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Sample records for adequately protect workers

  1. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... safety analysis, or DSA, is to be prepared for every DOE nuclear facility. This DSA, once approved by...

  2. 75 FR 74022 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... November 15, 2010 (75 FR 69648). The corrected text of the recommendation approved by the Board is below... or telephone number (202) 694-7000. Correction: In the Federal Register of November 15, 2010 (75 FR... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the...

  3. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  4. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  5. Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

  6. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  7. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  8. Protecting Workers from Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    QUICK CARD TM Protecting Workers from Heat Stress Heat Illness Exposure to heat can cause illness and death. The most serious ... OSHA (6742) OSHA 3154 -06R 2014 QUICK CARD TM • Modify work schedules and arrange frequent rest periods ...

  9. Advanced worker protection system. Topical report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system, maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles.

  10. Are hotspots of evolutionary potential adequately protected in southern California?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.; Hathaway, S.A.; Boys, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    Reserves are often designed to protect rare habitats, or "typical" exemplars of ecoregions and geomorphic provinces. This approach focuses on current patterns of organismal and ecosystem-level biodiversity, but typically ignores the evolutionary processes that control the gain and loss of biodiversity at these and other levels (e.g., genetic, ecological). In order to include evolutionary processes in conservation planning efforts, their spatial components must first be identified and mapped. We describe a GIS-based approach for explicitly mapping patterns of genetic divergence and diversity for multiple species (a "multi-species genetic landscape"). Using this approach, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA datasets from 21 vertebrate and invertebrate species in southern California to identify areas with common phylogeographic breaks and high intrapopulation diversity. The result is an evolutionary framework for southern California within which patterns of genetic diversity can be analyzed in the context of historical processes, future evolutionary potential and current reserve design. Our multi-species genetic landscapes pinpoint six hotspots where interpopulation genetic divergence is consistently high, five evolutionary hotspots within which genetic connectivity is high, and three hotspots where intrapopulation genetic diversity is high. These 14 hotspots can be grouped into eight geographic areas, of which five largely are unprotected at this time. The multi-species genetic landscape approach may provide an avenue to readily incorporate measures of evolutionary process into GIS-based systematic conservation assessment and land-use planning.

  11. 29 CFR 500.70 - Scope of worker protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.70 Scope of worker protections. (a) General. The Act provides protections for migrant and seasonal agricultural workers irrespective of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of worker protections. 500.70 Section 500.70...

  12. 29 CFR 500.70 - Scope of worker protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.70 Scope of worker protections. (a) General. The Act provides protections for migrant and seasonal agricultural workers irrespective of... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of worker protections. 500.70 Section 500.70...

  13. Tips to Protect Workers in Cold Environments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anti-Retaliation Tips To Protect Workers In Cold Environments Prolonged exposure to freezing or cold temperatures may ... 321-OSHA. Freedom of Information Act | Privacy & Security Statement | Disclaimers | Important Web Site Notices | International | Contact Us ...

  14. Performance/design criteria review advanced worker protection systems. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This document describes an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with a variety of articles of protective clothing and support equipment.

  15. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  16. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  17. Ultraviolet and short wavelength visible light exposure: why ultraviolet protection alone is not adequate.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Alan W; Citek, Karl; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The danger of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in both the natural environment and artificial occupational settings has long been recognized by national and international standards committees and worker safety agencies. There is an increasing body of literature that suggests that protection from UV exposure is not enough. Unprotected exposure to the short wavelengths of the visible spectrum, termed the "blue light hazard", is gaining acceptance as a true risk to long-term visual health. Global standards and experts in the field are now warning that those individuals who spend considerable time outdoors should seek sun filter eyewear with high impact resistant lenses that provide 100% UV filtration, high levels of blue light filtration, and full visual field lens/frame coverage as provided by high wrap eyewear. The Skin Cancer Foundation has endorsed certain sunglasses as "product[s]...effective [as] UV filter[s] for the eyes and surrounding skin". However, such endorsement does not necessarily mean that the eyewear meets all the protective needs for outdoor use. There are several brands that offer products with such protective characteristics. Performance sun eyewear by Nike Vision, available in both corrective and plano (nonprescription) forms, is one such brand incorporating these protective features. PMID:17073573

  18. Adolescent Fathers Involved with Child Protection: Social Workers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Derrick M.; Watkins, Natasha D.; Walling, Sherry M.; Wilhelm, Sara; Rayford, Brett S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent paternity through structured interviews with their social workers. It adds to the literature by exploring if there were young men involved with the child protection services (CPS) system who are fathers, identifying their unique needs, and beginning discussions on working with these young men. CPS social workers from…

  19. Client Violence and Its Negative Impacts on Work Attitudes of Child Protection Workers Compared to Community Service Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Junseob

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers…

  20. Examining Self-Protection Measures Guarding Adult Protective Services Social Workers against Compassion Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-01-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal…

  1. Does the new EU Regulation on clinical trials adequately protect vulnerable research participants?

    PubMed

    Gennet, Éloïse; Andorno, Roberto; Elger, Bernice

    2015-07-01

    Vulnerable research participants deserve special protection because of their increased risks of being wronged. Yet, paradoxically, the conduct of trials involving vulnerable groups is sometimes inescapable to develop safe and efficient therapies suitable to these groups. The key question is therefore how to protect vulnerable research participants from harm and exploitation without excluding the populations they belong to from the benefits of research. The European Union faced this challenge in April 2014 when adopting the new Regulation on clinical trials, which will replace the currently applicable 2001 Clinical Trials Directive in 2016. In order to assess the protection of vulnerable persons in the new Regulation, this paper makes four suggestions: first, the need to adopt a risk-based approach to vulnerability in biomedical research; second, to better distinguish between decisional vulnerabilities and health-related vulnerabilities; third, to emphasise the need to preserve the freedom of consent of subjects with decisional vulnerability, who are more susceptible to undue influence; and finally to assert the need of actively promoting specific clinical trials involving people with physical or psychological vulnerabilities. In conclusion, this paper claims that the protection of vulnerable subjects still needs to be improved in the new EU Regulation. PMID:25951954

  2. Compassion fatigue and the adult protective services social worker.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Dara Bergel

    2009-04-01

    Compassion fatigue is a relatively new term that describes the symptoms that are experienced by social workers and other helping professionals who work with clients experiencing trauma. This article defines the concept of compassion fatigue and relates compassion fatigue to Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers. It is proposed that APS social workers may be susceptible to the deleterious effects of compassion fatigue due to the nature of their work and environment. Suggestions for avoidance of compassion fatigue are also discussed, including self-care strategies and the need for continuing education regarding this phenomenon. PMID:19308828

  3. Movement and spawning migration patterns suggest small marine reserves can offer adequate protection for exploited emperorfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, B. M.; Mills, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    A critical feature of effective marine reserves is to be large enough to encompass home ranges of target species, thereby allowing a significant portion of the population to persist without the threat of exploitation. In this study, patterns of movement and home range for Lethrinus harak and Lethrinus obsoletus were quantified using an array of 33 acoustic receivers that covered approximately three quarters of Piti Marine Reserve in the Pacific island of Guam. This array was designed to ensure extensive overlap of receiver ranges throughout the study area. Eighteen individuals (12 L. harak and 6 L. obsoletus) were surgically implanted with ultrasonic transmitters and passively tracked for 4 months. Both species displayed high site fidelity and had relatively small home ranges. The home ranges of L. harak expanded with increasing body size. Feeding of fish by humans, which was common but restricted to a small area within the study site, had little effect on the distribution of the resident populations. L. harak made nightly spawning migrations within the reserve between full moon and last quarter moon of each lunar cycle, coinciding with a strong ebbing tide. Results indicate that even small reserves can include many individual home ranges of these emperorfishes and can protect spawning sites for L. harak. These species are heavily targeted in Guam, and there are major demographic differences between fished and protected sites. This study shows the potential for protected areas to sustain reproductive viability in exploited populations.

  4. Innovations in the management of child protection workers: building worker resilience.

    PubMed

    Yin, Robert T

    2004-10-01

    CPS staff work in a fishbowl. Parents, teachers, advocates, counselors, doctors, and lawyers frequently see themselves as experts in the field of CPS. Yet, few of them have had the experience of a CPS worker telling them how to do their job. The true potential for CPS work will not be realized until our communities decide to increase worker pay and reduce worker caseloads. Yet, if we choose to work under these conditions, it is our responsibility to find ways to survive them. The CPS workers unanimously reported that the overall impact of these progressive management strategies was to significantly reduce their stress. Given the serious threats, criticisms, and outrage thrown daily at CPS workers, it is imperative that managers act first to protect their worker's "best interests." It is my belief that all of the policy deviations described above are ethical. None of them put children at risk. I hope that policymakers will someday change the old-school, management policies that are pervasive within our bureaucracies. I do not promote a wanton disregard for policy compliance; however, I do promote change where change is due. In light of the enormous impact that CPS workers have on children and their families, it is crucial that CPS managers be allowed to create an atmosphere where workers can successfully do their work. PMID:15537183

  5. Innovative technology summary report: advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), which was supported by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Morgantown Energy Technology Center through a cost sharing research and development contract. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment.

  6. Innovations in the Management of Child Protection Workers: Building Worker Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    Taking children away from their parents is risky business. Child protective services (CPS) workers are charged with monumental tasks and ever-increasing caseloads. As a countywide CPS supervisor in New Mexico, the author shared the pain of one caseworker who experienced daily stress, knowing that her sibling set of three young children had been…

  7. Protective effect of selenium on lung cancer in smelter workers.

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardsson, L; Brune, D; Nordberg, I G; Wester, P O

    1985-01-01

    A possible protective effect of selenium against lung cancer has been indicated in recent studies. Workers in copper smelters are exposed to a combination of airborne selenium and carcinogens. In this study lung tissue concentrations of selenium, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lanthanum, and lead from 76 dead copper smelter workers were compared with those of 15 controls from a rural area and 10 controls from an urban area. The mean exposure time for the dead workers was 31.2 years, and the mean retirement time after the end of exposure 7.2 years. Lung cancer appeared in the workers with the lowest selenium lung tissue levels (selenium median value 71 micrograms/kg wet weight), as compared with both the controls (rural group, median value 110; urban group, median value 136) and other causes of death among the workers (median value 158). The quotient between the metals and selenium was used for comparison: a high quotient indicating a low protective effect of selenium and vice versa. The median values of the quotients between antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lanthanum, lead, chromium, and cobalt versus selenium were all numerically higher among the cases of lung cancer, the first five significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in 28 of the 35 comparisons between the lung cancer group and all other groups of smelter workers and controls. The different lung metal concentrations for each person were weighted according to their carcinogenic potency (Crx4 + Asx3 + Cdx2 + Sbx1 + Cox1 + Lax1 + Pbx1) against their corresponding selenium concentrations. From these calculations the protective effect of selenium was even more pronounced. PMID:4041390

  8. Examining self-protection measures guarding Adult Protective Services social workers against compassion fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-06-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal characteristics and professional factors to develop boundary-setting mechanisms that protected them from experiencing the deleterious symptoms and effects of compassion fatigue. Implications center around the elements needed to implement boundaries in order to maintain a separation between the work and home environment. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:22203624

  9. The protection of migrant workers and international labour standards.

    PubMed

    Bohning, W R

    1988-06-01

    International labor standards take the form of Conventions and Recommendations that embody the agreements reached by a 2/3 majority of the representatives of Governments, Employers, and Workers of International Labour Office (ILO) member states. Originally designed to guard against the danger that 1 country or other would keep down wages and working conditions to gain competitive advantage and thereby undermine advances elsewhere, international labor standards have also been inspired by humanitarian concerns--the visible plight of workers and the physical dangers of industrialization and by the notion of social justice, which embraces wellbeing and dignity, security, and equality as well as a measure of participation in economic and social matters. ILO standards apply to workers generally and therefore also to migrant workers, irrespective of the fact that the general standards are complemented by standards especially for migrant workers. The social security protection of migrant workers has been dealt with in ILO instruments primarily from the angle of equality of treatment but also from that of the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition, including the payment of benefits to entitled persons resident abroad. The ILO Conventions on migrant workers and the Recommendations which supplement them deal with practically all aspects of the work and life of non-nationals such as recruitment matters, information to be made available, contract conditions, medical examination and attention, customs, exemption for personal effects, assistance in settling into their new environment, vocational training, promotion at work, job security and alternative employment, liberty of movement, participation in the cultural life of the state as well as maintenance of their own culture, transfer of earnings and savings, family reunification and visits, appeal against unjustified termination of employment or expulsion, and return assistance. ILO's supervisory

  10. Do workplace and home protective practices protect farm workers? Findings from the For Healthy Kids Study

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Holte, Sarah E.; Vigoren, Eric M.; Griffith, William C; Barr, Dana B.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Thompson, Beti

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess associations of protective workplace and home practices to pesticide exposure levels. Methods Using data from orchard workers in the Yakima Valley, Washington, we examined associations of workplace and home protective practices to (1) urinary metabolite concentrations of dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) in adults and children aged 2–6; and (2) azinphos-methyl levels in house and vehicle dust. Results Data were from 95 orchard workers and 94 children. Contrary to expectation, adult farm workers who wore boots or washed hands using hand sanitizer had higher concentrations of DMTP than those who did not. Children who attended daycare had higher DMTP concentrations than children who did not. Conclusions Few workplace or home practices were associated with pesticide exposure levels; workers who used hand sanitizer had higher concentrations of DMTP, as did children who attended daycare. PMID:22772953

  11. Knowledge of outdoor workers on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure.

    PubMed

    Hault, K; Rönsch, H; Beissert, S; Knuschke, P; Bauer, A

    2016-04-01

    The most important but influenceable risk factor in the development of skin cancer is the unprotected exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In order to assure adequate and effective protection against UV exposure, a level of knowledge about solar radiation and its effects is required. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of workers in outdoor professions on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure. Forty outdoor workers were given a standardized questionnaire designed to ascertain their level of knowledge. The majority of participants knew exposure to solar radiation can be detrimental depending on exposure time. Eighty-three percentage recognized that people working regularly in an outdoor environment may be at risk due to high exposure. Long-sleeved clothing plus headgear and sunscreen containing sun-protecting substances were deemed adequate methods of protection by 83% and 85% respectively. Seventy percentage of the outdoor workers were familiar with the definition of the sun protection factor (SPF), yet only 25% correctly identified the amount of sunscreen needed to achieve the SPF as indicated on the product. A mere 8% of participants knew that symptoms of a sunburn first became apparent 3 h after sun exposure and only 18% were able to accurately gauge the amount of time they could spend in the sun before developing one. Although 30% had heard of the ultraviolet index (UVI), only 13% understood that protecting your skin using additional measures is recommended as of UVI 3. Overall, 30% of the outdoor workers thought themselves sufficiently protected against the harmful effects of the sun. While the participants of this study had a basic fundamental understanding of the effects of solar radiation and methods of protection against exposure, there remains an urgent need for further clarification across all demographic groups. PMID:26995021

  12. Field testing of the Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.J.E.; Hamill, D.

    1996-12-31

    AWPS is a life support system that allows a suited worker in operate in a chemically hazardous or radiologically hot environment for up to 2 hours with minimal heat stress and minimal encumbrance from his life support equipment. It consists of 3 parts: a backpack using liquid air to supply breathing gas and cooling power; a liquid cooling garment (LCG) that circulates water chilled from vaporizing and warming the cryogen; and a Level B protective garment which accommodates the low profile of the backpack, permits greater mobility and doesn`t require tape closure. The AWPS backpack and LCG are compatible with commercially available Level A protective garments. A one-hour demonstration of a AWPS prototype was done.

