Science.gov

Sample records for adequately prepare future

  1. A method for determining adequate resistance form of complete cast crown preparations.

    PubMed

    Weed, R M; Baez, R J

    1984-09-01

    A diagram with various degrees of occlusal convergence, which takes into consideration the length and diameter of complete crown preparations, was designed as a guide to assist the dentist to obtain adequate resistance form. To test the validity of the diagram, five groups of complete cast crown stainless steel dies were prepared (3.5 mm long, occlusal convergence 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees). Gold copings were cast for each of the 50 preparations. Displacement force was applied to the casting perpendicularly to a simulated 30-degree cuspal incline until the casting was displaced. Castings were deformed at margins except for the 22-degree group. Castings from this group were displaced without deformation, and it was concluded that there was a lack of adequate resistance form as predicted by the diagram. The hypothesis that the diagram could be used to predict adequate or inadequate resistance form was confirmed by this study. PMID:6384470

  2. Prepare for future regs now!

    SciTech Connect

    Gemler, R.

    1995-04-01

    As one looks into the next generation of transport and delivery trucks and considers future upgrades for bulk plants, one should first buy a crystal ball. If you are like most of us you cannot, with absolute certainty, know what the future will bring. You can rest assured that the capital investments you are now contemplating will probably last long enough to be affected by legislation now pending (or being concocted by someone). There are certain things you can plan for and do to prepare just in case. Rather than simply keeping a dry match on hand, consider these ideas. For starters, keep track of the proposed legislation notices you receive from your local or state councils. These proposed mandates act as a barometer to indicate probable changes (FOOH does a good job at alerting you to some of these). Much of the new legislation evolves in response to environmental incidents. No matter how carefully you plan, a future regulation may mandate a change at your plant. You can prepare without spending large sums of additional money through careful planning.

  3. Elementary Science Methods Courses and the "National Science Education Standards": Are We Adequately Preparing Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leigh K.; Gess-Newsome, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Despite the apparent lack of universally accepted goals or objectives for elementary science methods courses, teacher educators nationally are autonomously designing these classes to prepare prospective teachers to teach science. It is unclear, however, whether science methods courses are preparing teachers to teach science effectively or to…

  4. Preparing Future Administrators: Stakeholder Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Carol A.

    It is widely acknowledged that programs to prepare administrators for their roles are inadequate and are not designed with coming changes in education in mind. States must take responsibility for changing preparation programs to meet these challenges. Much of the discussion about preparation programs centers on the knowledge base administrators…

  5. How much does it cost residents to prepare their property for wildfire? How much does it cost residents to prepare their property for wildfire? What does it cost residents to adequately prepare for wildfire?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penman, Trent; Eriksen, Christine; Horsey, Bronwyn; Bradstock, Ross

    2014-05-01

    Wildfire (or 'unplanned fire') has resulted in significant loss of property and lives. Residents can improve the probability of survival of structures and themselves by undertaking suitable preparation. However, only a small proportion of residents adequately prepare for wildfire with monetary and time costs cited as significant impediments. Few studies have attempted to quantify the monetary and time costs for residents to prepare. Here we use data from an online survey to estimate the extent to which cost drives the probability of residents undertaking preparatory actions. Cost was found to be a significant driver if preparatory actions were being undertaken primarily for wildfire. However, cost was not a significant driver if the preparatory actions were partially or primarily for other purposes, e.g. landscape maintenance. The average cost for residents in our survey to adequately prepare for wildfire was approximately AUD 10,000, with a subsequent annual maintenance cost of approximately AUD 1,000. The largest costs were related to altering landscaping features, e.g. fencing, positioning of garden beds. Risks from landscape features, hence the cost to remove them, could be reduced through further development of guidelines or standards for building in fire prone landscapes. Overall, two primary factors were found to predict the extent of preparation of a resident - planned future actions and their risk perception. Residents who intend to evacuate in the event of a wildfire are less likely to prepare than those that plan to stay and defend, which points to a problematic gap between official advice to prepare regardless of intended actions and public tendencies to only prepare if they intend to stay and defend.

  6. Preparing Future Teachers to Collaborate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santagata, Rossella; Guarino, Jody

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that teacher education programs should equip future teachers with skills for engaging in productive collaboration focused on improving instruction. Because little is known about pre-service teachers' beginning conceptions of collaboration and the ways in which collaboration skills can be developed, the authors…

  7. Preparing Today for a Sustainable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peoples, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Business leaders and their academic trainers must embrace the concept of sustainability to prepare future leaders with the understanding and tools necessary to make key decisions based on more than "just the numbers." The economic competitiveness of this country and the survival of our species require a deeper understanding of nature if we are to…

  8. Preparing Houston: lessons learned, future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjid, Mohammad; Mirhaji, Parsa; Lillibridge, Scott R.; Casscells, S. W.

    2003-09-01

    On September 11, 2001, Al Qaeda terrorists committed a savage act against humanity when they used domestic jetliners to crash into buildings in New York City and Washington, DC, killing thousands of people. In October 2001, coming on the heels of this savagery was another act of barbarity, this time using anthrax, not jetliners, to take innocent lives. Each incident demonstrates the vulnerability of an open society, and Americans are left to wonder how such acts can be prevented. Now, Al Qaeda operatives are reportedly regrouping, recruiting, and changing their tactics to distribute money and messages to operatives around the world. Many experts believe that terrorist attacks are inevitable. No city is immune from attack, and no city is fully prepared to handle the residual impact of a potentially ravaging biological or chemical attack. A survey conducted by the Cable News Network (CNN) in January 2002, studied 30 major US cities, ranking them based on 6 statistical indices of vulnerability. Thirteen cities were deemed better prepared than Houston, 10 were in a similar state of preparedness, and only 6 were less prepared than Houston. Here, we discuss the measures which have taken place in Houston to make it a safer place and which plans are needed for future. Houston experience can be used as a model to develop similar plans for other cities nation-wide.

  9. Preparing Future Faculty: An Interdisciplinary, Undergraduate Science Course Taught by Graduate and Postdoctoral Teacher-Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Jessica; Comeau, Dawn; Liddle, Kathleen; Perrone, Lisa; Palmer, Katrina; Lynn, David

    2007-01-01

    To adequately prepare future faculty for their multiple roles as researchers, teachers, and colleagues, innovative teaching opportunities must be made available to doctoral students that allow them to maintain a high level of research productivity while acquiring independent teaching experience and training. A new program is developed that offers…

  10. "Do-able" Questions, Covariation and Graphical Representation: Do We Adequately Prepare Preservice Science Teachers To Teach Inquiry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Gervase Michael; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    The interpretation of data and construction and interpretation of graphs are central practices in science which, according to recent reform documents, science and mathematics teachers are expected to foster in their classrooms. However, are (preservice) science teachers prepared to teach inquiry with the purpose of transforming and analyzing data,…

  11. The Quantitative Preparation of Future Geoscience Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Hancock, G. S.

    2006-12-01

    Modern geoscience is a highly quantitative science. In February, a small group of faculty and graduate students from across the country met to discuss the quantitative preparation of geoscience majors for graduate school. The group included ten faculty supervising graduate students in quantitative areas spanning the earth, atmosphere, and ocean sciences; five current graduate students in these areas; and five faculty teaching undergraduate students in the spectrum of institutions preparing students for graduate work. Discussion focused in four key ares: Are incoming graduate students adequately prepared for the quantitative aspects of graduate geoscience programs? What are the essential quantitative skills are that are required for success in graduate school? What are perceived as the important courses to prepare students for the quantitative aspects of graduate school? What programs/resources would be valuable in helping faculty/departments improve the quantitative preparation of students? The participants concluded that strengthening the quantitative preparation of undergraduate geoscience majors would increase their opportunities in graduate school. While specifics differed amongst disciplines, a special importance was placed on developing the ability to use quantitative skills to solve geoscience problems. This requires the ability to pose problems so they can be addressed quantitatively, understand the relationship between quantitative concepts and physical representations, visualize mathematics, test the reasonableness of quantitative results, creatively move forward from existing models/techniques/approaches, and move between quantitative and verbal descriptions. A list of important quantitative competencies desirable in incoming graduate students includes mechanical skills in basic mathematics, functions, multi-variate analysis, statistics and calculus, as well as skills in logical analysis and the ability to learn independently in quantitative ways

  12. Community College Teacher Preparation: Past, Present, Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawer, Florence B.

    In the past, people who taught in community colleges had been prepared in one of three ways: (1) a degree and experience in the secondary school; (2) master's degrees in typical academic programs; and (3) for vocational-technical programs, experience in a certain occupation and a little training in pedagogy. Forms of teacher preparation today are…

  13. Alaska Teens Prepare for Future with FCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vik, Kathleen L.

    2007-01-01

    Living in Alaska offers many extreme challenges and opportunities for family and consumer sciences (FCS) teachers to step up to the challenges of facing the future. In this article, the author describes how she started the "Stepping Up For Our Future" program. She relates that as the sole FCS teacher in Chugiak High School, she was challenged to…

  14. Preparing for an Even Brighter Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, Rajeev

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the future of America's education system. In 1983, the National Commission on Excellence in Education's report A Nation at Risk raised questions about whether America's education system was endangering America's competitive future. This prompted a wave of reforms in education, including a stronger focus on the effective use…

  15. Assessment of medical students’ proficiency in dermatology: Are medical students adequately prepared to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Ulman, Catherine A.; Binder, Stephen Bruce; Borges, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether a current medical school curriculum is adequately preparing medical students to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. A 15-item anonymous multiple choice quiz covering fifteen diseases was developed to test students’ ability to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. The quiz also contained five items that assessed students’ confidence in their ability to diagnose common dermatologic conditions, their perception of whether they were receiving adequate training in dermatology, and their preferences for additional training in dermatology. The survey was performed in 2014, and was completed by 85 students (79.4%). Many students (87.6%) felt that they received inadequate training in dermatology during medical school. On average, students scored 46.6% on the 15-item quiz. Proficiency at the medical school where the study was performed is considered an overall score of greater than or equal to 70.0%. Students received an average score of 49.9% on the diagnostic items and an average score of 43.2% on the treatment items. The findings of this study suggest that United States medical schools should consider testing their students and assessing whether they are being adequately trained in dermatology. Then schools can decide if they need to re-evaluate the timing and delivery of their current dermatology curriculum, or whether additional curriculum hours or clinical rotations should be assigned for dermatologic training. PMID:25989840

  16. Conclusions: Adolescents' Preparation for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed W.; Wilson, Suzanne; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2002-01-01

    Delineates observations about the experiences of youth and how well they are being prepared for adulthood in the twenty-first century in the following areas: adolescent life stage; family; peer relationships; health and well-being; education and employment; civic engagement, government, and inter-group relations; media and information technology;…

  17. Preparing Campus Facilities for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracie, Larry W.; Griffith, Ross A.

    The recent experiences of North Carolina State University and Wake Forest University in the planning and construction of campus buildings are described as illustrations of the planning of space to meet the goals and needs of the institution in the future. At North Carolina State University, 780 additional acres were received from the state, and a…

  18. Teens and technology: preparing for the future.

    PubMed

    Hall, Georgia

    2006-01-01

    In the past two decades, economic, technological, demographic, and political forces have stimulated major change in the learning and working landscape for young people. These circumstances compel us to prioritize the integration of technology skill building into youth development experiences in order to better prepare older youth for the challenges and responsibilities ahead. Facilitating older youth's acquisition of technology skills must continue to be a principal goal of policymakers, city leaders, and youth program providers. This chapter looks at the integration of technology skill building into youth development experiences with consideration of gender and races differences in technology access and utilization, along with challenges that at-risk teens face. PMID:17225646

  19. Preparing for the Uncertain Future of Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distance Education Report, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This interview with Anthony Bates talks about the effects of technological change on distance education, its implications for colleges and universities, and how to prepare for it. Topics include infrastructure decisions; faculty support and training; and future possibilities. (LRW)

  20. Preparing for the future of radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Thomas A; McBride, William H; Cox, James D

    2007-08-01

    The field of radiation oncology is currently attracting a high number of accomplished MD and PhD graduates who have aspirations of pursuing physician-scientist career paths. This good fortune comes at a time when radiation oncology is in need of professionals interested in contributing to the exciting advances in treatment technologies and molecular oncology and in helping translate advances in these areas into benefits for patients. Although the profession of radiation oncology has done an outstanding job of attracting excellent residents and providing appropriate environments for their continued academic development during residency training, the profession has not fully prepared an infrastructure for accepting these highly qualified individuals into physician-scientist faculty positions. It is very important that radiation oncology develop a more comprehensive strategy to address this need. Doing so will ensure the preservation and growth of the profession. PMID:17660121

  1. Will Reforms Survive? Strategies for Sustaining Preparing Future Faculty Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferren, Ann; Gaff, Jerry G.; Clayton-Pedersen, Alma

    2002-01-01

    Observers of Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) programs reviewed a sample of campuses to discover the results of nearly 10 years of participation. Found significant factors in the programs, and strategies for sustaining their momentum, that provide insight into current practices in graduate education and what future faculty need. (EV)

  2. Futurism: A Needed Process in School Personnel Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdin, Joel L.

    This paper projects present trends and capabilities into the future, conjectures about the educational implications of these trends, and proposes some possible responses for those involved in the preparation of school personnel. It is simultaneously an illustration and an application of the process of "futurism" and its increasing relevance to…

  3. Special Feature Roundtable: Preparing Applied Linguists for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celce-Murcia, Marianne

    1992-01-01

    Discusses in a panel forum how to prepare applied linguists for the future. Focuses on the background and skills needed, work to be undertaken, and the best type of doctoral program. Statements from six college faculty panelists are presented, and responses to these statements are sought for inclusion in future issues of this journal. (10…

  4. Preparing STEM Doctoral Students for Future Faculty Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann E.; Campa, Henry, III; Pfund, Christine; Gillian-Daniel, Donald L.; Mathieu, Robert; Stoddart, Judith

    2009-01-01

    One strategy for improving the quality of undergraduate education, with potential impact over decades, involves greater attention to the preparation of doctoral students who will soon fill the faculty ranks. Doctoral education is a time of socialization for future careers, including faculty work. In recognition of the important role of doctoral…

  5. Preparing Students for Future Learning with Teachable Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Doris B.; Dohmen, Ilsa M.; Cheng, Britte H.; Oppezzo, Marily A.; Chase, Catherine C.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    One valuable goal of instructional technologies in K-12 education is to prepare students for future learning. Two classroom studies examined whether Teachable Agents (TA) achieves this goal. TA is an instructional technology that draws on the social metaphor of teaching a computer agent to help students learn. Students teach their agent by…

  6. Expert Perspectives: Future of Teacher Preparation in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    As schools, classrooms, and districts move toward more sophisticated instructional technologies to successfully implement higher college- and career-ready standards, educator-preparation programs must act quickly to equip future educators with the necessary skills to use technology effectively to personalize instruction and increase student…

  7. Preparing future faculty and professionals for public health careers.

    PubMed

    Koblinsky, Sally A; Hrapczynski, Katie M; Clark, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    Recent years have brought rapid growth in schools of public health and an increasing demand for public health practitioners. These trends highlight the need for innovative approaches to prepare doctoral graduates for academic and high-level practice positions. The University of Maryland's School of Public Health developed a "Preparing Future Faculty and Professionals" program to enrich the graduate education and professional development of its doctoral students. We describe the program's key elements, including foundational seminars to enhance students' knowledge and skills related to teaching, research, and service; activities designed to foster career exploration and increase competitiveness in the job market; and independent, faculty-mentored teaching and research experiences. We present a model for replicating the program and share student outcomes of participation. PMID:25706007

  8. Searching for ``Preparation for Future Learning'' in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etkina, Eugenia; Gentile, Michael; Karelina, Anna; Ruibal-Villasenor, Maria R.; Suran, Gregory

    2009-11-01

    "Preparation for future learning" is a term describing a new approach to transfer. In addition to focusing on learning environments that help students better apply developed knowledge in new situations; education researchers are searching for educational interventions that better prepare students to learn new information. The pioneering studies in this field were conducted by J. Branford and D. Schwartz in psychology and mathematics, specifically in the area of statistics. They found that students who engaged in innovation before being exposed to new material, learned better. We attempted to replicate their experiments in the field of physics, specifically in the area of conductivity. Using two experimental conditions and one control, we compared student learning of thermal and electrical conductivity from a written text. We present the results of groups' performance on seven qualitative questions after their learning in this area.

  9. Disciplinary Leadership in Preparing Future Faculty: The Humanities and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Paul D.; Morreale, Sherwyn P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how academic disciplines are integral to supporting the preparation of future faculty as a natural part of graduate department responsibilities. Explores the role of disciplines within Preparing Future Faculty programs. (EV)

  10. Preparing the future of astronomy PhDs in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissier, S.; Buat, V.; Cambresy, L.

    2015-12-01

    The numbers of doctors in astronomy formed in France has been increasing for 15 years, a time during which the number of openings for permanent positions has remained constant. As it is well known by the young generations, the pressure on the research position is high, putting many post-doctoral researchers in difficult situations for up to 10 years after their defence. We have to prepare students and post-doctoral researchers to maximize their chances for both academia and the private sector. In this spirit, the 2015 SF2A conference included a lunch meeting with former members of hiring committee and a workshop on the valorization of the astronomy thesis. We believe awareness of both young and senior researchers is important to provide PhDs with a robust background and modern methods, valuable in their future, whichever it is.

  11. Preparing Future Geoscience Professionals: Needs, Strategies, Programs, and Online Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Dunbar, R. W.; Beane, R. J.; Bruckner, M.; Bralower, T. J.; Feiss, P. G.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wiese, K.

    2011-12-01

    Geoscience faculty, departments, and programs play an important role in preparing future geoscience professionals. One challenge is supporting the diversity of student goals for future employment and the needs of a wide range of potential employers. Students in geoscience degree programs pursue careers in traditional geoscience industries; in geoscience education and research (including K-12 teaching); and opportunities at the intersection of geoscience and other fields (e.g., policy, law, business). The Building Strong Geoscience Departments project has documented a range of approaches that departments use to support the development of geoscience majors as professionals (serc.carleton.edu/departments). On the Cutting Edge, a professional development program, supports graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in pursuing an academic career through workshops, webinars, and online resources (serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/careerprep). Geoscience departments work at the intersection of student interests and employer needs. Commonly cited program goals that align with employer needs include mastery of geoscience content; field experience; skill in problem solving, quantitative reasoning, communication, and collaboration; and the ability to learn independently and take a project from start to finish. Departments and faculty can address workforce issues by 1) implementing of degree programs that develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students need, while recognizing that students have a diversity of career goals; 2) introducing career options to majors and potential majors and encouraging exploration of options; 3) advising students on how to prepare for specific career paths; 4) helping students develop into professionals, and 5) supporting students in the job search. It is valuable to build connections with geoscience employers, work with alumni and foster connections between students and alumni with similar career interests, collaborate with

  12. A novel preparation procedure of future weather datasets for building performance simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Chuang, Kai-Han

    2014-05-01

    The concern on climate change leads to growing demand for countermeasures against its impact on building performance. The aspects of building performance study includes the analysis of indoor thermal environment, building energy use, and energy efficiency design of building envelope. It enables and facilitates the evaluation of a building's performance during the design phase for adjusting the proposed architectural design to meet the expected performance criteria. The assessment of a building's performance is often done by hourly or sub-hourly computer dynamic simulation software with local weather datasets. These weather datasets, which are termed typical meteorological years (TMYs), are selected from long-term observed historical weather by means of Sandia method to ensure their representatives of local climate. Each TMY contains hourly values of observed data of a 1-year period. For the reason of longevous building lifespan and on-going climate change, one might ask how well the building is able to cope with future climate and what kind of countermeasure we should implement in advanced in face of climate change. However, the results obtained from the simulation with TMY couldn't forecast a building's performance in a future climate context without future climate is concerned. In this regard, future climate responsive meteorological data is needed for future climate impact study. From previous studies, as Belcher proposed, the future responsive weather data could be constructed by morphing existing TMY with future weather predicted by general circulation models (GCMs), which could substantially alleviate efforts from spatial and temporal downscaling processes. Consequently, choosing an adequate GCM that fits well with local climatic change pattern is in crucial need. The objective of the study is to develop a new GCMs selection method for generating future meteorological data. During TMY morphing procedure, monthly changes of a certain meteorological element in

  13. Back to the Future: Anticipating and Preparing for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Joel D.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how colleges can take control of their futures by anticipating needs and demands. Describes environmental scanning, a way of identifying future concerns based on current trends and emerging issues. Provides examples of colleges that used forecasting and scanning to develop new courses and refine mission statements. (DMM)

  14. Can Symbolic Play Prepare Children for Their Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrytkowski, Krystyna

    1994-01-01

    Presents findings concerning the role of symbolic play. Assumes that symbolic play has seven functions in the child's development: cognitive, creative, ordering, stimulative, social, expressive, and substitutive. Considers play as a phenomenon that prepares children's abilities through symbolic play. (BAC)

  15. The Preparing Future Faculty Program: What Difference Does It Make? PFF Occasional Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeNeef, A. Leigh

    The Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) program was launched in 1993 to develop new models of doctoral preparation for a faculty career by including preparation for teaching and academic citizenship as well as for research. Through national competitions, grants have been awarded to 43 doctoral producing universities to develop and implement model…

  16. Equipped for the Future. Preparing for Work: A Guide for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Literacy Studies, University of Tennessee (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Preparing for Work," developed by Equipped for the Future at the Center for Literacy Studies, University of Tennessee, is a skills-based course designed for implementation in organizations and agencies involved in preparing their clients and students for entry level work. Each of the instructional modules that comprise the "Preparing for Work"…

  17. Considering the Future of University-Based Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, James W.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, James W. Fraser, a noted historian of education, cites examples from several teacher education programs at more than 30 universities partnering with the Woodrow Wilson Teaching Fellowships in various ways. Additionally, Fraser reviews decades of challenges to traditional teacher preparation, looks at some current reforms, and…

  18. Preparing Teachers of Statistics: A Graduate Course for Future Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Joan; Everson, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a unique graduate-level course that prepares teachers of introductory statistics at the college and high school levels. The course was developed as part of a graduate degree program in statistics education. Although originally taught in a face-to-face setting, the class has been converted to an online course to be accessible…

  19. Future STEM Leaders Prepare for the National Science Bowl

    ScienceCinema

    Benjamin, Angela

    2014-09-15

    Each year, students from across the country converge on Washington, DC, for the National Science Bowl, an intense academic competition that tests the students' knowledge in science, engineering, chemistry, math and Earth science. Follow one team, from Washington DC's Woodrow Wilson High School, as they prepare for and compete in the 2014 National Science Bowl.

  20. Future STEM Leaders Prepare for the National Science Bowl

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Angela

    2014-06-11

    Each year, students from across the country converge on Washington, DC, for the National Science Bowl, an intense academic competition that tests the students' knowledge in science, engineering, chemistry, math and Earth science. Follow one team, from Washington DC's Woodrow Wilson High School, as they prepare for and compete in the 2014 National Science Bowl.

  1. Future Scenarios in Communications. [Student's Guide.] Preparing for Tomorrow's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iozzi, Louis A.; And Others

    The purpose of this module is to introduce students (grades 7-8) to the concept of change and factors influencing change. The module is composed of two major sections. Section 1 examines the development of the telephone system in the United States and introduces four futures forecasting techniques (Delphi probe, cross-impact matrix, trend…

  2. Advancing STEM Undergraduate Learning: Preparing the Nation's Future Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfund, Christine; Mathieu, Robert; Austin, Ann; Connolly, Mark; Manske, Brian; Moore, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Graduate students and post-doctoral scholars at research universities will shape the future of undergraduate education in the natural and social sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics (the STEM disciplines) in the United States. In 2009 alone, more than 41,000 doctorates were awarded in STEM fields, and if employment trends hold,…

  3. Designing the coal preparation plant of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, B.J.; Klima, M.S.; Bethell, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    How can we design more efficient plants and what will plants look like in the future? What are the new techniques for designing plant layouts, monitoring performance, and building in preventive maintenance? What challenges face the industry and how can operators capitalize on opportunities to maximise yield, reduce costs, and improve efficiency? More than a dozen experts address these and other issues, offering cutting-edge highlights and compelling case histories from industry leaders through the world in 15 chapters.

  4. The MY NASA DATA Project: Preparing Future Earth and Environmental Scientists, and Future Citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Phelps, C. S.; Phipps, M.; Holzer, M.; Daugherty, P.; Poling, E.; Vanderlaan, S.; Oots, P. C.; Moore, S. W.; Diones, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    global Earth System. These armchair explorers learn to unite datasets in a region to learn about places like and unlike where they live. In a world that's becoming smaller and smaller with the aid of technology, projects like MND prepare our students for their global future. A teacher located in an area of California strongly impacted by pollution and potential climate changes noted that this project makes available data that are very relevant to issues that will affect her students' lives. She points out that not all scientific information they currently see is in a form that is understandable to an educated citizen, and that the experience with MND will enable her students to have better than average skills not only for deciphering scientific maps and graphs; but also for creating maps and graphics that successfully convey information to others.

  5. Which Field Experiences Best Prepare Future School Leaders? An Analysis of Kentucky's Principal Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of field experiences in preparing school principals for the exigencies of the job. Current school principals throughout Kentucky were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the utility and comparative effectiveness of field experiences in the principal preparation program (PPP) each attended. Surveys were…

  6. NASA ESTO: Preparing the Future of Earth Science Observation Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Johnson, D. G.; Hogue, H. H.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's Earth-Sun System Technology Office (ESTO) is investing in passive remote sensing technologies that will provide revolutionary advances in our knowledge of the Earth system. We will focus specifically on two Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) projects, the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument already developed and the In-situ Net Flux within the Atmosphere of the Earth (INFLAME) instruments presently in development. Both of these sensors provide measurements of the Earth's radiation balance presently not available in any other sensors. ESTO is also investing in detector technologies for future Earth science missions through the Far-Infrared Detector Technology Advancement Partnership (FIDTAP), a joint effort concurrently supported by NASA Langley and DRS Technologies, Inc. These sensors and technologies will position NASA to implement missions spelled out in the recent National Research Council's Decadal Survey for Earth Sciences.

  7. Responder safety and health: preparing for future disasters.

    PubMed

    Reissman, Dori B; Howard, John

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews lessons learned about managing the safety and health of workers who were involved in disaster response, recovery, and cleanup after the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. The first two sections review ongoing responder health burdens and the tragic toll of this disaster from a worker safety and health perspective. The remaining sections address changes in federal infrastructure, response planning, and resources for protection of response and recovery personnel. Proper preparation includes pre-event and "just-in-time" disaster-worker training on likely hazards, organizational assets for hazard monitoring, and hands-on instruction in the use of assigned protective equipment. Good planning includes predeployment medical review to ensure "fitness for duty" and considers the following: (1) personal risk factors, (2) hazards likely to be associated with particular field locations, and (3) risks involved with assigned tasks (eg, workload and pace, work/rest cycles, available resources, and team/supervisory dynamics). Planning also should address worker health surveillance, medical monitoring, and availability of medical care (including mental health services). Disaster safety managers should anticipate likely hazards within planning scenarios and prepare asset inventories to facilitate making timely safety decisions. Disaster safety management begins immediately and provides ongoing real-time guidance to incident leadership at all levels of government. Robust standards must be met to reliably protect workers/responders. An integrated and measurable multiagency safety management function must be built into the incident command system before an incident occurs. This function delineates roles and responsibilities for rapid exposure assessments, ensuring cross-agency consistency in data interpretation, and timely, effective communication of information and control strategies. The ability to perform this safety management function should be tested and

  8. Synthetic pulmonary surfactant preparations: new developments and future trends.

    PubMed

    Mingarro, Ismael; Lukovic, Dunja; Vilar, Marçal; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a lipid-protein complex that coats the interior of the alveoli and enables the lungs to function properly. Upon its synthesis, lung surfactant adsorbs at the interface between the air and the hypophase, a capillary aqueous layer covering the alveoli. By lowering and modulating surface tension during breathing, lung surfactant reduces respiratory work of expansion, and stabilises alveoli against collapse during expiration. Pulmonary surfactant deficiency, or dysfunction, contributes to several respiratory pathologies, such as infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) in premature neonates, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children and adults. The main clinical exogenous surfactants currently in use to treat some of these pathologies are essentially organic extracts obtained from animal lungs. Although very efficient, natural surfactants bear serious defects: i) they could vary in composition from batch to batch; ii) their production involves relatively high costs, and sources are limited; and iii) they carry a potential risk of transmission of animal infectious agents and the possibility of immunological reaction. All these caveats justify the necessity for a highly controlled synthetic material. In the present review the efforts aimed at new surfactant development, including the modification of existing exogenous surfactants by adding molecules that can enhance their activity, and the progress achieved in the production of completely new preparations, are discussed. PMID:18288994

  9. An Observatory to Enhance the Preparation of Future California Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, L.; Lederer, S.

