Science.gov

Sample records for adequately powered study

  1. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  2. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  3. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  4. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  5. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  6. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  7. Adequate number of clinicians on usability tests lacking, says study.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    A new study reveals that some of the largest EMR vendors failed to meet certification standards, specifying that they state their user-centered design processes, and that they include at least 15 representative end-user participants in their usability tests. It is not clear why these vendors were certified despite not meeting the standards established by Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), but investigators suggest that emergency clinicians and administrators should engage with vendors early on, querying them about their user-centered processes. An analysis of the usability tests performed by 41 of some the largest EMR vendors found that 34% of them did not meet certification standards, specifying that they state their user-centered design process. Also, 63% of the vendors failed to include at least 15 representative end-users in their usability tests. Only 15% of the vendors used at least 15 participants who had clinical backgrounds in their usability tests. Experts urge clinicians to engage with EMR user groups to share best practices for optimizing specific EMR products. PMID:26677480

  8. Can loss of balance from mesoscale eddies adequately power deep ocean mixing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.; Haine, T. W.; Read, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The global ocean thermohaline circulation is partly composed of the sinking of dense surface waters at high latitudes. But in order to close the circulation and maintain the abyssal stratification, the dense waters must rise up again through vertical mixing. This process requires a source of energy roughly estimated to be 2 TW. Previous work has concluded that tides and winds may adequately supply the required power, but the conceivable role of loss of balance from mesoscale eddies, resulting in the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves and associated vertical mixing, has hitherto been considered to be 'of unknown importance' (Wunsch and Ferrari, 2004). We investigate the potential role of loss of balance, by studying the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves by balanced flow in a rotating two-layer annulus laboratory experiment (Williams et al., 2008). A photograph from the experiment is shown in the figure. As the Rossby number of the balanced flow decreases, the amplitude of the emitted inertia-gravity waves also decreases, but much less rapidly than is predicted by several dynamical theories. This finding suggests that inertia-gravity waves might be far more energised than previously thought. The balanced flow leaks roughly one per cent of its energy each rotation period into internal inertia-gravity waves at the peak of their generation. Crude extrapolation of this result to the global ocean suggests that the flux of energy from mesoscale eddies into internal waves may be as large as 1.5 TW. We claim no accuracy for this figure which is only indicative. Nevertheless, we are persuaded that generation of inertia-gravity waves from the balanced mesoscale flow may be an important source of energy for deep interior mixing, and deserves further study. Reference Williams, PD, Haine, TWN and Read, PL (2008) Inertia-Gravity Waves Emitted from Balanced Flow: Observations, Properties, and Consequences. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 65(11), pp 3543

  9. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-evident (general anesthetics, drug metabolism). (3) The method of selection of subjects provides adequate... respect to pertinent variables such as age, sex, severity of disease, duration of disease, and use of... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies....

  10. Leadership Style and Adequate Yearly Progress: A Correlational Study of Effective Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leapley-Portscheller, Claudia Iris

    2008-01-01

    Principals are responsible for leading efforts to reach increasingly higher levels of student academic proficiency in schools associated with adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to identify the degree to which perceptions of principal transformational, transactional, and…

  11. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-02-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  12. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  13. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  14. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conducting clinical investigations of a drug is to distinguish the effect of a drug from other influences... recognized by the scientific community as the essentials of an adequate and well-controlled clinical... randomization and blinding of patients or investigators, or both. If the intent of the trial is to...

  15. Are Substance Use Prevention Programs More Effective in Schools Making Adequate Yearly Progress? A Study of Project ALERT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to determine if a popular school-based drug prevention program might be effective in schools that are making adequate yearly progress (AYP). Thirty-four schools with grades 6 through 8 in 11 states were randomly assigned either to receive Project ALERT (n = 17) or to a control group (n = 17); of these, 10 intervention…

  16. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications..., such as spontaneous change in the course of the disease, placebo effect, or biased observation. The... evidence” to support the claims of effectiveness for new drugs. Therefore, the study report should...

  17. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., such as spontaneous change in the course of the disease, placebo effect, or biased observation. The... control are recognized: (i) Placebo concurrent control. The test drug is compared with an inactive preparation designed to resemble the test drug as far as possible. A placebo-controlled study may...

  18. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., such as spontaneous change in the course of the disease, placebo effect, or biased observation. The... control are recognized: (i) Placebo concurrent control. The test drug is compared with an inactive preparation designed to resemble the test drug as far as possible. A placebo-controlled study may...

  19. Does the mean adequately represent reading performance? Evidence from a cross-linguistic study

    PubMed Central

    Marinelli, Chiara V.; Horne, Joanna K.; McGeown, Sarah P.; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2014-01-01

    Reading models are largely based on the interpretation of average data from normal or impaired readers, mainly drawn from English-speaking individuals. In the present study we evaluated the possible contribution of orthographic consistency in generating individual differences in reading behavior. We compared the reading performance of young adults speaking English (one of the most irregular orthographies) and Italian (a very regular orthography). In the 1st experiment we presented 22 English and 30 Italian readers with 5-letter words using the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) paradigm. In a 2nd experiment, we evaluated a new group of 26 English and 32 Italian proficient readers through the RSVP procedure and lists matched in the two languages for both number of phonemes and letters. The results of the two experiments indicate that English participants read at a similar rate but with much greater individual differences than the Italian participants. In a 3rd experiment, we extended these results to a vocal reaction time (vRT) task, examining the effect of word frequency. An ex-Gaussian distribution analysis revealed differences between languages in the size of the exponential parameter (tau) and in the variance (sigma), but not the mean, of the Gaussian component. Notably, English readers were more variable for both tau and sigma than Italian readers. The pattern of performance in English individuals runs counter to models of performance in timed tasks (Faust et al., 1999; Myerson et al., 2003) which envisage a general relationship between mean performance and variability; indeed, this relationship does not hold in the case of the English participants. The present data highlight the importance of developing reading models that not only capture mean level performance, but also variability across individuals, especially in order to account for cross-linguistic differences in reading behavior. PMID:25191289

  20. A blast without power - cell death induced by the tuberculosis-necrotizing toxin fails to elicit adequate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Maueröder, C; Chaurio, R A; Dumych, T; Podolska, M; Lootsik, M D; Culemann, S; Friedrich, R P; Bilyy, R; Alexiou, C; Schett, G; Berens, C; Herrmann, M; Munoz, L E

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we deploy a doxycycline-dependent suicide switch integrated in a tumor challenge model. With this experimental setup, we characterized the immunological consequences of cells dying by four distinct cell death stimuli in vivo. We observed that apoptotic cell death induced by expression of the truncated form of BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (tBid) and a constitutively active form of caspase 3 (revC3), respectively, showed higher immunogenicity than cell death induced by expression of the tuberculosis-necrotizing toxin (TNT). Our data indicate that the early release of ATP induces the silent clearance of dying cells, whereas the simultaneous presence of 'find me' signals and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) promotes inflammatory reactions and increased immunogenicity. This proposed model is supported by findings showing that the production and release of high concentrations of IL-27 by bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) is limited to BMDM exposed to those forms of death that simultaneously released ATP and the DAMPs heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) and high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1). These results demonstrate that the tissue microenvironment generated by dying cells may determine the subsequent immune response. PMID:26943324

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Rivastigmine in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease Not Responding Adequately to Donepezil: An Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Figiel, Gary S.; Sadowsky, Carl H.; Strigas, John; Koumaras, Barbara; Meng, Xiangyi; Gunay, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Switching patients with Alzheimer's disease from one cholinesterase inhibitor to another represents a viable option for patients not responding to current therapy. The objective of this large U.S.-based study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a treatment switch to rivastigmine in patients not responding adequately to or declining on treatment with donepezil. Method: In this 26-week, prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study conducted from April 24, 2003, to June 25, 2004, patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were not responding to donepezil were treated with rivastigmine 3–12 mg/day. Safety and tolerability were measured by the occurrence of adverse events and patient disposition. Treatment effects on global functioning were assessed using the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) scale. Results: Two hundred seventy patients with a mean age of 78.5 (SD = 7.56) years and a mean duration of dementia of 3.5 (SD = 2.06) years were included in the study. Sixty-nine percent of patients completed the study with 17.8% discontinuing due to adverse events. Eighty-three percent of patients reported at least 1 adverse event, with the most frequently occurring adverse events affecting the gastrointestinal system (54%). The majority of patients were reported to have either improvement or no decline on the CGIC. A limitation of the study is that the interpretation of the results is based on an overall completion rate of 69%. Conclusion: Immediately switching patients from donepezil to rivastigmine without a washout period was safe and well tolerated in the current study. Additionally, these results suggest that patients not responding adequately to or declining while taking donepezil may improve or stabilize after switching to rivastigmine. PMID:18787673

  2. Study to Determine Adequate Margins in Radiotherapy Planning for Esophageal Carcinoma by Detailing Patterns of Recurrence After Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Button, Michael R. Morgan, Carys A.; Croydon, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, S. Ashley; Crosby, Thomas D.L.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the adequacy of radiotherapy (RT) margins by studying the relapse patterns after definitive chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study assessing the first site of disease relapse after definitive chemoradiotherapy that included four 3-weekly cycles of cisplatin and continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil, with conformal RT (50 Gy in 25 fractions) concurrent with Cycles 3 and 4. The RT planning target volume was the endoscopic ultrasonography/computed tomography-defined gross tumor volume with 1.5-cm lateral and 3-cm superoinferior margins. Results: A total of 145 patients were included. Their average age was 65.4 years, 45% had adenocarcinoma, 61% had lower third esophageal tumors, and 75% had Stage III-IVA disease. After RT, of 142 patients, 85 (60%) had evidence of relapse at a median follow-up of 18 months. The relapse was local (within the RT field) in 55; distant (metastatic) in 13, and a combination of local and distant in 14. The local relapse rates were not influenced by tumor stage, lymph node status, or disease length. Three patients developed a relapse in regions adjacent to the RT fields; however, it is unlikely that larger field margins would have been clinically acceptable or effective in these cases. The median overall survival was 15 months. Conclusion: The gross tumor volume-planning target volume margins in this study appeared adequate. Future efforts to improve outcomes using definitive chemoradiotherapy should be directed toward reducing the high rates of in-field and distant relapses.

  3. Do special constables in London feel that they are adequately prepared to meet their first aid responsibilities? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Meakin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study's aims were to explore the views of special constables in the London metropolitan police force concerning their obligations and skills as first aiders. Background The metropolitan police force provides police officers to act as first responders to emergency calls made by the public. Special constables act with the same powers and responsibility as police officers and are required to deal with incidents involving medical emergencies. Setting West London Police Station. Participants Fifteen special constables entered and completed the study. Methods and Outcome Measures A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews, participant observation, and reflective work. The outcome measures were the themes derived from the ‘thematic framework approach’ to analysis. Results Four main themes were identified. (1) ‘Our responsibility?’—Special constables felt they had a responsibility, but were unsure of the origin of this responsibility, with many feeling it stemmed from public expectation. (2) ‘Confidence’—Special constables had mixed feelings regarding their confidence in first aid scenarios and many felt that more could be done to improve their confidence. (3) ‘Training needs’—Many felt the current training system was lacking in several ways including regularity, teaching and content. (4) ‘Personal first aid knowledge’—Special constables were disappointed with their past performances. Conclusions Owing to the small size of this study, the conclusions are limited; however, if the findings are confirmed by larger studies, they suggest the need to improve the confidence of special constables in first aid situations. PMID:26826155

  4. Rectal cancer delivery of radiotherapy in adequate time and with adequate dose is influenced by treatment center, treatment schedule, and gender and is prognostic parameter for local control: Results of study CAO/ARO/AIO-94

    SciTech Connect

    Fietkau, Rainer . E-mail: rainer.fietkau@med.uni-rostock.de; Roedel, Claus; Hohenberger, Werner; Raab, Rudolf; Hess, Clemens; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Wittekind, Christian; Hutter, Matthias; Hager, Eva; Karstens, Johann; Ewald, Hermann; Christen, Norbert; Jagoditsch, Michael; Martus, Peter; Sauer, Rolf

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: The impact of the delivery of radiotherapy (RT) on treatment results in rectal cancer patients is unknown. Methods and Materials: The data from 788 patients with rectal cancer treated within the German CAO/AIO/ARO-94 phase III trial were analyzed concerning the impact of the delivery of RT (adequate RT: minimal radiation RT dose delivered, 4300 cGy for neoadjuvant RT or 4700 cGy for adjuvant RT; completion of RT in <44 days for neoadjuvant RT or <49 days for adjuvant RT) in different centers on the locoregional recurrence rate (LRR) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years. The LRR, DFS, and delivery of RT were analyzed as endpoints in multivariate analysis. Results: A significant difference was found between the centers and the delivery of RT. The overall delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for the LRR (no RT, 29.6% {+-} 7.8%; inadequate RT, 21.2% {+-} 5.6%; adequate RT, 6.8% {+-} 1.4%; p = 0.0001) and DFS (no RT, 55.1% {+-} 9.1%; inadequate RT, 57.4% {+-} 6.3%; adequate RT, 69.1% {+-} 2.3%; p = 0.02). Postoperatively, delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for LRR on multivariate analysis (together with pathologic stage) but not for DFS (independent parameters, pathologic stage and age). Preoperatively, on multivariate analysis, pathologic stage, but not delivery of RT, was an independent prognostic parameter for LRR and DFS (together with adequate chemotherapy). On multivariate analysis, the treatment center, treatment schedule (neoadjuvant vs. adjuvant RT), and gender were prognostic parameters for adequate RT. Conclusion: Delivery of RT should be regarded as a prognostic factor for LRR in rectal cancer and is influenced by the treatment center, treatment schedule, and patient gender.

  5. Detailed NMR, Including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and Anticancer Studies of Compounds from the Echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Anthony D.; Nielson, Jonathan L.; Tapiolas, Dianne M.; Motti, Cherie A.; Ovenden, Simon P. B.; Kearns, Philip S.; Liptrot, Catherine H.

    2009-01-01

    From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara), Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1′-hydroxypropyl)-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1)], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3), 2-[(phenylacetyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid (4), and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5) were isolated. Comparison of 1H- and 13C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1) with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned 1H- and 13C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent 13C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5. PMID:20098598

  6. Power subsystem automation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Sewy, D.; Pickering, C.; Sauers, R.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the phase 2 of the power subsystem automation study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using computer software to manage an aspect of the electrical power subsystem on a space station. The state of the art in expert systems software was investigated in this study. This effort resulted in the demonstration of prototype expert system software for managing one aspect of a simulated space station power subsystem.

  7. Power Factor Controller Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson Engineers, Inc.

    1989-08-01

    The complete report is divided into three parts as follows: (1) This report combines a historical perspective with a current assessment of the use of power factor controllers for three-phase ac motor energy savings. The power factor controller (PFC) is a power electronics device that reduces voltage to a motor during periods of reduced motor torque requirements. (2) A power factor controller (PFC) is a power electronics device that reduces voltage to a motor during periods of reduced motor torque requirements. This report is the DEMONSTRATION phase of the PFC study. The phase report consists of three task reports -- Site Selection, Demonstration Preparation, and Demonstration. The reports explain how three sites were selected for demonstration, describe what was measured at each site and the method of measurement, and compare measured energy savings with calculated predictions of energy savings. The report concludes that PFCs can save energy on carefully selected motor applications. (3) The results of the demonstration task are described in this report. A power factor controller (PFC) is a power electronics device that reduces voltage to a motor during periods of reduced motor torque requirements. The demonstration phase of this study calculates projected energy savings with the use of a PFC and compares measured performance with the calculations. The effect of the PFC on motor power requirements, power factor and energy consumption shall be measured.

  8. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  9. Rotorcraft contingency power study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschkron, R.; Haynes, J. F.; Goldstein, D. N.; Davis, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Twin helicopter engines are often sized by the power requirement of a safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, turbine cooling airflow modulation, throttle push, and a propellant auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter Direct Operating Cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine and a rubber aircraft scenario.

  10. The MMSE is not an adequate screening cognitive instrument in studies of late-life depression ✩

    PubMed Central

    Rajji, Tarek K.; Miranda, Dielle; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Lotz, Meredith; Houck, Patricia; Zmuda, Michelle D.; Bensasi, Salem; Reynolds, Charles F.; Butters, Meryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is frequently used to assess cognition in studies of late-life depression (LLD). However, its sensitivity and specificity in this population are largely unknown. We undertook an analysis of subjects with LLD and hypothesized that: (1) at the traditional cutoff of 24, the MMSE would have low sensitivity in the detection of cognitive impairment; (2) increasing the cutoff score would improve this sensitivity at the expense of a minimal reduction in specificity. Methods We analyzed the MMSE scores of 447 non-demented subjects with LLD using the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) as the gold standard for cognitive function. Results Using the DRS raw total cutoff of 132 as the “gold standard”, the MMSE at a cutoff of 24 has a sensitivity of 8.0% and a specificity of 99.4% in detecting “cognitively impaired” depressed elders. A receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrates that with an MMSE cutoff of 27 instead of 24, its sensitivity more than quadruples and increases to 37.5% while its specificity decreases minimally from 99.4% to 91.3%. Conclusions In our sample almost all of those classified as cognitively impaired by the DRS are mislabelled as “cognitively intact” by the MMSE. By using a higher cutoff score, the sensitivity can be increased with a minimal reduction in specificity. Our findings have significant implications for those who study or treat persons with LLD or other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:18644607

  11. Violence as an Under-Recognized Barrier to Women's Realization of Their Right to Adequate Food and Nutrition: Case Studies From Georgia and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Anne C; Lemke, Stefanie; Jenderedjian, Anna; Scherbaum, Veronika

    2015-10-01

    This article addresses under-acknowledged barriers of structural violence and discrimination that interfere with women's capacity to realize their human rights generally, and their right to adequate food and nutrition in particular. Case studies from Georgia and South Africa illustrate the need for a human rights-based approach to food and nutrition security that prioritizes non-discrimination, public participation, and self-determination. These principles are frustrated by different types of structural violence that, if not seriously addressed, pose multiple barriers to women's economic, public, and social engagement. PMID:26139694

  12. Adequate vitamin D levels in a Swedish population living above latitude 63°N: The 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA study

    PubMed Central

    Ramnemark, Anna; Norberg, Margareta; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Eliasson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background Even though vitamin D is mainly produced by exposure to sunlight, little is known regarding vitamin D levels in populations living in sub-Arctic areas with little or no daylight during winter. Objective We describe distributions of vitamin D3 and the prevalence of adequate levels in a population living above 63°N. Design We sampled 1,622 randomly selected subjects, aged 25–74 years, between January and May, 2009, as part of the Northern Sweden MONICA study (69.2% participation rate). By using HPLC, 25(OH) vitamin D3 was analysed. Levels used for definitions were deficient, D3<25 nmol/l (<10 ng/ml); insufficient, D3 25–49.9 nmol/l (10–20 ng/ml); and adequate, D3≥50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml). Results Mean (median) level of vitamin D3 was 65.2 (63.6) nmol/l in men and 71.0 (67.7) nmol/l in women. Adequate levels were found in 79.2%, more often in women (82.7%) than in men (75.6%). Only 0.7% of the population were vitamin D3–deficient but 23.1% of men and 17.1% of women had insufficient levels. Levels of vitamin D3 increased with age and insufficient status was most common among those aged 25–34 years, 41.0% in men and 22.3% in women. If subjects using vitamin D-supplementation are excluded, the population level of D3 is 1–2 nmol/l lower than in the general population across sex- and age groups. There were no differences between the northern or the southern parts, between urban or rural living or according to educational attainment. Those subjects born outside of Sweden or Finland had lower levels. Conclusion The large majority living close to the Arctic Circle in Sweden have adequate D3 levels even during the second half of the dark winter. Subjects with D3 deficiency were uncommon but insufficient levels were often found among young men. PMID:25976742

  13. Confidence in the Knowledge Base of English Language Learners Studying Science: Using Agency to Compensate for the Lack of Adequate Linguistic Identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Aneta L.; Mansour, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the cultural and linguistic environments of learners are often associated with identity shifts. The aim of this study was to explore what identity shifts occur when science students from Bahraini national schools transition to an international university. The role of two aspects of learner identity—that is, English proficiency and science background knowledge, was examined in this study. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with students and with university lecturers. The analysis suggested three conceptual themes of (1) reliance on science knowledge, (2) the auxiliary role of professional language and (3) adequacy of student learning strategies, demonstrating what subjective meanings the participants ascribe to the interplay between science knowledge and linguistic ability. The findings suggest that despite the lack of adequate linguistic attributes, the students are still able to successfully learn science in the context of language change. It is also implied that through strategically utilising their academic background in science, students preserve their identity as successful learners from school through to university. We conclude that agency plays a separate role in transition and is not a sole function of identity. We also contest the idea of language as a necessary attribute of one's identity as it was perceived by our participants to be an advantage and an auxiliary tool rather than a requirement.

  14. Can Sophie's Choice Be Adequately Captured by Cold Computation of Minimizing Losses? An fMRI Study of Vital Loss Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Qin, Shaozheng; Rao, Li-Lin; Zhang, Wencai; Ying, Xiaoping; Guo, Xiuyan; Guo, Chunyan; Ding, Jinghong; Li, Shu; Luo, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of decision-making research is performed under the assumption of the value maximizing principle. This principle implies that when making decisions, individuals try to optimize outcomes on the basis of cold mathematical equations. However, decisions are emotion-laden rather than cool and analytic when they tap into life-threatening considerations. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the neural mechanisms underlying vital loss decisions. Participants were asked to make a forced choice between two losses across three conditions: both losses are trivial (trivial-trivial), both losses are vital (vital-vital), or one loss is trivial and the other is vital (vital-trivial). Our results revealed that the amygdala was more active and correlated positively with self-reported negative emotion associated with choice during vital-vital loss decisions, when compared to trivial-trivial loss decisions. The rostral anterior cingulate cortex was also more active and correlated positively with self-reported difficulty of choice during vital-vital loss decisions. Compared to the activity observed during trivial-trivial loss decisions, the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum were more active and correlated positively with self-reported positive emotion of choice during vital-trivial loss decisions. Our findings suggest that vital loss decisions involve emotions and cannot be adequately captured by cold computation of minimizing losses. This research will shed light on how people make vital loss decisions. PMID:21412428

  15. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  16. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  17. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  18. Power subsystem automation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Moser, R. L.; Veatch, M.

    1983-01-01

    Generic power-system elements and their potential faults are identified. Automation functions and their resulting benefits are defined and automation functions between power subsystem, central spacecraft computer, and ground flight-support personnel are partitioned. All automation activities were categorized as data handling, monitoring, routine control, fault handling, planning and operations, or anomaly handling. Incorporation of all these classes of tasks, except for anomaly handling, in power subsystem hardware and software was concluded to be mandatory to meet the design and operational requirements of the space station. The key drivers are long mission lifetime, modular growth, high-performance flexibility, a need to accommodate different electrical user-load equipment, onorbit assembly/maintenance/servicing, and potentially large number of power subsystem components. A significant effort in algorithm development and validation is essential in meeting the 1987 technology readiness date for the space station.

  19. Calculating statistical power in Mendelian randomization studies.

    PubMed

    Brion, Marie-Jo A; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Visscher, Peter M

    2013-10-01

    In Mendelian randomization (MR) studies, where genetic variants are used as proxy measures for an exposure trait of interest, obtaining adequate statistical power is frequently a concern due to the small amount of variation in a phenotypic trait that is typically explained by genetic variants. A range of power estimates based on simulations and specific parameters for two-stage least squares (2SLS) MR analyses based on continuous variables has previously been published. However there are presently no specific equations or software tools one can implement for calculating power of a given MR study. Using asymptotic theory, we show that in the case of continuous variables and a single instrument, for example a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or multiple SNP predictor, statistical power for a fixed sample size is a function of two parameters: the proportion of variation in the exposure variable explained by the genetic predictor and the true causal association between the exposure and outcome variable. We demonstrate that power for 2SLS MR can be derived using the non-centrality parameter (NCP) of the statistical test that is employed to test whether the 2SLS regression coefficient is zero. We show that the previously published power estimates from simulations can be represented theoretically using this NCP-based approach, with similar estimates observed when the simulation-based estimates are compared with our NCP-based approach. General equations for calculating statistical power for 2SLS MR using the NCP are provided in this note, and we implement the calculations in a web-based application. PMID:24159078

  20. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  1. Are Lateral Electronic Portal Images Adequate for Accurate On-Line Daily Targeting of the Prostate? Results of a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lometti, Michael W. Thurston, Damon; Aubin, Michele; Bock, Andrea; Verhey, Lynn; Lockhart, James M.; Bland, Roger; Pouliot, Jean; Roach, Mack

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the magnitude of the error that would be introduced if only a lateral (LAT) portal image, as opposed to a pair of orthogonal images, was used to verify and correct daily setup errors and organ motion in external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) of prostate cancer. The 3-dimensional (3D) coordinates of gold markers from 12 consecutive prostate patients were reconstructed using a pair of orthogonal images. The data were re-analyzed using only the LAT images. Couch moves from the 2-dimensional (2D)-only data were compared with the complete 3D data set. The 2D-only data provided couch moves that differed on average from the 3D data by 2.3 {+-} 3.0, 0.0 {+-} 0.0, and 0.8 {+-} 1.0 mm in the Lat, AP, and SI directions, respectively. Along AP and SI axes, the LAT image provided positional information similar to the orthogonal pair. The error along the LAT axis may be acceptable provided lateral margins are large enough. A LAT-only setup protocol reduces patient treatment times and increases patient throughput. In most circumstances, with exceptions such as morbidly obese patients, acquisition of only a LAT image for daily targeting of the prostate will provide adequate positional precision.

  2. Recruiting Literature: Is It Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stantial, Linda; And Others

    1979-01-01

    College students seeking employment in today's work world, who have questions about work environments which might be consistent with personal skills, interests, and values, turn to company recruiting literature. A recent study reveals that the information students and college personnel want from recruiting literature is not the information they…

  3. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  4. 29 CFR 98.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adequate evidence. 98.900 Section 98.900 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a...

  5. Current European guidelines for management of arterial hypertension: Are they adequate for use in primary care? Modelling study based on the Norwegian HUNT 2 population

    PubMed Central

    Petursson, Halfdan; Getz, Linn; Sigurdsson, Johann A; Hetlevik, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that clinical guidelines using combined risk evaluation for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) may overestimate risk. The aim of this study was to model and discuss implementation of the current (2007) hypertension guidelines in a general Norwegian population. Methods Implementation of the current European Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension was modelled on data from a cross-sectional, representative Norwegian population study (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995-97), comprising 65,028 adults, aged 20-89, of whom 51,066 (79%) were eligible for modelling. Results Among individuals with blood pressure ≥120/80 mmHg, 93% (74% of the total, adult population) would need regular clinical attention and/or drug treatment, based on their total CVD risk profile. This translates into 296,624 follow-up visits/100,000 adults/year. In the Norwegian healthcare environment, 99 general practitioner (GP) positions would be required in the study region for this task alone. The number of GPs currently serving the adult population in the study area is 87 per 100,000 adults. Conclusion The potential workload associated with the European hypertension guidelines could destabilise the healthcare system in Norway, one of the world's most long- and healthy-living nations, by international comparison. Large-scale, preventive medical enterprises can hardly be regarded as scientifically sound and ethically justifiable, unless issues of practical feasibility, sustainability and social determinants of health are considered. PMID:19878542

  6. Validation of adequate endogenous reference genes for reverse transcription-qPCR studies in human post-mortem brain tissue of SIDS cases.

    PubMed

    El-Kashef, Noha; Gomes, Iva; Mercer-Chalmers-Bender, Katja; Schneider, Peter M; Rothschild, Markus A; Juebner, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the main cause of post-neonatal infant death in most developed countries. It is still of ambiguous etiology. Gene expression studies of relevant target genes using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in SIDS cases, and comparing them with age-matched controls, could help in understanding the pathogenesis of SIDS. However, selecting inadequate reference genes used for normalization of the RT-qPCR gene expression data can give misleading results. The aim of the present study was to identify reference genes with the most stable expression in post-mortem brainstem samples of SIDS and control cases. Among the five candidate reference genes (GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, SDHA, UBXN6) studied in both groups, SDHA and UBXN6 were identified as the most stable. To further demonstrate the importance of using validated genes for RT-qPCR data normalization, the expression of a potential gene of interest in SIDS, the RPS27A gene, was evaluated using validated versus non-validated reference genes for normalization. This gene encodes the ubiquitin protein that has been shown in other pathological studies to be induced in SIDS. Using the identified most stable genes for normalization of RPS27A gene expression data revealed, as expected, a statistically significant up-regulation in SIDS as compared to the controls. However, using a single unstable reference gene for normalization resulted in no significant differences in transcript abundance of RPS27A between SIDS and the controls. This emphasizes the need for validation of the suitability of reference genes used in a given tissue type under certain experimental conditions. PMID:26434654

  7. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec....

  8. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  9. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  10. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  11. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  12. Study on photovoltaic power system on ships

    SciTech Connect

    Katagi, Takeshi; Fujii, Yoshimi; Nishikawa, Eiichi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents the application of photovoltaic power systems to ships. Two types of leisure or fishing boats powered by photovoltaics are designed. The boats described are single hull and catamaran type with twin hulls. The design of a new electric power system using a photovoltaic power system in a harbor ship having 20 tons is also proposed. The results of this study show that the photovoltaic power system can apply to small ships.

  13. Lunar nuclear power feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdman, C. A.; Tran, T.

    1984-01-01

    Based on review of literature and on limited examination of nuclear power systems now proposed for space applications, a nuclear fission reactor powered system should be seriously considered as the first large (order of 50 kWe or greater) power system to be placed on a lunar base. With relatively minor modifications, the major one being addition of a cooled side shield, the proposed 100 kWe product of the SP-100 Program could be adapted for use on a lunar base.

  14. Lunar nuclear power feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdman, C. A.; Tran, T.

    1984-11-01

    Based on review of literature and on limited examination of nuclear power systems now proposed for space applications, a nuclear fission reactor powered system should be seriously considered as the first large (order of 50 kWe or greater) power system to be placed on a lunar base. With relatively minor modifications, the major one being addition of a cooled side shield, the proposed 100 kWe product of the SP-100 Program could be adapted for use on a lunar base.

  15. Power module Data Management System (DMS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Computer trades and analyses of selected Power Module Data Management Subsystem issues to support concurrent inhouse MSFC Power Study are provided. The charts which summarize and describe the results are presented. Software requirements and definitions are included.

  16. Home power quality -- the Niagara Mohawk study

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.A.; Burns, C.W.

    1994-12-31

    A comprehensive, two year, power quality monitoring study was performed by PTI for Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC). The study was completed in September 1991. The purpose of the main study was twofold. First, to assist NMPC in identifying and correcting abnormal system conditions. Secondly, to create a power quality guide for NMPC personnel using the data base of information gathered during the study. This was accomplished by monitoring both primary and secondary voltage on a predominantly residential feeder and a control feeder. The study was performed to address power quality concerns of the residents on one feeder. Results from the main study were presented at the 1993 Summer Power Meeting. This paper will outline some of the more interesting findings from a small portion of this study: the home power quality study.

  17. Solar power satellite system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A synopsis of the study plan for the solar power satellite system is presented. Descriptions of early task progress is reported for the following areas: (1) laser annealing, (2) solid state power amplifiers, (3) rectenna option, (4) construction of an independent electric orbit transfer vehicle, and (5) construction of a 2.5 GW solar power satellite.

  18. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  19. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  20. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  1. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY OF HORN POWER SUPPLY.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; WENG,W.T.

    2003-06-16

    A 250 kA pulsed power supply is required for the focusing horn of the proposed Brookhaven AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It is expected to pulse at 2.5 Hz repetition rate. A preliminary study is being conducted to explore the key issues associated with the power supply system design. Advanced technologies used in similar systems as well as new ideas are being examined, simulated and evaluated. This power supply will be a very high stored energy, high average power, and high peak power system.

  2. Oral Calcidiol Is More Effective Than Cholecalciferol Supplementation to Reach Adequate 25(OH)D Levels in Patients with Autoimmune Diseases Chronically Treated with Low Doses of Glucocorticoids: A “Real-Life” Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortego-Jurado, Miguel; Callejas-Rubio, José-Luis; Ríos-Fernández, Raquel; González-Moreno, Juan; González Ramírez, Amanda Rocío; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the cornerstone of the therapy in many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, it is well known that their use is a double edged sword, as their beneficial effects are associated almost universally with unwanted effects, as, for example glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO). Over the last years, several clinical practice guidelines emphasize the need of preventing bone mass loss and reduce the incidence of fractures associated with GC use. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation, as adjunctive therapy, are included in all the practice guidelines. However, no standard vitamin D dose has been established. Several studies with postmenopausal women show that maintaining the levels above 30–33 ng/mL help improve the response to bisphosphonates. It is unknown if the response is the same in GIO, but in the clinical practice the levels are maintained at around the same values. In this study we demonstrate that patients with autoimmune diseases, undergoing glucocorticoid therapy, often present suboptimal 25(OH)D levels. Patients with higher body mass index and those receiving higher doses of glucocorticoids are at increased risk of having lower levels of 25(OH)D. In these patients, calcidiol supplementations are more effective than cholecalciferol to reach adequate 25(OH)D levels. PMID:26124976

  3. Lunar Wireless Power Transfer Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon Freid, et al.

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the feasibility of a multi-kilowatt wireless radio frequency (RF) power system to transfer power between lunar base facilities. Initial analyses, show that wireless power transfer (WPT) systems can be more efficient and less expensive than traditional wired approaches for certain lunar and terrestrial applications. The study includes evaluations of the fundamental limitations of lunar WPT systems, the interrelationships of possible operational parameters, and a baseline design approach for a notionial system that could be used in the near future to power remote facilities at a lunar base. Our notional system includes state-of-the-art photovoltaics (PVs), high-efficiency microwave transmitters, low-mass large-aperture high-power transmit antennas, high-efficiency large-area rectenna receiving arrays, and reconfigurable DC combining circuitry.