  13. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  14. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  15. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  16. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  17. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  18. The Older Worker's Stake in Workers' Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Monroe

    1975-01-01

    State Workers' Compensation programs can add another barrier for older workers to surmount at the hiring gate. State programs do not furnish adequate or equitable protection, and the National Commission on State Workmen's Compensation Laws has made recommendations to improve coverage; new standards must be met by July, 1975. (Author)

  19. 3 CFR - The Presidential POWER Initiative: Protecting Our Workers and Ensuring Reemployment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Presidential POWER Initiative: Protecting Our... 19, 2010 The Presidential POWER Initiative: Protecting Our Workers and Ensuring Reemployment... workers' compensation payments in fiscal year 2009. Many of these work-related injuries and illnesses...

  20. EPA’s proposed Worker Protection Standard and the burdens of the past

    PubMed Central

    Bohme, Susanna Rankin

    2015-01-01

    Background: An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendation for extensive changes to the Agency’s 40-year-old Worker Protection Standard is currently stalled in the “proposed rule” stage. The proposal, which was available for public comment until 18 August, would improve safety, training, and hazard communication policies for agricultural pesticides. Exposure to hazards, including high heat, heavy machinery, stoop labor, and pesticides, makes occupational illness uncommonly common among the USA’s estimated 2.5 million farm workers. Objectives: To consider the proposed revisions’ likelihood of addressing historical gaps in farmworker protection. Methods: The proposal was compared to the existing Worker Protection Standard, and key aspects were analyzed in relation to existing science on farm labor hazards, as well as historic occupational health, labor and immigration policy. Results: US law historically has left farm workers largely unprotected. These exclusions and delays have been tolerated in part thanks to the myth of the independent family farmer, but more significant is the stingy nativism that presumes to benefit from immigrant labor without assuming any responsibility to protect the humans who provide it. In the first half of the 1970s, workers lobbied for robust protections, but rule making was impeded by lack of data and by the disproportionate influence of agricultural employers who sought minimal regulation. In 1974, the EPA passed the first Worker Protection Standard for farm workers. Key aspects of the proposed revision include stronger protections against drift and re-entry exposures, better information provision and training, and increased protections for workers under 16 years. Conclusions: The proposed changes represent an improvement over existing legislation, but do not go far enough. The revision should be strengthened along lines suggested by farm workers themselves, and other labor laws must also be amended to give the men

  1. [Bahaviour of Solenopsis invicta workers to protect pupae from infection by Metarhizium anisopliae].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hua-Long; Lü, Li-Hua; Zhang, Chun-Yang; He, Yu-Rong

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have focused on how ants deal with workers infected by pathogens but how pupae are protected from infection by fungi is not well understood. The behavioral mechanisms adopted by Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ants, RIFA) adult workers to protect pupae against Metarhizium anisopliae infection were studied. We observed the behavioral changes of M. anisopliae infected adult workers in the brood chamber as well as the behavioral changes of healthy workers to fungus exposed pupae. The time of fungus infected workers spent in the pupal chamber reduced significantly from 103.4 s on the first day to 38.5 s on the third day. Moreover, the percentage of time spending on brood care in the pupal chamber reduced significantly from 13.6% on the first day to 3.5% on the third day. When pupae were infected by M. anisopliae, workers performed 5.3 times more grooming to fungus exposed pupae than controls, and the duration of each grooming bout to fungus exposed pupae was 5.2 times longer than controls. Grooming did remove many conidia on the surface of fungus exposed pupae. The mean numbers of conidia on the surface of pupae were 103.1, 51.6 and 31.3 when no workers, two workers and ten workers accompanied a pupa, respectively. The presence of workers resulted in a lower germination rate of conidia on the surface of pupae. The mean germination rates of conidia after 20 h of inoculation on the surface of pupae were 95.1%, 80.4% and 59.9%, in the treatments with no worker, two workers and ten workers respectively. There was a positive correlation between the emergence rate of pupae and the number of accompanying workers. RIFA protect their pupae from infection by M. anisopliae through social be- haviors which enable the sustainable development of their population. PMID:25757319

  2. The labor movement's role in gaining federal safety and health standards to protect America's workers.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Deborah; Failey, Tara

    2014-11-01

    In the United States, unions sometimes joined by worker advocacy groups (e.g., Public Citizen and the American Public Health Association) have played a critical role in strengthening worker safety and health protections. They have sought to improve standards that protect workers by participating in the rulemaking process, through written comments and involvement in hearings; lobbying decision-makers; petitioning the Department of Labor; and defending improved standards in court. Their efforts have culminated in more stringent exposure standards, access to information about the presence of potentially hazardous toxic chemicals, and improved access to personal protective equipment-further improving working conditions in the United States. PMID:25261030

  3. A Survey of Threats and Violence Directed against Child Protection Workers in a Rural State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horejsi, Charles; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 166 child protection workers in rural Montana to determine the extent and nature of threats and actual violence they are subject to during the course of their duties. Found that 10% of workers had been pushed, shoved, or hit by clients in the previous year and that 33% received death threats from clients. (MDM)

  4. Protective jacket enabling decision support for workers in cold climate.

    PubMed

    Seeberg, Trine M; Vardoy, Astrid-Sofie B; Austad, Hanne O; Wiggen, Oystein; Stenersen, Henning S; Liverud, Anders E; Storholmen, Tore Christian B; Faerevik, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    The cold and harsh climate in the High North represents a threat to safety and work performance. The aim of this study was to show that sensors integrated in clothing can provide information that can improve decision support for workers in cold climate without disturbing the user. Here, a wireless demonstrator consisting of a working jacket with integrated temperature, humidity and activity sensors has been developed. Preliminary results indicate that the demonstrator can provide easy accessible information about the thermal conditions at the site of the worker and local cooling effects of extremities. The demonstrator has the ability to distinguish between activity and rest, and enables implementation of more sophisticated sensor fusion algorithms to assess work load and pre-defined activities. This information can be used in an enhanced safety perspective as an improved tool to advice outdoor work control for workers in cold climate. PMID:24111230

  5. [The health protection of Italian workers abroad: complex and varied but still guaranteed].

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Luigi; Corfiati, Marisa; Cassano, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    The employment contracts for Italian working abroad are legally different. So many national laws, European Union (EU) directives and regulations should be applied concerning health and safety at work. This paper is aimed to clarify these features, focusing on their impact on workers' health surveillance. For originally transnational contracts the law applicable is chosen by the parties but in compliance with minimum standards of workers' health protection. An authorization by Italian Labour Minister is also needed for employment in non-EU countries requiring minimum protection conditions. Italian legislation is applied to temporary work abroad. Long-lasting or permanent abroad transfer is regulated as originally transnational work. Workers posted in a EU country should receive the same protection ensured by laws, regulations, collective agreements or arbitrations to resident workers. Health surveillance of workers hired or transferred to work abroad is performed by a occupational physician (OP) operating in the foreign country. Temporary abroad workers undergo health surveillance by the Italian OP. The workplace inspection could be conducted by the OP through audiovisual electronic systems, reserving the on-site visit to particular situations. The host employer is responsible for health surveillance of posted workers entrusted to a local OP. PMID:23393830

  6. Biologically Hazardous Agents at Work and Efforts to Protect Workers' Health: A Review of Recent Reports

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Lim, Cheol-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations. PMID:25180133

  7. Biologically hazardous agents at work and efforts to protect workers' health: a review of recent reports.

    PubMed

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Lim, Cheol-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations. PMID:25180133

  8. Worker Protection from Chemical Vapors: Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.J.

    2007-07-01

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank head-spaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns, risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits (OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors. (authors)

  9. EEOC says temporary workers qualify for ADA protection. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

    PubMed

    1998-01-23

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) issued guidelines clarifying that both employers and staffing agencies can be held liable for discrimination and harassment of temporary or contingent workers. These workers are often viewed as independent contractors, and not employees. The guidance clarifies the employee-employer relationship, holding both the employment firm and the client accountable for discrimination and harassment and offering protection for this class of worker under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and other anti-discrimination statutes. The guidance also contains two case examples of how the ADA applies to contractual workers with HIV. The staffing firm and client each must count every worker with whom there is an employment relationship, and are prohibited from discriminating against each other's employees. PMID:11364955

  10. [Vaccinal prophylaxis against tetanus and hepatitis B: difficulties in application of law and actual status of workers' protection in Lombardy among workers of building sector].

    PubMed

    Dorso, M I; Gallo, E; Rocca, S; Latocca, R; Cesana, G

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinal prophylaxis is a preventive action which is compulsory, if available and useful for health protection of workers exposed to biological work risk. Definition andrealization of compulsory vaccinal campaigns is assigned by law to Occupational Health Doctor. We report a research carried out in 135 firms of building sector on 2158 workers exposed to biological work risk and concerning their vaccinal status against Tetanus and Hepatitis B. We found that only in a part of firms a plan of vaccination has been activated among workers exposed to biological work risk and, if activated, these plans frequently were partial and incomplete. Vaccinal protections among workers therefore resulted insufficient especially among foreigners workers and among workers active in first aid and emergency work teams. We think that a more active role of Occupational Health Doctors in promotion and realization of vaccinal campaigns is necessary for medico-legal and scientific reasons. PMID:23405710

  11. 29 CFR 500.61 - Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker protections and all other statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker... Employees § 500.61 Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker protections and all other...

  12. 29 CFR 500.61 - Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker protections and all other statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker... Employees § 500.61 Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker protections and all other...

  13. Stress Responses and Decision Making in Child Protection Workers Faced with High Conflict Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Vicki R.; Regehr, Cheryl; Shlonsky, Aron; Bogo, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The assessment of children at risk of abuse and neglect is a critical societal function performed by child protection workers in situations of acute stress and conflict. Despite efforts to improve the reliability of risk assessments through standardized measures, available tools continue to rely on subjective judgment. The goal of…

  14. AAUP Urges Faculty Role in Protecting Workers' Rights on Overseas Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The American Association of University Professors and its Canadian counterpart jointly issued a statement last week calling on colleges with campuses abroad to protect the rights of overseas workers and give faculty members more say in planning foreign programs. The statement, adopted by the AAUP's committee on academic freedom and tenure and the…

  15. Systematically Identifying Relevant Research: Case Study on Child Protection Social Workers' Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Paula; Taylor, Brian J.; Campbell, Anne; McQuilkin, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Context: The development of a consolidated knowledge base for social work requires rigorous approaches to identifying relevant research. Method: The quality of 10 databases and a web search engine were appraised by systematically searching for research articles on resilience and burnout in child protection social workers. Results: Applied Social…

  16. A Structural Equation Model of Burnout and Job Exit among Child Protective Services Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Brett; Yadama, Gautam N.

    1996-01-01

    Uses a structural equation model to examine the three elements of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)--emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment--in relation to job exit among child protective services workers over a 15-month period. The model was supported, showing the relevance of all three MBI elements of job exit.…

  17. Protecting worker health and safety using remote handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D.; Reed, R.K.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing and installing two large-scale, remotely controlled systems for use in improving worker health and safety by minimizing exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The first system is a full-scale liquid feed system for use in delivering chemical reagents to LLNL`s existing aqueous low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment facility (Tank Farm). The Tank Farm facility is used to remove radioactive and toxic materials in aqueous wastes prior to discharge to the City of Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP), in accordance with established discharge limits. Installation of this new reagent feed system improves operational safety and process efficiency by eliminating the need to manually handle reagents used in the treatment processes. This was done by installing a system that can inject precisely metered amounts of various reagents into the treatment tanks and can be controlled either remotely or locally via a programmable logic controller (PLC). The second system uses a robotic manipulator to remotely handle, characterize, process, sort, and repackage hazardous wastes containing tritium. This system uses an IBM-developed gantry robot mounted within a special glove box enclosure designed to isolate tritiated wastes from system operators and minimize the potential for release of tritium to the atmosphere. Tritiated waste handling is performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. The system is compatible with an existing portable gas cleanup unit designed to capture any gas-phase tritium inadvertently released into the glove box during waste handling.

  18. Noise exposure of workers and the use of hearing protection equipment in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    John, G W; Grynevych, A; Welch, D; McBride, D; Thorne, P R

    2014-01-01

    Hearing loss from occupational noise exposure is a significant occupational health problem, requiring effective health and safety strategies. Essential to this is an understanding of the noise exposure of workers and the use of hearing protection equipment (HPE). This study reports on data collected in New Zealand. Visits were made to companies in each economic sector. Personal dosimetry was used to assess individual noise exposure of 529 workers. Workers were also interviewed about their use of HPE. Overall, 40.4% of production workers had a daily noise exposure greater than 1 Pa(2)h, exceeding the New Zealand National Standard for occupational noise exposure without HPE. Of these, 88.5% reported to use HPE when working in noise; however, some observations suggested that workers do not consistently use the devices. These data add to the overall picture of noise exposure of workers in New Zealand and are especially useful in areas where data did not previously exist or were difficult to access. PMID:24205958

  19. Newcomer Status as a Protective Factor among Hispanic Migrant Workers for HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, H. Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy; Rubens, Muni; Navarro, Christi M.

    2014-01-01

    The HIV rate among U.S. migrant workers is 10 times that of the national rate. The highly unstable lifestyle of migrant workers places them at heightened vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections; hence, there is a need to investigate the attitudes and sexual risk factors that may play a protective role in the transmission of HIV in this population. This study examines the association between attitudes and HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic male and female migrant workers (n = 255) and their length of stay (shorter length of stay as a protective factor) in Immokalee, FL, USA. Pearson’s correlation and regression analyses were utilized to analyze the relationship between HIV risk behaviors (intention to use condoms and alcohol use) with length of stay in Immokalee. Longer length of stay positively correlated with number of drinks (p < 0.05) and frequency of drinks (p < 0.01) and negatively correlated with ethnic identity search (p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that length of stay predicted both behavioral intention to use condoms (p < 0.05) and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that migrant workers who are new to Immokalee may have a higher likelihood of practicing protective HIV risk behaviors and having more favorable attitudes toward risk reduction than long-timers. This study might provide important new evidence on the drivers of multiple concurrent and potential protective factors against risky sexual behaviors among Hispanic migrant workers. PMID:25426480

  20. A description of factors affecting hazardous waste workers' use of respiratory protective equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.K.; Takaro, T.K.; Connon, C.; Ertell, K.; Pappas, G.; Barnhart, S.

    1999-07-01

    This article describes the first phase of a study that was designed to gain an understanding of hazardous waste workers' attitudes and beliefs about the use of respiratory protective equipment. Exploratory, open-ended interviews were conducted among 28 respirator users at a US Department of Energy facility. Subjects were asked to describe their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about their risks to hazards at their worksites and to discuss their use of respiratory protective equipment. A detailed content analysis of the interviews resulted in the generation of a taxonomy of issues and concerns which fell into three general categories: (1) Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes, (2) Physical and Psychological Effects, and (3) External Influences. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes included Training, Fit Testing, Medical Clearance, Work Exposures, Respirator Use, and Vulnerability to Disease. Physical and Psychological Effects included Somatic/Health Effects, Personal Comfort, Visual Effects, Fatigue, Communication, and Anxiety. External Influences included Structural Environment, Quality and Availability of Equipment, Other PPEs, Co-Worker Influence, Supervisor Influence, and Organizational Culture. The findings from this study have important implications to training and education programs. Effective respiratory protection programs depend on a knowledge of the factors that affect workers' use of equipment. This study suggests that efforts to assure equipment comfort and fit, to assist workers who see and hear less well as a result of their equipment, and to develop strategies to allay worker anxiety when wearing equipment should all be components of a program. An organizational culture that supports and abets the appropriate use of equipment is also a critical element in a successful program.

