London metropolitan police force concerning their obligations and skills as first aiders. Background The metropolitan police force provides police officers to act as first responders to emergency calls made by the public. Special constables act with the same powers and responsibility as police officers and are required to deal with incidents involving medical emergencies. Setting West London Police Station. Participants Fifteen special constables entered and completed the study. Methods and Outcome Measures A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews, participant observation, and reflective work. The outcome measures were the themes derived from the ‘thematic framework approach’ to analysis. Results Four main themes were identified. (1) ‘Our responsibility?’—Special constables felt they had a responsibility, but were unsure of the origin of this responsibility, with many feeling it stemmed from public expectation. (2) ‘Confidence’—Special constables had mixed feelings regarding their confidence in first aid scenarios and many felt that more could be done to improve their confidence. (3) ‘Training needs’—Many felt the current training system was lacking in several ways including regularity, teaching and content. (4) ‘Personal first aid knowledge’—Special constables were disappointed with their past performances. Conclusions Owing to the small size of this study, the conclusions are limited; however, if the findings are confirmed by larger studies, they suggest the need to improve the confidence of special constables in first aid situations. PMID:26826155

  15. [Radioprotectors: History, Trends and Prospects].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, S V; Popova, N R; Bruskov, V I

    2015-01-01

    The search for ideal protective agents for use in a variety of radiation scenarios has continued for more than six decades. This review describes the history of the major discoveries, shows the chronology of the changes in attitudes, trends and paradigms. The readers are invited to meet with various classes of chemical compounds that have the potential to protect against acute and late effects of ionizing radiation when administered either before or after radiation exposure. The work represents characteristics of radioprotective agents such as a dose reduction factor, time of administration, tissue specificity, toxicity; the mechanisms of their action and practical applications are also described. A separate chapter considers the further development prospects and directions in this field of research. PMID:26394481

  16. Radiation detectors: needs and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Armantrout, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Important applications for x- and ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy are found in prospecting, materials characterization, environmental monitoring, the life sciences, and nuclear physics. The specific requirements vary for each application with varying degrees of emphasis on either spectrometer resolution, detection efficiency, or both. Since no one spectrometer is ideally suited to this wide range of needs, compromises are usually required. Gas and scintillation spectrometers have reached a level of maturity, and recent interest has concentrated on semiconductor spectrometers. Germanium detectors are showing continuing refinement and are the spectrometers of choice for high resolution applications. The new high-Z semiconductors, such as CdTe and HgI/sub 2/, have shown steady improvement but are limited in both resolution and size and will likely be used only in applications which require their unique properties.

  17. Intelligence, Academic Self-Concept, and Information Literacy: The Role of Adequate Perceptions of Academic Ability in the Acquisition of Knowledge about Information Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present paper argues that adequate self-perceptions of academic ability are essential for students' realization of their intellectual potential, thereby fostering learning of complex skills, e.g., information-seeking skills. Thus, academic self-concept should moderate the relationship between intelligence and information…

  18. The Impact of the Adequate Yearly Progress Requirement of the Federal "No Child Left Behind" Act on Schools in the Great Lakes Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Edward W.; Mathis, William J.; Garcia, David R.

    2005-01-01

    This study finds that nearly every school in the Great Lakes states is threatened to fail the Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) requirements mandated by the federal "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) Act. NCLB holds schools and districts accountable for student achievement on state standardized tests and schools that do not make AYP face sanctions. A…

  19. The Impact of the Adequate Yearly Progress Requirement of the Federal "No Child Left Behind" Act on Schools in the Great Lakes Region. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Edward W.; Mathis, William J.; Garcia, David R.

    2005-01-01

    This executive summary describes a study that finds nearly every school in the Great Lakes states is threatened to fail the Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) requirements mandated by the federal "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) Act. NCLB holds schools and districts accountable for student achievement on state standardized tests and schools that do not…

  20. Children with Disabilities Are Often Misdiagnosed Initially and Children with Neuropsychiatric Disorders Are Referred to Adequate Resources 30 Months Later than Children with Other Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuominen-Eriksson, Alli-Marie; Svensson, Yvonne; Gunnarsson, Ronny K.

    2013-01-01

    Disabilities in a child may lead to low self-esteem and social problems. The lives of parents and siblings are also affected. Early intervention may decrease these consequences. To promote early intervention early referral to adequate resources is essential. In a longitudinal retrospective observational study it was found that children with…

  1. Effects of the Emphasis on Achieving Adequate Yearly Progress on Teachers and Administrators at Schools under the Constraints of No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Cathy Ann Burnett

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of the emphasis on achieving Adequate Yearly Progress at elementary schools under the regulations of the No Child Left Behind legislation. Qualitative data were gathered through interviews with fifty educators: forty-three teachers and seven administrators. All of the educators worked at six…

  2. TAM 304 wheat – Adapted to the adequate rainfall or high-input irrigation production system in the Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TAM 304 wheat is a medium-early hard red winter wheat. It is a great dryland or semi-irrigated wheat. TAM 304 performs best under adequate rainfall, limited irrigation, or irrigation, but does not perform as well under extended drought. TAM 304 performs exceptionally well under foliar disease pressu...

  3. How to Use PAP (Pain-Avoidance Principle) to Make AYP (Adequate Yearly Progress) under NCLB (No Child Left Behind Act)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    2005-01-01

    Today's educators live in fear of the draconian consequences of failing to make adequate yearly progress under the No Child Left Behind Act. In this article, the author offers sage advice on how to "comply" with the law and not get hurt. In this analysis, the author also offers guidance to his public school colleagues who, yearning to dodge the…

  4. An Examination of Principal Leadership Styles and Their Influence on School Performance as Measured by Adequate Yearly Progress at Selected Title I Elementary Schools in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Tammy Faith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine principal leadership styles and their influence on school performance as measured by adequate yearly progress at selected Title I schools in South Carolina. The main focus of the research study was to complete descriptive statistics on principal leadership styles in schools that met or did not meet adequate…

  5. Coal gasification players, projects, prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2006-07-15

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been running refineries and chemical plants for decades. Power applications have dotted the globe. Two major IGCC demonstration plants operating in the United States since the mid-1900s have helped set the stage for prime time, which is now approaching. Two major reference plant designs are in the wings and at least two major US utilities are poised to build their own IGCC power plants. 2 figs.

  6. A Decade of Neural Networks: Practical Applications and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemeny, Sabrina E.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Neural Network Workshop, sponsored by NASA and DOD, brings together sponsoring agencies, active researchers, and the user community to formulate a vision for the next decade of neural network research and application prospects. While the speed and computing power of microprocessors continue to grow at an ever-increasing pace, the demand to intelligently and adaptively deal with the complex, fuzzy, and often ill-defined world around us remains to a large extent unaddressed. Powerful, highly parallel computing paradigms such as neural networks promise to have a major impact in addressing these needs. Papers in the workshop proceedings highlight benefits of neural networks in real-world applications compared to conventional computing techniques. Topics include fault diagnosis, pattern recognition, and multiparameter optimization.