    2004-12-01

    With a major grant from the W. M. Keck Foundation, California State University, San Bernardino is establishing a state-of-the-art teaching astronomical observatory. The Observatory will be fundamental to an innovative undergraduate physics and astronomy curriculum for Physics and Liberal Studies majors and will be integrated into our General Education program. The critical need for a research and educational observatory is linked to changes in California's Science Competencies for teacher certification. Development of the Observatory will also complement a new infusion of NASA funding and equipment support for our growing astronomy education programs and the University's established Strategic Plan for excellence in education and teacher preparation. The Observatory will consist of two domed towers. One tower will house a 20" Ritchey-Chretien telescope equipped with a CCD camera in conjunction with either UBVRI broadband filters or a spectrometer for evening laboratories and student research projects. The second tower will house the university's existing 12" Schmidt-Cassegrain optical telescope coupled with a CCD camera and an array of filters. A small aperture solar telescope will be attached to the 12" for observing solar prominences while a milar filter can be attached to the 12" for sunspot viewing. We have been very fortunate to receive a challenge grant of \\600,000 from the W. M. Keck Foundation to equip the two domed towers; we continue to seek a further \\800,000 to meet our construction needs. Funding also provided by the California State University, San Bernardino.

  10. Preparing Nursing Homes for the Future of Health Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Rantz, M.; Galambos, C.; Vogelsmeier, A.; Flesner, M.; Popejoy, L.; Mueller, J.; Shumate, S.; Elvin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Our purpose was to describe how we prepared 16 nursing homes (NHs) for health information exchange (HIE) implementation. Background NH HIE connecting internal and external stakeholders are in their infancy. U.S. initiatives are demonstrating HIE use to increase access and securely exchange personal health information to improve patient outcomes. Method To achieve our objectives we conducted readiness assessments, performed 32 hours of clinical observation and developed 6 use cases, and conducted semi-structured interviews with 230 participants during 68 site visits to validate use cases and explore HIE. Results All 16 NHs had technology available to support resident care. Resident care technologies were integrated much more with internal than external stakeholders. A wide range of technologies were accessible only during administrative office hours. Six non-emergent use cases most commonly communicated by NH staff were: 1) scheduling appointments, 2) Laboratory specimen drawing, 3) pharmacy orders and reconciliation, 4) social work discharge planning, 5) admissions and pre-admissions, and 6) pharmacy-medication reconciliation. Emerging themes from semi-structured interviews about use cases included: availability of information technology in clinical settings, accessibility of HIE at the point of care, and policies/procedures for sending/receiving secure personal health information. Conclusion We learned that every facility needed additional technological and human resources to build an HIE network. Also, use cases help clinical staff apply theoretical problems of HIE implementation and helps them think through the implications of using HIE to communicate about clinical care. PMID:26171073

  11. Is the US Workforce Prepared to Thrive in the Past or in the Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrus, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Past education focused on the three Rs (reading, 'riting and 'rithmetic), but these no longer give humans an edge over advanced computers and automation systems. This is why we need to understand where the future is heading and better prepare both our current workforce as well as the future workforce for tomorrow's job market. Of…

  12. Envisioning the Future of Special Education Personnel Preparation in a Standards-Based Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leko, Melinda M.; Brownell, Mary T.; Sindelar, Paul T.; Kiely, Mary Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The authors consider the future of special education personnel preparation by responding to an overarching question: "What frameworks might teacher educators use as a basis to promote special education teacher effective performance now and in the future?" In answering this question, they summarize current trends in the context of…

  13. Preparing Future Faculty: Contributions to the Job Search Process and Life as a Junior Faculty Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Rafer S.; Ransdell, Lynda

    2003-01-01

    Life in the academy is a complex and difficult journey. Future faculty must learn how to adapt and grow because the landscape of their career and higher education will constantly change. We are honored that Dr. Dan Landers asked us to contribute our thoughts regarding future faculty preparation and the Arizona State University (ASU) Preparing…

  14. Independent data monitoring committees: Preparing a path for the future

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Connie N.; Roe, Matthew T.; Gibson, C. Michael; Temple, Robert J.; Pencina, Michael J.; Zarin, Deborah A.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Alexander, John H.; Sherman, Rachel E.; Fiedorek, Fred T.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Lee, Kerry L.; Chow, Shein-Chung; Armstrong, Paul W.; Califf, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Independent data monitoring committees (IDMCs) were introduced to monitor patient safety and study conduct in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), but certain challenges regarding the utilization of IDMCs have developed. First, the roles and responsibilities of IDMCs are expanding, perhaps due to increasing trial complexity and heterogeneity regarding medical, ethical, legal, regulatory, and financial issues. Second, no standard for IDMC operating procedures exists, and there is uncertainty about who should determine standards and whether standards should vary with trial size and design. Third, considerable variability in communication pathways exist across IDMC interfaces with regulatory agencies, academic coordinating centers, and sponsors. Finally, there has been a substantial increase in the number of RCTs using IDMCs, yet there is no set of qualifications to help guide the training and development of the next generation of IDMC members. Recently, an expert panel of representatives from government, industry, and academia assembled at the Duke Clinical Research Institute to address these challenges and to develop recommendations for the future utilization of IDMCs in RCTs. PMID:25066551

  15. Pediatrics in the year 2020 and beyond: preparing for plausible futures.

    PubMed

    Starmer, Amy J; Duby, John C; Slaw, Kenneth M; Edwards, Anne; Leslie, Laurel K

    2010-11-01

    Although the future of pediatrics is uncertain, the organizations that lead pediatrics, and the professionals who practice within it, have embraced the notion that the pediatric community must anticipate and lead change to ultimately improve the health of children and adolescents. In an attempt to proactively prepare for a variety of conceivable futures, the board of directors of the American Academy of Pediatrics established the Vision of Pediatrics 2020 Task Force in 2008. This group was charged to think broadly about the future of pediatrics, to gather input on key trends that are influencing the future, to create likely scenarios of the future, and to recommend strategies to best prepare pediatric clinicians and pediatric organizations for a range of potential futures. The work of this task force led to the development of 8 "megatrends" that were identified as highly likely to have a profound influence on the future of pediatrics. A separate list of "wild-card" scenarios was created of trends with the potential to have a substantial influence but are less likely to occur. The process of scenario-planning was used to consider the effects of the 8 megatrends on pediatrics in the year 2020 and beyond. Consideration of these possible scenarios affords the opportunity to determine potential future pediatric needs, to identify potential solutions to address those needs, and, ultimately, to proactively prepare the profession to thrive if these or other future scenarios become realities. PMID:20956424

  16. The Role of Geoscience Departments in Preparing Future Geoscience Professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormand, C. J.; MacDonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Building Strong Geoscience Departments program ran a workshop on the role of geoscience departments in preparing geoscience professionals. Workshop participants asserted that geoscience departments can help support the flow of geoscience graduates into the geoscience workforce by providing students with information about jobs and careers; providing experiences that develop career-oriented knowledge, attitudes and skills; encouraging exploration of options; and supporting students in their job searches. In conjunction with the workshop, we have developed a set of online resources designed to help geoscience departments support their students’ professional development in these ways. The first step toward sending geoscience graduates into related professions is making students aware of the wide variety of career options available in the geosciences and of geoscience employment trends. Successful means of achieving this include making presentations about careers (including job prospects and potential salaries) in geoscience classes, providing examples of practical applications of course content, talking to advisees about their career plans, inviting alumni to present at departmental seminars, participating in institutional career fairs, and publishing a departmental newsletter with information about alumni careers. Courses throughout the curriculum as well as co-curricular experiences can provide experiences that develop skills, knowledge, and attitudes that will be useful for a range of careers. Successful strategies include having an advisory board that offers suggestions about key knowledge and skills to incorporate into the curriculum, providing opportunities for students to do geoscience research, developing internship programs, incorporating professional skills training (such as HazMat training) into the curriculum, and teaching professionalism. Students may also benefit from involvement with the campus career center or from conducting informational

  17. Flexible Pedagogies: New Pedagogical Ideas. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Alex; Tilbury, Daniella

    2014-01-01

    This publication is part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future". It identifies six "new pedagogical ideas" offering new pathways for learning. These include: (1) actively involving students in learning development and processes of "co-creation" thereby challenging existing…

  18. First Steps and beyond: Serious Games as Preparation for Future Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Debbie Denise

    2007-01-01

    Electronic game technologies can prepare novice learners for future learning of complex concepts. This paper describes the underlying instructional design, learning science, cognitive science, and game theory. A structural, or syntactic mapping (structure mapping), approach to game design can produce a game world relationally isomorphic to a…

  19. A Course to Prepare Future Faculty in Chemistry: Perspectives from Former Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdeman, Dean R.; Russell, Arlene A.; Eikey, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    The Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) program instituted at doctorate-granting institutions across the U.S. provides mentoring and guidance to doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers interested in academic careers. The seminar curriculum content focuses on exposing participants to skills and knowledge for successful pursuit of faculty careers…

  20. Perceived Value of Research Preparation Opportunities for Future Music Education Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie; Svec, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe research leaders' perceptions of the relative importance of various research preparation opportunities for future music education professors. The 122 questionnaire respondents answered 38 Likert-type and open-ended content questions that asked about research experiences, research skills, research…

  1. Flexible Pedagogies: Technology-Enhanced Learning. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This publication is part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future". It focuses on a better understanding of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) and: (1) identifies key international drivers in the move towards technology-enhanced learning; (2) highlights some of the challenges and opportunities…

  2. Flexible Pedagogies: Employer Engagement and Work-Based Learning. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettle, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of work-based learners and the types of flexibility that may well enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the…

  3. The Crystal Ball Project: Predicting the Future of Composition and the Preparation of Composition Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Crag; Ericsson, Patricia Freitag

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors peer into current elementary classrooms and college composition courses in 2020 to envision what K-12 and composition curricula can do now to ensure today's students are prepared for those future composition classes. The authors interviewed veteran (20 or more years) K-6 teachers in a small university town and…

  4. Motivation and Transfer: The Role of Mastery-Approach Goals in Preparation for Future Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belenky, Daniel M.; Nokes-Malach, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The study of knowledge transfer rarely draws upon motivational constructs in empirical work. We investigated how students' achievement goals interact with different forms of instruction to promote "transfer," defined as preparation for future learning (Bransford & Schwartz, 1999) Students were given either invention or tell-and-practice activities…

  5. Hope for the best, prepare for the worst? Future self-views and preparation for age-related changes.

    PubMed

    Kornadt, Anna E; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Extending research on the impact of views on aging and developmental regulation across the life span, we tested the hypothesis that more positive views of oneself as an older person predict more preparation for age-related changes. Drawing on recent evidence regarding the domain specificity of aging-related developmental processes, we assumed this relationship to be moderated by the relevance of preparation in different life domains for different age groups. We investigated these research questions in a longitudinal study that assessed future self-views and preparation for different life domains in a sample covering a large part of the adult life span. Findings supported our hypotheses: More positive/negative personal views of one's own aging at T1 predicted subsequent increases/decreases in preparation, with influences being strongest for those domains in which relevant age-related changes are expected to occur for the respective age groups. Our study provides additional evidence for the idea that views on aging shape development, identifying age-related provision making as an important mediating process. Furthermore, our findings highlight the added value of a domain-specific approach that takes the differential relevance of life domains and age-related developmental tasks into account. PMID:26302028

  6. "Shaping the Future": Preparing K-12 Science Teachers at the University of Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Gay

    2002-04-01

    The APS, in partnership with the AAPT and the AIP, initiated a project to dramatically improve the science preparation of physics, physical science, and elementary teachers, nation-wide. It will increase the role of physics departments, in collaboration with education departments, to create more and better-prepared future teachers. The Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC) begins with an initial set of six universities that share a commitment to improve their teacher preparation programs. One, the UA, is a state university with about 15,000 students. The Physics Department has 15 faculty, with about 80 undergraduates and 40 graduate students. Features of the undergraduate program that will benefit future teachers, as well as planned curricular revisions, cooperative efforts with the College of Education, and contributions of a high school Teacher In Residence will be discussed.

  7. ADEA CCI vision focuses on preparing graduates for discoveries of the future.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Ronald J; Bushong, Martha

    2010-08-01

    The vision of the American Dental Education Association's Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education (ADEA CCI) is embodied in its new slogan: building consensus and leading change to prepare graduates for an undiscovered future. The ADEA CCI envisions a future in which dental practice is vastly different from what it is today and dental education must be very different for graduates who face a future of unimaginable scientific discovery. Dental curricula need to change to better prepare today's dental students, not only for the practice of today but also for the challenges they will face in their practices of the future. The goal of "building consensus" is directed toward the many constituencies that work with dental education and its graduates. The ADEA CCI has developed a variety of policy recommendations, strategies, and resources to help policymakers, dental educators, and dental graduates better prepare for this undiscovered future. A key resource is twenty-two commissioned white papers that cover diverse topics, such as curriculum reform, facilitating change, faculty development, student assessment, and academic leadership. PMID:20679450

  8. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  9. Governing through time: preparing for future threats to health and security.

    PubMed

    Samimian-Darash, Limor

    2011-09-01

    During preparations for the Second Gulf War, Israel considered universal smallpox vaccination. In doing so, it faced a problem: how to legitimise carrying out a security action against an uncertain future danger (smallpox pandemic), when this action carried specific, known risks (vaccine complications). To solve this problem, the Israeli preparedness system created a new domain through which the security action could reach its goal with minimum risk: first responders (a group of medical personnel and security forces). First-responder vaccination represents a shift in the form of 'securing health' and in the governmental technology applied to this goal, in which past, present, and future occurrences are governed to enable the execution of a security action. Through this practice, risks are not located in the present or in the future but in a 'shared' temporal space and thus can be seen as existing simultaneously. Preparedness for emerging future biological events, then, involves more than questioning how the future is contingent on the present and how the present is contingent on the future's perception; it also recognises the need for a new time positioning that allows operating on both present and future risks simultaneously. Governing these risks, then, means governing through time. PMID:21507009

  10. The Integrate Student Portal: Online Resources to Prepare Students for the Workforce of a Sustainable Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckner, M. Z.; Manduca, C. A.; Egger, A. E.; Macdonald, H.

    2014-12-01

    The InTeGrate Student Portal is a suite of web pages that utilize InTeGrate resources to support student success by providing undergraduates with tools and information necessary to be proactive in their career choices and development. Drawn from various InTeGrate workshops and programming, the Portal organizes these resources to illuminate a variety of career opportunities and pathways to both traditional and non-traditional jobs that support a sustainable future. Informed from a variety of sources including employers, practitioners, faculty, students, reports, and articles, the pages explore five facets: (1) sustainability across the disciplines, (2) workforce preparation, (3) professional communication, (4) teaching and teaching careers, and (5) the future of green research and technology. The first three facets explore how sustainability is integrated across disciplines and how sustainability and 'green' jobs are available in a wide range of traditional and non-traditional workplaces within and beyond science. They provide students guidance in preparing for this sustainability workforce, including where to learn about jobs and how to pursue them, advice for strengthening their job applications, and how to build a set of skills that employers seek. This advice encompasses classroom skills as well as those acquired and strengthened as part of extracurricular or workplace experiences. The fourth facet, aimed at teaching assistants with little or no experience as well as at students who are interested in pursuing teaching as a career, provides information and resources about teaching. The fifth facet explores future directions of technology and the need for innovations in the workforce of the future to address sustainability issues. We seek your input and invite you to explore the Portal at: serc.carleton.edu/integrate/students/

  11. Ethnoveterinary plant preparations as livestock dewormers: practices, popular beliefs, pitfalls and prospects for the future.

    PubMed

    Githiori, John B; Höglund, Johan; Waller, Peter J

    2005-06-01

    Ethnomedicine is an integral part of traditional medical practices in many countries of the developing world. A large proportion of the population uses this form of treatment for primary health care and for the treatment of ailments in their livestock. Livestock is a major asset for resource-poor smallholder farmers and pastoralists throughout the world and internal parasites are recognized by these communities as having an impact on livestock health. Parasitic infections are among those infections that traditional healers confidently treat and against which an enormous variety of remedies exist. Many of these are based on the use of plant preparations. Although various methods have been used for the validation of traditional phytomedical preparations, there is a lack of standardization of these procedures. The present study is aimed at providing an overview of ethnoveterinary deworming preparations, the various methods that have been used in their validation and the future prospects for their use against helminth parasites of ruminant livestock in developing countries, with an emphasis on nematode parasites. Recommendations are made on the procedures that should be followed to conduct in vivo and in vitro assays. Fostering better interaction between traditional healers and scientists is advocated to prevent harmful overexploitation, both of local knowledge and of plant species that may have effects against nematode parasites. PMID:16164011

  12. Development, Evaluation, and Future Directions of the PREPaRE School Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E.; Nickerson, Amanda B.; Reeves, Melissa A.; Savage, Todd A.; Woitaszewski, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development, program evaluation, and future directions of the PREPaRE School Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum (PREPaRE). Satisfaction ratings were analyzed for 1,073 participants who attended the Crisis Prevention and Preparedness workshop (Workshop 1) and 1,008 participants who attended the Crisis…

  13. Creating a Bridge to the Future: Preparing New Faculty To Face Changing Expectations in a Shifting Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann E.

    2003-01-01

    This presidential address draws on the body of research on graduate education and the early career faculty experience to argue that the current preparation of aspiring faculty does not fully match the demands they are likely to face in the near future. Concludes with recommendations for improving the preparation of the next generation of faculty…

  14. Are local communities prepared to face a future volcanic emergency at Vesuvius?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Mayberry, G. C.

    2009-04-01

    The Vesuvius represents, undoubtedly, the icon of volcanic threats, since more than 600,000 people live very close to the volcano. This image is strengthened by the presence of the archaeological ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum, buried by the 79 A.D. plinian eruption, testifying nowadays the highly destructive impact on humans, buildings and environments. Nevertheless, many young people live in the Vesuvian area show an inadequate preparedness to face the next eruption. This is inferred by the results of a multiple choice questionnaire, distributed to 400 high-school students in three municipalities located close to the volcano during the 2007. The questionnaire was aimed to understand the level of risk perception and preparedness of at-risk communities during the current quiescent period. The interviewed students show high levels of fear, poor perceived ability to protect themselves from the effects of a future eruption, and insufficient knowledge of the National Emergency Plan for Vesuvian Area (NEPVA). This result suggests that, during a future eruption of Vesuvius, there may not be enough time to educate the large number of people living near the volcano about how to appropriately respond. The lack of knowledge about NEPVA is a sign of the absence of well-tested communication strategies and effective information dissemination in the study area. This lack of knowledge also means there is little interest in participating in risk-reduction activities. The inadequate risk education and preparedness of respondents implies that a strong effort is needed to improve communication strategies in order to facilitate successful evacuations. Therefore, it is important to take advantage of the present period of quiescence at Vesuvius to increase the risk perception of youth in local communities. In the absence of adequate preparedness measures, an evacuation could become "enforced" or even worse, a "failure."

  15. The Perceived Benefits of a Preparing Future Faculty Program and Its Effect on Job Satisfaction, Confidence, and Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurgler, Emily; VanHeuvelen, Jane S.; Rohrman, Shawna; Loehr, Annalise; Grace, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    The training of effective instructors and future faculty members is a critical component of doctoral programs in sociology. Many universities and departments have instituted a single course, course sequence, or certification program dedicated to the preparation of future academic faculty. This article evaluates the efficacy of one such program,…

  16. Keeping up with the Future: Preparing Leadership Talent for the Evolving Space Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morino, Yoshiki; Peeters, Walter

    Space and globalization are closely related. Not only for financial, but also for far-reaching political motives space activities have played a role as ‘globalization catalyst’. Many international space projects have been used in the past as symbols for political cooperation, and we can safely assume that this will continue to be the case in the future. In addition to this, industrial cooperation is equally becoming more global, starting off with the telecommunication sector. From this point of view it seems logic that also space education programs prepare the young professionals for a global environment. The programs of the International Space University (ISU) have been designed to satisfy these needs. This article attempts to make the link between the global, philosophical dimension of space programs with space education curricula emphasizing international and intercultural dimensions. In particular, the excellent interrelation between the Japanese space sector and ISU will be highlighted.

  17. STAR: Preparing future science and math teachers through authentic research experiences at national laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John; Rebar, Bryan

    2012-11-01

    The STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program provides 9-week paid summer research experiences at national research laboratories for future science and math teachers. The program, run by the Cal Poly Center for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education (CESaME) on behalf of the entire California State University (CSU) System, has arranged 290 research internships for 230 STEM undergraduates and credential candidates from 43 campuses over the past 6 years. The program has partnered with seven Department of Energy labs, four NASA centers, three NOAA facilities, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Primary components of the summer experience include a) conducting research with a mentor or mentor team, b) participating in weekly 2-3 hour workshops focused on translating lessons learned from summer research into classroom practice, and c) presenting a research poster or oral presentation and providing a lesson plan linked to the summer research experience. The central premise behind the STAR Program is that future science and math teachers can more effectively prepare the next generation of science, math, and engineering students if they themselves have authentic experiences as researchers.

  18. An Imperative for Leadership Preparation Programs: Preparing Future Leaders to Meet the Needs of Students, Schools, and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the structure, philosophy, and curriculum of educational leadership preparation programs and the importance of preparing schools leaders to address the unique needs of students and communities. In particular, it will address how programs can be enhanced by integrating organizational research and philosophies from educational,…

  19. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  20. 29 CFR 98.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adequate evidence. 98.900 Section 98.900 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a...

  1. Integrating Research, Teaching and Learning: Preparing the Future National STEM Faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, E. J.; Pfund, C.; Mathieu, R.

    2010-08-01

    A network of universities (Howard, Michigan State, Texas A&M, University of Colorado at Boulder, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Vanderbilt) have created a National Science Foundation-funded network to prepare a future national STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) faculty committed to learning, implementing, and advancing teaching techniques that are effective for the wide range of students enrolled in higher education. The Center for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (CIRTL; http://www.cirtl.net) develops, implements and evaluates professional development programs for future and current faculty. The programs comprise graduate courses, internships, and workshops, all integrated within campus learning communities. These elements are unified and guided by adherence to three core principles, or pillars: "Teaching as Research," whereby research skills are applied to evaluating and advancing undergraduate learning; "Learning through Diversity," in which the diversity of students' backgrounds and experiences are used as a rich resource to enhance teaching and learning; and "Learning Communities" that foster shared learning and discovery among students, and between future and current faculty within a department or institution. CIRTL established a laboratory for testing its ideas and practices at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, known as the Delta Program in Research, Teaching and Learning (http://www.delta.wisc.edu). The program offers project-based graduate courses, research mentor training, and workshops for post-docs, staff, and faculty. In addition, graduate students and post-docs can partner with a faculty member in a teaching-as-research internship to define and tackle a specific teaching and learning problem. Finally, students can obtain a Delta Certificate as testimony to their engagement in and commitment to teaching and learning. Delta has proved very

  2. Preparing the Dutch delta for future droughts: model based support in the national Delta Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Maat, Judith; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; van der Vat, Marnix; Hunink, Joachim; Prinsen, Geert; Visser, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: uncertainty, policymaking, adaptive policies, fresh water management, droughts, Netherlands, Dutch Deltaprogramme, physically-based complex model, theory-motivated meta-model To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, is established to assess impacts of climate scenarios and socio-economic developments and to explore policy options. The results should contribute to a national adaptive plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions, if necessary. For this purpose, we followed a model-based step-wise approach, wherein both physically-based complex models and theory-motivated meta-models were used. First step (2010-2011) was to make a quantitative problem description. This involved a sensitivity analysis of the water system for drought situations under current and future conditions. The comprehensive Dutch national hydrological instrument was used for this purpose and further developed. Secondly (2011-2012) our main focus was on making an inventory of potential actions together with stakeholders. We assessed efficacy, sell-by date of actions, and reassessed vulnerabilities and opportunities for the future water supply system if actions were (not) taken. A rapid assessment meta-model was made based on the complex model. The effects of all potential measures were included in the tool. Thirdly (2012-2013), with support of the rapid assessment model, we assessed the efficacy of policy actions over time for an ensemble of possible futures including sea level rise and climate and land use change. Last step (2013-2014) involves the selection of preferred actions from a set of promising actions that meet the defined objectives. These actions are all modeled and evaluated using the complex model. The outcome of the process will be an adaptive management plan. The adaptive plan describes a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of policy actions - to achieve targets under

  3. Caring for an Ageing Population: Are Physiotherapy Graduates Adequately Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramklass, Serela S.; Butau, Anne; Ntinga, Nomusa; Cele, Nozipho

    2010-01-01

    In view of South African policy developments related to the care of older persons, it was necessary to examine the nature of the geriatrics content within physiotherapy curricula. A survey was conducted amongst final-year student physiotherapists at South African universities, together with content analysis of physiotherapy curricula. Very little…

  4. Estimating the Deep Space Network modification costs to prepare for future space missions by using major cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Donald S.; Sherif, Josef; Buchanan, Harry R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper develops a cost model to do long range planning cost estimates for Deep Space Network (DSN) support of future space missions. The paper focuses on the costs required to modify and/or enhance the DSN to prepare for future space missions. The model is a function of eight major mission cost drivers and estimates both the total cost and the annual costs of a similar future space mission. The model is derived from actual cost data from three space missions: Voyager (Uranus), Voyager (Neptune), and Magellan. Estimates derived from the model are tested against actual cost data for two independent missions, Viking and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS).

  5. Flexible Pedagogies: Part-Time Learners and Learning in Higher Education. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLinden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of part-time learners and the types of flexibility that may enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the challenges…

  6. Trajectories of Preparation for Future Care among First-Degree Relatives of Alzheimer's Disease Patients: An Ancillary Study of ADAPT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Wingyun; Sorensen, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the longitudinal patterns of Preparation for Future Care (PFC), defined as Awareness, Avoidance, Gathering Information, Decision Making, and Concrete Plans, in first-degree relatives of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design and Methods: Eight time points across 6.5 years from a subsample of adults aged 70 years…

  7. Experience, Intersubjectivity, and Reflection: A Human Science Perspective on Preparation of Future Professionals in Adaptive Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standal, Øyvind F.; Rugseth, Gro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show that and how philosophy and philosophical thinking can be of relevance for the preparation of future professionals in adaptive physical activity. To this end we utilize philosophical insights from the human science perspective on two central issues, namely experience and intersubjectivity, which are weaved…

  8. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec....

  9. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  10. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  11. New Teachers for a New Century: The Future of Early Childhood Professional Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horm-Wingerd, Diane, Ed.; Hyson, Marilou, Ed.

    Based on the view that a well-prepared teacher is one of the keys to young children's successful learning and development in early childhood settings, this book examines the nature and content of current early childhood professional preparation programs at the preservice level, describes high quality early childhood professional preparation, and…

  12. Analogue Missions on Earth, a New Approach to Prepare Future Missions on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeuf, Martin

    Human exploration of the Moon is a target by 2020 with an initial lunar outpost planned in polar regions. Current architectures maintain a capability for sorties to other latitudes for science activities. In the early stages of design of lunar outpost infrastructure and science activity planning, it has been recognized that analogue missions could play a major role in Moon mission design. Analogue missions, as high fidelity simulations of human and robotic surface operations, can help field scientists and engineers develop and test strategies as well as user requirements, as they provide opportunities to groundtruth measurements, and for the team to share understanding of key science needs and key engineering trades. These types of missions also provide direct training in planning science operations, and in team building and communication. The Canadian Space Agency's Exploration Core Program targets the development of technology infrastructure elements in key areas of science, technology and robotics in preparation for its role in the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. Within this Program, Analogue Missions specifically target the operations requirements and lessons learned that will reduce costs and lower the risk of planetary surface missions. Analogue missions are simulations of planetary surface operations that take place at analogue sites on Earth. A terrestrial analogue site resembles in some key way: eg. geomorphologically or geochemically, a surface environment of another planet. An analogue mission can, therefore, be defined as an integrated set of activities that represent (or simulate) entire mission designs or narrowly focus on specific aspects of planned or potential future planetary exploration missions. Within the CSA's Exploration Core Program, Analogue Missions facilitate the maturation of science instruments and mission concepts by integrating ongoing space instrument and technology development programs with science and analogue elements. As

  13. Designing the STS-134 Re-Rendezvous: A Preparation for Future Crewed Rendezvous Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuit, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    In preparation to provide the capability for the Orion spacecraft, also known as the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), to rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft, a new suite of relative navigation sensors are in development and were tested on one of the final Space Shuttle missions to ISS. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) commissioned a flight test of prototypes of the Orion relative navigation sensors on STS-134, in order to test their performance in the space environment during the nominal rendezvous and docking, as well as a re-rendezvous dedicated to testing the prototype sensors following the undocking of the Space Shuttle orbiter at the end of the mission. Unlike the rendezvous and docking at the beginning of the mission, the re-rendezvous profile replicates the newly designed Orion coelliptic approach trajectory, something never before attempted with the shuttle orbiter. Therefore, there were a number of new parameters that needed to be conceived of, designed, and tested for this rerendezvous to make the flight test successful. Additionally, all of this work had to be integrated with the normal operations of the ISS and shuttle and had to conform to the constraints of the mission and vehicles. The result of this work is a separation and rerendezvous trajectory design that would not only prove the design of the relative navigation sensors for the Orion vehicle, but also would serve as a proof of concept for the Orion rendezvous trajectory itself. This document presents the analysis and decision making process involved in attaining the final STS-134 re-rendezvous design.

  14. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  15. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  16. Preparing Future Teachers for Inclusion Classrooms Using Virtual World Role-Play Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirliss, Danielle Salomone

    2014-01-01

    Teacher preparation programs are exploring opportunities to better prepare pre-service teachers for the realities of managing inclusion classrooms. The ability to manage a classroom while meeting the learning needs of all students is critical to the success of a teacher. Research suggests that a teacher's positive attitudes toward inclusion and…

  17. Common Core in California Schools: Preparing Kids for Their Future. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Today's students are preparing to enter a world in which higher education and the workforce are demanding higher-level skills than ever before. To ensure all students are ready for success after high school, the Common Core State Standards establish a set of learning goals that work grade-by-grade, step-by-step, to prepare them to meet challenges…

  18. THE MILLENIUM--PREPARATION PROGRAMS FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL COUNSELORS OF THE FUTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NELSON, RICHARD C.

    ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GUIDANCE PROGRAMS WILL EXIST IN THE FUTURE. THE CHANGING WORLD OF WORK WILL CAUSE CURRICULUM REVISIONS TO INCLUDE OCCUPATIONAL UNDERSTANDING WHICH WILL PERMIT MORE COUNSELING. THE COUNSELOR WILL AID CHILDREN IN DEVELOPING WORTHWHILE LEISURE PURSUITS AND AN AWARENESS OF A MULTIPLE-CAREER FUTURE. AS COUNSELING PROGRAMS GROW IN…

  19. Be Prepared: A Student Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, April Susan; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Three high school students present findings of their survey of professional writers' training, influences, and writing processes conducted to judge whether secondary school writing programs adequately prepare high schoolers for writing in the future. Comments from writers emphasized prewriting, inspiration, reader feedback, and sequential drafts.…

  20. ERIC Review--Back to the Future: Preparing Community College Faculty for the New Millenium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    Examines some historical perspectives related to the preparation and development of community college faculty. Suggests that current methods of faculty training must develop in accordance with changing student populations, advancing technology, and changing educational ideologies. Contains 34 references. (JDI)

  1. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  2. McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company independent research and development: Preparing for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, Allen C.

    1988-01-01

    During the 1970's and 80's, research has produced the technology that is seen in aircraft such as the LHX and future models. The technology is discussed that is reaching maturity and moving into the application stage of future programs. Technology is discussed in six major areas: advanced concepts, analysis techniques, structures, systems, simulation, and research and development facilities. The partnership of McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Co. and the government in developing these technologies is illustrated in several programs.

  3. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  4. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  5. Preparing Future Teachers for Virtual Schooling: Assessing Their Preconceptions and Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charania, Amina

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents three research articles in the area of preparing preservice teachers for Virtual Schooling (VS). The context of the dissertation is embedded in a Teacher Education Goes Into Virtual Schooling (TEGIVS) project under the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), U.S. Department of Education. The first…

  6. Preparing America's Future. The High School Symposium (Washington, DC, April 4, 2002). Excerpted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This document presents nine papers from a symposium on challenges currently facing U.S. high schools and their role in preparing students for high achievement in postsecondary education. The following papers are included: "What Ails High Schools? How Should They Be Reformed? Is There a Federal Role?" (Chester E. Finn); "Achievement: High Schools…

  7. Practice What We Preach: Preparing Future Teachers for Outcome-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogan, Bernard R.

    A model for preparing teachers to teach successfully in a performance-based educational environment using Total Quality Management principles is called Total Quality Performance (TQP). On the TQP model everyone is involved in a process of continuous improvement toward the achievement of performance outcomes that are clearly defined and consistent…

  8. Preparing Educational Technology Leaders: Reflections on the Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennen, Vanessa P.; Spector, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The field of educational technology is continuously changing to reflect the increasingly global workplace and development of new technologies and standards. Are educational technology programs keeping up? Are they, in their present form, able to address the evolving needs of the workplace and prepare the next generation of educational technology…

  9. Preparing Future Teachers and Doctoral-Level Leaders in Deaf Education: Meeting the Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jean F.; Covell, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The deaf education profession faces a critical juncture. First, the 2006 leadership crisis that swept deaf education's flagship institution--Gallaudet University--will propel professionals to think deeply about promoting diversity, equity, and access in deaf education teacher and leadership preparation programs. Second, personnel shortages require…

  10. Ambiguity about Preparation for Workforce Clouds Efforts to Equip Students for Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Preparing students to succeed in the workforce is increasingly seen as a key to global competitiveness. But employers aren't sending clear-cut answers on what young people need to know and be able to do on the job. In efforts to obtain information about workforce readiness, various agencies sent out surveys to various employers. One such agency is…

  11. Applying "Best Practices" to Preparation of Future Educators Using Exemplary Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda K.; Cole, Donna J.

    This paper provides an overview of the components of Wright State University's (WSU's) present teacher preparation program and addresses the changes envisioned with Ohio's recently approved licensure programs. The paper explains how WSU's current program offers field experiences in three phases. Student teachers have the opportunity to work under…

  12. The Role of Nursing History in Preparing Nursing for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Arlene W.; Ramos, Mary Carol

    1995-01-01

    The development of curricula for nursing education has been a concern of nurse scholars since the genesis of the Standard Curriculum in 1917. The challenge is to build on this knowledge using traditional and nontraditional methods. If doctorally prepared nurses are to lead their profession, nursing history cannot be merely an elective. (Author/JOW)

  13. Preparing Writing Teachers: A Case Study in Constructing a More Connected Future for CCCC and NCTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, E. Shelley

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author draws on her recent experiences in trying to bring more professional attention to writing teacher preparation within composition and English studies. She explores some of the challenges she and her colleagues have faced--ones that may be common to many new composition subfields that are looking for support from their…

  14. Experiential Placements: Dissemination and Stakeholder Engagement for Curriculum Planning Action to Prepare Future Pharmacy Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Susanne; Stupans, Ieva

    2009-01-01

    Preparing graduates for the professions is increasingly recognised as involving a partnership approach to curriculum design, implementation and evaluation. Experiential placements play a critical role in developing discipline-specific knowledge and skills and also generic professional dispositions including relationships, communication, problem…

  15. Future-Focused Leadership: Preparing Schools, Students, and Communities for Tomorrow's Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Gary

    2006-01-01

    If you've ever thought that you should spend less time reacting to events and more time anticipating changes that lurk just around the corner, then here's a book that gives you the ideas and vision you need to be a future-focused leader. Drawing from demographic trends and timeless wisdom, author Gary Marx outfits you with a living strategy that…

  16. Shaping the Future with Math, Science, and Technology: Solutions and Lesson Plans to Prepare Tomorrow's Innovators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dennis; Hamm, Mary

    2011-01-01

    "Shaping the Future with Math, Science, and Technology" examines how ingenuity, creativity, and teamwork skills are part of an intellectual toolbox associated with math, science, and technology. The book provides new ideas, proven processes, practical tools, and examples useful to educators who want to encourage students to solve problems and…

  17. Ways to Prepare Future Teachers to Teach Science in Multicultural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Berry

    2016-01-01

    Roussel De Carvalho uses the notion of superdiversity to draw attention to some of the pedagogical implications of teaching science in multicultural schools in cosmopolitan cities such as London. De Carvalho makes the case that if superdiverse classrooms exist then Science Initial Teacher Education has a role to play in helping future science…

  18. Childhood and Family in the 21st Century: Preparing for an Unknown Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammage, Philip

    This paper examines the importance of children's early experience and its implications for the future. The paper notes three important societal changes--changes in women's roles, changes in the concept of marriage, and changes in the nature of childhood--and discusses the factors underlying these trends. Current research suggests that the…

  19. The Protein Data Bank at 40: Reflecting on the Past to Prepare for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Helen M.; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Nakamura, Haruki; Markley, John L.

    2012-01-01

    A symposium celebrating the 40th anniversary of the Protein Data Bank archive (PDB), organized by the Worldwide Protein Data Bank, was held at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) October 28–30, 2011. PDB40’s distinguished speakers highlighted four decades of innovation in structural biology, from the early era of structural determination to future directions for the field. PMID:22404998

  20. Career Info Quest: Using AASL Standards to Prepare Teens for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vent, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Any student will tell people that one question they've been asked repeatedly is "What do you want to be when you grow up?" From a young age, adults expect children to think about their future and to work toward a career goal. If teachers expect their students to be goal driven, career-oriented individuals, they need to provide them with ample…

  1. Preparing Advocates: Service-Learning in TESOL for Future Mainstream Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jessie l.

    2013-01-01

    Service-learning pedagogy can provide future educators a meaningful introduction to the field of TESOL and the English language learners (ELLs) it serves. This article briefly describes one approach to integrating service-learning into an Introduction to TESOL course and presents research findings on TESOL students' learning outcomes, which…

  2. Preparing future teachers and doctoral-level leaders in deaf education: meeting the challenge.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jean F; Covell, John A

    The deaf education profession faces a critical juncture. First, the 2006 leadership crisis that swept deaf education's flagship institution--Gallaudet University--will propel professionals to think deeply about promoting diversity, equity, and access in deaf education teacher and leadership preparation programs. Second, personnel shortages require attention: Teacher and leadership voids in university and K-12 programs loom if training efforts are not increased. Teaching and leadership needs center on three challenges: (a) understanding the changing demographic composition of the student, teacher, and leadership populations; (b) developing an evolving curriculum founded on research-based practices; (c) continuing to enlarge the knowledge base through applied research in the social sciences. Two case studies examine teacher training and leadership programs at universities that address these challenges. The importance of workplace deaf-hearing bicultural teams is examined. Implications for the preparation of teacher and leadership personnel in deaf education are discussed. PMID:17461252

  3. Prepare the patient for future challenges when facing hemodialysis: nurses' experiences

    PubMed Central

    Sturesson, Anna; Ziegert, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major health problem due to the significant financial burden for the healthcare system and likewise for the patient who needs the treatment. The patient's whole life situation is turned upside down with chronic kidney disease when they are confronted with the forced change to start treatment with hemodialysis. Patients with chronic kidney disease experience a lack of adequate emotional support from nurses during the transition to hemodialysis. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses’ experiences of giving support to patients during the transition to hospital-bound hemodialysis. The study had a qualitative descriptive design with a content analysis approach; eight nurses from four hospitals in the south of Sweden participated. The results showed that the nurses gave threshold support with an openness and awareness of the patient's individual needs during the transition, except that there seemed to be a lack of knowledge and ability to provide emotional support. Patient support during the transition could therefore be absent. Education, at local and national levels, is needed for the nurse to be able to give professional emotional support. Further research is also desired in order to provide nurses with the tools they need to give emotional support, which is of utmost importance. PMID:24717268

  4. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... safety analysis, or DSA, is to be prepared for every DOE nuclear facility. This DSA, once approved by...

  5. Nursing and eHealth: Are We Preparing Our Future Nurses as Automatons or Informaticians?

    PubMed

    Honey, Michelle; Procter, Paula M; Wilson, Marisa L; Moen, Anne; Dal Sasso, Grace T M

    2016-01-01

    The Education Working Group of IMIA NI present this thought provoking panel where the changing and challenging role of nursing will be explored within the information intensive eHealth arena. The session will be of interest to any nurse as the discussion will be driven by the objective of trying to understand how best to prepare nurses to be actively engaged in information and communication technology (ICT) developments that enhance care assessment, delivery, evaluation and audit. As a balance, the discussion will consider the increasing emergence of 'nursing by numbers' where risk assessment tools are used in an automatic way leaving little room for individual evidenced based care. PMID:27332312

  6. Impact of cooking and home food preparation interventions among adults: outcomes and implications for future programs

    PubMed Central

    Reicks, Marla; Trofholz, Amanda C.; Stang, Jamie S; Laska, Melissa N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cooking programs are growing in popularity; however an extensive review has not examined overall impact. Therefore, this study reviewed previous research on cooking/home food preparation interventions and diet and health-related outcomes among adults and identified implications for practice and research. Design Literature review and descriptive summative method. Main outcome measures Dietary intake, knowledge/skills, cooking attitudes and self-efficacy/confidence, health outcomes. Analysis Articles evaluating effectiveness of interventions that included cooking/home food preparation as the primary aim (January 1980 through December 2011) were identified via OVID MEDLINE, Agricola and Web of Science databases. Studies grouped according to design and outcomes were reviewed for validity using an established coding system. Results were summarized for several outcome categories. Results Of 28 studies identified, 12 included a control group with six as non-randomized and six as randomized controlled trials. Evaluation was done post-intervention for five studies, pre- and post-intervention for 23 and beyond post-intervention for 15. Qualitative and quantitative measures suggested a positive influence on main outcomes. However, non-rigorous study designs, varying study populations, and use of non-validated assessment tools limited stronger conclusions. Conclusions and Implications Well-designed studies are needed that rigorously evaluate long-term impact on cooking behavior, dietary intake, obesity and other health outcomes. PMID:24703245

  7. Posterior Lamellar Graft Preparation: A Prospective Review from an Eye Bank on Current and Future Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Griffoni, Carlo; Zampini, Alfonso; Ponzin, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) is a corneal surgical technique which selectively replaces the damaged posterior part of the cornea with a healthy donor graft retaining the rest of the tissue intact. There is a need to validate and standardize the donor tissue before grafting due to certain issues that can lead to consequences such as graft failure due to poor endothelial cell count, higher mortality, detachment of the graft, or increased surgical expenses, time, and effort. Thus, prospective potential surgeons and eye banks should now aim at developing new improved surgical techniques in order to prepare the best suited, validated, precut, preloaded, and easy to transplant tissue to reduce pre- and postsurgical complications. This could be achieved by defining parameters like graft thickness, accepted mortality threshold of the endothelial cells, and behavior of grafts during preservation and transportation along with using more sophisticated instruments like microkeratome and femtosecond lasers for graft preparation. Thus, a rapport between the eye banks and the surgeons along with the advanced instruments can overcome this challenge to find the best possible solution for endothelial keratoplasty (EK). PMID:23819041

  8. Preparing Corrections Staff for the Future: Results of a 2-Day Training About Aging Inmates.

    PubMed

    Masters, Julie L; Magnuson, Thomas M; Bayer, Barbara L; Potter, Jane F; Falkowski, Paul P

    2016-04-01

    The aging of the prison population presents corrections staff with unique challenges in knowing how to support inmates while maintaining security. This article describes a 2-day training program to introduce the aging process to select staff at all levels. While the results of a pre-posttest measure, using a modified version of Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz, did not produce a statistically significant difference at the conclusion of the training, attendees did express satisfaction with the training and their newfound insight into the challenges faced by aging inmates. They also offered recommendations for future training to include more practical suggestions for the work environment. PMID:26984135

  9. Ways to prepare future teachers to teach science in multicultural classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billingsley, Berry

    2015-12-01

    Roussel De Carvalho uses the notion of superdiversity to draw attention to some of the pedagogical implications of teaching science in multicultural schools in cosmopolitan cities such as London. De Carvalho makes the case that if superdiverse classrooms exist then Science Initial Teacher Education has a role to play in helping future science teachers to become more knowledgeable and reflective about how to teach school students with a range of worldviews and religious beliefs. The aim of this paper is to take that proposition a step further by considering what the aims and content of a session in teacher education might be. The focus is on helping future teachers develop strategies to teach school students to think critically about the nature of science and what it means to have a scientific worldview. The paper draws on data gathered during an interview study with 28 students at five secondary schools in England. The data was analysed to discover students' perceptions of science and their perceptions of the way that science responds to big questions about being human. The findings are used to inform a set of three strategies that teachers could use to help young people progress in their understanding of the nature of science. These strategies together with the conceptual framework that underpins them are used to develop a perspective on what kinds of pedagogical content knowledge teacher education might usefully provide.

  10. Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS): A Present Service Preparing for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Roy E.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) has been deployed by NASA's Mars Program Office and the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) Project into mission operations to aid in the coordination of relay activities at Mars. This live system presents standardized interfaces and a centralized infrastructure to current and future participants in the Mars Relay Network for the purpose of reliably and securely exchanging and storing all relay-related planning and operations data. The initial development of this system leveraged over eight years of experience performing relay operations between the various spacecraft at Mars. Now, four years after its initial deployment, MaROS continues to undergo further refinement to better meet the needs of the Mars Relay Network. The most substantial, recent update was focused on providing capabilities needed by the Mars Science Laboratory project, which landed on Mars in August of 2012. This paper will describe the nature of that update and describe additional features being added to the system to better serve the needs of current and future Mars missions.

  11. Overview of ESA life support activities in preparation of future exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Paille, Christel

    2016-07-01

    Since 1987, the European Space Agency has been active in the field of Life Support development. When compare to its international colleagues, it is clear that ESA started activities in the field with a "delay of around 25 years. Due to this situation and to avoid duplication, ESA decided to focus more on long term manned missions and to consider more intensively regenerative technologies as well as the associated risks management ( e.g. physical, chemical and contaminants). Fortunately or not, during the same period, no clear plan of exploration and consequently not specific requirements materialized. This force ESA to keep a broader and generic approach of all technologies. Today with this important catalogue of technologies and know-how, ESA is contemplating the different scenario of manned exploration beyond LEO. In this presentation we review the key scenario of future exploration, and identify the key technologies who loo the more relevant. An more detailed status is presented on the key technologies and their development plan for the future.

  12. EuroGeoMars Field Campaign: habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Zhavaleta, J.; Orzechowska, G.; Kotler, M.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Becker, L.; Quinn, R.; van Sluis, C.; Boche-Sauvan, L.; Gross, C.; Thiel, C.; Wendt, L.; Sarrazin, P.; Mahapatra, P.; Direito, S.; Roling, W.

    The goal of the EuroGeoMars field campaign sponsored by ESA, NASA and the international lunar exploration working group (ILEWG) was to demonstrate instrument capabilities in sup-port of current and future planetary missions, to validate a procedure for Martian surface in-situ and return science, and to study human performance aspects. The Mars Desert Re-search Station (MDRS) represents an ideal basis to simulate aspects of robotic and human exploration in support of future missions to planetary bodies. During the campaign, MDRS Crew 77 tested X-ray diffraction and Raman instruments, and assessed habitat and operations. Special emphasis was given to sample collection in the geologically rich vicinity of MDRS and subsequent analysis of organic molecules in the soil to simulate the search for bio-signatures with field instrumentation. We describe the results of in-situ and posterior analysis of the physical and chemical properties including elemental composition, salt concentrations as well as carbon and amino acid abundances. The analyses of organics and minerals show that the subsurface mineral matrix represents a key to our understanding of the survival of organics on Mars.

  13. Ways to prepare future teachers to teach science in multicultural classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billingsley, Berry

    2016-06-01

    Roussel De Carvalho uses the notion of superdiversity to draw attention to some of the pedagogical implications of teaching science in multicultural schools in cosmopolitan cities such as London. De Carvalho makes the case that if superdiverse classrooms exist then Science Initial Teacher Education has a role to play in helping future science teachers to become more knowledgeable and reflective about how to teach school students with a range of worldviews and religious beliefs. The aim of this paper is to take that proposition a step further by considering what the aims and content of a session in teacher education might be. The focus is on helping future teachers develop strategies to teach school students to think critically about the nature of science and what it means to have a scientific worldview. The paper draws on data gathered during an interview study with 28 students at five secondary schools in England. The data was analysed to discover students' perceptions of science and their perceptions of the way that science responds to big questions about being human. The findings are used to inform a set of three strategies that teachers could use to help young people progress in their understanding of the nature of science. These strategies together with the conceptual framework that underpins them are used to develop a perspective on what kinds of pedagogical content knowledge teacher education might usefully provide.

  14. The physician executive "arrives"--a new generation prepares for the future.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, J S; Lyons, M F

    1995-01-01

    The recent rise in the number of physician executives in the health care industry vividly demonstrates that a genuinely new generation of physician executives is seeking to combine the sensitivity of their clinical skills with the business acumen that today's health care organizations need to prosper and grow. But physicians who are preparing themselves to be selected one day as chief executive officers by hospitals, integrated systems, and managed care organizations should understand that the CEO role is radically different from that of the CEO of a physician practice. The corporate CEO role requires the management of managers and responsiveness to the organization's board. Those who imagine that the corporate CEO role bears any resemblance to the autonomous, independent existence of the practitioner are certain to have a rough time. PMID:10161140

  15. FAST-Future Academic Scholars in Teaching: A High-Engagement Development Program for Future STEM Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara, Claudia E.; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Campa, Henry, III; Cheruvelil, Kendra S.; Ebert-May, Diane; Fata-Hartley, Cori; Johnston, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Doctoral granting institutions prepare future faculty members for academic positions at institutions of higher education across the nation. Growing concerns about whether these institutions are adequately preparing students to meet the demands of a changing academic environment have prompted several reform efforts. We describe a professional…

  16. Preparing Future College Instructors: The Role of Graduate Student Teaching Assistants (GTAs) in Successful College Calculus Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Jessica Fabricant

    Graduate student Teaching Assistants (GTAs) contribute to calculus instruction in two ways: as the primary teacher and as recitation leaders. GTAs can also be viewed as the next generation of mathematics instructors. Thus, in addition to their immediate contribution to the landscape of Calculus 1 instruction, GTAs will contribute significantly to the long-term state of calculus in their future occupations. However, their preparation for these roles varies widely and is often minimal. In this study, I first compare the mathematical beliefs, instructional practices, and student success of GTAs to other Calculus 1 instructors. I then provide rich descriptions for three GTA professional development (PD) programs that prepare graduate students as course instructors, as recitation leaders, and as future faculty. I then investigate the instructional practices and mathematical beliefs of graduate students coming from these three PD programs. I conclude this work with a description of a framework for GTA-PD programs. To accomplish this work, I conducted a mixed-method analysis on national survey data and case study data from four doctoral granting institutions. These four institutions were chosen because of their higher-than-expected student success in Calculus 1. The results of these analyses indicate that graduate students teach in more innovative ways than other instructors, though their students were less successful. Among the four case study institutions, I identified three models of GTA-PD, each of which appeared successful in accomplishing their goals. These goals included transitioning graduate students into the role of instructor, preparing graduate students to implement an innovative approach to Calculus 1, and supporting graduate students as recitation leaders. These analyses also led to the development of a framework to be used to characterize, evaluate, and consider the implementation of graduate student professional development programs. This GTA-PD framework

  17. Workshop report: Malaria vaccine development in Europe--preparing for the future.

    PubMed

    Viebig, Nicola K; D'Alessio, Flavia; Draper, Simon J; Sim, B Kim Lee; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Bowyer, Paul W; Luty, Adrian J F; Jungbluth, Stefan; Chitnis, Chetan E; Hill, Adrian V S; Kremsner, Peter; Craig, Alister G; Kocken, Clemens H M; Leroy, Odile

    2015-11-17

    The deployment of a safe and effective malaria vaccine will be an important tool for the control of malaria and the reduction in malaria deaths. With the launch of the 2030 Malaria Vaccine Technology Roadmap, the malaria community has updated the goals and priorities for the development of such a vaccine and is now paving the way for a second phase of malaria vaccine development. During a workshop in Brussels in November 2014, hosted by the European Vaccine Initiative, key players from the European, North American and African malaria vaccine community discussed European strategies for future malaria vaccine development in the global context. The recommendations of the European malaria community should guide researchers, policy makers and funders of global health research and development in fulfilling the ambitious goals set in the updated Malaria Vaccine Technology Roadmap. PMID:26431986

  18. The AGHS at JET and preparations for a future DT campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.

    2015-03-15

    The Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) at JET is a unique facility enabling JET to perform reactor like, DT operations. As a future DT experimental campaign (DTE2) is scheduled for 2017 this paper provides a brief overview of the AGHS and a summary of ongoing work supporting the currently JET experimental campaign. In order to improve tritium accountancy a solid state based detector for tritium is being developed. Another important upgrade concerns tritium injection, 4 existing GIMs (Tritium Gas Introduction Module) will inject a mix of D and T rather than T{sub 2} in the divertor region rather than in the torus mid plane enabling a far better control and variability of the introduction of tritium into the plasma. An overview of the scale of DTE2 is included as well as an example of some of the upgrades currently being undertaken to fully exploit the learning opportunities for ITER and DEMO DTE2 provides. (authors)

  19. Health issues of internally displaced persons in Pakistan: preparation for disasters in future.

    PubMed

    Wasay, Mohammad; Mushtaq, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Army action against terrorism in Pakistan led to the largest human migration in this century. About 3.4 million people (internally displaced persons, IDPs) were displaced. The authors visited all major camps and some houses in Mardan area and interviewed IDPs and doctors at these camps and areas to identify medical needs and current state of provision of medical care. This disaster largely represented displacement of millions of people (IDPs) including women and children to a new weather and environment in overcrowded refugee camps and houses. Influx of large number of displaced people created excessive burden for already deprived local health services. The medical issues and requirements for these IDPs living in camps were totally different from a disaster like earthquake. Global response to this disaster was slow and less effective. The need for a WHO coordination center for creating quick and urgent response for such kind of disasters in future is emphasized in this article. PMID:20496645

  20. Investing in future pediatric subspecialists: a fellowship curriculum that prepares for the transition to academic careers

    PubMed Central

    Rama, Jennifer A.; Campbell, Judith R.; Balmer, Dorene F.; Turner, Teri L.; Hsu, Deborah C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The experience of transitioning to an academic faculty position can be improved with standardized educational interventions. Although a number of such interventions have been described, few utilize an evaluation framework, describe a robust evaluation process, and address why their interventions were successful. In this article, the authors apply a logic model to describe their efforts to develop, implement, evaluate, and revise a comprehensive academic career development curriculum among pediatric subspecialty fellows. They describe inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes using quantitative data from fellow evaluations and qualitative data from faculty interviews. Methods Methods are described under the input and activities sections. The curriculum started with collaboration among educational leadership and conducting a needs assessment. Using the needs assessment results and targeted learning objectives, we piloted the curriculum and then implemented the full curriculum 1 year later. Results Results are described under the outputs and outcomes sections. We present immediate, short-term, and 6-month evaluation data. Cumulative data over 3 years reveal that fellows consistently acquired knowledge relevant to transitioning and that they applied acquired knowledge to prepare for finding jobs and career advancement. The curriculum also benefits faculty instructors who gain a sense of reward by filling a critical knowledge gap and fostering fellows’ professional growth. Conclusion The authors relate the success and effectiveness of the curriculum to principles of adult learning, and share lessons learned, including the importance of buy-in from junior and senior fellows and faculty, collaboration, and designating the time to teach and learn. PMID:25861876

  1. Catalyst and process development for hygrogen preparation from future fuel cell feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarrington, R. M.; Feins, I. R.; Hwang, H. S.

    1980-07-01

    Four types of tests were run on the small scale catalyst screening unit. The operating line for coke-free operations was found to be approximately between 0.41 to 0.44 02/C level. Screening at lower 02/C levels lead to problems with plugging. Increased severity for screening steam reforming catalysts was obtained by doubling the space velocity. Tests were run to determine the gas composition from the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) section and to evaluate two CPO catalysts. Catalysts were aged for about 20 hours using a propane, steam, and air mixture before testing with No. 2 oil for another five hours. This latter test was used to study Pt/Rh catalysts made with various supports. Differences were readily determined for Pt/Rh supported on alpha alumina and Pt/Rh supported on stabilized alumina. Several samples must be evaluated by this method before aging runs are made in the larger unit. After leaching alumina from a used Pt/Rh catalyst, the XRD pattern showed the presence of a Pt-Rh alloy in the metal residue. Experiments were run to show that the alloy was formed in the reactor during testing and not during catalyst preparation. A larger version of the ATR reactor was designed and major components are on order.

  2. SMART-1 Technology and Science Experiments in Preparation of Future Missions and ESA Cornerstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, A. E.; Racca, G. D.; Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Project

    1999-12-01

    SMART-1 is the first ESA Small Mission for Advanced Research in Technology, aimed at the demonstration of enabling technologies for future scientific missions. SMART-1's prime technology objective is the demonstration of the solar primary electric propulsion, a key for future interplanetary missions. SMART-1 will use a Stationary Plasma Thruster engine, cruising 15 months to capture a Moon polar orbit. A gallery of images of the spacecraft is available at the web site: http://www.estec.esa.nl/spdwww/smart1/html/11742.html SMART-1 payload aims at monitoring the electric propulsion and its spacecraft environment and to test novel instrument technologies. The Diagnostic Instruments include SPEDE, a spacecraft potential plasma and charged particles detector, to characterise both spacecraft and planetary environment, together with EPDP, a suite of sensors monitoring secondary thrust-ions, charging and deposition effects. Innovative spacecraft technologies will be tested on SMART-1 : Lithium batteries and KATE, an experimental X/Ka-band deep-space transponder, to support radio-science, to monitor the accelerations of the electric propulsion and to test turbo-code technique, enhancing the return of scientific data. The scientific instruments for imaging and spectrometry are: \\begin{itemize} D-CIXS, a compact X-ray spectrometer based on novel SCD detectors and micro-structure optics, to observe X-ray celectial objects and to perform lunar chemistry measurements. SIR, a miniaturised quasi-monolithic point-spectrometer, operating in the Near-IR (0.9 ÷ 2.4 micron), to survey the lunar crust in previously uncovered optical regions. AMIE, a miniature camera based on 3-D integrated electronics, imaging the Moon, and other bodies and supporting LASER-LINK and RSIS. RSIS and LASER-LINK are investigations performed with the SMART-1 Payload: \\begin{itemize} RSIS: A radio-science Experiment to validate in-orbit determination of the libration of the celestial target, based on high

  3. The Global Society will need commodities; how do we prepare for the future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, P. Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The global population currently stands at approximately 7 billion and is expected to increase to between 8.3 and 10.9 billion by 2050. To put this into perspective, today's global population is triple what it was in 1950. Commodities are required for healthy societies, for robust economies and to raise living standards in the developing world. With major increases the population particularly in nations with emerging economies, the demand for commodities such as water, energy and minerals will significantly increase during the next several decades. Among the concerns are clean and available freshwater, expanded energy sources from natural gas and nuclear to renewable energy, and emerging needs for specialty materials that are needed for advanced technology to expanded use of more conventional minerals for agriculture and commerce. The developing world may have the greatest need for these commodities and also be the source of many of them. At the conclusion of the International Year of Planet Earth, a small group was formed to assess the need for a major scientific effort in the geosciences. Under the auspices of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), the strategic initiatives group met and a broad initiative entitled 'Resourcing Future Generations' (RFG) that was designed to implement a scientific strategy to address the increasing demand for commodities over the next 25 years. The initiative focused on water resources, energy and minerals. The group felt strongly that the minerals component should be the initial emphasis and hoped that other global scientific organizations like IUGS would embrace the water and energy themes. Since this initial effort a number of workshops and presentations have been made including China, the International Geological Congress in Brisbane, the Davos Summit, Berlin, and Namibia amongst others. The strategic initiative planning group identifies 4 challenges to meeting future global mineral needs which are improved

  4. Inclusive Education in Canada: Issues in Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education (IE) is widely adopted in Canadian educational systems. However, few Canadian universities require students in undergraduate teacher preparation programs to complete coursework on the topic of IE, and the few courses on this topic do not adequately prepare future teachers to work in inclusive classrooms with students with…

  5. Habitability on planetary surfaces: interdisciplinary preparation phase for future Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Z.; Quinn, R.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M. A.; Becker, L.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.; Brucato, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2009-10-01

    Life on Earth is one of the outcomes of the formation and evolution of our solar system and has adapted to every explored environment on planet Earth. Recent discoveries have shown that life can exist in extreme environments, such as hydrothermal vents, in deserts and in ice lakes in Antarctica. These findings challenge the definition of the ‘planetary habitable zone’. The objective of future international planetary exploration programmes is to implement a long-term plan for the robotic and human exploration of solar system bodies. Mars has been a central object of interest in the context of extraterrestrial life. The search for extinct or extant life on Mars is one of the main goals of space missions to the Red Planet during the next decade. In this paper we describe the investigation of the physical and chemical properties of Mars soil analogues collected in arid deserts. We measure the pH, redox potential and ion concentrations, as well as carbon and amino acid abundances of soils collected from the Atacama desert (Chile and Peru) and the Salten Skov sediment from Denmark. The samples show large differences in their measured properties, even when taken only several meters apart. A desert sample and the Salten Skov sediment were exposed to a simulated Mars environment to test the stability of amino acids in the soils. The presented laboratory and field studies provide limits to exobiological models, evidence on the effects of subsurface mineral matrices, support current and planned space missions and address planetary protection issues.