  1. Predictors of hearing protection use among workers: implications for training programs.

    PubMed

    Lusk, S L; Ronis, D L; Kerr, M J

    1995-09-01

    In this study, we used the conceptual Health Promotion Model to identify predictors of hearing protection use among blue-collar workers (N = 504). The strongest predictors were self-efficacy, benefits, value, and barriers. Items in the barriers scale were most strongly correlated with use and had the greatest potential for change. Therefore, items from this scale are being used as the primary basis for development of a training intervention program. PMID:8566999

  2. Why nafta failed and what's needed to protect workers' health and safety in international trade treaties.

    PubMed

    Brown, Garrett

    2005-01-01

    Labor standards, including occupational health and safety regulations and enforcement, are being subjected to intense downward pressures as a result of fundamental shifts in the global economy. The 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was the first trade treaty that attempted to promote and protect workplace health and safety through a "labor side agreement." NAFTA failed to protect workers' health and safety due to the weaknesses of the side agreement's text; the political and diplomatic considerations limiting its implementation; and the failure to recognize and address the economic context, and political consequences of this context, in which the agreement was implemented. Subsequent trade treaties, both bilateral and regional, have not overcome the weaknesses of NAFTA. The treaty components needed to protect workers' health in future trade agreements are: 1) a minimum floor of occupational health and safety regulations; 2) an "upward harmonization" of regulatory standards and actual practice; 3) inclusion of employers so that they have formal responsibility and liability for violations of the standards; 4) effective enforcement of national regulations and international standards; 5) transparency and public participation; and 6) recognition of disparate economic conditions among trading partners and provision of financial and technical assistance to overcome economic disincentives and lack of resources. Also required are continued actions by non-governmental actors, including the workers themselves and civil society organizations. PMID:17208827

  3. Migration and the Cost of Unemployment Insurance Protection for Agricultural Workers. Bulletin 760(Technical); NE-58 Research Bulletin, October 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Robert D.

    The study examined the effect on the cost of extending unemployment insurance protection to agricultural workers if interstate workers reduced their migration for employment as a result of such a program. There were 50,425 migrants in 14 states who had agricultural employment earnings in more than one state during a 52-week period. Two sets of…

  4. The Hepatitis B Vaccine Protects Re-Exposed Healthcare Workers, but Does Not Provide Sterilizing Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Jens M.; Abdalla, Adil; Gara, Naveen; Ghany, Marc G.; Rehermann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be prevented by vaccination with HBV surface (HBs) antigen, which induces HBs-specific antibodies and T cells. However, the duration of vaccine-induced protective immunity is poorly defined for healthcare workers who were vaccinated as adults. Methods We investigated the immune mechanisms (antibody and T cell responses) of long-term protection by the HBV vaccine in 90 healthcare workers with occupational exposure to HBV, 10–28 y after vaccination. Results Fifty-nine of 90 health-care workers (65%) had levels of antibodies against HBs (anti-HBs) above the cut-off (>12 mIU/ml) and 30/90 (33%) had HBs-specific T cells that produced interferon (IFN)γ. Anti-HBs titers correlated with numbers of HBs-specific IFNγ-producing T cells, but not with time after vaccination. Whereas occupational exposure to HBV after vaccination did not induce antibodies to the HBV core protein (HBcore), the standard biomarker for HBV infection, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells against HBcore and polymerase antigens were detected. Similar numbers of HBcore- and polymerase-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were detected in health-care workers with occupational exposure to HBV and in patients who acquired immunity via HBV infection. Most of the HBcore- and polymerase-specific T cells were CD45RO+CCR7−CD127− effector memory cells in exposed health-care workers and in patients with acquired immunity. In contrast, most of the vaccine-induced HBs-specific T cell cells were CD45RO−CCR7−CD127− and terminally differentiated. Conclusions HBsAg vaccine-induced immunity protects against future infection but does not provide sterilizing immunity, as evidenced by HBcore- and polymerase-specific CD8+ T cells in vaccinated health care workers with occupational exposure to HBV. The presence of HBcore- and HBV polymerase-specific T-cell responses is a more sensitive indicator of HBV exposure than detection of HBcore-specific antibodies. PMID:23916846

  5. Differences in Hospital Managers', Unit Managers', and Health Care Workers' Perceptions of the Safety Climate for Respiratory Protection.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kristina; Rogers, Bonnie M E; Brosseau, Lisa M; Payne, Julianne; Cooney, Jennifer; Joe, Lauren; Novak, Debra

    2016-07-01

    This article compares hospital managers' (HM), unit managers' (UM), and health care workers' (HCW) perceptions of respiratory protection safety climate in acute care hospitals. The article is based on survey responses from 215 HMs, 245 UMs, and 1,105 HCWs employed by 98 acute care hospitals in six states. Ten survey questions assessed five of the key dimensions of safety climate commonly identified in the literature: managerial commitment to safety, management feedback on safety procedures, coworkers' safety norms, worker involvement, and worker safety training. Clinically and statistically significant differences were found across the three respondent types. HCWs had less positive perceptions of management commitment, worker involvement, and safety training aspects of safety climate than HMs and UMs. UMs had more positive perceptions of management's supervision of HCWs' respiratory protection practices. Implications for practice improvements indicate the need for frontline HCWs' inclusion in efforts to reduce safety climate barriers and better support effective respiratory protection programs and daily health protection practices. PMID:27056750

  6. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Personal Mastery Among Sexual Minority African American Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Buttram, Mance E.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Research among sexual minorities has traditionally examined problems such as substance use, HIV risk, mental health problems, and victimization. Among sexual minority street-based female sex workers, these vulnerabilities can be magnified. Grounded in theories of resilience, this study examines risk and protective factors associated with a high level of personal mastery among a vulnerable population of women. Data are drawn from baseline interviews from street-based African American female sex workers enrolled in a randomized intervention trial in Miami, Florida. We compare sexual minority (N=197) and heterosexual (N=365) women on measures of risk and protective factors; among sexual minority women we present logistic regression analyses which reveal that severe mental distress and HIV transmission risk are associated with low levels of personal mastery, while protective factors of transportation access and social support are associated with high levels of personal mastery. These findings suggest that these protective factors may potentially facilitate the development of personal mastery and represent beneficial avenues for intervention efforts. PMID:25530691

  7. Evaluation by industrial workers of passive and level-dependent hearing protection devices.

    PubMed

    Tufts, Jennifer B; Hamilton, Mark A; Ucci, Amanda J; Rubas, James

    2011-01-01

    Level-dependent hearing protection devices (HPDs) provide protection from intense sound, while offering amplification for speech and other signals in lower levels of noise. These HPDs have been developed in response to the communication and operational needs of noise-exposed persons in industry and the military. This study was conducted to examine industrial workers' perceptions of the performance of two level-dependent HPDs (one with integrated radio communication capability and one without it) and their customary passive HPDs. This research took place at a plastic film manufacturing plant in Rhode Island, USA, following a mixed-measures design. Fifteen maintenance technicians at the plant evaluated the two level-dependent HPDs, plus their customary passive HPDs, in three separate trial periods. Data were collected via a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Mixed-model analyses of variance were performed on all dependent measures. Linear and quadratic effect sizes were assessed with eta. Results revealed that the two level-dependent HPDs offered better perceived communication and situational awareness than the workers' customary passive HPDs. However, the level-dependent HPDs were rated lower than the passive HPDs in terms of usability and comfort. To increase workers' acceptance of level-dependent HPDs, usability issues must be addressed by the HPD manufacturers. PMID:21173484

  8. [Legal aspects of workers' health protection against asbestos in Poland in the light of the EU legal framework].

    PubMed

    Swiatkowska, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Legal protection of human life and health against asbestos dust-related hazards is carried out in various dimensions of the European Union law mainly focused on health protection of employees and responsibilities of employers, as well as on environmental protection. The aim of this paper is to present the Community legal issues emphasizing the protection of workers against asbestos and discuss the current state of Polish law in this regard. An analysis of recent legal solutions provides a comprehensive look at the extensive steps currently taken to reduce the risk of exposure to asbestos dust. The legislation in the European Union, including Poland indicates sound foundations for assuring health and safety of workers still exposed to asbestos and those formerly employed in asbestos processing plants. It is only postulated to unify high standards of healthcare to provide all workers employed in asbestos exposure with equal and particular legal protection. PMID:24502132

  9. Child protection workers dealing with child abuse: The contribution of personal, social and organizational resources to secondary traumatization.

    PubMed

    Dagan, Shlomit Weiss; Ben-Porat, Anat; Itzhaky, Haya

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared secondary traumatization among child protection social workers versus social workers employed at social service departments. In addition, based on Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, the study examined the contribution of working in the field of child protection as well as the contribution of background variables, personal resources (mastery), and resources in the workers' social and organizational environment (social support, effectiveness of supervision, and role stress) to secondary traumatization. The findings indicate that levels of mastery and years of work experience contributed negatively to secondary traumatization, whereas exposure to child maltreatment, trauma history, and role stress contributed positively to secondary traumatization. However, no significant contribution was found for social support and effectiveness of supervision. The study identifies factors that can prevent distress among professionals such as child protection workers, who are exposed to the trauma of child abuse victims. Recommendations are provided accordingly. PMID:26549769

  10. PBF Reactor Building (PER620) basement. Workers wearing protective gear work ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620) basement. Workers wearing protective gear work inside cubicle 13 on the fission product detection system. Man on left is atop shielded box shown in previous photo. Posture of second man illustrates waist-high height of shielding box. His hand rests on the access panel, which has been filled with lead bricks and which has been slid shut to enclose detection instruments within box. Photographer: John Capek. Date: January 24, 1983. INEEL negative no. 83-41-3-5 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Effectiveness of an intervention to increase construction workers' use of hearing protection.

    PubMed

    Lusk, S L; Hong, O S; Ronis, D L; Eakin, B L; Kerr, M J; Early, M R

    1999-09-01

    In this project we tested the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention (video, pamphlets, and guided practice session) to increase the use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) among Midwestern construction workers and a national group of plumber/pipefitter trainers. Posttest measures were collected 10-12 months following this intervention. Pender's Health Promotion Model (1987) provided the conceptual basis for development of the training program. A total of 837 high-noise-exposed workers were included in the analysis: 652 regional Midwestern construction workers and 185 national plumber/pipefitter trainers. Effectiveness of the intervention was determined through the sequence of analyses recommended by Braver and Braver (1988) for the Solomon Four-Group Design. Analysis of variance and covariance of postintervention use and intention to use HPDs and a meta-analytic test were done. These analyses indicated that the intervention significantly increased use of HPDs but had no effect on intention to use HPDs in the future. Pretesting had no effect on use. Actual or potential applications of this research include guidance in the development of successful theory-based interventions to increase use of HPDs. PMID:10665215

  12. Reproductive protein protects functionally sterile honey bee workers from oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Seehuus, Siri-Christine; Norberg, Kari; Gimsa, Ulrike; Krekling, Trygve; Amdam, Gro V.

    2006-01-01

    Research on aging shows that regulatory pathways of fertility and senescence are closely interlinked. However, evolutionary theories on social species propose that lifelong care for offspring can shape the course of senescence beyond the restricted context of reproductive capability. These observations suggest that control circuits of aging are remodeled in social organisms with continuing care for offspring. Here, we studied a circuit of aging in the honey bee (Apis mellifera). The bee is characterized by the presence of a long-lived reproductive queen caste and a shorter-lived caste of female workers that are life-long alloparental care givers. We focus on the role of the conserved yolk precursor gene vitellogenin that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, shortens lifespan as a downstream element of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling cascade. Vitellogenin protein is synthesized at high levels in honey bee queens and is abundant in long-lived workers. We establish that vitellogenin gene activity protects worker bees from oxidative stress. Our finding suggests that one mechanistic explanation for patterns of longevity in bees is that a reproductive regulatory pathway has been remodeled to extend life. This perspective is of considerable relevance to research on longevity regulation that builds largely on inference from solitary model species. PMID:16418279

  13. Worker and environmental protection issues in the remediation of an abandoned source manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Daniel E

    2003-02-01

    The Gulf Nuclear Superfund Site located in Odessa, Texas, was an abandoned radioactive source production facility slated for cleanup as a Removal Action under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region VI Superfund program. Prior to cessation of operations and abandonment of the facility in 1992, it was used for the production of radioactive sources used in the oil and gas industry and nuclear medicine applications. Pangea Group was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Kansas City District to perform remediation of the site and other contaminated debris, cleaning of interior building surfaces, building demolition, and excavation/removal of contaminated soils and septic system. The project scope also included loading, containerization and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes for offsite disposal. Primary radionuclides present at the facility were 137Cs, 60Co, and 241Am. The project also included packaging and removal of radioactive sources and mixed waste consisting of radiologically contaminated lead shot and lead source containers. Included in the paper is a discussion of primary worker protection and environmental protection measures employed on the project. Worker protection issues included the control of industrial and construction safety hazards as well as control of external and internal radiation dose. Control of air emissions and contaminated wastewater were also very important, especially due to the location of the site. The site was located in an area containing both residential and commercial properties. Several residences and businesses were located immediately adjacent to the site. The project involved the participation of the USACE Kansas City District, EPA Region 6, and the Texas Bureau of Radiological Health. Field work on the project started in April 2001 and was completed approximately five months later. PMID:12564344

  14. Worker and Environmental Protection Issues in the Remediation Of an Abandoned Source Manufacturing Facility.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Daniel E.

    2003-02-01

    The Gulf Nuclear Superfund Site located in Odessa, Texas, was an abandoned radioactive source production facility slated for cleanup as a Removal Action under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region VI Superfund program. Prior to cessation of operations and abandonment of the facility in 1992, it was used for the production of radioactive sources used in the oil and gas industry and nuclear medicine applications. Pangea Group was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Kansas City District to perform remediation of the site and other contaminated debris, cleaning of interior building surfaces, building demolition, and excavation/removal of contaminated soils and septic system. The project scope also included loading, containerization and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes for offsite disposal. Primary radionuclides present at the facility were Cs, Co, and Am. The project also included packaging and removal of radioactive sources and mixed waste consisting of radiologically contaminated lead shot and lead source containers. Included in the paper is a discussion of primary worker protection and environmental protection measures employed on the project. Worker protection issues included the control of industrial and construction safety hazards as well as control of external and internal radiation dose. Control of air emissions and contaminated wastewater were also very important, especially due to the location of the site. The site was located in an area containing both residential and commercial properties. Several residences and businesses were located immediately adjacent to the site. The project involved the participation of the USACE Kansas City District, EPA Region 6, and the Texas Bureau of Radiological Health. Field work on the project started in April 2001 and was completed approximately five months later. PMID:12555034

  15. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge.