  7. Nuclear power expansion: thinking about uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, Lynne; Sotkiewicz, Paul; Berg, Sanford

    2010-06-15

    Nuclear power is one of many options available to achieve reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The real-option value model can help explain the uncertainties facing prospective nuclear plant developers in developing mitigation strategies for the development, construction, and operation of new nuclear plants. (author)

  8. Renewable Energy. The Power to Choose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

    This book, consisting of 13 chapters, charts the progress made in renewable energy in recent years and outlines renewable energy's prospects. Areas addressed include: energy at the crossroads (discussing oil, gas, coal, nuclear power, and the conservation revolution); solar building design; solar collection; sunlight to electricity; wood; energy…

  9. Prospective Tests on Biological Models of Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The biological effects of acupuncture include the regulation of a variety of neurohumoral factors and growth control factors. In science, models or hypotheses with confirmed predictions are considered more convincing than models solely based on retrospective explanations. Literature review showed that two biological models of acupuncture have been prospectively tested with independently confirmed predictions: The neurophysiology model on the long-term effects of acupuncture emphasizes the trophic and anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture. Its prediction on the peripheral effect of endorphin in acupuncture has been confirmed. The growth control model encompasses the neurophysiology model and suggests that a macroscopic growth control system originates from a network of organizers in embryogenesis. The activity of the growth control system is important in the formation, maintenance and regulation of all the physiological systems. Several phenomena of acupuncture such as the distribution of auricular acupuncture points, the long-term effects of acupuncture and the effect of multimodal non-specific stimulation at acupuncture points are consistent with the growth control model. The following predictions of the growth control model have been independently confirmed by research results in both acupuncture and conventional biomedical sciences: (i) Acupuncture has extensive growth control effects. (ii) Singular point and separatrix exist in morphogenesis. (iii) Organizers have high electric conductance, high current density and high density of gap junctions. (iv) A high density of gap junctions is distributed as separatrices or boundaries at body surface after early embryogenesis. (v) Many acupuncture points are located at transition points or boundaries between different body domains or muscles, coinciding with the connective tissue planes. (vi) Some morphogens and organizers continue to function after embryogenesis. Current acupuncture research suggests a convergence

  10. Prospects for European labour demand.

    PubMed

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  11. The Netherlands study of depression in older persons (NESDO); a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    can be pooled thus creating a large longitudinal database of clinically depressed persons with adequate power and a large set of neurobiological, psychosocial and physical variables from both younger and older depressed persons. PMID:22142532

  12. External Ventricular Catheters: Is It Appropriate to Use an Open/Monitor Position to Adequately Trend Intracranial Pressure in a Neuroscience Critical Care Environment?

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Nicole E; Villanueva, Nancy E; Pazuchanics, Susan J

    2016-10-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring can be an important assessment tool in critically and acutely ill patients. An external ventricular drain offers a comprehensive way to monitor ICP and drain cerebrospinal fluid. The Monro-Kellie hypothesis, Pascal's principle, and fluid dynamics were used to formulate an assumption that an open/monitor position on the stopcock is an adequate trending measure for ICP monitoring while concurrently draining cerebrospinal fluid. Data were collected from 50 patients and totaled 1053 separate number sets. The open/monitor position was compared with the clamped position every hour. An order for "open to drain" was needed for appropriate measurement and nursing care. Results showed the absolute average differences between open/monitor and clamped positions at 1.6268 mm Hg. This finding suggests that it is appropriate to use an open/monitor position via an external ventricular drain for adequate trending of patients' ICP. PMID:27579963

  13. Contribution of Geophysical Prospecting to Geohazard Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolich, Rinaldo

    2006-03-01

    The physical properties of the subsoil are studied using geophysical methods. These studies are always indirect, such as gravimetric, magnetometric, magnetotelluric or reflection-refraction seismic surveys and are often combined to obtain more accurate and reliable results. With these tools the oil industry commonly investigates the sedimentary basins to localize structures that may favor the accumulation of hydrocarbons. Above all, seismic prospecting allow the understanding of the underground geology, defining boundaries of the geological formations as well as mechanical and physical properties of the rocks. New cutting-edge techniques allow high quality data to be obtained in almost all geological contexts and make reflection seismic the most powerful tool in subsurface observations. The seismic method was utilized in geothermal resources investigation, research of water strategic resources, volcanic risks assessment, etc. The refraction method was the first to be used in the exploration of oil reservoirs. At present the industry employs mainly refraction seismics to study shallow formations. Conversely, university researchers have applied wide-angle reflection-refraction surveys to localize deep crustal interfaces analyzing the high amplitudes of the wide-angle reflections and the velocities obtained from the refracted signals. Moho discontinuity and velocity distribution within the crust were mapped out, indicating thickness and boundary conditions in different geological settings. The maps have been used in the analysis of geodynamical behavior and of active movements within the crust, useful for seismotectonic investigations. The further addition of the seismic reflection imaging, with deep penetration and long transects, completed multidisciplinary programs to unravel the structure of the crust with clear seismic images and models. High-resolution application of seismic has a central role in the identification and characterization of seismotectonic and

  14. Contribution of Geophysical Prospecting to Geohazard Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolich, Rinaldo

    2006-03-23

    The physical properties of the subsoil are studied using geophysical methods. These studies are always indirect, such as gravimetric, magnetometric, magnetotelluric or reflection-refraction seismic surveys and are often combined to obtain more accurate and reliable results. With these tools the oil industry commonly investigates the sedimentary basins to localize structures that may favor the accumulation of hydrocarbons. Above all, seismic prospecting allow the understanding of the underground geology, defining boundaries of the geological formations as well as mechanical and physical properties of the rocks. New cutting-edge techniques allow high quality data to be obtained in almost all geological contexts and make reflection seismic the most powerful tool in subsurface observations. The seismic method was utilized in geothermal resources investigation, research of water strategic resources, volcanic risks assessment, etc. The refraction method was the first to be used in the exploration of oil reservoirs. At present the industry employs mainly refraction seismics to study shallow formations. Conversely, university researchers have applied wide-angle reflection-refraction surveys to localize deep crustal interfaces analyzing the high amplitudes of the wide-angle reflections and the velocities obtained from the refracted signals. Moho discontinuity and velocity distribution within the crust were mapped out, indicating thickness and boundary conditions in different geological settings. The maps have been used in the analysis of geodynamical behavior and of active movements within the crust, useful for seismotectonic investigations. The further addition of the seismic reflection imaging, with deep penetration and long transects, completed multidisciplinary programs to unravel the structure of the crust with clear seismic images and models. High-resolution application of seismic has a central role in the identification and characterization of seismotectonic and

  15. Vibrator for seismic geophysical prospecting

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, J.M.