  6. The Future of Climate Change Education and Communication: Preparing Our Posterity for Risks and Opportunity? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.; Niepold, F.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change will have impacts on all aspects of life. As such it is a topic that is interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary and thus requires input from a professionally diverse group of experts to be addressed effectively. This represents the next step in an evolution of how geoscientists see their work and their responsibility communicate and collaborate with other professionals to enable their findings and understanding of the Earth system to benefit society. In the late 1970's geoscience research extended beyond the traditional disciplinary perspectives to investigate the interactions of the components of the Earth system and the impacts of those interactions. Geoscience research became interdisciplinary. In the last 10 years as the reality of climate change has become more apparent,it is clear that the conversation needs to extend well beyond the geosciences to include for example agriculture, economics, psychology, architecture, urban planning, engineering and the social sciences. Climate change education and communication needs to become both interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary. This presentation will discuss the obstacles that need to be overcome to achieve interdisciplinary and transdiciplinary ways of addressing the problems and opportunities resulting from climate change, the efforts that are underway to help develop a common language and shared understanding to enable transdisciplinary solutions to societal issues in the future.

  7. Issues Regarding the Implementation of eHealth: Preparing for Future Influenza Pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Holly; Ray, Pradeep; Rawlinson, William; Lewis, Lundy; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2012-01-01

    Background eHealth is a tool that may be used to facilitate responses to influenza pandemics. Prior to implementation of eHealth in the hospital setting, assessment of the organizational preparedness is an important step in the planning process. Including this step may increase the chance of implementation success. Objective To identify the preparedness issues in relation to implementation of eHealth for future influenza pandemics. Methods One hospital was selected in Australia for this study. We conducted 12 individual interviews to gather a rich data set in relation to eHealth preparedness in the context of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic at this major teaching hospital. These participants’ views were analyzed according to five main themes: (1) challenges in present practices or circumstances for pandemic responses, which indicates a need for change, (2) healthcare providers’ exposure to eHealth, (3) organizational technological capacity to support an IT innovation for medical practices, (4) resource preparedness, and (5) socio-cultural issues in association with eHealth implementation in response to a pandemic. Results This article reports a subset of the issues identified during the case study. These issues include, for example, poor sharing of patient health records, poor protection of patient privacy, clinicians’ concerns about IT reliability and dissatisfaction with the software in use, clinicians’ concerns about IT’s impact on professional autonomy versus having inefficient IT support, and inefficient communication across departments in the form of consultation. Conclusions Based on discussions with the participants and interpretation of their responses, we assessed the hospital’s preparedness status and also identified areas of deficiency. Accordingly, we suggest possible solutions for the areas in need of improvement to facilitate eHealth implementation’s success. The study results will also provide policymakers at national, state and

  8. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  9. Public health system partnerships: role for local boards of health in preparing the future public health workforce.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M; Hiller, Marc D; Wyman, William J

    2014-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine's report, Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century, recommended that public health education be accessible to undergraduate students. Promoting access to public health education will ideally contribute to a well-educated public health workforce, thus assuring the fulfillment of the public health mission. In response to this call to action, the authors examined the current practice, feasibility, and value in developing a functional partnership between academic institutions and local boards of health in preparing future public health professionals. Local boards of health in New England were surveyed to: (1) establish a baseline of existing working relationships between them and nearby academic institutions; (2) examine the barriers that inhibit the development of their collaborations with academic partners; and (3) assess how they jointly advance public health workforce development. Despite the main barriers of a lack of time, staff, and funding that are often cited for the absence of collaborations between institutions, one New England state, in particular, reported that their academic institution and local board of health partnerships were important and effective. The authors discuss how academic-practice collaborations hold the potential to combine basic public health principles with leadership and governance experience offered by local boards of health. Such partnerships are underutilized and have the potential to integrate core public health concepts while facilitating applied experiential learning opportunities in a professional public health setting, thus contributing to the development of the future public health workforce. PMID:23897268

  10. School Counselor Preparation in Kenya: Do Kenyan School Counselors Feel Adequately Prepared to Perform Their Roles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambu, Grace W.; Wickman, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    School counselor training in Kenya is a relatively new phenomenon. This study examined Kenyan school counselors' perceptions of the adequacy of their preparedness to perform their roles within the school setting. The survey was administered to 105 school counselors in four counties. The findings revealed that Kenyan school counselors perceived…

  11. A Compendium of Preparation and Application of Stem Cells in Parkinson's Disease: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Huang, Jinsha; Liu, Ling; Xu, Xiaoyun; Han, Chao; Zhang, Guoxin; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Jie; Lin, Zhicheng; Xiong, Nian; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressively neurodegenerative disorder, implicitly characterized by a stepwise loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and explicitly marked by bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor and postural instability. Currently, therapeutic approaches available are mainly palliative strategies, including L-3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) replacement therapy, DA receptor agonist and deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedures. As the disease proceeds, however, the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy is inevitably worn off, worse still, implicated by side effects of motor response oscillations as well as L-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID). Therefore, the frustrating status above has propeled the shift to cell replacement therapy (CRT), a promising restorative therapy intending to secure a long-lasting relief of patients' symptoms. By far, stem cell lines of multifarious origins have been established, which can be further categorized into embryonic stem cells (ESCs), neural stem cells (NSCs), induced neural stem cells (iNSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this review, we intend to present a compendium of preparation and application of multifarious stem cells, especially in relation to PD research and therapy. In addition, the current status, potential challenges and future prospects for practical CRT in PD patients will be elaborated as well. PMID:27303288

  12. A Compendium of Preparation and Application of Stem Cells in Parkinson's Disease: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; Huang, Jinsha; Liu, Ling; Xu, Xiaoyun; Han, Chao; Zhang, Guoxin; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Jie; Lin, Zhicheng; Xiong, Nian; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressively neurodegenerative disorder, implicitly characterized by a stepwise loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and explicitly marked by bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor and postural instability. Currently, therapeutic approaches available are mainly palliative strategies, including L-3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) replacement therapy, DA receptor agonist and deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedures. As the disease proceeds, however, the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy is inevitably worn off, worse still, implicated by side effects of motor response oscillations as well as L-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID). Therefore, the frustrating status above has propeled the shift to cell replacement therapy (CRT), a promising restorative therapy intending to secure a long-lasting relief of patients' symptoms. By far, stem cell lines of multifarious origins have been established, which can be further categorized into embryonic stem cells (ESCs), neural stem cells (NSCs), induced neural stem cells (iNSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this review, we intend to present a compendium of preparation and application of multifarious stem cells, especially in relation to PD research and therapy. In addition, the current status, potential challenges and future prospects for practical CRT in PD patients will be elaborated as well. PMID:27303288

  13. Advancing Earth System Science Literacy and Preparing the Future Geoscience Workforce Through Strategic Investments at the National Science Foundation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsten, J. L.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Weiler, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created 60 years ago by the U.S. Congress "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense…" NSF is the primary funding agency in the U.S. to support basic, frontier research across all fields in science, engineering, and education, except for medical sciences. With a FY 2011 budget request of more than $955 million, the NSF Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) is the principle source of federal funding for university-based fundamental research in the geosciences and preparation of the next generation of geoscientists. Since its inception, GEO has supported the education and training of a diverse and talented pool of future scientists, engineers, and technicians in the Earth, Ocean, Atmospheric and Geospatial Sciences sub-fields, through support of graduate research assistants, post-doctoral fellows, and undergraduate research experiences. In the late 1990’s and early 2000’s, GEO initiated several programs that expanded these investments to also support improvements in pre-college and undergraduate geoscience education through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., professional development support for K-12 teachers, development of innovative undergraduate curricula, and scientist-mentored research experiences for elementary and secondary students). In addition to GEO’s Geoscience Education (GeoEd), Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG), Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), and Geoscience Teacher Training (GEO-Teach) programs, GEO participates in a number of cross-Foundation programs, including the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT), Ethics Education in Science and Engineering (EESE), NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12), and Partnerships for International Research and Education

  14. The Pennsylvania Academy for the Profession of Teaching; Rural Fellowship Program: A Science Curriculum Development Partnership. Project "Prepare Them for the Future."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisel, Raymond W.

    This report describes development of the "Prepare Them for the Future" project, a K-3 activity-oriented science curriculum. The program, funded through two grants, was driven by the need to boost the distressed labor-based economy in rural western Pennsylvania. Data showed a drop of 1,100 coal-mining jobs between 1980 and 1986 in Indiana County,…

  15. Preparation of Nucleic Acid Libraries for Personalized Sequencing Systems Using an Integrated Microfluidic Hub Technology (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Patel, Kamlesh D [Ken]; SNL,

    2013-01-25

    Kamlesh (Ken) Patel from Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, California) presents "Preparation of Nucleic Acid Libraries for Personalized Sequencing Systems Using an Integrated Microfluidic Hub Technology " at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  16. Seizing the Future: How Ohio's Career-Technical Education Programs Fuse Academic Rigor and Real-World Experiences to Prepare Students for College and Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Heidi; Yoder, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    "Seizing the Future: How Ohio's Career and Technical Education Programs Fuse Academic Rigor and Real-World Experiences to Prepare Students for College and Work," demonstrates Ohio's progress in developing strong policies for career and technical education (CTE) programs to promote rigor, including college- and career-ready graduation…

  17. Program Description: A National Program of the Association of American Colleges and Universities & the Council of Graduate Schools. Preparing Future Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    This report provides an overview of the Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) program, initiated in 1994 to bring together clusters of colleges and universities in planning programs that introduce graduate students to faculty life in a variety of campus environments. PFF is especially designed to bring together research universities and the nearby…

  18. Problem-Based Learning across the Curriculum: Exploring the Efficacy of a Cross-Curricular Application of Preparation for Future Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Karen; Vahey, Philip; van 't Hooft, Mark; Kratcoski, Annette; Rafanan, Ken; Stanford, Tina; Yarnall, Louise; Cook, Dale

    2013-01-01

    The research reported in this paper explores the applicability and efficacy of a variant of problem-based learning, the Preparation for Future Learning (PFL) approach, to teaching and learning within the context of a cross-curricular, middle school data literacy unit called "Thinking with Data" (TWD). A quasi-experimental design was used…

  19. Preparing Future Teacher-Leaders: Experiences from the University of Connecticut's Five-Year Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Richard L.; DeFranco, Thomas C.; McGivney-Burelle, Jean

    2004-01-01

    The article discusses the Integrated Bachelor's/Master's (IB/M) Teacher Preparation, a five-year teacher preparation program that integrates coursework, school-based clinic experiences, and university and K-12 faculty in the preparation of pre-service teachers. A major component of the IB/M program is the relationship with selected public school…

  20. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  1. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  2. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200.14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  4. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  5. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200....14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure...

  6. Using Place-Based Independent Class Projects as a Means to Hone Research Skills and Prepare a Future Geospatial Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.; Gens, R.; Cristobal, J.; Waigl, C. F.; Balazs, M. S.; Graham, P. R.; Butcher, C. E.; Sparrow, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    It is never too early to bring in your own research into teaching. Considerable efforts have been made globally to introduce STEM research themes in K12 environments. These efforts a laudable as they help to create STEM identity in students and get students excited to pursue higher education. The task of a post-secondary educator is to build on that excitement and ensure that the students who enter higher education come out knowledgeable, skilled, and employable. At the University of Alaska Fairbanks we have structured our geospatial curricula to include place-based, independent research projects in several semester-long classes. These class-projects serve as mini capstone research experiences that take a student through the entire process of research including: identifying a problem or need; building a hypothesis; formulating the science question; searching, acquiring, and processing data; analyzing and interpreting the research results; and presenting the outcomes in written and oral format to a peer group. Over a decade of experience has shown that students tend to engage and perform well when the research addresses an authentic problem they can relate to and take ownership of. Over 150 student-lead class projects using a variety of freely available datasets have contributed not only to preparing the future workforce, but also to enhancing the research profile of UAF. We extended the same model to a summer internship program where graduate students who have gone through the experience of an in-class research project serve as mentors for undergraduate interns. Even the condensed time frame yields positive outcomes including joint publications between faculty, staff, graduate students and undergraduate students in the peer-reviewed literature.

  7. Leading into the Future: Perceptions of School Board Presidents on the Essential Knowledge and Skills for Superintendent Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripses, Jenny; Hunt, John; Kim, JoHyun; Watkins, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reports in the media on American public schools are pretty dismal. Accountability measures enacted with the passing of the No Child Left Behind Law of 2002 include federal and state sanctions for school districts not making adequate yearly progress on state assessments. Typically these results are published locally, which only increases the…

  8. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  9. Faculty Needs, Doctoral Preparation, and the Future of Teacher Preparation Programs in the Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Kendra M.; Johnson, Harold; Antia, Shirin D.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to obtain and analyze data on the need for, and desired characteristics of, faculty in deaf education at American institutions of higher education (IHEs), and to assess the present and projected status of doctoral-level teacher preparation programs in deaf education at American IHEs. Program directors and…

  10. An Optical Lightning Simulator in an Electrified Cloud-Resolving Model to Prepare the Future Space Lightning Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovalo, Christophe; Defer, Eric; Pinty, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The future decade will see the launch of several space missions designed to monitor the total lightning activity. Among these missions, the American (Geostationary Lightning Mapper - GLM) and European (Lightning Imager - LI) optical detectors will be onboard geostationary satellites (GOES-R and MTG, respectively). For the first time, the total lightning activity will be monitored over the full Earth disk and at a very high temporal resolution (2 and 1 ms, respectively). Missions like the French Tool for the Analysis of Radiation from lightNIng and Sprites (TARANIS) and ISS-LIS will bring complementary information in order to better understand the lightning physics and to improve the weather prediction (nowcasting and forecasting). Such missions will generate a huge volume of new and original observations for the scientific community and weather prediction centers that have to be prepared. Moreover, before the launch of these missions, fundamental questions regarding the interpretation of the optical signal property and its relation to cloud optical thickness and lightning discharge processes need to be further investigated. An innovative approach proposed here is to use the synergy existing in the French MesoNH Cloud-Resolving Model (CRM). Indeed, MesoNH is one of the only CRM able to simulate the lifecycle of electrical charges generated within clouds through non-inductive charging process (dependent of the 1-moment microphysical scheme). The lightning flash geometry is based on a fractal law while the electrical field is diagnosed thanks to the Gauss' law. The lightning optical simulator is linked to the electrical scheme as the lightning radiance at 777.4 nm is a function of the lightning current, approximated by the charges neutralized along the lightning path. Another important part is the scattering of this signal by the hydrometeors (mainly ice particles) that is taken into account. Simulations at 1-km resolution are done over the Langmuir Laboratory (New

  11. Today Is the Tomorrow We Talked about Yesterday: Preparing Students for Working in the Office of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matherly, Donna J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses changes in the office environment due to increased automation. Topics include (1) what changes will occur, (2) how they will affect office workers, and (3) how to prepare students for work in automated offices. (CH)

  12. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  13. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  14. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  15. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  16. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  17. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  18. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  19. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  20. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  1. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  2. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  3. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  4. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  5. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  8. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  9. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  10. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  11. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  12. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  13. "I Actually Learned a Lot from This": A Field Assignment to Prepare Future Preservice Math Teachers for Culturally Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Jayne A.; Cobbs, Georgia A.

    2007-01-01

    Teacher education programs are cognizant of the need to prepare preservice teachers (PTs) to work effectively with children from diverse cultural backgrounds. Well-constructed field experiences can help PTs develop awareness and gain understanding of important cultural considerations related to effective teaching and learning (Sleeter, 2001). This…

  14. The Future of Principal Preparation and Principal Evaluation: Reflections of the Current Policy Context for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sheneka M.

    2015-01-01

    As the federal role in education continuously evolves, accountability pressures for performance extend from classrooms to principals' offices. This newer form of accountability is changing the landscape of how school leaders are prepared, and ultimately, how they are evaluated. For some time, the onus of student achievement has been placed on…

  15. Preparing Medical Graduates for an Interconnected World: Current Practices and Future Possibilities for Internationalizing the Medical Curriculum in Different Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stütz, Alexander; Green, Wendy; McAllister, Lindy; Eley, Diann

    2015-01-01

    Preparing medical graduates who are competent to work in a global environment requires broad integration of international and intercultural perspectives throughout the medical curriculum. Employing Leask and Bridge's "conceptual framework of internationalisation of the curriculum," this article first highlights the emphasis placed…

  16. Restructuring Principal Preparation in Illinois: Perspectives on Implementation Successes, Challenges, and Future Outlook. Policy Research: IERC 2015-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klostermann, Brenda K.; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Hart, Holly; White, Bradford R.; Huynh, Michelle Hanh

    2015-01-01

    In June 2010, the Illinois General Assembly passed Public Act 96-0903, a sweeping restructuring of the preparation of school principals and assistant principals that represented 10 years of effort from a broad coalition of stakeholders. The restructuring in Illinois was part of a movement nationwide to provide stronger training for principals in…

  17. Use of Tablet PCs to Enhance Instruction and Promote Group Collaboration in a Course to Prepare Future Mathematics Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Aimee J.; Wilson, Jill H.; Nugent, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    This article details the use of tablet PCs in a mathematics content course for future Mathematics Specialists. Instructors used tablet PCs instead of a traditional whiteboard to capture demonstration and discussion. Students were grouped for collaborative problem solving and exploration exercises. Each group was provided with a tablet PC for…

  18. The Two-Year College Course at UNC-Chapel Hill: An Experiment in Preparing Future Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Neal, Edward M.

    The graduate-level course on the two-year college described in this paper focuses on having students create a hypothetical college, Orange County Community College (OCCC), and apply futures research techniques in the strategic planning process. Following introductory comments, course objectives are enumerated; i.e., develop a perspective of the…

  19. The Journey of a Science Teacher: Preparing Female Students in the Training Future Scientists after School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Hill, Rona M.

    2013-01-01

    What affect does female participation in the Training Future Scientist (TFS) program based on Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and Maslow's Hierarchies of Needs have on female adolescents' achievement levels in science and their attitude toward science and interest in science-based careers? The theoretical framework for this study was developed…

  20. Preparing nursing students for the future: Development and implementation of an Australian Bachelor of Nursing programme with a community health focus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Browning, Mark; Robinson, Eddie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper focuses on changes in the educational preparation of undergraduate nurses in line with contemporary primary and preventative healthcare models. We evaluated a new Australian nursing and community care degree programme using focus groups with 38 students in their first years of study, and quantitative performance data (regarding entry, performance and course attrition). Four main themes were identified related to students' course experience: 'I think community health should be an elective'; 'Focus on relevance to practice'; 'Teaching by non-nursing academics' and 'Access to support during transition to university.' Overall pass rates were 94% (first year) and 97% (second year) with a low 11% attrition rate. We conclude that based on prior experiences and stereotypical views, students may be ambivalent about the inclusion of primary and preventative care models which nevertheless are essential to enhance practice and to prepare the future nursing workforce. PMID:25549746

  1. Preparing nursing students for the future: development and implementation of an Australian Bachelor of Nursing program with a community health focus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Browning, Mark; Robinson, Eddie

    2014-10-27

    Abstract This paper focuses on changes in the educational preparation of undergraduate nurses in line with contemporary primary and preventative healthcare models. We evaluated a new Australian nursing and community care degree program using focus groups with 38 students in their first years of study, and quantitative performance data (regarding entry, performance and course attrition). Four main themes were identified related to students' course experience: 'I think community health should be an elective'; 'Focus on relevance to practice'; 'Teaching by non-nursing academics' and 'Access to support during transition to university'. Overall pass rates were 94% (1st year) and 97% (2nd year) with a low 11% attrition rate. We conclude that based on prior experiences and stereotypical views, students may be ambivalent about the inclusion of primary and preventative care models which nevertheless are essential to enhance practice and to prepare the future nursing workforce. PMID:25346214

  2. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    PubMed

    Zobel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for dicot plant root systems. PMID:26904040

  3. Preparing the future nurses for nursing research: a creative teaching strategy for RN-to-BSN students.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chang, Chia-Hao; Liou, Shwu-Ru

    2014-02-01

    Developing effective teaching strategies to stimulate students' interest and enthusiasm are urgently needed in current research courses. The purposes of the study were to implement the Cookie Experiments teaching strategy in research course and examine the effects of the strategy on students' attitudes towards nursing research. The study was a pretest-post-test design with 95 students at a Registered Nurses to Bachelor of Science in Nursing (RN-to-BSN) program enrolled in the nursing research course. Results indicated that there was a significant effect of the Cookie Experiments teaching strategy on students' attitudes towards research. Although students perceived a median high score of pressure from the research course, they regarded that the pressure is conducive to their learning of research. Students highly suggested to continuously applying this teaching strategy in the future nursing research courses. Developing and using various teaching strategies with attractive and hands-on methods to motivate nurse students, learning research is strongly recommended. PMID:24580972

  4. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  5. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  6. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  7. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  8. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  9. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  10. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...

  11. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  12. The journey of a science teacher: Preparing female students in the Training Future Scientists after school program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson-Hill, Rona M.

    What affect does female participation in the Training Future Scientist (TFS) program based on Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and Maslow's Hierarchies of Needs have on female adolescents' achievement levels in science and their attitude toward science and interest in science-based careers? The theoretical framework for this study was developed through a constructivist perspective, using dialogic engagement, coinciding with Lev Vygotsky's sociocultural learning theory. This action research project used mixed methods research design, targeted urban adolescent females who were members of Boys & Girls Club of Greater St. Louis (BGCGSTL) after-school program. The data collection measures were three qualitative instruments (semi-structured interviews, reflective journal entries and attitudinal survey open-ended responses) and two quantitative instruments (pre-test and posttests over the content from the Buckle-down Curriculum and attitudinal survey scaled responses). The goal was to describe the impact the Training Future Scientist (TFS) after-school program has on the girls' scientific content knowledge, attitude toward choosing a science career, and self-perception in science. Through the TFS after-school program participants had access to a secondary science teacher-researcher, peer leaders that were in the 9th--12th grade, and Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) role models from Washington University Medical School Young Scientist Program (YSP) graduate and medical students and fellows as volunteers. The program utilized the Buckle-down Curriculum as guided, peer-led cooperative learning groups, hands-on labs and demonstrations facilitated by the researcher, trained peer leaders and/or role models that used constructivist science pedagogy to improve test-taking strategies. The outcomes for the TFS study were an increase in science content knowledge, a positive trend in attitude change, and a negative trend in choosing a science career. Keywords: informal

  13. Zero-Based Strategic Thinking: Real Innovation Shifts the Focus to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Grant

    2014-01-01

    As recently as five years ago, educators politely listened to, and largely ignored, suggestions that the world is changing at a dramatic rate and that education must adapt. Today, many educators agree that the traditional Industrial Age model of learning no longer adequately prepares students for their futures. As a result, many schools, and…

  14. Astrobiology and habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions: trends from investigating minerals, organics and biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Röling, W. F. M.; Thiel, C. S.; Quinn, R.; Sephton, M. A.; Stoker, C.; Kotler, J. M.; Direito, S. O. L.; Martins, Z.; Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; van Sluis, C. A.; Foing, B. H.

    2011-07-01

    compounds from host matrices to enable the effective detection of biomarkers during future sampling campaigns on Earth and Mars.

  15. Now and for the Future: Adequate and Equitable K-12 Facilities in Wyoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    21st Century School Fund, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This white paper provides the conclusion of the 21st Century School Fund and JFW, Inc. inquiry into and analysis of Wyoming's current programs for managing and funding its K-12 public school facilities. The Wyoming School Facilities Department engaged 21CSF and JFW, Inc. to provide an independent analysis of the state's current building portfolio…

  16. Maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the nutritional and fluid requirements of enterally-fed patients can be challenging and the practicalities of ensuring adequate delivery must be taken into consideration. Patients who are enterally fed can be more reliant on clinicians, family members and carers to meet their nutrition and hydration needs and identify any deficiencies, excesses or problems with delivery. Estimating a patient's requirements can be challenging due to the limitations of using predictive equations in the clinical setting. Close monitoring by all those involved in the patient's care, as well as regular review by a dietitian, is therefore required to balance the delivery of adequate feed and fluids to meet each patient's individual needs and prevent the complications of malnutrition and dehydration. Increasing the awareness of the signs of malnutrition and dehydration in patients receiving enteral tube feeding among those involved in a patient's care will help any deficiencies to be detected early on and rectified before complications occur. PMID:26087203

  17. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  18. Preparing PhD-Level Clinical Social Work Practitioners for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzoff, Joan; Drisko, James

    2015-01-01

    Social work doctoral programs are not adequately preparing students to educate future clinical practitioners. Social work is predominantly a practice profession. Social work's PhD programs must continue the education of excellent researchers while also educating for excellence in practice, teaching, field liaison, and the supervision of practice.…

  19. Adequation of mini satellites to oceanic altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaieche, G.; Aguttes, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Association of the mini satellite concept and oceanic altimetry missions is discussed. Mission definition and most constraining requirements (mesoscale for example) demonstrate mini satellites to be quite adequate for such missions. Progress in altimeter characteristics, orbit determination, and position reporting allow consideration of oceanic altimetry missions using low Earth orbit satellites. Satellite constellation, trace keeping and orbital period, and required payload characteristics are exposed. The mission requirements covering Sun synchronous orbit, service area, ground system, and launcher characteristics as well as constellation maintenance strategy are specified. Two options for the satellite, orbital mechanics, propulsion, onboard power and stabilizing subsystems, onboard management, satellite ground linkings, mechanical and thermal subsystems, budgets, and planning are discussed.

  20. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  1. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  2. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  3. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  4. Are PPS payments adequate? Issues for updating and assessing rates

    PubMed Central

    Sheingold, Steven H.; Richter, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Declining operating margins under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) have focused attention on the adequacy of payment rates. The question of whether annual updates to the rates have been too low or cost increases too high has become important. In this article we discuss issues relevant to updating PPS rates and judging their adequacy. We describe a modification to the current framework for recommending annual update factors. This framework is then used to retrospectively assess PPS payment and cost growth since 1985. The preliminary results suggest that current rates are more than adequate to support the cost of efficient care. Also discussed are why using financial margins to evaluate rates is problematic and alternative methods that might be employed. PMID:10127450

  5. Partial Discharge Characteristics of Polymer Nanocomposite Materials in Electrical Insulation: A Review of Sample Preparation Techniques, Analysis Methods, Potential Applications, and Future Trends

    PubMed Central

    Izzati, Wan Akmal; Adzis, Zuraimy; Shafanizam, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites have recently been attracting attention among researchers in electrical insulating applications from energy storage to power delivery. However, partial discharge has always been a predecessor to major faults and problems in this field. In addition, there is a lot more to explore, as neither the partial discharge characteristic in nanocomposites nor their electrical properties are clearly understood. By adding a small amount of weight percentage (wt%) of nanofillers, the physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of polymers can be greatly enhanced. For instance, nanofillers in nanocomposites such as silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) play a big role in providing a good approach to increasing the dielectric breakdown strength and partial discharge resistance of nanocomposites. Such polymer nanocomposites will be reviewed thoroughly in this paper, with the different experimental and analytical techniques used in previous studies. This paper also provides an academic review about partial discharge in polymer nanocomposites used as electrical insulating material from previous research, covering aspects of preparation, characteristics of the nanocomposite based on experimental works, application in power systems, methods and techniques of experiment and analysis, and future trends. PMID:24558326

  6. Partial discharge characteristics of polymer nanocomposite materials in electrical insulation: a review of sample preparation techniques, analysis methods, potential applications, and future trends.