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C; Rhyan, Jack C; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P; Hennager, Steven G; Pavuk, Alana A; Sprino, Phillip J; Boyle, Stephen M; Berrier, Randall J; Salman, Mo D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk. PMID:26904509

  16. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P.; Hennager, Steven G.; Pavuk, Alana A.; Sprino, Phillip J.; Boyle, Stephen M.; Berrier, Randall J.; Salman, Mo D.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk. PMID:26904509

  17. The Short-term Protective Effects of 'Non-PPE' Gloves Used by Greenhouse Workers.

    PubMed

    Roff, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Task-based worker exposure assessments are used in regulatory product approval for pesticides. Some agricultural workers may be exposed to pesticide residues predominantly via transfer to the hands during plant tending or crop harvesting. They may use thin 'splash-resistant single-use' (SRSU) gloves or cotton gloves as good industry practice, for example, to protect a delicate crop from bruising, rather than specifically for chemical protection. These 'non-personal protective equipment (PPE)' gloves may or may not have been tested for chemical resistance, but can nevertheless give limited protection from chemicals. This paper reports experiments to assess the protection factors (PFs) of 'non-PPE' gloves against chemicals, to better inform the regulatory exposure assessments.One type of lightweight cotton and three types of 0.1 mm SRSU gloves 25cm long (latex, nitrile, and vinyl) that might be used as 'non-PPE' gloves and one type of 0.4 mm PPE nitrile gauntlet 33cm long were worn by 36 volunteers in greenhouses at four nurseries, handling plants sprayed with transferable but non-permeating strontium acetate in four consecutive 1-h sessions, including one session in which no gloves were worn. Dislodgeable foliar residues were measured by rinsing leaves in bags. Each subject carried out their task such as weeding or trimming, for their four sessions on their set of plants. Handwashes followed each session, and the washings were sampled and analysed for strontium. Unprotected hand contamination was taken to be the within-subject 'challenge' in the absence of gloves. It ranged from 166 to 4091 µg equivalent of strontium acetate on the hands and increased with increasing foliar residues. Geometric mean PFs were 60 (95% CI 38-87, n = 22) for PPE gauntlets, 32 (25-41, n = 65) for SRSU gloves and 5.3 (3.5-8, n = 21) for lightweight cotton. The PFs offered by the waterproof gloves (gauntlets and SRSU) increased with challenge, but for the absorbent cotton gloves it

  18. The Short-term Protective Effects of ‘Non-PPE’ Gloves Used by Greenhouse Workers

    PubMed Central

    Roff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Task-based worker exposure assessments are used in regulatory product approval for pesticides. Some agricultural workers may be exposed to pesticide residues predominantly via transfer to the hands during plant tending or crop harvesting. They may use thin ‘splash-resistant single-use’ (SRSU) gloves or cotton gloves as good industry practice, for example, to protect a delicate crop from bruising, rather than specifically for chemical protection. These ‘non-personal protective equipment (PPE)’ gloves may or may not have been tested for chemical resistance, but can nevertheless give limited protection from chemicals. This paper reports experiments to assess the protection factors (PFs) of ‘non-PPE’ gloves against chemicals, to better inform the regulatory exposure assessments. One type of lightweight cotton and three types of 0.1 mm SRSU gloves 25cm long (latex, nitrile, and vinyl) that might be used as ‘non-PPE’ gloves and one type of 0.4 mm PPE nitrile gauntlet 33cm long were worn by 36 volunteers in greenhouses at four nurseries, handling plants sprayed with transferable but non-permeating strontium acetate in four consecutive 1-h sessions, including one session in which no gloves were worn. Dislodgeable foliar residues were measured by rinsing leaves in bags. Each subject carried out their task such as weeding or trimming, for their four sessions on their set of plants. Handwashes followed each session, and the washings were sampled and analysed for strontium. Unprotected hand contamination was taken to be the within-subject ‘challenge’ in the absence of gloves. It ranged from 166 to 4091 µg equivalent of strontium acetate on the hands and increased with increasing foliar residues. Geometric mean PFs were 60 (95% CI 38–87, n = 22) for PPE gauntlets, 32 (25–41, n = 65) for SRSU gloves and 5.3 (3.5–8, n = 21) for lightweight cotton. The PFs offered by the waterproof gloves (gauntlets and SRSU) increased with challenge, but for the

  19. Influence of room geometry and ventilation rate on airflow and aerosol dispersion: implications for worker protection.

    PubMed

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Wasiolek, Piotr T; Tavani, Rebecca A

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of dispersion rates and patterns of radioactive aerosols and gases through workrooms is critical for understanding human exposure and for developing strategies for worker protection. The dispersion within rooms can be influenced by complex interactions between numerous variables, but especially ventilation design and room furnishings. For this study, dependence of airflow and aerosol dispersion on workroom geometry (furnishings) and ventilation rate were studied in an experimental room that was designed to approximate a plutonium laboratory. Three different configurations of simulated gloveboxes and two ventilation rates (approximately 6 and 12 air exchanges per hour) were studied. A sonic anemometer was used to measure airflow parameters including all three components of air velocity vectors and turbulence intensity distributions at multiple locations and heights. Aerosol dispersion rates and patterns were measured by releasing aerosols multiple times from six different locations. Aerosol particle concentrations resolved in time and space were measured using 16 multiplexed laser particle counters. Comparisons were made of air velocities, turbulence, and aerosol transport across different ventilation rates and room configurations. A strong influence of ventilation rate on aerosol dispersion rates and air velocity was found, and changes in room geometry had significant effects on aerosol dispersion rates and patterns. These results are important with regards to constant evaluation of placement of air sampling equipment, benchmarking numerical models of room airflow, and design of ventilation and room layouts with consideration of worker safety. PMID:11768799

  20. Rethinking Compassion Fatigue Through the Lens of Professional Identity: The Case of Child-Protection Workers.

    PubMed

    Geoffrion, Steve; Morselli, Carlo; Guay, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Compassion fatigue is currently the dominant model in work-related stress studies that explain the consequences of caring for others on child-protection workers. Based on a deterministic approach, this model excludes the role of cognition a priori and a posteriori in the understanding of the impact of caregiving or providing social support. By integrating the notion of professional identity, this article adds a subjective perspective to the compassion fatigue model allowing for the consideration of positive outcomes and takes into account the influence of stress caused by accountability. Mainly, it is argued that meanings derived from identity and given to situations may protect or accelerate the development of compassion fatigue or compassion satisfaction. To arrive at this proposition, the notions of compassion fatigue and identity theory are first reviewed. These concepts are then articulated around four work-related stressors specific to child-protection work. In light of this exercise, it is argued that professional identity serves as a subjective interpretative framework that guides the understanding of work-related situations. Therefore, compassion fatigue is not only a simple reaction to external stimuli. It is influenced by meanings given to the situation. Furthermore, professional identity modulates the impact of compassion fatigue on psychological well-being. Practice, policy, and research implications in light of these findings are also discussed. PMID:25985989

  1. [Protection of workers' health against occupational psycho-social hazards--theoretical models].

    PubMed

    Dudek, B; Waszkowska, M

    1996-01-01

    Occupational Health Service are not yet equipped with tools which could permit them to include protection of workers' health against occupational psycho-social hazards into their prophylactic activities. The authors present a model of such a system, its objectives and conditions which should be satisfied in order to put the system into operation. The model discussed is somewhat an ideal solution which does not necessarily adhere to the reality but it sets tasks and identifies lines of activities to be carried out at the Department of Occupational Psychology, the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz. These activities are aimed at monitoring and evaluating of health risk generated by psycho-social factors. PMID:8656994

  2. Integrated Worker Health Protection and Promotion Programs: Overview and Perspectives on Health and Economic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Nicolaas P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe integrated worker health protection and promotion (IWHPP) program characteristics, to discuss the rationale for integration of OSH and WHP programs, and to summarize what is known about the impact of these programs on health and economic outcomes. Methods A descriptive assessment of the current state of the IWHPP field and a review of studies on the effectiveness of IWHPP programs on health and economic outcomes. Results Sufficient evidence of effectiveness was found for IWHPP programs when health outcomes are considered. Impact on productivity-related outcomes is considered promising, but inconclusive, whereas insufficient evidence was found for health care expenditures. Conclusions Existing evidence supports an integrated approach in terms of health outcomes but will benefit significantly from research designed to support the business case for employers of various company sizes and industry types. PMID:24284747

  3. Lessons learned: Radiological protection for emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP (part 1).

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2013-01-01

    During the emergency work at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant (APP), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) and the Japanese government experienced various problems in radiological exposure management for emergency workers. To improve the implementation of appropriate radiological protection, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) issued a series of compulsory directives and provided administrative guidance to TEPCO. Based on the experiences and lessons learned, the MHLW recognized that to properly manage radiological exposure should a similar accident occur at another APP, sufficient measures and systematic preparation for radiological management should be ensured, including the following: a) Should an APP accident occur, assistance from the power company's corporate office or off-site support facilities outside the evacuation area is indispensable; b) Primary contractors must independently implement exposure management operations for the employees of their sub-contractors; c) APP operators should compile an operations manual, stockpile personal protective equipment, and personal alarm dosimeters (PADs) and prepare emergency systems and whole body counters (WBCs); and the labor standards authorities should compile an emergency operations manual. PMID:24116670

  4. Conundrums in the legal protection of migrant workers' health rights and relative resolutions: implications from the case of Tseng Hei-tao.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai

    2013-08-01

    The deteriorating situation of migrant workers' health rights protection was once again highlighted in the case of Tseng Hei-tao. This case explicitly and implicitly showed that four conundrums--the Employment Restriction Conundrum, the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Legal Conundrum, the Morality Conundrum and the Identity Conundrum--are barriers to migrant workers' right protection. The health rights of migrant workers could be safeguarded by abolishing the outdated household registration system designed in the planned economy era, improving the rule of law, and strengthening administrative supervisions. This would fundamentally remove these barriers and thus contribute to migrant workers' health rights protection. PMID:23073738

  5. 48 CFR 952.223-77 - Conditional payment of fee or profit-protection of worker safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nearly occurred but had minor practical long-term health consequences. The following performance failures... compliance with the terms and conditions of this contract relating to the protection of worker safety and health (WS&H), including compliance with applicable law, regulation, and DOE directives. The...

  6. [Work condition of workers and recommended individual protective means in cyproconasol (alto) usage via surface and aviation methods].

    PubMed

    Nebytov, V G

    2014-01-01

    While using cyprokonasol via surface and aviation methods, workers are exposed to unfavorable microclimate, noise and pollution of overalls, skin and workplace air with the fungicide. Necessity for safe work of operators, pilots and signalmen, while using alto, is complex application of individual protective means. PMID:25335429

  7. Removal efficiency of vapour/particulate phase PAHs by using alternative protective respirators in PAHs exposure workers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Yang, Chien-Hung; Lin, Ming-Hsiu

    2012-06-15

    Due to the high heat environment in foundry industries, it is difficult for foundry workers to wear masks during their workday. Thus, how to prevent inhaling vapour or the particulate phase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important for occupational hazard management. The present study assesses the characteristics of PAHs emission in foundry and plastic industries to evaluate the removal efficiencies of PAHs while workers use alternative personal protective equipment. The highest 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) level was found for workers who used a cotton-fabric face mask (1.19 μg/g creatinine) and activated-carbon face mask (1.16 μg/g creatinine), compared to a lower level in workers who wore a surgical face mask (0.27 μg/g creatinine) and a N95 respirator (0.51 μg/g creatinine). The urinary 1-OHP in end-of-shift samples correlated to the airborne vapour phase Bapeq, but not for the particulate phase Bapeq in the foundry industry. This is probably because workers wore personal protective equipment that only removed the particulate phase PAH. The current study suggests that future work focus on developing an appropriate and comfortable respirator with high removal efficiency for ultrafine particulates and vapour phase PAHs simultaneously in PAH work environments. PMID:22525483

  8. 29 CFR 500.72 - Agreements with workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.72 Agreements with workers. (a... seasonal agricultural workers. Normally, “without justification” would not include situations in...

  9. 29 CFR 500.72 - Agreements with workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.72 Agreements with workers. (a... seasonal agricultural workers. Normally, “without justification” would not include situations in...

  10. Essential Components of a Perimeter Air Monitoring Plan and Worker Protection Program at Sites Involving the Excavation of Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdeb, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    Preparing a Perimeter Air Monitoring Plan that provides the essential information and methods of evaluation needed to assure that the health of the surrounding community is adequately protected and adapting currently existing Cal/OSHA regulations to be relevant to the protection of workers at sites involving the excavation of Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) is oftentimes challenging in California. Current guidelines regarding what constitutes an effective air monitoring program are often lacking in details regarding what should be sampled and analyzed to characterize a site and what evaluation techniques should be applied to process the results of monitoring, and the current Cal/OSHA asbestos related regulations regarding worker protection are for the most part largely pertinent to the abatement of asbestos in buildings. An overview of the essential components of an effective Baseline and Perimeter Air Monitoring Plan will be presented that includes a brief discussion of the various asbestos types and fiber sizes that may need to be considered, possible approachs for evaluating temporal and spatial variability, review of selected site boundary target concentrations, and consideration of the potential for airborne dust and soil containing asbestos (and other contaminants) to migrate and accumulate offsite eventually contributing to "background creep" --the incremental increase of overall airborne asbestos concentrations in the areas surrounding the site due to the re-entrainment of asbestos from the settled dust and/or transported soil. In addition to the above, the current Cal/OSHA asbestos regulations related to worker protection will be briefly discussed with respect to their relevancy at NOA sites with an overview of the adaptations to the regulations that were developed as a result of some fairly lengthy discussions with representatives of Cal/OSHA. These adaptations include, among other things, defining how regulated areas (asbestos concentrations over 1

  11. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interest or other lien against property of the covered financial company that is subject to a security... lease of the property or the grant of a security interest or other lien against the property by the... property; (2) Providing to the claimant an additional or replacement lien to the extent that the sale,...

  12. Protecting worker and public health during responses to catastrophic disasters-learning from the World Trade Center experience.