    1987-04-21

    An improved vibrator system is described for seismic geophysical prospecting, comprising: a vibrator comprising a first part, or dynamic vibrator part (VD) attached to a base plate in contact with the earth and a second part or vibrator stationary part (VS). Sound attenuating ear protection apparatus is described comprising: a pair of air evacuated, sealed chamber members disposably covering the ears of a user to lie between the user eardrums and an ear external source of undesirable sound energy; the air evacuated sealed chamber members each including first and second smooth surface portions with each surface portion having a spherical segment terminated by an annular flange lip shape and being disposable over one external ear of the user with one spherical segment, adjacent the ear being of different, higher mechanical resonance frequency with respect to the other spherical segment distal of the ear; the surface segment distal of the ear; the annular flange lips of the first and second surface portions being joined together in a junction disposed intermediate of the first and second spherical surface portions and perpendicular of the flange lips; resilient suspension means engaged with the head of the user and with the sealed chamber members for supporting the sealed chamber members in selected position over the user external ears.

  16. Structural Correlates of Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Brian A; Shelton, Jill T; Bugg, Julie M; McDaniel, Mark A; Head, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) includes the encoding and maintenance of an intention, and the retrieval and execution of this intention at the proper moment in the future. The present study expands upon previous behavioral, electrophysiological, and functional work by examining the association between grey matter volume and PM. Estimates of grey matter volume in theoretically relevant regions of interest (prefrontal, parietal, and medial temporal) were obtained in conjunction with performance on two PM tasks in a sample of 39 cognitively normal and very mildly demented older adults. The first PM task, termed focal in the literature, is supported by spontaneous retrieval of the PM intention whereas the second, termed non-focal, relies on strategic monitoring processes for successful intention retrieval. A positive relationship was observed between medial temporal volume and accuracy on the focal PM task. An examination of medial temporal lobe subregions revealed that this relationship was strongest for the hippocampus, which is considered to support spontaneous memory retrieval. There were no significant structure-behavior associations for the non-focal PM task. These novel results confirm a relationship between behavior and underlying brain structure proposed by the multiprocess theory of PM, and extend findings on cognitive correlates of medial temporal lobe integrity. PMID:21982698

  17. Prospects for Future Helioseismology Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, Philip H.

    The progress afforded by present and past helioseismology missions has been the topic of this and numerous previous conferences. The primary conclusion of the 1983 NASA study on prospects for solar oscillations have been basically confirmed. That is, part of the job can be done on the ground but a significant part can only be done from space. While we have made significant progress, it is also clear that additional opportunities to use helioseismic techniques to better understand stellar interiors remain. Recent advances in local helioseismology in particular point to additional observing requirements. These include larger field of view at high resolution in order to follow magnetic region development, longer baselines in longitude to probe the bottom of the convection zone and below, and a high latitude vantage point to examine processes near the rotation axis. Several possible missions have been discussed recently to address these issues. They include SONAR, Farside Observer, Solar Polar Imager, and Solar Probe. The basic concepts of these missions will be discussed along with the continuing role for enhanced ground based observations.

  18. Prospects of ITER Instability Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolemen, Egemen

    2015-11-01

    Prospects for real-time MHD stability analysis, plasma response calculations, and their use in ELM, NTM, RWM control and EFC will be discussed. ITER will need various controls to work together in order to achieve the stated goal of Q >= 10 for multiple minutes. These systems will allow operating at high beta while avoiding disruptions that may lead to damage to the reactor. However, it has not yet been demonstrated whether the combined real-time feedback control aim is feasible given the spectrum of plasma instabilities, the quality of the real-time diagnostic measurement/analysis, and the actuator set at ITER. We will explain challenges of instability control for ITER based on experimental and simulation results. We will demonstrate that it will not be possible to parameterize all possible disruption avoidance and ramp down scenarios that ITER may encounter. An alternative approach based on real-time MHD stability analysis and plasma response calculations, and its use in ELM, NTM, RWM control and EFC, will be demonstrated. Supported by the US DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  19. Artemether–lumefantrine treatment failure despite adequate lumefantrine day 7 concentration in a traveller with Plasmodium falciparum malaria after returning from Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Artemether-lumefantrine is currently first-line therapy of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in many countries. This report describes a treatment failure despite adequate drug concentrations in a traveller returning from sub-Saharan Africa. Genotyping confirmed recrudescence and suggested reduced sensitivity. Potential sub-optimal effect of artemether-lumefantrine highlights the need to follow non-immune individuals the weeks after treatment. PMID:22632033

  20. Assessment of adequate quality and collocation of reference measurements with space-borne hyperspectral infrared instruments to validate retrievals of temperature and water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbet, X.

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented to assess whether a given reference ground-based point observation, typically a radiosonde measurement, is adequately collocated and sufficiently representative of space-borne hyperspectral infrared instrument measurements. Once this assessment is made, the ground-based data can be used to validate and potentially calibrate, with a high degree of accuracy, the hyperspectral retrievals of temperature and water vapour.

  1. [Psychic changes in systemic lupus erythematosus: a multidisciplinary prospective study].

    PubMed

    Miguel Filho, E C; Pereira, R M; Busatto Filho, G; Shavitt, R G; Hirsch, R; de Sá, L C; de Arruda, P C

    1990-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of psychic symptoms in lupus patients, there are few systematic studies in this area. Through a multidisciplinary approach, the authors developed a prospective study to characterize and correlate psychopathological aspects with clinical and laboratory data concerning neural manifestations of the disease. Out of 23 patients studied, 12 showed psychic alterations, which were interpreted as primary manifestations of the disease. All of them presented organic mental syndromes (DSM-III-R) in which cognitive symptoms were the most prominent, followed by affective, catatonic and hallucinatory features. The neurologic findings (seizure, migraine and muscular atrophy), as well as the ophthalmologic alterations (hemorrhage and soft exudates) were frequent and concomitant with the psychic features. The laboratory findings were: LE cells 50%; anti-Sm: 16%; anti-U1 RNP: 50%; anti-Ro/SS-A: 50%; anti-nDNA: 58%; decreased CH50 or fractions (C3, C4): 67%; anti-P: 18%; antigangliosides IgG: 67%; antigangliosides IgM: 78%. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed: increased cellularity: 18%; elevated protein: 36%; antigangliosides IgG: 67%; antigangliosides IgM: 33%; immunocomplexes: 36%. In spite of the absence of an adequate control group and of the small number of patients, the multidisciplinary approach leads to a better characterization of the nervous system involvement in this disease. PMID:1965671