  4. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  5. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  6. Trade studies for nuclear space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John M.; Bents, David J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1991-01-01

    As visions of space applications expand and as probes extend further and further out into the universe, the need for power also expands, and missions evolve which are enabled by nuclear power. A broad spectrum of missions which are enhanced or enabled by nuclear power sources are defined. These include earth orbital platforms, deep space platforms, planetary exploration and extraterrestrial resource exploration. The recently proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to the moon and Mars has more clearly defined these missions and their power requirements. This paper presents results of recent studies of radioisotope and nuclear-reactor energy sources combined with various energy-conversion devices for earth orbital applications, SEI lunar/Mars rover and surface power, and planetary exploration.

  7. Trade studies for nuclear space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John M.; Bents, David J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1991-01-01

    As human visions of space applications expand and as we probe further out into the universe, our needs for power will also expand, and missions will evolve which are enabled by nuclear power. A broad spectrum of missions which are enhanced or enabled by nuclear power sources have been defined. These include Earth orbital platforms, deep space platforms, planetary exploration, and terrestrial resource exploration. The recently proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to the Moon and Mars has more clearly defined these missions and their power requirements. Presented here are results of recent studies of radioisotope and nuclear reactor energy sources, combined with various energy conversion devices for Earth orbital applications, SEI lunar/Mars rovers, surface power, and planetary exploration.

  8. Adequation of mini satellites to oceanic altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaieche, G.; Aguttes, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Association of the mini satellite concept and oceanic altimetry missions is discussed. Mission definition and most constraining requirements (mesoscale for example) demonstrate mini satellites to be quite adequate for such missions. Progress in altimeter characteristics, orbit determination, and position reporting allow consideration of oceanic altimetry missions using low Earth orbit satellites. Satellite constellation, trace keeping and orbital period, and required payload characteristics are exposed. The mission requirements covering Sun synchronous orbit, service area, ground system, and launcher characteristics as well as constellation maintenance strategy are specified. Two options for the satellite, orbital mechanics, propulsion, onboard power and stabilizing subsystems, onboard management, satellite ground linkings, mechanical and thermal subsystems, budgets, and planning are discussed.

  9. Solar dynamic power system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1988-01-01

    The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

  10. A study of power conditioning and power distribution and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, H. M.; Honnell, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive simulation and analysis performed on the operation of the regulator part of the Charger/Battery/Regulator Module (CBRM) are detailed. The CBRM is utilized as an integral component of the Skylab/Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) electrical power system and contains a switching mode electronic regulator. Implementing circuit analysis techniques, pertinent voltages and currents are calculated; these, in turn, are incorporated into the regulator system study. Investigation of the turn-on and turn-off times associated with the switching circuitry is performed and an examination is made on these calculations. A simulation model computer program is utilized to generate graphs that relate various CBRM parameters to one another.

  11. Power Studies for the CMS Pixel Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  12. Power distribution studies for CMS forward tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  13. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  14. Thermoelectric power generation system optimization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karri, Madhav A.

    A significant amount of energy we consume each year is rejected as waste heat to the ambient. Conservative estimates place the quantity of energy wasted at about 70%. Converting the waste heat into electrical power would be convenient and effective for a number of primary and secondary applications. A viable solution for converting waste heat into electrical energy is to use thermoelectric power conversion. Thermoelectric power generation is based on solid state technology with no moving parts and works on the principle of Seebeck effect. In this work a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system simulator was developed to perform various parametric and system optimization studies. Optimization studies were performed to determine the effect of system size, exhaust and coolant ow conditions, and thermoelectric material on the net gains produced by the TEG system and on the optimum TEG system design. A sports utility vehicle was used as a case study for the application of TEG in mobile systems.

  15. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-20

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of

  16. Multi-Megawatt Power System Trade Study

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, Glen Reed; Schnitzler, Bruce Gordon; Parks, Benjamin Travis

    2001-11-01

    As part of a larger task, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was tasked to perform a trade study comparing liquid-metal cooled reactors having Rankine power conversion systems with gas-cooled reactors having Brayton power conversion systems. This report summarizes the approach, the methodology, and the results of that trade study. Findings suggest that either approach has the possibility to approach the target specific mass of 3-5 kg/kWe for the power system, though it appears either will require improvements to achieve that. Higher reactor temperatures have the most potential for reducing the specific mass of gas-cooled reactors but do not necessarily have a similar effect for liquid-cooled Rankine systems. Fuels development will be the key to higher reactor operating temperatures. Higher temperature turbines will be important for Brayton systems. Both replacing lithium coolant in the primary circuit with gallium and replacing potassium with sodium in the power loop for liquid systems increase system specific mass. Changing the feed pump turbine to an electric motor in Rankine systems has little effect. Key technologies in reducing specific mass are high reactor and radiator operating temperatures, low radiator areal density, and low turbine/generator system masses. Turbine/generator mass tends to dominate overall power system mass for Rankine systems. Radiator mass was dominant for Brayton systems.

  17. Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-01

    This report has been prepared in response to section 603(b) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, (Pub. L. No. 110-140), which states that “…the Secretary of Energy shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of a study on methods to reduce the amount of water consumed by concentrating solar power systems.”

  18. Solar power satellite system definition study. Part 2, volume 4: Microwave power transmission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A slotted waveguide planar array was established as the baseline design for the spaceborne transmitter antenna. Key aspects of efficient energy conversion at both ends of the power transfer link were analyzed and optimized alternate approaches in the areas of antenna and tube design are discussed. An integrated design concept was developed which meets design requirements, observes structural and thermal constraints, exhibits good performance and was developed in adequate depth to permit cost estimating at the subsystem/component level.

  19. Tokamak power systems studies, FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.

    1985-12-01

    The Tokamak Power System Studies (TPSS) at ANL in FY-1985 were devoted to exploring innovative design concepts which have the potential for making substantial improvements in the tokamak as a commercial power reactor. Major objectives of this work included improved reactor economics, improved environmental and safety features, and the exploration of a wide range of reactor plant outputs with emphasis on reduced plant sizes compared to STARFIRE. The activities concentrated on three areas: plasma engineering, impurity control, and blanket/first wall/shield technology. 205 refs., 125 figs., 107 tabs.

  20. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  1. Lunar base thermoelectric power station study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, G.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) program, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing and the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as the lunar base power station where kilowatts of power are required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this mission. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed and well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology

  2. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  3. Solar thermal electric power information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  4. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  5. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  6. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200.14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  8. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  9. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200....14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure...

  10. Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel

    2013-08-01

    No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

  11. Are shear force methods adequately reported?

    PubMed

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Fowler, Stephanie M; Hopkins, David L

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the detail to which shear force (SF) protocols and methods have been reported in the scientific literature between 2009 and 2015. Articles (n=734) published in peer-reviewed animal and food science journals and limited to only those testing the SF of unprocessed and non-fabricated mammal meats were evaluated. It was found that most of these SF articles originated in Europe (35.3%), investigated bovine species (49.0%), measured m. longissimus samples (55.2%), used tenderometers manufactured by Instron (31.2%), and equipped with Warner-Bratzler blades (68.8%). SF samples were also predominantly thawed prior to cooking (37.1%) and cooked sous vide, using a water bath (50.5%). Information pertaining to blade crosshead speed (47.5%), recorded SF resistance (56.7%), muscle fibre orientation when tested (49.2%), sub-section or core dimension (21.8%), end-point temperature (29.3%), and other factors contributing to SF variation were often omitted. This base failure diminishes repeatability and accurate SF interpretation, and must therefore be rectified. PMID:27107727

  12. 7 CFR 1710.303 - Power cost studies-power supply borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... study of all reasonably available self-generation, purchased-power, load management, and energy... facilities shall be supported by a power cost study to demonstrate that the proposed generation and... power requirements. This study usually is a separate study but it may be integrated with the...

  13. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  14. Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

  15. Systems studies and optimization of the ARIES-CS power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, J.; Ku, L. P.; El-GuebalyUniv. Wisco, L.; Bromberg, L.; Wagner, L.; Zarnstorff, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    stellarator systems/optimization code is used to optimize the ARIES-CS fusion power plant parameters for minimum cost of electricity subject to a large number of physics, engineering, and in-vessel component constraints for a compact stellarator configuration. Different physics models, reactor component models, and costing algorithms are used to test sensitivities to models and assumptions. The most important factors determining the size of the fusion power core are the allowable neutron and radiative power fluxes to the wall, the distance needed between the edge of the plasma and the nonplanar magnetic field coils for the intervening components, and an adequate tritium breeding ratio. The magnetic field and coil parameters are determined from both plasma performance and constraints on the Nb3Sn superconductor. The same costing approach and algorithms used in previous ARIES studies are used with updated material costs. The result is a compact stellarator reactor with a major radius close to that of tokamaks. A one-dimensional power balance code is used to study the path to ignition and the effect of different plasma and confinement assumptions on plasma performance for the reference plasma and coil configuration. A number of variations are studied that affect the size and cost of the fusion power core: maximum field at the coils, component cost penalties, a different blanket and shield approach, alternative plasma and coil configurations, etc. Comparisons are made with some earlier ARIES power plant studies. A number of issues for the development of compact quasi-axisymmetric stellarators are identified.

  16. Summary and evaluation of the Strategic Defense Initiative Space Power Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edenburn, M. (Editor); Smith, J. M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Space Power Architecture Study (SPAS) identified and evaluated power subsystem options for multimegawatt electric (MMWE) space based weapons and surveillance platforms for the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) applications. Steady state requirements of less than 1 MMWE are adequately covered by the SP-100 nuclear space power program and hence were not addressed in the SPAS. Four steady state power systems less than 1 MMWE were investigated with little difference between them on a mass basis. The majority of the burst power systems utilized H(2) from the weapons and were either closed (no effluent), open (effluent release) or steady state with storage (no effluent). Closed systems used nuclear or combustion heat source with thermionic, Rankine, turboalternator, fuel cell and battery conversion devices. Open systems included nuclear or combustion heat sources using turboalternator, magnetohydrodynamic, fuel cell or battery power conversion devices. The steady state systems with storage used the SP-100 or Star-M reactors as energy sources and flywheels, fuel cells or batteries to store energy for burst applications. As with other studies the open systems are by far the lightest, most compact and simplist (most reliable) systems. However, unlike other studies the SPAS studied potential platform operational problems caused by effluents or vibration.

  17. Space-Based Solar Power Conversion and Delivery Systems Study. Volume 3: Microwave Power Transmission Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Microwave Fower Beam Ionosphere effects and critical interfaces between th Microwave Power Transmission System (MPTS) and the Satellite were studied as part of the NASA/MSFC continuing research on the feasibility of power transmission from geosynchronous orbit. Theoretical predications of ionospheric modifications produced by the direct interaction of the MPTS on the earth's upper atmosphere are used to determine their impact on the performance of the Microwave Power Beam and Pilot Beam System as well as on other RF systems effected by the ionosphere. A technology program to quantitatively define these interactions is developed. Critical interface areas between the MPTS and the satellite which could have a major impact on cost and performance of the power system are idenfified and analyzed. The areas selected include: use of either a 20 kV versus 40 kV Amplitron, thermal blockage effects of Amplitron heat radiation by the satellite structure, effect of dielectric carry-through structure on power beam, and effect of material sublimation on performance of the Amplitron in Geosynchronous Orbit.

  18. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  19. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  20. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  1. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  3. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  4. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  5. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  6. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  7. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  8. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  9. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  10. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  11. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  12. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  13. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  14. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  15. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  16. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  17. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  18. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  19. ESPRESSO: taking into account assessment errors on outcome and exposures in power analysis for association studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, Amadou; Burton, Thomas W. Y.; Burton, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Very large studies are required to provide sufficiently big sample sizes for adequately powered association analyses. This can be an expensive undertaking and it is important that an accurate sample size is identified. For more realistic sample size calculation and power analysis, the impact of unmeasured aetiological determinants and the quality of measurement of both outcome and explanatory variables should be taken into account. Conventional methods to analyse power use closed-form solutions that are not flexible enough to cater for all of these elements easily. They often result in a potentially substantial overestimation of the actual power. Results: In this article, we describe the Estimating Sample-size and Power in R by Exploring Simulated Study Outcomes tool that allows assessment errors in power calculation under various biomedical scenarios to be incorporated. We also report a real world analysis where we used this tool to answer an important strategic question for an existing cohort. Availability and implementation: The software is available for online calculation and downloads at http://espresso-research.org. The code is freely available at https://github.com/ESPRESSO-research. Contact: louqman@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25908791

  20. Do the Five Combinations of Suicidal Ideation in the FDA 2012 Draft Guidance Document and the C–SSRS Adequately Cover All Suicidal Ideation Combinations in Practice? A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Giddens, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The United States Food and Drug Administration’s newest classification system for suicidality assessment anchors suicidal ideation to various combinations of passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation, method, intent, and plan. This is based upon the suicidal ideation categories in the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Although there are 32 possible combinations of these suicidal ideation phenomena, the Food and Drug Administration’s 2012 system and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale accommodate six combinations. We use a case study to explore the impact of possible type II errors on suicidality classification posed by not including remaining 26 possible categories. Methods: A suicidal subject kept detailed daily records of her experience of suicidality over two separate intervals of eight-months’ and nine-months’ duration. These records permitted classification of individual events into each of the possible 32 suicidal ideation combinations. Results: Although only a small percentage of all events of suicidality from either collection period fell outside of the Food and Drug Administration’s classification system and the Columbia –Suicide Severity Rating Scale categories, those that were not so categorized constituted a large percentage of the time this subject experienced suicidality. When these two timeframes were aggregated, more than half of the subject’s time spent experiencing suicidality fell into the suicidal ideation combinations not captured by the Food and Drug Administration’s classification system and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale categories. Conclusion: This case study suggests that type II errors in the Food and Drug Administration’s classification system and in the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale categories for suicidal ideation may represent important omissions. PMID:25520895

  1. Space station electrical power system availability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Scott R.; Twombly, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    ARINC Research Corporation performed a preliminary reliability, and maintainability (RAM) anlaysis of the NASA space station Electric Power Station (EPS). The analysis was performed using the ARINC Research developed UNIRAM RAM assessment methodology and software program. The analysis was performed in two phases: EPS modeling and EPS RAM assessment. The EPS was modeled in four parts: the insolar power generation system, the eclipse power generation system, the power management and distribution system (both ring and radial power distribution control unit (PDCU) architectures), and the power distribution to the inner keel PDCUs. The EPS RAM assessment was conducted in five steps: the use of UNIRAM to perform baseline EPS model analyses and to determine the orbital replacement unit (ORU) criticalities; the determination of EPS sensitivity to on-orbit spared of ORUs and the provision of an indication of which ORUs may need to be spared on-orbit; the determination of EPS sensitivity to changes in ORU reliability; the determination of the expected annual number of ORU failures; and the integration of the power generator system model results with the distribution system model results to assess the full EPS. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made.

  2. Multiple frequency bioimpedance is an adequate tool to assess total and regional fat mass in HIV-positive patients but not to diagnose HIV-associated lipoatrophy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Blanco, José R; Ibarra, Valvanera; Metola, Luis; Sanz, Mercedes; Hernando, Luis; Martínez, Sagrario; Ramírez, Arsenio; Ramalle-Gomara, Enrique; Oteo, José A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome causes systemic metabolic alterations and psychological distress that worsen the quality of life of these patients. An early detection should be considered to efficiently treat it. Objective criteria or reference indices are needed for an early diagnosis. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is an operator-independent, repeatable and non-invasive method of body composition evaluation that is less expensive than dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and/or CT scans. The aims of this pilot study were to validate the data obtained by BIA to measure fat mass in HIV-positive patients with/without lipoatrophy and to determine if BIA correctly diagnoses lipoatrophy in HIV-positive patients. Methods Thirty-nine participants were included in this preliminary study. Fourteen were HIV-negative (eight men) whereas 25 were HIV-positive patients (17 men). Eleven of the HIV-positive patients were classified as lipoatrophic according to subjective evaluation by the physicians. Total and regional body composition was measured in basal conditions by DXA and by BIA. To obtain abdominal CT scan fat values, transverse slices with 6-mm thickness were acquired at the L4-L5 intervertebral space. Results BIA measurements of total and regional body fat were significantly correlated with those obtained by DXA (p < 0.05 to <0.01) in HIV-positive patients. However, agreement between methods was poor as not very high ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient) values were observed. BIA and DXA showed higher ICC values in lipoatrophic patients. The visceral index obtained by BIA was correlated with total and visceral fat in L4 measured by CT scan (r = 0.607 and r = 0.617, respectively, p < 0.01) in HIV-positive patients. The Fat Mass Ratio (FMR) calculated by BIA did not correlate or agree with DXA values. Conclusions Multi-frequency BIA could be an effective method to evaluate the evolution of total and regional fat composition in HIV

  3. Power system interface and umbilical system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    System requirements and basic design criteria were defined for berthing or docking a payload to the 25 kW power module which will provide electrical power and attitude control, cooling, data transfer, and communication services to free-flying and Orbiter sortie payloads. The selected umbilical system concept consists of four assemblies and command and display equipment to be installed at the Orbiter payload specialist station: (1) a movable platen assembly which is attached to the power system with EVA operable devices; (2) a slave platen assembly which is attached to the payload with EVA operable devices; (3) a fixed secondary platen permanently installed in the power system; and (4) a fixed secondary platen permanently installed on the payload. Operating modes and sequences are described.

  4. Feasibility study of self-powered magnetorheological damper systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2012-04-01

    This paper is aimed to provide a feasibility study of self-powered magnetorheological (MR) damper systems, which could convert vibration and shock energy into electrical energy to power itself under control. The self-powered feature could bring merits such as higher reliability, energy saving, and less maintenance for the MR damper systems. A self-powered MR damper system is proposed and modeled. The criterion whether the MR damper system is self-powered or not is proposed. A prototype of MR damper with power generation is designed, fabricated, and tested. The modeling of this damper is experimentally validated. Then the damper is applied to a 2 DOF suspension system under on-off skyhook controller, to obtain the self-powered working range and vibration control performance. Effects of key factors on the self-powered MR damper systems are studied. Design considerations are given in order to increase the self-powered working range.

  5. Results of an electrical power system fault study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Marshall conducted a study of electrical power system faults with a view to the development of AI control systems for a spacecraft power system breadboard. The results of this study have been applied to a multichannel high voltage dc spacecraft power system, the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS) breadboard. Some of the faults encountered in testing LASEPS included the shorting of a bus an a falloff in battery cell capacity.

  6. Results of an electrical power system fault study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    NASA-Marshall conducted a study of electrical power system faults with a view to the development of AI control systems for a spacecraft power system breadboard. The results of this study have been applied to a multichannel high voltage dc spacecraft power system, the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS) breadboard. Some of the faults encountered in testing LASEPS included the shorting of a bus an a falloff in battery cell capacity.

  7. 7 CFR 1710.303 - Power cost studies-power supply borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 1710.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES... facilities shall be supported by a power cost study to demonstrate that the proposed generation and... power requirements. This study usually is a separate study but it may be integrated with the...

  8. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Revenue Requirement Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this Study is to establish the level of revenues from wholesale power rates necessary to recover, in accordance with sound business principles, the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) costs associated with the production, acquisition, marketing, and conservation of electric power. The generation revenue requirement includes: recovery of the Federal investment in hydro generation, fish and wildlife and conservation costs; Federal agencies' operations and maintenance (O&M) expenses allocated to power; capitalized contract expenses associated with non-Federal power suppliers such as Energy Northwest (EN); other power purchase expenses, such as short-term power purchases; power marketing expenses; cost of transmission services necessary for the sale and delivery of FCRPS power; and all other generation-related costs incurred by the Administrator pursuant to law.

  9. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    PubMed

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  10. Problem-Oriented Simulation Packages and Computational Infrastructure for Numerical Studies of Powerful Gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.

    2016-05-01

    Powerful gyrotrons are necessary as sources of strong microwaves for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) of magnetically confined plasmas in various reactors (most notably ITER) for controlled thermonuclear fusion. Adequate physical models and efficient problem-oriented software packages are essential tools for numerical studies, analysis, optimization and computer-aided design (CAD) of such high-performance gyrotrons operating in a CW mode and delivering output power of the order of 1-2 MW. In this report we present the current status of our simulation tools (physical models, numerical codes, pre- and post-processing programs, etc.) as well as the computational infrastructure on which they are being developed, maintained and executed.

  11. Comparative analysis of the space power architecture studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, Ronald J.

    1988-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) has recently completed the initial phase of Space Power Architecture Studies (SPAS). The initial effort consisted of three major contracted efforts and a comparative analysis performed by the SDIO Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) and the IEG Field Support Team. The purpose of the SPAS effort was to evaluate a wide range of power systems for SDIO applications using a wide range of attributes other than power-system mass and volume. Open cycle, closed cycle, and closed power system/weapon platform concepts were studied. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the salient results of these studies, identify important trends and future study needs.

  12. A study of fault injection in multichannel spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center proposes to implement fault injection into an electrical power system breadboard to study the reactions of the various control elements of this breadboard. Among the elements to be studied are the remote power controllers, the algorithms in the control computers, and the artificially intelligent control programs resident in this breadboard. To this end, a study of electrical power is being performed to yield a list of the most common power system faults. The results of this study are being applied to a multichannel high-voltage DC spacecraft power system called the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System Breadboard. Some of the reactions of the breadboard to some of the faults which have been encountered are presented along with the results of this study.

  13. Results of an electrical power system fault study (CDDF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, N. R.; Johnson, Y. B.

    1993-01-01

    This report gives the results of an electrical power system fault study which has been conducted over the last 2 and one-half years. First, the results of the literature search into electrical power system faults in space and terrestrial power system applications are reported. A description of the intended implementations of the power system faults into the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS) breadboard is then presented. Then, the actual implementation of the faults into the breadboard is discussed along with a discussion describing the LASEPS breadboard. Finally, the results of the injected faults and breadboard failures are discussed.

  14. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    PubMed

    Zobel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for dicot plant root systems. PMID:26904040

  15. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to space station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered space station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have lead to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  16. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to Space Station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered Space Station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have led to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  17. A study for designing YBCO power transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Harimoto, T.; Imayoshi, T.; Tomioka, A.; Bouno, T.; Konno, M.; Iwakuma, M.

    2007-10-01

    It is highly expected that superconducting transformers, which are characterized by incombustibility, light weight, and compactness, will be used practically for equipment in substations and office buildings sited in urban areas. In recent years, remarkable improvements in the performance of YBaCuO (YBCO) tape wire have been seen. This kind of tape wire has the property that its critical current is large in a highly magnetic field; and, its use is expected to reduce AC loss by applying slit processing on the tape wire, contributing to future cost reductions. In addition, the development of efficient, economical cryogenic units is also expected. The authors have developed a conceptual design for a 66 kV/20 MVA power transformer using YBCO tape wires, or an YBCO power transformer. As a result, we were able to identify the transformer's optimal system structure including coil winding comprised of coils and tape wires; and, we confirmed that the devised transformer can made to be both compact and highly efficient.

  18. A study of the optimum draft of multiple resonance power buoys for maximizing electric power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kweon, Hyuck-Min; Cho, Hong-Yeon; Cho-Hyoung, ii

    2014-12-01

    To maximize electric power production using wave energy extractions from resonance power buoys, the maximum motion displacement spectra of the buoys can primarily be obtained under a given wave condition. In this study, wave spectra observed in shoaling water were formulated. Target resonance frequencies were established from the arithmetic means of modal frequency bands and the peak frequencies. The motion characteristics of the circular cylindrical power buoys with corresponding drafts were then calculated using numerical models without considering PTO damping force. Results showed that the heave motions of the power buoys in shoaling waters with insufficient drafts produced greater amplification effects than those in deep seas with sufficient drafts.

  19. Factors affecting the power of haplotype markers in association studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important, unresolved question in genome-wide association studies is whether there are predictable differences in power between single-SNP and haplotype markers. In this study, we use coalescent simulations to compare power for single-SNP and haplotype markers under a number of different models ...

  20. 7 CFR 1710.303 - Power cost studies-power supply borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Power cost studies-power supply borrowers. 1710.303 Section 1710.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Long-Range...

  1. The results of application studies for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, L.; Mcgraw, K.; Mankins, J.; Mondt, J.; Olivieri, J.

    1987-01-01

    The results are summarized of the studies over the last several years to identify and characterize potential applications for the SP-100 space nuclear reactor power system in powering spacecraft. SP-100 is a space power system based on a fast spectrum nuclear reactor with thermoelectric power conversion and liquid metal and heat pipe thermal transport. SP-100 reactor systems are designed to provide electric power with user designated characteristics at levels in the range from 10 to 1000 kWe. The use of nuclear reactors such as SP-100 as a power source provides a potential means of providing uninterrupted electrical power as required for many of todays space missions within acceptable cost and safety constraints.

  2. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  3. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  4. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  5. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  6. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  7. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...

  8. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  9. Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Even at reduced rates of growth, the demand for electric power is expected to more than triple between now and 1995, and to triple again over the period 1995-2020. Without the development of new power sources and advanced transmission technologies, it may not be possible to supply electric energy at prices that are conductive to generalized economic welfare. Solar power is renewable and its conversion and transmission from space may be advantageous. The goal of this study is to assess the economic merit of space-based photovoltaic systems for power generation and a power relay satellite for power transmission. In this study, satellite solar power generation and transmission systems, as represented by current configurations of the Satellite Solar Station (SSPS) and the Power Relay Satellite (PRS), are compared with current and future terrestrial power generation and transmission systems to determine their technical and economic suitability for meeting power demands in the period of 1990 and beyond while meeting ever-increasing environmental and social constraints.

  10. Hydra, a powerful model for aging studies

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Szymon; Fischer, Kathleen; Austad, Steven; Galliot, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarian Hydra polyps escape senescence, most likely due to the robust activity of their three stem cell populations. These stem cells continuously self-renew in the body column and differentiate at the extremities following a tightly coordinated spatial pattern. Paul Brien showed in 1953 that in one particular species, Hydra oligactis, cold-dependent sexual differentiation leads to rapid aging and death. Here, we review the features of this inducible aging phenotype. These cellular alterations, detected several weeks after aging was induced, are characterized by a decreasing density of somatic interstitial cell derivatives, a disorganization of the apical nervous system, and a disorganization of myofibers of the epithelial cells. Consequently, tissue replacement required to maintain homeostasis, feeding behavior, and contractility of the animal are dramatically affected. Interestingly, this aging phenotype is not observed in all H. oligactis strains, thus providing a powerful experimental model for investigations of the genetic control of aging. Given the presence in the cnidarian genome of a large number of human orthologs that have been lost in ecdysozoans, such approaches might help uncover novel regulators of aging in vertebrates. PMID:26120246

  11. Study of a High Voltage Ion Engine Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Thomas A.; King, Roger J.; Mayer, Eric

    1996-01-01

    A complete laboratory breadboard version of a ion engine power converter was built and tested. This prototype operated on a line voltage of 80-120 Vdc, and provided output ratings of 1100 V at 1.8 kW, and 250 V at 20 mA. The high-voltage (HV) output voltage rating was revised from the original value of 1350 V at the beginning of the project. The LV output was designed to hold up during a 1-A surge current lasting up to 1 second. The prototype power converter included a internal housekeeping power supply which also operated from the line input. The power consumed in housekeeping was included in the overall energy budget presented for the ion engine converter. HV and LV output voltage setpoints were commanded through potentiometers. The HV converter itself reached its highest power efficiency of slightly over 93% at low line and maximum output. This would dip below 90% at high line. The no-load (rated output voltages, zero load current) power consumption of the entire system was less than 13 W. A careful loss breakdown shows that converter losses are predominately Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) conduction losses and HV rectifier snubbing losses, with the rectifier snubbing losses becoming predominant at high line. This suggests that further improvements in power efficiency could best be obtained by either developing a rectifier that was adequately protected against voltage overshoot with less snubbing, or by developing a pre-regulator to reduced the range of line voltage on the converter. The transient testing showed the converter to be fully protected against load faults, including a direct short-circuit from the HV output to the LV output terminals. Two currents sensors were used: one to directly detect any core ratcheting on the output transformer and re-initiate a soft start, and the other to directly detect a load fault and quickly shut down the converter for load protection. The finished converter has been extensively fault tested

  12. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Rockwell International's Rocketdyne Division on NASA Contract No. NAS3-25808 (Task Order No. 16) entitled 'Mars Power System Definition Study'. This work was performed for NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC). The report is divided into two volumes as follows: Volume 1 - Study Results; and Volume 2 - Appendices. The results of the power system characterization studies, operations studies, and technology evaluations are summarized in Volume 1. The appendices include complete, standalone technology development plans for each candidate power system that was investigated.

  13. Wind Power Forecasting Error Frequency Analyses for Operational Power System Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Milligan, M.

    2012-08-01

    The examination of wind power forecasting errors is crucial for optimal unit commitment and economic dispatch of power systems with significant wind power penetrations. This scheduling process includes both renewable and nonrenewable generators, and the incorporation of wind power forecasts will become increasingly important as wind fleets constitute a larger portion of generation portfolios. This research considers the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study database of wind power forecasts and numerical actualizations. This database comprises more than 30,000 locations spread over the western United States, with a total wind power capacity of 960 GW. Error analyses for individual sites and for specific balancing areas are performed using the database, quantifying the fit to theoretical distributions through goodness-of-fit metrics. Insights into wind-power forecasting error distributions are established for various levels of temporal and spatial resolution, contrasts made among the frequency distribution alternatives, and recommendations put forth for harnessing the results. Empirical data are used to produce more realistic site-level forecasts than previously employed, such that higher resolution operational studies are possible. This research feeds into a larger work of renewable integration through the links wind power forecasting has with various operational issues, such as stochastic unit commitment and flexible reserve level determination.

  14. Social Studies: Emergence of America as a World Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Jackie

    The quinmester American studies elective course for grades seven through nine focuses on the development of the United States as a world power from 1898 when conditions and influential groups of expansionists contributed to the United States, changing from an isolationist nation to the present world power. Emphasis is on the concept of national…

  15. Earth & Space-Based Power Generation Systems - A Comparison Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerta, M.; Blandow, V.; Collins, P.; Guillet, J.; Nordmann, Thomas; Schmidt, Patrick; Weindorf, Werner; Zittel, Werner

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the study [1] is to comparatively assess the economic viability, energy investment, risk and reliability issues of broad-scale introduction of terrestrial and space based solar power systems for a European power supply in 2030 at various scenario power levels. The scenario design in terms of base load and non-base load cases is only suited to gain principle knowledge about both terrestrial and space-based solar power system architectures. The comparative cost, energy, risk and reliability discussions and evaluations are based on highly asymmetrical input data due to different magnitudes of practical experiences. However, under the study assumptions given, space- based solar power systems may potentially provide a firm power supply and could be economically competitive to terrestrial solar power systems if space transportation costs in the lower hundreds EUR/kg payload are achieved. The energy payback time could be in the range of other solar power technologies far below their operational lifetimes. Risks attributed with SPS are mainly in the field of health and public acceptance of microwave power transmission, the general R&D risk and geopolitical implications.

  16. Winter study of power plant effects

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A.N.

    1980-10-01

    As a part of DOE's Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) program a field study was undertaken at the Bowen Electric Generating Plant (Plant Bowen) in December 1979. The study was a joint endeavor of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the main objective of determining the effects of the plant's smokestack effluents on aerosol characteristics and precipitation chemistry. Other objectives included studies of cooling tower temperature and humidity (T/h) plumes and drift drop concentrations. Conducted over a period of three weeks, the study involved an instrumented aircraft, pilot balloons, a tethered balloon system, a dense network of wetfall chemistry collectors and numerous ground- and tower-based meteorological instruments. Rainfall samples collected during the precipitation event of December 13, 1979, revealed some evidence of plume washout. The tethered balloon flights rarely detected the faint presence of the T/h plumes while the airborne measurements program concentrated on the study of SO/sub 2/ to sulfate conversion. A series of plume observations confirmed the suitability of the plant's windset for plume direction determinations.

  17. Maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the nutritional and fluid requirements of enterally-fed patients can be challenging and the practicalities of ensuring adequate delivery must be taken into consideration. Patients who are enterally fed can be more reliant on clinicians, family members and carers to meet their nutrition and hydration needs and identify any deficiencies, excesses or problems with delivery. Estimating a patient's requirements can be challenging due to the limitations of using predictive equations in the clinical setting. Close monitoring by all those involved in the patient's care, as well as regular review by a dietitian, is therefore required to balance the delivery of adequate feed and fluids to meet each patient's individual needs and prevent the complications of malnutrition and dehydration. Increasing the awareness of the signs of malnutrition and dehydration in patients receiving enteral tube feeding among those involved in a patient's care will help any deficiencies to be detected early on and rectified before complications occur. PMID:26087203

  18. Power Calculation of Multi-step Combined Principal Components with Applications to Genetic Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengbang; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Dongdong; Li, Qizhai

    2016-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a useful tool to identify important linear combination of correlated variables in multivariate analysis and has been applied to detect association between genetic variants and human complex diseases of interest. How to choose adequate number of principal components (PCs) to represent the original system in an optimal way is a key issue for PCA. Note that the traditional PCA, only using a few top PCs while discarding the other PCs, might significantly lose power in genetic association studies if all the PCs contain non-ignorable signals. In order to make full use of information from all PCs, Aschard and his colleagues have proposed a multi-step combined PCs method (named mCPC) recently, which performs well especially when several traits are highly correlated. However, the power superiority of mCPC has just been illustrated by simulation, while the theoretical power performance of mCPC has not been studied yet. In this work, we attempt to investigate theoretical properties of mCPC and further propose a novel and efficient strategy to combine PCs. Extensive simulation results confirm that the proposed method is more robust than existing procedures. A real data application to detect the association between gene TRAF1-C5 and rheumatoid arthritis further shows good performance of the proposed procedure. PMID:27189724

  19. Control-structure interaction study for the Space Station solar dynamic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, J.; Ianculescu, G.; Ly, J.; Kim, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate the feasibility of using a conventional PID (proportional plus integral plus derivative) controller design to perform the pointing and tracking functions for the Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power module. Using this simple controller design, the control/structure interaction effects were also studied without assuming frequency bandwidth separation. From the results, the feasibility of a simple solar dynamic control solution with a reduced-order model, which satisfies the basic system pointing and stability requirements, is suggested. However, the conventional control design approach is shown to be very much influenced by the order of reduction of the plant model, i.e., the number of the retained elastic modes from the full-order model. This suggests that, for complex large space structures, such as the Space Station Freedom solar dynamic, the conventional control system design methods may not be adequate.