    PubMed

    Newman, David M

    2014-11-01

    Despite incremental lessons learned since 9/11, responder and community health remain at unnecessary risk during responses to catastrophic disasters, as evidenced during the BP Deepwater Horizon spill and Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Sandy. Much of the health harm that occurs during disaster response, as distinct from during the disaster event itself, is avoidable. Protection of public health should be an integral component of disaster response, which should "do no additional harm." This commentary examines how challenges and gaps the World Trade Center response resulted in preventable occupational and environmental health harm. It proposes changes in disaster response policies to better protect the health of rescue and recovery workers, volunteers, and impacted worker and residential communities. PMID:25255981

  13. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  14. From Awareness to Action: The Community of Sarnia Mobilizes to Protect its Workers from Occupational Disease.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Desre; McMillan, Keith; Gross, Emily; Kone Pefoyo, Anna J; Bradley, Mike; Holness, Dorothy Linn

    2015-11-01

    An exploratory qualitative case study investigated how different sectors of a highly industrialized community mobilized in the 1990s to help workers exposed to asbestos. For this study, thirty key informants including representatives from industry, workers, the community, and local politicians participated in semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The analysis was framed by a "Dimensions of Community Change" model. The informants highlighted the importance of raising awareness, and the need for leadership, social and organizational networks, acquiring skills and resources, individual and community power, holding shared values and beliefs, and perseverance. We found that improvements in occupational health and safety came from persistently communicating a clearly defined issue ("asbestos exposure causes cancer") and having an engaged community that collaborated with union leadership. Notable successes included stronger occupational health services, a support group for workers and widows, the fast-tracking of compensation for workers exposed to asbestos, and a reduction in hazardous emissions. PMID:26391798

  15. Test of the health promotion model as a causal model of construction workers' use of hearing protection.

    PubMed

    Lusk, S L; Ronis, D L; Hogan, M M

    1997-06-01

    The health promotion model (HPM) was tested as a causal model of construction workers' use of hearing protection (N = 359). Theoretical and exploratory models fit well, with the theoretical model accounting for 36.3% of variance and the exploratory model accounting for 50.6% of variance in hearing protection use. Value of use (benefits of using hearing protection), barriers to use, and self-efficacy were significant predictors in both the theoretical and exploratory models, but perceived health status was a predictor only in the theoretical model. In the exploratory model, where modifying factors were allowed direct relationships with use of hearing protection, two modifying factors--noise exposure and interpersonal influences-modeling--were significant predictors. Results of this test of the HPM are consistent with the revised HPM (Pender, 1996). There were significant direct paths from modifying factors to behaviour. Use of hearing protection was best predicted by behavior-specific predictors, such as perceived barriers to use of hearing protection. Results support the use of the HPM to predict use of hearing protection. PMID:9179173

  16. Community campaigns, supply chains, and protecting the health and well-being of workers.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Michael; Sokas, Rosemary K

    2009-11-01

    The growth of contingent work (also known as precarious employment), the informal sector, and business practices that diffuse employer responsibility for worker health and safety (such as outsourcing and the development of extended national and international contracting networks [supply chains]) pose a serious threat to occupational health and safety that disproportionately affects low-wage, ethnic minority, and immigrant workers. Drawing on cases from the United States and Australia, we examine the role that community-based campaigns can play in meeting these challenges, including several successful campaigns that incorporate supply chain regulation. PMID:19890154

  17. Community Campaigns, Supply Chains, and Protecting the Health and Well-Being of Workers

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The growth of contingent work (also known as precarious employment), the informal sector, and business practices that diffuse employer responsibility for worker health and safety (such as outsourcing and the development of extended national and international contracting networks [supply chains]) pose a serious threat to occupational health and safety that disproportionately affects low-wage, ethnic minority, and immigrant workers. Drawing on cases from the United States and Australia, we examine the role that community-based campaigns can play in meeting these challenges, including several successful campaigns that incorporate supply chain regulation. PMID:19890154

  18. Radiation protection of the eye lens in medical workers--basis and impact of the ICRP recommendations.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Stephen Gr; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Quinlan, Roy A; Bouffler, Simon D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the evidence for the revised European Union basic safety standard (BSS) radiation dose limits to the lens of the eye, in the context of medical occupational radiation exposures. Publications in the open literature have been reviewed in order to draw conclusions on the exposure profiles and doses received by medical radiation workers and to bring together the limited evidence for cataract development in medical occupationally exposed populations. The current status of relevant radiation-protection and monitoring practices and procedures is also considered. In conclusion, medical radiation workers do receive high doses in some circumstances, and thus working practices will be impacted by the new BSS. However, there is strong evidence to suggest that compliance with the new lower dose limits will be possible, although education and training of staff alongside effective use of personal protective equipment will be paramount. A number of suggested actions are given with the aim of assisting medical and associated radiation-protection professionals in understanding the requirements. PMID:26828972

  19. Effectiveness of Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers Caring for Patients with Filovirus Disease: A Rapid Review

    PubMed Central

    Quach, Pauline; Hamel, Candyce; Thavorn, Kednapa; Garritty, Chantelle; Skidmore, Becky; Vallenas, Constanza; Norris, Susan L.; Egger, Matthias; Eremin, Sergey; Ferri, Mauricio; Shindo, Nahoko; Moher, David

    2015-01-01

    Background A rapid review, guided by a protocol, was conducted to inform development of the World Health Organization’s guideline on personal protective equipment in the context of the ongoing (2013–present) Western African filovirus disease outbreak, with a focus on health care workers directly caring for patients with Ebola or Marburg virus diseases. Methods Electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched. Eligibility criteria initially included comparative studies on Ebola and Marburg virus diseases reported in English or French, but criteria were expanded to studies on other viral hemorrhagic fevers and non-comparative designs due to the paucity of studies. After title and abstract screening (two people to exclude), full-text reports of potentially relevant articles were assessed in duplicate. Fifty-seven percent of extraction information was verified. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework was used to inform the quality of evidence assessments. Results Thirty non-comparative studies (8 related to Ebola virus disease) were located, and 27 provided data on viral transmission. Reporting of personal protective equipment components and infection prevention and control protocols was generally poor. Conclusions Insufficient evidence exists to draw conclusions regarding the comparative effectiveness of various types of personal protective equipment. Additional research is urgently needed to determine optimal PPE for health care workers caring for patients with filovirus. PMID:26451847

  20. 77 FR 50323 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... hazards faced by roadway workers. 57 FR 54038. ] FRA held workshops to solicit the views of the railroad... regulatory negotiation. 59 FR 42200. The FAC was tasked with submitting a report, including proposed... as the basis for FRA's first RWP NPRM, which was published on March 14, 1996. 61 FR 10528....

  1. Predictors of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers: an application of the protection motivation theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    We utilized Protection Motivation Theory to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy, and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. Sexually transmitted infection/ HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:25061932

  2. Predictors of Consistent Condom Use Among Chinese Female Sex Workers: An Application of the Protection Motivation Theory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    We utilized the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. STI/HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs’ perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs’ perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:25061932

  3. Health care workers and respiratory protection: is the user seal check a surrogate for respirator fit-testing?

    PubMed

    Danyluk, Quinn; Hon, Chun-Yip; Neudorf, Mike; Yassi, Annalee; Bryce, Elizabeth; Janssen, Bob; Astrakianakis, George

    2011-05-01

    Many agencies recommend that health care workers wear N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95-FFR) to minimize occupational exposure to bioaerosols, such as tuberculosis and pandemic influenza. Published standards outline procedures for the proper selection of an N95-FFR model, including user seal checks and respirator fit-testing. Some health officials have argued that the respirator fit-test step should be eliminated altogether, given its additional time and cost factors, and that only a user seal check be utilized to ensure that an adequate face seal has been achieved. One of the aims of the current study is to examine whether a user seal check is an appropriate surrogate for respirator fit-testing. Subjects were assigned an N95-FFR and asked to perform a user seal check (as per manufacturer's instructions) after which they immediately underwent a respirator fit-test. Successfully passing a respirator fit-test was based on not detecting a leakage through the face seal (either qualitatively with a test agent or quantitatively with a particulate counter). The sample population consisted of 647 subjects who had never been previously fit-tested (naive), while the remaining 137 participants were experienced respirator users. Only four of the 647 naive subjects (0.62%) identified an inadequate seal during their user seal check. Of the 643 remaining naive subjects who indicated that they had an adequate face seal prior to fit-testing, 158 (25%) failed the subsequent quantitative fit-test and 92 (14%) failed the qualitative fit-test. All 137 experienced users indicated that they had an adequate seal after performing the user seal check; however, 41 (30%) failed the subsequent quantitative fit-test, and 30 (22%) failed the qualitative fit-test. These findings contradict the argument to eliminate fit-testing and rely strictly on a user seal check to evaluate face seal. PMID:21462067

  4. The Impact of Solution-Focused Training on Professionals' Beliefs, Practices and Burnout of Child Protection Workers in Tenerife Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Antonio; Beyebach, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of a large-scale research project on the child protection services in Tenerife, Spain. In Study 1, the professional beliefs and practices of 152 child protection workers, as measured by a Professional Beliefs and Practices Questionnaire, were correlated with their scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory.…

  5. The Mental Health of Children of Migrant Workers in Beijing: The Protective Role of Public School Attendance

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qin; Li, Hong; Zou, Hong; Cross, Wendi; Bian, Ran; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to understand the mental health status of an understudied group of migrant children—children of migrant workers in China. A total of 1466 children from Beijing participated in the study that compared migrant children (n = 1019) to their local peers (n = 447) in public and private school settings. Results showed that overall, migrant children reported more internalizing and externalizing mental health problems and lower life satisfaction than local peers. However, public school attendance served as a protective factor for migrant children’s mental health. The mental health status of migrant children attending public schools, including externalizing problems as well as friend and school satisfaction, was not different from local children. In addition, our data indicates that the protective effect of public school attendance for migrant children may be even more salient among girls than boys, and for younger children than older children. PMID:26032665

  6. Worker protection implications of the solubility and human metabolism of modern uranium mill products in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven H; Chambers, Douglas B

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the implications of some recent studies performed to characterize uranium products from modern uranium recovery facilities important for worker protection. Assumptions about the solubility (related to the molecular species being produced) of these materials in humans are critical to properly assess radiation dose from intakes, understand chemotoxic implications, and establish protective exposure standards (airborne concentrations, limits on intake, etc.). Recent studies, as well as information in the historical professional literature, were reviewed that address the issue of solubility and related characteristics. These data are important for the design of programs for assessment of both chemical and radiological aspects of worker exposure to the products of modern uranium recovery plants (conventional uranium mills and in situ recovery plants; i.e., ISRs). The data suggest strongly that the oxide form produced by these facilities (and therefore, product solubility) is related to precipitation chemistry and thermal exposure (dryer temperature). Given the peroxide precipitation and low temperature drying methods being used at many modern uranium recovery facilities in the U.S. today, very soluble products are being produced. The dosimetric impacts of these products to the pulmonary system (except perhaps in case of an extreme acute insult) would be small, and any residual pulmonary retention beyond a month or two would most likely be too small to measure by traditional urinalysis sampling or the current state-of-the-art of natural uranium in vivo lung counting techniques. Uranium recovery plants should revisit the adequacy of current bioassay programs in the context of their process and product specifics. Workers potentially exposed to these very soluble yellowcake concentrates should have urine specimens submitted for uranium analysis on an approximately weekly basis, including analysis for the biomarkers associated with potential

  7. ["The Italian decree 195/2006 on the protection of workers against risks arising from noise"].

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, F; Pira, E; Riboldi, L

    2006-01-01

    The Italian decree 195/2006 incorporates the European Directive 2003/10/CE on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (noise). It is rather different to previous decree 277/1991, particularly as regard of the new exposure limit value and the elimination of annex VI and VII. We discus here only two aspects that we consider relevant and quite critical: 1) The calculation of the exposure limit values as noise equivalent level: it is a method that underestimates the potential damage of impulsive noise, so the risk evaluation remains quite inaccurate. 2) To take account of the attenuation provided by the individual hearing protectors worn by the worker in determining the worker's effective exposure when applying the exposure limit values: this must not apply to the obligations of employer to control the risk at source avoiding or reducing exposure to the minimum. Furthermore the attenuation power of individual hearing protectors is difficult to measure because his variability during the time and among different subjects. Then we evaluate and discus the new duties of Occupational Physician in this matter. The daily exposure limit values and action values are in fact in part modified as well as the methodology for organize the programs of prevention, health surveillance, information and formation of workers. As support for his activity we proposed the guidelines that The Italian Society of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene (SIMLII) has published in 2003, which provides recommendations for the health surveillance for the prevention of noise induced hearing loss at the workplace. PMID:17144410

  8. Protective effects of green tea on antioxidative biomarkers in chemical laboratory workers.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Heidary Shayesteh; Akram, Ranjbar; Azam, Sayadi; Nahid, Zadkhosh

    2015-09-01

    Chemical materials are environmental contaminants, are extensively used in laboratories, and may cause various forms of health hazards in laboratory workers. Therefore, this toxicity most likely is a result of the oxidative metabolism of chemical to reactive products. As green tea (GT) possesses antioxidant effects, the objective of this study was to examine any amelioration oxidative stress in chemical laboratory workers drinking one cup (3 g/300 ml water) of freshly prepared tea once daily. Baseline characteristics including age, sex, smoking, fruit consumption, and duration of exposure were recorded via questionnaire to the subjects. Saliva level oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated before and after consumption of GT in these workers. Treatment of subjects with GT induced a significant reduction in saliva GPx activity (406.61 ± 22.07 vs. 238.96 ± 16.26 U/l p = 0.001) and induction in TAC (0.46 ± 0.029 μmol/ml vs. 0.56 ± 0.031, p = 0.016). No statistically significant alteration was found for saliva SOD (0.080 ± 0.0019 vs. 0.079 ± 0.0014, p > 0.05) and CAT (20.36 ± 0.69 vs. 19.78 ± 0.71, p > 0.05) after 28 days treatment by GT. These results demonstrate that drinking GT during chemical exposure can reduce several parameters indicative of oxidative stress. In conclusion, using GT as a dietary supplement can be a rational protocol to control source of hazards in chemical laboratory workers. PMID:23576111

  9. [The social and hygienic aspects in the protection of the health of forest industry workers].

    PubMed

    Akhmetzyanov, L M

    1990-01-01

    The study of social and hygiene aspects in the industry of forest exploitation permitted to point out the changes that occurred in the field of mechanization and automation of production processes, which radically influenced the working conditions and characteristics, as well as the health indices. The study approaches some economic, social and hygiene problems. Proposals are made regarding the improvement of medical care organization for workers, for example the drawing up of a complex programme of prophylaxis of diseases in the enterprises for wood industrialization and of utilization of the computation technique. PMID:2218810

  10. Development of a draft British standard: the assessment of heat strain for workers wearing personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Hanson, M A

    1999-07-01

    Existing methods for estimating heat stress, enshrined in British/International Standards (the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index [BS EN 27243] and the Required Sweat Rate equation [BS EN 12515; ISO 7933 modified]), assume that the clothing worn by the individual is water vapour permeable; the WBGT index also assumes that the clothing is relatively light. Because most forms of personal protective equipment (PPE) either have a higher insulative value than that assumed or are water vapour impermeable, the Standards cannot be accurately applied to workers wearing PPE. There was, therefore, a need to develop a British Standard which would allow interpretation of these existing Standards for workers wearing PPE. Relevant information was obtained through reviewing the literature and consulting experts. Two questionnaire surveys of potential users of the Standards were conducted, and physiological data collected both experimentally and in work situations were considered. The information collected was used to develop the draft British Standard. It provides information and data on: The general effect of PPE on heat balance of the body (the ability of the body to maintain its 'core' temperature within an acceptable range). The effect of specific forms of PPE on metabolic heat production rate. The thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of types of PPE. The effect of the closure of the garments to the body on heat transfer. The effect of the PPE on the proportion of the body covered. The effect of an air supply (for example, Breathing Apparatus [BA]) to the wearer. Guidance is given on conducting an analysis of the work situation, taking account of the impact of PPE. Detailed methods of interpreting both BS EN 27243 and BS EN 12515 for workers wearing PPE are given, taking account of the factors listed above. Three worked examples using BS EN 27243 and BS EN 12515 are given in the Annex of the draft Standard. PMID:10481630

  11. Protecting contract workers: case study of the US Department of Energy's nuclear and chemical waste management.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, Michael; Mohr, Sandra

    2007-09-01

    Increased reliance on subcontractors in all economic sectors is a serious occupational health and safety challenge. Short-term cost savings are offset by long-term liability. Hiring subcontractors brings specialized knowledge but also young, inexperienced, inadequately trained workers onto industrial and hazardous waste sites, which leads to increased rates of accidents and injuries. Reliable data on subcontractor occupational health and safety programs and performance are sparse. The US Department of Energy has an excellent safety culture on paper, but procurement practices and contract language deliver a mixed message--including some safety disincentives. Its biphasic safety outcome data are consistent with underreporting by some subcontractors and underachievement by others. These observations are relevant to the private and public sectors. Occupational health and safety should be viewed as an asset, not merely a cost. PMID:17666686