  2. Endoscopic vertical ramus osteotomy: a long-term prospective study.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, M E; Kaban, L B; Troulis, M J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of endoscopic vertical ramus osteotomy (EVRO) with rigid fixation for the treatment of mandibular prognathism or asymmetry. Inclusion criteria were age >15 years, adequate clinical and radiographic documentation, and minimum postoperative follow-up of 3 years. Exclusion criteria were refusal to consent, rheumatoid arthritis, steroid use, and smoking. Demographic data, pre-operative (T0), immediate postoperative (T1), and latest follow-up (T2) clinical examinations and cephalometric analysis, procedure data, complications, and length of hospital stay (LOS) were documented. Ten fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Diagnoses included mandibular hyperplasia (n = 5), stable condylar hyperplasia (n = 4), and mandibular asymmetry secondary to condylar resorption (n = 1). In total, 17 EVROs were performed. The mean operative time was 33 min per side. Mean mandibular setback was 4.7 mm. Mean LOS was 1.9 days. Latest follow-up ranged from 3 to 5 years. Skeletal stability was confirmed in nine patients. One patient exhibited recurrence of mandibular prognathism at 5 years due to late growth. No VII nerve deficits were encountered. Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paresthesia was noted in four patients, which resolved postoperatively. EVRO was fast and resulted in minimal blood loss, quick recovery, and skeletal stability. PMID:24246948

  3. [Factors associated with adequate prenatal care and delivery in São Tomé and Príncipe, 2008-2009].

    PubMed

    Reis, Patrícia Alexandra da Graça Dantas Dos; Pereira, Claudia Cristina de Aguiar; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-09-01

    We investigated factors associated with adequacy of prenatal and childbirth care for women in São Tomé and Príncipe. Data were analyzed from the Demographic and Health Survey on a sample of 1,326 newborn infants whose mothers were 15-49 years of age. The survey took place from September 2008 to March 2009. We used multilevel and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors and the target outcomes. Prenatal care was adequate in 26% of the sample, and 7% of deliveries were performed by physicians and 76% by nurses or nurse assistants. Statistically significant factors for prenatal care were birth order, maternal schooling, and index of economic well-being. The most important variables for adequate delivery were: birth order, maternal schooling, index of economic well-being, and place of residence. The study showed that socioeconomic factors have the greatest influence on adequate prenatal care and delivery. Future health policies should target social inequalities in São Tomé and Príncipe. PMID:26578017

  4. Are currently GFR estimating equations and standard Kt/V value adequate for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) frail elderly patients?

    PubMed

    Musso, Carlos G; Alvarez-Gregori, Joaquin; Jauregui, Jose; Núñez, Juan F Macías

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) elderly patients have a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) due to the combination of ageing and chronic nephropathy damage. This situation is very important to be taken into account in order to prescribe an adequate medication and dialysis dose in this aged group. Besides, cognitive and urinary incontinence problems make difficult to obtain an adequate 24-h urine collection in order to evaluate creatinine clearance in this group. Thus, a reliable GFR estimating equation would be very useful for assisting elderly CKD patients. Additionally, Kt/V is the main parameter currently used for dosing dialysis in stage V CKD young and elderly patients. However, frailty and sarcopenia are prevalent disorders usually suffered by old people, who also present many physiological changes that could make GFR estimating equations and standard Kt/V value to become unreliable in this particular group. In conclusion, based on all these facts, it seems crucial for clinical geriatric nephrology to carefully evaluate how reliable current GFR estimating equations are, as well as which would be an adequate Kt/V value in CKD frail elderly patients. PMID:25993909

  5. Assessment of medical students’ proficiency in dermatology: Are medical students adequately prepared to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Ulman, Catherine A.; Binder, Stephen Bruce; Borges, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether a current medical school curriculum is adequately preparing medical students to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. A 15-item anonymous multiple choice quiz covering fifteen diseases was developed to test students’ ability to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. The quiz also contained five items that assessed students’ confidence in their ability to diagnose common dermatologic conditions, their perception of whether they were receiving adequate training in dermatology, and their preferences for additional training in dermatology. The survey was performed in 2014, and was completed by 85 students (79.4%). Many students (87.6%) felt that they received inadequate training in dermatology during medical school. On average, students scored 46.6% on the 15-item quiz. Proficiency at the medical school where the study was performed is considered an overall score of greater than or equal to 70.0%. Students received an average score of 49.9% on the diagnostic items and an average score of 43.2% on the treatment items. The findings of this study suggest that United States medical schools should consider testing their students and assessing whether they are being adequately trained in dermatology. Then schools can decide if they need to re-evaluate the timing and delivery of their current dermatology curriculum, or whether additional curriculum hours or clinical rotations should be assigned for dermatologic training. PMID:25989840

  6. Thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis in selenium-adequate mice displays rapid and persistent abnormity of hepatic selenoenzymes which are mute to selenium supplementation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jinsong Wang Huali; Yu Hanqing

    2007-10-01

    Selenium reduction in cirrhosis is frequently reported. The known beneficial effect of selenium supplementation on cirrhosis is probably obtained from nutritionally selenium-deficient subjects. Whether selenium supplementation truly improves cirrhosis in general needs additional experimental investigation. Thioacetamide was used to induce cirrhosis in selenium-adequate and -deficient mice. Selenoenzyme activity and selenium content were measured and the influence of selenium supplementation was evaluated. In Se-adequate mice, thioacetamide-mediated rapid onset of hepatic oxidative stress resulted in an increase in thioredoxin reductase activity and a decrease in both glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content. The inverse activity of selenoenzymes (i.e. TrxR activity goes up and GPx activity goes down) was persistent and mute to selenium supplementation during the progress of cirrhosis; accordingly, cirrhosis was not improved by selenium supplementation in any period. On the other hand, selenium supplementation to selenium-deficient mice always more efficiently increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content compared with those treated with thioacetamide, indicating that thioacetamide impairs the liver bioavailability of selenium. Although thioacetamide profoundly affects hepatic selenium status in selenium-adequate mice, selenium supplementation does not modify the changes. Selenium supplementation to cirrhotic subjects with a background of nutritional selenium deficiency can improve selenium status but cannot restore hepatic glutathione peroxidase and selenium to normal levels.

  7. Procreative beneficence and the prospective parent.

    PubMed

    Herissone-Kelly, P

    2006-03-01

    Julian Savulescu has given clear expression to a principle-that of "procreative beneficence"-which underlies the thought of many contemporary writers on bioethics. The principle of procreative beneficence (PPB) holds that parents or single reproducers are at least prima facie obliged to select the child, out of a range of possible children they might have, who will be likely to lead the best life. My aim in this paper is to argue that prospective parents, just by dint of their being prospective parents, are in fact not obliged to act on PPB. That is, there is something about their filling the role of prospective parents that exempts them from selecting the child with the best life. I urge that it is more realistic to view prospective parents as bound by a principle of acceptable outlook, which holds that they ought not to select children whose lives will contain an unacceptable amount of suffering. PMID:16507665

  8. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting

    DOEpatents

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Dardenne, Yves M.