  20. A Study on a Hybrid Approach for Diagnosing Faults in Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.; Zhang, Z.J.; Peng, M.J.; Yan, S.Y.; Wang, H.; Ouyang, J.

    2006-07-01

    Proper and rapid identification of malfunctions is of premier importance for the safe operation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). Many monitoring or/and diagnosis methodologies based on artificial and computational intelligence have been proposed to aid operator to understand system problems, perform trouble-shooting action and reduce human error under serious pressure. However, because no single method is adequate to handle all requirements for diagnostic system, hybrid approaches where different methods work in conjunction to solve parts of the problem interest researchers greatly. In this study, Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) are proposed and employed to develop a fault diagnosis system with the intention of improving the success rate of recognition on the one hand, and improving the understandability of diagnostic process and results on the other hand. Several simulation cases were conducted for evaluating the performance of the proposed diagnosis system. The simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid approach. (authors)

  1. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  2. Space shuttle auxiliary power unit study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binsley, R. L.; Krause, A. A.; Maddox, R. D.; Marcy, R. D.; Siegler, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    A study was performed to establish the preliminary design of the space shuttle auxiliary power unit. Details of the analysis, optimizations, and design of the components, subsystems and systems are presented.

  3. Study of solar array switching power management technology for space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinelli, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents work performed on the Solar Array Switching Power Management Study. Mission characteristics for three missions were defined to the depth necessary to determine their power management requirements. Solar array switching concepts were identified that could safisfy the mission requirements. These switching concepts were compared with a conventional buck regulator system on the basis of cost, weight and volume, reliability, efficiency and thermal control. For the missions reviewed, solar array switching provided significant advantages in all areas of comparison.

  4. Study of solar array switching power management technology for space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinelli, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents work performed on the Solar Array Switching Power Management Study. Mission characteristics for three missions were defined to the depth necessary to determine their power management requirements. Solar array switching concepts which could satisfy the mission requirements were identified. The switching concepts were compared with a conventional buck regulator system for cost, weight and volume, reliability, efficiency and thermal control. Solar array switching provided significant advantages in all areas of comparison for the reviewed missions.

  5. Conceptual study of superconducting urban area power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noe, Mathias; Bach, Robert; Prusseit, Werner; Willén, Dag; Gold-acker, Wilfried; Poelchau, Juri; Linke, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Efficient transmission, distribution and usage of electricity are fundamental requirements for providing citizens, societies and economies with essential energy resources. It will be a major future challenge to integrate more sustainable generation resources, to meet growing electricity demand and to renew electricity networks. Research and development on superconducting equipment and components have an important role to play in addressing these challenges. Up to now, most studies on superconducting applications in power systems have been concentrated on the application of specific devices like for example cables and current limiters. In contrast to this, the main focus of our study is to show the consequence of a large scale integration of superconducting power equipment in distribution level urban power systems. Specific objectives are to summarize the state-of-the-art of superconducting power equipment including cooling systems and to compare the superconducting power system with respect to energy and economic efficiency with conventional solutions. Several scenarios were considered starting from the replacement of an existing distribution level sub-grid up to a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system. One major result is that a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system could be cost competitive with existing solutions in the future. In addition to that, superconducting power systems offer higher energy efficiency as well as a number of technical advantages like lower voltage drops and improved stability.

  6. Microwave Power Transmission System Studies. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Meltz, G.; Haley, J. T.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    A study of microwave power generation, transmission, reception and control was conducted as a part of a program to demonstrate the feasibility of power transmission from geosynchronous orbit. A summary is presented of results concerning design approaches, estimated costs (ROM), critical technology, associated ground and orbital test programs with emphasis on dc to rf conversion, transmitting antenna, phase control, mechanical systems, flight operations, ground power receiving-rectifying antenna with systems analysis, and evaluation. Recommendations for early further in-depth studies complementing the technology program are included.

  7. Ryazan power plant feasibility study. Volume 2. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Ryazan Power Plant Joint Stock Company to assess the feasibility of rehabilitating the Ryazan Power Plant in Novomichurinsk, Russia. The scope of this study includes reviewing plant equipment and operations as well as making recommendations for upgrade to present day plant standards. The main emphasis of the report is on boiler analysis, but also includes all equipment from coal entering the plant to electrical power leaving the plant. This is the second of two volumes and is divided into the following sections: (C) Technical - Sections 6-18; (D) Commercial; (E) Socioeconomic Considerations; (F) Conclusions.

  8. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  9. Principals' Perceptions of Effective Strategies in Meeting Adequate Yearly Progress in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jadie K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of principals who have met Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) with the special education subgroup. This was a qualitative study, utilizing interviews to answer the research questions. The first three research questions analyzed the areas of assessment, building-level leadership, and curriculum…

  10. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  11. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  12. Satellite power system (SPS) magnetron tube assessment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Taks performed to extend the data base and to define a technology development program for the magnetron directional amplifier for the SPS are reviewed. These include: (1) demonstrating the tracking of phase and amplitude of the microwave output to phase and amplitude references; (2) expanding the range of power over which the directional amplifier will operate; (3)recognizing the importance of amplitude control in overall system design and in simplifying power conditioning; (4) developing a preliminary design for the overall architecture of the power module; (5) demonstrating magnetron starting using the amplitude control system; (6) mathematically modelling and performing a computerized study of the pyrolytic graphite radiating fin; (7) defining the mass of the magnetic circuit for the SPS tube; (8) noise measurement; (9) achieving harmonic suppression by notch reflection filters; (10) estimating the mass of the transmitting antenna; (11) developing a magnetron package with power generation, phase control, and power condition functions; and (12) projecting magnetron package characteristics.

  13. High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU) Formulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan; Bradley, Arthur T.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Carr, Gregory A.; Mohammad, Mojarradi M.; Hunter, Don J.; DelCastillo, Linda; Stell, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    This technical memorandum is to summarize the Formulation Study conducted during fiscal year 2012 on the High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU). The effort is authorized and supported by the Game Changing Technology Division, NASA Office of the Chief Technologist. NASA center participation during the formulation includes LaRC, KSC and JPL. The Formulation Study continues into fiscal year 2013. The formulation study has focused on the power processing unit. The team has proposed a modular, power scalable, and new technology enabled High Temperature Boost (HTB) PPU, which has 5-10X improvement in PPU specific power/mass and over 30% in-space solar electric system mass saving.

  14. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2007-11-01

    The Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS) calculates BPA proposed rates based on information either developed in the WPRDS or supplied by the other studies that comprise the BPA rate proposal. All of these studies, and accompanying documentation, provide the details of computations and assumptions. In general, information about loads and resources is provided by the Load Resource Study (LRS), WP-07-E-BPA-01, and the LRS Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-01A. Revenue requirements information, as well as the Planned Net Revenues for Risk (PNNR), is provided in the Revenue Requirement Study, WP-07-E-BPA-02, and its accompanying Revenue Requirement Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-02A and WP-07-E-BPA-02B. The Market Price Forecast Study (MPFS), WP-07-E-BPA-03, and the MPFS Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-03A, provide the WPRDS with information regarding seasonal and diurnal differentiation of energy rates, as well information regarding monthly market prices for Demand Rates. In addition, this study provides information for the pricing of unbundled power products. The Risk Analysis Study, WP-07-E-BPA-04, and the Risk Analysis Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-04A, provide short-term balancing purchases as well as secondary energy sales and revenue. The Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study, WP-07-E-BPA-06, and the Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-06A, implement Section 7(b)(2) of the Northwest Power Act to ensure that BPA preference customers firm power rates applied to their general requirements are no higher than rates calculated using specific assumptions in the Northwest Power Act.

  15. Electric Power Delivery Testing Feasibility Study Task 6 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Tobin

    2009-07-01

    This Final Report is covers the completion of the Electric Power Delivery Testing Feasibility Study. The objective of this project was to research, engineer, and demonstrate high-power laboratory testing protocols to accurately reproduce the conditions on the electric power grid representing both normal load switching and abnormalities such as short-circuit fault protection. Test circuits, equipment, and techniques were developed and proven at reduced power levels to determine the feasibility of building a large-scale high-power testing laboratory capable of testing equipment and systems at simulated high-power conditions of the U.S. power grid at distribution levels up through 38 kiloVolts (kV) and transmission levels up through 230 kV. The project delivered demonstrated testing techniques, high-voltage test equipment for load testing and synthetic short-circuit testing, and recommended designs for future implementation of a high-power testing laboratory to test equipment and systems, enabling increased reliability of the electric transmission and distribution grid.

  16. Space Power Free-Piston Stirling Engine Scaling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D.

    1989-01-01

    The design feasibility study is documented of a single cylinder, free piston Stirling engine/linear alternator (FPSE/LA) power module generating 150 kW-electric (kW sub e), and the determination of the module's maximum feasible power level. The power module configuration was specified to be a single cylinder (single piston, single displacer) FPSE/LA, with tuning capacitors if required. The design requirements were as follows: (1) Maximum electrical power output; (2) Power module thermal efficiency equal to or greater than 20 percent at a specific mass of 5 to 8 kg/kW(sub e); (3) Heater wall temperature/cooler wall temperature = 1050 K/525 K; (4) Sodium heat-pipe heat transport system, pumped loop NaK (sodium-potassium eutectic mixture) rejection system; (5) Maximum power module vibration amplitude = 0.0038 cm; and (6) Design life = 7 years (60,000 hr). The results show that a single cylinder FPSE/LA is capable of meeting program goals and has attractive scaling attributes over the power range from 25 to 150 kW(sub e). Scaling beyond the 150 kW(sub e) power level, the power module efficiency falls and the power module specific mass reaches 10 kg/kW(sub e) at a power output of 500 kW(sub e). A discussion of scaling rules for the engine, alternator, and heat transport systems is presented, along with a detailed description of the conceptual design of a 150 kW(sub e) power module that meets the requirements. Included is a discussion of the design of a dynamic balance system. A parametric study of power module performance conducted over the power output range of 25 to 150 kW(sub e) for temperature ratios of 1.7, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 is presented and discussed. The results show that as the temperature ratio decreases, the efficiency falls and specific mass increases. At a temperature ratio of 1.7, the 150 kW(sub e) power module cannot satisfy both efficiency and specific mass goals. As the power level increases from 25 to 150 kW(sub e) at a fixed temperature ratio, power

  17. An Ecological Perspective of Power in Transformational Learning: A Case Study of Ethical Vegans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Barbara; Cervero, Ronald M.; Courtenay, Bradley C.

    1999-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 12 ethical vegans revealed the process of becoming vegetarian. Transformative learning proved to be a journey rather than a one-time decision. Mezirow's transformative theory does not adequately account for the power relations central to this process. Therefore, transformative learning should be viewed more holistically.…

  18. A method for determining adequate resistance form of complete cast crown preparations.

    PubMed

    Weed, R M; Baez, R J

    1984-09-01

    A diagram with various degrees of occlusal convergence, which takes into consideration the length and diameter of complete crown preparations, was designed as a guide to assist the dentist to obtain adequate resistance form. To test the validity of the diagram, five groups of complete cast crown stainless steel dies were prepared (3.5 mm long, occlusal convergence 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees). Gold copings were cast for each of the 50 preparations. Displacement force was applied to the casting perpendicularly to a simulated 30-degree cuspal incline until the casting was displaced. Castings were deformed at margins except for the 22-degree group. Castings from this group were displaced without deformation, and it was concluded that there was a lack of adequate resistance form as predicted by the diagram. The hypothesis that the diagram could be used to predict adequate or inadequate resistance form was confirmed by this study. PMID:6384470

  19. Comparison of four standards for determining adequate water intake of nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Phyllis M

    2011-01-01

    Adequate hydration for nursing home residents is problematic. The purpose of this study was to compare four standards used to determine a recommended water intake among nursing home residents. Inconsistencies in the amount of water intake recommended based on the standards compared were identified. The standard based on height and weight provides the most individualized recommendation. An individualized recommendation would facilitate goal setting for the care plan of each older person and assist in the prevention of dehydration. It is essential that a cost-effective and clinically feasible approach to determine adequate water intake be determined for this population to prevent the adverse outcomes associated with dehydration. PMID:21469538

  20. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  1. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  2. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

  3. Western Maryland Power Plant Siting Study: comparison of solid-waste-disposal issues at three candidate sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klauda, R.J.; Portner, E.M.; Lentz, J.J.

    1984-10-01

    This document is one of a series of technical reports prepared for the Western Maryland Power Plant Siting Study. An array of solid-waste-disposal-issues are compared for the three candidate sites (FP-12 in Frederick County, WP-14 and WP-26 in Washington County) remaining after the six- to three-area study phase. An 1890-MW conventional, coal-fired power plant would produce about 46 million cubic yards of solid waste over a 33-year period. The study evaluated potential impacts of a blend of fly ash and fixed scrubber sludge disposed in landfills with a design to maximize waste isolation and minimize permeate or leachate production. All three candidate sites appear to have adequate waste-disposal capacity. Varied ground-water flow directions and potential dilution limitations in the areas draining FP-12 and WP-14 make monitoring, detection, and potential mitigation options more complex and costly than at WP-26.

  4. Power System Trade Studies for the Lunar Surface Access Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa, L.

    2008-01-01

    A Lunar Lander Preparatory Study (LLPS) was undertaken for NASA's Lunar Lander Pre-Project in 2006 to explore a wide breadth of conceptual lunar lander designs. Civil servant teams from nearly every NASA center responded with dozens of innovative designs that addressed one or more specific lander technical challenges. Although none of the conceptual lander designs sought to solve every technical design issue, each added significantly to the technical database available to the Lunar Lander Project Office as it began operations in 2007. As part of the LLPS, a first order analysis was performed to identify candidate power systems for the ascent and descent stages of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). A power profile by mission phase was established based on LSAM subsystem power requirements. Using this power profile, battery and fuel cell systems were modeled to determine overall mass and volume. Fuel cell systems were chosen for both the descent and ascent stages due to their low mass. While fuel cells looked promising based on these initial results, several areas have been identified for further investigation in subsequent studies, including the identification and incorporation of peak power requirements into the analysis, refinement of the fuel cell models to improve fidelity and incorporate ongoing technology developments, and broadening the study to include solar power.

  5. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  6. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  7. Special or Not so Special: Special Education Background Experiences of Principals and Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study researched the special education background experience of principals and the effect on students in the subgroup of Students with Disabilities in making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). In the state of Ohio, schools and districts are expected to make AYP as a whole and additionally make AYP for each subgroup (various…

  8. Thermal design studies of high-power heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guang-Bo; Wang, Ming-Zhu; Gui, Xiang; Morkoc, Hadis

    1989-05-01

    A theoretical thermoelectro-feedback model has been developed for the thermal design of high-power GaAlAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). The power-handling capability, thermal instability, junction temperature, and current distributions of HBTs with multiple emitter fingers have been numerically studied. The calculated results indicate that power HBTs on Si substrates (or with Si as the collector) have excellent potential power performance and reliability. The power-handling capability on Si is 3.5 and 2.7 times as large as that on GaAs and InP substrates, respectively. The peak junction temperature and temperature difference on the chip decrease in comparison to the commonly used Si homostructure power transistors with the same geometry and power dissipation. Thereby HBTs are promising for high-speed microwave and millimeter-wave applications. It has been also found that the nonuniform distribution of junction temperature and current can be greatly improved by a balasting technique that uses unequal-value emitter resistors.

  9. A study of Schwarz converters for nuclear powered spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Thomas A.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1987-01-01

    High power space systems which use low dc voltage, high current sources such as thermoelectric generators, will most likely require high voltage conversion for transmission purposes. This study considers the use of the Schwarz resonant converter for use as the basic building block to accomplish this low-to-high voltage conversion for either a dc or an ac spacecraft bus. The Schwarz converter has the important assets of both inherent fault tolerance and resonant operation; parallel operation in modular form is possible. A regulated dc spacecraft bus requires only a single stage converter while a constant frequency ac bus requires a cascaded Schwarz converter configuration. If the power system requires constant output power from the dc generator, then a second converter is required to route unneeded power to a ballast load.

  10. A study of Schwarz converters for nuclear powered spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, T.A.; Schwarze, G.E.

    1994-09-01

    High power space systems which use low dc voltage, high current sources such as thermoelectric generators, will most likely require high voltage conversion for transmission purposes. This study considers the use of the Schwarz resonant converter for use as the basic building block to accomplish this low-to-high voltage conversion for either a dc or an ac spacecraft bus. The Schwarz converter has the important assets of both inherent fault tolerance and resonant operation and parallel operation in modular form is possible. A regulated dc spacecraft bus requires only a single stage converter while a constant frequency ac bus requires a cascaded Schwarz converter configuration. If the power system requires constant output power from the dc generator, then a second converter is required to route unneeded power to a ballast load.

  11. DOCUMENTATION OF THE DATA BASE: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume describes the data base of the first phase of the Wisconsin power plant impact study. Data were collected by investigators at the University of Wisconsin-Madison from 1971 to 1978 during their study of the Columbia Generating Station near Portage, Wisconsin. This volu...

  12. WATER CONSTRAINTS IN POWER-PLANT SITING AND OPERATION: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conceptual study of water quality in the Wisconsin River between Wisconsin Dells and Lake Wisconsin was performed to determine the range of choices that might be available for determining the trade-off between organic waste discharges and heat assimilation from possible power p...

  13. Are PPS payments adequate? Issues for updating and assessing rates

    PubMed Central

    Sheingold, Steven H.; Richter, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Declining operating margins under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) have focused attention on the adequacy of payment rates. The question of whether annual updates to the rates have been too low or cost increases too high has become important. In this article we discuss issues relevant to updating PPS rates and judging their adequacy. We describe a modification to the current framework for recommending annual update factors. This framework is then used to retrospectively assess PPS payment and cost growth since 1985. The preliminary results suggest that current rates are more than adequate to support the cost of efficient care. Also discussed are why using financial margins to evaluate rates is problematic and alternative methods that might be employed. PMID:10127450

  14. Robust scaling in fusion science: case study for the L-H power threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoolaege, G.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2015-09-01

    In regression analysis for deriving scaling laws in the context of fusion studies, standard regression methods are usually applied, of which ordinary least squares (OLS) is the most popular. However, concerns have been raised with respect to several assumptions underlying OLS in its application to fusion data. More sophisticated statistical techniques are available, but they are not widely used in the fusion community and, moreover, the predictions by scaling laws may vary significantly depending on the particular regression technique. Therefore we have developed a new regression method, which we call geodesic least squares regression (GLS), that is robust in the presence of significant uncertainty on both the data and the regression model. The method is based on probabilistic modeling of all variables involved in the scaling expression, using adequate probability distributions and a natural similarity measure between them (geodesic distance). In this work we revisit the scaling law for the power threshold for the L-to-H transition in tokamaks, using data from the multi-machine ITPA databases. Depending on model assumptions, OLS can yield different predictions of the power threshold for ITER. In contrast, GLS regression delivers consistent results. Consequently, given the ubiquity and importance of scaling laws and parametric dependence studies in fusion research, GLS regression is proposed as a robust and easily implemented alternative to classic regression techniques.

  15. Solar pond power plant feasibility study for Davis, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Singer, M. J.; Marsh, H. E.; Harris, J.; Walton, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing a solar pond power plant at Davis, California was studied. Site visits, weather data compilation, soil and water analyses, conceptual system design and analyses, a material and equipment market survey, conceptual site layout, and a preliminary cost estimate were studied. It was concluded that a solar pond power plant is technically feasible, but economically unattractive. The relatively small scale of the proposed plant and the high cost of importing salt resulted in a disproportionately high capital investment with respect to the annual energy production capacity of the plant. Cycle optimization and increased plant size would increase the economical attractiveness of the proposed concept.

  16. Study of Thermal Control Systems for orbiting power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, H. R.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal control system designs were evaluated for the 25 kW power system. Factors considered include long operating life, high reliability, and meteoroid hazards to the space radiator. Based on a cost advantage, the bumpered pumped fluid radiator is recommended for the initial 25 kW power system and intermediate versions up to 50 kW. For advanced power systems with heat rejection rates above 50 kW the lower weight of the advanced heat pipe radiator offsets the higher cost and this design is recommended. The power system payloads heat rejection allocations studies show that a centralized heat rejection system is the most weight and cost effective approach. The thermal interface between the power system and the payloads was addressed and a concept for a contact heat exchanger that eliminates fluid transfer between the power system and the payloads was developed. Finally, a preliminary design of the thermal control system, with emphasis on the radiator and radiator deployment mechanism, is presented.

  17. Ryazan power plant feasibility study. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Ryazan Power Plant Joint Stock Company to assess the feasibility of rehabilitating the Ryazan Power Plant in Novomichurinsk, Russia. The scope of this study includes reviewing plant equipment and operations as well as making recommendations for upgrade to present day plant standards. The main emphasis of the report is on boiler analysis, but also includes all equipment from coal entering the plant to electrical power leaving the plant. This is the first of two volumes and is divided into the following sections: (A) Abstract; (B) Evaluation of Alternative Technologies; (C) Technical: Section 1- Coal Handling, Section 2- Feeders and Pulverizers, Section 3- Boiler, Section 4- Ash Handling, Section 5- Electrostatic Precipitator.

  18. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  19. Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters.

    PubMed

    Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Wehner, Martin; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Lampert, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart; Hermans, Martin; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of introducing ultra-short pulsed lasers (USPL) in restorative dentistry by maintaining the well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also overcoming disadvantages, such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. USPL ablation of dental hard tissues was investigated in two phases. Phase 1--different wavelengths (355, 532, 1,045, and 1,064 nm), pulse durations (picoseconds and femtoseconds) and irradiation parameters (scanning speed, output power, and pulse repetition rate) were assessed for enamel and dentin. Ablation rate was determined, and the temperature increase measured in real time. Phase 2--the most favorable laser parameters were evaluated to correlate temperature increase to ablation rate and ablation efficiency. The influence of cooling methods (air, air-water spray) on ablation process was further analyzed. All parameters tested provided precise and selective tissue ablation. For all lasers, faster scanning speeds resulted in better interaction and reduced temperature increase. The most adequate results were observed for the 1064-nm ps-laser and the 1045-nm fs-laser. Forced cooling caused moderate changes in temperature increase, but reduced ablation, being considered unnecessary during irradiation with USPL. For dentin, the correlation between temperature increase and ablation efficiency was satisfactory for both pulse durations, while for enamel, the best correlation was observed for fs-laser, independently of the power used. USPL may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, since effective ablation and low temperature increase were observed. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this technique seems to be promising for promoting the laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach. PMID:22565342

  20. Engineering study for the phase 1 privatization facilities electrical power

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-18

    This engineering study evaluates the availability of electric power from the existing 13.8 kV substation, BPA 115 kV system,and RL 230 kV transmission line; for supporting the Privatization Phase I Facilities. 230 kV system is a preferable alternative.

  1. A Course Case Study: Nuclear Power Generation and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Allen B.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a course that uses the Ft. Calhoun nuclear power plant as a case study. The course involves three component parts: physics of fission events, engineering requirements, and economic considerations; environmental impact from radiation and thermal effluents; and the impact of social, political and legal factors. (GS)

  2. A Study of Defense Applications of Space Solar Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Space solar power (SSP) is generally considered to be the collection in space of energy from the sun and its wireless transmission from space for use on earth. It has been observed that the implementation of such a system could offer energy security, environmental, and technological advantages to those who would undertake its development. A study conducted by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) sought to determine if unique, cost effective, and efficient approaches exist for supplying significant power on demand for Navy, Marine Corps, or other Department of Defense applications by employing a space-based solar power system. The study was initiated by and prepared for top NRL management in part as a result of the publication of the National Security Space Office's (NSSO) report "Space-Based Solar Power as an Opportunity for Strategic Security." The NSSO report's recommendations included statements calling for the U.S. Government to conduct analyses, retire technical risk, and become an early demonstrator for SBSP. It should be noted that the principal objective of the NRL study differed significantly from that of the multitude of previous studies performed in reference to SBSP in that it focused on defense rather than utility grid applications.

  3. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... decommissioning. II. Further Information DG-4016, was published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2011 (76 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  4. A NUMERICAL study of solar chimney power plants in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar F, Attig; S, Guellouz M.; M, Sahraoui; S, Kaddeche

    2015-04-01

    A 3D CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model of a Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) was developed and validated through comparison with the experimental data of the Manzanares plant. Then, it was employed to study the SCPP performance for locations throughout Tunisia.

  5. Including History in the Study of Psychological and Political Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Pinkard, Tracy; Davidson, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Prilleltensky's (2003) concept of psychopolitical validity stresses the need to consider both the political and the psychological nature of power in the study of wellness, oppression, and liberation. The authors advocate that psychopolitical validity would be strengthened if it included an explicit appreciation of historical context. The…

  6. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  7. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  8. Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) at Your Library Media Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Together administration and the library media center form a team that can make a difference in student learning and, in turn, in student achievement. The library media center can contribute to improve student learning, and there is an amazingly small cost that administration must pay for this powerful support. This article addresses…

  9. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations: A VHO Enabled Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.; Koval, A.; Merka, J.; Narock, T.

    2011-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the solar wind key parameter search capability of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) affords an opportunity to study magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the 2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The power spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. The time periods of fixed solar wind conditions are obtained from VHO searches that greatly simplify the process. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed

  10. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations: A VHO Enabled Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.; Koval, A.; Merka, J.; Narock, T.

    2010-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the solar wind key parameter search capability of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) affords an opportunity to study magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The power spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions . The time periods of fixed solar wind conditions are obtained from VHO searches that greatly simplify the process. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed

  11. Space station WP-04 power system. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallinan, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    Results of the phase B study contract for the definition of the space station Electric Power System (EPS) are presented in detail along with backup information and supporting data. Systems analysis and trades, preliminary design, advanced development, customer accommodations, operations planning, product assurance, and design and development phase planning are addressed. The station design is a hybrid approach which provides user power of 25 kWe from the photovoltaic subsystem and 50 kWe from the solar dynamic subsystem. The electric power is distributed to users as a utility service; single phase at a frequency of 20 kHz and voltage of 440VAC. The solar array NiH2 batteries of the photovoltaic subsystem are based on commonality to those used on the co-orbiting and solar platforms.

  12. Between disorder and order: A case study of power law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yong; Zhao, Youjie; Yue, Xiaoguang; Xiong, Fei; Sun, Yongke; He, Xin; Wang, Lichao

    2016-08-01

    Power law is an important feature of phenomena in long memory behaviors. Zipf ever found power law in the distribution of the word frequencies. In physics, the terms order and disorder are Thermodynamic or statistical physics concepts originally and a lot of research work has focused on self-organization of the disorder ingredients of simple physical systems. It is interesting what make disorder-order transition. We devise an experiment-based method about random symbolic sequences to research regular pattern between disorder and order. The experiment results reveal power law is indeed an important regularity in transition from disorder to order. About these results the preliminary study and analysis has been done to explain the reasons.

  13. [How many subjects do I need to power my study?].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Navarro, Sergio R

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a tool that helps answer the question “How many subjects do I need to power my study? We show how to determine sample size in observational epidemiological studies and provide examples of application using the statistical package Epidat, which is a shareware program developed under the auspices of the Pan American Health Organization, the Galician Board of Health and the University CES of Colombia. Examples of calculation of sample size for prevalence studies (cross-sectional), case-control studies and cohort studies are given. PMID:25354214

  14. Solar-Powered Europa Orbiter Design Study (2007)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John; Langmaier, Jerry; Pappalardo, Robert; Strange, Nathan; Spilker, Tom; Lock, Rob; Reh, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of implementing a solar-powered mission around Europa has been evaluated periodically over the last decade. Most recently, an assessment was performed as part of the 2006 Europa Explorer (EE) Study, which evaluated the practicality of implementing that mission design with large solar arrays instead of radioisotope power systems (RPS). This previous study went into some depth in considering the issues related to the use of solar arrays in the Europa orbit illumination and radiation environment. The study concluded that an all-solar option was impractical to meet the science objectives as defined in that study by the science team. This conclusion resulted from the prohibitive mass, packaging and articulation issues associated with the very large (approx.300 sq m) solar arrays required to accommodate frequent eclipse periods associated with the particular Europa orbit used.

  15. Final Study for Bonneville Power Administration's 1986 Variable Industrial Power Rate Proposal.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-06-01

    In this study, BPA is proposing a Variable Industrial Power (VI-86) rate option for its aluminum smelter loads. This rate would provide a predetermined contractual tie between the price of BPA's power and the US market price of aluminum. Establishing such a tie between input price (electricity) and output price (aluminum) will enhance the ability of aluminum producers to operate over the entire business cycle. This should reduce the cyclicality of smelter operations. Increasing the price of power when aluminum prices are high is intended to compensate BPA for any decrease in BPA's revenues when the lower rates occur. Various proposals for and discussions of a variable rate for BPA's direct service industrial (DSI) customers have occurred throughout the region over the past year. This study is the result of analyses conducted and evidence received from the rate hearings conducted on the Variable Rate (VI-86). This study describes the Variable rate proposed by BPA and the analyses conducted in support of the rate.

  16. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  17. Powerful Social Studies Unit Design: A Companion to Powerful Social Studies Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misco, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Social studies education suffers from a distorted rendering of purpose and mission. Rather than pragmatically employ the social sciences to furnish the material for inquiry into normative and moral issues, social studies classrooms too often focus on declarative, disconnected, atomized, and meaningless content. The National Council for the Social…

  18. Advanced Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.; Eisenhaure, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously satisfying the demands of energy storage and attitude control through the use of rotating flywheels. It was demonstrated that, for a wide spectrum of applications, such a system possessed many advantages over contemporary energy storage and attitude control approaches. More recent technology advances in composite material rotors, magnetic suspension systems, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the applicability and merits of this concept. This study is undertaken to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for a space station application. System and component designs are developed to establish the performance of this concept and system trade studies conducted to examine the viability of this approach relative to conventional candidate systems. It is clearly demonstrated that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible, but also offers substantial savings in mass and life-cycle cost for the space station mission.

  19. SNAP benefits: Can an adequate benefit be defined?

    PubMed

    Yaktine, Ann L; Caswell, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) increases the food purchasing power of participating households. A committee convened by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) examined the question of whether it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy. Total resources; individual, household, and environmental factors; and SNAP program characteristics that affect allotment adequacy were identified from a framework developed by the IOM committee. The committee concluded that it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy; however, such a definition must take into account the degree to which participants' total resources and individual, household, and environmental factors influence the purchasing power of SNAP benefits and the impact of SNAP program characteristics on the calculation of the dollar value of the SNAP allotment. The committee recommended that the USDA Food and Nutrition Service investigate ways to incorporate these factors and program characteristics into research aimed at defining allotment adequacy. PMID:24425718

  20. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it. PMID:15260028

  1. Optimization Studies for ISOL Type High-Powered Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Remec, Igor; Ronningen, Reginald Martin

    2013-09-24

    The research studied one-step and two-step Isotope Separation on Line (ISOL) targets for future radioactive beam facilities with high driver-beam power through advanced computer simulations. As a target material uranium carbide in the form of foils was used because of increasing demand for actinide targets in rare-isotope beam facilities and because such material was under development in ISAC at TRIUMF when this project started. Simulations of effusion were performed for one-step and two step targets and the effects of target dimensions and foil matrix were studied. Diffusion simulations were limited by availability of diffusion parameters for UCx material at reduced density; however, the viability of the combined diffusion?effusion simulation methodology was demonstrated and could be used to extract physical parameters such as diffusion coefficients and effusion delay times from experimental isotope release curves. Dissipation of the heat from the isotope-producing targets is the limiting factor for high-power beam operation both for the direct and two-step targets. Detailed target models were used to simulate proton beam interactions with the targets to obtain the fission rates and power deposition distributions, which were then applied in the heat transfer calculations to study the performance of the targets. Results indicate that a direct target, with specification matching ISAC TRIUMF target, could operate in 500-MeV proton beam at beam powers up to ~40 kW, producing ~8 1013 fission/s with maximum temperature in UCx below 2200 C. Targets with larger radius allow higher beam powers and fission rates. For the target radius in the range 9-mm to 30-mm the achievable fission rate increases almost linearly with target radius, however, the effusion delay time also increases linearly with target radius.