  12. New risk indicator approach for Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents for a sustainable use of plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Sacchettini, Gabriele; Calliera, Maura; Marchis, Alexandru; Glass, Richard; Ellis, Clare Butler; Machera, Kyriaki; Gerritsen-Ebben, Rianda; Spanoghe, Pieter; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, the European Union adopted the Directive on Sustainable Use of pesticides (SUD, Directive 2009/128/EC) establishing a framework for achieving a sustainable use of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) through reducing the risks and impacts of PPP use on human health and the environment, promoting integrated pest management and stimulating effective non-chemical alternatives. The core idea of the SUD is that it is necessary to monitor the use of PPPs through the implementation of an appropriate set of risk indicators to monitor progress and trends in risk reduction within the Member States. To contribute to this direction, following a comprehensive analysis of the risk (including procedures of risk assessment and risk management) and involving stakeholders in the decision process, specific toolboxes of practical indirect risk indicators of exposure of Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents were developed and are now available to be used by Member States (MSs) based on their specific context. PMID:26143544

  13. [Noise-related occupational risk aboard fishing vessels: considerations on prevention and the protection of exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, V; Valentino, M; Bolognini, S; Fenga, C

    2004-01-01

    Recent legislation regarding the safety of workers aboard fishing vessels requires the appointment by ship owners of a Reference Physician in charge of health surveillance, preventive inspections and related tasks. As maritime workers, especially fishermen, have always been excluded from legal protection of occupational health, there are no exhaustive data on the incidence of their occupational disease. Several epidemiological studies of fishermen have evidenced a high prevalence and incidence of occupational conditions, among which noise-related hypoacousia. We report data of a phonometric survey conducted aboard six fishing vessels carrying a crew of less than six fishing in the mid-Adriatic. Measurements were performed during fishing and navigation aboard five vessels fitted with a fixed-pitch propeller and during fishing only aboard one vessel fitted with an controllable pitch propeller. Measurements were conducted: 1) in the engine rooms; 2) in the work area on deck; 3) at the winch; 4) in the wheelhouse; 5) in the mess-room and kitchen; 6) in the sleeping quarters. Results show that the equivalent sound pressure level in the engine rooms consistently exceeded 90 dBA on all vessels. The speed of the vessels fitted with the fixed-pitch propeller is 3-4 knots in the fishing phase and around 10 knots during navigation to and from the fishing grounds; noise emission is lower with the former regimen because of the smaller number of engine revolutions per minute. Our survey demonstrated considerably different noise levels in the various areas of vessels. One key element in workers' exposure, the tasks assigned and the environmental working conditions is of course the type of fishing in which the vessel is engaged. Further phonometric studies are required to assess the daily level of exposure per crew member, which represents the reference for the noise-related risk of each subject. Knowledge of the sound pressure levels in the work environment and the length of

  14. Social-Environmental Factors and Protective Sexual Behavior Among Sex Workers: The Encontros Intervention in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Angela; Díaz, Juan; Chinaglia, Magda; Reingold, Arthur; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the association of social–environmental factors with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 420 sex workers participating in an STI/HIV prevention study in Corumbá, Brazil, to inform future intervention efforts. Methods. Participants provided urine samples for polymerase chain reaction testing of chlamydia and gonorrhea and responded to multi-item scales addressing perceived social cohesion, participation in networks, and access to and management of resources. We conducted multivariate log-linear and negative binomial regression analyses of these data. Results. Increased social cohesion was inversely associated with number of unprotected sex acts in the preceding week among women (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.80; P < .01), and there was a marginal association among men (adjusted IRR = 0.41; P = .08). Women's increased participation in social networks was associated with a decrease in frequency of unprotected sex acts (adjusted IRR = 0.83; P = .04), as was men's access to and management of social and material resources (IRR = 0.15; P = .01). Social–environmental factors were not associated with STIs. Conclusions. The social context within which populations negotiate sexual behaviors is associated with condom use. Future efforts to prevent STI/HIV should incorporate strategies to modify the social environment. PMID:19762673

  15. Evaluation of heat-strain-monitoring methods for workers in encapsulating, impermeable protective clothing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eley, W.D.

    1987-05-01

    Heat strain for six young, healthy, acclimized men (mean age 26.2 yrs., weight 84.1 kg) was measured during moderate exercise at various ambient conditions (21.5 C, 28 C, 31.5 C with sunshine) while wearing fully encapsulating chemical protective suits with self-contained breathing apparatus. The total weight of the Coast Guard Chemical Response Suit was 26.3 kg. The subjects performed a total of 35 minutes (20 minutes exercise, as determined by V(O2) measurements was 383 kcal/hr. Heart rate and mean skin temperature rose significantly as ambient temperature increased. Under the most adverse ambient condition (31.5 C with sunshine), the mean heart rate and skin temperature were elevated 39.6 bpm and 4.1 C, respectively, over those recorded for control conditions. Significant increases in rectal temperature were not noted. A mean difference in weight loss was only observed with significance between control conditions and the most severe ambient environment. The five-minute recovery heart rate, recorded at minute 25 after 20 minutes of exercise, increased significantly as ambient temperature conditions became more adverse. It is concluded that wearers of impermeable protective clothing show progressive increases in heat strain as ambient temperature increases. This study indicates that recovery heart rate is probably the best indicator of heat tolerance endpoints for work in encapsulating, impermeable protective clothing.

  16. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  17. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  18. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  19. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  20. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  1. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  2. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  3. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  4. School Social Workers' Perceived Understanding of Inner City and Urban Community and Neighborhood Risk and Protective Factors and Effectiveness in Practice Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Martell; Randolph, Karen; Cho, Hyunkag

    2008-01-01

    This is an exploratory study that makes use of survey research methods and a convenience sample (N = 222) to examine how urban school social workers' perceived knowledge of neighborhood and community risk and protective factors affect their levels of self-reported effectiveness in practice tasks. Using hierarchical multiple regression, the…

  5. 'Green-in-Three' IT Solutions Protecting Workers and the Environment - 12526

    SciTech Connect

    Eckman, Todd

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management (EM), DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Mission Support Alliance (MSA), and Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. (LMSI), Information Technology partnered in an effort to reduce environmental impacts, energy use, and operating costs and improve worker safety through consolidation, centralization, and standardization of Information Technology (IT) assets on the Hanford Site. Green-in-Three is an IT Value strategy, which is moving Hanford from an inefficient, antiquated 20. Century IT architecture to a smart, green, flexible 21. Century IT architecture that delivers information anywhere at any time to Hanford Mission partners. The 'Green-in-three' efforts to date have had a significant impact on meeting and exceeding the overall IT Value Strategy to decrease IT maintenance and delivery costs and move Hanford into a smart, green, and flexible 21. Century IT architecture. Some of the results and impacts are as follows: - Thirteen data centers were reduced to two, freeing up approximately 279 m{sup 2} (3000 ft{sup 2})) of space; - Reduced data center energy use 50%, from 120,000 to 60,000 kW; - Excessed 9 metric tons (10 tons) of server equipment; - Removed and properly disposed of 2871 kg (6,300 lb) lead acid batteries; - Projects saved over $1 M in fiber and copper cable installation through 2011; - Developed or improved partnerships with local, state, and federal agencies, Tribes, and Site contractors; - Increased wireless coverage for improved access to remote areas. Moving forward to 2012, the impact of these accomplishments will be realized in the years to come. IT services will be delivered in days instead of months. Field personnel will have access to information at the point of performance, reducing travel time. Remote monitoring, telemetry, and/or video can be conducted using the wireless network; reducing travel time for field inspections. Emergency personnel have access to critical information at the

  6. Exposed, but Not Protected: More Is Needed to Prevent Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Healthcare Workers and Students.

    PubMed

    von Delft, Arne; Dramowski, Angela; Sifumba, Zolelwa; Mosidi, Thato; Xun Ting, Tiong; von Delft, Dalene; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2016-05-15

    "Occupational MDR-TB"  …  "XDR-TB"  …  "Treatment-induced hearing loss": 3 life-changing messages imparted over the phone. Three personal accounts are shared highlighting the false belief held by many healthcare workers (HCWs) and students in low-resource settings-that they are immune to tuberculosis despite high levels of occupational tuberculosis exposure. This misconception reflects a lack of awareness of tuberculosis transmission and disease risk, compounded by the absence of accurate occupational tuberculosis estimates. As the global problem of drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis evolves, HCWs are increasingly infected and suffer considerable morbidity and mortality from occupational DR tuberculosis disease. Similarly, healthcare students are emerging as a vulnerable and unprotected group. There is an urgent need for improved detection, vaccines, preventive therapy, treatment, and support for affected HCWs and those they care for, as well as destigmatization of all forms of tuberculosis. Finally, efforts to protect HCWs and prevent DR tuberculosis transmission by universal implementation of tuberculosis infection control measures should be prioritized. PMID:27118858

  7. Respiratory Protection Behavior and Respiratory Indices among Poultry House Workers on Small, Family-Owned Farms in North Carolina: A Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Gregory D; Gallagher, Barbara; Shaw, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate respiratory behavior and respiratory indices of poultry workers on family-owned, poultry farms with 10 or less employees in North Carolina. A field study was conducted to collect data on participants (N = 24) using spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), and an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The majority of workers (76%) ranked respiratory protection as being important, yet 48% reported never or rarely wearing respiratory protection when working in dusty conditions. A large percent of workers reported eye (55%) and nasal (50%) irritation and dry cough (50%). On average, pulmonary lung function and Feno tests were normal among nonsmokers. In bivariate analysis, significant associations were identified between working 7 days on the farm (P = .01), with eye irritation, and working 5 or fewer years in poultry farming (P = .01). Poultry workers on family-owned farms spend a considerable amount of work time in poultry houses and report acute respiratory-related health symptoms. Administrative controls among small, family-owned poultry farms are necessary to improve and promote safety and health to its employees. PMID:26788985

  8. Protecting health care workers from tuberculosis in China: a review of policy and practice in China and the United States.

    PubMed

    Chai, Shua J; Mattingly, Daniel C; Varma, Jay K

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis causes >1.7 million deaths worldwide each year and is frequently transmitted in hospitals. Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis have led to illness and death among health care workers (HCWs) in many countries. Some countries, such as the United States, implemented occupational health policies that substantially reduced tuberculosis rates among HCWs. Inadequate tuberculosis infection control in China may contribute to its high burden of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, which are both the second highest worldwide. Occupational health policies in China for tuberculosis control can be strengthened. We reviewed the development and content of tuberculosis infection control policies in the United States and China. Sources included published academic literature, Chinese Ministry of Health policies, US government agency reports, legal databases, personal observations of hospitals, review of internet discussion sites, and discussions with HCWs and health care and law experts. In the United States, slow acceptance of the tuberculosis problem in HCWs resulted in decades of inaction. Tuberculosis infection control policies, based mostly on expert opinion, were implemented only after tuberculosis resurged in the 1980s. Effective evidence-based policies were developed only after multiple cycles of policy implementation, evaluation and revision. These policies have now substantially reduced occupational tuberculosis. In China, tuberculosis has not been formally recognized as an occupational disease, and data regarding the burden in HCWs are sparse. Vagueness of current labour laws and suboptimal alignment of infection control authority and expertise result in varied and sometimes absent protection of HCWs against tuberculosis. Formal evaluations of occupational tuberculosis policies have not been reported. By collecting data on its current HCW tuberculosis burden and infection control practices, refining policies, continually evaluating its

  9. Polymorphisms in Long Noncoding RNA H19 Contribute to the Protective Effects of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis in a Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiuyun; Yan, Weiwen; Han, Ruhui; Yang, Jingjin; Yuan, Jiali; Ji, Xiaoming; Liu, Yi; Ni, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    The H19 is a kind of long noncoding RNA, which has been implicated in multiple biological functions. However, the associations between genetic variants in H19 and susceptibility of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) have been seldom reported. In the present study, three potential polymorphisms (rs2067051, rs217727, and rs2839702) in H19 were genotyped in a case-control study including 703 CWP cases and 705 controls. We found that individuals with the H19 rs2067051 CT/TT genotypes showed a decreased risk of CWP compared with those with the CC genotype (adjusted OR = 0.64, 95%CI = 0.49-0.83, p = 0.001). Further stratified analyses revealed that the associations between variant genotypes of rs2067051 and the risk of CWP were more prominent in subjects of non-smokers (adjusted OR = 0.55, 95%CI = 0.39-0.79, p = 0.001) and CWP patients with Stage I (adjusted OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.46-0.86, p = 0.004). Additionally, the protective effects of H19 rs2067051 were also evident in coal miners both with dust exposure years <25 years (adjusted OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.42-0.95, p = 0.026) and ≥25 years (adjusted OR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.40-0.80, p = 0.001). Our results indicated that rs2067051 in the H19 gene is correlated with a deceased risk of CWP in a Chinese population, which may be a potential genetic marker for prevention and intervention of CWP. Further functional studies are warranted to validate our findings. PMID:27626436

  10. The road to GHS: worker right-to-know in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Karstadt, Myra L

    2012-01-01

    Of the three communications standards discussed, HI is definitely the outlier, as it emphasizes worker control of the process of identifying hazard and deemphasizes employer control of identification of hazards and dissemination of hazard information. GHS may not be as protective of American workers as HazCom is, but for workers in less-developed countries, where regulation of workplace health and safety is less strong than in the United States, Canada, many countries in Europe, and Japan, GHS--if adequately enforced-will likely represent an improvement in information on chemical hazards in the workplace. American workers may well see a decline in workplace protection against chemical hazards while protection may improve for workers in less-developed countries. This trade-off is part of the ongoing debate about globalization, of which worker protection from chemical hazards should be an important aspect. The next paper in this series will compare the proposed and final versions of GHS, and will discuss possible improvements to GHS to better serve American workers. As OSHA moves forward with the GHS rule, people and organizations concerned with worker right-to-know should consider possible improvements to GHS to better serve workers in the United States and worldwide. PMID:22550692

  11. Department of Labor: Rethinking the Federal Role in Worker Protection and Workforce Development. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Clarence C.

    The Department of Labor's (DOL's) worker protection functions touch the lives of nearly every worker. Its approaches to carrying out these functions may have met the needs of an earlier time, but today's work world presents new demands and challenges to the federal government's traditional role. Today it is time to question the DOL's role in the…

  12. Innovative Technology For Testing Of Protective Gloves Specific Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Păun, Florin Adrian; Părăian, Mihaela; Jurca, Adrian; Lupu, Leonard; Berzan, Muntean Florina

    2015-07-01

    Presence of hazards along carrying on the work tasks by operators require making use of personal protective equipment, adequate from ensuring protection standpoint. Protecting workers against hazards implies the personal protective equipment to fulfill certain constructional and safety requirements which are very important for the level of protection that should be ensured. This paperwork aims at identifying the constructional and safety requirements for hand protection equipment, as well as the applicable test methods whose results would allow their farther characterization regarding the protection ensured. Innovative solutions are presented, regarding the test stand for determining the blade cut resistance of protective gloves.

  13. Improving eye safety in citrus harvest crews through the acceptance of personal protective equipment, community-based participatory research, social marketing, and community health workers.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Monaghan, Paul F; Bryant, Carol A; Esposito, Andrew; Wade, Mark; Ruiz, Omar; McDermott, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    For the last 10 years, the Partnership for Citrus Workers Health (PCWH) has been an evidence-based intervention program that promotes the adoption of protective eye safety equipment among Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Florida. At the root of this program is the systematic use of community-based preventive marketing (CBPM) and the training of community health workers (CHWs) among citrus harvester using popular education. CBPM is a model that combines the organizational system of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the strategies of social marketing. This particular program relied on formative research data using a mixed-methods approach and a multilevel stakeholder analysis that allowed for rapid dissemination, effective increase of personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, and a subsequent impact on adoptive workers and companies. Focus groups, face-to-face interviews, surveys, participant observation, Greco-Latin square, and quasi-experimental tests were implemented. A 20-hour popular education training produced CHWs that translated results of the formative research to potential adopters and also provided first aid skills for eye injuries. Reduction of injuries is not limited to the use of safety glasses, but also to the adoption of timely intervention and regular eye hygiene. Limitations include adoption in only large companies, rapid decline of eye safety glasses without consistent intervention, technological limitations of glasses, and thorough cost-benefit analysis. PMID:24911686

  14. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  15. 29 CFR 98.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adequate evidence. 98.900 Section 98.900 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a...