    2016-02-02

    Apparatus, systems, and methods for nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting include the steps of identifying an area; collecting samples; sample preparation; identification, assay, and analysis; and relating the samples to the area.

  9. Hypnosis Attenuates Executive Cost of Prospective Memory.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Gyula; Szendi, István; Juhász, Marianna; Kovács, Zoltán Ambrus; Boncz, István; Keresztes, Attila; Pajkossy, Péter; Racsmány, Mihály

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory is the ability to formulate and carry out actions at the appropriate time or in the appropriate context. This study aimed to identify the effect of hypnosis on prospective memory performance and to analyze the involvement of executive control processes in intention realization in a hypnotically altered state of consciousness. In 1 experiment, manipulating hypnotic instruction in a within-subject fashion, the authors explored the event-based prospective memory performance of 23 volunteers in 3 conditions: baseline, expectation, and execution. The primary result was that executing prospective memory responses, at the same accuracy rate, produced a significantly lower cost of ongoing responses in terms of response latency in the hypnotic state than in wake condition. PMID:26894423

  10. Vision Trouble Can Dim Life's Prospects

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160136.html Vision Trouble Can Dim Life's Prospects But it's not ... THURSDAY, July 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with vision problems may face a higher risk of unemployment, ...

  11. Contributions from space technology to central power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicks, J. B., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The central power crisis, and the present and relatively near-time contributions that aerospace technology is making to help solve this crisis are discussed. The principal emphasis is placed on the prospects of aerospace derived magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) large scale power generation. The strides that the Soviet Union is making in this field with the startup of the new U-25 plant near Moscow, having a total power capability of 75 MW, are reviewed. A much smaller program in the U.S. is outlined, and prospects of future benefits are discussed.

  12. Improvement of water treatment at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, B. M.; Bushuev, E. N.; Larin, A. B.; Karpychev, E. A.; Zhadan, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    Prospective and existing technologies for water treatment at thermal power plants, including pretreatment, ion exchange, and membrane method are considered. The results obtained from laboratory investigations and industrial tests of the proposed technologies carried out at different thermal power plants are presented. The possibilities of improving the process and environmental indicators of water treatment plants are shown.

  13. 48 CFR 52.214-6 - Explanation to Prospective Bidders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explanation to Prospective....214-6 Explanation to Prospective Bidders. As prescribed in 14.201-6(c)(2), insert the following provision: Explanation to Prospective Bidders (APR 1984) Any prospective bidder desiring an explanation...

  14. Prospecting for marine gas hydrate resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boswell, Ray; Shipp, Craig; Reichel, Thomas; Shelander, Dianna; Saeki, Tetsuo; Frye, Matthew; Shedd, William; Collett, Timothy S.; McConnell, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    As gas hydrate energy assessment matures worldwide, emphasis has evolved away from confirmation of the mere presence of gas hydrate to the more complex issue of prospecting for those specific accumulations that are viable resource targets. Gas hydrate exploration now integrates the unique pressure and temperature preconditions for gas hydrate occurrence with those concepts and practices that are the basis for conventional oil and gas exploration. We have aimed to assimilate the lessons learned to date in global gas hydrate exploration to outline a generalized prospecting approach as follows: (1) use existing well and geophysical data to delineate the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), (2) identify and evaluate potential direct indications of hydrate occurrence through evaluation of interval of elevated acoustic velocity and/or seismic events of prospective amplitude and polarity, (3) mitigate geologic risk via regional seismic and stratigraphic facies analysis as well as seismic mapping of amplitude distribution along prospective horizons, and (4) mitigate further prospect risk through assessment of the evidence of gas presence and migration into the GHSZ. Although a wide range of occurrence types might ultimately become viable energy supply options, this approach, which has been tested in only a small number of locations worldwide, has directed prospect evaluation toward those sand-hosted, high-saturation occurrences that were presently considered to have the greatest future commercial potential.

  15. Cannabinoids and schizophrenia: therapeutic prospects.

    PubMed

    Robson, P J; Guy, G W; Di Marzo, V

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one third of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia do not achieve adequate symptom control with standard antipsychotic drugs (APs). Some of these may prove responsive to clozapine, but non-response to APs remains an important clinical problem and cause of increased health care costs. In a significant proportion of patients, schizophrenia is associated with natural and iatrogenic metabolic abnormalities (obesity, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus), hyperadrenalism and an exaggerated HPA response to stress, and chronic systemic inflammation. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the brain plays an important role in maintaining normal mental health. ECS modulates emotion, reward processing, sleep regulation, aversive memory extinction and HPA axis regulation. ECS overactivity contributes to visceral fat accumulation, insulin resistance and impaired energy expenditure. The cannabis plant synthesises a large number of pharmacologically active compounds unique to it known as phytocannabinoids. In contrast to the euphoric and pro-psychotic effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), certain non-intoxicating phytocannabinoids have emerged in pre-clinical and clinical models as potential APs. Since the likely mechanism of action does not rely upon dopamine D2 receptor antagonism, synergistic combinations with existing APs are plausible. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of the non-intoxicating phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) are well established and are summarised below. Preliminary data reviewed in this paper suggest that CBD in combination with a CB1 receptor neutral antagonist could not only augment the effects of standard APs but also target the metabolic, inflammatory and stress-related components of the schizophrenia phenotype. PMID:23829368

  16. Food production -- problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Anifowoshe, T O

    1990-03-01

    Improvements are needed in balancing the problems associated with population growth and food production. A review of the problems of rapid population growth and declining food production and suggestions for resolution are given. World population has increased over the past 10 years by 760 million, which is equal to adding the combined population of Africa and South America. Future increases are expected to bring total population to 6.1 billion by the year 2000 and 8.2 billion in 2025 (exponential increases). Food production/capita has declined since 1971 in the world and in Nigeria, particularly in the recent past. The food production problem is technical, environmental, social, political, and economic. Various scientific and technological methods for increasing food production are identified: mechanization, irrigation, use of fertilizers, control of weeds and insects, new varieties of farm animals or high-yielding strains of grain, land reclamation, soil conservation, river basin development, adequate storage facilities, infrastructure development, and birth control. Economic and social approaches involve short-term and long-term strategies in social readjustment and institutional change. For instance, large scale farmers should become contract growers for certain firms. Bureaucratic red tape should be eliminated in institutions which provide agricultural services. Environmental problems need urgent attention. Some of these problems are soil erosion from mechanization, water salinization from irrigation, accumulation of DDT in food and water and animal life from pesticide use, and water pollution from chemical fertilizers. Food production can be increased with more ecologically sound practices. Information about weather and weather forecasting allows for more suitable land management. The influence of rainfall (the amount and distribution) in Nigeria is greater than any other climatic factor. Solar radiation is a significant feature in production of dry matter and