  2. Contingency Power Study for Short Haul Civil Tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Angelo, Marin M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has concluded from previous studies that the twin engine tiltrotor is the most economical and technologically viable rotorcraft for near-term civil applications. Twin engine civil rotorcraft must be able to hover safely on one engine in an emergency. This emergency power requirement generally results in engines 20 to 50 percent larger than needed for normal engine operation, negatively impacting aircraft economics. This study identifies several contingency power enhancement concepts, and quantifies their potential to reduce aircraft operating costs. Many unique concepts were examined, and the selected concepts are simple, reliable, and have a high potential for near term realization. These engine concepts allow extremely high turbine temperatures during emergency operation by providing cooling to the power turbine and augmenting cooling of both turbines and structural hardware. Direct operating cost are reduced 3 to percent, which could yield a 30 to 80 percent increase in operating profits. The study consists of the definition of an aircraft economics model and a baseline engine, and an engine concept screening study, and a preliminary definition of the selected concepts. The selected concepts are evaluated against the baseline engine, and the critical technologies and development needs are identified, along with applications for this technology.

  3. Multi-kw dc power distribution system study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkery, E. A.; Krausz, A.

    1974-01-01

    The first phase of the Multi-kw dc Power Distribution Technology Program is reported and involves the test and evaluation of a technology breadboard in a specifically designed test facility according to design concepts developed in a previous study on space vehicle electrical power processing, distribution, and control. The static and dynamic performance, fault isolation, reliability, electromagnetic interference characterisitics, and operability factors of high distribution systems were studied in order to gain a technology base for the use of high voltage dc systems in future aerospace vehicles. Detailed technical descriptions are presented and include data for the following: (1) dynamic interactions due to operation of solid state and electromechanical switchgear; (2) multiplexed and computer controlled supervision and checkout methods; (3) pulse width modulator design; and (4) cable design factors.

  4. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Configuration concepts, option sizes, and systems definitions study design evolutions are reviewed. The main features of the present reference design silicon solar cell solar power satellite are described, as well as the provisions for space construction and support systems. The principal study accomplishments and conclusions are summarized according to the following tasks: (1) baseline critique; (2) construction and maintenance; (3) industrial complex needs, cost estimates, and production capacity; (4) launch complex requirements at KSC or at an offshore facility; (5) integration of the SPS/ground power network; (6) technology advancement and development; (7) costs and schedules; and (8) exploratory technology: laser annealing of solar cells degraded by proton irradiation, and a fiber-optic phase distribution link at 980 MHz.

  5. Design study of a high power rotary transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberger, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    A design study was made on a rotary transformer for transferring electrical power across a rotating spacecraft interface. The analysis was performed for a 100 KW, 20 KHz unit having a ""pancake'' geometry. The rotary transformer had a radial (vertical) gap and consisted of 4-25 KW modules. It was assumed that the power conditioning comprised of a Schwarz resonant circuit with a 20 KHz switching frequency. The rotary transformer, mechanical and structural design, heat rejection system and drive mechanism which provide a complete power transfer device were examined. The rotary transformer losses, efficiency, weight and size were compared with an axial (axial symmetric) gap transformer having the same performance requirements and input characteristics which was designed as part of a previous program. The ""pancake'' geometry results in a heavier rotary transformer primarily because of inefficient use of the core material. It is shown that the radial gap rotary transformer is a feasible approach for the transfer of electrical power across a rotating interface and can be implemented using presently available technology.

  6. Studies of a repetitively-pulsed laser powered thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, D. I.; Kemp, N. H.; Miller, M.

    1982-01-01

    In this report we present results of continuing analytical and experimental investigations carried out to evaluate the concept of pulsed laser propulsion. This advanced propulsion scheme, which has been the subject of several previous studies, involves supplying propellant energy by beaming short, repetitive laser pulses to a thruster from a remote laser power station. The concept offers the advantages of a remote power source, high specific impulse, high payload to total mass ratio (a consequence of the first two features) and moderate to high thrust (limited primarily by the average laser power available). The present research addresses questions related to thruster performance and optical design. In the thruster scheme under consideration, parabolic nozzle walls focus the incoming laser beam to yield breakdown in a propellant at the focal point of the parabola. The resulting high pressure plasma is characteristic of a detonation wave initiation by high power laser-induced breakdown. With a short laser pulse, the detonation wave quickly becomes a blast wave which propagates to the nozzle exit plane converting the high pressure of the gas behind it to a force on the nozzle wall. Propellant is fed to the focal region from a plenum chamber. The laser-induced blast wave stops the propellant flow through the throat until the pressure at the throat decays to the sonic pressure; then the propellant flow restarts. The process is repeated with each successive laser pulse.

  7. A 12 GHz RF Power Source for the CLIC Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schirm, Karl; Curt, Stephane; Dobert, Steffen; McMonagle, Gerard; Rossat, Ghislain; Syratchev, Igor; Timeo, Luca; Haase, Andrew Jensen, Aaron; Jongewaard, Erik; Nantista, Christopher; Sprehn, Daryl; Vlieks, Arnold; Hamdi, Abdallah; Peauger, Franck; Kuzikov, Sergey; Vikharev, Alexandr; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP

    2012-07-03

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  8. Functional models of power electronic components for system studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Kwa-Sur; Yang, Lifeng; Dravid, Narayan

    1991-01-01

    A novel approach to model power electronic circuits has been developed to facilitate simulation studies of system-level issues. The underlying concept for this approach is to develop an equivalent circuit, the functional model, that performs the same functions as the actual circuit but whose operation can be simulated by using larger time step size and the reduction in model complexity, the computation time required by a functional model is significantly shorter than that required by alternative approaches. The authors present this novel modeling approach and discuss the functional models of two major power electronic components, the DC/DC converter unit and the load converter, that are being considered by NASA for use in the Space Station Freedom electric power system. The validity of these models is established by comparing the simulation results with available experimental data and other simulation results obtained by using a more established modeling approach. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated by incorporating these models into a power system model and simulating the system responses and interactions between components under various conditions.

  9. Feasibility study of 35 GHz microwave power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K.; Mccleary, J. C.; Pollock, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is a study of the feasibility of a 35-GHz microwave power transmission system in space. It was found that a dc to dc transmission efficiency better than 50 percent can be achieved over a distance of 50 km by using a transmitting antenna of 20 m in diameter and a receiving antenna of 40 m in diameter. Technology requirements at 35 GHz have been assessed and several stages of development have been proposed.

  10. Power estimation for non-standardized multisite studies.

    PubMed

    Keshavan, Anisha; Paul, Friedemann; Beyer, Mona K; Zhu, Alyssa H; Papinutto, Nico; Shinohara, Russell T; Stern, William; Amann, Michael; Bakshi, Rohit; Bischof, Antje; Carriero, Alessandro; Comabella, Manuel; Crane, Jason C; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Demaerel, Philippe; Dubois, Benedicte; Filippi, Massimo; Fleischer, Vinzenz; Fontaine, Bertrand; Gaetano, Laura; Goris, An; Graetz, Christiane; Gröger, Adriane; Groppa, Sergiu; Hafler, David A; Harbo, Hanne F; Hemmer, Bernhard; Jordan, Kesshi; Kappos, Ludwig; Kirkish, Gina; Llufriu, Sara; Magon, Stefano; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; McCauley, Jacob L; Montalban, Xavier; Mühlau, Mark; Pelletier, Daniel; Pattany, Pradip M; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Cournu-Rebeix, Isabelle; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Schlaeger, Regina; Saiz, Albert; Sprenger, Till; Stecco, Alessandro; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Villoslada, Pablo; Wattjes, Mike P; Weiner, Howard; Wuerfel, Jens; Zimmer, Claus; Zipp, Frauke; Hauser, Stephen L; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Henry, Roland G

    2016-07-01

    A concern for researchers planning multisite studies is that scanner and T1-weighted sequence-related biases on regional volumes could overshadow true effects, especially for studies with a heterogeneous set of scanners and sequences. Current approaches attempt to harmonize data by standardizing hardware, pulse sequences, and protocols, or by calibrating across sites using phantom-based corrections to ensure the same raw image intensities. We propose to avoid harmonization and phantom-based correction entirely. We hypothesized that the bias of estimated regional volumes is scaled between sites due to the contrast and gradient distortion differences between scanners and sequences. Given this assumption, we provide a new statistical framework and derive a power equation to define inclusion criteria for a set of sites based on the variability of their scaling factors. We estimated the scaling factors of 20 scanners with heterogeneous hardware and sequence parameters by scanning a single set of 12 subjects at sites across the United States and Europe. Regional volumes and their scaling factors were estimated for each site using Freesurfer's segmentation algorithm and ordinary least squares, respectively. The scaling factors were validated by comparing the theoretical and simulated power curves, performing a leave-one-out calibration of regional volumes, and evaluating the absolute agreement of all regional volumes between sites before and after calibration. Using our derived power equation, we were able to define the conditions under which harmonization is not necessary to achieve 80% power. This approach can inform choice of processing pipelines and outcome metrics for multisite studies based on scaling factor variability across sites, enabling collaboration between clinical and research institutions. PMID:27039700

  11. Can Rodent Longevity Studies be Both Short and Powerful?

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Henry T.; Smith, Daniel L.; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Weindruch, Richard H.; Garland, Theodore; Argyropoulos, George; Bokov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Many rodent experiments have assessed effects of diets, drugs, genes, and other factors on life span. A challenge with such experiments is their long duration, typically over 3.5 years given rodent life spans, thus requiring significant time costs until answers are obtained. We collected longevity data from 15 rodent studies and artificially truncated them at 2 years to assess the extent to which one will obtain the same answer regarding mortality effects. When truncated, the point estimates were not significantly different in any study, implying that in most cases, truncated studies yield similar estimates. The median ratio of variances of coefficients for truncated to full-length studies was 3.4, implying that truncated studies with roughly 3.4 times as many rodents will often have equivalent or greater power. Cost calculations suggest that shorter studies will be more expensive but perhaps not so much to not be worth the reduced time. PMID:21051569

  12. Parametric study of prospective early commercial OCMHD power plants /PSPEC/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, C. H.; Bender, D. J.; Hnat, J. G.; Dellinger, T. C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a parametric study conducted to obtain the performance, economics, natural resource requirements, and environmental impact of moderate technology MHD/steam power plants that do not require development of direct-fired high-temperature air heaters. The study was divided into three base cases, each with a reference case and parametric variations. The case using recuperative air preheat in the range of 1000 F to 1300 F, combined with O2 enrichment to 42% by volume has been selected for conceptual design.

  13. Self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction differences in women with adequate and inadequate prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M

    1994-03-01

    This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care. PMID:8155221

  14. Optimisation studies of a wind power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ka Chung

    2009-12-01

    In this research, direct control algorithms for wind power generation of doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs), including synchronization and power generation, are developed. Mathematical models, computer simulation, and experimental results are included for the validation of various schemes being studied. The algorithms developed are model-based designs with direct feedback of the control variables to minimize the number of parameters and to simplify numerical operations, with no compromise in performance. A direct voltage control scheme for the synchronization of DFIGs to grids is therefore presented. The proposed scheme is a single loop design with no current control loops, and only those parameters which are required for tuning the voltage controller are needed. In comparison with conventional control schemes for DFIGs, the proposed controller requires no mathematical coordinate transformation of currents and hence is simpler and faster. Direct torque control of DFIGs with constant switching frequency is also developed in the research. The control scheme utilizes direct feedback of torque and reactive power, which can be evaluated in any coordinate frames. The proposed scheme inherits the simplicity of classical direct torque control scheme, but not the disadvantages of classical schemes such as variable switching frequencies and relatively poor steady state accuracy. Overall, the power quality of power generation is improved in the proposed scheme. Direct torque control of DFIGs in grids with large source impedances is proposed. The control method automatically adjusts the controller parameters in accordance to changes in grid voltage, in that the control performance and dynamics of the power generation systems are decoupled from fluctuations in the grid voltage, which is a common constraint in wind farms having weak connection to grids due to the presence of long transmission lines. A control scheme for DFIGs to operate in grids with voltage unbalance is

  15. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    SciTech Connect

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.; Buksa, J.J.; Creedson, R.L.; Erlandson, O.D.; Levine, H.E.; Roelant, D.F.; Sanchez, H.W.; Schrader, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li/sub 2/O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li/sub 2/O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li/sub 2/O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive.

  16. (Findings of the Costa Rica power sector efficiency study)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-10-08

    To present findings of the Costa Rica Power Sector Efficiency Study to the Instituto Costarricense de Electridad, and to the Ministry of Energy, Natural Resources and Mining. To discuss the progress and plans for the Central American Rural Electrification Project with US Agency for International Development (USAID)/Regional Office Central American Program (ROCAP). I traveled to San Jose, Costa Rica to present the findings of the Costa Rica Power Sector Efficiency Study to our counterparts in the utility and the Ministry of Energy. Discussions were held with line level managers at Instituto Costarricensede Electricidad (ICE) and Ministry of Energy Mines and Natural Resources (MIRENEM), as well as a plan of action set for the final stage of the project. Discussions were held for a one day period with both the bilateral Agency for International Development (AID) and the regional AID mission regarding the need for a similar study in Guatemala and matters directly pertaining to the Central American Rural Electrification Study (CARES) project.

  17. Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) study. Volume 1: Feasibility studies. [application of flywheels for power storage and generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notti, J. E.; Cormack, A., III; Schmill, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    An Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) concept consisting of an array of spinning flywheels, with or without gimbals, capable of performing the dual function of power storage and generation, as well as attitude control has been investigated. This system provides attitude control through momentum storage, and replaces the storage batteries onboard the spacecraft. The results of the investigation are presented in two volumes. The trade-off studies performed to establish the feasibility, cost effectiveness, required level of development, and boundaries of application of IPACS to a wide variety of spacecraft are discussed. The conceptual designs for a free-flying research application module (RAM), and for a tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) are presented. Results from dynamic analyses and simulations of the IPACS conceptual designs are included.

  18. Neutronic design studies for an unattended, low power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.G.; Durkee, J.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is involved in the design and demonstrations of a small, long-lived nuclear heat and electric power source for potential applications at remote sites where alternate fossil energy systems would not be cost effective. This paper describes the neutronic design analysis that was performed to arrive at two conceptual designs, one using thermoelectric conversion, the other using an organic Rankine cycle. To meet the design objectives and constraints a number of scoping and optimization studies were carried out. The results of calculations of control worths, temperature coefficients of reactivity and fuel depletion effects are reported.

  19. Study of novel concepts of power transmission gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivin, Eugene I.

    1991-01-01

    Two concepts in power transmission gear design are proposed which provide a potential for large noise reduction and for improving weight to payload ratio due to use of advanced fiber reinforced and ceramic materials. These concepts are briefly discussed. Since both concepts use ultrathin layered rubber-metal laminates for accommodating limited travel displacements, properties of the laminates, such as their compressive strength, compressive and shear moduli were studied. Extensive testing and computational analysis were performed on the first concept gears (laminate coated conformal gears). Design and testing of the second conceptual design (composite gear with separation of sliding and rolling motions) are specifically described.

  20. Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 4, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of an overall evaluation of the solar power satellite concept are reported. Specific topics covered include: solid state sandwich configuration; parametric development of reliability design; power distribution system for solid state solar power satellites; multibeam transmission; GEO base system configuration; suppression of the heavy lift launch vehicle trajectory; conceptual design of an offshore space center facility; solar power satellite development and operations scenario; and microwave power transmission technology, advancement, development, and facility requirements.

  1. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Special emphasis studies. [rectenna and solar power satellite design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Satellite configurations based on the Satellite Power System baseline requirements were analyzed and a preferred concept selected. A satellite construction base was defined, precursor operations incident to establishment of orbital support facilities identified, and the satellite construction sequence and procedures developed. Rectenna construction requirement were also addressed. Mass flow to orbit requirements were revised and traffic models established based on construction of 60 instead of 120 satellites. Analyses were conducted to determine satellite control, resources, manufacturing, and propellant requirements. The impact of the laser beam used for space-to-Earth power transmission upon the intervening atmosphere was examined as well as the inverse effect. The significant space environments and their effects on spacecraft components were investigated to define the design and operational limits imposed by the environments on an orbit transfer vehicle. The results show that LEO altitude 300 nmi and transfer orbit duration 6 months are preferrable.

  2. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  3. Arabidopsis: an adequate model for dicot root systems?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the search for answers to pressing root developmental genetic issues, plant science has turned to a small genome dicot plant (Arabidopsis) to be used as a model to study and use to develop hypotheses for testing other species. Through out the published research only three classes of root are des...

  4. Maintenance of an Adequate Dental Hygiene Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ley, Eugene; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administrative decisions about the future of dental hygiene programs are often based on inadequate information about employment trends and about the importance of the dental hygienist in dental practices. Studies indicate that demand for dental hygiene services will remain high in the 1980s. (Author/MLW)

  5. A Study on Sequence Generation Powers of Small Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamikawa, Naoki; Umeo, Hiroshi

    A model of cellular automata (CA) is considered to be a well-studied non-linear model of complex systems in which an infinite one-dimensional array of finite state machines (cells) updates itself in a synchronous manner according to a uniform local rule. A sequence generation problem on the CAs has been studied and many scholars proposed several real-time sequence generation algorithms for a variety of non-regular sequences such as prime, Fibonacci, and {2n|n=1,2,3,...} sequences etc. The paper describes the sequence generation powers of CAs having a small number of states, focusing on the CAs with one, two, and three internal states, respectively. The authors enumerate all of the sequences generated by two-state CAs and present several non-regular sequences that can be generated in real-time by three-state CAs, but not generated by any two-state CA. It is shown that there exists a sequence generation gap among the powers of those small CAs.

  6. Study of space transportation for space solar power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Shoji; Aoki, Hiroshi; Okawa, Yasushi; Taniguchi, Hirofumi

    2007-01-01

    Space solar power systems (SSPSs) have the potential to provide abundant quantities of electric power for use on the Earth. One of the hurdles to them is the transportation of SSPSs to the operational geostationary Earth orbit (GEO). The objectives of this study are to examine the transportation of SSPSs, and to give a reference transportation scenario. This study presumes that the SSPSs have a mass of 10,000 tons each and are constructed at a rate of one per year. Reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) are assumed for the transportation to low Earth orbit (LEO), and reusable orbit transfer vehicles (OTVs) propelled by a solar electric propulsion system for the transportation from LEO to GEO. The payload element delivered to LEO by each launch is individually transferred by each OTV transportation service to GEO, where the elements are assembled into a whole SSPS. The OTV round-trip time is assumed to be a year. With these operations and reasonable estimations for the OTV subsystems, the OTV payload ratio was obtained. This, with an SSPS element mass, gave the total mass that has to be launched by RLVs. The result indicated that about 300 times of launch are required per year.

  7. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  8. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  9. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  10. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  11. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  12. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  13. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  14. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  15. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  16. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  17. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  18. Smoke alarm tests may not adequately indicate smoke alarm function.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Smoke alarms are one of the most promoted prevention strategies to reduce residential fire deaths, and they can reduce residential fire deaths by half. Smoke alarm function can be measured by two tests: the smoke alarm button test and the chemical smoke test. Using results from a randomized trial of smoke alarms, we compared smoke alarm response to the button test and the smoke test. The smoke alarms found in the study homes at baseline were tested, as well as study alarms placed into homes as part of the randomized trial. Study alarms were tested at 12 and 42 months postinstallation. The proportion of alarms that passed the button test but not the smoke test ranged from 0.5 to 5.8% of alarms; this result was found most frequently among ionization alarms with zinc or alkaline batteries. These alarms would indicate to the owner (through the button test) that the smoke alarm was working, but the alarm would not actually respond in the case of a fire (as demonstrated by failing the smoke test). The proportion of alarms that passed the smoke test but not the button test ranged from 1.0 to 3.0%. These alarms would appear nonfunctional to the owner (because the button test failed), even though the alarm would operate in response to a fire (as demonstrated by passing the smoke test). The general public is not aware of the potential for inaccuracy in smoke alarm tests, and burn professionals can advocate for enhanced testing methods. The optimal test to determine smoke alarm function is the chemical smoke test. PMID:21747329

  19. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  20. Comparative Studies of Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques for Reactive Power Allocation Planning in Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Yoshikazu

    This paper compares particle swarm optimization (PSO) techniques for a reactive power allocation planning problem in power systems. The problem can be formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problem (MINLP). The PSO based methods determines a reactive power allocation strategy with continuous and discrete state variables such as automatic voltage regulator (AVR) operating values of electric power generators, tap positions of on-load tap changer (OLTC) of transformers, and the number of reactive power compensation equipment. Namely, this paper investigates applicability of PSO techniques to one of the practical MINLPs in power systems. Four variations of PSO: PSO with inertia weight approach (IWA), PSO with constriction factor approach (CFA), hybrid particle swarm optimization (HPSO) with IWA, and HPSO with CFA are compared. The four methods are applied to the standard IEEE14 bus system and a practical 112 bus system.

  1. Practical Uses of Statistical Power in Business Research Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowski, Edward P.; Markowski, Carol A.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes the use of statistical power subsequent to the results of hypothesis testing in business research. Describes how posttest use of power might be integrated into business statistics courses. (SK)

  2. Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines and assumptions used in the design of a system of geosynchronous satellites for transmitting solar power to earth were discussed as well as the design evolutions of the principle types of solar power satellites and space support systems.

  3. The Importance of Adequate Iodine during Pregnancy and Infancy.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased ≥50% during pregnancy. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can cause maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and impair neurological development of the fetus. The consequences depend upon the timing and severity of the hypothyroidism; the most severe manifestation is cretinism. In iodine-deficient areas, controlled studies have demonstrated that iodine supplementation before or during early pregnancy eliminates new cases of cretinism, increases birth weight, reduces rates of perinatal and infant mortality and generally increases developmental scores in young children by 10-20%. Mild-to-moderate maternal iodine deficiency can cause thyroid dysfunction, but whether it impairs cognitive and/or neurological function in the offspring remains uncertain. In nearly all regions affected by iodine deficiency, salt iodization is the most cost-effective way of delivering iodine and improving maternal and infant health. PMID:27198746

  4. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  5. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  6. Studies on the use of power ultrasound in leather dyeing.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar

    2003-03-01

    Uses of power ultrasound for acceleration/performing the chemical as well as physical processes are gaining importance. In conventional leather processing, the diffusion of chemicals through the pores of the skin/hide is achieved by the mechanical agitation caused by the paddle or drumming action. In this work, the use of power ultrasound in the dyeing of leather has been studied with the aim to improve the exhaustion of dye for a given processing time, to reduce the dyeing time and to improve the quality of dyed leather. The effect of power ultrasound in the dyeing of full chrome cow crust leather in a stationary condition is compared with dyeing in the absence of ultrasound as a control experiment both in a stationary as well as conventional drumming condition. An ultrasonic cleaner (150 W and 33 kHz) was used for the experiments. Actual power dissipated into the system was calculated from the calorimetric measurement. Experiments were carried out with variation in type of dye, amount of dye offer, temperature and time. The results show that there is a significant improvement in the percentage exhaustion of dye due to the presence of ultrasound, when compared to dyeing in absence of ultrasound. Experiments on equilibrium dye uptake carried out with or without ultrasound suggest that ultrasound help to improve the kinetics of leather dyeing. The results indicate that leathers dyed in presence of ultrasound have higher colour values, better dye penetration and fastness properties compared to control leathers. The physical testing results show that strength properties of the dyed leathers are not affected due to the application of ultrasound under the given process conditions. Apparent diffusion coefficient during the initial stage of dyeing process, both in presence and in absence of ultrasound was calculated. The values show that ultrasound helps in improving the apparent diffusion coefficient more for the difficult dyeing conditions such as in the case of metal

  7. Think Global, Act Local--A Power Generation Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Pam

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an exercise completed by sixth form college students to compare the power output from a local coal fired power station with the potential power output from renewable sources including wind farms, solar farms, and the proposed Mersey Tidal Barrage scheme. (Contains 1 figure, 1 table, and 3 photos.)

  8. Think global, act local—a power generation case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugdale, Pam

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an exercise completed by sixth form college students to compare the power output from a local coal fired power station with the potential power output from renewable sources including wind farms, solar farms, and the proposed Mersey Tidal Barrage scheme.

  9. Low-head tidal power in South Carolina. Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report details the possibilities of extracting tidal power from sites with moderate tides and naturally occurring storage locations (estuaries). The important points covered include: available power, power extraction, and the best locations and techniques to utilize the tides in South Carolina.

  10. Molten carbonate fuel cell power plant systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.H.

    1990-06-01

    The goal of the DOE and IFC Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Program is to develop a MCFC technology base capable of providing clean electrical energy at competitive cost when integrated with coal gasification systems. To be successful, a coal-fueled MCFC system must provide cost of electricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long range electric generating systems. The strategy for the study was to initially evaluate the status of non-fuel cell systems to establish the basis for a competitive CG/MCFC power plant and the corresponding MCFC subsystem goals. Secondly, an iterative and comparative analysis of potential CG/MCFC systems was conducted. This analysis included a detailed examination of MCFC integration with gasifier technology in which the technical basis for MCFC compatibility with a broad range of gasifiers was established. Lastly, a detailed conceptual design was prepared for the most desirable CG/MCFC system. The design established the potential of the CG/MCFC power plant to meet the goals and provide a competitive cost of electricity at very high efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. The design also provided focus for the technical issues still outstanding and required for commercialization of the CG/MCFC technology. 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  11. Heat Transfer Study for HTS Power Transfer Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S.; Fesmire, J.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal losses are a key factor in the successful application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. Existing concepts and prototypes rely on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) systems that are subject to large variations in actual performance. The small space available for the thermal insulation materials makes the application even more difficult because of bending considerations, mechanical loading, and the arrangement between the inner and outer piping. Each of these mechanical variables affects the heat leak rate. These factors of bending and spacing are examined in this study. Furthermore, a maintenance-free insulation system (high vacuum level for 20 years or longer) is a practical requirement. A thermal insulation system simulating a section of a flexible FITS power cable was constructed for test and evaluation on a research cryostat. This paper gives experimental data for the comparison of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping. A section of insulated flexible piping was tested under cryogenic vacuum conditions including simulated bending and spacers.

  12. High Power Density Blanket Design Study for Fusion Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. H.; Zhu, Y. K.; Deng, P. Zh.

    2003-06-01

    A conceptual design study of a high power density blanket has been carried out. The Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB, is adopted as the reference reactor. The neutron wall loading is 0.5 MW/m2. The blanket is cooled by 10 MPa helium in tube. The concept of LiPb eutectic/transuranium oxide suspension is adopted. The neutronics design is performed to provide the design basis, and it gives an energy multiplication of 37 and a flattened power density distribution with a peak value of 70 W/m3. Multiple cooling panels are introduced to reduce the peak temperature of the blanket. In spite of up to 15 cooling panels, the blanket module is calculated using the ANSYS code and analytically as well. The results are consistent with each other and can meet the thermal criteria. However, structural calculation results from ANSYS did not satisfy the criterion: The blanket structure design is then improved by using curved cooling panels to model the structure in detail. Temperature distribution is obtained using the Pro/Mechanica code. Detailed structural analyses are also done by this code. Some satisfactory results are obtained.

  13. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  14. A SUPER Powerful Method for Genome Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuchun; Buckler, Edward S.; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2014-01-01

    Genome-Wide Association Studies shed light on the identification of genes underlying human diseases and agriculturally important traits. This potential has been shadowed by false positive findings. The Mixed Linear Model (MLM) method is flexible enough to simultaneously incorporate population structure and cryptic relationships to reduce false positives. However, its intensive computational burden is prohibitive in practice, especially for large samples. The newly developed algorithm, FaST-LMM, solved the computational problem, but requires that the number of SNPs be less than the number of individuals to derive a rank-reduced relationship. This restriction potentially leads to less statistical power when compared to using all SNPs. We developed a method to extract a small subset of SNPs and use them in FaST-LMM. This method not only retains the computational advantage of FaST-LMM, but also remarkably increases statistical power even when compared to using the entire set of SNPs. We named the method SUPER (Settlement of MLM Under Progressively Exclusive Relationship) and made it available within an implementation of the GAPIT software package. PMID:25247812

  15. Are family medicine residents adequately trained to deliver palliative care?

    PubMed Central

    Mahtani, Ramona; Kurahashi, Allison M.; Buchman, Sandy; Webster, Fiona; Husain, Amna; Goldman, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore educational factors that influence family medicine residents’ (FMRs’) intentions to offer palliative care and palliative care home visits to patients. Design Qualitative descriptive study. Setting A Canadian, urban, specialized palliative care centre. Participants First-year (n = 9) and second-year (n = 6) FMRs. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with FMRs following a 4-week palliative care rotation. Questions focused on participant experiences during the rotation and perceptions about their roles as family physicians in the delivery of palliative care and home visits. Participant responses were analyzed to summarize and interpret patterns related to their educational experience during their rotation. Main findings Four interrelated themes were identified that described this experience: foundational skill development owing to training in a specialized setting; additional need for education and support; unaddressed gaps in pragmatic skills; and uncertainty about family physicians’ role in palliative care. Conclusion Residents described experiences that both supported and inadvertently discouraged them from considering future engagement in palliative care. Reassuringly, residents were also able to underscore opportunities for improvement in palliative care education. PMID:27035008

  16. Role of inhalation studies with animals in defining human health risks for vehicle and power plant emissions.

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, R O

    1983-01-01

    Automotive vehicles and power plants using fossil fuels emit a complex array of gases and particulate material. The physical and chemical characteristics of these emissions vary markedly between sources and comprise only a portion of the contributors to air pollution exposure of people. Further, it is well recognized that a single form of self-inflicted air pollution, cigarette smoking, is the dominant cause of air pollution-induced disease. These factors minimize our potential for developing an adequate understanding of the health effects of vehicle and power plant emissions by studying only people. The alternative is to use the human data to the extent feasible and complement it with information gained in studies with macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissues and whole animals. Within this context, this paper reviews the use of inhalation studies with animals for defining human health risks of airborne materials, especially particulate materials. The major areas covered are: the fate of inhaled materials, the pathogenesis of disease induced by inhaled materials and long-term animal studies to identify late-occurring effects. Emphasis is placed on the utility of studies in whole animals as integrative models in which the multiple processes such as xenobiotic metabolism, cell injury, repair, transformation and promotion under the influence of many host factors interact in a manner that may not be directly observed in isolated cells or tissues. PMID:6186479

  17. Role of inhalation studies with animals in defining human health risks for vehicle and power plant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Automotive vehicles and power plants using fossil fuels emit a complex array of gases and particulate material. The physical and chemical characteristics of these emissions vary markedly between sources and comprise only a portion of the contributors to air pollution exposure of people. Further, it is well recognized that a single form of self-inflicted air pollution, cigarette smoking, is the dominant cause of air pollution-induced disease. These factors minimize our potential for developing an adequate understanding of the health effects of vehicle and power plant emissions by studying only people. The alternative is to use the human data to the extent feasible and complement it with information gained in studies with macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissues and whole animals. Within this context, this paper reviews the use of inhalation studies with animals for defining human health risks of airborne materials, especially particulate materials. The major areas covered are: the fate of inhaled materials, the pathogenesis of disease induced by inhaled materials and long-term animal studies to identify late-occurring effects. Emphasis is placed on the utility of studies in whole animals as integrative models in which the multiple processes such as xenobiotic metabolism, cell injury, repair, transformation and promotion under the influence of many host factors interact in a manner that may not be directly observed in isolated cells or tissues. 60 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  18. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Risk Analysis Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), operated on behalf of the ratepayers of the PNW by BPA and other Federal agencies, faces many uncertainties during the FY 2007-2009 rate period. Among these uncertainties, the largest revolve around hydro conditions, market prices and river operations for fish recovery. In order to provide a high probability of making its U.S. Treasury payments, BPA performs a Risk Analysis as part of its rate-making process. In this Risk Analysis, BPA identifies key risks, models their relationships, and then analyzes their impacts on net revenues (total revenues less expenses). BPA subsequently evaluates in the ToolKit Model the Treasury Payment Probability (TPP) resulting from the rates, risks, and risk mitigation measures described here and in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS). If the TPP falls short of BPA's standard, additional risk mitigation revenues, such as PNRR and CRAC revenues are incorporated in the modeling in ToolKit until the TPP standard is met. Increased wholesale market price volatility and six years of drought have significantly changed the profile of risk and uncertainty facing BPA and its stakeholders. These present new challenges for BPA in its effort to keep its power rates as low as possible while fully meeting its obligations to the U.S. Treasury. As a result, the risk BPA faces in not receiving the level of secondary revenues that have been credited to power rates before receiving those funds is greater. In addition to market price volatility, BPA also faces uncertainty around the financial impacts of operations for fish programs in FY 2006 and in the FY 2007-2009 rate period. A new Biological Opinion or possible court-ordered change to river operations in FY 2006 through FY 2009 may reduce BPA's net revenues included Initial Proposal. Finally, the FY 2007-2009 risk analysis includes new operational risks as well as a more comprehensive analysis of non-operating risks. Both the operational

  19. Learning Platform for Study of Power Electronic Application in Power Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, P.; Rompelman, O.

    2005-01-01

    Present engineering has to deal with increasingly complex systems. In particular, this is the case in electrical engineering. Though this is obvious in microelectronics, also in the field of power systems engineers have to design, operate and maintain highly complex systems such as power grids, energy converters and electrical drives. This is…

  20. A study of a commercial MHD power plant scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashkov, S. A.; Shishkov, E. V.

    1980-07-01

    Power engineering specialists are currently interested in electrical power stations with magnetohydrodynamic generators. This paper is devoted to an investigation of one of the possible process flow diagrams of MHD electrical power plants. The structure of MHD electrical power plants, the interrelation between the aggregates, issues concerning the starting of the plant and the working of the power unit under various partial load conditions are discussed. With the availability of new theoretical and experimental data, the process flow diagrams of industrial MHD electrical power plants will naturally undergo changes. However, the methodical approach and the investigation described in this paper should retain their validity for all process flow diagrams of electrical power plants with MHD generators.