    PubMed

    Izzati, Wan Akmal; Arief, Yanuar Z; Adzis, Zuraimy; Shafanizam, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites have recently been attracting attention among researchers in electrical insulating applications from energy storage to power delivery. However, partial discharge has always been a predecessor to major faults and problems in this field. In addition, there is a lot more to explore, as neither the partial discharge characteristic in nanocomposites nor their electrical properties are clearly understood. By adding a small amount of weight percentage (wt%) of nanofillers, the physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of polymers can be greatly enhanced. For instance, nanofillers in nanocomposites such as silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) play a big role in providing a good approach to increasing the dielectric breakdown strength and partial discharge resistance of nanocomposites. Such polymer nanocomposites will be reviewed thoroughly in this paper, with the different experimental and analytical techniques used in previous studies. This paper also provides an academic review about partial discharge in polymer nanocomposites used as electrical insulating material from previous research, covering aspects of preparation, characteristics of the nanocomposite based on experimental works, application in power systems, methods and techniques of experiment and analysis, and future trends. PMID:24558326

  7. Maintenance of an Adequate Dental Hygiene Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ley, Eugene; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administrative decisions about the future of dental hygiene programs are often based on inadequate information about employment trends and about the importance of the dental hygienist in dental practices. Studies indicate that demand for dental hygiene services will remain high in the 1980s. (Author/MLW)

  8. Space Science: Past, Present and Future. Report Prepared by the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications. Transmitted to the Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, Serial O.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

    Congressional hearings held on October 8-10, 1985, were meant to characterize the attributes of past successes of the United States' efforts in the space sciences, and to project the direction of future research in that area. This report prepared by the subcommittee on space science and application includes recommendations of expert panels on…

  9. Nursing's Preferred Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydelotte, Myrtle K.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses future trends for society and relates them to future roles and characteristics of nursing. She presents strategies that nursing professionals should use to be prepared for the stated trends. (CH)

  10. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  11. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  12. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    PubMed

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  13. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  14. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  15. Requirements on Atmospheric Entry of Small Probes for Several Planets: Venus, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus in Preparation for the Future ESA Cosmic Vision Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomuta, D.; Rebuffat, D.; Larranaga, J.; Erd, C.; Bavdaz, M.; Falkner, P.

    2011-02-01

    In preparation for the ESA Cosmic Vision new call for medium class missions, a set of entry probes for inner and outer planets have been preliminary investigated by ESA using its Concurrent Design Facility. These Entry Probe missions are hypothetically assumed for launching time 2020-2035. A preliminary design of the probes arrived at a mass of about 300kg. In the following, the study is focused on the entry conditions for each of the planets Venus, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus with the aim to define the conditions for the Entry and Descent System (EDS) and its required technologies. For Venus case, two scenarios where considered: one where the entry probe is released during a typical gravity assist by a large interplanetary mission and another scenario featuring a stand alone mission targeted to Venus. During the entry in Venus atmosphere (mainly composed of CO2 (96.5%) and N2 (3.5%)), the probes are subjected to maximum heat fluxes of 60MW/m2, which is highly demanding in both scenarios. For the outer planet missions, only flyby scenarios with a targeted release of the probe were considered. The entry probes for the outer planets are subjected to heat fluxes above 100MW/m2, which is even more challenging the Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) and therefore requiring the use of special high temperature protection technology to prevent the destruction during the entry. ESA efforts for future missions are directed towards the development of an European Light Ablative Material (ELAM), though used in PEP study only for the Back Cover of the Entry Module. The TPS as well as both radiative and convective heat fluxes need simulations and verification by means of ground facility experiments. Based on the lessons learned from previous mission studies (mission to a near-Earth objects c.f. Marco Polo, Deimos Sample return), an Atmospheric Mars Sample Return is now under study. For sample return missions on return to Earth, a passive re-entry capsule delivering the sample

  16. Are family medicine residents adequately trained to deliver palliative care?

    PubMed Central

    Mahtani, Ramona; Kurahashi, Allison M.; Buchman, Sandy; Webster, Fiona; Husain, Amna; Goldman, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore educational factors that influence family medicine residents’ (FMRs’) intentions to offer palliative care and palliative care home visits to patients. Design Qualitative descriptive study. Setting A Canadian, urban, specialized palliative care centre. Participants First-year (n = 9) and second-year (n = 6) FMRs. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with FMRs following a 4-week palliative care rotation. Questions focused on participant experiences during the rotation and perceptions about their roles as family physicians in the delivery of palliative care and home visits. Participant responses were analyzed to summarize and interpret patterns related to their educational experience during their rotation. Main findings Four interrelated themes were identified that described this experience: foundational skill development owing to training in a specialized setting; additional need for education and support; unaddressed gaps in pragmatic skills; and uncertainty about family physicians’ role in palliative care. Conclusion Residents described experiences that both supported and inadvertently discouraged them from considering future engagement in palliative care. Reassuringly, residents were also able to underscore opportunities for improvement in palliative care education. PMID:27035008

  17. Are hotspots of evolutionary potential adequately protected in southern California?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.; Hathaway, S.A.; Boys, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    Reserves are often designed to protect rare habitats, or "typical" exemplars of ecoregions and geomorphic provinces. This approach focuses on current patterns of organismal and ecosystem-level biodiversity, but typically ignores the evolutionary processes that control the gain and loss of biodiversity at these and other levels (e.g., genetic, ecological). In order to include evolutionary processes in conservation planning efforts, their spatial components must first be identified and mapped. We describe a GIS-based approach for explicitly mapping patterns of genetic divergence and diversity for multiple species (a "multi-species genetic landscape"). Using this approach, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA datasets from 21 vertebrate and invertebrate species in southern California to identify areas with common phylogeographic breaks and high intrapopulation diversity. The result is an evolutionary framework for southern California within which patterns of genetic diversity can be analyzed in the context of historical processes, future evolutionary potential and current reserve design. Our multi-species genetic landscapes pinpoint six hotspots where interpopulation genetic divergence is consistently high, five evolutionary hotspots within which genetic connectivity is high, and three hotspots where intrapopulation genetic diversity is high. These 14 hotspots can be grouped into eight geographic areas, of which five largely are unprotected at this time. The multi-species genetic landscape approach may provide an avenue to readily incorporate measures of evolutionary process into GIS-based systematic conservation assessment and land-use planning.

  18. Do we teach earth science in situ adequately?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhmenkulova, I.; Zhitov, E.; Zhitova, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Russian education system for future earth scientists inherited many good features from ex-Soviet times. Some schools even have unique conditions for teaching earth sciences, both in general, and in situ. For example, at the Department of Geology and Geophysics (DGG) of Novosibirsk State University (NSU) students apart from traditional academic geoscience field excursions are supposed to participate in real scientific expeditions, and the materials they get as the result are actually the basis of their course papers, diploma thesis, and PhD thesis. This is possible because Novosibirsk State University works in close connection with scientific institutions (the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, the Institute of Oil and Gas Geophysics and others), and most instructors, professors and lecturers are from these institutions. There are five traditional field trips for DGG students of NSU: 1. Geology field trip at the Altay mountain region, a place of unique geological conditions and beautiful nature. 2. Geodesy field work in Academgorodok ( 30km from Novosibirsk). 3. Field trip in structural geology in Khakassia (Shira, the southern part of the Krasnoyarsk region, Siberia) (NSU has its own field camp there). 4. Geophysics field work in Burmistrovo (NSU has its own field camp there). 5. Mineralogy field trip in Tuva (Siberia). Besides the above mentioned field trips (being the academic part DGG education) each student is supposed to participate in at least one real scientific field trip for BsD, in two trips for MsD and much more for PhD. These field trips are chosen by students and the geography of these trips covers Siberia, Far East, Kamchatka, Sahkalin, and even foreign countries (Mongolia, China, etc). The students pay neither for their academic education, not for their later field trips; on the contrary, they get money for their work in real scientific field trips. However, there are many problems the Russian education system and universities face these days

  19. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  20. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  1. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  2. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  3. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  4. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  5. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  6. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  7. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  8. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  9. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  10. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  11. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  12. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  13. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  14. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  15. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  16. Preparing Teachers of Young Children: The Current State of Knowledge, and a Blueprint for the Future. Part 2: Effective Teacher Preparation in Early Care and Education: Toward a Comprehensive Research Agenda. Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; Gomby, Deanna; Bellm, Dan; Sakai, Laura; Kipnis, Fran

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to broaden the discussion about effective teacher preparation by exploring three hypotheses designed to expand the early care and education (ECE) research agenda: (1) Both the content and the method of delivery of an educational degree influence teacher practices; (2) Teachers' ability to apply knowledge and skills effectively…

  17. Society, Schools, and Teacher Preparation. A Report of the Commission on the Future Education of Teachers. Teacher Education Monograph No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlosky, Donald E., Ed.

    While the major thrust of this monograph is to recommend procedures for the preparation of teachers, it is also emphasized that educational reform and school improvement depend upon the realistic clarification of the separate and interdependent roles of society and the parents of students. This report presents recommendations for improving teacher…

  18. The Leap of a Provincial SME into the Global Market Using E-commerce: The Success of Adequate Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; García Salcines, Enrique; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; López Coronado, Miguel; de Castro Lozano, Carlos

    The leap into the global market is not easy when it involves a provincial family business. This article demonstrates how adequate planning is fundamental in a small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) with the tight budget they have available to them, in order to be able to differentiate themselves in a highly competitive market, taking into accounts the benefits and risks involved. The Information Technology (IT) tools put in place will give the necessary support and allow for the possibility of increasing and improving the infrastructure as the company requires. An adequate strategy for the future to increases sales would be e-marketing techniques as well as the current promotions which contribute to diffusing the brand.

  19. Preparing Future Teachers to Anticipate Student Difficulties in Physics in a Graduate-Level Course in Physics, Pedagogy, and Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John R.; Christensen, Warren M.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe courses designed to help future teachers reflect on and discuss both physics content and student knowledge thereof. We use three kinds of activities: reading and discussing the literature, experiencing research-based curricular materials, and learning to use the basic research methods of physics education research. We present a general…

  20. Preparing Future Teachers through Distance Learning: An Empirical Study on Students' Perception of Teacher Education Program Provided by AIOU Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Mohammed; Ali, Akhtar; Maqbool, Saira

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyse the pre service teachers training programs for the distance learners of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan. This kind of training is provided to the future teachers enrolled to acquire pre service training to become a teacher in a Government educational institution in Pakistan.…

  1. Sample preparation prior to molecular amplification: complexities and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Butot, Sophie; Zuber, Sophie; Baert, Leen

    2014-02-01

    Molecular amplification using Reverse Transcription quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) is currently considered as the gold standard to detect enteric human pathogenic viruses such as norovirus and hepatitis A virus in food and water. However, the molecular-based detection requires an adequate sampling strategy and a sample preparation specific for viruses. Sampling for enteric human viruses in water and food should not necessarily follow bacterial sampling plans. The development of a reference detection method including sample preparation as proposed in ISO/TS 15216 represents a milestone to facilitate the evaluation of the performance and eventually validation of future virus detection methods. The potential viral infectivity linked to a positive PCR result is a remaining issue and pretreatments allowing the differentiation of infectious viruses would be useful for future risk assessments. PMID:24441295

  2. Looking Into the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    1973-01-01

    Article lists well known futurists and suggests to teachers that they should no longer try to shape children to fit a static world, but should try to prepare them for a wide range of possible futures. (GB)

  3. Plan for the future of neutron research on condensed matter: an Argonne National Laboratory report prepared in response to the Report of the Review Panel on Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-27

    The Review Panel on Neutron Scattering has recommended an expanded budget to allow systematic development of the field. An alternative plan for the future of neutron research on condensed matter is presented here, in case it is not possible to fund the expanded budget. This plan leads, in a rational and logical way, to a world-class neutron source that will ensure the vitality of the field and exploit the many benefits that state-of-the-art neutron facilities can bring to programs in the materials and biological sciences. 2 tables. (RWR)

  4. Impacting Health Disparities in Urban Communities: Preparing Future Healthcare Providers for "Neighborhood-Engaged Care" Through a Community Engagement Course Intervention.

    PubMed

    Alicea-Alvarez, Norma; Reeves, Kathleen; Lucas, Matthew S; Huang, Diana; Ortiz, Melanie; Burroughs, Tariem; Jones, Nora

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that health disparities exist and that a significant majority of patients who suffer disproportionately from them are lower income, non-white residents of dense, and diverse urban neighborhoods. It is our belief that factors hindering the reduction of health disparities in these neighborhoods are a lack of a framework and preparation needed to engage these communities in identifying specific health care needs. This paper describes one curricular intervention, a graduate level community engagement course, developed within an academic medical center located in an urban setting, that demonstrates promise in effecting change in the extent to which clinicians are able to engage communities and practice "neighborhood-engaged care" with the central goal of mitigating disparities. PMID:27270912

  5. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-evident (general anesthetics, drug metabolism). (3) The method of selection of subjects provides adequate... respect to pertinent variables such as age, sex, severity of disease, duration of disease, and use of... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies....

  6. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  7. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  8. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  9. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a)...

  10. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care §...

  11. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  12. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  13. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  14. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

  15. BIRDY: an interplanetary CubeSat to collect radiation data on the way to Mars and back to prepare the future manned missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segret, Boris; Vannitsen, Jordan; Agnan, Marco; Porquet, Audrey; Sleimi, Oussema; Deleflie, Florent; Miau, Jiun-Jih; Juang, Jyh-Ching; Wang, Kaiti

    2014-08-01

    BIRDY is a 3-Unit CubeSat that is piggy-backed on a host mission to Mars and jettisoned at the beginning of the journey. Then it operates in full autonomy: no assistance, no communication but a beacon signal. The mission profile is a new contribution in Space Weather monitoring and an opportunity to assess the risks in the manned missions to Mars. It counts energetic particles in the maximum range 1 MeV/nucleon to 1 GeV/nucleon. The ground segment prepares a finetuned trajectory to be stored on-board, on the basis of the planed trajectory of the host mission that provides the main delta-V but not the ideal path. It makes the CubeSat compatible with almost all missions going to Mars. During the cruise, the CubeSat relies on an optical planet tracking system to locate itself and on small electrical thrusters to adapt its trajectory and perform the exact flyby at Mars that permits to come back to the Earth. The science data are collected all along the journey and only uploaded once in Mars' vicinity to one of the existing Martian orbiters or rovers, and once at the arrival back to the Earth. More widely than its own scientific mission, BIRDY demonstrates a new way to gather data from distant locations in the solar system. The project is an educational space mission, essentially leaded and designed by students from different educational levels in France and in Taiwan.

  16. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  17. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  18. Mapping student response team activities to public health competencies: are we adequately preparing the next generation of public health practitioners?

    PubMed

    Montgomery, JoLynn P; Durbeck, Heidi; Thomas, Dana; Beck, Angela J; Sarigiannis, Amy N; Boulton, Matthew L

    2010-01-01

    This article compares activities of the University of Michigan School of Public Health Public Health Action Support Team (PHAST) to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists Applied Epidemiology Competencies (AECs) to determine the utility of using the competencies to assess extracurricular student training. We mapped the activities from eight PHAST trips occurring from 2006 to 2009 to the 34 AECs for Tier 1 epidemiologists by examining project activities to determine how closely they aligned with the AECs. PHAST trips provided students with opportunities to address 65% of the AECs; 29% of the AECs were addressed by all eight trips. The domains of AECs most often addressed by PHAST trips were leadership and systems thinking, cultural competency, and community dimensions of practice. Mapping PHAST trips to the AECs was useful for all public health students, not just epidemiologists in training. PMID:21133064

  19. The real world: BME graduates reflect on whether universities are providing adequate preparation for a career in industry.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Let's face it: In the United States, a college degree isn't what it used to be. These days, 46% of recent college graduates consider themselves underemployed and in jobs that do not require their college degrees--degrees that have already cost many of these grads and their families hundreds of thousands of dollars in student loans, with no promise of a job and salary to pay those loans back. But engineering majors are said to be outliers. Engineering as a field is widely considered one of, if not the most, lucrative academic paths for students seeking well-paid employment immediately following college. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics indicates that nearly 40% of the 45 most highly paid professions that require only a bachelor's degree are in engineering. Salaries for all biomedical engineers, entry level or not, are among the highest, with a median pay of US$86,960. And engineering departments at colleges are not shy to advertise these numbers: the Biomedical Engineering Department at the University of Texas, Austin, declares on its Web page that, "electing to graduate with a major in biomedical engineering opens the door to an ever-growing amount of job opportunities," citing a 72%, ten-year job growth forecast. Boston University's program cites U.S. News and World Report's claim that BME is the country's fastest-growing occupation. PMID:25782113

  20. Do special constables in London feel that they are adequately prepared to meet their first aid responsibilities? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Meakin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study's aims were to explore the views of special constables in the London metropolitan police force concerning their obligations and skills as first aiders. Background The metropolitan police force provides police officers to act as first responders to emergency calls made by the public. Special constables act with the same powers and responsibility as police officers and are required to deal with incidents involving medical emergencies. Setting West London Police Station. Participants Fifteen special constables entered and completed the study. Methods and Outcome Measures A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews, participant observation, and reflective work. The outcome measures were the themes derived from the ‘thematic framework approach’ to analysis. Results Four main themes were identified. (1) ‘Our responsibility?’—Special constables felt they had a responsibility, but were unsure of the origin of this responsibility, with many feeling it stemmed from public expectation. (2) ‘Confidence’—Special constables had mixed feelings regarding their confidence in first aid scenarios and many felt that more could be done to improve their confidence. (3) ‘Training needs’—Many felt the current training system was lacking in several ways including regularity, teaching and content. (4) ‘Personal first aid knowledge’—Special constables were disappointed with their past performances. Conclusions Owing to the small size of this study, the conclusions are limited; however, if the findings are confirmed by larger studies, they suggest the need to improve the confidence of special constables in first aid situations. PMID:26826155

  1. Study of atmospheric and bidirectional effects on surface reflectance and vegetation index time series: Application to NOAA AVHRR and preparation for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the investigation, namely 'to characterize the atmospheric and directional effects on surface reflectance and vegetation index using the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISLCSP) Field Experiment (FIFE) data set, develop new algorithms to obtain better Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) indices, and define possible improvements for future satellite missions', were addressed in three separate, yet complementary studies. First, it was shown, from theoretical calculations, that visible and near infrared reflectances combined linearly at optimum (one or two) viewing angles relate linearly to the fraction of photosynthetically available radiation absorbed by plants, f(sub par), can be used independently of the type of foliage and substrate, eliminate the effects of sub-pixel spatial heterogeneity, and improve the accuracy of the f(sub par) estimates when compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI. Second, it was demonstrated that NDVI, even though it is not a linear combination of radiances or reflectances, can be spatially integrated without significant loss of information from scales of 300 to 1000 m. Third, AVHRR visible and near-infrared reflectances over the FIFE site, separating temporal and bidirectional components and determining the model parameters through an original iterative scheme was successfully modeled. It appears that NDVI generated from the top-of-atmosphere reflectances normalized by the bidirectional effects (as determined in the scheme) is a better vegetation index than maximum NDVI. Details about the three studies are presented.

  2. Study of atmospheric and bidirectional effects on surface reflectance and vegetation index time series: Application to NOAA AVHRR and preparation for future space missions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frouin, R.

    1993-06-01

    The objectives of the investigation, namely to characterize the atmospheric and directional effects on surface reflectance and vegetation index using the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISLCSP) Field Experiment (FIFE) data set, develop new algorithms to obtain better Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) indices, and define possible improvements for future satellite missions, were addressed in three separate, yet complementary studies. First, it was shown, from theoretical calculations, that visible and near infrared reflectances combined linearly at optimum (one or two) viewing angles relate linearly to the fraction of photosynthetically available radiation absorbed by plants, f[sub par], can be used independently of the type of foliage and substrate, eliminate the effects of sub-pixel spatial heterogeneity, and improve the accuracy of the f[sub par] estimates when compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI. Second, it was demonstrated that NDVI, even though it is not a linear combination of radiances or reflectances, can be spatially integrated without significant loss of information from scales of 300 to 1000 m. Third, AVHRR visible and near-infrared reflectances over the FIFE site, separating temporal and bidirectional components and determining the model parameters through an original iterative scheme was successfully modeled. It appears that NDVI generated from the top-of-atmosphere reflectances normalized by the bidirectional effects (as determined in the scheme) is a better vegetation index than maximum NDVI. Details about the three studies are presented.

  3. Teachers' Self-Assessed Level of Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan

    2013-01-01

    We asked high school physics teachers to assess their level of preparation across a number of domains. Almost all (98%) reported feeling adequately or well prepared in terms of their basic physics knowledge. The chart presents teachers' responses to their self-assessed level of preparation in six different areas. Almost all feel at least…

  4. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  5. Explicit training in human values and social attitudes of future engineers in Spain : commentary on "preparing to understand and use science in the real world: interdisciplinary study concentrations at the technical University of Darmstadt".

    PubMed

    Fabregat, Jaime

    2013-12-01

    In Spain before the 1990s there was no clear and explicit comprehensive training for future engineers with regard to social responsibility and social commitment. Following the Spanish university curricular reform, which began in the early 1990s, a number of optional subjects became available to students, concerning science, technology and society (STS), international cooperation, the environment and sustainability. The latest redefinition of the Spanish curriculum in line with the Bologna agreements has reduced the number of non-obligatory subjects, but could lead to improving preparation for social responsibility due to the requirement that the design of curricula and the assessment of students should be based on competencies, some of which include human values and attitudes. PMID:24218142

  6. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  7. HUANGLONGBING, CITRUS GREENING: PREPARING FOR THE FUTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), more commonly known as citrus greening disease, was found in Florida in August 2005; Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the Asian citrus psyllid and insect vector of HLB, was found in Florida in 1998. Since the initial discovery, the presence of HLB has been confirmed by polymerase cha...

  8. Preparing Future Secondary Computer Science Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajwa, Iyad

    2007-01-01

    Although nearly every college offers a major in computer science, many computer science teachers at the secondary level have received little formal training. This paper presents details of a project that could make a significant contribution to national efforts to improve computer science education by combining teacher education and professional…

  9. Teens and Technology: Preparing for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Georgia

    2006-01-01

    In the past two decades, economic, technological, demographic, and political forces have stimulated major change in the learning and working landscape for young people. Understanding how to use computers and other technology for learning, productivity, and performance has become as fundamental to a person's ability to navigate through school and…

  10. Preparing Future Faculty: Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sean P.; Aiossa, Elizabeth; Winter, Mary Mugica

    2010-01-01

    When Sean Murphy designed the Graduate Student Internship Program at the College of Lake County (CLC), his 2001 TETYC article about the then two-year-old program detailed his programmatic response to the job market. Ten years later, the CLC-DePaul University partnership remains the strongest of the original dozen cross-sector relationships CLC…

  11. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  12. Preparing Adolescents with Autism for Successful Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frea, William D.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents on the autism spectrum have unique challenges that are often hard for their parents, teachers, and peers to understand. While adolescence is a difficult time for most people, it is especially tough for teens who struggle to understand ever-changing social expectations. Since people on the autism spectrum rely on consistency and…

  13. Comparison of four standards for determining adequate water intake of nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Phyllis M

    2011-01-01

    Adequate hydration for nursing home residents is problematic. The purpose of this study was to compare four standards used to determine a recommended water intake among nursing home residents. Inconsistencies in the amount of water intake recommended based on the standards compared were identified. The standard based on height and weight provides the most individualized recommendation. An individualized recommendation would facilitate goal setting for the care plan of each older person and assist in the prevention of dehydration. It is essential that a cost-effective and clinically feasible approach to determine adequate water intake be determined for this population to prevent the adverse outcomes associated with dehydration. PMID:21469538

  14. Futures Conditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Robert

    The readings presented here are designed to help the reader perceive the future more vividly. Part one of the book suggests the various ways in which the future can be seen; it includes science fiction and the views of various analysts as to what the future holds. Part two collects printed materials about the future from various sources, including…

  15. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  16. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  17. Calculating and Reducing Errors Associated with the Evaluation of Adequate Yearly Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    In the Spring, 1996, issue of "CRESST Line," E. Baker and R. Linn commented that, in efforts to measure the progress of schools, "the fluctuations due to differences in the students themselves could conceal differences in instructional effects." This is particularly true in the context of the evaluation of adequate yearly progress required by…

  18. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  19. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  20. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...

  1. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  2. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  3. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  4. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  5. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  6. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  7. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  8. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  9. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  10. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  11. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  12. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  13. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  14. Special or Not so Special: Special Education Background Experiences of Principals and Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study researched the special education background experience of principals and the effect on students in the subgroup of Students with Disabilities in making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). In the state of Ohio, schools and districts are expected to make AYP as a whole and additionally make AYP for each subgroup (various…

  15. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6-12 (n = 1,203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in…

  16. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the State's requirements for availability of services, as set forth in § 438.206. (e) CMS' right... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and Performance... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services....

  17. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  18. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  19. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  20. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  1. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conducting clinical investigations of a drug is to distinguish the effect of a drug from other influences... recognized by the scientific community as the essentials of an adequate and well-controlled clinical... randomization and blinding of patients or investigators, or both. If the intent of the trial is to...

  2. Final 2004 Report on Adequate Yearly Progress in the Montgomery County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jose W.

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of Montgomery County public schools made sufficient progress on state testing and accountability standards in 2004 to comply with the adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements under the "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001." Information released by the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) in October 2004 shows that…

  3. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  4. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  5. Estimates of Adequate School Spending by State Based on National Average Service Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Jerry

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a method for estimating expenditures per student needed to provide educational adequacy in each state. Illustrates the method using U.S., Arkansas, New York, Texas, and Washington State data, covering instruction, special needs, operations and maintenance, administration, and other costs. Estimates ratios of "adequate" to actual spending…

  6. Leadership Style and Adequate Yearly Progress: A Correlational Study of Effective Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leapley-Portscheller, Claudia Iris

    2008-01-01

    Principals are responsible for leading efforts to reach increasingly higher levels of student academic proficiency in schools associated with adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to identify the degree to which perceptions of principal transformational, transactional, and…

  7. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...

  8. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate cost data and cost finding. 413.24 Section 413.24 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY...

  9. Principals' Perceptions of Effective Strategies in Meeting Adequate Yearly Progress in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jadie K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of principals who have met Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) with the special education subgroup. This was a qualitative study, utilizing interviews to answer the research questions. The first three research questions analyzed the areas of assessment, building-level leadership, and curriculum…

  10. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  11. 75 FR 74022 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... November 15, 2010 (75 FR 69648). The corrected text of the recommendation approved by the Board is below... or telephone number (202) 694-7000. Correction: In the Federal Register of November 15, 2010 (75 FR... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the...

  12. Evaluating Rural Progress in Mathematics Achievement: Threats to the Validity of "Adequate Yearly Progress"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    2003-01-01

    This article examines major threats to the validity of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in the context of rural schools. Although rural students and their schools made significant academic progress in the past on national and state assessments, the current goal of AYP turns out to be highly unrealistic for them unless states set far lower…

  13. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  14. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  15. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  16. What Is the Cost of an Adequate Vermont High School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Access to an adequate education has been widely considered an undeniable right since Chief Justice Warren stated in his landmark decision that "Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments...it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an…

  17. Dealing with future risks in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Tuyll, Maaike

    2013-09-01

    The national security strategy is the Dutch government's instrument for multihazard risk management and is intended to contribute to the prevention of societal disruption as a consequence of a (future) disaster or crisis in the Netherlands. It considers the likelihood that a certain incident will occur, the impact if it should occur, and what can be done to prevent the occurrence and/or reduce the impact. In other words, "which threats is the Netherlands faced with, how serious are they, and what can be done to mitigate the consequences?" By annually assessing the likelihood and impact of different scenarios, the government is able to continually improve its overview of risks and to determine priorities regarding the allocation of resources for the prevention of, preparation for, and response to threats. At the start of the annual cycle of the implementation of the national security strategy, possible scenarios are identified. These scenarios are then drawn up and assessed by the Network of Analysts for National Security, resulting in the national risk assessment (NRA). On the basis of this risk assessment, a capabilities analysis is performed. This capabilities analysis assesses whether the country (government, private sector, and civilians) has sufficient capabilities (people, material, knowledge, skills, and procedures) at its disposal to adequately deal with the threat, and it considers which capabilities should be strengthened or developed. Finally, a report is prepared for the council of ministers. On the basis of this report, the cabinet decides which capabilities will be strengthened. PMID:23971823

  18. [Present and future of neurology in Spain].