  17. A prospective treatment for sepsis.

    PubMed

    Shahidi Bonjar, Mohammad Rashid; Shahidi Bonjar, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    The present paper proposes a prospective auxiliary treatment for sepsis. There exists no record in the published media on the subject. As an auxiliary therapy, efficacious extracorporeal removal of sepsis-causing bacterial antigens and their toxins (BATs) from the blood of septic patients is discussed. The principal component to this approach is a bacterial polyvalent antibody-column (BPVAC), which selectively traps wide spectrum of BATs from blood in an extracorporeal circuit, and detoxified blood returns back to the patient's body. BPVAC treatment would be a device of targeted medicine. Detoxification is performed under supervision of trained personnel using simple blood-circulating machines in which blood circulates from the patient to BPVAC and back to the patient aseptically. BPVACs' reactive sites consist of carbon nanotubes on which a vast spectra of polyvalent BATs-antibodies are bond to. The devise acts as a biological filter that selectively immobilizes harmful BATs from intoxicated blood; however, no dialysis is involved. For effective neutralization, BPVAC provides large contact surface area with blood. BPVAC approach would have advantages of: 1) urgent neutralization of notorious BATs from blood of septic patients; 2) applicability in parallel with conventional treatments; 3) potential to minimize side effects of the malady; 4) applicability for a vast range of BATs; 5) potential to eliminate contact of BATs with internal tissues and organs; 6) tolerability by patients sensitive to antiserum injections; 7) capability for universal application; 8) affectivity when antibiotic-resistant bacteria are involved and the physician has no or limited access to appropriate antibiotics; and 10) being a single-use, disposable, and stand-alone device. Before using it for clinical trials in human beings, it should pass animal evaluations accurately; however, research works should optimize its implementation in human beings. For optimization, it needs appropriate

  18. Prospective Optimization with Limited Resources.

    PubMed

    Snider, Joseph; Lee, Dongpyo; Poizner, Howard; Gepshtein, Sergei

    2015-09-01

    The future is uncertain because some forthcoming events are unpredictable and also because our ability to foresee the myriad consequences of our own actions is limited. Here we studied how humans select actions under such extrinsic and intrinsic uncertainty, in view of an exponentially expanding number of prospects on a branching multivalued visual stimulus. A triangular grid of disks of different sizes scrolled down a touchscreen at a variable speed. The larger disks represented larger rewards. The task was to maximize the cumulative reward by touching one disk at a time in a rapid sequence, forming an upward path across the grid, while every step along the path constrained the part of the grid accessible in the future. This task captured some of the complexity of natural behavior in the risky and dynamic world, where ongoing decisions alter the landscape of future rewards. By comparing human behavior with behavior of ideal actors, we identified the strategies used by humans in terms of how far into the future they looked (their "depth of computation") and how often they attempted to incorporate new information about the future rewards (their "recalculation period"). We found that, for a given task difficulty, humans traded off their depth of computation for the recalculation period. The form of this tradeoff was consistent with a complete, brute-force exploration of all possible paths up to a resource-limited finite depth. A step-by-step analysis of the human behavior revealed that participants took into account very fine distinctions between the future rewards and that they abstained from some simple heuristics in assessment of the alternative paths, such as seeking only the largest disks or avoiding the smaller disks. The participants preferred to reduce their depth of computation or increase the recalculation period rather than sacrifice the precision of computation. PMID:26367309

  19. Prospective Optimization with Limited Resources

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Joseph; Lee, Dongpyo; Poizner, Howard; Gepshtein, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    The future is uncertain because some forthcoming events are unpredictable and also because our ability to foresee the myriad consequences of our own actions is limited. Here we studied how humans select actions under such extrinsic and intrinsic uncertainty, in view of an exponentially expanding number of prospects on a branching multivalued visual stimulus. A triangular grid of disks of different sizes scrolled down a touchscreen at a variable speed. The larger disks represented larger rewards. The task was to maximize the cumulative reward by touching one disk at a time in a rapid sequence, forming an upward path across the grid, while every step along the path constrained the part of the grid accessible in the future. This task captured some of the complexity of natural behavior in the risky and dynamic world, where ongoing decisions alter the landscape of future rewards. By comparing human behavior with behavior of ideal actors, we identified the strategies used by humans in terms of how far into the future they looked (their “depth of computation”) and how often they attempted to incorporate new information about the future rewards (their “recalculation period”). We found that, for a given task difficulty, humans traded off their depth of computation for the recalculation period. The form of this tradeoff was consistent with a complete, brute-force exploration of all possible paths up to a resource-limited finite depth. A step-by-step analysis of the human behavior revealed that participants took into account very fine distinctions between the future rewards and that they abstained from some simple heuristics in assessment of the alternative paths, such as seeking only the largest disks or avoiding the smaller disks. The participants preferred to reduce their depth of computation or increase the recalculation period rather than sacrifice the precision of computation. PMID:26367309

  20. [Prospective evaluation of antidepressant discontinuation].

    PubMed

    Mourad, I; Lejoyeux, M; Adès, J

    1998-01-01

    The authors prospectively assessed symptoms induced by the interruption of antidepressants in 16 patients (11 women and 5 men), aged from 33 to 85 years (mean = 52.4 +/- 16.4), treated with antidepressants since at least two weeks. All patients were free of alcohol abuse or dependence disorder and of other dependence to psychoactive substances. None of them presented medical illness. Diagnosis were made by separate evaluations by two authors and confirmed with a semistructered assessment instrument: the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (Lifetime Version). All patients were submitted to a brutal discontinuation of their antidepressant agent. Patients were assessed twice, before the interruption of the antidepressant, and 72 hours later. Effects of antidepressant interruption were assessed by several means. Modification of anxiety and depression were evaluated using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Symptoms of withdrawal were assessed with Cassano and al.'s scale SESSH including an evaluation of anxiety, agitation, irritability, anergy, difficulty on concentrating, depersonalization, sleep and appetite disorders, muscle pains, nausea, tremor, sweating, altered taste, hyperosmia, paresthesias, photophobia, motor incoordination, dizziness, hyperacousia pain, delirium. Fourteen of the 16 patients (87.5%) presented modifications of their somatic or psychic state 3 days after the interruption of the antidepressant treatment. Most frequent symptoms were: increase in anxiety (31%), increase in irritability (25%), sleep disorders (19%), decrease of anergia and fatigue (19%). Mean scores of anxiety and depression were not significantly modified by the withdrawal. Following TCAs interruption (7 patients) most frequent symptoms were sleep disorders; increase in anxiety, nausea. Among patients withdrawn from SSRIs (6 patients), most frequent symptoms were increase in anxiety, increase in irritability