  1. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak fusion power plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    STARFIRE is a 1200 MWe central station fusion electric power plant that utilizes a deuterium-tritium fueled tokamak reactor as a heat source. Emphasis has been placed on developing design features which will provide for simpler assembly and maintenance, and improved safety and environmental characteristics. The major features of STARFIRE include a steady-state operating mode based on continuous rf lower-hybrid current drive and auxiliary heating, solid tritium breeder material, pressurized water cooling, limiter/vacuum system for impurity control and exhaust, high tritium burnup and low vulnerable tritium inventories, superconducting EF coils outside the superconducting TF coils, fully remote maintenance, and a low-activation shield. A comprehensive conceptual design has been developed including reactor features, support facilities and a complete balance of plant. A construction schedule and cost estimate are presented, as well as study conclusions and recommendations.

  2. Aerial thermography studies of power plant heated lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    2000-01-26

    Remote sensing temperature measurements of water bodies is complicated by the temperature differences between the true surface or skin water and the bulk water below. Weather conditions control the reduction of the skin temperature relative to the bulk water temperature. Typical skin temperature depressions range from a few tenths of a degree Celsius to more than one degree. In this research project, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) used aerial thermography and surface-based meteorological and water temperature measurements to study a power plant cooling lake in South Carolina. Skin and bulk water temperatures were measured simultaneously for imagery calibration and to produce a database for modeling of skin temperature depressions as a function of weather and bulk water temperatures. This paper will present imagery that illustrates how the skin temperature depression was affected by different conditions in several locations on the lake and will present skin temperature modeling results.

  3. Electric utility system planning studies for OTEC power integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The integration of OTEC into the Florida Power Corporation (FTC) system was evaluated. Existing system planning procedures, assumptions, and corporate financial criteria for planning generating capacity were used without modification. A baseline configuration for an OTEC plant was developed for review with standard planning procedures. The OTEC plant characteristics and costs were incorporated in considerable detail. It was found that with the initial set of conditions, OTEC would not be economically viable. Using the same system planning procedures, a number of adjustments were made to the key study assumptions. It was found that two considerations dominate the analysis: the assumed rate of fuel cost escalation, and the projected capital cost of the OTEC plant. After corporate financial analysis, it was found that even if the cost competitive criterion were to be reached, the plan including OTEC could not be financed by FPC.

  4. CENTER FOR PULSED POWER DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PLASMA STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Bruce R. Kusse; Professor David A. Hammer

    2007-04-18

    This annual report summarizes the activities of the Cornell Center for Pulsed-Power-Driven High-Energy-Density Plasma Studies, for the 12-month period October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006. This period corresponds to the first year of the two-year extension (awarded in October, 2005) to the original 3-year NNSA/DOE Cooperative Agreement with Cornell, DE-FC03-02NA00057. As such, the period covered in this report also corresponds to the fourth year of the (now) 5-year term of the Cooperative Agreement. The participants, in addition to Cornell University, include Imperial College, London (IC), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the University of Rochester (UR), the Weizmann Institute of Science (WSI), and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Moscow. A listing of all faculty, technical staff and students, both graduate and undergraduate, who participated in Center research activities during the year in question is given in Appendix A.

  5. The ARIES Advanced And Conservative Tokamak (ACT) Power Plant Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C. E.; Poli, F. M.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N.; Tillack, M. S.; Najmabadi, F.; Wang, X. R.; Navaei, D.; Toudeshki, H. H.; Koehly, C.; El-Guebaly, L.; Blanchard, J. P.; Martin, C. J.; Mynsburge, L.; Humrickhouse, P.; Rensink, M. E.; Rognlien, T. D.; Yoda, M.; Abdel-Khalik, S. I.; Hageman, M. D.; Mills, B. H.; Radar, J. D.; Sadowski, D. L.; Snyder, P. B.; St. John, H.; Turnbull, A. D.; Waganer, L. M.; Malang, S.; Rowcliffe, A. F.

    2014-03-05

    Tokamak power plants are studied with advanced and conservative design philosophies in order to identify the impacts on the resulting designs and to provide guidance to critical research needs. Incorporating updated physics understanding, and using more sophisticated engineering and physics analysis, the tokamak configurations have developed a more credible basis compared to older studies. The advanced configuration assumes a self-cooled lead lithium (SCLL) blanket concept with SiC composite structural material with 58% thermal conversion efficiency. This plasma has a major radius of 6.25 m, a toroidal field of 6.0 T, a q95 of 4.5, a {beta}N{sup total} of 5.75, H{sub 98} of 1.65, n/nGr of 1.0, and peak divertor heat flux of 13.7 MW/m{sup 2}. The conservative configuration assumes a dual coolant lead lithium (DCLL) blanket concept with ferritic steel structural material and helium coolant, achieving a thermal conversion efficiency of 45%. The plasma major radius is 9.75 m, a toroidal field of 8.75 T, a q95 of 8.0, a {beta}N{sup total} of 2.5, H{sub 98} of 1.25, n/n{sub Gr} of 1.3, and peak divertor heat flux of 10 MW/m{sup 2}. The divertor heat flux treatment with a narrow power scrape-off width has driven the plasmas to larger major radius. Edge and divertor plasma simulations are targeting a basis for high radiated power fraction in the divertor, which is necessary for solutions to keep the peak heat flux in the range of 10-15 MW/m{sup 2}. Combinations of the advanced and conservative approaches show intermediate sizes. A new systems code using a database approach has been used and shows that the operating point is really an operating zone with some range of plasma and engineering parameters and very similar costs of electricity. Papers in this issue provide more detailed discussion of the work summarized here.

  6. The ARIES Advanced and Conservative Tokamak Power Plant Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C. E; Tillak, M. S; Najmabadi, F.; Poli, F. M.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N.; Wang, X. R.; Navaei, D.; Toudeshki, H. H.; Koehly, C.; EL-Guebaly, L.; Blanchard, J. P.; Martin, C. J.; Mynsburge, L.; Humrickhouse, P.; Rensink, M. E.; Rognlien, T. D.; Yoda, M.; Abdel-Khalik, S. I.; Hageman, M. D.; Mills, B. H.; Rader, J. D.; Sadowski, D. L.; Snyder, P. B.; St. John, H.; Turnbull, A. D.; Waganer, L. M.; Malang, S.; Rowcliffe, A. F.

    2015-12-22

    Tokamak power plants are studied with advanced and conservative design philosophies to identify the impacts on the resulting designs and to provide guidance to critical research needs. Incorporating updated physics understanding and using more sophisticated engineering and physics analysis, the tokamak configurations have developed a more credible basis compared with older studies. The advanced configuration assumes a self-cooled lead lithium blanket concept with SiC composite structural material with 58% thermal conversion efficiency. This plasma has a major radius of 6.25 m, a toroidal field of 6.0 T, a q₉₅ of 4.5, aᵦtotal N of 5.75, an H98 of 1.65, an n/nGr of 1.0, and a peak divertor heat flux of 13.7 MW/m² . The conservative configuration assumes a dual-coolant lead lithium blanket concept with reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel structural material and helium coolant, achieving a thermal conversion efficiency of 45%. The plasma has a major radius of 9.75 m, a toroidal field of 8.75 T, a q₉₅ of 8.0, aᵦtotalN of 2.5, an H₉₈ of 1.25, an n/nGr of 1.3, and a peak divertor heat flux of 10 MW/m² . The divertor heat flux treatment with a narrow power scrape off width has driven the plasmas to larger major radius. Edge and divertor plasma simulations are targeting a basis for high radiated power fraction in the divertor, which is necessary for solutions to keep the peak heat flux in the range 10 to 15 MW/m² . Combinations of the advanced and conservative approaches show intermediate sizes. A new systems code using a database approach has been used and shows that the operating point is really an operating zone with some range of plasma and engineering parameters and very similar costs of electricity. Other papers in this issue provide more detailed discussion of the work summarized here.

  7. The ARIES Advanced and Conservative Tokamak Power Plant Study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kessel, C. E; Tillak, M. S; Najmabadi, F.; Poli, F. M.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N.; Wang, X. R.; Navaei, D.; Toudeshki, H. H.; Koehly, C.; et al

    2015-12-22

    Tokamak power plants are studied with advanced and conservative design philosophies to identify the impacts on the resulting designs and to provide guidance to critical research needs. Incorporating updated physics understanding and using more sophisticated engineering and physics analysis, the tokamak configurations have developed a more credible basis compared with older studies. The advanced configuration assumes a self-cooled lead lithium blanket concept with SiC composite structural material with 58% thermal conversion efficiency. This plasma has a major radius of 6.25 m, a toroidal field of 6.0 T, a q₉₅ of 4.5, aᵦtotal N of 5.75, an H98 of 1.65, anmore » n/nGr of 1.0, and a peak divertor heat flux of 13.7 MW/m² . The conservative configuration assumes a dual-coolant lead lithium blanket concept with reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel structural material and helium coolant, achieving a thermal conversion efficiency of 45%. The plasma has a major radius of 9.75 m, a toroidal field of 8.75 T, a q₉₅ of 8.0, aᵦtotalN of 2.5, an H₉₈ of 1.25, an n/nGr of 1.3, and a peak divertor heat flux of 10 MW/m² . The divertor heat flux treatment with a narrow power scrape off width has driven the plasmas to larger major radius. Edge and divertor plasma simulations are targeting a basis for high radiated power fraction in the divertor, which is necessary for solutions to keep the peak heat flux in the range 10 to 15 MW/m² . Combinations of the advanced and conservative approaches show intermediate sizes. A new systems code using a database approach has been used and shows that the operating point is really an operating zone with some range of plasma and engineering parameters and very similar costs of electricity. Other papers in this issue provide more detailed discussion of the work summarized here.« less

  8. Feasibility Study of a Satellite Solar Power Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.; Maynard, O. E.; Mackovciak, J. J. R.; Ralph, E. I.

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility study of a satellite solar power station (SSPS) was conducted to: (1) explore how an SSPS could be flown and controlled in orbit; (2) determine the techniques needed to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI); and (3) determine the key environmental, technological, and economic issues involved. Structural and dynamic analyses of the SSPS structure were performed, and deflections and internal member loads were determined. Desirable material characteristics were assessed and technology developments identified. Flight control performance of the SSPS baseline design was evaluated and parametric sizing studies were performed. The study of RFI avoidance techniques covered (1) optimization of the microwave transmission system; (2) device design and expected RFI; and (3) SSPS RFI effects. The identification of key issues involved (1) microwave generation, transmissions, and rectification and solar energy conversion; (2) environmental-ecological impact and biological effects; and (3) economic issues, i.e., costs and benefits associated with the SSPS. The feasibility of the SSPS based on the parameters of the study was established.

  9. Fuelwood procurement for an industrial power plant: a case study of Dow Corning's program

    SciTech Connect

    Folger, A.G.; Sworden, P.G.; Bond, C.T.

    1984-08-01

    Dow Corning Corporation has developed effective procedures for meeting the fuelwood requirements of a 22.4 megawatt steam and electricity cogenerating power plant. The fuelwood procurement program of Dow Corning's Natural Resources Department involves special arrangements with private landowners, logging and hauling producers, and waste wood suppliers. The program's success is attributable to a favorable location, adequate allowance for advance planning, effective public relations, and flexible management. The program is significant because it demonstrates that industrial fuelwood requirements can be met and that improved production from nonindustrial private forests can be relied upon as a major source of fuelwood. 7 references, 7 figures.

  10. Preliminary study of AC power feeders for AGS booster

    SciTech Connect

    Meth, M.

    1992-07-17

    It has been proposed that the AGS Heavy Ion/Proton Booster be excited directly from the electric power distribution system without intervening an energy storage buffer such as an MG set or a magnetic energy buffer. The average power requirement of the AGS Booster is less than many single-loads presently housed on the lab site. However, the power swing will be the largest single pulsating load on the lab site. The large power swings will impact on the power grid producing utility-line disturbances such as voltage fluctuations and harmonic generation. Thus, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the quality of the electric power system resulting from the interconnection, such that the utility system is not degraded either on the lab site or at LILCO`s substation.

  11. Preliminary study of AC power feeders for AGS booster

    SciTech Connect

    Meth, M.

    1992-07-17

    It has been proposed that the AGS Heavy Ion/Proton Booster be excited directly from the electric power distribution system without intervening an energy storage buffer such as an MG set or a magnetic energy buffer. The average power requirement of the AGS Booster is less than many single-loads presently housed on the lab site. However, the power swing will be the largest single pulsating load on the lab site. The large power swings will impact on the power grid producing utility-line disturbances such as voltage fluctuations and harmonic generation. Thus, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the quality of the electric power system resulting from the interconnection, such that the utility system is not degraded either on the lab site or at LILCO's substation.

  12. Solar power satellite system definition study, phase 2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A program plan for the Solar Power Satellite Program is presented. The plan includes research, development, and evaluation phase, engineering and development and cost verification phase, prototype construction, and commercialization. Cost estimates and task requirements are given for the following technology areas: (1) solar arrays; (2) thermal engines and thermal systems; (3) power transmission (to earth); (4) large space structures; (5) materials technology; (6) system control; (7) space construction; (8) space transportation; (9) power distribution, and space environment effects.

  13. EMU battery/SMM power tool characterization study

    SciTech Connect

    Palandati, C.

    1982-01-01

    The power tool which will be used to replace the attitude control system in the SMM spacecraft was modified to operate from a self contained battery. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) battery was tested for the power tool application. The results are that the EMU battery is capable of operating the power tool within the pulse current range of 2.0 to 15.0 amperes and battery temperature range of -10 to 40 degrees Celsius.

  14. Hypobromous acid, a powerful endogenous electrophile: Experimental and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; Morgon, Nelson Henrique; de Souza, Aguinaldo Robinson

    2015-05-01

    Hypobromous acid (HOBr) is an inorganic acid produced by the oxidation of the bromide anion (Br(-)). The blood plasma level of Br(-) is more than 1,000-fold lower than that of chloride anion (Cl(-)). Consequently, the endogenous production of HOBr is also lower compared to hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Nevertheless, there is much evidence of the deleterious effects of HOBr. From these data, we hypothesized that the reactivity of HOBr could be better associated with its electrophilic strength. Our hypothesis was confirmed, since HOBr was significantly more reactive than HOCl when the oxidability of the studied compounds was not relevant. For instance: anisole (HOBr, k2=2.3×10(2)M(-1)s(-1), HOCl non-reactive); dansylglycine (HOBr, k2=7.3×10(6)M(-1)s(-1), HOCl, 5.2×10(2)M(-1)s(-1)); salicylic acid (HOBr, k2=4.0×10(4)M(-1)s(-1), non-reactive); 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (HOBr, k2=5.9×10(4)M(-1)s(-1), HOCl, k2=1.1×10(1)M(-1)s(-1)); uridine (HOBr, k2=1.3×10(3)M(-1)s(-1), HOCl non-reactive). The compounds 4-bromoanisole and 5-bromouridine were identified as the products of the reactions between HOBr and anisole or uridine, respectively, i.e. typical products of electrophilic substitutions. Together, these results show that, rather than an oxidant, HOBr is a powerful electrophilic reactant. This chemical property was theoretically confirmed by measuring the positive Mulliken and ChelpG charges upon bromine and chlorine. In conclusion, the high electrophilicity of HOBr could be behind its well-established deleterious effects. We propose that HOBr is the most powerful endogenous electrophile. PMID:25771434

  15. Alliance created to study wind-generated power potential

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-15

    Wind-generated power may get a boost from a new consortium of companies that have joined together to expand the potential across the country for this cheap, renewable energy source. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation has announced that it will join with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG{ampersand}E), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and US Windpower, Inc., in developing an advanced, 33-meter, variable-speed wind turbine that reduced the cost and improves the power quality of wind energy. The majority of the estimated $20 million cost will be provided by US Windpower.

  16. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  17. Performance study of a hydrogen powered metal hydride actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainul Hossain Bhuiya, Md; Kim, Kwang J.

    2016-04-01

    A thermally driven hydrogen powered actuator integrating metal hydride hydrogen storage reactor, which is compact, noiseless, and able to generate smooth actuation, is presented in this article. To test the plausibility of a thermally driven actuator, a conventional piston type actuator was integrated with LaNi5 based hydrogen storage system. Copper encapsulation followed by compaction of particles into pellets, were adopted to improve overall thermal conductivity of the reactor. The operation of the actuator was thoroughly investigated for an array of operating temperature ranges. Temperature swing of the hydride reactor triggering smooth and noiseless actuation over several operating temperature ranges were monitored for quantification of actuator efficiency. Overall, the actuator generated smooth and consistent strokes during repeated cycles of operation. The efficiency of the actuator was found to be as high as 13.36% for operating a temperature range of 20 °C-50 °C. Stress-strain characteristics, actuation hysteresis etc were studied experimentally. Comparison of stress-strain characteristics of the proposed actuator with traditional actuators, artificial muscles and so on was made. The study suggests that design modification and use of high pressure hydride may enhance the performance and broaden the application horizon of the proposed actuator in future.

  18. Tissue type characterization using photoacoustic power spectrum, a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Goldstein, Seth D.; Kang, Jin U.; Choti, Michaal; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    The development of technologies capable of non-invasive characterization of tissue has the potential to significantly improve diagnostic and therapeutic medical interventions. In this study we investigated the feasibility of a noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) approach for characterizing biological tissues. The measurement was performed in the transmission mode with a wideband hydrophone while a tunable Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser was used for illumination. The power spectrum of photoacoustic signal induced by a pulsed laser light from tissue was analyzed and features were extracted to study their correlation with tissue biomechanical properties. For a controlled study, tissue mimicking gelatin phantoms with different densities and equivalent optical absorptions were used as targets. The correlation between gelatin concentration of such phantoms and their mechanical properties were validated independently with a dynamic mechanical analyzer capable of calculating complex loss and storage moduli between two compression plates. It was shown that PA spectrums were shifted towards higher frequencies by increasing gelatin concentration. In order to quantify this effect, signal energy in two intervals of low and high frequency ranges were calculated. Gelatin concentration was correlated with PA energy in high frequency range with R2=0.94. Subsequently, PA signals generated from freshly resected human thyroid specimens were measured and analyzed in a similar fashion. We found that in aggregate, malignant thyroid tissue contains approximately 1.6 times lower energy in the high frequency range in comparison to normal thyroid tissue (p<0.01). This ratio increased with increasing illumination wavelength from 700 nm to 900nm. In summary, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using photoacoustic technique for characterizing tissue on the basis of viscoelastic properties of the tissue.

  19. SIMPLE TRANSMISSION NETWORK PLANNING METHOD: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the process of evaluation and comparison of the proposed alternative power generation sites, the transmission network required to carry power effectively and reliably from the plant to the load centers requires careful consideration. The existing transmission network must be r...

  20. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study

    SciTech Connect

    Frank J. Hartz Rob Taylor Grant Davies

    2011-12-30

    One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted this study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.

  2. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  3. The neutronics studies of fusion fission hybrid power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Youqi; Wu Hongchun; Zu Tiejun; Yang Chao; Cao Liangzhi

    2012-06-19

    In this paper, a series of neutronics analysis of hybrid power reactor is proposed. The ideas of loading different fuels in a modular-type fission blanket is analyzed, fitting different level of fusion developments, i.e., the current experimental power output, the level can be obtained in the coming future and the high-power fusion reactor like ITER. The energy multiplication of fission blankets and tritium breeding ratio are evaluated as the criterion of design. The analysis is implemented based on the D-type simplified model, aiming to find a feasible 1000MWe hybrid power reactor for 5 years' lifetime. Three patterns are analyzed: 1) for the low fusion power, the reprocessed fuel is chosen. The fuel with high plutonium content is loaded to achieve large energy multiplication. 2) For the middle fusion power, the spent fuel from PWRs can be used to realize about 30 times energy multiplication. 3) For the high fusion power, the natural uranium can be directly used and about 10 times energy multiplication can be achieved.

  4. The Power of Phase I Studies to Detect Clinical Relevant QTc Prolongation: A Resampling Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferber, Georg; Lorch, Ulrike; Täubel, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Concentration-effect (CE) models applied to early clinical QT data from healthy subjects are described in the latest E14 Q&A document as promising analysis to characterise QTc prolongation. The challenges faced if one attempts to replace a TQT study by thorough ECG assessments in Phase I based on CE models are the assurance to obtain sufficient power and the establishment of a substitute for the positive control to show assay sensitivity providing protection against false negatives. To demonstrate that CE models in small studies can reliably predict the absence of an effect on QTc, we investigated the role of some key design features in the power of the analysis. Specifically, the form of the CE model, inclusion of subjects on placebo, and sparse sampling on the performance and power of this analysis were investigated. In this study, the simulations conducted by subsampling subjects from 3 different TQT studies showed that CE model with a treatment effect can be used to exclude small QTc effects. The number of placebo subjects was also shown to increase the power to detect an inactive drug preventing false positives while an effect can be underestimated if time points around tmax are missed. PMID:26509147

  5. Understanding Unresponsiveness to Tier 2 Reading Intervention: Exploring the Classification and Profiles of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toste, Jessica R.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Eunsoo; Barquero, Laura A.; Bouton, Bobette D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine academic and cognitive profiles of first graders who responded adequately and inadequately to intensive small-group reading intervention (Tier 2), as well as assess how these profiles differ based on the criteria used for classification of unresponsiveness. Nonresponders were identified using two…

  6. NASA Fuel Tank Wireless Power and Signal Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Garrick

    2015-01-01

    Hydro Technologies has developed a custom electronics and mechanical framework for interfacing with off-the-shelf sensors to achieve through barrier sensing solutions. The core project technology relies on Hydro Technologies Wireless Power and Signal Interface (Wi psi) System for transmitting data and power wirelessly using magnetic fields. To accomplish this, Wi psi uses a multi-frequency local magnetic field to produce magnetic fields capable of carrying data and power through almost any material such as metals, seawater, concrete, and air. It will also work through layers of multiple materials.

  7. System Study: Emergency Power System 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the emergency power system (EPS) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. An extremely statistically significant increasing trend was observed for EPS system unreliability for an 8-hour mission. A statistically significant increasing trend was observed for EPS system start-only unreliability.

  8. System Study: Emergency Power System 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the emergency power system (EPS) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant trends were identified in the EPS results.

  9. Solar-Powered Desalination: A Modelling and Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Jimmy; Andrews, John

    2007-10-01

    Water shortage is becoming one of the major problems worldwide. As such, desalination technologies have been implemented to meet growing demands for fresh water. Among the desalination technologies, thermal desalination, including multi stage flash (MSF) and multi effect evaporation (MEE), is the current leading desalination process. Reverse osmosis (RO) is also being increasingly used. Despite technological improvements, thermal desalination and reverse osmosis continue to be intensive fossil-fuel consumers and contribute to increased levels of greenhouse gases. As energy costs rise, thermal desalination by solar energy and/or low cost waste heat is likely to become increasingly attractive. As part of a project investigating the productive use of saline land and the development of sustainable desalination systems, the feasibility of producing potable water from seawater or brackish water using desalination systems powered by renewable energy in the form of low-temperature solar-thermal sources has been studied. A salinity-gradient solar pond and an evacuated tube solar collector system have been used as heat sources. Solar ponds combine solar energy collection with long-term storage and can provide reliable thermal energy at temperature ranges from 50 to 90 °C. A visual basic computer model of the different multi-stage flash desalination processes coupled with a salinity-gradient solar pond was developed to determine which process is preferable in regards to performance and greenhouse impact. The governing mathematical equations are derived from mass balances, heat energy balances, and heat transfer characteristics. Using the results from the modelling, a small-scale solar-powered desalination system, capable of producing up to 500 litres of fresh water per day, was designed and manufactured. This single-stage flash system consists of two main units: the heat supply and storage system and the flash desalination unit. Two different condenser heat exchanger

  10. Engine Power Turbine and Propulsion Pod Arrangement Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robuck, Mark; Zhang, Yiyi

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted for NASA Glenn Research Center under contract NNC10BA05B, Task NNC11TA80T to identify beneficial arrangements of the turboshaft engine, transmissions and related systems within the propulsion pod nacelle of NASA's Large Civil Tilt-Rotor 2nd iteration (LCTR2) vehicle. Propulsion pod layouts were used to investigate potential advantages, disadvantages, as well as constraints of various arrangements assuming front or aft shafted engines. Results from previous NASA LCTR2 propulsion system studies and tasks performed by Boeing under NASA contracts are used as the basis for this study. This configuration consists of two Fixed Geometry Variable Speed Power Turbine Engines and related drive and rotor systems (per nacelle) arranged in tilting nacelles near the wing tip. Entry-into-service (EIS) 2035 technology is assumed for both the engine and drive systems. The variable speed rotor system changes from 100 percent speed for hover to 54 percent speed for cruise by the means of a two speed gearbox concept developed under previous NASA contracts. Propulsion and drive system configurations that resulted in minimum vehicle gross weight were identified in previous work and used here. Results reported in this study illustrate that a forward shafted engine has a slight weight benefit over an aft shafted engine for the LCTR2 vehicle. Although the aft shafted engines provide a more controlled and centered CG (between hover and cruise), the length of the long rotor shaft and complicated engine exhaust arrangement outweighed the potential benefits. A Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) approach for transmission sizing was also explored for this study. This tool offers quick analysis of gear loads, bearing lives, efficiencies, etc., through use of commercially available RomaxDESIGNER software. The goal was to create quick methods to explore various concept models. The output results from RomaxDESIGNER have been successfully linked to Boeing

  11. CITIZEN CONCERN WITH POWER PLANT SITING: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two hundred and fifteen invited participants attended four public workshops in four Wisconsin cities in the spring of 1977. They were divided into small groups and asked to identify and rank power plant siting concerns in three categories: biological and physical, economic and so...

  12. A preliminary study of the modified Ericsson for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, J.; Louis, J. F.; Juhasz, A.

    1985-01-01

    Simple modifications of the Ericsson cycle are analyzed for their application as high power, compact and reliable space power systems. They use the same components as the technologically advanced and reliable Brayton system. These modifications approximate the Ericsson cycle's isothermal expansion by several stages of expansion with reheat and the isothermal compression by several compression stages with intercooling. Preliminary cycle analysis including non-ideal components indicates potential advantages in both power per unit area and efficiency over the Brayton system. Evaluation of the system mass indicates a significant mass and radiator area advantage of a Modified Ericsson cycle using one reheat and one expansion stage when a high temperature titanium radiator is used. Whereas the configuration using one reheat and one intercooling with two stages of compression and expansion provided the lowest mass per unit power using a lower temperature aluminum radiator.

  13. A comparative study of electric power distribution systems for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Thomas A.; King, Roger J.

    1990-01-01

    The electric power distribution systems for spacecraft are compared concentrating on two interrelated issues: the choice between dc and high frequency ac, and the converter/inverter topology to be used at the power source. The relative merits of dc and ac distribution are discussed. Specific converter and inverter topologies are identified and analyzed in detail for the purpose of detailed comparison. Finally, specific topologies are recommended for use in dc and ac systems.

  14. Rotating Detonation Combustion: A Computational Study for Stationary Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, Sergio

    The increased availability of gaseous fossil fuels in The US has led to the substantial growth of stationary Gas Turbine (GT) usage for electrical power generation. In fact, from 2013 to 2104, out of the 11 Tera Watts-hour per day produced from fossil fuels, approximately 27% was generated through the combustion of natural gas in stationary GT. The thermodynamic efficiency for simple-cycle GT has increased from 20% to 40% during the last six decades, mainly due to research and development in the fields of combustion science, material science and machine design. However, additional improvements have become more costly and more difficult to obtain as technology is further refined. An alternative to improve GT thermal efficiency is the implementation of a combustion regime leading to pressure-gain; rather than pressure loss across the combustor. One concept being considered for such purpose is Rotating Detonation Combustion (RDC). RDC refers to a combustion regime in which a detonation wave propagates continuously in the azimuthal direction of a cylindrical annular chamber. In RDC, the fuel and oxidizer, injected from separated streams, are mixed near the injection plane and are then consumed by the detonation front traveling inside the annular gap of the combustion chamber. The detonation products then expand in the azimuthal and axial direction away from the detonation front and exit through the combustion chamber outlet. In the present study Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to predict the performance of Rotating Detonation Combustion (RDC) at operating conditions relevant to GT applications. As part of this study, a modeling strategy for RDC simulations was developed. The validation of the model was performed using benchmark cases with different levels of complexity. First, 2D simulations of non-reactive shock tube and detonation tubes were performed. The numerical predictions that were obtained using different modeling parameters were compared with

  15. Do measures commonly used in body image research perform adequately with African American college women?

    PubMed

    Kashubeck-West, Susan; Coker, Angela D; Awad, Germine H; Stinson, Rebecca D; Bledman, Rashanta; Mintz, Laurie

    2013-07-01

    This study examines reliability and validity estimates for 3 widely used measures in body image research in a sample of African American college women (N = 278). Internal consistency estimates were adequate (α coefficients above .70) for all measures, and evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was found. Confirmatory factor analyses failed to replicate the hypothesized factor structures of these measures. Exploratory factor analyses indicated that 4 factors found for the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire were similar to the hypothesized subscales, with fewer items. The factors found for the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 were not similar to the subscales developed by the scale authors. Validity and reliability evidence is discussed for the new factors. PMID:23731233

  16. Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for gg → h at NNLO and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höschele, Maik; Hoff, Jens; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-09-01

    We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.

  17. A Chandra Study of the Image Power Spectra of 41 Cool Core and Non-cool Core Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenhao; Xu, Haiguang; Zhu, Zhenghao; Li, Weitian; Hu, Dan; Wang, Jingying; Gu, Junhua; Gu, Liyi; Zhang, Zhongli; Liu, Chengze; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-06-01

    In this work we propose a new diagnostic to segregate cool core (CC) clusters from non-CC (NCC) clusters by studying the two-dimensional power spectra of the X-ray images observed with the Chandra X-ray observatory. Our sample contains 41 members (z=0.01{--}0.54) which are selected from the Chandra archive when a high photon count, an adequate angular resolution, a relatively complete detector coverage, and coincident CC–NCC classifications derived with three traditional diagnostics are simultaneously guaranteed. We find that in the log–log space the derived image power spectra can be well represented by a constant model component at large wavenumbers, while at small wavenumbers a power excess beyond the constant component appears in all clusters, with a clear tendency that the excess is stronger in CC clusters. By introducing a new CC diagnostic parameter, i.e., the power excess index (PEI), we classify the clusters in our sample and compare the results with those obtained with three traditional CC diagnostics. We find that the results agree with each other very well. By calculating the PEI values of the simulated clusters, we find that the new diagnostic works well at redshifts up to 0.5 for intermediately sized and massive clusters with a typical Chandra or XMM-Newton pointing observation. The new CC diagnostic has several advantages over its counterparts, e.g., it is free of the effects of the commonly seen centroid shift of the X-ray halo caused by merger event, and the corresponding calculation is straightforward, almost irrelevant to the complicated spectral analysis.

  18. Research on stochastic power-flow study methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heydt, G. T.

    1981-01-01

    A general algorithm to determine the effects of uncertainty in bus load and generation on the output of conventional power flow analysis is presented. The use of statistical moments is presented and developed as a means for representing the stochastic process. Statistical moments are used to describe the uncertainties, and facilitate the calculations of single and multivarlate probability density functions of input and output variables. The transformation of the uncertainty through the power flow equations is made by the expansion of the node equations in a multivariate Taylor series about an expected operating point. The series is truncated after the second order terms. Since the power flow equations are nonlinear, the expected values of output quantities is in general not the solution to the conventional load flow problem using expected values of input quantities. The second order transformation offers a correction vector and allows the consideration of larger uncertainties which have caused significant error in the current linear transformation algorithms. Voltage controlled busses are included with consideration of upper and lower limits. The finite reactive power available at generation sites, and fixed ranges of transformer tap movement may have a significant effect on voltage and line power flow statistics. A method is given which considers limitation constraints in the evaluation of all output quantities. The bus voltages, line power flows, transformer taps, and generator reactive power requirements are described by their statistical moments. Their values are expressed in terms of the probability that they are above or below specified limits, and their expected values given that they do fall outside the limits. Thus the algorithm supplies information about severity of overload as well as probability of occurrence. An example is given for an eleven bus system, evaluating each quantity separately. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation.

  19. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  20. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  1. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  2. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a)...

  3. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care §...

  4. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... safety analysis, or DSA, is to be prepared for every DOE nuclear facility. This DSA, once approved by...

  5. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  6. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  7. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  8. Overview study of Space Power Technologies for the advanced energetics program. [spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taussig, R.; Gross, S.; Millner, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Phillips, W.; Powell, J.; Schmidt, E.; Wolf, M.; Woodcock, G.

    1981-01-01

    Space power technologies are reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art and to identify advanced or novel concepts which promise large increases in performance. The potential for incresed performance is judged relative to benchmarks based on technologies which have been flight tested. Space power technology concepts selected for their potentially high performance are prioritized in a list of R & D topical recommendations for the NASA program on Advanced Energetics. The technology categories studied are solar collection, nuclear power sources, energy conversion, energy storage, power transmission, and power processing. The emphasis is on electric power generation in space for satellite on board electric power, for electric propulsion, or for beamed power to spacecraft. Generic mission categories such as low Earth orbit missions and geosynchronous orbit missions are used to distinguish general requirements placed on the performance of power conversion technology. Each space power technology is judged on its own merits without reference to specific missions or power systems. Recommendations include 31 space power concepts which span the entire collection of technology categories studied and represent the critical technologies needed for higher power, lighter weight, more efficient power conversion in space.