    PubMed

    Illa Sendra, I; García De Yébenes Prous, J; Ramo Tello, C; Polo Esteban, J M; Molinuevo Guix, J L; Robles Bayón, A; Mulas Delgado, F; Alvarez Sabín, J; Aguilar Barbera, M; Berciano Blanco JA, J A; Blesa González, R; Carnero Pardo, C; Castillo Sánchez, J; Del Ser Quijano, T; Ferrer Abizanda, I; García-Albea Ristol, E; Gómez Isla, T; Graus Ribas, F; Jiménez Hernández, M D; Liaño Martínez, H; Matías Guiu-Guia, J; Zarranz Imirizaldu, J J; Paradas López, C; Elena Martínez, G; Maltas Pérez, G; Ponce Rodríguez, M T

    2001-11-01

    This is a document prepared by the Spanish Society of Neurology (SEN), which was given to the President of Spain (Mr. José María Aznar) last September with the main aim of examining the current situation of Neurology in our country. It analyses the present and future of Neurology in clinical assistance, teaching and research. To prepare this document the criteria of patients' associations has been considered, including the Declaration of Madrid which has been subscribed by thirty of these associations. In spite of its relevant development in the previous decades, the current situation of Neurology in Spain is far from the ideal. To reach the recommendable menber of 3 or 4 neurologists per 100,000 inhabitants it is necessary to duplicate the present number of neurologists which has been estimated around 2/100,000; this situation is especially urgent in some Autonomous Communities. The most important problems in neurological assistance are: inadequate follow-up of the chronic outpatients, low numbers of neurological beds and of duties of Neurology, as well as of neurological case of patients with urgent neurological disorders. It is also necessary to increase the number of professors of Neurology to adequately cover pregraduate teaching; again there are important differences in teaching positions among Autonomous Communities. Neurology residence should be prolonged from 4 to 5 years. Finally, it is necessary to support the appearance of superespecialised units and to promote a coordinated research with other close specialities including basic neuroscience. PMID:11742621

  19. Fiber for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This is an interview with J.P. van Buijtenen, principal geneticist of the Texas Forest Service and professor at the Texas Agriculture Experiment Station, College Station, Texas. The maintenance of adequate supplies of wood and fiber for the pulp and paper industry is discussed. Tree improvement and more intensive forestry are highlighted as critical in attaining increased yields. Other topics discussed include: the establishment of second generation southern pine seed orchards, the economics of hardwood production in the South, and the future of short rotation energy plantations.

  20. Here Comes the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Robert; And Others

    This teacher's guide introduces students to problems and potentials of the future in an effort to prepare them for life in the 21st century. Based on an interdisciplinary approach, the lesson plans within four major units represent five futuristic trends and assumptions: (1) the shift of emphasis from subject matter to conceptual frameworks; (2)…

  1. Facing the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallin, Alice, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Ways that Catholic colleges and universities are trying to fulfill their role are discussed in articles by six college presidents and a church historian. In "The Catholic Liberal Art College: Has It a Future?" John Tracy Ellis notes some of the roots to be reaffirmed by Catholic colleges. In "Preparing for the Millennium," Theodore M. Hesburgh…

  2. Looking into the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Stirling

    1984-01-01

    After four months of public hearings, the MacDonald Commission established to look into Canada's future is now preparing its interim report. The 220,000-member Canadian Teachers' Federation has submitted a four-point proposal to the commission calling for a reaffirmation of the overriding importance of education. (JBM)

  3. Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters.

    PubMed

    Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Wehner, Martin; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Lampert, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart; Hermans, Martin; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of introducing ultra-short pulsed lasers (USPL) in restorative dentistry by maintaining the well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also overcoming disadvantages, such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. USPL ablation of dental hard tissues was investigated in two phases. Phase 1--different wavelengths (355, 532, 1,045, and 1,064 nm), pulse durations (picoseconds and femtoseconds) and irradiation parameters (scanning speed, output power, and pulse repetition rate) were assessed for enamel and dentin. Ablation rate was determined, and the temperature increase measured in real time. Phase 2--the most favorable laser parameters were evaluated to correlate temperature increase to ablation rate and ablation efficiency. The influence of cooling methods (air, air-water spray) on ablation process was further analyzed. All parameters tested provided precise and selective tissue ablation. For all lasers, faster scanning speeds resulted in better interaction and reduced temperature increase. The most adequate results were observed for the 1064-nm ps-laser and the 1045-nm fs-laser. Forced cooling caused moderate changes in temperature increase, but reduced ablation, being considered unnecessary during irradiation with USPL. For dentin, the correlation between temperature increase and ablation efficiency was satisfactory for both pulse durations, while for enamel, the best correlation was observed for fs-laser, independently of the power used. USPL may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, since effective ablation and low temperature increase were observed. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this technique seems to be promising for promoting the laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach. PMID:22565342

  4. The influence of health literacy on comprehension of a colonoscopy preparation information leaflet

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Samuel G.; von Wagner, Christian; McGregor, Lesley M.; Curtis, Laura M.; Wilson, Elizabeth A. H.; Serper, Marina; Wolf, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Successful bowel preparation is important for safe, efficacious, cost-effective colonoscopy procedures, however poor preparation is common. OBJECTIVE We sought to determine if there was an association between health literacy and comprehension of typical written instructions on how to prepare for a colonoscopy to enable more targeted interventions in this area. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study SETTING Primary care clinics and federally qualified health centres in Chicago, Illinois. PATIENTS 764 participants (mean age: 63 years; Standard Deviation: 5.42) were recruited. The sample was from a mixed socio-demographic background and 71.9% of the participants were classified as having adequate health literacy scores. INTERVENTION 764 participants were presented with an information leaflet outlining the bowel preparatory instructions for colonoscopy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Five questions assessing comprehension of the instructions in an ‘open book’ test. RESULTS Comprehension scores on the bowel preparation items were low. The mean number of items correctly answered was 3.2 (Standard Deviation, 1.2) out of a possible 5. Comprehensions scores overall and for each individual item differed significantly by health literacy level (all p<0.001). After controlling for gender, age, race, socio-economic status and previous colonoscopy experience in a multivariable model, health literacy was a significant predictor of comprehension (inadequate vs. adequate: β = −0.2; p < 0.001; marginal vs. adequate: β = −0.2; p < 0.001). LIMITATIONS The outcome represents a simulated task and not actual comprehension of preparation instructions for participants’ own recommended behavior. CONCLUSIONS Comprehension of a written colonoscopy preparation leaflet was generally low and significantly more so among people with low health literacy. Poor comprehension has implications for the safety and economic impact of gastroenterological procedures such as colonoscopy

  5. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it. PMID:15260028

  6. A novel strategy to overcome resistance in stent placement at lesion site after adequate predilatation.

    PubMed

    Jain, D; Tolg, R; Katus, H A; Richardt, G

    2000-12-01

    Resistance was encountered in passing a 3 x 18 mm stent across a lesion in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. Successive changes in stent with repeated balloon dilatations did not succeed. Finally, a 9 mm stent was passed across the lesion and deployed at the site of maximal resistance. The 18 mm stent was then placed through this stent. A novel strategy to overcome resistance in the stent passage through the lesion after an adequate balloon predilatation is reported. PMID:11103034

  7. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  8. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  9. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  10. Self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction differences in women with adequate and inadequate prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M

    1994-03-01

    This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care. PMID:8155221

  11. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  12. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, Richard M.; Dusek, Joseph T.

    1983-01-01

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  13. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  14. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  15. Chronic leg ulcer: does a patient always get a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment?

    PubMed

    Mooij, Michael C; Huisman, Laurens C

    2016-03-01

    Patients with chronic leg ulcers have severely impaired quality of life and account for a high percentage of annual healthcare costs. To establish the cause of a chronic leg ulcer, referral to a center with a multidisciplinary team of professionals is often necessary. Treating the underlying cause diminishes healing time and reduces costs. In venous leg ulcers adequate compression therapy is still a problem. It can be improved by training the professionals with pressure measuring devices. A perfect fitting of elastic stockings is important to prevent venous leg ulcer recurrence. In most cases, custom-made stockings are the best choice for this purpose. PMID:26916772

  16. Family Structure Types and Adequate Utilization of Antenatal Care in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Features of the health care delivery system may not be the only expounding factors of adequate utilization of antenatal care among women. Other social factors such as the family structure and its environment contribute toward pregnant women's utilization of antenatal care. An understanding of how women in different family structure types and social groups use basic maternal health services is important toward developing and implementing maternal health care policy in the post-Millennium Development Goal era, especially in the sub-Saharan Africa where maternal mortality still remains high. PMID:27214674

  17. Working group on the “adequate minimum” V=volcanic observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A working group consisting of R. I. Tilling (United States, Chairman), M. Espendola (Mexico), E. Malavassi (Costa Rica), L. Villari (Italy), and J.P Viode (France) met on the island of Guadeloupe on February 20, 1981, to discuss informally the requirements for a "Minimum" volcano observatory, one which would have the essential monitoring equipment and staff to provide reliable information on the state of an active volcno. Given the premise that any monitoring of a volcano is better than none at all, the owrking group then proceeded to consider the concept of an "adequate minimum" observatory. 

  18. Combination and triple therapy in patients with stable angina pectoris not adequately controlled by optimal β-blocker therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kok, W.E.M.; Visser, F.C.; Visser, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 60 to 80% of patients with stable angina pectoris at low risk for future coronary events, monotherapy with a β-blocker is an effective treatment. When patients with stable angina pectoris and low risk for events do not respond adequately to optimal β-blocker monotherapy, combination therapy or even triple therapy is may be recommended, but little is known of the actual benefit of such a strategy. We reviewed the evidence from the literature on the effectiveness of combination and triple therapy. Combination therapy with a calcium antagonist or nitrate was found to be more effective than β-blocker monotherapy in the majority of studies, but only an estimated 30% of patients objectively benefit from these combination therapies. Direct comparison shows that combination therapy of a β-blocker with a calcium antagonist is more effective than the combination of a β-blocker with a nitrate. An inadequate response to β-blocker monotherapy is more effectively improved by addition of a calcium antagonist than by alternative use of a calcium antagonist. The use of triple therapy is controversial and not recommended in patients with mild angina pectoris, while for patients with severe angina pectoris not responding to combination therapy of a β-blocker with a nitrate, triple therapy may be of advantage, although the number of patients studied has been small. PMID:25696045

  19. Partnering for the Clinical Preparation of Education Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Suzanne; Cote, Debra

    2016-01-01

    NCATE's (2010) "Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel" calls for a shift toward clinical preparation and partnerships as a means of adequately preparing new teachers for the 21st century classroom. Looking at special education teacher preparation, there exist few model programs that have paved the road for others in implementing new clinical…

  20. Campus Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dator, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Most people in the United States, no matter how extensive their education, have never had a course dealing primarily with the future. But they have had at least one course, and probably many courses, dealing with the past. Most also have never questioned why the past is so emphasized in formal education while the future--the only arena over which…

  1. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  2. Adequately-Sized Nanocarriers Allow Sustained Targeted Drug Delivery to Neointimal Lesions in Rat Arteries.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ryosuke; Miura, Yutaka; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Chida, Tsukasa; Anraku, Yasutaka; Kishimura, Akihiro; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    In atherosclerotic lesions, the endothelial barrier against the bloodstream can become compromised, resulting in the exposure of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and intimal cells beneath. In theory, this allows adequately sized nanocarriers in circulation to infiltrate into the intimal lesion intravascularly. We sought to evaluate this possibility using rat carotid arteries with induced neointima. Cy5-labeled polyethylene glycol-conjugated polyion complex (PIC) micelles and vesicles, with diameters of 40, 100, or 200 nm (PICs-40, PICs-100, and PICs-200, respectively) were intravenously administered to rats after injury to the carotid artery using a balloon catheter. High accumulation and long retention of PICs-40 in the induced neointima was confirmed by in vivo imaging, while the accumulation of PICs-100 and PICs-200 was limited, indicating that the size of nanocarriers is a crucial factor for efficient delivery. Furthermore, epirubicin-incorporated polymeric micelles with a diameter similar to that of PICs-40 showed significant curative effects in rats with induced neointima, in terms of lesion size and cell number. Specific and effective drug delivery to pre-existing neointimal lesions was demonstrated with adequate size control of the nanocarriers. We consider that this nanocarrier-based drug delivery system could be utilized for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:27183493

  3. Adequate Systemic Perfusion Maintained by a CentriMag during Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Favaloro, Roberto R.; Bertolotti, Alejandro; Diez, Mirta; Favaloro, Liliana; Gomez, Carmen; Peradejordi, Margarita; Trentadue, Julio; Hellman, Lorena; Arzani, Yanina; Otero, Pilar Varela

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support during severe acute heart failure presents options for myocardial recovery or cardiac replacement. Short-term circulatory support with the newest generation of magnetically levitated centrifugal-flow pumps affords several potential advantages. Herein, we present our experience with such a pump—the CentriMag® (Levitronix LLC; Waltham, Mass) centrifugal-flow ventricular assist device—in 4 critically ill patients who were in cardiogenic shock. From November 2007 through March 2008, 3 patients were supported after cardiac surgery, and 1 after chronic heart failure worsened. Two patients were bridged to heart transplantation, and 2 died during support. Perfusion during support was evaluated in terms of serum lactic acid levels and oxygenation values. In all of the patients, the CentriMag's pump flow was adequate, and continuous mechanical ventilation support was provided. Lactic acid levels substantially improved with CentriMag support and were maintained at near-normal levels throughout. At the same time, arterial pH, PO2, and carbon dioxide levels remained within acceptable ranges. No thromboembolic events or mechanical failures occurred. Our experience indicates that short-term use of the CentriMag ventricular assist device during acute heart failure can restore and adequately support circulation until recovery or until the application of definitive therapy. PMID:18941648

  4. [Factors associated with adequate prenatal care and delivery in São Tomé and Príncipe, 2008-2009].

    PubMed

    Reis, Patrícia Alexandra da Graça Dantas Dos; Pereira, Claudia Cristina de Aguiar; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-09-01

    We investigated factors associated with adequacy of prenatal and childbirth care for women in São Tomé and Príncipe. Data were analyzed from the Demographic and Health Survey on a sample of 1,326 newborn infants whose mothers were 15-49 years of age. The survey took place from September 2008 to March 2009. We used multilevel and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors and the target outcomes. Prenatal care was adequate in 26% of the sample, and 7% of deliveries were performed by physicians and 76% by nurses or nurse assistants. Statistically significant factors for prenatal care were birth order, maternal schooling, and index of economic well-being. The most important variables for adequate delivery were: birth order, maternal schooling, index of economic well-being, and place of residence. The study showed that socioeconomic factors have the greatest influence on adequate prenatal care and delivery. Future health policies should target social inequalities in São Tomé and Príncipe. PMID:26578017

  5. Do measures commonly used in body image research perform adequately with African American college women?

    PubMed

    Kashubeck-West, Susan; Coker, Angela D; Awad, Germine H; Stinson, Rebecca D; Bledman, Rashanta; Mintz, Laurie

    2013-07-01

    This study examines reliability and validity estimates for 3 widely used measures in body image research in a sample of African American college women (N = 278). Internal consistency estimates were adequate (α coefficients above .70) for all measures, and evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was found. Confirmatory factor analyses failed to replicate the hypothesized factor structures of these measures. Exploratory factor analyses indicated that 4 factors found for the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire were similar to the hypothesized subscales, with fewer items. The factors found for the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 were not similar to the subscales developed by the scale authors. Validity and reliability evidence is discussed for the new factors. PMID:23731233

  6. Esmolol in a case of severe tetanus. Adequate haemodynamic control achieved despite markedly elevated catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Lipman, J; Bothma, P A; Joynt, G M

    1994-03-01

    A patient with severe tetanus, who had a sympathetic crisis while sedated with 30 mg/h diazepam and 30 mg/h morphine, is described. Satisfactory control of the haemodynamic crisis was achieved with bolus doses of esmolol to a total of 180 mg. A disturbing finding was that although there was adequate control of the tachycardia and hypertension, arterial catecholamine levels remained markedly elevated. Adrenaline levels of 531 pg/ml (normal 10-110 pg/ml) and noradrenaline levels of 1,036 pg/ml (normal 100-500 pg/ml) were recorded when the patient had a systolic arterial pressure of 110 mmHg and a heart rate of 97/min. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:11218441

  7. Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation), it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose). Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium. PMID:25309756

  8. Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for gg → h at NNLO and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höschele, Maik; Hoff, Jens; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-09-01

    We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.

  9. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  10. Are the Psychological Needs of Adolescent Survivors of Pediatric Cancer Adequately Identified and Treated?

    PubMed Central

    Kahalley, Lisa S.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Tyc, Vida L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Stancel, Heather H.; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the psychological needs of adolescent survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or brain tumor (BT), we examined: (a) the occurrence of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional concerns identified during a comprehensive psychological evaluation, and (b) the frequency of referrals for psychological follow-up services to address identified concerns. Methods Psychological concerns were identified on measures according to predetermined criteria for 100 adolescent survivors. Referrals for psychological follow-up services were made for concerns previously unidentified in formal assessment or not adequately addressed by current services. Results Most survivors (82%) exhibited at least one concern across domains: behavioral (76%), cognitive (47%), and emotional (19%). Behavioral concerns emerged most often on scales associated with executive dysfunction, inattention, learning, and peer difficulties. CRT was associated with cognitive concerns, χ2(1,N=100)=5.63, p<0.05. Lower income was associated with more cognitive concerns for ALL survivors, t(47)=3.28, p<0.01, and more behavioral concerns for BT survivors, t(48)=2.93, p<0.01. Of survivors with concerns, 38% were referred for psychological follow-up services. Lower-income ALL survivors received more referrals for follow-up, χ2(1,N=41)=8.05, p<0.01. Referred survivors had more concerns across domains than non-referred survivors, ALL: t(39)=2.96, p<0.01, BT: t(39)=3.52, p<0.01. Trends suggest ALL survivors may be at risk for experiencing unaddressed cognitive needs. Conclusions Many adolescent survivors of cancer experience psychological difficulties that are not adequately managed by current services, underscoring the need for long-term surveillance. In addition to prescribing regular psychological evaluations, clinicians should closely monitor whether current support services appropriately meet survivors’ needs, particularly for lower-income survivors and those treated with CRT. PMID:22278930

  11. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., such as spontaneous change in the course of the disease, placebo effect, or biased observation. The... control are recognized: (i) Placebo concurrent control. The test drug is compared with an inactive preparation designed to resemble the test drug as far as possible. A placebo-controlled study may...

  12. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., such as spontaneous change in the course of the disease, placebo effect, or biased observation. The... control are recognized: (i) Placebo concurrent control. The test drug is compared with an inactive preparation designed to resemble the test drug as far as possible. A placebo-controlled study may...

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  16. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  18. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  19. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  20. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  1. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  2. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  3. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  4. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  5. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  6. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  7. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  8. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  9. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  10. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  11. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  12. Envisioning the Future: Worklife and Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peavy, R. Vance

    1993-01-01

    Describes scenarios of what work and personal life may be like in postmodern-postindustrial society and how societal changes may impact on lives of people. Based on futuristic observations, offers suggestions about how counseling can be revised to prepare counselors to more adequately meet needs of clients in postindustrial societies. (Author/NB)

  13. Study to Determine Adequate Margins in Radiotherapy Planning for Esophageal Carcinoma by Detailing Patterns of Recurrence After Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Button, Michael R. Morgan, Carys A.; Croydon, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, S. Ashley; Crosby, Thomas D.L.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the adequacy of radiotherapy (RT) margins by studying the relapse patterns after definitive chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study assessing the first site of disease relapse after definitive chemoradiotherapy that included four 3-weekly cycles of cisplatin and continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil, with conformal RT (50 Gy in 25 fractions) concurrent with Cycles 3 and 4. The RT planning target volume was the endoscopic ultrasonography/computed tomography-defined gross tumor volume with 1.5-cm lateral and 3-cm superoinferior margins. Results: A total of 145 patients were included. Their average age was 65.4 years, 45% had adenocarcinoma, 61% had lower third esophageal tumors, and 75% had Stage III-IVA disease. After RT, of 142 patients, 85 (60%) had evidence of relapse at a median follow-up of 18 months. The relapse was local (within the RT field) in 55; distant (metastatic) in 13, and a combination of local and distant in 14. The local relapse rates were not influenced by tumor stage, lymph node status, or disease length. Three patients developed a relapse in regions adjacent to the RT fields; however, it is unlikely that larger field margins would have been clinically acceptable or effective in these cases. The median overall survival was 15 months. Conclusion: The gross tumor volume-planning target volume margins in this study appeared adequate. Future efforts to improve outcomes using definitive chemoradiotherapy should be directed toward reducing the high rates of in-field and distant relapses.

  14. What nurses say they do and need: implications for the educational preparation of nurses.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Julianne; Jones, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    The scope of contemporary nursing is a critical factor in determining the appropriate educational preparation of nurses today and in the future. This qualitative study involved interviewing nurses throughout Australia in a variety of work and geographical settings to develop a snapshot of what nurses are doing, the skills needed and the challenges faced.The snapshot of contemporary practice that emerged is one of considerable diversity, which poses challenges for educators of nurses in terms of what constitutes appropriate or adequate educational preparation for nurses. Understandings of what constitutes clinical skills, and consequently clinical education, are explored as is what calls for 'more' clinical education may actually mean. Caution is raised about educating for present needs that are based on limited conceptions of what constitutes a nursing workplace. It is argued that education for nurses, both initial and on going, must be cognizant of educating for what might be, not simply somewhat short-term imperatives. PMID:12485569

  15. The Future of Technology in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Christine Y.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how principals and other educators can stay in pace with the future of technology in schools. Although principals cannot predict the future of technology, they can prepare for future technologies by joining "trend-watching" groups and being aware of the latest technology and equity issues. With awareness, information, and…

  16. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-02-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  17. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  18. [Rhythmic nuclear growth of adequately stimulated ganglia cells of acoustic nuclei (rat)].

    PubMed

    Köpf-Maier, P; Wüstenfeld, E

    1975-01-01

    Ganglia cells of the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei of white rats were irritated adequately for different periods or left untreated, respectively, and investigated karyometrically. The frequency distribution curves of the nuclear volumes were separated by means of an electronic curve resolver into the component curves, i.e. into groups of nuclei obeying exactly a Gaussian normal distribution and thus representing biologically uniform populations. The analysis of the mean values of the component curves led to the following results: 1. The mean values of the component curves can be arranged in 2 series having the pattern V1, V1 square root 2, V2, V2 square root 2, V4, V4 square root 2...2. The series V1, V1 square root 2, V2, V2 square root 2...is based on a geometrical series of the general formula an = k-qn. 3. It follows from these results that the nuclear volumes grow rhythmically by a factor of square root 2 and, consequently, that there is a periodical doubling in in the growth of the surface. PMID:1200386

  19. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with “specific” reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties. PMID:20298639

  20. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  1. A negative cranial computed tomographic scan is not adequate to support a diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri.

    PubMed

    Said, Rana R; Rosman, N Paul

    2004-08-01

    A 10-year-old boy with daily headache for 1 month and intermittent diplopia for 1 week was found to have a unilateral partial abducens palsy and bilateral papilledema; otherwise, his neurologic examination showed no abnormalities. A cranial computed tomographic (CT) scan was normal. Lumbar puncture disclosed a markedly elevated opening pressure of > 550 mm of cerebrospinal fluid with normal cerebrospinal fluid. Medical therapy with acetazolamide for presumed pseudotumor cerebri was begun. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, done several days later because of continuing symptoms, unexpectedly showed multiple hyperintensities of cerebral white matter on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Despite high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone for possible demyelinating disease, he failed to improve. A left temporal brain biopsy followed and disclosed an anaplastic oligodendroglioma. In a patient with features indicating pseudotumor cerebri, a negative cranial CT scan is not adequate to rule out underlying pathology; thus, MRI of the brain should probably always be performed. A revised definition of pseudotumor cerebri could better include "normal MRI of the brain" rather than "normal neuroimaging." PMID:15605471

  2. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  3. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  4. [Level of awareness and the adequate application of sunscreen by beauticians].

    PubMed

    Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Machado, Érica Simionato; Vermelho, Sonia Cristina Soares Dias; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Cortez, Lucia Elaine Ranieri

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to establish the level of awareness of beauticians regarding the importance of the application of sunscreen and to identify whether their patients had been properly instructed by these professionals. It involved a descriptive and exploratory study with interviews applying qualitative methodology among 30 beauticians. Data were gathered using the semi-structured interview technique in Maringá, in the southern state of Paraná. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software after applying quantitative analysis and response classification. Of those interviewed, 83.33% had a degree in Aesthetics, 20% attended ongoing training activities on sunscreen and 73.17% acquired sunscreen for its quality, though 86.67% were not familiar with sunscreens with natural anti-free radical components. Of those interviewed, 80% had never treated patients with skin cancer, though they reported having knowledge of care in relation to sun exposure and how to use the sunscreen and the relationship of these practices with the disease. The results showed that the recommendations and use of sunscreen by beauticians and users has been conducted in an adequate and conscientious manner. PMID:27383359

  5. The menopause, hormone replacement therapy and informed consent: are women in an underresourced country adequately aware?

    PubMed

    Maharaj, N R; Gangaram, R; Moodley, J

    2007-04-01

    Recent evidence on the long-term effects of HRT have resulted in increased emphasis being placed on individualised counselling, patient choice and informed consent when managing the menopause. We assessed whether women in an underresourced country have adequate knowledge of the menopause/HRT to engage in patient - provider discussions and provide full informed consent for HRT. Specific 'knowledge scores' for the menopause and HRT were developed and utilised in structured questionnaires to determine the existing levels of knowledge in 150 women from different racial, educational and occupational backgrounds. Some 92% were aware of the menopause and 54% were aware of HRT. Specific knowledge about the menopause and HRT overall was low (39% and 38%, respectively). There was a significant association between higher education levels, race and occupational status on the knowledge of the menopause but not of HRT. Television, radio and pamphlets were the preferred sources to gain further information. There is a need to create awareness and provide further education to women in underresourced countries about the menopause and HRT to empower them to make informed choices about their health during this period. PMID:17464817

  6. A high UV environment does not ensure adequate Vitamin D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Brodie, A.; Harrison, S.; Nowak, M.; Moore, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Queensland has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world and due to the high levels of solar UV in this region it is assumed that incidental UV exposure should provide adequate vitamin D status for the population. This research was undertaken to test this assumption among healthy free-living adults in south-east Queensland, Australia (27°S), at the end of winter. This research was approved by Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee and conducted under the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. 10.2% of the sample had serum vitamin D levels below 25nm/L (deficiency) and a further 32.3% had levels between 25nm/L and 50nm/L (insufficiency). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency can occur at the end of winter, even in sunny climates. The wintertime UV levels in south-east Queensland (UV index 4-6) are equivalent to summertime UV levels in northern regions of Europe and the USA. These ambient UV levels are sufficient to ensure synthesis of vitamin D requirements. We investigated individual UV exposure (through a self reported sun exposure questionnaire) and found correlations between exposure and Vitamin D status. Further research is needed to explore the interactions between the solar UV environment and vitamin D status, particularly in high UV environments, such as Queensland.

  7. [Adequate attention is required to the diagnosis and treatment of mild-symptom erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Deng, Chun-hua; Zhang, Ya-dong; Chen, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Mild-symptom erectile dysfunction (MSED) is commonly seen in clinical practice, but receives inadequate attention from both the patients and clinicians. Increasing researches have indicated that MSED is associated with not only unhealthy living habits and psychological factors but also the early progression of endothelial, metabolic and endocrine diseases. The diagnosis and treatment of MSED should be based on the relevant guidelines, with consideration of both its specific and common features. The therapeutic principle is a combination of integrated and individual solutions aimed at the causes of the disease. Drug intervention should be initiated if psychological therapy fails. Negligence of MSED may affect the quality of life of the patients and their partners, and what's more, might delay the management of some other severe underlying diseases. Adequate attention to the early diagnosis and treatment for MSED is of great significance for a deeper insight into the etiology of ED, the prevention of potential cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and the improvement of the overall health of males. PMID:25707132

  8. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana A.

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  9. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  10. Evaluation of catheter-manometer systems for adequate intravascular blood pressure measurements in small animals.