  1. Prospective Coding by Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Brea, Johanni; Gaál, Alexisz Tamás; Senn, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Animals learn to make predictions, such as associating the sound of a bell with upcoming feeding or predicting a movement that a motor command is eliciting. How predictions are realized on the neuronal level and what plasticity rule underlies their learning is not well understood. Here we propose a biologically plausible synaptic plasticity rule to learn predictions on a single neuron level on a timescale of seconds. The learning rule allows a spiking two-compartment neuron to match its current firing rate to its own expected future discounted firing rate. For instance, if an originally neutral event is repeatedly followed by an event that elevates the firing rate of a neuron, the originally neutral event will eventually also elevate the neuron’s firing rate. The plasticity rule is a form of spike timing dependent plasticity in which a presynaptic spike followed by a postsynaptic spike leads to potentiation. Even if the plasticity window has a width of 20 milliseconds, associations on the time scale of seconds can be learned. We illustrate prospective coding with three examples: learning to predict a time varying input, learning to predict the next stimulus in a delayed paired-associate task and learning with a recurrent network to reproduce a temporally compressed version of a sequence. We discuss the potential role of the learning mechanism in classical trace conditioning. In the special case that the signal to be predicted encodes reward, the neuron learns to predict the discounted future reward and learning is closely related to the temporal difference learning algorithm TD(λ). PMID:27341100

  2. Practices in Adequate Structural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Structural design and verification of space vehicles and space systems is a very tricky and awe inspiring business, particularly for manned missions. Failures in the missions with loss of life is devastating personally and nationally. The scope of the problem is driven by high performance requirements which push state-of-the-art technologies, creating high sensitivites to small variations and uncertainties. Insurance of safe, reliable flight dictates the use of sound principles, procedures, analysis, and testing. Many of those principles which were refocused by the Space Shuttle Challenger (51-L) accident on January 26, 1986, and the activities conducted to insure safe shuttle reflights are discussed. The emphasis will be focused on engineering, while recognizing that project and project management are also key to success.

  3. Practices in adequate structural design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    An account is given of the guidelines for safe and reliable space vehicle design, especially in the structural engineering area, which have been formulated by NASA in the aftermath of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident in 1986. Illustrative examples are presented from state-of-the-art, performance-driven hardware whose design ineluctably gives rise to a high sensitivity to small variations and uncertainties. It is recommended that such hardware be designed with a view to easy inspectability and manufacturability, with emphasis on the role played in system structures by fracture mechanics. Static and dynamic coupling effects must be precluded wherever possible.

  4. Practices in adequate structural design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Structural design and verification of space vehicles and space systems is a very tricky and awe inspiring business, particularly for manned missions. Failures in the missions with loss of life is devastating personally and nationally. The scope of the problem is driven by high performance requirements which push state-of-the-art technologies, creating high sensitivites to small variations and uncertainties. Insurance of safe, reliable flight dictates the use of sound principles, procedures, analysis, and testing. Many of those principles which were refocused by the Space Shuttle Challenger (51-L) accident on January 26, 1986, and the activities conducted to insure safe shuttle reflights are discussed. The emphasis will be focused on engineering, while recognizing that project and project management are also key to success.

  5. Adequate Funding for Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angle, Jason B.

    2010-01-01

    Public schools are currently operating in a pressure-cooker of accountability systems in which they must teach students to high standards and meet ever increasing targets for student proficiency, or face increasingly severe sanctions. Into this mix is thrown educational technology and the funding for that technology. The literature espouses the…

  6. Recruiting Literature: Is It Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stantial, Linda; And Others

    1979-01-01

    College students seeking employment in today's work world, who have questions about work environments which might be consistent with personal skills, interests, and values, turn to company recruiting literature. A recent study reveals that the information students and college personnel want from recruiting literature is not the information they…

  7. Power Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kluksdahl, Betsy

    1991-01-01

    Topics concerning the Common Lunar Lander are presented in view graph form and include: energy storage and power generation; electrical power distribution and control; pyrotechniques; input from other subsystems; and design refinement following vehicle integration.

  8. Power processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    Processing of electric power has been presented as a discipline that draws on almost every field of electrical engineering, including system and control theory, communications theory, electronic network design, and power component technology. The cost of power processing equipment, which often equals that of expensive, sophisticated, and unconventional sources of electrical energy, such as solar batteries, is a significant consideration in the choice of electric power systems.

  9. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  10. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  11. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  12. Prospect for extreme field science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, T.

    2009-11-01

    The kind of laser extreme light infrastructure (ELI) provides will usher in a class of experiments we have only dreamed of for years. The characteristics that ELI brings in include: the highest intensity ever, large fluence, and relatively high repetition rate. A personal view of the author on the prospect of harnessing this unprecedented opportunity for advancing science of extreme fields is presented. The first characteristic of ELI, its intensity, will allow us to access, as many have stressed already, extreme fields that hover around the Schwinger field or at the very least the neighboring fields in which vacuum begins to behave as a nonlinear medium. In this sense, we are seriously probing the “material” property of vacuum and thus the property that theory of relativity itself described and will entail. We will probe both special theory and general theory of relativity in regimes that have been never tested so far. We may see a glimpse into the reach of relativity or even its breakdown in some extreme regimes. We will learn Einstein and may even go beyond Einstein, if our journey is led. Laser-driven acceleration both by the laser field itself and by the wakefield that is triggered in a plasma is huge. Energies, if not luminosity, we can access, may be unprecedented going far beyond TeV. The nice thing about ELI is that it has relatively high repetition rate and average fluence as compared with other extreme lasers. This high fluence can be a key element that leads to applications to high energy physics, such as gamma-gamma collider driver experiment, and some gamma ray experiments that may be relevant in the frontier of photo-nuclear physics, and atomic energy applications. Needless to say, high fluence is one of most important features that industrial and medical applications may need. If we are lucky, we may see a door opens at the frontier of novel physics that may not be available by any other means. Finally, as the last lecture of this workshop the

  13. Artificial Cells: Prospects for Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Deamer, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A variety of techniques can now be used to alter the genome of a cell. Although these techniques are very powerful, they also have limitations related to cost and efficiency of scale. Artificial cells designed for specific applications combine properties of biological systems such as nano-scale efficiency, self-organization and adaptability at relatively low cost. Individual components needed for such structures have already been developed, and now the main challenge is to integrate them in functional microscopic compartments. It will then become possible to design and construct communities of artificial cells that can perform different tasks related to therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  14. Artificial cells: prospects for biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Deamer, David

    2002-01-01

    A variety of techniques can now be used to alter the genome of a cell. Although these techniques are very powerful, they have limitations related to cost and efficiency of scale. Artificial cells designed for specific applications combine properties of biological systems such as nanoscale efficiency, self-organization and adaptability at relatively low cost. Individual components needed for such structures have already been developed, and now the main challenge is to integrate them in functional microscopic compartments. It will then become possible to design and construct communities of artificial cells that can perform different tasks related to therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  15. Adequate vitamin D levels in a Swedish population living above latitude 63°N: The 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA study