  9. HYLIFE-II power conversion system design and cost study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.A. . Dept. of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Materials Engineering)

    1990-09-01

    The power conversion system for the HYLIFE-2 fusion power plant has been defined to include the IHX's (intermediate heat exchangers) and everything that support the exchange of energy from the reactor. It is referred to simply as the BOP (balance of plant) in the rest of this report. The above is a convenient division between the reactor equipment and the rest of the fusion power plant since the BOP design and cost then depend only on the specification of the thermal power to the IHX's and the temperature of the primary Flibe coolant into and out of the IHX's, and is almost independent of the details of the reactor design. The main efforts during the first year have been on the definition and thermal-hydraulics of the IHX's, the steam generators and the steam power plant, leading to the definition of a reference BOP with the molten salt, Flibe, as the primary coolant. A summary of the key results in each of these areas is given in this report.

  10. Covariate Adjustment Strategy Increases Power in the Randomized Controlled Trial With Discrete-Time Survival Endpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safarkhani, Maryam; Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, a decision needs to be made about the total number of subjects for adequate statistical power. One way to increase the power of a trial is by including a predictive covariate in the model. In this article, the effects of various covariate adjustment strategies on increasing the power is studied for discrete-time…

  11. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

  12. Figure of merit studies of beam power concepts for advanced space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Gabriel; Kadiramangalam, Murali N.

    1990-01-01

    Surface to surface, millimeter wavelength beam power systems for power transmission on the lunar base were investigated. Qualitative/quantitative analyses and technology assessment of 35, 110 and 140 GHz beam power systems were conducted. System characteristics including mass, stowage volume, cost and efficiency as a function of range and power level were calculated. A simple figure of merit analysis indicates that the 35 GHz system would be the preferred choice for lunar base applications, followed closely by the 110 GHz system. System parameters of a 35 GHz beam power system appropriate for power transmission on a recent lunar base concept studied by NASA-Johnson and the necessary deployment sequence are suggested.

  13. Compilation of Trade Studies for the Constellation Program Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2009-01-01

    This compilation of trade studies performed from 2005 to 2006 addressed a number of power system design issues for the Constellation Program Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit. Spacesuits were required for spacewalks and in-space activities as well as lunar and Mars surface operations. The trades documented here considered whether solar power was feasible for spacesuits, whether spacesuit power generation should be a distributed or a centralized function, whether self-powered in-space spacesuits were better than umbilically powered ones, and whether the suit power system should be recharged in place or replaced.

  14. A numerical study of scaling issues for trench power MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, J.; Cortés, I.; Jiménez, D.; Flores, D.; Iñiguez, B.; Hidalgo, S.; Rebollo, J.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of the scaling down on the electrical performance of trench power MOSFET structures is investigated in this work by means of numerical simulation tools. Layout dimensions of trench power MOSFETs have been continuously reduced in order to decrease the specific on-resistance, maintaining equal vertical dimensions. Nowadays, the last scaling efforts provide trench width and distance between two consecutive trenches in the submicron range. The resultant short distance between gates is expected to induce significant modifications in the device electrical performances, since the fully depletion condition will be feasible in the body region. Hence, the influence of the fully depleted body on the on-state resistance, threshold voltage, breakdown voltage, parasitic bipolar transistor and internal capacitances are features of particular interest. Furthermore, device reliability aspects, such as hot-carrier and self-heating effects, are evaluated by numerical simulation in trench power MOSFETs for the first time.

  15. Study of reactor Brayton power systems for nuclear electric spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using Brayton power systems for nuclear electric spacecraft was investigated. The primary performance parameters of systems mass and radiator area were determined for systems from 100 to 1000 kW sub e. Mathematical models of all system components were used to determine masses and volumes. Two completely independent systems provide propulsion power so that no single-point failure can jeopardize a mission. The waste heat radiators utilize armored heat pipes to limit meteorite puncture. The armor thickness was statistically determined to achieve the required probability of survival. A 400 kW sub e reference system received primary attention as required by the contract. The components of this system were defined and a conceptual layout was developed with encouraging results. An arrangement with redundant Brayton power systems having a 1500 K (2240 F) turbine inlet temperature was shown to be compatible with the dimensions of the space shuttle orbiter payload bay.

  16. Free-space microwave power transmission study, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the technology of free-space power transmission by microwave beam are presented. A description of the steps that were taken to increase the overall dc to dc efficiency of microwave power transmission from 15 percent to over 50 percent is given. Included in this overall efficiency were the efficiencies of the dc to microwave conversion, the microwave transmission itself, and the microwave to dc conversion. Improvements in launching the microwave beam with high efficiency by means of a dual mode horn resulted in 95 percent of the output of the microwave generator reaching the receiving area. Emphasis was placed upon successive improvements in reception and rectification of the microwave power, resulting in the design of a rectenna device for this purpose whose efficiency was 75 percent. The procedures and the hardware developed were the basis for tests certified by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which an overall dc to dc efficiency of 54 percent was achieved.

  17. A Study on Optimal Operation of Power Generation by Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Hideo; Aoyagi, Yoshihiro; Kato, Masakazu

    This paper proposes the optimal operation of power generation by waste. Refuse is taken as a new energy resource of biomass. Although some fossil fuel origin refuse like plastic may be mixed in, CO2 emission is not counted up except for above fossil fuel origin refuse for the Kyoto Protocol. Incineration is indispensable for refuse disposal and power generation by waste is environment-friendly and power system-friendly using synchronous generators. Optimal planning is a key point to make much of this merit. The optimal plan includes refuse incinerator operation plan with refuse collection and maintenance scheduling of refuse incinerator plant. In this paper, it has been made clear that the former plan increases generation energy through numerical simulations. Concerning the latter plan, a method to determine the maintenance schedule using genetic algorithm has been established. In addition, taking environmental load of CO2 emission into account, this is expected larger merits from environment and energy resource points of view.

  18. Crew emergency return vehicle - Electrical power system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, E. C.; Barrera, T. P.

    1989-01-01

    A crew emergency return vehicle (CERV) is proposed to perform the lifeboat function for the manned Space Station Freedom. This escape module will be permanently docked to Freedom and, on demand, will be capable of safely returning the crew to earth. The unique requirements that the CERV imposes on its power source are presented, power source options are examined, and a baseline system is selected. It consists of an active Li-BCX DD-cell modular battery system and was chosen for the maturity of its man-rated design and its low development costs.

  19. Study of Power Options for Jupiter and Outer Planet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James

    2015-01-01

    Power for missions to Jupiter and beyond presents a challenging goal for photovoltaic power systems, but NASA missions including Juno and the upcoming Europa Clipper mission have shown that it is possible to operate solar arrays at Jupiter. This work analyzes photovoltaic technologies for use in Jupiter and outer planet missions, including both conventional arrays, as well as analyzing the advantages of advanced solar cells, concentrator arrays, and thin film technologies. Index Terms - space exploration, spacecraft solar arrays, solar electric propulsion, photovoltaic cells, concentrator, Fresnel lens, Jupiter missions, outer planets.

  20. System Study: Emergency Power System 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the emergency power system (EPS) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. A statistically significant increasing trend was identified for unreliability (8 hour model) as a function of fiscal year. No statistically significant decreasing trend was identified in the EPS results.

  1. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  2. How Many Studies Do You Need? A Primer on Statistical Power for Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Pigott, Therese D.; Rothstein, Hannah R.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors outline methods for using fixed and random effects power analysis in the context of meta-analysis. Like statistical power analysis for primary studies, power analysis for meta-analysis can be done either prospectively or retrospectively and requires assumptions about parameters that are unknown. The authors provide…

  3. Exploratory study of Machiavellianism and bases of social power in bankers.

    PubMed

    Corzine, Janice Baker; Hozier, George C

    2005-10-01

    This study focused on relationships between Machiavellianism in subordinates and perceived social power bases of supervisors in a sample of 168 bank officers in the western United States. Regression analyses showed no significant relationships between subordinates' Machiavellianism scores and four supervisory power bases subscales. The association between scores on Machiavellianism and coercive power reached p < .06. PMID:16342565

  4. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  5. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak fusion power plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This volume contains chapters on each of the following topics: (1) radioactivity, (2) heat transport and energy conversion, (3) tritium systems, (4) electrical storage and power supplies, (5) support structure, (6) cryogenics, (7) instrumentation and control, (8) maintenance and operation, (9) balance of plant design, (10) safety and environmental analysis, (11) economic analysis, and (12) plant construction.

  6. Achievable flatness in a large microwave power antenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Achievable flatness for the microwave power transmission system antenna array was determined. Two configurations were analyzed in detail and evaluated as to their net potential misalignment. Manufacturing, joint slack, assembly, alignment and environmental aspects were considered. Approaches to each aspect were analyzed to minimize their contributions to distortions.

  7. Library Power in Philadelphia: Final Report from Seven Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useem, Elizabeth; Coe, Cati

    Library Power seeks to activate an underutilized resource--a school's library program--in ways that promote schoolwide changes in the curriculum and instruction. This three-year initiative of the DeWitt Wallace-Readers' Digest Fund, located in 19 sites across the country, connects elementary and middle school libraries more directly to classroom…

  8. Space Station Freedom electric power system availability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Scott R.

    1990-01-01

    The results are detailed of follow-on availability analyses performed on the Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS). The scope includes analyses of several EPS design variations, these are: the 4-photovoltaic (PV) module baseline EPS design, a 6-PV module EPS design, and a 3-solar dynamic module EPS design which included a 10 kW PV module. The analyses performed included: determining the discrete power levels that the EPS will operate at upon various component failures and the availability of each of these operating states; ranking EPS components by the relative contribution each component type gives to the power availability of the EPS; determining the availability impacts of including structural and long-life EPS components in the availability models used in the analyses; determining optimum sparing strategies, for storing space EPS components on-orbit, to maintain high average-power-capability with low lift-mass requirements; and analyses to determine the sensitivity of EPS-availability to uncertainties in the component reliability and maintainability data used.

  9. High-power fiber laser studies at the Polaroid Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muendel, Martin H.

    1998-06-01

    Current work on the Polaroid double-clad fiber laser is discussed. Experiments towards testing the upper power limits of fiber lasers are described. Models for the laser output in the rate-equation approximation, for the laser polarization state, and for the axial-mode-beating noise are presented and compared to experiment.

  10. City of Klamath Falls, Oregon Geothermal Power Plant Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Brown, PE; Stephen Anderson, PE, Bety Riley

    2011-07-31

    The purpose of the Klamath Falls project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a combined thermal distribution system and power generation facility. The city of Klamath Falls operates a geothermal district heating system which would appear to be an attractive opportunity to install a power generation system. Since the two wells have operated reliably and consistently over many years, no new sources or resource exploration would be necessary. It appears that it will cost more to construct, operate, maintain and amortize a proposed geothermal facility than the long?term value of the power it would produce. The success of a future project will be determined by whether utility power production costs will remain low and whether costs of construction, operations, or financing may be reduced. There are areas that it would be possible to reduce construction cost. More detailed design could enable the city to obtain more precise quotes for components and construction, resulting in reduction in contingency projections. The current level of the contingency for uncertainty of costs is between $200,000 and $300,000. Another key issue with this project appears to be operation cost. While it is expected that only minimal routine monitoring and operating expenses will occur, the cost of water supply and waste water disposal represents nearly one quarter of the value of the power. If the cost of water alone could be reduced, the project could become viable. In addition, the projected cost of insurance may be lower than estimated under a city?wide policy. No provisions have been made for utilization of federal tax incentives. If a transaction with a third-party owner/taxpayer were to be negotiated, perhaps the net cost of ownership could be reduced. It is recommended that these options be investigated to determine if the costs and benefits could be brought together. The project has good potential, but like many alternative energy projects today, they only work economically if the

  11. CHANGES IN TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY RELATED TO A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the effects of a coal-fired power plant on terrestrial plants and animals. Research was conducted from 1971 through 1977 at the Columbia Generating Station in the eastern flood-plain of the Wisconsin River in south-central Wisconsin. Initial studies were la...

  12. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  13. T55 power turbine rotor multiplane-multispeed balancing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    A rotordynamic analysis of the T55-L-11C engine was used to evaluate the balancing needs of the power turbine and to optimize the balancing procedure. As a result, recommendations were made for implementation of a multiplane-multispeed balancing plan. Precision collars for the attachment of trial weights to a slender rotor were designed enabling demonstration balancing on production hardware. The quality of the balance was then evaluated by installing a high speed balanced power turbine in an engine and running in a test cell at the Corpus Christi Army depot. The engine used had been tested prior to the turbine changeout and showed acceptable overall vibration levels for the engine were significantly reduced, demonstrating the ability of multiplane-multispeed balancing to control engine vibration.

  14. Power Conversion Study for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Oh; Richard Moore; Robert Barner

    2005-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating a Brayton cycle efficiency improvement on a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of Generation-IV nuclear engineering research initiative. There are some technical issues to be resolved before the selection of the final design of the high temperature gascooled reactor, called as a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which is supposed to be built at the INEEL by year 2017. The technical issues are the selection of the working fluid, direct vs. indirect cycle, power cycle type, the optimized design in terms of a number of intercoolers, and others. In this paper, we investigated a number of working fluids for the power conversion loop, direct versus indirect cycle, the effect of intercoolers, and other thermal hydraulics issues. However, in this paper, we present part of the results we have obtained. HYSYS computer code was used along with a computer model developed using Visual Basic computer language.

  15. Contingency Power Study for Short Haul Civil Tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D. (Technical Monitor); Wait, John

    2003-01-01

    AlliedSignal Engines (AE) defined a number of concepts that significantly increased the horsepower of a turboshaft engine to accommodate the loss of an engine and enable the safe landing of a twin-engined, 40-passenger, short haul civil tiltrotor. From these concepts, "Water/Methanol Injection," a "Better Power Turbine Than Required," and a "Secondary Combustor For Interturbine Reheat" were chosen, based on system safety and economics, for more detailed examination. Engine performance, mission, and cost analysis of these systems indicated contingency power levels of 26 to 70 percent greater than normal rated takeoff could be attained for short durations, thus enabling direct operating cost savings between 2 and 6 percent.

  16. Case study on the US superconducting power transmission program

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, E.F.

    1996-02-01

    After the 1911 discovery of superconductivity (the abrupt loss of electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures), attempts were made to make practical use of this phenomenon. Initially these attempts failed, but in the early 1960s (after 50 years of research) they succeeded. By then, the projected growth in the production and consumption of electrical energy required much higher capacity power transmission capabilities than were available or likely to become available from incremental improvements in existing transmission technology. Since superconductors were capable in principle of transmitting huge amounts of power, research programs to develop and demonstrate superconducting transmission lines were initiated in the US and abroad. The history of the US program, including the participants, their objectives, funding and progress made, is outlined. Since the R&D program was terminated before the technology was completely demonstrated, the reasons for and consequences of this action are discussed in a final section.

  17. Mahreb power-plant-project assessment of TOR for feasibility study. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A.D.; Ahimaz, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    The study endorses the proposed terms of reference for the feasibility study of the Mahreb Power Generation Project in Yemen. It is a reasonable and practical approach to meet the immediate need for additional power in the country. The outline for the feasibility study also seeks a long term solution for an economic and technically sound power generating system to meet future power needs. U.S. firms have been competitive in international tenders for supplying the type of services and equipment needed for the Mahreb Power Project. Because it is a gas turbine power generation project and the opportunities it offers US equipment manufacturers and contractors, the study recommends that the U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) fund the feasibility study.

  18. Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B.; Erwin, E.; Kerle, N.

    2009-04-01

    In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the event (Elvidge et al. 2007), which can subsequently be linked to population estimations. Power blackouts disrupt societal activities and compound the difficulties associated with search and rescue, clean up, and the provision of food and other supplies following a disastrous event. Locations and spatial extents of power blackouts are key considerations in planning and execution of the primary disaster missions of emergency management organizations. To date only one satellite data source has been used successfully for the detection of power blackouts. Operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) offers a unique capability to observe lights present at the Earth's surface at night. Including a pair of visible and thermal spectral bands and originally designed to detect moonlit clouds, this sensor enables mapping of lights from cities and towns, gas flares and offshore platforms, fires, and heavily lit fishing boats. The low light imaging of the OLS is accomplished using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) which intensifies the visible band signal at night. With 14 orbits collected per day and a 3.000 km swath width, each OLS is capable of collecting a complete set of images of the Earth every 24 hours. NGDC runs the long-term archive for OLS data with the digital version extending back to 1992. OLS data is received by NGDC in near real time (1-2 hours from acquisition) and subscription based services for the near real time data are provided for users all over the

  19. Parametric study of potential early commercial MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Three different reference power plant configurations were considered with parametric variations of the various design parameters for each plant. Two of the reference plant designs were based on the use of high temperature regenerative air preheaters separately fired by a low Btu gas produced from a coal gasifier which was integrated with the power plant. The third reference plant design was based on the use of oxygen enriched combustion air preheated to a more moderate temperature in a tubular type metallic recuperative heat exchanger which is part of the bottoming plant heat recovery system. Comparative information was developed on plant performance and economics. The highest net plant efficiency of about 45 percent was attained by the reference plant design with the use of a high temperature air preheater separately fired with the advanced entrained bed gasifier. The use of oxygen enrichment of the combustion air yielded the lowest cost of generating electricity at a slightly lower plant efficiency. Both of these two reference plant designs are identified as potentially attractive for early MHD power plant applications.

  20. An observational study of powered wheelchair provision in Italy.

    PubMed

    Salatino, Claudia; Andrich, Renzo; Converti, R M; Saruggia, M

    2016-01-01

    Powered wheelchairs are complex and expensive assistive devices that must be selected and configured on the basis of individual user needs, lifestyle, motivation, driving ability, and environment. Providing agencies often require evidence that their financial investment will lead to a successful outcome. The authors surveyed a sample of 79 users who had obtained powered wheelchairs from a Regional Health Service in Italy in the period 2008-2013. Follow-up interviews were conducted at the users' homes in order to collect information about wheelchair use, and its effectiveness, usefulness, and economic impact. The instruments used in the interviews included an introductory questionnaire, QUEST (Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology), PIADS (Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale), FABS/M (Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility), and SCAI (Siva Cost Analysis Instrument). The results indicated positive outcomes, especially in relation to user satisfaction and psychosocial impact. A number of barriers were identified in various settings that sometimes restrict user mobility, and suggest corrective actions. The provision of a powered wheelchair generated considerable savings in social costs for most users: an average of about $38,000 per person over a projected 5-year period was estimated by comparing the cost of the intervention with that of non-intervention. PMID:26479206

  1. Factors associated with adequate weekly reporting for disease surveillance data among health facilities in Nairobi County, Kenya, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mwatondo, Athman Juma; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Maina, Caroline; Makayotto, Lyndah; Mwangi, Moses; Njeru, Ian; Arvelo, Wences

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Kenya adopted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in 1998 to strengthen disease surveillance and epidemic response. However, the goal of weekly surveillance reporting among health facilities has not been achieved. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of adequate reporting and factors associated with IDSR reporting among health facilities in one Kenyan County. Methods Health facilities (public and private) were enrolled using stratified random sampling from 348 facilities prioritized for routine surveillance reporting. Adequately-reporting facilities were defined as those which submitted >10 weekly reports during a twelve-week period and a poor reporting facilities were those which submitted <10 weekly reports. Multivariate logistic regression with backward selection was used to identify risk factors associated with adequate reporting. Results From September 2 through November 30, 2013, we enrolled 175 health facilities; 130(74%) were private and 45(26%) were public. Of the 175 health facilities, 77 (44%) facilities classified as adequate reporting and 98 (56%) were reporting poorly. Multivariate analysis identified three factors to be independently associated with weekly adequate reporting: having weekly reporting forms at visit (AOR19, 95% CI: 6-65], having posters showing IDSR functions (AOR8, 95% CI: 2-12) and having a designated surveillance focal person (AOR7, 95% CI: 2-20). Conclusion The majority of health facilities in Nairobi County were reporting poorly to IDSR and we recommend that the Ministry of Health provide all health facilities in Nairobi County with weekly reporting tools and offer specific trainings on IDSR which will help designate a focal surveillance person. PMID:27303581

  2. Modeling Powerful Social Studies: Bridging Theory and Practice with Preservice Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Jason K.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the practice of a teacher educator in an elementary social studies, teacher education course while he attempts to promote a view of powerful social studies teaching and learning through modeling powerful social studies lessons and publicly sharing his thinking about the lessons as they unfolded. Findings from this…

  3. Satellite Power Study (SPS) concept definition study (Exhibit D). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts concentrated on updating of the Rockwell reference concept, definition of new system options, studies of special emphasis topics, further definition of the transportation system, and further program definition. The Rockwell reference satellite concept has a gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell array having flat concentrators with an effective concentration ratio of 1.83at end of life. Alternatives to this concept includes solid state power amplifiers or magnetrons for dc/RF conversion and multibandgap solar cells for solar to dc energy conversion. Two solid state concepts were studied. It was determined that the magnetron approach was the lowest mass and cost system.

  4. Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B.; Erwin, E.; Kerle, N.

    2009-04-01

    In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the event (Elvidge et al. 2007), which can subsequently be linked to population estimations. Power blackouts disrupt societal activities and compound the difficulties associated with search and rescue, clean up, and the provision of food and other supplies following a disastrous event. Locations and spatial extents of power blackouts are key considerations in planning and execution of the primary disaster missions of emergency management organizations. To date only one satellite data source has been used successfully for the detection of power blackouts. Operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) offers a unique capability to observe lights present at the Earth's surface at night. Including a pair of visible and thermal spectral bands and originally designed to detect moonlit clouds, this sensor enables mapping of lights from cities and towns, gas flares and offshore platforms, fires, and heavily lit fishing boats. The low light imaging of the OLS is accomplished using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) which intensifies the visible band signal at night. With 14 orbits collected per day and a 3.000 km swath width, each OLS is capable of collecting a complete set of images of the Earth every 24 hours. NGDC runs the long-term archive for OLS data with the digital version extending back to 1992. OLS data is received by NGDC in near real time (1-2 hours from acquisition) and subscription based services for the near real time data are provided for users all over the

  5. Space-Based Solar Power Conversion and Delivery Systems Study. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The research concerning space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems is summarized. The potential concepts for a photovoltaic satellite solar power system was studied with emphasis on ground output power levels of 5,000 MW and 10,000 MW. A power relay satellite, and certain aspects of the economics of these systems were also studied. A second study phase examined in greater depth the technical and economic aspects of satellite solar power systems. Throughout this study, the focus was on the economics of satellite solar power. The results indicate technical feasibility of the concept, and provide a preliminary economic justification for the first phase of a substantial development program. A development program containing test satellites is recommended. Also, development of alternative solar cell materials (other than silicon) is recommended.

  6. An experimental study of potential residential and commercial applications of small-scale hybrid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Michael Anthony

    The research presented in this thesis provides an understanding of small-scale hybrid power systems. Experiments were conducted to identify potential applications of renewable energy in residential and commercial applications in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Solar and wind energy converted into electric energy was stored in batteries and inverted to power common household and commercial appliances. Several small to medium size hybrid power systems were setup and utilized to conduct numerous tests to study renewable energy prospects and feasibility for various applications. The experimental results obtained indicate that carefully constructed solar power systems can provide people living in isolated communities with sufficient energy to consistently meet their basic power needs.

  7. An advanced concept secondary power systems study for an advanced transport technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The application of advanced technology to the design of an integrated secondary power system for future near-sonic long-range transports was investigated. The study showed that the highest payoff is achieved by utilizing secondary power equipment that contributes to minimum cruise drag. This is best accomplished by the use of the dedicated auxiliary power unit concept (inflight APU) as the prime power source for an airplane with a body-mounted engine or by the use of the internal engine generator concept (electrical power extraction from the propulsion engine) for an airplane with a wing-pod-mounted engine.

  8. Kenya geothermal private power project: A prefeasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Twenty-eight geothermal areas in Kenya were evaluated and prioritized for development. The prioritization was based on the potential size, resource temperature, level of exploration risk, location, and exploration/development costs for each geothermal area. Suswa, Eburru and Arus are found to offer the best short-term prospects for successful private power development. It was found that cost per kill developed are significantly lower for the larger (50MW) than for smaller-sized (10 or 20 NW) projects. In addition to plant size, the cost per kill developed is seen to be a function of resource temperature, generation mode (binary or flash cycle) and transmission distance.

  9. A Study on AMB Flywheel Powered Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmanto, Budi; Nonami, Kenzo; Kuriyama, Kenta; Shimazaki, Hiroshi; Kagamiishi, Takahiro; Moriya, Tomoki

    This paper describes a novel concept and configuration of Electric Vehicle powered by flywheel with Active Magnetic Bearing suspended by gimbal mechanism to the vehicle body. The entire system consists of AMB Flywheel Energy Storage including energy charger/discharger module, mechanical 2-DOF gimbal, steer-by-wire module, and autonomous driving module as the supervising controller. This paper shows the results of outdoor field experiments such as the feasibility test of steer-by-wire system, the implementation of input shaping to reduce vibration and gyroscopic effects, simple adaptive control method for flywheel attitude control, and the efficiency measurement of the energy conversion system.

  10. Satellite Power System (SPS) magnetron tube assessment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    The data base was extended with respect to the magnetron directional amplifier and its operating parameters that are pertinent to its application in the solar power satellite. On the basis of the resulting extended data base the design of a magnetron was outlined that would meet the requirements of the SPS application and a technology program was designed that would result in its development. The proposed magnetron design for the SPS is a close scale of the microwave oven magnetron, and resembles it closely physically and electrically.

  11. Satellite Power System (SPS) magnetron tube assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1981-02-01

    The data base was extended with respect to the magnetron directional amplifier and its operating parameters that are pertinent to its application in the solar power satellite. On the basis of the resulting extended data base the design of a magnetron was outlined that would meet the requirements of the SPS application and a technology program was designed that would result in its development. The proposed magnetron design for the SPS is a close scale of the microwave oven magnetron, and resembles it closely physically and electrically.

  12. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    SciTech Connect

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-05

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10/sup -6/ was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study.

  13. Adequate Vitamin D3 Supplementation During Pregnancy: Decreasing the Prevalence of Asthma and Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Jonathan; Cira, Courtney; Mazzella, Leanne; Bartyzel, Jim; Ramanna, Annisce; Strimel, Kayla; Waturuocha, Amara; Musser, Nathan; Burress, James; Brammer, Sarah; Wetzel, Robert; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a secosterol that is naturally synthesized in the skin upon contact with ultraviolet rays. This vitamin can also be acquired from dietary and nutritional supplements. The active form, vitamin D3, is primarily responsible for calcium homeostasis and bone health. However, many recent studies have associated low levels of vitamin D3 with asthma and food allergies. In this review, we discuss literature to explore the potential that vitamin D3 deficiency may be contributing toward the development of asthma and food allergies. These studies indicate that mothers who supplement with doses of vitamin D3 recommended for daily consumption (400 IU) by the United States Food and Drug Administration is not enough to deliver adequate levels to breastfed infants. Because sufficient vitamin D3 serum levels correlate with a low incidence of asthma and food allergies, high dose vitamin D3 supplementation (4000 IU) by pregnant and breastfeeding women may limit the development of asthma and food allergies in newborns. PMID:27213185

  14. Co-Simulation of Detailed Whole Building with the Power System to Study Smart Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Fuller, Jason C.; Srivastava, Viraj; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.

    2014-12-24

    Modernization of the power system in a way that ensures a sustainable energy system is arguably one of the most pressing concerns of our time. Buildings are important components in the power system. First, they are the main consumers of electricity and secondly, they do not have constant energy demand. Conventionally, electricity has been difficult to store and should be consumed as it is generated. Therefore, maintaining the demand and supply is critical in the power system. However, to reduce the complexity of power models, buildings (i.e., end-use loads) are traditionally modeled and represented as aggregated “dumb” nodes in the power system. This means we lack effective detailed whole building energy models that can support requirements and emerging technologies of the smart power grid. To gain greater insight into the relationship between building energy demand and power system performance, it is important to constitute a co-simulation framework to support detailed building energy modeling and simulation within the power system to study capabilities promised by the modern power grid. This paper discusses ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and presents underlying tools and framework needed to enable co-simulation of building, building energy systems and their control in the power system to study applications such as demand response, grid-based HVAC control, and deployment of buildings for ancillary services. The optimal goal is to develop an integrated modeling and simulation platform that is flexible, reusable, and scalable. Results of this work will contribute to future building and power system studies, especially those related to the integrated ‘smart grid’. Results are also expected to advance power resiliency and local (micro) scale grid studies where several building and renewable energy systems transact energy directly. This paper also reviews some applications that can be supported and studied using the framework introduced

  15. Radar Men on the Moon: A Brief Survey of Fission Surface Power Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Gary L.

    2008-01-21

    This paper reviews some of the salient fission surface power studies, including those dating back to the early SNAP (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power) program. Particular attention will be focused on the more recent Space Exploration Initiative (including the related Synthesis Group report) and Vision for Space Exploration. Commonalties in these studies will be noted; for example, many studies have shown that powers in the range of 100 kWe are required for human-tended bases on the Moon and Mars. Just as advanced human civilizations depend upon electrical power so will advanced, human-occupied lunar and Mars bases with powers rising into the megawatt level for bases with manufacturing and resource utilization capabilities. The role of radioisotope power sources will also be noted.

  16. [Selection of power force for the electrocardiostimulating apparatus and the study of the characteristics of the battery "Krona VTs"].

    PubMed

    Dubrovskiĭ, I A; Ostashkin, S P

    1976-01-01

    An independent power supply of electrocardiostimulators improves the electric safety of the patient and of the attending staff, does not produce any additional interferences with the functioning of instrumentation and makes it possible to design mobile portable devices. The storage battery used as a power source should have a sufficiently great capacity, provide for some back-up time ensuring normal operation of the apparatus, have small dimensions and mass. These requirements are met with most adequately by the air-zinc battery "Krona Vts". To estimate the continuous operation time for the apparatus experimental characteristics of the battery's pulse discharge are given. PMID:1025424

  17. Power of Models in Longitudinal Study: Findings from a Full-Crossed Simulation Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Hua; Brooks, Gordon P.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Because the power properties of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models have not been clearly determined in the balanced design for longitudinal studies in the literature, the authors present a power comparison study of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models under 3…

  18. Reciprocity: A Dynamic Model and a Method to Study Family Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmond, Marie Withers

    1978-01-01

    "Reciprocity," a social simulation game based on exchange theory, was developed to study dynamics of power relationships in the context of marriage and the family. The manner in which Reciprocity may be used to study power in family relationships is illustrated in terms of a husband-wife and a parent-teen version. (Author)

  19. Solar power satellite: System definition study. Part 1, volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A study of the solar power satellite system, which represents a means of tapping baseload electric utility power from the sun on a large scale, was summarized. Study objectives, approach, and planning are presented along with an energy conversion evaluation. Basic requirements were considered in regard to space transportation, construction, and maintainability.

  20. Knowledge and Informed Decision-Making about Population-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation in Groups with Low and Adequate Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Essink-Bot, M. L.; Dekker, E.; Timmermans, D. R. M.; Uiters, E.; Fransen, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze and compare decision-relevant knowledge, decisional conflict, and informed decision-making about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening participation between potential screening participants with low and adequate health literacy (HL), defined as the skills to access, understand, and apply information to make informed decisions about health. Methods. Survey including 71 individuals with low HL and 70 with adequate HL, all eligible for the Dutch organized CRC screening program. Knowledge, attitude, intention to participate, and decisional conflict were assessed after reading the standard information materials. HL was assessed using the Short Assessment of Health Literacy in Dutch. Informed decision-making was analyzed by the multidimensional measure of informed choice. Results. 64% of the study population had adequate knowledge of CRC and CRC screening (low HL 43/71 (61%), adequate HL 47/70 (67%), p > 0.05). 57% were informed decision-makers (low HL 34/71 (55%), adequate HL 39/70 (58%), p > 0.05). Intention to participate was 89% (low HL 63/71 (89%), adequate HL 63/70 (90%)). Respondents with low HL experienced significantly more decisional conflict (25.8 versus 16.1; p = 0.00). Conclusion. Informed decision-making about CRC screening participation was suboptimal among both individuals with low HL and individuals with adequate HL. Further research is required to develop and implement effective strategies to convey decision-relevant knowledge about CRC screening to all screening invitees. PMID:27200089

  1. Knowledge and Informed Decision-Making about Population-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation in Groups with Low and Adequate Health Literacy.

    PubMed

    Essink-Bot, M L; Dekker, E; Timmermans, D R M; Uiters, E; Fransen, M P

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze and compare decision-relevant knowledge, decisional conflict, and informed decision-making about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening participation between potential screening participants with low and adequate health literacy (HL), defined as the skills to access, understand, and apply information to make informed decisions about health. Methods. Survey including 71 individuals with low HL and 70 with adequate HL, all eligible for the Dutch organized CRC screening program. Knowledge, attitude, intention to participate, and decisional conflict were assessed after reading the standard information materials. HL was assessed using the Short Assessment of Health Literacy in Dutch. Informed decision-making was analyzed by the multidimensional measure of informed choice. Results. 64% of the study population had adequate knowledge of CRC and CRC screening (low HL 43/71 (61%), adequate HL 47/70 (67%), p > 0.05). 57% were informed decision-makers (low HL 34/71 (55%), adequate HL 39/70 (58%), p > 0.05). Intention to participate was 89% (low HL 63/71 (89%), adequate HL 63/70 (90%)). Respondents with low HL experienced significantly more decisional conflict (25.8 versus 16.1; p = 0.00). Conclusion. Informed decision-making about CRC screening participation was suboptimal among both individuals with low HL and individuals with adequate HL. Further research is required to develop and implement effective strategies to convey decision-relevant knowledge about CRC screening to all screening invitees. PMID:27200089

  2. New Visions in Asian American Studies. Diversity, Community, Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of essays from the eighth national conference of the Association for Asian American Studies is organized into four sections: history and women's studies; social science; literature; and Hawaiian studies. The following papers are included: (1) "History and Women Studies" (Yung); (2) "From Old to New Plantations: Labor's Growing…

  3. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with “specific” reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties. PMID:20298639

  4. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  5. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  6. [Level of awareness and the adequate application of sunscreen by beauticians].