  16. Symbiotic bacteria on the cuticle of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus protect workers from attack by entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Mattoso, Thalles C; Moreira, Denise D O; Samuels, Richard I

    2012-06-23

    Although only discovered in 1999, the symbiotic filamentous actinobacteria present on the integument of certain species of leaf-cutting ants have been the subject of intense research. These bacteria have been shown to specifically suppress fungal garden parasites by secretion of antibiotics. However, more recently, a wider role for these bacteria has been suggested from research revealing their generalist anti-fungal activity. Here we show, for the first time, evidence for a role of these bacteria in the defence of young worker ants against a fungal entomopathogen. Experimental removal of the bacterial bio-film using an antibiotic resulted in a significant increase in susceptibility of worker ants to infection by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. This is the first direct evidence for the advantage of maintaining a bacterial bio-film on the cuticle as a defensive strategy of the ants themselves and not exclusively for protection of the fungus garden. PMID:22130174

  17. Research Gaps in Protecting Healthcare Workers From SARS and Other Respiratory Pathogens: An Interdisciplinary, Multi-Stakeholder, Evidence-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yassi, Annalee; Moore, David; FitzGerald, J. Mark; Bigelow, Philip; Hon, Chun-Yip; Bryce, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify priorities for further research in protecting healthcare workers (HCWs) from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and other respiratory pathogens by summarizing the basic science of infectious bioaerosols and the efficacy of facial protective equipment; the organizational, environmental, and individual factors that influence the success of infection control and occupational health programs; and factors identified by HCWs as important. Method An extensive literature review was conducted and 15 focus groups held, mostly with frontline HCWs in Toronto. Critical gaps in knowledge were identified and prioritized. Results Highest priority was given to organizational factors that create a climate of safety. Other priority areas included understanding aerosolization risks and practical measures to control bioaerosols at the source. Conclusions Further research is warranted to improve safety climate in health care and, specifically, to provide greater protection against respiratory pathogens. PMID:15643158

  18. Emergency Workers' Quality of Life: The Protective Role of Sense of Community, Efficacy Beliefs and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicognani, Elvira; Pietrantoni, Luca; Palestini, Luigi; Prati, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    This study, involving a sample of 764 emergency workers, investigates dimensions of quality of life at work (Compassion fatigue, Burnout and Compassion satisfaction), and their relationships with Coping strategies and some psychosocial variables (Sense of Community, Collective Efficacy and Self-efficacy). Results indicate the usefulness of…

  19. Safety and health compliance for hazmat. The "HAZWOPER" (Worker Protection Standards for Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response) standard.

    PubMed

    Golden, J M

    1991-10-01

    With as many as 1.8 million workers at risk for hazardous-materials exposure, OSHA and the EPA have recently published rules regulating hazmat safety operations. This article summarizes these rules, commonly referred to as HAZWOPER, and addresses their impact on EMS agencies and employees. PMID:10116021

  20. Legal Protections and Advocacy for Contingent or "Casual" Workers in the United States: A Case Study in Day Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Contingent, non-standard or "casual" work is present in large numbers in virtually every sector of the United States economy. Staffing strategies that use subcontracted or contingent work--strategies that once characterized only some low-wage workers such as garment and agriculture--have now spread to virtually every area of industry, including…

  1. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2012-01-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals’ size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  2. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms.

    PubMed

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms--modeled entirely in mesh surfaces--of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo

  3. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  4. Health protection of health care workers from the prospective of ethics, science and good medical practice. Opinions from stakeholders in health care settings.

    PubMed

    Porru, S; Cannatelli, P; Cerioli, Beloyanna; Flor, L; Gramegna, Maria; Polato, R; Rodriguez, D

    2012-01-01

    Fitness for work (FFW) in health care workers poses multidisciplinary challenges because of management problems scientific and ethical implications and the implementation of preventive interventions in health care settings. All the relevant stakeholders, including the General Manager, Medical Director, worker's representative, the person responsible for prevention and protection, forensic medicine expert, the person responsible for prevention and health safety at public administration level, commented on: danger to third parties; FFW formulation; human resource management; stress; professional independence; role of the person responsible for prevention and protection and of the person responsible for prevention at public administration level; professional responsibilities. Opinions are reported regarding the main problems related to the role of the Occupational Physician in FFW formulation, such as the difficult balance between autonomy and independence, limited turnover and aging of workforce, need of confidentiality and respect for professional status of the HCW prevalence of susceptibility conditions, rights and duties of stakeholders. The most significant result was the request by the Lombardy Region for more quality in risk assessment and health surveillance; to maintain uniform conduct over all the local health authorities, to allow the board in charge of examining appeals against FFW to fully cooperate with the occupational physician; due attention to the person/worker; the opportunity to convene referral boards for complex FFW management; the challenge of stress management and the need for an observatory for psychological discomforts; the importance of the ICOH Code of Ethics and avoidance of conflicts of interests; the need for individual risk assessment and risk management; the concept of sharing responsibilities and of a real multidisciplinary approach. PMID:22838299

  5. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec....

  6. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  7. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  8. Coenzyme Q10-containing composition (Immugen) protects against occupational and environmental stress in workers of the gas and oil industry.

    PubMed

    Korkina, Ludmila; Deeva, Irina; Ibragimova, Galina; Shakula, Alexander; Luci, Antonio; De Luca, Chiara

    2003-01-01

    The manual workers of the gas-and-oil extraction industry are exposed to hostile environmental and occupational conditions, resulting in elevated mortality and disability, due to chronic neurological and cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the degree of oxidative stress, often associated with these pathological features, in the blood of manual and office employees of Russian Siberian extraction plants, and their psycho-physiological conditions. Results showed increased levels of spontaneous (p < 0.05) and PMA-activated (p < 0.01) luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL) in the white blood cells (WBC), and decreased peroxynitrite levels (p < 0.05) in the group of manual workers, and less markedly in the clerks and technicians working on spot, vs. a control group of city clerks. Superoxide release by WBC, and plasma/WBC membrane ubiquinol levels did not display major differences in the three groups. A relevant percentage of manual/office workers of extraction platforms presented impaired cardiovascular and neurological functions. The short term administration of a nutraceutical formulation based on coenzyme10, vitamin E, selenium, methionine and phospholipids led to significant improvement of cardiovascular parameters and psycho-emotional status, consistent with the normalization of LDCL and peroxynitrite production by WBC, with a good compliance to treatment confirmed by the increased blood levels of ubiquinol. PMID:14695940

  9. Human Subject Protection In India – Is It Adequate?

    PubMed Central

    Mahaluxmivala, Narges

    2010-01-01

    India′s experience in clinical trials is shorter in time than that of the developed countries but as in everything else in the current globalizing environment, business compulsions characterized by compressed timelines are strong persuaders to catch up. Most global pharmaceutical and biotechnology organizations include India in their strategic plans, Immediate implementation of aspects that attract benefit are an urgent necessity. Technical and ethical issues that remain unresolved constrain India from reaching its deserved potential. To take fullest advantage of the current inflow of clinical trials, India must adopt, without delay, an all-inclusive approach and invest in a widespread and comprehensive GCP-compliance programme taking into account India-related cultural and socioeconomic issues. The initiative should not be allowed to flag. Government, the pharmaceutical and biotechnological research industries, the medical and pharmacy profession including relevant training institutes, the media and the public have a stake in such investment. The programme should involve assessing gaps in current clinical trial compliance measures and possible solutions, set the field for rectification and ensure implementation through mandate and penalty as feasible. PMID:21829776

  10. Human subject protection in India - is it adequate?

    PubMed

    Mahaluxmivala, Narges

    2010-01-01

    India's experience in clinical trials is shorter in time than that of the developed countries but as in everything else in the current globalizing environment, business compulsions characterized by compressed timelines are strong persuaders to catch up. Most global pharmaceutical and biotechnology organizations include India in their strategic plans, Immediate implementation of aspects that attract benefit are an urgent necessity. Technical and ethical issues that remain unresolved constrain India from reaching its deserved potential. To take fullest advantage of the current inflow of clinical trials, India must adopt, without delay, an all-inclusive approach and invest in a widespread and comprehensive GCP-compliance programme taking into account India-related cultural and socioeconomic issues. The initiative should not be allowed to flag. Government, the pharmaceutical and biotechnological research industries, the medical and pharmacy profession including relevant training institutes, the media and the public have a stake in such investment. The programme should involve assessing gaps in current clinical trial compliance measures and possible solutions, set the field for rectification and ensure implementation through mandate and penalty as feasible. PMID:21829776

  11. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  12. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  13. Clinical review: Tokyo - protecting the health care worker during a chemical mass casualty event: an important issue of continuing relevance.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Sumie; Okumura, Tetsu; Ishimatsu, Shinichi; Miura, Kunihisa; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Toshio

    2005-08-01

    Determine the effectiveness of decontamination, and perform thorough dry or wet decontamination, depending on the circumstances. Always remain cognizant of the fact that, even after decontamination has been completed, contamination may not have been completely eliminated. Perform periodic monitoring to determine whether secondary exposure has occurred in health care workers; if it appears that secondary exposure has occurred, then the PPE level must be increased and attempts must be made to identify and eliminate the source of the contamination. Finally, if the victims were exposed through ingestion, then consider the possibility that secondary exposure will occur during gastric lavage. PMID:16137390

  14. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  15. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  16. 48 CFR 952.223-77 - Conditional payment of fee or profit-protection of worker safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... specified range (see 48 CFR 923.7001(b)). The mitigating factors include, but are not limited to, the... practiced (e.g., Voluntary Protection Program Star Status). (vi) Event caused by “Good Samaritan” act by...

  17. Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; MacDougall, Colin C.; Johnstone, Jennie; Copes, Ray A.; Schwartz, Brian; Garber, Gary E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conflicting recommendations exist related to which facial protection should be used by health care workers to prevent transmission of acute respiratory infections, including pandemic influenza. We performed a systematic review of both clinical and surrogate exposure data comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks for the prevention of transmissible acute respiratory infections. Methods: We searched various electronic databases and the grey literature for relevant studies published from January 1990 to December 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies and case–control studies that included data on health care workers wearing N95 respirators and surgical masks to prevent acute respiratory infections were included in the meta-analysis. Surrogate exposure studies comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks using manikins or adult volunteers under simulated conditions were summarized separately. Outcomes from clinical studies were laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection, influenza-like illness and workplace absenteeism. Outcomes from surrogate exposure studies were filter penetration, face-seal leakage and total inward leakage. Results: We identified 6 clinical studies (3 RCTs, 1 cohort study and 2 case–control studies) and 23 surrogate exposure studies. In the meta-analysis of the clinical studies, we found no significant difference between N95 respirators and surgical masks in associated risk of (a) laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection (RCTs: odds ratio [OR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64–1.24; cohort study: OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.03–6.41; case–control studies: OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.25–3.36); (b) influenza-like illness (RCTs: OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.19–1.41); or (c) reported workplace absenteeism (RCT: OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.57–1.50). In the surrogate exposure studies, N95 respirators were associated with less filter penetration, less face-seal leakage and less total inward leakage under laboratory experimental conditions

  18. Protecting Contract Workers: Case Study of the US Department of Energy’s Nuclear and Chemical Waste Management

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael; Mohr, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Increased reliance on subcontractors in all economic sectors is a serious occupational health and safety challenge. Short-term cost savings are offset by long-term liability. Hiring subcontractors brings specialized knowledge but also young, inexperienced, inadequately trained workers onto industrial and hazardous waste sites, which leads to increased rates of accidents and injuries. Reliable data on subcontractor occupational health and safety programs and performance are sparse. The US Department of Energy has an excellent safety culture on paper, but procurement practices and contract language deliver a mixed message—including some safety disincentives. Its biphasic safety outcome data are consistent with underreporting by some subcontractors and underachievement by others. These observations are relevant to the private and public sectors. Occupational health and safety should be viewed as an asset, not merely a cost. PMID:17666686

  19. Moderate Thermal Strain in Healthcare Workers Wearing Personal Protective Equipment During Treatment and Care Activities in the Context of the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Grélot, Laurent; Koulibaly, Fassou; Maugey, Nancy; Janvier, Frédéric; Foissaud, Vincent; Aletti, Marc; Savini, Hélène; Cotte, Jean; Dampierre, Henry; Granier, Hervé; Carmoi, Thierry; Sagui, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    The extent of thermal strain while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) during care activities for Ebola virus disease patients has not yet been characterized. From January to March 2015, 25 French healthcare workers (HCWs) in Conakry, Guinea, volunteered to be monitored while wearing PPE using an ingestible thermal sensor. The mean (standard deviation) working ambient temperature and relative humidity were 29.6 °C (2.0 °C) and 65.4% (10.3%), respectively; the mean time wearing PPE was 65.7 (13.5) minutes; and the mean core body temperature increased by 0.46 °C (0.20 °C). Four HCWs reached or exceeded a mean core body temperature of ≥ 38.5 °C. HCWs wearing PPE for approximately 1 hour exhibited moderate but safe thermal strain. PMID:26655297

  20. 48 CFR 952.223-77 - Conditional payment of fee or profit-protection of worker safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... specified range (see 48 CFR 923.7001(b)). The mitigating factors include, but are not limited to, the... practiced (e.g., Voluntary Protection Program Star Status). (vi) Event caused by “Good Samaritan” act by the... is available or otherwise payable during the entire term of the contract, multiplied by the number...

  1. 48 CFR 952.223-77 - Conditional payment of fee or profit-protection of worker safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... specified range (see 48 CFR 923.7001(b)). The mitigating factors include, but are not limited to, the... practiced (e.g., Voluntary Protection Program Star Status). (vi) Event caused by “Good Samaritan” act by the... is available or otherwise payable during the entire term of the contract, multiplied by the number...

  2. Protective clothing for workers with 5-kW and 20-kW short-arc lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argoud, M. J.

    1969-01-01

    Two suits of protective clothing reduce hazards to personnel working near short-arc lamps. One suit is worn during assembly or servicing of inoperative 5- and 20-kw lamps. The other suit is worn during adjustment or focusing of operating 5-kw lamps.

  3. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  4. Do Social Workers Make Better Child Welfare Workers than Non-Social Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Robin E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To empirically examine whether the educational background of child welfare workers in Florida impacts on performance evaluations of their work. Method: A proportionate, stratified random sample of supervisor and peer evaluations of child protective investigators and child protective service workers is conducted. ANOVA procedures are…

  5. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  6. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  7. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  8. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Accident Prevention: A Workers' Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Devoted to providing industrial workers with a greater knowledge of precautionary measures undertaken and enforced by industries for the protection of workers, this safety education manual contains 14 lessons ranging from "The Problems of Accidents during Work" to "Trade Unions and Workers and Industrial Safety." Fire protection, safety equipment…

  10. Protecting off-site populations and site workers from vapor discharges during shallow soil mixing at the North Carolina State University National Priorities List Site.