    PubMed

    Idvall, J; Aronsen, K F; Lindström, K; Ulmsten, U

    1977-09-30

    Various catheter-manometer systems possible for intravascular blood pressure measurments on rats have been elaborated and tested in vitro and in vivo. Using a pressure-step calibrator, it was observed from in vitro studies that microtransducers had superior frequency response compared to conventional transducers. Of the catheters tested, Pe-90 tapered to a 40 mm tip with an inner diameter of 0.3 mm had the best frequency response as judged from fall and settling times. Because of the damping effect, tapering increased fall time to 1.8 ms, which was still quite acceptable. By the same token settling time was minimized to 22.4 ms. With a special calculation method the theoretical percentile fault of the recordings was estimated to be 9.66%. When the measurement error was calculated from the actual in vivo recordings, it was found to be no more than 2.7%. These results show that the technique described is adequate for continuous intravascular blood pressure recordings on small animals. Finally it is emphasized that careful handling of the catheters and avoidance of stopcocks and air bubbles are essential for obtaining accurate and reproducible values. PMID:928971

  11. Is reimbursement for childhood immunizations adequate? evidence from two rural areas in colorado.

    PubMed Central

    Glazner, J. E.; Steiner, J. F.; Haas, K. J.; Renfrew, B.; Deutchman, M.; Berman, S.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess adequacy of reimbursement for childhood vaccinations in two rural regions in Colorado, the authors measured medical practice costs of providing childhood vaccinations and compared them with reimbursement. METHODS: A "time-motion" method was used to measure labor costs of providing vaccinations in 13 private and public practices. Practices reported non-labor costs. The authors determined reimbursement by record review. RESULTS: The average vaccine delivery cost per dose (excluding vaccine cost) ranged from $4.69 for community health centers to $5.60 for private practices. Average reimbursement exceeded average delivery costs for all vaccines and contributed to overhead in private practices. Average reimbursement was less than total cost (vaccine-delivery costs + overhead) in private practices for most vaccines in one region with significant managed care penetration. Reimbursement to public providers was less than the average vaccine delivery costs. CONCLUSIONS: Current reimbursement may not be adequate to induce private practices to provide childhood vaccinations, particularly in areas with substantial managed care penetration. PMID:12034911

  12. Adequate Vitamin D3 Supplementation During Pregnancy: Decreasing the Prevalence of Asthma and Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Jonathan; Cira, Courtney; Mazzella, Leanne; Bartyzel, Jim; Ramanna, Annisce; Strimel, Kayla; Waturuocha, Amara; Musser, Nathan; Burress, James; Brammer, Sarah; Wetzel, Robert; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a secosterol that is naturally synthesized in the skin upon contact with ultraviolet rays. This vitamin can also be acquired from dietary and nutritional supplements. The active form, vitamin D3, is primarily responsible for calcium homeostasis and bone health. However, many recent studies have associated low levels of vitamin D3 with asthma and food allergies. In this review, we discuss literature to explore the potential that vitamin D3 deficiency may be contributing toward the development of asthma and food allergies. These studies indicate that mothers who supplement with doses of vitamin D3 recommended for daily consumption (400 IU) by the United States Food and Drug Administration is not enough to deliver adequate levels to breastfed infants. Because sufficient vitamin D3 serum levels correlate with a low incidence of asthma and food allergies, high dose vitamin D3 supplementation (4000 IU) by pregnant and breastfeeding women may limit the development of asthma and food allergies in newborns. PMID:27213185

  13. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties. PMID:20298639

  14. Neurocysticercosis, familial cerebral cavernomas and intracranial calcifications: differential diagnosis for adequate management.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Alves-Leon, Soniza; Domingues, Flavio Sampaio; Frossard, João Thiago; Lopes, Selva Paraguassu; Souza, Jorge Marcondes de

    2016-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an endemic disease and important public health problem in some areas of the World and epilepsy is the most common neurological manifestation. Multiple intracranial lesions, commonly calcified, are seen on cranial computed tomography (CT) in the chronic phase of the disease and considered one of the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the test that better depicts the different stages of the intracranial cysts but does not show clearly calcified lesions. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), also known as cerebral cavernomas, are frequent vascular malformations of the brain, better demonstrated by MRI and have also epilepsy as the main form of clinical presentation. When occurring in the familial form, cerebral cavernomas typically present with multiple lesions throughout the brain and, very often, with foci of calcifications in the lesions when submitted to the CT imaging. In the countries, and geographic areas, where NCC is established as an endemic health problem and neuroimaging screening is done by CT scan, it will be important to consider the differential diagnosis between the two diseases due to the differences in adequate management. PMID:27332076

  15. Splenic autotransplantation and the immune system. Adequate testing required for evaluation of effect.

    PubMed Central

    Timens, W; Leemans, R

    1992-01-01

    The risk of severe infections after splenectomy, even after many years, is now well established. In attempts to prevent these infections, spleen-saving techniques, including autotransplantation of spleen fragments, have been performed, when possible in combination with vaccination. The problem in autotransplantation is the evaluation of functional activity. The results of the tests used until now often do not seem to correlate very well with the risk of developing an overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI). This may be related to the fact that the tests used evaluate general functions, and not specific spleen-related functions, such as the capacity to mount a primary response to certain polysaccharide antigens present in the capsule of bacteria known to cause OPSI. In this review, the significance of the spleen in the human immune system is discussed and the effects of splenectomy are described, including the precautions that can be taken to diminish the risk of postsplenectomy infections and sepsis. It appears that postsplenectomy vaccination is more successful when recently developed protein-conjugated polysaccharide vaccines are used. Because the present testing of the function of spleen autotransplants is not adequate, we suggest that new tests should be developed, employing appropriate polysaccharide antigens. PMID:1543398

  16. The future of PACS.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Paul G

    2007-07-01

    How will the future of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) look, and how will this future affect the practice of radiology? We are currently experiencing disruptive innovations that will force an architectural redesign, making the majority of today's commercial PACS obsolete as the field matures and expands to include imaging throughout the medical enterprise. The common architecture used for PACS cannot handle the massive amounts of data being generated by even current versions of computed tomography and magnetic resonance scanners. If a PACS cannot handle today's technology, what will happen as the field expands to encompass pathology imaging, cone-beam reconstruction, and multispectral imaging? The ability of these new technologies to enhance research and clinical care will be impaired if PACS architectures are not prepared to support them. In attempting a structured approach to predictions about the future of PACS, we offer projections about the technologies underlying PACS as well as the evolution of standards development and the changing needs of a broad range of medical imaging. Simplified models of the history of the PACS industry are mined for the assumptions they provide about future innovations and trends. The physicist frequently participates in or directs technical assessments for medical equipment, and many physicists have extended these activities to include imaging informatics. It is hoped that by applying these speculative but experienced-based predictions, the interested medical physicist will be better able to take the lead in setting information technology strategies that will help facilities not only prepare for the future but continue to enjoy the benefits of technological innovations without disruptive, expensive, and unexpected changes in architecture. A good PACS strategy can help accelerate the time required for innovations to go from the drawing board to clinical implementation. PMID:17821975

  17. Energy infrastructure: Mapping future electricity demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janetos, Anthony C.

    2016-08-01

    Electricity distribution system planners rely on estimations of future energy demand to build adequate supply, but these are complicated to achieve. An approach that combines spatially resolved projections of population movement and climate change offers a method for building better demand maps to mid-century.

  18. The Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael, Ed.; Lentz, Tony, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    The past, present, and future of oral interpretation are explored in this publication. Separate articles deplore a lack of growth and development in the area of oral interpretation, examine oral interpretation's current status, describe the ideal beginning oral interpretation course, point to the value of oral interpretation in the college…

  19. Futur "simple" et futur "proche" ("Simple" Future and "Immediate" Future).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franckel, Jean-Jacques

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the use of simple and immediate future tenses in French shows that the expression of time is controlled more by context and modals than by specifically temporal cues. The role of negation in this situation is discussed. (MSE)

  20. Future Climate Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    James Houseworth

    2001-10-12

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada (Figure 1), the site of a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this AMR provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the infiltration model (USGS 2000) and for the total system performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) at YM. Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one method, among many, of establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past climates resulting in a different future climate analog. Revision 00 of this AMR was prepared in accordance with the ''Work Direction and Planning Document for Future Climate Analysis'' (Peterman 1999) under Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-97NV12033 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The planning document for the technical scope, content, and management of ICN 01 of this AMR is the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (BSC 2001a). The scope for the TBV resolution actions in this ICN is described in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department''. (BSC 2001b, Addendum B

  1. Examining the Principal Preparation and Practice Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gary E.; Papa, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    To anticipate the future needs of principal preparation, it is important to understand past efforts to bridge the preparation and practice gap. Decades ago, both the military and corporate industries discovered that classroom training was not meeting their needs for preparing soldiers and business professionals for real-life challenges. So they…

  2. Re-preparing the Secondary Physics Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Frederick M.

    2001-01-01

    Adequate preparation of secondary physics teachers is vital to ensuring good physics teaching in schools. Presents a U.S. case study that describes an on-going program involving close collaboration between university science and education departments and also involving local schools. Introduces a new project, PhysTEC, which extends these ideas…

  3. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record..., and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and...

  4. Prioritising pharmaceuticals for environmental risk assessment: Towards adequate and feasible first-tier selection.

    PubMed

    Roos, V; Gunnarsson, L; Fick, J; Larsson, D G J; Rudén, C

    2012-04-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, and the concerns for negative effects on aquatic organisms, has gained increasing attention over the last years. As ecotoxicity data are lacking for most active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), it is important to identify strategies to prioritise APIs for ecotoxicity testing and environmental monitoring. We have used nine previously proposed prioritisation schemes, both risk- and hazard-based, to rank 582 APIs. The similarities and differences in overall ranking results and input data were compared. Moreover, we analysed how well the methods ranked seven relatively well-studied APIs. It is concluded that the hazard-based methods were more successful in correctly ranking the well-studied APIs, but the fish plasma model, which includes human pharmacological data, also showed a high success rate. The results of the analyses show that the input data availability vary significantly; some data, such as logP, are available for most API while information about environmental concentrations and bioconcentration are still scarce. The results also suggest that the exposure estimates in risk-based methods need to be improved and that the inclusion of effect measures at first-tier prioritisation might underestimate risks. It is proposed that in order to develop an adequate prioritisation scheme, improved data on exposure such as degradation and sewage treatment removal and bioconcentration ability should be further considered. The use of ATC codes may also be useful for the development of a prioritisation scheme that includes the mode of action of pharmaceuticals and, to some extent, mixture effects. PMID:22361586

  5. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  6. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  7. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  8. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  9. Nevada Works: Building Bridges for Success. A Statewide Conference To Evaluate and Plan for Current and Future Labor Force Preparation in Nevada. Proceedings of the Governor's Conference on Employment and Training (Reno, Nevada, November 2, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    These proceedings begin with a general summary of a conference to encourage collaboration among those involved to prepare a labor force with which Nevada could continue to be economically competitive. Highlights are provided of these presentations: "Opening Remarks" (Jessie Emmett); "The Dynamic West: A Region in Transition" (Daniel Sprague);…

  10. O7.02RADIOSURGERY AND BRAIN METASTASES: ADEQUATE SEQUENCE OF BRAIN MRI CAN SIGNIFICANTLY CHANGE THE INTRACRANIAL DISEASE STAGING

    PubMed Central

    Scoccianti, S.; Greto, D.; Bordi, L.; Bono, P.; Pecchioli, G.; Casati, M.; Vanzi, E.; Compagnucci, A.; Gadda, D.; Livi, L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accurate assessment of the exact number of brain metastases is of utmost importance in the decision-making process for the appropriate treatment. The diagnostic efficacy in the detection of additional brain metastases of a double dose contrast three-dimensional, T1-Weighted Gradient-Echo Imaging was evaluated. METHODS: Before undergoing radiosurgical treatment, patients underwent a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to be used during the treatment planning in order to contour the targets and to locate the brain lesions as they relate to the stereotactic frame. All the patients underwent a post-contrast study with T1-weighted, 3D Magnetization-Prepared Rapid Acquisition Gradient Echo (MP RAGE) sequence. We used a double dose of gadobenate dimeglumine and slice thickness of 0.9 mm. RESULTS: Starting from October 2012 to February 2014, we treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) 62 patients with brain metastases. On the diagnostic MRI, all the patients had a number of lesions ≤4. Median time interval between diagnostic MRI scan and the day of GKRS was 11 days (range 5-20) A total of 54 additional lesions were detected on MR imaging performed in the same day of the GKRS in twenty-two patients out of 62 (35.5%). A median number of 2 additional lesions were detected (range 1-8). Among these 22 patients only 14 patients had a number of lesions ≤4 on the day of treatment. Patients with a total number of lesions ≤10 were treated with GKRS. Two patients with a total number of lesions > 10 were treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). CONCLUSIONS: A double-contrast study with T1-weighted, volumetric MPRAGE sequence may offer better staging for patients with brain metastases. In our opinion, it should be recommended in all the patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases because the detection of the real number of lesions is crucial for an adequate treatment and it also may lead to choose different therapeutic strategies.

  11. Future Problem Solving: Connecting the Present to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jennine B.; Crandell, Lisa; Menhennett, Lorien

    To survive in the 21st century, today's student must develop the thinking skills necessary to adapt to a transforming world and learn how to be a creative problem solver. Future Problem Solving (FPS) prepares the student of today for tomorrow through an educational program that enables students to apply a constructive, deliberate process for…

  12. Can loss of balance from mesoscale eddies adequately power deep ocean mixing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.; Haine, T. W.; Read, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The global ocean thermohaline circulation is partly composed of the sinking of dense surface waters at high latitudes. But in order to close the circulation and maintain the abyssal stratification, the dense waters must rise up again through vertical mixing. This process requires a source of energy roughly estimated to be 2 TW. Previous work has concluded that tides and winds may adequately supply the required power, but the conceivable role of loss of balance from mesoscale eddies, resulting in the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves and associated vertical mixing, has hitherto been considered to be 'of unknown importance' (Wunsch and Ferrari, 2004). We investigate the potential role of loss of balance, by studying the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves by balanced flow in a rotating two-layer annulus laboratory experiment (Williams et al., 2008). A photograph from the experiment is shown in the figure. As the Rossby number of the balanced flow decreases, the amplitude of the emitted inertia-gravity waves also decreases, but much less rapidly than is predicted by several dynamical theories. This finding suggests that inertia-gravity waves might be far more energised than previously thought. The balanced flow leaks roughly one per cent of its energy each rotation period into internal inertia-gravity waves at the peak of their generation. Crude extrapolation of this result to the global ocean suggests that the flux of energy from mesoscale eddies into internal waves may be as large as 1.5 TW. We claim no accuracy for this figure which is only indicative. Nevertheless, we are persuaded that generation of inertia-gravity waves from the balanced mesoscale flow may be an important source of energy for deep interior mixing, and deserves further study. Reference Williams, PD, Haine, TWN and Read, PL (2008) Inertia-Gravity Waves Emitted from Balanced Flow: Observations, Properties, and Consequences. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 65(11), pp 3543

  13. Planning 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) Cannot Adequately Represent Daily Intrafractional Motion of Abdominal Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Jiajia; Santanam, Lakshmi; Noel, Camille; Parikh, Parag J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether planning 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can adequately represent daily motion of abdominal tumors in regularly fractionated and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional tumor motion of 10 patients with abdominal tumors (4 pancreas-fractionated and 6 liver-stereotactic patients) with implanted fiducials was measured based on daily orthogonal fluoroscopic movies over 38 treatment fractions. The needed internal margin for at least 90% of tumor coverage was calculated based on a 95th and fifth percentile of daily 3-dimensional tumor motion. The planning internal margin was generated by fusing 4DCT motion from all phase bins. The disagreement between needed and planning internal margin was analyzed fraction by fraction in 3 motion axes (superior-inferior [SI], anterior-posterior [AP], and left-right [LR]). The 4DCT margin was considered as an overestimation/underestimation of daily motion when disagreement exceeded at least 3 mm in the SI axis and/or 1.2 mm in the AP and LR axes (4DCT image resolution). The underlying reasons for this disagreement were evaluated based on interfractional and intrafractional breathing variation. Results: The 4DCT overestimated daily 3-dimensional motion in 39% of the fractions in 7 of 10 patients and underestimated it in 53% of the fractions in 8 of 10 patients. Median underestimation was 3.9 mm, 3.0 mm, and 1.7 mm in the SI axis, AP axis, and LR axis, respectively. The 4DCT was found to capture irregular deep breaths in 3 of 10 patients, with 4DCT motion larger than mean daily amplitude by 18 to 21 mm. The breathing pattern varied from breath to breath and day to day. The intrafractional variation of amplitude was significantly larger than intrafractional variation (2.7 mm vs 1.3 mm) in the primary motion axis (ie, SI axis). The SBRT patients showed significantly larger intrafractional amplitude variation than fractionated patients (3.0 mm vs 2

  14. Is serum or sputum eosinophil cationic protein level adequate for diagnosis of mild asthma?

    PubMed

    Khakzad, Mohammad Reza; Mirsadraee, Majid; Sankian, Mojtaba; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Meshkat, Mojtaba

    2009-09-01

    Spirometry has been used as a common diagnostic test in asthma. Most of the patients with a mild asthma have a FEV1 within normal range. Hence, other diagnostic methods are usually used. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) could be an accurate diagnostic marker of mild asthma. In this study diagnosis of asthma was made according to internationally accepted criteria. Asthma severity was evaluated according to frequency of symptoms and FEV1.Adequate sputum samples were obtained in 50 untreated subjects. A control group of 12 normal subjects that showed PC20 more than 8 mg/dl was also examined. Sputum was induced by inhalation of hypertonic saline. Inflammatory cells in sputum smears were assessed semi-quantitatively. ECP and IgE concentrations, eosinophil (EO) percentage and ECP/EO ratio in serum and sputum were also determined. The results revealed that Cough and dyspnea were the most frequent clinical findings. Dyspnea and wheezing were the symptoms that correlated with staging of asthma. FEV1 was within normal range (more than 80% of predicted) in 22 (44%) subjects.Asthmatic patients showed significantly higher numbers of blood eosinophils (4.5+/- 3.1% vs. 1.2+/-0.2%, P=0.009), and higher levels of serum ECP than control group (3.1+/- 2.6 % and 22.6+/- 15.8 ng/ml, respectively). Sputum ECP level in asthmatics was significantly higher than non- asthmatics (55.3+/-29.8ng/mL vs. 25.0+/-24.7ng/mL, P=0.045). Regression analysis showed no significant correlation between spirometric parameters and biomarkers, the only exception was significant correlation between FEF(25-75) and serum ECP (r= 0.28, P 0.041). Regarding clinical symptoms, wheezing was significantly correlated with elevation of most of biomarkers. Since, serum and sputum ECP levels are elevated in untreated asthmatics, the ECP level could be used for accurate diagnosis of mild form of asthma in which spirometry is unremarkable. PMID:20124607

  15. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants ≤ 1250 grams birth weight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth velocities and incidence of extrauterine growth restriction in infants ≤ 1250 grams (g) birth weight (BW) receiving an exclusive human milk-based diet with early and rapid advancement of fortification using a donor human milk derived fortifier. Methods In a single center, prospective observational cohort study, preterm infants weighing ≤ 1250 g BW were fed an exclusive human milk-based diet until 34 weeks postmenstrual age. Human milk fortification with donor human milk derived fortifier was started at 60 mL/kg/d and advanced to provide 6 to 8 additional kilocalories per ounce (or 0.21 to 0.28 kilocalories per gram). Data for growth were compared to historical growth standards and previous human milk-fed cohorts. Results We consecutively evaluated 104 infants with mean gestational age of 27.6 ± 2.0 weeks and BW of 913 ± 181 g (mean ± standard deviation). Weight gain was 24.8 ± 5.4 g/kg/day with length 0.99 ± 0.23 cm/week and head circumference 0.72 ± 0.14 cm/week. There were 3 medical NEC cases and 1 surgical NEC case. 22 infants (21%) were small for gestational age at birth. Overall, 45 infants (43%) had extrauterine growth restriction. Weight velocity was affected by day of fortification (p = 0.005) and day of full feeds (p = 0.02). Our cohort had significantly greater growth in weight and length compared to previous entirely human milk-fed cohorts. Conclusions A feeding protocol for infants ≤ 1250 g BW providing an exclusive human milk-based diet with early and rapid advancement of fortification leads to growth meeting targeted standards with a low rate of extrauterine growth restriction. Consistent

  16. Shoulder Arthroscopy Does Not Adequately Visualize Pathology of the Long Head of Biceps Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Saithna, Adnan; Longo, Alison; Leiter, Jeff; Old, Jason; MacDonald, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulling the long head of the biceps tendon into the joint at arthroscopy is a common method for evaluation of tendinopathic lesions. However, the rate of missed diagnoses when using this technique is reported to be as high as 30% to 50%. Hypothesis: Tendon excursion achieved using a standard arthroscopic probe does not allow adequate visualization of extra-articular sites of predilection of tendinopathy. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Seven forequarter amputation cadaveric specimens were evaluated. The biceps tendon was tagged to mark the intra-articular length and the maximum excursions achieved using a probe and a grasper in both beach-chair and lateral positions. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance to compare means. Results: The mean intra-articular and extra-articular lengths of the tendons were 23.9 and 82.3 mm, respectively. The length of tendon that could be visualized by pulling it into the joint with a probe through the anterior midglenoid portal was not significantly different when using either lateral decubitus (mean ± SD, 29.9 ± 3.89 mm; 95% CI, 25.7-34 mm) or beach-chair positions (32.7 ± 4.23 mm; 95% CI, 28.6-36.8 mm). The maximum length of the overall tendon visualized in any specimen using a standard technique was 37 mm. Although there was a trend to greater excursion using a grasper through the same portal, this was not statistically significant. However, using a grasper through the anterosuperior portal gave a significantly greater mean excursion than any other technique (46.7 ± 4.31 mm; 95% CI, 42.6-50.8 mm), but this still failed to allow evaluation of Denard zone C. Conclusion: Pulling the tendon into the joint with a probe via an anterior portal does not allow visualization of distal sites of predilection of pathology. Surgeons should be aware that this technique is inadequate and can result in missed diagnoses. Clinical Relevance: This study demonstrates that glenohumeral

  17. Paving the way for adequate myelination: The contribution of galectin-3, transferrin and iron.

    PubMed

    Franco, Paula G; Pasquini, Laura A; Pérez, María J; Rosato-Siri, María V; Silvestroff, Lucas; Pasquini, Juana M

    2015-11-14

    Considering the worldwide incidence of well characterized demyelinating disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and the increasing number of pathologies recently found to involve hypomyelinating factors such as micronutrient deficits, elucidating the molecular basis of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination, remyelination and hypomyelination becomes essential to the development of future neuroregenerative therapies. In this context, this review discusses novel findings on the contribution of galectin-3 (Gal-3), transferrin (Tf) and iron to the processes of myelination and remyelination and their potentially positive regulation of oligodendroglial precursor cell (OPC) differentiation. Studies were conducted in cuprizone (CPZ)-induced demyelination and iron deficiency (ID)-induced hypomyelination, and the participation of glial and neural stem cells (NSC) in the remyelination process was evaluated by means of both in vivo and in vitro assays on primary cell cultures. PMID:26296311

  18. "Futuring" About Science Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Paul Dehart

    As a background paper for discussion at the 1973 National Annual Convention of the Association for the Education of Teachers of Science, analyses are made concerning the present status and future development of science teacher education. Shortcomings in current teacher preparation are discussed in connection with recent changes in the economy and…

  19. Career Futures for Exceptional Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokaska, Charles J., Ed.

    The 33 selected papers from the National Topical Conference on Career Education for Exceptional Individuals are divided into six sections: career education (overview and future perspectives); programing and instruction; vocational assessment and training; counseling and career information; community involvement; and preparation of training…

  20. Courses Count: Preparing Students for Postsecondary Success. ACT Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2005

    2005-01-01

    Rigorous college preparatory course sequences are critical to preparing students for postsecondary education and work. Yet, large numbers of students still do not participate in the most beneficial courses, and there is little evidence that the high school curriculum is rigorous enough to ensure that most students are adequately prepared for…

  1. Credentials, Curriculum, and Access: The Debate Over Nurse Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Jacobs, James; Hughes, Katherine L.

    The question of how to best prepare nurses for practice continues to be debated extensively. The crux of the debate is whether a bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) should be required of all registered nurses in the United States or whether an associate degree in nursing (ADN) and diploma programs adequately prepare novice nurses for practice.…

  2. Preparing Elementary English Teachers: Innovations at Pre-Service Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zein, Mochamad Subhan

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of English for Young Learners has become a global phenomenon, but many countries are facing dilemma in terms of teacher preparation (Nunan, 2003; Kaplan, Baldauf, & Kamwangamalu, 2011). Indonesia is of no exception. Its pre-service system has not been adequate to sufficiently prepare elementary English teachers with knowledge and…

  3. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  4. Preparation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Chrys; Mellor, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    In "Orange Juice or Orange Drink?," the authors provided evidence that many students are receiving credit for courses with little indication that they have learned the content implied by the course titles (Dougherty, Mellor, & Jian, 2006). Yet in pursuit of the goal of preparing all students for college and careers, many policymakers…

  5. Pretrigeminal preparation.

    PubMed

    Zernicki, B

    1986-07-01

    The pretrigeminal preparation (pretrigeminal animal) is obtained by transection the pons in front of roots of the trigeminal nerves. The rostral part of the preparation (isolated cerebrum) has olfactory, visual and humoral inputs and controls vertical position of eye and their pupillary diameter and accommodation. The pretrigeminal preparation was described in the cat and rat. During the acute stage the isolated cerebrum is continuously awake, alternatively alert and drowsy. In the chronic stage a sleep-waking cycle recovers, but paradoxical sleep remains absent and synchronized sleep is reduced. Thus the cerebrum can largely compensate for the withdrawal of influences from the deactivating structures of the lower brain stem. Olfactory and visual stimuli produce a virtually normal arousal response. Its major components are: dilatation of pupils, desynchronization of cortical EEG activity, appearance of theta activity in the hippocampal EEG, and an increase of the cerebral blood flow. If the stimulus is repeated, the arousal response habituates with a normal rate. In the pretrigeminal cat there are two ocular targeting reflexes: vertical fixation and accommodation. The fixation reflex has a normal general course and shows normal habituation, but it is less precise than in the intact cat. The accommodation reflex is normal. Classical and instrumental ocular conditioned reflexes can be elaborated in the pretrigeminal cat. The conditioned pupillary dilatation appears at a normal rate. On the other hand, the elaboration of the conditioned vertical eye movement is slower than in the intact cat, possibly as a result of the lack of the proprioceptive feedback from the extraocular muscles. In conclusion, excitability, integrity and plasticity of the isolated cerebrum of the pretrigeminal preparation seem to be virtually normal. In contrast to the pretrigeminal preparation, the "cerveau isolé" is comatose during the acute stage. In the chronic stage, however, the sleep

  6. Future Climate Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    C. G. Cambell

    2004-09-03

    approaches could include simulation of climate over the 10,000-year period; however, this modeling extrapolation is well beyond the bounds of current scientific practice and would not provide results with better confidence. A corroborative alternative approach may be found in ''Future Climate Analysis-10,000 Years to 1,000,000 Years After Present'' (Sharpe 2003 [DIRS 161591]). The current revision of this report is prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]).

  7. Does limited data availability prevent adequate water use estimates on farm scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayatz, Benjamin; Kuster, Benjamin; Percy, Barbara; Hillier, Jonathan; Freese, Dirk; Wattenbach, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Increasing food production for a growing world population and at the same time mitigating climate change as well as adapting to its consequences is one of the key global challenges. Therefore producing crops with fewer resources such as water and fertilizers and less emissions of greenhouse gases is an important question that has to be answered on farm scale. The cool farm tool (CFT) is a farm scale emission calculator and was developed in 2010 to help farmers to reduce their carbon footprint. In order to adapt to future climate change an easy to use and at the same time robust water footprinting tool is needed for the CFT to take a more holistic approach on environmental sustainability. However data on farm level is often scarce. We investigated the effect of limited data on actual evapotranspiration using the FAO56 standard to assess the quality of farm water footprint estimates. Calculations are based on various agricultural sites from the Fluxnet database and estimates are compared to eddy covariance measurements. Results show that higher data availability is not directly linked to more accurate estimates of actual evapotranspiration. Estimates based only on temperature and relative humidity are still able to reproduce daily patterns. However cumulative values over one growing season show a considerable offset to eddy covariance observations for all data input levels. Finding the optimum between data requirements and an accuracy that fulfills farmer needs is crucial. Engagement of farmers and using a global network as the Fluxnet database will help to achieve this goal.

  8. Future trends.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Richard C; Weiss, Ronald L

    2007-12-01

    Several current forces have set anticipated future changes in health care in motion, or, at least, have set the stage for change. End-consumer demand increasingly drives the market; as a result, entire businesses are transforming or emerging anew to meet these demands. In general, consumers demand high quality at reasonable cost, to be delivered as fast as possible with minimal inconvenience. The health care consumer takes this expectation further, to include the desire for all helpful information regarding one's health to be made readily available for him/her to make the best decision and minimize morbidity, mortality, misdiagnosis, and inconvenience. This article addresses the impact upon the laboratory by considering four key interrelated dynamics that affect these trends: market, medicine, technology, and information systems. PMID:17950906

  9. [The pregnant employee in anaesthesia and intensive care - An evidence-based approach to designing adequate workplaces].

    PubMed

    Röher, Katharina; Göpfert, Matthias S

    2015-07-01

    In the light of a rising percentage of women among employees in anaesthesia and intensive care designing adequate workplaces for pregnant employees plays an increasingly important role. Here it is necessary to align the varied interests of the pregnant employee, fellow employees and the employer, where the legal requirements of the Maternity Protection Act ("Mutterschutzgesetz") form the statutory framework. This review describes how adequate workplaces for pregnant employees in anaesthesia and intensive care can be established considering the scientific evidence on the subject. PMID:26230896

  10. Three not adequately understood lunar phenomena investigated by the wave planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    Three not adequately understood lunar phenomena investigated by the wave planetology G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru The lunar science notwithstanding rather numerous researches of the last 50 years still debates some important issues. Three of them concern an origin of mascons, the deepest but low ferruginous South Pole-Aitken depression, a strange character of the frequency-crater size curve. Prevailing approaches are mainly based on impacts having made the present geomorphology of the Moon. However practically are ignored the fact of antipodality of basins and marea, a complex character of the frequency-crater size curve obviously implying an involvement of different sources and reasons responsible for crater formation. Attempts to find impactor sources in various sometimes very remote parts of the Solar system are too artificial, besides they do not explain very intensive, like lunar cratering of Mercury. Saturation of the lunar surface by ~70-km diameter craters is very strange for random impacts from any source; to find a time interval for this saturation is difficult if not possible because it affects formations of various ages. Lunar basins and marea completely contradict to a classical frequency- crater size curve. Their presumed ( and measured) different ages make dubious existence of one specialized impactor source. So, if one accepts an impact process as the only process responsible for cratering (ring forms development) then the real mess in crater statistics and timing never will be overcome. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] examined by many planets and satellites of the Solar system proved to be real. In a case of the Moon it can help in answering the above questions. First of all it should be admitted that the complex lunar crater (ring forms) statistics is due to a superposition and mixing of two main processes (a minor involvement of volcanic features is also present): impacts and wave

  11. High school physics teachers' assessment of student preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Student preparation can be quite nuanced. Not only have students been exposed to a variety of preparatory classes and outside influences, but students also vary in their commitment and approach to their current classes. We asked teachers to offer their opinions on their students' preparation for physics in a number of areas. The overall picture of teacher perception of student preparation in various domains is shown at right. In each of the areas, more than half of the teachers felt that their students were at least adequately prepared. Almost two-fifths of the responding teachers reported that their students were inadequately prepared to think and pose questions scientifically, and less than 10% of the teachers felts that their students were adequately prepared in this area.