    PubMed

    Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Machado, Érica Simionato; Vermelho, Sonia Cristina Soares Dias; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Cortez, Lucia Elaine Ranieri

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to establish the level of awareness of beauticians regarding the importance of the application of sunscreen and to identify whether their patients had been properly instructed by these professionals. It involved a descriptive and exploratory study with interviews applying qualitative methodology among 30 beauticians. Data were gathered using the semi-structured interview technique in Maringá, in the southern state of Paraná. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software after applying quantitative analysis and response classification. Of those interviewed, 83.33% had a degree in Aesthetics, 20% attended ongoing training activities on sunscreen and 73.17% acquired sunscreen for its quality, though 86.67% were not familiar with sunscreens with natural anti-free radical components. Of those interviewed, 80% had never treated patients with skin cancer, though they reported having knowledge of care in relation to sun exposure and how to use the sunscreen and the relationship of these practices with the disease. The results showed that the recommendations and use of sunscreen by beauticians and users has been conducted in an adequate and conscientious manner. PMID:27383359

  7. Evaluation of catheter-manometer systems for adequate intravascular blood pressure measurements in small animals.

    PubMed

    Idvall, J; Aronsen, K F; Lindström, K; Ulmsten, U

    1977-09-30

    Various catheter-manometer systems possible for intravascular blood pressure measurments on rats have been elaborated and tested in vitro and in vivo. Using a pressure-step calibrator, it was observed from in vitro studies that microtransducers had superior frequency response compared to conventional transducers. Of the catheters tested, Pe-90 tapered to a 40 mm tip with an inner diameter of 0.3 mm had the best frequency response as judged from fall and settling times. Because of the damping effect, tapering increased fall time to 1.8 ms, which was still quite acceptable. By the same token settling time was minimized to 22.4 ms. With a special calculation method the theoretical percentile fault of the recordings was estimated to be 9.66%. When the measurement error was calculated from the actual in vivo recordings, it was found to be no more than 2.7%. These results show that the technique described is adequate for continuous intravascular blood pressure recordings on small animals. Finally it is emphasized that careful handling of the catheters and avoidance of stopcocks and air bubbles are essential for obtaining accurate and reproducible values. PMID:928971

  8. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties. PMID:20298639

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Alirocumab as Add-on Therapy in High–Cardiovascular-Risk Patients With Hypercholesterolemia Not Adequately Controlled With Atorvastatin (20 or 40 mg) or Rosuvastatin (10 or 20 mg): Design and Rationale of the ODYSSEY OPTIONS Studies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Colhoun, Helen M; Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Du, Yunling; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The phase 3 ODYSSEY OPTIONS studies (OPTIONS I, NCT01730040; OPTIONS II, NCT01730053) are multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, 24-week studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, as add-on therapy in ∼ 650 high-cardiovascular (CV)-risk patients whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL according to the CV-risk category, high and very high CV risk, respectively, with atorvastatin (20–40 mg/d) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg/d). Patients are randomized to receive alirocumab 75 mg via a single, subcutaneous, 1-mL injection by prefilled pen every 2 weeks (Q2W) as add-on therapy to atorvastatin (20–40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg); or to receive ezetimibe 10 mg/d as add-on therapy to statin; or to receive statin up-titration; or to switch from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin (OPTIONS I only). At week 12, based on week 8 LDL-C levels, the alirocumab dose may be increased from 75 mg to 150 mg Q2W if LDL-C levels remain ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL in patients with high or very high CV risk, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint in both studies is difference in percent change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24 in the alirocumab vs control arms. The studies may provide guidance to inform clinical decision-making when patients with CV risk require additional lipid-lowering therapy to further reduce LDL-C levels. The flexibility of the alirocumab dosing regimen allows for individualized therapy based on the degree of LDL-C reduction required to achieve the desired LDL-C level. PMID:25269777

  10. Study of the export potential of the Bolivian Power Sector. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch International, was conducted by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a review of export potential and to assess the ability of the Bolivian power sector to provide these exports economically and with financially viable projects. The study includes technical, economic, and financial analyses of export power stations alternatives. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) The Bolivian Power Sector; (3) Market Assessment for Brazil; (4) Market Assessment for Argentina; (5) Market Assessment for Export; (6) Market Assessment for Peru; (7) Project Selection; (8) Transmission Plans for Power Export; (9) Delivered Natural Gas Costs; (10) Power Plant Characteristics; (11) Economic Screening of Export Power Station Options; (12) Project Financing; (13) Conclusions and Recommendations.

  11. Marital power process of Korean men married to foreign women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miyoung; Park, Gyeong Sook; Windsor, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This study explored how Korean men married to migrant women construct meaning around married life. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 10 men who had had been married to migrant women for ≥ 2 years. Data collection and analysis were performed concurrently using a grounded theory approach. The core category generated was the process of sustaining a family unit. The men came to understand the importance of a distribution of power within the family in sustaining the family unit. Constituting this process were four stages: recognizing an imbalance of power, relinquishing power, empowering, and fine-tuning the balance of power. This study provides important insight into the dynamics of marital power from men's point of view by demonstrating a link between the way people adjust to married life and the process by which married couples adjust through the distribution and redistribution of power. PMID:23171395

  12. Interim report: studies of boron deposition near geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Koranda, J.J.

    1980-04-21

    Measurements in the Geysers area from April until October 1979 when the onset of seasonal rains limited field work are presented. Field studies involved the following three basic types of measurements: cooling tower drift deposition, plant ecological studies, and animal population studies. Brief summaries of the data are presented to demonstrate the types of information obtained. (MHR)

  13. Study on Planar Antennas for Wireless Power Transmission of Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Toshikazu; Kawashima, Kazumasa

    Wireless electric power transmission systems are suitable to spread electric vehicles, because non-contact charging systems are convenient tools. Such charging systems recharge automatically without intervention from drivers. In this paper, the results of experiments on the transmitting and receiving antennas of the wireless power transmission systems are presented. To study wireless power transmission efficiency, horn antennas, patch antennas, and array antennas were fabricated and evaluated.

  14. Solar power satellite rectenna design study: Directional receiving elements and parallel-series combining analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmann, R. J.; Borrego, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Rectenna conversion efficiencies (RF to dc) approximating 85 percent were demonstrated on a small scale, clearly indicating the feasibility and potential of efficiency of microwave power to dc. The overall cost estimates of the solar power satellite indicate that the baseline rectenna subsystem will be between 25 to 40 percent of the system cost. The directional receiving elements and element extensions were studied, along with power combining evaluation and evaluation extensions.

  15. Studies of acoustic-electric feed-throughs for power transmission through structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Doty, Benjamin; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Aldrich, Jack; Chang, Zensheu

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous engineering design problems where the use of wires to transfer power and communicate data thru the walls of a structure is prohibitive or significantly difficult that it may require a complex design. Using physical feedthroughs in such systems may make them susceptible to leakage of chemicals or gasses, loss of pressure or vacuum, as well as difficulties in providing adequate thermal or electrical insulation. Moreover, feeding wires thru a wall of a structure reduces the strength of the structure and makes the structure prone to cracking due to fatigue that can result from cyclic loading and stress concentrations. One area that has already been identified to require a wireless alternative to electrical feedthroughs is the container of the Mars Sample Return Mission, which will need wireless sensors to sense a pressure leak and to avoid potential contamination. The idea of using elastic or acoustic waves to transfer power was suggested recently by [Y. Hu, et al., July 2003]. This system allows for the avoidance of cabling or wiring. The technology is applicable to the transfer of power for actuation, sensing and other tasks inside any sealed container or vacuum/pressure vessel. An alternative approach to the modeling presented previously [Sherrit et a., 2005] used network analysis to solve the same problem in a clear and expandable manner. Experimental tests on three different designs of these devices were performed. The three designs used different methods of coupling the piezoelectric element to the wall. In the first test the piezoelectric material was bolted using a backing structure. In the second test the piezoelectric was clamped after the application of grease and finally the piezoelectric element was attached using a conductive epoxy. The mechanical clamp with grease produced the highest measured efficiency of 53% however this design was the least practical from a fabrication viewpoint. The power transfer efficiency of conductive epoxy

  16. Power System Study for Renewable Energy Interconnection in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askar, O. F.; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.

    2013-06-01

    The renewable energy (RE) sector has grown exponentially in Malaysia with the introduction of the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) by the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. Photovoltaic, biogas, biomass and mini hydro are among the renewable energy sources which offer a lucrative tariff to incite developers in taking the green technology route. In order to receive the FIT, a developer is required by the utility company to perform a power system analysis which will determine the technical feasibility of an RE interconnection to the utility company's existing grid system. There are a number of aspects which the analysis looks at, the most important being the load flow and fault levels in the network after the introduction of an RE source. The analysis is done by modelling the utility company's existing network and simulating the network with the interconnection of an RE source. The results are then compared to the values before an interconnection is made as well as ensuring the voltage rise or the increase in fault levels do not violate any pre-existing regulations set by the utility company. This paper will delve into the mechanics of performing a load flow analysis and examining the results obtained.

  17. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  18. A Simulation Study to Assess the Effect of the Number of Response Categories on the Power of Ordinal Logistic Regression for Differential Item Functioning Analysis in Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Allahyari, Elahe; Jafari, Peyman; Bagheri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The present study uses simulated data to find what the optimal number of response categories is to achieve adequate power in ordinal logistic regression (OLR) model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis in psychometric research. Methods. A hypothetical ten-item quality of life scale with three, four, and five response categories was simulated. The power and type I error rates of OLR model for detecting uniform DIF were investigated under different combinations of ability distribution (θ), sample size, sample size ratio, and the magnitude of uniform DIF across reference and focal groups. Results. When θ was distributed identically in the reference and focal groups, increasing the number of response categories from 3 to 5 resulted in an increase of approximately 8% in power of OLR model for detecting uniform DIF. The power of OLR was less than 0.36 when ability distribution in the reference and focal groups was highly skewed to the left and right, respectively. Conclusions. The clearest conclusion from this research is that the minimum number of response categories for DIF analysis using OLR is five. However, the impact of the number of response categories in detecting DIF was lower than might be expected. PMID:27403207

  19. Investigating wind power`s effective capacity: A case study in the Caribbean Island of La Martinique

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, R.; Germa, J.M.; Bailey, B.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we report on the experimental determination of the effective capacity of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generation with respect to the utility load requirements of the Island of La Martinique. La Martinique is a French Overseas Department in the Caribbean Sea. The case study spans two years, 1990 and 1991. We consider wind generation at three locations in different wind regimes, and PV generation for fixed and tracking flat plate systems. The results presented include: (1) An overview of typical solar and wind power output at each considered site, presented in contrast to the Island`s electric load requirements; and (2) Effective capacities quantified for each resource as a function of penetration in the utility generation mix. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  20. White Lies: A Critical Race Study of Power and Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Patricia Jones

    2009-01-01

    This was a phenomenological study of racial privilege as experienced by White people who have struggled to become more racially aware and socially active in dismantling racism and White privilege. The primary conceptual framework for this study was Critical Race Theory with Transformative Learning theory and Racial Identity Development as…

  1. Theoretical studies of high-power Cerenkov amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Schaechter, L.; Nation, J.A.; Shiffler, D.A. )

    1991-07-01

    The main theoretical aspects of the experiments performed and reported recently are discussed here. First the one stage amplifier is considered. As a preliminary step the behavior of the electrons is followed in the phase space at different points along the interaction region. This analysis reveals that about 30% of the interaction region is utilized for construction of the electron bunches. It is shown that although the average energy of the electrons remains unchanged along most of the amplifier, their energy spread increases substantially. Since the system consists of two long tapered sections, it is suggested that the effective length of the interaction region might be significantly longer than the physical length of the uniform structure. It is further suggested that the electrostatic periodic potential induced by the beam may also improve the interaction process. The next subject addressed here is the bandwidth of a single stage amplifier. It is shown that the reason for the narrow measured bandwidth is the gain of the system. In fact the output signal from a short amplifier is narrowed by exactly the same amount the amplitude of the electromagnetic wave is increased. This result is general as long as part of the radiation field is reflected from both ends of the amplifier. In the second part of this paper the two stage amplifier is analyzed. As in the case of the single stage amplifier the behavior of the electrons is followed in phase space at various locations along the system. This discussion leads to an analysis of the development of sidebands'' which are not symmetrically located around the initial frequency at power levels that do not correspond to a nonlinear process. It is suggested that these sidebands are amplified noise{minus}produced basically in the first stage.

  2. Study of thermal control systems for orbiting power systems. Materials experiment carrier thermal control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Four possible arrangements of the materials experiment carrier (MEC) and power system (PS) thermal control loops were defined which would provide one kW of heat rejection for each kW of power to the MEC payload. These arrangements were compared to the baseline reference concept which provides only 16 kW heat rejection to show the cost of obtaining symmetry in terms of dollars, weight, complexity, growth potential, ease of integration, technology and total launch weight. The results of these comparisons was that the concept which splits the PS thermal control loop into two systems, one to reject PS waste heat and one payload waste heat, appeared favorable. The fluid selection study resulted in recommendation of FC72 as the MEC heat transport fluid based on the thermal and physical characteristics. The coatings reviewed indicated anodized and alodine treated aluminum surfaces or silver teflon are the best choices for the MEC vehicle where durability is an important factor. For high temperature radiators silver teflon or zinc orthotitanate are recommended choices.

  3. Satellite Power System (SPS) concept definition study (exhibit C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The major outputs of the study are the constructability studies which resulted in the definition of the concepts for satellite, rectenna, and satellite construction base construction. Transportation analyses resulted in definition of heavy-lift launch vehicle, electric orbit transfer vehicle, personnel orbit transfer vehicle, and intra-orbit transfer vehicle as well as overall operations related to transportation systems. The experiment/verification program definition resulted in the definition of elements for the Ground-Based Experimental Research and Key Technology plans. These studies also resulted in conceptual approaches for early space technology verification. The cost analysis defined the overall program and cost data for all program elements and phases.

  4. Prioritising pharmaceuticals for environmental risk assessment: Towards adequate and feasible first-tier selection.

    PubMed

    Roos, V; Gunnarsson, L; Fick, J; Larsson, D G J; Rudén, C

    2012-04-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, and the concerns for negative effects on aquatic organisms, has gained increasing attention over the last years. As ecotoxicity data are lacking for most active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), it is important to identify strategies to prioritise APIs for ecotoxicity testing and environmental monitoring. We have used nine previously proposed prioritisation schemes, both risk- and hazard-based, to rank 582 APIs. The similarities and differences in overall ranking results and input data were compared. Moreover, we analysed how well the methods ranked seven relatively well-studied APIs. It is concluded that the hazard-based methods were more successful in correctly ranking the well-studied APIs, but the fish plasma model, which includes human pharmacological data, also showed a high success rate. The results of the analyses show that the input data availability vary significantly; some data, such as logP, are available for most API while information about environmental concentrations and bioconcentration are still scarce. The results also suggest that the exposure estimates in risk-based methods need to be improved and that the inclusion of effect measures at first-tier prioritisation might underestimate risks. It is proposed that in order to develop an adequate prioritisation scheme, improved data on exposure such as degradation and sewage treatment removal and bioconcentration ability should be further considered. The use of ATC codes may also be useful for the development of a prioritisation scheme that includes the mode of action of pharmaceuticals and, to some extent, mixture effects. PMID:22361586

  5. A Study of Power and Individualism in Virtual Teams: Trends, Challenges, and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jablonski, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between cultural values and effectiveness of virtual team processes. In order to render an acceptable degree of comparison, four specific team outcomes of virtual team effectiveness were aligned on Hofstede's cultural dimensions of power distance and individualism. The lack of awareness of how power and…

  6. Research Plan for Study of Biological and Ecological Effects of the Solar Power Satellite Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, B. D.

    1978-01-01

    A programmatic research plan for a three year study is presented to generate knowledge on effects of the continuous wave 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission that the Solar Power Satellite might have on biological and ecological elements, within and around the rectenna receiving site.

  7. Mentoring Support and Power: A Three Year Predictive Field Study on Protege Networking and Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blickle, Gerhard; Witzki, Alexander H.; Schneider, Paula B.

    2009-01-01

    Career success of early employees was analyzed from a power perspective and a developmental network perspective. In a predictive field study with 112 employees mentoring support and mentors' power were assessed in the first wave, employees' networking was assessed after two years, and career success (i.e. income and hierarchical position) and…

  8. Simulation of Dyadic Exchange: Proposal of a Method to Study Power in Family Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmond, Marie W.; Martin, Patricia Y.

    "Reciprocity," a social simulation game based on exchange theory, was developed by the author to study the dynamics of power relationships in the context of marriage and the family. The simulation can be manipulated to test specific aspects of three major exchange formulations: Blau's social exchange formulation; Emerson's power-dependence…

  9. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 7, phase 1: SPS and rectenna systems analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A systems definition study of the solar power satellite systems is presented. The design and power distribution of the rectenna system is discussed. The communication subsystem and thermal control characteristics are described and a failure analysis performed on the systems is reported.

  10. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 2, phase 1: Systems analyses tradeoffs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A systems definition study of the solar power satellite system is presented. The satellite solar energy conversion and microwave power transmission systems are discussed. Space construction and support systems are examined including a series construction and equipment characteristics analysis. Space transportation for the satellite and the ground receiving station are assessed.

  11. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 1, phase 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A systems definition study of the solar satellite system (SPS) is presented. The technical feasibility of solar power satellites based on forecasts of technical capability in the various applicable technologies is assessed. The performance, cost, operational characteristics, reliability, and the suitability of SPS's as power generators for typical commercial electricity grids are discussed. The uncertainties inherent in the system characteristics forecasts are assessed.

  12. ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES FROM STANDARDIZED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: A WIND TUNNEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to simulate radiopollutant effluents released to the atmosphere from two standard design nuclear power plants. The main objective of the study was to compare the dispersion in the wake of the standardized nuclear power plants with that in a s...

  13. Maturation of EEG Power Spectra in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragg, Lucy; Kovacevic, Natasa; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Poulsen, Catherine; Martinu, Kristina; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the fine-grained development of the EEG power spectra in early adolescence, and the extent to which it is reflected in changes in peak frequency. It also sought to determine whether sex differences in the EEG power spectra reflect differential patterns of maturation. A group of 56 adolescents were tested at age 10 years and…

  14. The Statistical Power of the Cluster Randomized Block Design with Matched Pairs--A Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo; Lipsey, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This study uses simulation techniques to examine the statistical power of the group- randomized design and the matched-pair (MP) randomized block design under various parameter combinations. Both nearest neighbor matching and random matching are used for the MP design. The power of each design for any parameter combination was calculated from…

  15. New FASST Study on Students and Solar Power Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Leonard

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the recommendations of the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST) study which stressed identifying methods to increase student participation in the discussion of the potential benefits and problems of beaming energy from space. (MA)

  16. Advanced Fusion Power Plant Studies. Annual Report for 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, V.S.; Chu, M.S.; Greenfield, C.M.; Kinsey, J.E.; et al.

    2000-01-01

    Significant progress in physics understanding of the reversed shear advanced tokamak regime has been made since the last ARIES-RS study was completed in 1996. The 1999 study aimed at updating the physics design of ARIES-RS, which has been renamed ARIES-AT, using the improved understanding achieved in the last few years. The new study focused on: Improvement of beta-limit stability calculations to include important non-ideal effects such as resistive wall modes and neo-classical tearing modes; Use of physics based transport model for internal transport barrier (ITB) formation and sustainment; Comparison of current drive and rotational flow drive using fast wave, electron cyclotron wave and neutral particle beam; Improvement in heat and particle control; Integrated modeling of the optimized scenario with self-consistent current and transport profiles to study the robustness of the bootstrap alignment, ITB sustainment, and stable path to high beta and high bootstrap fraction operation.

  17. Integrated power sector efficiency analysis: A case study of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-03-01

    In an effort to analyze and document the potential for power sector efficiency improvements from generation to end-use, the Agency for International Development and the Government of Costa Rica are jointly conducting an integrated power sector efficiency analysis. Potential for energy and cost savings in power plants, transmission and distribution, and demand-side management programs are being evaluated. The product of this study will be an integrated investment plan for the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, incorporating both supply and demand side investment options. This paper presents the methodology employed in the study, as well as preliminary estimates of the results of the study. 14 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Simulation of Some of the Power Electronics Case Studies in Matlab Simpowsystem Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alasooly, Hedaya; Redha, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    Matlab SimPowerSystems is a modern design tool that allows scientists and engineers to rapidly and easily build models that simulate power systems. Not only can you draw the circuit topology rapidly, but your analysis of the circuit can include its interactions with mechanical, thermal, control, and other disciplines. The paper covers some case studies that provide detailed, realistic examples of how to use SimPowerSystems in power system analysis. The following types of studies is coverted on the paper: 1. Thyristor-Based Static Var Compensator: Study the steady-state and dynamic performance of a static var compensator (SVC) on a transmission system. 2. Transient Stability of a Power System with SVC and PSS: Study of the application of static var compensator (SVC) and power system stabilizers (PSS) to improve transient stability and power oscillation damping of the system. 3. GTO-Based STATCOM: Study the steady-state and dynamic performance of a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) on a transmission system. 4. Control of load flow using UPFC: Study the steady-state and dynamic performance of a unified power flow controller (UPFC). 5. Chopper-Fed DC Motor Drive: Study of a DC motor drive with armature voltage controlled by a GTO thyristor chopper. 6. VSC-Based HVDC Link: Modeling of a forced-commutated Voltage-Sourced Converter high-voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) transmission link. 7. Three-Phase Network with Electrical Machines: Simulation of a three-phase power system containing electrical machines and other three-phase models. 8. Variable-Frequency Induction Motor Drive: Study of a PWM inverter-driven variable-frequency AC induction motor in variable-voltage, variable-speed operation.

  19. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study (exhibit C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A coplanar satellite conceptual approach was defined. This effort included several trade studies related to satellite design and also construction approaches for this satellite. A transportation system, consistent with this concept, was also studied, including an electric orbit transfer vehicle and a parallel-burn heavy lift launch vehicle. Work on a solid state microwave concept continued and several alternative approaches were evaluated. Computer determination of an optimized transistor and circuit design was also continued. Experiment/verification planning resulted in the development of a total solar array and microwave technology development plan, as well as definition of near-term research to evaluate key technology issues.

  20. WMU Power Generation Study Task 2.0 Corn Cob Co-Combustion Study

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-30

    Much attention has been focused on renewable energy use in large-scale utilities and very small scale distributed energy systems. However, there is little information available regarding renewable energy options for midscale municipal utilities. The Willmar Municipal Utilities Corn Cob-Coal Co-Combustion Project was initiated to investigate opportunities available for small to midscale municipal utilities to "go green". The overall goal of the Project was to understand the current t'enewable energy research and energy efficiency projects that are or have been implemented at both larger and smaller scale and determine the applicability to midscale municipal utilities. More specific objectives for Task 2.0 of this project were to determine the technical feasibility of co-combusting com cobs with coal in the existing WMU boiler, and to identify any regulatory issues that might need to be addressed if WMU were to obtain a significant portion of its heat from such co-combustion. This report addresses the issues as laid out in the study proposal. The study investigated the feasibility of and demonstrated the technical effectiveness of co-combusting corn cobs with coal in the Willmar Municipal Utilities stoker boiler steam generation power plant. The results of the WMU Co-Combustion Project will serve as a model for other midscale utilities who wish to use corn cobs to generate renewable electrical energy. As a result of the Co-Combustion Project, the WMU plans to upgrade their stoker boiler to accept whole corn cobs as well as other types of biomass, while still allowing the fuel delivery system to use 100% coal as needed. Benefits of co-combustion will include: energy security, reduced Hg and CO2 air emissions, improved ash chemistry, potential future carbon credit sales, an immediate positive effect on the local economy, and positive attention focused on the WMU and the City of Willmar. The first step in the study was to complete a feasibility analysis. The feasibility

  1. People and Power. A Study of Crisis in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittes, Simon

    The study reported here is based on the belief that the social discontent that is frequently in evidence stems in part from individuals being trapped in dehumanizing organizational mazes which apply bureaucratic rules in an attempt to control human behavior in light of organizational needs. This investigation, therefore, set out to discover the…

  2. A super powerful method for genome wide association study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-Wide Association Studies shed light on the identification of genes underlying human diseases and agriculturally important traits. This potential has been shadowed by false positive findings. The Mixed Linear Model (MLM) method is flexible enough to simultaneously incorporate population struct...

  3. Partner Power: A Study of Two Distance Education Consortia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidduck, Anne Banks; Carey, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This research reports findings from a study which explored the process and criteria of partner selection--how and why partners are chosen--for two distance education consortia. The researchers reviewed recent literature on partnerships and partner selection. Two Canada-wide distance education consortia were identified as large-scale case studies…

  4. Storypath: Powerful Social Studies Instruction in the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulwiler, Betsy Rupp; McGuire, Margit E.

    1997-01-01

    Recommends using the Storypath method for introducing social studies concepts into the primary grades. Storypath introduces children to an imaginary environment (a neighborhood) and, working in teams, students provide details and people. Eventually they face a problem (litter), then bring the story and the problem to some kind of resolution. (MJP)

  5. Design study for a gound microwave power transmission system for use with a high-altitude powered platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual design of a ground-based microwave power transmission system is described. This system is intended to supply electrical power via an air link to a high-altitude (21 km) powered platform. The platform must be equipped with the required instrumentation (RECTENNA) to convert the RF energy to dc power.

  6. Even the "Best" Teachers May Need Adequate Subject Knowledge: An Illustrative Mathematics Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modiba, Maropeng

    2011-01-01

    As curriculum scholars in South Africa express concerns about the failures of the outcomes-based curriculum policy that has been introduced post-apartheid it is of increased importance to try and understand the professional development that is required by teachers for its successful implementation. As a contribution to the development of such…

  7. Can School Oversight Adequately Assess Department Outcomes?: A Study of Marketing Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Stephen T.; Dascher, Paul E.; Nicholson, Carolyn Y.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the key factors that influence student choice of a business major and how business schools can help students make that choice more realistically. Investigating students at a regional university, the authors found that whereas those with better quantitative skills tended to major in accounting or finance, those…

  8. Conceptual Trade Study of General Purpose Heat Source Powered Stirling Converter Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpin, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    This Technical Manual describes a parametric study of general purpose heat source (GPHS) powered Stirling converter configurations. This study was performed in support of MSFC s efforts to establish the capability to perform non-nuclear system level testing and integration of radioisotope power systems. Six different GPHS stack configurations at a total of three different power levels (80, 250, and 500 W(sub e) were analyzed. The thermal profiles of the integrated GPHS modules (for each configuration) were calculated to determine maximum temperatures for comparison to allowable material limits. Temperature profiles for off-nominal power conditions were also assessed in order to better understand how power demands from the Stirling engine impact the performance of a given configuration.

  9. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion - Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Patrick E.; Allen, Robert; Delventhal, Rex

    2005-02-06

    To investigate and mature space based nuclear power conversion technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC). The conceptual design effort performed included BPCS (Brayton power conversion system) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass (with a target of less than 3000 kg), and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to operate in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments within the Jovian system. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NBP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future potential missions with a sound technology plan for TRL (Technical Readiness Level) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature {approx} 100C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues identified and an approach for resolution developed. Analyses and evaluations of six HRS (heat rejection subsystem) concepts and PMAD (Power Management and Distribution) architecture trades will be discussed in the paper.

  10. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bog; Delventhal, Rex; Frye, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Recently, there has been significant interest within the aerospace community to develop space based nuclear power conversion technologies especially for exploring the outer planets of our solar system where the solar energy density is very low. To investigate these technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC).The investigation performed included BPCS (Brayton Power Conversion System) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to be capable of operation in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments surrounding Jupiter. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NEP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future missions with a sound technology plan for technology readiness level (TRL) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature approx. 100 C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues and related development tasks identified. Analyses and evaluations of six different HRS (heat rejection system) designs and three primary power management and distribution (PMAD) configurations will be discussed in the paper.

  11. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion — Phase I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye, Patrick E.; Allen, Robert; Delventhal, Rex

    2005-02-01

    To investigate and mature space based nuclear power conversion technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC). The conceptual design effort performed included BPCS (Brayton power conversion system) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass (with a target of less than 3000 kg), and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to operate in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments within the Jovian system. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NBP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future potential missions with a sound technology plan for TRL (Technical Readiness Level) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature ˜ 100C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues identified and an approach for resolution developed. Analyses and evaluations of six HRS (heat rejection subsystem) concepts and PMAD (Power Management and Distribution) architecture trades will be discussed in the paper.

  12. Mirror, Mirrors on the Wall, Who Is the Most Powerful of All? A Self-Study Analysis of Power Relationships in Science Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovici, Hedy

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the dynamics of power relationships in secondary science methods courses taught at an urban university in Southern California for credential candidates. Data collection extended over 10 academic semesters. Employing frameworks of power, self-study, and critical pedagogy, the study analyzes the multifaceted and intricate roads…

  13. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  14. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  15. Calculating and Reducing Errors Associated with the Evaluation of Adequate Yearly Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    In the Spring, 1996, issue of "CRESST Line," E. Baker and R. Linn commented that, in efforts to measure the progress of schools, "the fluctuations due to differences in the students themselves could conceal differences in instructional effects." This is particularly true in the context of the evaluation of adequate yearly progress required by…

  16. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  17. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  18. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...

  19. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  20. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  1. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  2. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  3. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  4. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  5. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  6. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  7. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  8. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  9. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  10. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6-12 (n = 1,203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in…

  11. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the State's requirements for availability of services, as set forth in § 438.206. (e) CMS' right... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and Performance... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services....

  12. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  13. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  14. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  15. Final 2004 Report on Adequate Yearly Progress in the Montgomery County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jose W.

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of Montgomery County public schools made sufficient progress on state testing and accountability standards in 2004 to comply with the adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements under the "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001." Information released by the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) in October 2004 shows that…

  16. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  17. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  18. Estimates of Adequate School Spending by State Based on National Average Service Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Jerry

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a method for estimating expenditures per student needed to provide educational adequacy in each state. Illustrates the method using U.S., Arkansas, New York, Texas, and Washington State data, covering instruction, special needs, operations and maintenance, administration, and other costs. Estimates ratios of "adequate" to actual spending…

  19. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...

  20. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate cost data and cost finding. 413.24 Section 413.24 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY...

  1. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  2. 75 FR 74022 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... November 15, 2010 (75 FR 69648). The corrected text of the recommendation approved by the Board is below... or telephone number (202) 694-7000. Correction: In the Federal Register of November 15, 2010 (75 FR... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the...

  3. Evaluating Rural Progress in Mathematics Achievement: Threats to the Validity of "Adequate Yearly Progress"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    2003-01-01

    This article examines major threats to the validity of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in the context of rural schools. Although rural students and their schools made significant academic progress in the past on national and state assessments, the current goal of AYP turns out to be highly unrealistic for them unless states set far lower…

  4. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  5. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  6. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  7. What Is the Cost of an Adequate Vermont High School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Access to an adequate education has been widely considered an undeniable right since Chief Justice Warren stated in his landmark decision that "Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments...it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an…

  8. Astronomical spectra as powerful source for airglow studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausch, W.; Noll, S.; Unterguggenberger, S.; Proxauf, B.; Kimeswenger, S.

    2015-03-01

    Light from astronomical objects has to pass the Earth's atmosphere before it reaches ground-based telescopes. Thus, any observation taken with such facilities contains information on the chemical composition and the physical state of the atmosphere. In particular, optical and near-infrared spectra taken with such telescopes are well suited to study various airglow emissions arising in the upper atmosphere thanks to the small field-of-view of the telescopes, large mirror sizes, and the frequent usage of medium to high resolution spectrographs. We study data taken by two frequently used echelle spectrographs from the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory at Cerro Paranal (Chile): UVES, operative since 1999, is a high-resolution (20000 R 110000) instrument covering the wavelength range from 300 to 1100 nm. Hence, several O2 band systems (Herzberg I+II, Chamberlain, atmospheric), the green and red OI lines ( 557 nm; 630 nm), the recently discovered FeO bands ( 550 to 720 nm), NaID ( 589 nm), and all hydroxyl bands up to OH(3-0) can be investigated. The high temporal coverage allows investigations for more than one solar cycle. The X-Shooter instrument is an echelle spectrograph which is able to take medium-resolution (3000 R 18000) spectra from 300 to 2480 nm within one shot. Therefore, it is well suited for a comprehensive study of OH, as it covers all bands with a vibrational level difference 2 (up to OH(9-7)) simultaneously, apart from the previously mentioned other lines and bands. X-Shooter was put into operation in 2009. In this presentation, we will give a review on the available spectra, their quality and time coverage. Moreover, we will illustrate the potential of the data for airglow studies by showing results

  9. Impact of Water Availability on Regional Power System Operations - A Case Study of ERCOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, T.; Zhou, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Impact of water availability on regional power system operations - A case study of ERCOT Thermal power plants are the largest single source of water withdrawals in the United States, mainly for cooling purposes. The amount of water that is required for cooling is highly dependent on a number of factors including the generation technologies being used, the temperature of the input water, and the total electricity load in the system. During summer months, many of these factors coincide to greatly increase the demand for water in a power system. Electricity demand typically reaches its annual peak when temperatures are high due to increased air conditioning loads. Ambient water temperatures also increase, meaning that greater quantities of water are required to provide the same amount of cooling at thermal generation plants. Finally, water availability is generally constrained due to seasonal effects and potential droughts. This raises concerns that water scarcity may lead to forced de-rating at some power plants during periods of peak demand, resulting in a more vulnerable and less reliable energy system. While increasing attention has recently been given to the inexorable link between water and energy, most commercial power models do not explicitly account for water use when optimizing system operation. We apply the AURORAxmp power modeling software to a case study analysis of the ERCOT power system to determine the water requirements of the system during periods of peak power demand. We then analyze water availability by location and time to identify potential supply shortages, which may reduce actual power generation availability. These data are fed back into the power systems model and specific generation units are de-rated as necessitated by water constraints. We then analyze these results to determine how the optimal generation mix, system reliability, and wholesale electricity prices may be affected by when the ERCOT power system is operated under water

  10. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 1, phase 2: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A review of solar energy conversion and utilization is presented. The solar power satellite system is then described. Overall system definition and integration is discussed. Principal reference system study accomplishments and conclusions are presented.