    PubMed Central

    Ramnemark, Anna; Norberg, Margareta; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Eliasson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background Even though vitamin D is mainly produced by exposure to sunlight, little is known regarding vitamin D levels in populations living in sub-Arctic areas with little or no daylight during winter. Objective We describe distributions of vitamin D3 and the prevalence of adequate levels in a population living above 63°N. Design We sampled 1,622 randomly selected subjects, aged 25–74 years, between January and May, 2009, as part of the Northern Sweden MONICA study (69.2% participation rate). By using HPLC, 25(OH) vitamin D3 was analysed. Levels used for definitions were deficient, D3<25 nmol/l (<10 ng/ml); insufficient, D3 25–49.9 nmol/l (10–20 ng/ml); and adequate, D3≥50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml). Results Mean (median) level of vitamin D3 was 65.2 (63.6) nmol/l in men and 71.0 (67.7) nmol/l in women. Adequate levels were found in 79.2%, more often in women (82.7%) than in men (75.6%). Only 0.7% of the population were vitamin D3–deficient but 23.1% of men and 17.1% of women had insufficient levels. Levels of vitamin D3 increased with age and insufficient status was most common among those aged 25–34 years, 41.0% in men and 22.3% in women. If subjects using vitamin D-supplementation are excluded, the population level of D3 is 1–2 nmol/l lower than in the general population across sex- and age groups. There were no differences between the northern or the southern parts, between urban or rural living or according to educational attainment. Those subjects born outside of Sweden or Finland had lower levels. Conclusion The large majority living close to the Arctic Circle in Sweden have adequate D3 levels even during the second half of the dark winter. Subjects with D3 deficiency were uncommon but insufficient levels were often found among young men. PMID:25976742

  16. Violence as an Under-Recognized Barrier to Women's Realization of Their Right to Adequate Food and Nutrition: Case Studies From Georgia and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Anne C; Lemke, Stefanie; Jenderedjian, Anna; Scherbaum, Veronika

    2015-10-01

    This article addresses under-acknowledged barriers of structural violence and discrimination that interfere with women's capacity to realize their human rights generally, and their right to adequate food and nutrition in particular. Case studies from Georgia and South Africa illustrate the need for a human rights-based approach to food and nutrition security that prioritizes non-discrimination, public participation, and self-determination. These principles are frustrated by different types of structural violence that, if not seriously addressed, pose multiple barriers to women's economic, public, and social engagement. PMID:26139694

  17. Simulation of automatic frequency and power regulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovikov, Y. S.; Pischulin, A. Y.; Ufa, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    The motivation of the presented research is based on the need for development of new methods and tools for adequate real time simulation of automation control frequency and power regulators of generator played an important role in the planning, design and operation of electric power system. This paper proposes a Hybrid real time simulator of electric power system for simulation of automation control frequency and power regulators of generator. The obtained results of experimental researches of turbine emergency control of generator demonstrate high accuracy of the simulator and possibility of real-time simulation of all the processes in the electric power system without any decomposition and limitation on their duration, and the effectiveness of the proposed simulator in solving of the design, operational and research tasks of electric power system.

  18. Development potential of the Dauin geothermal prospect, Negros Oriental, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Bayrante, L.F.; Hermoso, D.Z.; Candelaria, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Dauin geothermal prospect, situated 5 km southeast of the Palinpinon I and II sectors, was drilled between 1982 and 1983 to test its viability for development. Drilling results indicated that DN-1 was drilled closer to the source region than DN-2 where permeability, temperature, and alteration mineralogy were generally unpromising. DN-1 encountered temperatures of at least 240{degrees}C and a neutral-pH fluid with reservoir chloride of 3000 mg/kg. In particular, the presence of sulphur in the DN-1 discharge provoked debates and many speculation on the nature of the fluid in the area. The area was re-evaluated in 1996 for the following reasons: (1) Renewed interests on other geothermal prospects within Negros Island from an economic point of view and the success of modular plant developments are Pal II and other areas in the Philippines; (2) Reinterpretation of the genesis of sulphur contained in the DN-1 discharge fluid; (3) Encouraging temperature, permeability and neutral-pH alterations at depth and the neutral character of DN-1 discharge fluid; and (4) Reinterpretation of the hydrological model from a geochemical and geological point of view. The study indicates good potential for modular power development.

  19. Dieting and restrained eating as prospective predictors of weight gain.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Doshi, Sapna D; Katterman, Shawn N; Feig, Emily H

    2013-01-01

    Research in normal weight individuals paradoxically suggests that measures of attempted eating restriction might represent robust predictors of weight gain. This review examined the extent to which measures of dieting (e.g., self-reported weight loss dieting in the past year) and dietary restraint (e.g., the Cognitive Restraint scale from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) have prospectively predicted weight change. We located and reviewed 25 prospective studies containing 40 relevant comparisons. Studies were limited to those in which participants were non-obese (with a mean BMI between 18.5 and 30) and averaged at least 12 years old. Neither measure predicted future weight loss. Fifteen of the 20 comparisons (75%) that examined measures of dieting significantly predicted future weight gain whereas only 1 of 20 (5%) that examined restrained eating measures did so. Two plausible explanations for these findings are that: (1) dieters and restrained eaters do not differ in terms of an underlying proneness toward weight gain, but restrained eating represents a more effective means of preventing it; and (2) normal weight individuals who diet do so because they are resisting a powerful predisposition toward weight gain which dieting ultimately fails to prevent. Recent dieting in non-obese individuals may be a valuable proxy of susceptibility to weight gain. This easily assessed characteristic could identify individuals for whom obesity prevention interventions would be particularly appropriate. PMID:24032024

  20. Antimatter propulsion, status and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Hynes, Michael V.

    1986-01-01

    The use of advanced propulsion techniques must be considered if the currently envisioned launch date of the manned Mars mission were delayed until 2020 or later. Within the next thirty years, technological advances may allow such methods as beaming power to the ship, inertial-confinement fusion, or mass-conversion of antiprotons to become feasible. A propulsion system with an ISP of around 5000 s would allow the currently envisioned mission module to fly to Mars in 3 months and would require about one million pounds to be assembled in Earth orbit. Of the possible methods to achieve this, the antiproton mass-conversion reaction offers the highest potential, the greatest problems, and the most fascination. Increasing the production rates of antiprotons is a high priority task at facilities around the world. The application of antiprotons to propulsion requires the coupling of the energy released in the mass-conversion reaction to thrust-producing mechanisms. Recent proposals entail using the antiprotons to produce inertial confinement fusion or to produce negative muons which can catalyze fusion. By increasing the energy released per antiproton, the effective cost, (dollars/joule) can be reduced. These proposals and other areas of research can be investigated now. These short term results will be important in assessing the long range feasibility of an antiproton powered engine.