  12. Will General Practitioners Be Adequately Prepared to Meet the Complexities of Enhanced Dementia Screening for People with Learning Disabilities and Down Syndrome: Key Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely response in regard to the Department of Health's current initiative to financially reward GPs to prioritise and undertake dementia screening for people with learning disabilities over the age of 50 years and for people with Down syndrome over the age of 40 years. Whilst GPs are becoming increasingly aware of their…

  13. Rectal cancer delivery of radiotherapy in adequate time and with adequate dose is influenced by treatment center, treatment schedule, and gender and is prognostic parameter for local control: Results of study CAO/ARO/AIO-94

    SciTech Connect

    Fietkau, Rainer . E-mail: rainer.fietkau@med.uni-rostock.de; Roedel, Claus; Hohenberger, Werner; Raab, Rudolf; Hess, Clemens; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Wittekind, Christian; Hutter, Matthias; Hager, Eva; Karstens, Johann; Ewald, Hermann; Christen, Norbert; Jagoditsch, Michael; Martus, Peter; Sauer, Rolf

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: The impact of the delivery of radiotherapy (RT) on treatment results in rectal cancer patients is unknown. Methods and Materials: The data from 788 patients with rectal cancer treated within the German CAO/AIO/ARO-94 phase III trial were analyzed concerning the impact of the delivery of RT (adequate RT: minimal radiation RT dose delivered, 4300 cGy for neoadjuvant RT or 4700 cGy for adjuvant RT; completion of RT in <44 days for neoadjuvant RT or <49 days for adjuvant RT) in different centers on the locoregional recurrence rate (LRR) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years. The LRR, DFS, and delivery of RT were analyzed as endpoints in multivariate analysis. Results: A significant difference was found between the centers and the delivery of RT. The overall delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for the LRR (no RT, 29.6% {+-} 7.8%; inadequate RT, 21.2% {+-} 5.6%; adequate RT, 6.8% {+-} 1.4%; p = 0.0001) and DFS (no RT, 55.1% {+-} 9.1%; inadequate RT, 57.4% {+-} 6.3%; adequate RT, 69.1% {+-} 2.3%; p = 0.02). Postoperatively, delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for LRR on multivariate analysis (together with pathologic stage) but not for DFS (independent parameters, pathologic stage and age). Preoperatively, on multivariate analysis, pathologic stage, but not delivery of RT, was an independent prognostic parameter for LRR and DFS (together with adequate chemotherapy). On multivariate analysis, the treatment center, treatment schedule (neoadjuvant vs. adjuvant RT), and gender were prognostic parameters for adequate RT. Conclusion: Delivery of RT should be regarded as a prognostic factor for LRR in rectal cancer and is influenced by the treatment center, treatment schedule, and patient gender.

  14. Keyboarding: An Important Skill for the Office of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, Anna M.

    1980-01-01

    Defines the components of the office of the future: data processing, micrographics, optical character recognition, telecommunications, and word processing. Also discusses teacher responsibility, student preparation, future challenges, and teacher awareness. (CT)

  15. [Tuberculosis. Future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Marques Gomes, M João

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major health problem around the world and its incidence is growing 0.4% each year. There are 2 billions of infected, 8.4 millions new cases every year and 16 million patients. The association of VIH and tuberculosis, the increasing number of multidrug resistance, failure of health systems, greater mobility of people, poverty, wars and social exclusion, are the major causes of the epidemiological situation. Faster, more specific and sensible diagnostic methods are being investigated. Some of them use molecular biology techniques, some uses radioisotopes and some others are based on colour and fluorescence modifications of dyes. New drugs, new routes of administration and ways for increasing compliance are under investigation. More potent drugs, with greater biodisponibility and adequate pharmacokinetics for shorter treatments for multidrug and latent forms of bacilli are needed. New vaccines are under investigations, namely Adjuvant Subunits Vaccines, DNA Vaccines DNA, no micobacterianos vectors, and attenuated living vaccines are being tested. Finally some considerations are made concerning the need of global committement to win the fight against tuberculosis in the near future. PMID:15202032

  16. Future advances.

    PubMed

    Celesia, Gastone G; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future advances in the auditory systems are difficult to predict, and only educated guesses are possible. It is expected that innovative technologies in the field of neuroscience will be applied to the auditory system. Optogenetics, Brainbow, and CLARITY will improve our knowledge of the working of neural auditory networks and the relationship between sound and language, providing a dynamic picture of the brain in action. CLARITY makes brain tissue transparent and offers a three-dimensional view of neural networks, which, combined with genetically labeling neurons with multiple, distinct colors (Optogenetics), will provide detailed information of the complex brain system. Molecular functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will allow the study of neurotransmitters detectable by MRI and their function in the auditory pathways. The Human Connectome project will study the patterns of distributed brain activity that underlie virtually all aspects of cognition and behavior and determine if abnormalities in the distributed patterns of activity may result in hearing and behavior disorders. Similarly, the programs of Big Brain and ENIGMA will improve our understanding of auditory disorders. New stem-cell therapy and gene therapies therapy may bring about a partial restoration of hearing for impaired patients by inducing regeneration of cochlear hair cells. PMID:25726297

  17. 21 CFR 1.283 - What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dealt with as set forth in CBP regulations relating to general order merchandise (19 CFR part 127... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice? 1.283 Section 1.283 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  18. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...

  19. Understanding Unresponsiveness to Tier 2 Reading Intervention: Exploring the Classification and Profiles of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toste, Jessica R.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Eunsoo; Barquero, Laura A.; Bouton, Bobette D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine academic and cognitive profiles of first graders who responded adequately and inadequately to intensive small-group reading intervention (Tier 2), as well as assess how these profiles differ based on the criteria used for classification of unresponsiveness. Nonresponders were identified using two…

  20. Are Substance Use Prevention Programs More Effective in Schools Making Adequate Yearly Progress? A Study of Project ALERT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to determine if a popular school-based drug prevention program might be effective in schools that are making adequate yearly progress (AYP). Thirty-four schools with grades 6 through 8 in 11 states were randomly assigned either to receive Project ALERT (n = 17) or to a control group (n = 17); of these, 10 intervention…

  1. Using Fuzzy Logic to Identify Schools Which May Be Misclassified by the No Child Left Behind Adequate Yearly Progress Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation developed, tested, and prototyped a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) that would assist decision makers in identifying schools that may have been misclassified by existing Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) methods. This prototype was then used to evaluate Louisiana elementary schools using published school data for Academic Year 2004. …

  2. Students' Use of Tutoring Services, by Adequate Yearly Progress Status of School. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2010-023

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warkentien, Siri; Grady, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief contributes to current research by investigating the use of tutoring services among a nationally representative group of public school students enrolled in grades K-12. The report compares students in schools that have not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for 3 or more years, and were thereby enrolled in schools that…

  3. 33 CFR 151.2065 - What is the standard of adequate compliance determined by the ANSTF for this subpart? [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the standard of adequate... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management...

  4. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P.; Woodruff, Bradley A.; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S.; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  5. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women's education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  6. Funding an Adequate Education for America's Youth: A Plan for Melding Political and Market Definitions of Educational Adequacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.

    Noting that American society has conventionally relied on both the political process and the marketplace to arrive at a "definition" of adequate education, but that the political process fails to account for individual preferences while the marketplace can cater to many individual preferences, this paper attempts to combine the two processes in a…

  7. 36 CFR 79.9 - Standards to determine when a repository possesses the capability to provide adequate long-term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards to determine when a repository possesses the capability to provide adequate long-term curatorial services. 79.9 Section 79.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CURATION OF FEDERALLY-OWNED AND...

  8. Adequate Funding of Education Programs for At-Risk Children: An Econometric Application of Research-Based Cost Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern; Wall, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This article contributes to the ongoing discussion of the adequacy of funding for public schools, specifically with regard to the provision of programs for at-risk children. Of particular concern is the determination of realistic, research-based costs of adequately funded programs. This article has three basic parts: the definition and measurement…

  9. Evaluating Rural Progress in Mathematics Achievement: Is "Adequate Yearly Progress" (AYP) Feasible, Valid, Reliable, and Fair? Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires standards-based accountability for school districts and schools receiving Title I funds. A major component of this policy is to report whether districts and schools are making "adequate yearly progress" (AYP) based on their performance goals. This paper raises questions for rural schools using the National…

  10. Preparing Teachers of Young Children: The Current State of Knowledge, and a Blueprint for the Future. Part 1: Teacher Preparation and Professional Development in Grades K-12 and in Early Care and Education: Differences and Similarities, and Implications for Research. Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; Gomby, Deanna; Bellm, Dan; Sakai, Laura; Kipnis, Fran

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to teacher preparation, the support provided to new teachers, and ongoing professional development for working teachers, Grades K-12 and the field of early care and education (ECE) are two very different worlds. While both worlds assume that teachers' classroom skills and behavior can be influenced at multiple points in time (through…

  11. Porous-electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1981-09-17

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  12. Factors associated with adequate weekly reporting for disease surveillance data among health facilities in Nairobi County, Kenya, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mwatondo, Athman Juma; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Maina, Caroline; Makayotto, Lyndah; Mwangi, Moses; Njeru, Ian; Arvelo, Wences

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Kenya adopted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in 1998 to strengthen disease surveillance and epidemic response. However, the goal of weekly surveillance reporting among health facilities has not been achieved. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of adequate reporting and factors associated with IDSR reporting among health facilities in one Kenyan County. Methods Health facilities (public and private) were enrolled using stratified random sampling from 348 facilities prioritized for routine surveillance reporting. Adequately-reporting facilities were defined as those which submitted >10 weekly reports during a twelve-week period and a poor reporting facilities were those which submitted <10 weekly reports. Multivariate logistic regression with backward selection was used to identify risk factors associated with adequate reporting. Results From September 2 through November 30, 2013, we enrolled 175 health facilities; 130(74%) were private and 45(26%) were public. Of the 175 health facilities, 77 (44%) facilities classified as adequate reporting and 98 (56%) were reporting poorly. Multivariate analysis identified three factors to be independently associated with weekly adequate reporting: having weekly reporting forms at visit (AOR19, 95% CI: 6-65], having posters showing IDSR functions (AOR8, 95% CI: 2-12) and having a designated surveillance focal person (AOR7, 95% CI: 2-20). Conclusion The majority of health facilities in Nairobi County were reporting poorly to IDSR and we recommend that the Ministry of Health provide all health facilities in Nairobi County with weekly reporting tools and offer specific trainings on IDSR which will help designate a focal surveillance person. PMID:27303581

  13. Industrial Arts, Technology, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangano, Ronald M.

    1976-01-01

    Industrial arts educators' goal should be preparing individuals for a future embracing a "soft" technology, suited to human needs, non-violent, and environmentally gentle. Labor needs will change; career education competencies and craftsmanship will be required. Teachers can futurize courses by simple, inexpensive means: reading, and using games…

  14. Values Perception and Future Educational Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Robert P.; Norris, Cynthia J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an effort to incorporate personal values awareness into a university preparation program aimed at future school administrators. This model allows future leaders opportunities to identify the values governing their actions, clarify their philosophical leadership foundations, reflect on current educational practices, and determine…

  15. Investigating the Aftermath of Terror: Fundamental Outcomes, Methodological Choices, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Marx, Brian P; Sloan, Denise M

    2016-06-01

    Acts of terrorism are becoming increasingly common throughout the world. These events represent a significant public health concern given the associated health consequences. Although it is clear that terrorist attacks have mental and physical health sequelae, the exact nature and prevalence of these consequences are unclear. Epidemiological research can play an important role in better understanding the mental and physical impact of terrorist attacks. In this editorial, we highlight recent epidemiological research on these terrorism-related health outcomes. We also provide suggestions for how future studies can build on the existing literature and describe ways in which epidemiological methods can be harnessed to extend the current literature. Lastly, we offer recommendations on how to best prepare communities for the aftermath of terrorist attacks, highlighting secondary intervention and prevention strategies. Overall, multilevel strategies are needed to adequately cope with the growing rise of terrorist acts, and these strategies will have to be reassessed as the nature of terrorist attacks changes. PMID:27136497

  16. Preparing the bowel for colonoscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, K; Goggin, N; Gormally, S; Durnin, M; Drumm, B

    1995-01-01

    Bowel preparation methods for total colonoscopy in children generally involve whole gut irrigation with electrolyte lavage solutions, which in most children will require hospitalisation for nasogastric tube administration. The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of oral bisacodyl combined with a single phosphate enema as a bowel preparation regimen in children. In an open prospective trial, 30 children (aged 18 months-15 years) were given oral bisacodyl on each morning of the two days before colonoscopy. The children were maintained on a normal diet. A phosphate enema was administered on the morning of the procedure. The adequacy of bowel preparation was graded as grade I if no faecal material was encountered, grade II if small amounts of faecal material were present in scattered locations, and grade III if there was poor preparation with faecal material precluding satisfactory visualisation of the bowel mucosa. Eight children (26.6%) had minor abdominal cramps when taking bisacodyl, but all had a previous history of similar pain. Five children (16.6%), all under 5 years of age, cried during the administration of phosphate enema. Bowel preparation was considered excellent (grade I) in 26 (86.6%) and good (grade II) in four (13.3%). In all patients adequate visualisation of the bowel mucosa was obtained. Oral bisacodyl combined with a single phosphate enema provides an ideal method of preparing the bowel for total colonoscopy. This preparation allows colonoscopy to be carried out as a day case procedure in children while maintaining them on a normal diet. PMID:8554368

  17. Looking to the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Timothy L.

    2009-05-01

    A year ago, AGU established the Future Focus Task Force (FFTF), a 15-member committee to advise the AGU Council on three areas to strengthen AGU's ability to execute its strategic plan. The FFTF has been taking a broad look at the Union's structure and governance, the alignment of resources and the activities supported by these resources, and the capacities we need to develop to achieve our mission and long-term goals while maintaining ourselves as a preeminent scientific society. The FFTF also is taking important steps in preparing for the succession in headquarters leadership (see Eos, 90(5), 40, 2009, and 90(18), 159, 2009). This planning should help us in selecting the best candidate for AGU's next executive director. It also will give the search committee a clear understanding of where the Union intends to go and what leadership characteristics are needed to get us there.

  18. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  19. Cognitive Attributes, Attention, and Self-Efficacy of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in a Fourth Grade Reading Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eunsoo; Roberts, Garrett J.; Capin, Philip; Roberts, Greg; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    We examined cognitive attributes, attention, and self-efficacy of fourth grade struggling readers who were identified as adequate responders (n = 27), inadequate responders with comprehension only deficits (n = 46), and inadequate responders with comprehension and word reading deficits (n = 52) after receiving a multicomponent reading intervention. We also included typical readers (n = 40). These four groups were compared on measures of nonverbal reasoning, working memory, verbal knowledge, listening comprehension, phonological awareness, and rapid naming as well as on teacher ratings of attention problems and self-reported self-efficacy. The two inadequate responder groups demonstrated difficulties primarily with verbal knowledge and listening comprehension compared to typical readers and adequate responders. Phonological awareness and rapid naming differentiated the two inadequate responder groups. In addition, both inadequate responder groups showed more attention problems and low self-efficacy compared to typical readers. PMID:26997755

  20. Papers on Collaboration and Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, C. Michael; And Others

    This document is a collection of three papers prepared as a result of a mandate for a collaborative approach in preparing professionals for the public schools in New York State. In "Working through a Consortium," C. Michael Darcy, writing on the assumption that the consortium is the most desirable future state for the governance of teacher…

  1. A model for determining when an analysis contains sufficient detail to provide adequate NEPA coverage for a proposed action

    SciTech Connect

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1994-11-01

    Neither the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) nor its subsequent regulations provide substantive guidance for determining the Level of detail, discussion, and analysis that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. Yet, decisionmakers are routinely confronted with the problem of making such determinations. Experience has shown that no two decisionmakers are Likely to completely agree on the amount of discussion that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. one decisionmaker may determine that a certain Level of analysis is adequate, while another may conclude the exact opposite. Achieving a consensus within the agency and among the public can be problematic. Lacking definitive guidance, decisionmakers and critics alike may point to a universe of potential factors as the basis for defending their claim that an action is or is not adequately covered. Experience indicates that assertions are often based on ambiguous opinions that can be neither proved nor disproved. Lack of definitive guidance slows the decisionmaking process and can result in project delays. Furthermore, it can also Lead to inconsistencies in decisionmaking, inappropriate Levels of NEPA documentation, and increased risk of a project being challenged for inadequate coverage. A more systematic and less subjective approach for making such determinations is obviously needed. A paradigm for reducing the degree of subjectivity inherent in such decisions is presented in the following paper. The model is specifically designed to expedite the decisionmaking process by providing a systematic approach for making these determination. In many cases, agencies may find that using this model can reduce the analysis and size of NEPA documents.

  2. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    SciTech Connect

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-05

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10/sup -6/ was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study.

  3. Prepared for the future? Evaluating the costs and benefits of voluntary work for natural disaster management under a changing climate - data on recent flood events, stakeholder needs and policy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Brucker, Anja; Seebauer, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Voluntary emergency and relief services, such as fire brigades or rescue organisations, form the backbone of disaster management in most of European countries. In Austria, disaster management relies on the cooperation between governmental and non-governmental institutions: When a disaster occurs, the volunteer organizations act as auxiliaries to the responsible disaster management authority. The assessment of costs and benefits of these emergency services is a crucial component of risk and disaster management strategies, since public means are getting scarcer and these costs can reach critical levels for low-income municipalities. As extreme events and emergency operations are likely to increase due to climate change, the efficient allocation of public budgets for risk and disaster management becomes more important. Hence, both, the costs and the benefits must be known, but voluntary and professional work is hardly documented and assessed comprehensively. Whereas the costs of emergency services can be calculated using market values and an analysis of public and institutional budgets, the benefits of voluntary efforts cannot be assessed easily. We present empirical data on costs of voluntary and professional emergency services during the floods of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria and Germany on different scales, obtained from public authorities, fire brigades and by means of public surveys. From these results, we derive a calculation framework and data requirements for assessing costs of emergency services. To consider the different stakeholders needs of administration, emergency institutions and voluntary members, we carried out workshops, first to identify future challenges in voluntary work for disaster management instigated by climate change and second, to develop approaches how the voluntary system can be uphold when facing increasing adverse impacts of natural hazards. The empirical results as well as the workshop outcome shall be translated into policy

  4. Teachers' Basic Knowledge of Reading Instruction: Insights from a Teacher Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Sheri; Regan, Kelley; Dimitrov, Dimiter; Guckert, Mary; Ray, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Effective reading instruction is essential for all students, and especially students with disabilities; however, studies have indicated that both pre-service and in-service teachers lack an adequate knowledge of reading. To ensure adequate teacher knowledge, teacher preparation reform advocates suggest purposeful alignment of teacher preparation…

  5. Statewide Efforts to Enhance Early Childhood Personnel Preparation Programs to Support Inclusion: Overview and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Pam; Catlett, Camille

    2009-01-01

    Inclusion is a federal and state mandate, making it critical that early childhood teachers have adequate preparation in their preservice program for serving young children with disabilities. One of the challenges states face in increasing the availability of high-quality inclusive programs is ensuring adequate numbers of confident, competent…

  6. Challenges and coping strategies of orphaned children in Tanzania who are not adequately cared for by adults.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Marguerite; Mathias, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Orphaned children in poor rural communities sometimes have no adult who is able to care for them or else the adult caregiver is not able to provide adequate care. Tanzania remains one of the poorest countries in the world, and poverty frequently constrains foster care. Although HIV prevalence is declining, AIDS is still a major cause of orphaning. This article explores the challenges and coping strategies accompanying two possible life trajectories for orphaned children without adequate adult care: 1) that they remain in rural areas in child-headed households, or 2) that they are trafficked to an urban area. Antonovsky's salutogenic model is used as the theoretical framework. The data come from two separate phenomenological studies with vulnerable children. In the first study, in-depth interviews were held with 12 orphaned children in a poor rural area; data concerning three child heads of households are included here. In the second study, 15 girls who were trafficked from rural areas to Dar es Salaam gave extended life-history narrations; data are included for nine of the girls who were orphaned. Loss of parents, a lack of cash, and the need to balance school attendance with food production were chronic stressors for the children heading households, while resources included income-generation strategies and the ability to negotiate with teachers for time to cultivate. For the trafficked girls chronic stressors included exploitation, long working hours, little or no pay, isolation and rape. Resources for them, although limited, included faith networks and neighbours; escape from the exploitative situation frequently involved external help. We conclude that given physical and social assets the child-headed households were able to cope with the challenges of caring for themselves and a younger child, but isolation and dependency on employers made it difficult for the trafficked girls to cope with this exploitation. The salutogenic model proved a useful tool in

  7. Phentolamine as a treatment for poor mixing in transposition of the great arteries with adequate intraatrial communication.

    PubMed

    Galal, M O; El-Naggar, W I; Sharfi, M H

    2005-01-01

    Patients with transposition of the great arteries often show poor mixing for different reasons, even after adequate balloon atrial septostomy. We present a patient with such a lesion whose clinical status improved dramatically after phentolamine was applied. We believe this improvement is due to reduction in afterload caused by the alpha(2) blocker and also possibly as a response to a presumptive effect of the drug on the diastolic function of the right ventricle, allowing more left-to-right shunt across the atrial septal defect. Both phenomena can improve cardiac output in such a situation. PMID:16374695

  8. Macronutrient Supplementation for Malnourished HIV-infected Adults: A Review of the Evidence in Resource-Adequate and Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    Koethe, John R.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Megazzini, Karen M.; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection has expanded rapidly throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but malnutrition and food insecurity have emerged as major barriers to program success. Protein-calorie malnutrition (a common form in the region) hastens HIV disease progression, and food insecurity is a barrier to medication adherence. Analyses of patient outcomes have identified a low body mass index (BMI) at ART initiation as an independent predictor of early mortality, but the causes of low BMI are multi-factorial may represent normal anthropometric variation, chronic inadequate food intake, or wasting associated with HIV and other infections. While there is much experience population-level humanitarian food assistance, few data exist to measure the effectiveness of macronutrient supplementation or to identify individuals most likely to benefit. In this report, we review the current evidence supporting macronutrient supplementation for HIV-infected adults; clinical trials in resource-adequate and resource-constrained settings; and highlight priority areas for future research. PMID:19624276

  9. The Future of Howard Community College. Report of the Commission on the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard Community Coll., Columbia, MD. Office of Planning and Evaluation.

    In October, 1998, the Howard Community College (Maryland) board of trustees created a Commission on the Future (COF) to help the College identify emerging issues, prepare for the future, and develop a vision of the College's role in the 21st century. Task forces were established to conduct research, interview experts, and debate how the college…

  10. Development of Future Curriculum via Futures Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj, Saedah; Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim

    2011-01-01

    Observation on best future choices is not something that happens by chance; in fact, it should be carried out through careful planning driven by research. Therefore, observation on future curriculum would also involve in-depth research on future possibilities and their impact. Policy makers and curriculum developers of institutions or even the…

  11. Preparing and administering injectable antibiotics: How to avoid playing God.

    PubMed

    Longuet, P; Lecapitaine, A L; Cassard, B; Batista, R; Gauzit, R; Lesprit, P; Haddad, R; Vanjak, D; Diamantis, S

    2016-07-01

    The emergence of bacterial resistance and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline represent a public health priority. Maximizing the quality of antibiotic prescriptions is therefore of major importance in terms of adequate preparation and administration modalities. Adequate preparation prevents the inactivation of antibiotics and is a prerequisite to maximizing their efficacy (taking into account the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship) and to minimizing their toxicity. Many antibiotic guidelines address the choice of drugs and treatment duration but none of them exclusively address preparation and administration modalities. These guidelines are based on the available literature and offer essential data for a proper antibiotic preparation and administration by physicians and nurses. They may lead to a better efficacy and to a reduced antibiotic resistance. Such guidelines also contribute to a proper use of drugs and improve the interaction between inpatient and outpatient care for a better overall management of patients. PMID:27112521

  12. Barriers to help-seeking, detection, and adequate treatment for anxiety and mood disorders: implications for health care policy.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, David

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the focus of health policies and initiatives has been directed toward mental health. More precisely, depressive and anxiety disorders have received particular attention because of their disabling outcomes and prevalence among most populations. Despite this increased interest, numerous issues regarding patients' willingness to seek treatment and the adequate recognition and treatment of these disorders by clinicians remain to be addressed. This article considers the factors that influence patients and physicians in their reticence to acknowledge and adequately treat depression and anxiety disorders. It also reviews the impact of society and the media, together with other factors relating to health care organization and administration that affect the treatment of depression and anxiety. In view of the multifaceted challenge involved, efforts to achieve a consensus in determining treatment for those with depressive and anxiety disorders are essential. A consensus will require easy, measurable, and reliable disability indicators; evidence that treatment of patients with varying levels of need is cost effective; and that persons who most need and would benefit from care can be reliably identified among the highly prevalent population of persons with more transient symptoms. Governments and other policymakers should be encouraged to provide appropriate coverage for access to primary and secondary care, the treatments required, and sufficient resources so that care is available when necessary. An important aspect of the challenge is to incorporate these efforts within the realistic constraints of primary care. PMID:17288503

  13. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  14. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  15. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  16. Critical Care In Korea: Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chae-Man; Kwak, Sang-Hyun; Suh, Gee Young

    2015-01-01

    Critical (or intensive) care medicine (CCM) is a branch of medicine concerned with the care of patients with potentially reversible life-threatening conditions. Numerous studies have demonstrated that adequate staffing is of crucial importance for patient outcome. Adequate staffing also showed favorable cost-effectiveness in terms of ICU stay, decreased use of resources, and lower re-admission rates. The current status of CCM of our contry is not comparable to that of advanced countries. The global pandemic episodes in the past decade showed that our society is not well prepared for severe illnesses or mass casualty. To improve CCM in Korea, reimbursement of the government must be amended such that referral hospitals can hire sufficient number of qualified intensivists and nurses. For the government to address these urgent issues, public awareness of the role of CCM is also required. PMID:26538995

  17. Critical Care In Korea: Present and Future.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae-Man; Kwak, Sang-Hyun; Suh, Gee Young; Koh, Younsuck

    2015-11-01

    Critical (or intensive) care medicine (CCM) is a branch of medicine concerned with the care of patients with potentially reversible life-threatening conditions. Numerous studies have demonstrated that adequate staffing is of crucial importance for patient outcome. Adequate staffing also showed favorable cost-effectiveness in terms of ICU stay, decreased use of resources, and lower re-admission rates. The current status of CCM of our country is not comparable to that of advanced countries. The global pandemic episodes in the past decade showed that our society is not well prepared for severe illnesses or mass casualty. To improve CCM in Korea, reimbursement of the government must be amended such that referral hospitals can hire sufficient number of qualified intensivists and nurses. For the government to address these urgent issues, public awareness of the role of CCM is also required. PMID:26538995

  18. Remote Preparation of an Atomic Quantum Memory

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Wenjamin; Berner, Stefan; Volz, Juergen; Weber, Markus; Weinfurter, Harald

    2007-02-02

    Storage and distribution of quantum information are key elements of quantum information processing and future quantum communication networks. Here, using atom-photon entanglement as the main physical resource, we experimentally demonstrate the preparation of a distant atomic quantum memory. Applying a quantum teleportation protocol on a locally prepared state of a photonic qubit, we realized this so-called remote state preparation on a single, optically trapped {sup 87}Rb atom. We evaluated the performance of this scheme by the full tomography of the prepared atomic state, reaching an average fidelity of 82%.

  19. Reflections From a Crystal Ball: The Future of the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Donald P.

    This paper is concerned with helping proactive people prepare for the future. The future society is considered, then the process of change, and finally, what all of this means to libraries. Several approaches to the future are reviewed, but the proactive approach, in which people help to shape the situation in which they find themselves by setting…

  20. Preparing for Nontraditional Biothreats.

    PubMed

    Colf, Leremy A

    2016-01-01

    Biological threats consist of traditional, emerging, enhanced, and advanced threats, but current biodefense approaches focus almost entirely on a subset of traditional threats. There is an urgent need to develop a comprehensive, rational, and systematic plan to address and mitigate the broader risk space. Myriad possible strategies exist, but an ideal strategy will extend beyond a list of agents. This article proposes a functionality-based approach based on systematic identification of key functional elements, essentially focusing on mechanisms of what constitutes a threat: The key threat element is addressed directly instead of extensive characterization of ancillary details. Examples might include a potent toxin, long-term environmental stability, or a specific protein causing morbidity/mortality. By identifying the critical components leading to disease, limited time, efforts, and resources can be focused to address the greatest risks. Further, as future threats will likely contain critical aspects of known agents, this approach will potentially address a large area of uncharacterized risk space. Thus, focused research can buy down a large area of risk space while still addressing traditional threats and mission needs. Application of this strategy will move the field away from agent-based lists toward a more comprehensive hazard analysis and will position biodefense and health communities to prepare for the threats of the future. PMID:26863312