  11. Biologically based epidemiological studies of electric power and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, R G

    1993-01-01

    As societies industrialize, the health profile of the population changes; in general, acute infectious disease declines and chronic disease increases. Use of electricity is a hallmark of the industrialization process, but there has been no suspicion that electricity could increase the risk of cancer. Recently, however, a number of epidemiologic studies have suggested that electromagnetic fields (EMF) may do just that. Although few cancer experiments have been done yet, there are a number of biological effects of EMF reported in the literature that might provide bases for designing cancer experiments and epidemiologic studies. These include effects of EMF on: a) DNA transcription and translation, b) calcium balance in cells, and c) pineal production of melatonin. Alterations in DNA transcription and translation could have pleiotropic effects. Disruption of calcium homeostasis has many implications including oncogene activation, promotional activity via protein kinases and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and increasing oxidative stress. Reduction of melatonin suggests a possible increased risk of cancers of hormone-dependent tissues such as breast and prostate. The idea that a cancer-causing agent must either be an initiator or a promoter should be discarded; indeed, the phenomenologic meaning of these two terms has become confused with imputed mechanistic necessity in recent years. Agents that affect division of normal cells or of fully transformed cells can play an important role in clinical cancer development quite apart from initiation or promotion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8206047

  12. Study of UO/sub 2/ wafer fuel for very high-power research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, T.C.; Jankus, V.Z.; Rest, J.; Billone, M.C.

    1980-11-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is aimed at reducing fuel enrichment to < 20% in those research and test reactors presently using highly enriched uranium fuel. UO/sub 2/ caramel fuel is one of the most promising new types of reduced-enrichment fuel for use in research reactors with very high power density. Parametric studies have been carried out to determine the maximum specific power attainable without significant fission-gas release for UO/sub 2/ wafers ranging from 0.75 to 1.50 mm in thickness. The results indicate that (1) all the fuel designs considered in this study are predicted not to fail under full-power operation up to a burnup of 1.09 x 10/sup 21/ fis/cm/sup 3/; (2) for all fuel designs, failure is predicted at approximately the same fuel centerline temperature for a given burnup; (3) the thinner the wafer, and wider the margin for fuel specific power between normal operation and increased-power operation leading to fuel failure; (4) increasing the coolant pressure in the reactor core could improve fuel performance by maintaining the fuel at a higher power level without failure for a given burnup; and (5) for a given power level, fuel failure will occur earlier at a higher cladding surface temperature and/or under power-cycling conditions. 12 figures, 7 tables.

  13. Investigation and study on compressed air storage power generation system, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    Compressed air storage power generation system (CAES) was studied. As a system for response to peak loads, both output and efficiency were better than those of the previous year due to the study on the temperature of the turbine's inlet. As a system for response to peak and middle loads, steam power generation, which makes use of exhaust heat from the aftercooler and the low pressure turbine's outlet, was integrated into the system, and its heat efficiency was better than that of the usual thermal power generation. However, it is inferior to the latest LNG combined cycle power generation and it does not appeal much as a middle load power source. Deformation strength characteristics of the underground cavity rocks were clarified, and a multi-structure lining method was suggested. Its location area is restricted by the layer distribution. Construction cost per kW is 220,000 yen, and the power generation prime cost is a little higher than that of pumped storage power generation. As a pumped storage power station has difficulty in finding suitable location and is higher in costs, CAES can be put into existence as a system for response to peak loads in view of economy in the future.

  14. Study terrestrial applications of solar cell powered systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravin, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Terrestrial applications of solar cells and design systems are considered for those applications that show the most promise for becoming practical and accepted by users within the next five years. The study includes the definition, categorization, evaluation and screening of the most attractive potential terrestrial applications for solar cells. Potential markets are initially grouped and categorized in a general sense and are weighted in priority by their business volume, present and future. From a categorized list including marine, transportation, security, communication, meteorological and others, 66 potential solar cell applications have been cataloged. A methodology was formulated to include the criteria for evaluation and screening. The evaluation process covers all parts and components of the complete system required for each application and gives consideration to all factors, such as engineering, economic, production, marketing and other factors that may have an influence on the acceptance of the system.

  15. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Rice University, Brown and Root Development Inc., and Arthur D. Little Inc. have jointly conducted a feasibility study of an offshore rectenna serving the Boston/New York area. We found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. We began by engineering the reference system rectenna to the offshore location. When we estimated costs for the resulting system we found that the cost was prohibitively high. We then searched for modifications to the design which would allow significant cost reduction. The result is a non-ground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors or yagis supported on feed wires. We find that such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane, winter storm and icing conditions for a one time cost of $5.7 billion. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. It is important to note that the east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in substantially lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  16. A digital computer simulation and study of a direct-energy-transfer power-conditioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, W. W., III; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.; Rodriguez, G. E.; Paulkovich, J.

    1974-01-01

    A digital computer simulation technique, which can be used to study such composite power-conditioning systems, was applied to a spacecraft direct-energy-transfer power-processing system. The results obtained duplicate actual system performance with considerable accuracy. The validity of the approach and its usefulness in studying various aspects of system performance such as steady-state characteristics and transient responses to severely varying operating conditions are demonstrated experimentally.

  17. Exploring powered wheelchair users and their caregivers' perspectives on potential intelligent power wheelchair use: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kairy, Dahlia; Rushton, Paula W; Archambault, Philippe; Pituch, Evelina; Torkia, Caryne; El Fathi, Anas; Stone, Paula; Routhier, François; Forget, Robert; Demers, Louise; Pineau, Joelle; Gourdeau, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Power wheelchairs (PWCs) can have a positive impact on user well-being, self-esteem, pain, activity and participation. Newly developed intelligent power wheelchairs (IPWs), allowing autonomous or collaboratively-controlled navigation, could enhance mobility of individuals not able to use, or having difficulty using, standard PWCs. The objective of this study was to explore the perspectives of PWC users (PWUs) and their caregivers regarding if and how IPWs could impact on current challenges faced by PWUs, as well as inform current development of IPWs. A qualitative exploratory study using individual interviews was conducted with PWUs (n = 12) and caregivers (n = 4). A semi-structured interview guide and video were used to facilitate informed discussion regarding IPWs. Thematic analysis revealed three main themes: (1) "challenging situations that may be overcome by an IPW" described how the IPW features of obstacle avoidance, path following, and target following could alleviate PWUs' identified mobility difficulties; (2) "cautious optimism concerning IPW use revealed participants" addresses concerns regarding using an IPW as well as technological suggestions; (3) "defining the potential IPW user" revealed characteristics of PWUs that would benefit from IPW use. Findings indicate how IPW use may help overcome PWC difficulties and confirm the importance of user input in the ongoing development of IPWs. PMID:24566051

  18. Exploring Powered Wheelchair Users and Their Caregivers’ Perspectives on Potential Intelligent Power Wheelchair Use: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kairy, Dahlia; Rushton, Paula W.; Archambault, Philippe; Pituch, Evelina; Torkia, Caryne; El Fathi, Anas; Stone, Paula; Routhier, François; Forget, Robert; Demers, Louise; Pineau, Joelle; Gourdeau, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Power wheelchairs (PWCs) can have a positive impact on user well-being, self-esteem, pain, activity and participation. Newly developed intelligent power wheelchairs (IPWs), allowing autonomous or collaboratively-controlled navigation, could enhance mobility of individuals not able to use, or having difficulty using, standard PWCs. The objective of this study was to explore the perspectives of PWC users (PWUs) and their caregivers regarding if and how IPWs could impact on current challenges faced by PWUs, as well as inform current development of IPWs. A qualitative exploratory study using individual interviews was conducted with PWUs (n = 12) and caregivers (n = 4). A semi-structured interview guide and video were used to facilitate informed discussion regarding IPWs. Thematic analysis revealed three main themes: (1) “challenging situations that may be overcome by an IPW” described how the IPW features of obstacle avoidance, path following, and target following could alleviate PWUs’ identified mobility difficulties; (2) “cautious optimism concerning IPW use revealed participants” addresses concerns regarding using an IPW as well as technological suggestions; (3) “defining the potential IPW user” revealed characteristics of PWUs that would benefit from IPW use. Findings indicate how IPW use may help overcome PWC difficulties and confirm the importance of user input in the ongoing development of IPWs. PMID:24566051

  19. Shoulder Arthroscopy Does Not Adequately Visualize Pathology of the Long Head of Biceps Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Saithna, Adnan; Longo, Alison; Leiter, Jeff; Old, Jason; MacDonald, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulling the long head of the biceps tendon into the joint at arthroscopy is a common method for evaluation of tendinopathic lesions. However, the rate of missed diagnoses when using this technique is reported to be as high as 30% to 50%. Hypothesis: Tendon excursion achieved using a standard arthroscopic probe does not allow adequate visualization of extra-articular sites of predilection of tendinopathy. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Seven forequarter amputation cadaveric specimens were evaluated. The biceps tendon was tagged to mark the intra-articular length and the maximum excursions achieved using a probe and a grasper in both beach-chair and lateral positions. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance to compare means. Results: The mean intra-articular and extra-articular lengths of the tendons were 23.9 and 82.3 mm, respectively. The length of tendon that could be visualized by pulling it into the joint with a probe through the anterior midglenoid portal was not significantly different when using either lateral decubitus (mean ± SD, 29.9 ± 3.89 mm; 95% CI, 25.7-34 mm) or beach-chair positions (32.7 ± 4.23 mm; 95% CI, 28.6-36.8 mm). The maximum length of the overall tendon visualized in any specimen using a standard technique was 37 mm. Although there was a trend to greater excursion using a grasper through the same portal, this was not statistically significant. However, using a grasper through the anterosuperior portal gave a significantly greater mean excursion than any other technique (46.7 ± 4.31 mm; 95% CI, 42.6-50.8 mm), but this still failed to allow evaluation of Denard zone C. Conclusion: Pulling the tendon into the joint with a probe via an anterior portal does not allow visualization of distal sites of predilection of pathology. Surgeons should be aware that this technique is inadequate and can result in missed diagnoses. Clinical Relevance: This study demonstrates that glenohumeral

  20. Studies of thermionic materials for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The effect of microstructures of tungsten cladding on the transport rates of carbide fuel components was studied at 2073 K. hyperstoichiometric 90UC-10ZrC containing 4 wt% tungsten was clad with six types of tungsten material of 40 mil thickness. Screening tests of 1000 hours were carried out, and then selected samples were subjected to long-term tests up to 10,000 hours. The results indicate that the microstructures strongly affect the transport rates of carbide fuel components. The conditions for preparing (110) oriented cylindrical chloride tungsten emitters of high vacuum work functions were also investigated. Specimen sets were deposited on fluoride tungsten substrates for evaluating the effects of various deposition parameters on the degree and uniformity of the (110) preferred orientation and the vacuum work function. Long-term tests showed that the high vacuum work function of a cylindrical emitter was stable and the chloride tungsten to fluoride tungsten bond remained in excellent shape after 4850 hours at 2073 K.

  1. Challenges and coping strategies of orphaned children in Tanzania who are not adequately cared for by adults.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Marguerite; Mathias, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Orphaned children in poor rural communities sometimes have no adult who is able to care for them or else the adult caregiver is not able to provide adequate care. Tanzania remains one of the poorest countries in the world, and poverty frequently constrains foster care. Although HIV prevalence is declining, AIDS is still a major cause of orphaning. This article explores the challenges and coping strategies accompanying two possible life trajectories for orphaned children without adequate adult care: 1) that they remain in rural areas in child-headed households, or 2) that they are trafficked to an urban area. Antonovsky's salutogenic model is used as the theoretical framework. The data come from two separate phenomenological studies with vulnerable children. In the first study, in-depth interviews were held with 12 orphaned children in a poor rural area; data concerning three child heads of households are included here. In the second study, 15 girls who were trafficked from rural areas to Dar es Salaam gave extended life-history narrations; data are included for nine of the girls who were orphaned. Loss of parents, a lack of cash, and the need to balance school attendance with food production were chronic stressors for the children heading households, while resources included income-generation strategies and the ability to negotiate with teachers for time to cultivate. For the trafficked girls chronic stressors included exploitation, long working hours, little or no pay, isolation and rape. Resources for them, although limited, included faith networks and neighbours; escape from the exploitative situation frequently involved external help. We conclude that given physical and social assets the child-headed households were able to cope with the challenges of caring for themselves and a younger child, but isolation and dependency on employers made it difficult for the trafficked girls to cope with this exploitation. The salutogenic model proved a useful tool in

  2. Rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP composites: a study on power consumption.

    PubMed

    Cong, W L; Pei, Z J; Deines, T W; Srivastava, Anil; Riley, L; Treadwell, C

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites are very difficult to machine. A large number of holes need to be drilled in CFRP for many applications. Therefore, it is important to develop cost-effective drilling processes. CFRP has been drilled by rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) successfully. The literature has reports about the effects of input variables on output variables (including cutting force, torque, surface roughness, tool wear, and workpiece delamination) in RUM of CFRP. However, there are no reports on power consumption in RUM of CFRP. This paper reports the first study on power consumption in RUM of CFRP. It reports an experimental investigation on effects of input variables (ultrasonic power, tool rotation speed, feedrate, and type of CFRP) on power consumption of each component (including ultrasonic power supply, spindle motor, coolant pump, and air compressor) and the entire RUM system. PMID:22986155

  3. Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Searight, K.; Clark, K.

    2013-10-01

    High penetration renewable integration studies require solar power data with high spatial and temporal accuracy to quantify the impact of high frequency solar power ramps on the operation of the system. Our previous work concentrated on downscaling solar power from one hour to one minute by simulation. This method used clearness classifications to categorize temporal and spatial variability, and iterative methods to simulate intra-hour clearness variability. We determined that solar power ramp correlations between sites decrease with distance and the duration of the ramp, starting at around 0.6 for 30-minute ramps between sites that are less than 20 km apart. The sub-hour irradiance algorithm we developed has a noise floor that causes the correlations to approach ~0.005. Below one minute, the majority of the correlations of solar power ramps between sites less than 20 km apart are zero, and thus a new method to simulate intra-minute variability is needed. These intra-minute solar power ramps can be simulated using several methods, three of which we evaluate: a cubic spline fit to the one-minute solar power data; projection of the power spectral density toward the higher frequency domain; and average high frequency power spectral density from measured data. Each of these methods either under- or over-estimates the variability of intra-minute solar power ramps. We show that an optimized weighted linear sum of methods, dependent on the classification of temporal variability of the segment of one-minute solar power data, yields time series and ramp distributions similar to measured high-resolution solar irradiance data.

  4. Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Searight, K.; Clark, K.

    2013-10-01

    High penetration renewable integration studies require solar power data with high spatial and temporal accuracy to quantify the impact of high frequency solar power ramps on the operation of the system. Our previous work concentrated on downscaling solar power from one hour to one minute by simulation. This method used clearness classifications to categorize temporal and spatial variability, and iterative methods to simulate intra-hour clearness variability. We determined that solar power ramp correlations between sites decrease with distance and the duration of the ramp, starting at around 0.6 for 30-minute ramps between sites that are less than 20 km apart. The sub-hour irradiance algorithm we developed has a noise floor that causes the correlations to approach ~0.005. Below one minute, the majority of the correlations of solar power ramps between sites less than 20 km apart are zero, and thus a new method to simulate intra-minute variability is needed. These intra-minute solar power ramps can be simulated using several methods, three of which we evaluate: a cubic spline fit to the one-minute solar power data; projection of the power spectral density toward the higher frequency domain; and average high frequency power spectral density from measured data. Each of these methods either under- or over-estimates the variability of intra-minute solar power ramps. We show that an optimized weighted linear sum of methods, dependent on the classification of temporal variability of the segment of one-minute solar power data, yields time series and ramp distributions similar to measured high-resolution solar irradiance data.

  5. Molecular imaging with radionuclides, a powerful technique for studying biological processes in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisbani, E.; Cusanno, F.; Garibaldi, F.; Magliozzi, M. L.; Majewski, S.; Torrioli, S.; Tsui, B. M. W.

    2007-02-01

    Our team is carrying on a systematic study devoted to the design of a SPECT detector with submillimeter resolution and adequate sensitivity (1 cps/kBq). Such system will be used for functional imaging of biological processes at molecular level in small animal. The system requirements have been defined by two relevant applications: study of atherosclerotic plaques characterization and stem cells diffusion and homing. In order to minimize costs and implementation time, the gamma detector will be based—as much as possible—on conventional components: scintillator crystal and position sensitive PhotoMultipliers read by individual channel electronics. A coded aperture collimator should be adapted to maximize the efficiency. The optimal selection of the detector components is investigated by systematic use of Monte-Carlo simulations (and laboratory validation tests); and finally preliminary results are presented and discussed here.

  6. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) laser studies. Volume 1: Laser environmental impact study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1980-01-01

    The environmental impact of space to Earth power transmission using space borne laser subsystems is emphasized. A laser system is defined, estimates of relevant efficiencies for laser power generation and atmospheric transmission are developed, and a comparison is made to a microwave system. Ancillary issues, such as laser beam spreading, safety and security, mass and volume estimates and technology growth are considered.

  7. Auxiliary payload power system study for space processing applications payloads. Preliminary requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary designs, specifications, and programmatic data for the auxiliary payload power system (APPS) are presented. The APPS concept is an independent system to be carried in the Orbiter's cargo bay having the capability of housing and supporting space processing applications (SPA) experiment payloads and augmenting Spacelab power and heat rejection capabilities as required in the performance of these experiments.

  8. Power and execution performance tradeoffs of GPGPU computing: a case study employing stereo matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunagiri, Sarala; Jaloma, Jaime; Portillo, Ricardo; Argueta, Arturo

    2013-03-01

    GPGPUs and Multicore processors have become commonplace with their wide usage in traditional high performance computing systems as well as mobile computing devices. A significant speedup can be achieved for a variety of general-purpose applications by using these technologies. Unfortunately, this speedup is often accompanied by high power and/or energy consumption. As a result, energy conservation is increasingly becoming a major concern in designing these computing devices. For large-scale systems such as massive data centers, the cost and environmental impact of powering and cooling computer systems is the main driver for energy-efficiency. On the other hand, for the mobile computing sector, energy conservation is driven by the need to extend battery life and power capping is mandated by the restrictive power budget of mobile platforms such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Our focus is to understand the power performance tradeoffs in executing Army applications on portable or tactical computing platforms. For a GPGPU computing platform, this study investigates how host processors (CPUs) with different Thermal Design Power (TDP) might affect the execution time and the power consumption of an Army-relevant stereo-matching code accelerated by a GPGPU. For image pairs with size approximately one Megapixel we observed a decrease in execution time of nearly 50% and a decrease in average power by 5% when executed on a low TDP Intel Xeon processor host. The decrease in energy consumption was over 50%. For a larger image pair, although there was no substantial decrease in execution time, there was a decrease in power and energy consumption of approximately 6%. Although we cannot make general conclusions based on a case study, it points to the possibility that for some tactical-HPC GPGPU-accelerated applications, a host processor with a lower TDP might provide better system performance in terms of power consumption while not degrading the execution-time performance.

  9. Multivariate test power approximations for balanced linear mixed models in studies with missing data.

    PubMed

    Ringham, Brandy M; Kreidler, Sarah M; Muller, Keith E; Glueck, Deborah H

    2016-07-30

    Multilevel and longitudinal studies are frequently subject to missing data. For example, biomarker studies for oral cancer may involve multiple assays for each participant. Assays may fail, resulting in missing data values that can be assumed to be missing completely at random. Catellier and Muller proposed a data analytic technique to account for data missing at random in multilevel and longitudinal studies. They suggested modifying the degrees of freedom for both the Hotelling-Lawley trace F statistic and its null case reference distribution. We propose parallel adjustments to approximate power for this multivariate test in studies with missing data. The power approximations use a modified non-central F statistic, which is a function of (i) the expected number of complete cases, (ii) the expected number of non-missing pairs of responses, or (iii) the trimmed sample size, which is the planned sample size reduced by the anticipated proportion of missing data. The accuracy of the method is assessed by comparing the theoretical results to the Monte Carlo simulated power for the Catellier and Muller multivariate test. Over all experimental conditions, the closest approximation to the empirical power of the Catellier and Muller multivariate test is obtained by adjusting power calculations with the expected number of complete cases. The utility of the method is demonstrated with a multivariate power analysis for a hypothetical oral cancer biomarkers study. We describe how to implement the method using standard, commercially available software products and give example code. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26603500

  10. Is serum or sputum eosinophil cationic protein level adequate for diagnosis of mild asthma?

    PubMed

    Khakzad, Mohammad Reza; Mirsadraee, Majid; Sankian, Mojtaba; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Meshkat, Mojtaba

    2009-09-01

    Spirometry has been used as a common diagnostic test in asthma. Most of the patients with a mild asthma have a FEV1 within normal range. Hence, other diagnostic methods are usually used. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) could be an accurate diagnostic marker of mild asthma. In this study diagnosis of asthma was made according to internationally accepted criteria. Asthma severity was evaluated according to frequency of symptoms and FEV1.Adequate sputum samples were obtained in 50 untreated subjects. A control group of 12 normal subjects that showed PC20 more than 8 mg/dl was also examined. Sputum was induced by inhalation of hypertonic saline. Inflammatory cells in sputum smears were assessed semi-quantitatively. ECP and IgE concentrations, eosinophil (EO) percentage and ECP/EO ratio in serum and sputum were also determined. The results revealed that Cough and dyspnea were the most frequent clinical findings. Dyspnea and wheezing were the symptoms that correlated with staging of asthma. FEV1 was within normal range (more than 80% of predicted) in 22 (44%) subjects.Asthmatic patients showed significantly higher numbers of blood eosinophils (4.5+/- 3.1% vs. 1.2+/-0.2%, P=0.009), and higher levels of serum ECP than control group (3.1+/- 2.6 % and 22.6+/- 15.8 ng/ml, respectively). Sputum ECP level in asthmatics was significantly higher than non- asthmatics (55.3+/-29.8ng/mL vs. 25.0+/-24.7ng/mL, P=0.045). Regression analysis showed no significant correlation between spirometric parameters and biomarkers, the only exception was significant correlation between FEF(25-75) and serum ECP (r= 0.28, P 0.041). Regarding clinical symptoms, wheezing was significantly correlated with elevation of most of biomarkers. Since, serum and sputum ECP levels are elevated in untreated asthmatics, the ECP level could be used for accurate diagnosis of mild form of asthma in which spirometry is unremarkable. PMID:20124607

  11. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants ≤ 1250 grams birth weight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth velocities and incidence of extrauterine growth restriction in infants ≤ 1250 grams (g) birth weight (BW) receiving an exclusive human milk-based diet with early and rapid advancement of fortification using a donor human milk derived fortifier. Methods In a single center, prospective observational cohort study, preterm infants weighing ≤ 1250 g BW were fed an exclusive human milk-based diet until 34 weeks postmenstrual age. Human milk fortification with donor human milk derived fortifier was started at 60 mL/kg/d and advanced to provide 6 to 8 additional kilocalories per ounce (or 0.21 to 0.28 kilocalories per gram). Data for growth were compared to historical growth standards and previous human milk-fed cohorts. Results We consecutively evaluated 104 infants with mean gestational age of 27.6 ± 2.0 weeks and BW of 913 ± 181 g (mean ± standard deviation). Weight gain was 24.8 ± 5.4 g/kg/day with length 0.99 ± 0.23 cm/week and head circumference 0.72 ± 0.14 cm/week. There were 3 medical NEC cases and 1 surgical NEC case. 22 infants (21%) were small for gestational age at birth. Overall, 45 infants (43%) had extrauterine growth restriction. Weight velocity was affected by day of fortification (p = 0.005) and day of full feeds (p = 0.02). Our cohort had significantly greater growth in weight and length compared to previous entirely human milk-fed cohorts. Conclusions A feeding protocol for infants ≤ 1250 g BW providing an exclusive human milk-based diet with early and rapid advancement of fortification leads to growth meeting targeted standards with a low rate of extrauterine growth restriction. Consistent

  12. Innovative Power Wheelchair Control Interface: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Sandra L; Romero, Sergio; Prather, Emily; Ramroop, Marisa; Slaibe, Emmy; Christensen, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Some people without independent mobility are candidates for powered mobility but are unable to use a traditional power wheelchair joystick. This proof-of-concept study tested and further developed an innovative method of driving power wheelchairs for people whose impairments prevent them from operating commercial wheelchair controls. Our concept, Self-referenced Personal Orthotic Omni-purpose Control Interface (SPOOCI), is distinguished by referencing the control sensor not to the wheelchair frame but instead to the adjacent proximal lower-extremity segment via a custom-formed orthosis. Using a descriptive case-series design, we compared the pre-post functional power wheelchair driving skill data of 4 participants, measured by the Power Mobility Program, using descriptive analyses. The intervention consisted of standard-care power wheelchair training during 12 outpatient occupational or physical therapy sessions. All 4 participants who completed the 12-wk intervention improved their functional power wheelchair driving skills using SPOOCI, but only 3 were deemed safe to continue with power wheelchair driving. PMID:26943118

  13. Innovative Power Wheelchair Control Interface: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Sergio; Prather, Emily; Ramroop, Marisa; Slaibe, Emmy; Christensen, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Some people without independent mobility are candidates for powered mobility but are unable to use a traditional power wheelchair joystick. This proof-of-concept study tested and further developed an innovative method of driving power wheelchairs for people whose impairments prevent them from operating commercial wheelchair controls. Our concept, Self-referenced Personal Orthotic Omni-purpose Control Interface (SPOOCI), is distinguished by referencing the control sensor not to the wheelchair frame but instead to the adjacent proximal lower-extremity segment via a custom-formed orthosis. Using a descriptive case-series design, we compared the pre–post functional power wheelchair driving skill data of 4 participants, measured by the Power Mobility Program, using descriptive analyses. The intervention consisted of standard-care power wheelchair training during 12 outpatient occupational or physical therapy sessions. All 4 participants who completed the 12-wk intervention improved their functional power wheelchair driving skills using SPOOCI, but only 3 were deemed safe to continue with power wheelchair driving. PMID:26943118

  14. Development of a single-phase harmonic power flow program to study the 20 kHz AC power system for large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. Alan; Kankam, M. David

    1991-01-01

    The development of software is described to aid in design and analysis of AC power systems for large spacecraft. The algorithm is an important version of harmonic power flow program, HARMFLO, used for the study of AC power quality. The new program is applicable to three-phase systems typified by terrestrial power systems, and single-phase systems characteristic of space power systems. The modified HARMFLO accommodates system operating frequencies ranging from terrestrial 60 Hz to and beyond aerospace 20 kHz, and can handle both source and load-end harmonic distortions. Comparison of simulation and test results of a representative spacecraft power system shows a satisfactory correlation. Recommendations are made for the direction of future improvements to the software, to enhance its usefulness to power system designer and analysts.

  15. Feasibility Study of a Nuclear-Stirling Power Plant for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2005-02-06

    NASA is undertaking the design of a new spacecraft to explore the planet Jupiter and its three moons Calisto, Ganymede and Europa. This proposed mission, known as Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) would use a nuclear reactor and an associated electrical generation system (Reactor Power Plant - RPP) to provide power to the spacecraft. The JIMO spacecraft is envisioned to use this power for science and communications as well as Electric Propulsion (EP). Among other potential power-generating concepts, previous studies have considered Thermoelectric and Brayton power conversion systems, coupled to a liquid metal reactor for the JIMO mission. This paper will explore trades in system mass and radiator area for a nuclear reactor power conversion system, however this study will focus on Stirling power conversion. Stirling convertors have a long heritage operating in both power generation and the cooler industry, and are currently in use in a wide variety of applications. The Stirling convertor modeled in this study is based upon the Component Test Power Convertor design that was designed and operated successfully under the Civil Space Technology Initiative for use with the SP-100 nuclear reactor in the 1980's and early 1990's. The baseline RPP considered in this study consists of four dual-opposed Stirling convertors connected to the reactor by a liquid lithium loop. The study design is such that two of the four convertors would operate at any time to generate the 100 kWe while the others are held in reserve. For this study the Stirling convertors hot-side temperature is 1050 K, would operate at a temperature ratio of 2.4 for a minimum mass system and would have a system efficiency of 29%. The Stirling convertor would generate high voltage (400 volt), 100 Hz single phase AC that is supplied to the Power Management and Distribution system. The waste heat is removed from the Stirling convertors by a flowing liquid sodium-potassium eutectic and then rejected by a shared

  16. Feasibility Study of a Nuclear-Stirling Power Plant for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2005-02-01

    NASA is undertaking the design of a new spacecraft to explore the planet Jupiter and its three moons Calisto, Ganymede and Europa. This proposed mission, known as Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) would use a nuclear reactor and an associated electrical generation system (Reactor Power Plant - RPP) to provide power to the spacecraft. The JIMO spacecraft is envisioned to use this power for science and communications as well as Electric Propulsion (EP). Among other potential power-generating concepts, previous studies have considered Thermoelectric and Brayton power conversion systems, coupled to a liquid metal reactor for the JIMO mission. This paper will explore trades in system mass and radiator area for a nuclear reactor power conversion system, however this study will focus on Stirling power conversion. Stirling convertors have a long heritage operating in both power generation and the cooler industry, and are currently in use in a wide variety of applications. The Stirling convertor modeled in this study is based upon the Component Test Power Convertor design that was designed and operated successfully under the Civil Space Technology Initiative for use with the SP-100 nuclear reactor in the 1980's and early 1990's. The baseline RPP considered in this study consists of four dual-opposed Stirling convertors connected to the reactor by a liquid lithium loop. The study design is such that two of the four convertors would operate at any time to generate the 100 kWe while the others are held in reserve. For this study the Stirling convertors hot-side temperature is 1050 K, would operate at a temperature ratio of 2.4 for a minimum mass system and would have a system efficiency of 29%. The Stirling convertor would generate high voltage (400 volt), 100 Hz single phase AC that is supplied to the Power Management and Distribution system. The waste heat is removed from the Stirling convertors by a flowing liquid sodium-potassium eutectic and then rejected by a shared

  17. Hyperopia and Lens Power in an Adult Population: The Shahroud Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, Rafael; Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Morgan, Ian G.; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the relationship between lens power and refractive error in older adults following age-related hyperopic shifts. Methods: From the Shahroud Eye Cohort Study, subjects aged 55-64 years without clinically significant cataracts (with nuclear opacity of grade 0 to 1) were included to maximize the proportion of subjects with age-related hyperopic shifts that normally occur between 40 to 60 years of age, before interference from the myopic shift due to nuclear cataracts. Mean axial length (AL) values, corneal power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and lens power were analyzed and compared among three refractive groups (myopes, emmetropes, and hyperopes). Results: A total of 1,006 subjects including 496 (49.63%) male subjects were studied. Corneal power was similar in all refractive groups. Hyperopes had + 1.69 diopters higher mean spherical equivalent refractive error and − 0.50 mm shorter AL than emmetropes. Myopes had 0.67 mm longer AL than emmetropes. Hyperopes had significantly increased lens thickness as compared to emmetropes (4.42 vs. 4.39 mm respectively). In this adult sample, the hyperopic group had lower lens power (+22.29 diopters vs. +22.54 diopters in emmetropes, P = 0.132). Myopes had similar lens power as emmetropes. Conclusion: Axial length is the principal determinant of refractive errors. Lens power may have importance in determining hyperopia in adults free of cataract. PMID:27051484

  18. Power, technology and social studies of health care: an infrastructural inversion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2008-12-01

    Power, dominance, and hierarchy are prevalent analytical terms in social studies of health care. Power is often seen as residing in medical structures, institutions, discourses, or ideologies. While studies of medical power often draw on Michel Foucault, this understanding is quite different from his proposal to study in detail the "strategies, the networks, the mechanisms, all those techniques by which a decision is accepted" [Foucault, M. (1988). In Politics, philosophy, culture: Interviews and other writings 1977-84 (pp. 96-109). New York: Routledge]. This suggestion turns power into a topic worth investigating in its own right rather than a basic analytical resource. It also suggests that technologies form an integral part of the networks and mechanisms, which produce and redistribute power in medical practice. The paper first engages critically with a number of recent discussions of technology and power in health care analysis. It then formulates an alternative conception of this relationship by drawing on Foucault and historian of science and technology Geoffrey C. Bowker's notions of infrastructural inversion and information mythology. Illustration is provided through a case study of a wireless nursing call system in a Canadian hospital. PMID:18085441

  19. A novel strategy to overcome resistance in stent placement at lesion site after adequate predilatation.

    PubMed

    Jain, D; Tolg, R; Katus, H A; Richardt, G

    2000-12-01

    Resistance was encountered in passing a 3 x 18 mm stent across a lesion in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. Successive changes in stent with repeated balloon dilatations did not succeed. Finally, a 9 mm stent was passed across the lesion and deployed at the site of maximal resistance. The 18 mm stent was then placed through this stent. A novel strategy to overcome resistance in the stent passage through the lesion after an adequate balloon predilatation is reported. PMID:11103034

  20. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…