    PubMed

    Schaad, David E; Halley, James M; Alaimo, Vince

    2007-09-01

    Although vapor monitoring is generally a component of remedial action activities, most sites do not have routine gaseous releases or vapor clouds erupting from the soil during implementation of the cleanup process (or during cleanup of the site). At the North Carolina State University Lot 86 National Priorities List Site, over 8410 m3 (11,000 yd3) of chemical waste was disposed at the Site, including organic solvents and shock-sensitive and air- and water-reactive compounds. During the Remedial Action, it was imperative to protect site workers and off-site populations from potential inhalation exposures. Engineering controls were incorporated into the shallow soil mixing process to limit the release of gaseous compounds. To quantify potential exposures to on-site and off-site receptors, modeling was conducted to evaluate potential exposure routes and migration pathways. To demonstrate acceptable levels of airborne constituents, a multifaceted air sampling and monitoring program was implemented. To ensure that potential exposures could be quantified, passive dosimeters, continuous real-time monitoring, time-weighted whole air sampling, and grab samples of vapor clouds were all critical components of the air monitoring program. After the successful completion of the Remedial Action, the pre-Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) chemical waste generated from the University's educational and research laboratories was entirely encapsulated and neither on-site workers nor off-site populations were exposed to analyzed compounds above any health-based action level (i.e., 15-min short-term exposure limit [STEL], 8-hr threshold limit value, or time-weighted average permissible exposure limit). PMID:17912923

  11. Worksite safety climate, smoking, and the use of protective equipment by blue collar building workers enrolled in the MassBUILT smoking cessation trial

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Lauren M; Kim, Seung-Sup; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-01-01

    Objective In order to assess potential contributors to high injury rates and smoking prevalence among construction workers, we investigated the association of safety climate with personal protective equipment (PPE) use, and smoking behaviors. Methods Logistic regression models estimated risk ratios for PPE use and smoking using data from participants in MassBUILT smoking cessation intervention (n=1,725). Results Contractor safety climate was negatively associated with use of dust masks (RR=0.88,95%CI:0.83–0.94); respirators (RR=0.82,95%CI:0.75–0.89); general equipment (RR=0.98,95%CI:0.95–1.00); and fall protection (RR=0.94,95%CI:0.91–0.98) and positively associated with current smoking (RR=1.12,95%CI:1.01–1.25) but not smoking cessation. Coworker safety climate was negatively associated with use of dust masks (RR=0.87,95%CI:0.82–0.92); respirators (RR=0.80,95%CI:0.74–0.87); general equipment (RR=0.96,95%CI:0.94–0.98); fall (RR=0.92,95%CI:0.89–0.96) and hearing (RR=0.88,95%CI:0.83–0.93) protection but not smoking. Conclusions Worksite safety climate may be important for PPE use and smoking, but further research is needed. PMID:25285831

  12. Risks on the job: the worker's right to know

    SciTech Connect

    Melville, M.

    1981-11-01

    The third in a series exploring the differences in protection from hazards given to workers and to the general public, this article asks whether workers are, in fact, informed about, able, and willing to undertake risks and explores the question of what constitutes adequate knowledge about workplace hazards. The right to know continues to be controversial, with Connecticut passing the first law in 1980 requiring employers to inform workers about risks. The three hazardous industries of nuclear power, lead smelting and refining, and lead-acid battery manufacture, and the manufacture and formulation of pesticides are singled out for an examination of how and when workers are informed. Two essential ingredients of an adequate educational and training program are the attitude of management and the allocation of sufficient resources to implement the commitment to inform employees. A comparison among the industries indicates that carefully developed and specific regulations implemented in an atmosphere of shared responsibility are the most effective approach, but present politically-motivated deregulation efforts could introduce new risks. 38 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  13. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  14. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  15. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  16. Texas passes first law for safe patient handling in America: landmark legislation protects health-care workers and patients from injury related to manual patient lifting.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Mary Anne

    2005-01-01

    compensation costs. Because the health-care industry has relied on people to do the work of machines, nursing work remains the most dangerous occupation for disabling back injury. Back injury from patient lifting may be the single largest contributor to the nursing shortage, with perhaps 12% of nurses leaving or being terminated because of back injury. The US health-care industry has not kept pace with other industries, which provide mechanical lift equipment for lifting loads equivalent to the weight of patients, or with other countries, such as Australia and England, which are more advanced in their use of modern technology for patient lifting and with no-lifting practices in compliance with government regulations and nursing policies banning manual lifting. With Texas being the first state to succeed in passing legislation for safe patient handling, other states are working toward legislative protection against injury with manual patient lifting. California re-introduced safe patient handling legislation on February 17, 2005, with CA SB 363, Hospitals: Lift Teams, following the September 22, 2004, veto of CA AB 2532 by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, who said he believes existing statutory protection and workplace safety standards are sufficient to protect health care workers from injury. Massachusetts HB 2662, Relating to Safe Patient Handling in Certain Health Facilities, was introduced December 1, 2004. Ohio HB 67, signed March 21, 2005 by Governor Bob Taft (R), creates a program for interest-free loans to nursing homes for implementation of a no-manual-lift program. New York companion bills AB 7641 and SB 4029 were introduced in April, 2005, calling for creation of a 2-year study to establish safe patient handling programs and collect data on nursing staff and patient injury with manual patient handling versus lift equipment, to determine best practices for improving health and safety of health-care workers and patients during patient handling. Washington State is

  17. Workers' Compensation: Key Legislation in 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, LaVerne C.

    1982-01-01

    Contains a summary of workers' compensation legislation enacted by individual states in 1981. Higher benefit levels, broader coverage, and improved medical and rehabilitation services are among the actions taken by states to provide better protection for injured workers. (Author)

  18. Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a new German law to encourage foreign workers to return to their home countries, employment exchanges for young foreigners in Germany, and a training program for migrant workers in India. (SK)

  19. Worker Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    The philosophy and workability of the concept of worker participation in management decisions is discussed in the context of British society. It is recommended that four interests be represented in any kind of Workers' Council: management, workers, shareholders, and consumers. (AG)

  20. Deploying and using volunteer health practitioners in response to emergencies: proposed uniform state legislation provides liability protections and workers' compensation coverage.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Michealle; Hodge, James G; Pepe, Raymond P

    2008-01-01

    To respond effectively to natural disasters and other public health emergencies, government resources must be augmented with the resources of volunteer organizations. Governmental actors are prepared to utilize volunteer health practitioners (VHPs) to meet patient surge capacity and provide essential public health services. However, difficult legal challenges arise regarding licensure, the scope of practice of volunteers, the relationship of volunteers to local healthcare delivery systems, disciplinary enforcement, the extent of exposure to civil liability, and how to provide compensation for volunteers injured or killed during disaster response activities. The Uniform Emergency Volunteer Health Practitioner Act (UEVHPA) seeks to address these problems and provide a better legal environment that facilitates VHPs efforts. This article discusses two important provisions of the UEVHPA, Section 11 which provides immunity against claims for negligence, under certain circumstances, for volunteers and organizations engaged in the deployment and use of volunteers, and Section 12 which provides workers' compensation benefits to VHPs when other sources of coverage are not available. Disaster relief organizations and healthcare provider organizations have consistently identified uncertainty and a lack of uniformity with respect to these issues as a major source of concern to volunteer practitioners and as a potential deterrent to their effective recruitment and utilization. Uniform state enactment of the UEVHPA would resolve many inconsistencies and gaps in the regulation and protection of VHPs across states. PMID:18450275

  1. 10 CFR 851.20 - Management responsibilities and worker rights and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Worker Protection Poster in the workplace where it is accessible to all workers. (b) Worker rights and... workplace; (iv) The safety and health poster that informs the worker of relevant rights and...

  2. 10 CFR 851.20 - Management responsibilities and worker rights and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Worker Protection Poster in the workplace where it is accessible to all workers. (b) Worker rights and... workplace; (iv) The safety and health poster that informs the worker of relevant rights and...

  3. [The role of occupational physician in the application of the 2006 "agreement on workers' health protection through the good handling and use of crystalline silica and products containing it": the experience in mining sector].

    PubMed

    Coggiola, M; Baracco, A; Perrelli, F; Bosio, D; Gullino, A; Pira, E

    2007-01-01

    The 2006 "Agreement on Workers' Health Protection Through the Good Handling and Use of Crystalline Silica and Products Containing it" between social parts defines a standardization of exposition control methods and medical surveillance. The Occupational Physician is integral part in exposition evaluation process and risk stratification in which derives the medical surveillance program. This study presents a first application of the European agreement in mining sector and the role of Occupational Physician in the evaluation of the risk to define methods of prevention. In particular it will be precised the choice of homogenous groups, the classification of exposed workers from results of workplace monitoring, the choice of technical prevention and individual protection equipments, and then the strategy of medical surveillance. PMID:18409742

  4. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  5. Using Computer Vision and Depth Sensing to Measure Healthcare Worker-Patient Contacts and Personal Protective Equipment Adherence Within Hospital Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junyang; Cremer, James F.; Zarei, Kasra; Segre, Alberto M.; Polgreen, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. We determined the feasibility of using computer vision and depth sensing to detect healthcare worker (HCW)-patient contacts to estimate both hand hygiene (HH) opportunities and personal protective equipment (PPE) adherence. Methods. We used multiple Microsoft Kinects to track the 3-dimensional movement of HCWs and their hands within hospital rooms. We applied computer vision techniques to recognize and determine the position of fiducial markers attached to the patient's bed to determine the location of the HCW's hands with respect to the bed. To measure our system's ability to detect HCW-patient contacts, we counted each time a HCW's hands entered a virtual rectangular box aligned with a patient bed. To measure PPE adherence, we identified the hands, torso, and face of each HCW on room entry, determined the color of each body area, and compared it with the color of gloves, gowns, and face masks. We independently examined a ground truth video recording and compared it with our system's results. Results. Overall, for touch detection, the sensitivity was 99.7%, with a positive predictive value of 98.7%. For gowned entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.15%. For masked entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.75%; for gloved entrances, the sensitivity was 86.21% and specificity was 98.28%. Conclusions. Using computer vision and depth sensing, we can estimate potential HH opportunities at the bedside and also estimate adherence to PPE. Our fine-grained estimates of how and how often HCWs interact directly with patients can inform a wide range of patient-safety research. PMID:26949712

  6. Using Computer Vision and Depth Sensing to Measure Healthcare Worker-Patient Contacts and Personal Protective Equipment Adherence Within Hospital Rooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junyang; Cremer, James F; Zarei, Kasra; Segre, Alberto M; Polgreen, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    Background.  We determined the feasibility of using computer vision and depth sensing to detect healthcare worker (HCW)-patient contacts to estimate both hand hygiene (HH) opportunities and personal protective equipment (PPE) adherence. Methods.  We used multiple Microsoft Kinects to track the 3-dimensional movement of HCWs and their hands within hospital rooms. We applied computer vision techniques to recognize and determine the position of fiducial markers attached to the patient's bed to determine the location of the HCW's hands with respect to the bed. To measure our system's ability to detect HCW-patient contacts, we counted each time a HCW's hands entered a virtual rectangular box aligned with a patient bed. To measure PPE adherence, we identified the hands, torso, and face of each HCW on room entry, determined the color of each body area, and compared it with the color of gloves, gowns, and face masks. We independently examined a ground truth video recording and compared it with our system's results. Results.  Overall, for touch detection, the sensitivity was 99.7%, with a positive predictive value of 98.7%. For gowned entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.15%. For masked entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.75%; for gloved entrances, the sensitivity was 86.21% and specificity was 98.28%. Conclusions.  Using computer vision and depth sensing, we can estimate potential HH opportunities at the bedside and also estimate adherence to PPE. Our fine-grained estimates of how and how often HCWs interact directly with patients can inform a wide range of patient-safety research. PMID:26949712

  7. Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J. W.; And Others

    Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

  8. Unionizing: A Guide for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; And Others

    Including excerpts from contracts protecting unionized child care workers, this booklet explains basic terminology and facts about unionizing and addresses child care workers' concerns. Section 1 answers commonly asked questions about unions and offers advice about how to answer parents' questions about workers' attempts to organize. Section 2…

  9. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    PubMed

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. PMID:25995374

  10. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  11. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  12. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200.14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and...

  13. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  14. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  15. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200....14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure...

  16. Serious Illness, Injury, and Death in Child Protection and Preparation for End-of-Life Situations among Child Welfare Services Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikai, Ellen L.; Herrin, Charlotte; Tang, Maggie; Church, Wesley T., II

    2008-01-01

    A mailed survey of child welfare workers in one southern state assessed various aspects of encounters with end-of-life situations in practice. Findings revealed that child deaths, children with life-threatening or life-limiting illnesses, and parental deaths were most commonly encountered and that coworkers were relied on for support. Many had no…

  17. 40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for workers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.130 Pesticide safety training for... activities permitted by § 170.112 and contacts anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which...

  18. 40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for workers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.130 Pesticide safety training for... activities permitted by § 170.112 and contacts anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which...

  19. 40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for workers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.130 Pesticide safety training for... activities permitted by § 170.112 and contacts anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which...

  20. 40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for workers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.130 Pesticide safety training for... activities permitted by § 170.112 and contacts anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which...

  1. 40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for workers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.130 Pesticide safety training for... activities permitted by § 170.112 and contacts anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which...

  2. 49 CFR 218.25 - Workers on a main track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.25 Workers on a main track. When workers are on, under, or between rolling equipment on a main track: (a) A blue... protected includes one or more locomotives, a blue signal must be attached to the controlling locomotive...

  3. 49 CFR 218.25 - Workers on a main track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.25 Workers on a main track. When workers are on, under, or between rolling equipment on a main track: (a) A blue... protected includes one or more locomotives, a blue signal must be attached to the controlling locomotive...

  4. The adaptive significance of inquiline parasite workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Seirian; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2003-01-01

    Social parasites exploit the socially managed resources of their host's society. Inquiline social parasites are dependent on their host throughout their life cycle, and so many of the traits inherited from their free-living ancestor are removed by natural selection. One trait that is commonly lost is the worker caste, the functions of which are adequately fulfilled by host workers. The few inquiline parasites that have retained a worker caste are thought to be at a transitional stage in the evolution of social parasitism, and their worker castes are considered vestigial and non-adaptive. However, this idea has not been tested. Furthermore, whether inquiline workers have an adaptive role outside the usual worker repertoire of foraging, brood care and colony maintenance has not been examined. In this paper, we present data that suggest that workers of the inquiline ant Acromyrmex insinuator play a vital role in ensuring the parasite's fitness. We show that the presence of these parasite workers has a positive effect on the production of parasite sexuals and a negative effect on the production of host sexuals. This suggests that inquiline workers play a vital role in suppressing host queen reproduction, thus promoting the rearing of parasite sexuals. To our knowledge, these are the first experiments on inquiline workers and the first to provide evidence that inquiline workers have an adaptive role. PMID:12816646

  5. [Risk of deterministic effects after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation: retrospective study among health workers in view of a new publication of International Commission on Radiological Protection].

    PubMed

    Negrone, Mario; Di Lascio, Doriana

    2016-01-01

    The new recommended equivalent (publication n. 118 of International Commission on Radiological Protection) dose limit for occupational exposure of the lens of the eye is based on prevention of radiogenic cataracts, with the underlying assumption of a nominal threshold which has been adjusted from 2,5 Gy to 0.5 Gy for acute or protracted exposure. The study aim was to determine the prevalence of ocular lens opacity among healthcare workers (radiologic technologists, physicians, physician assistants) with respect to occupational exposures to ionizing radiations. Therefore, we conducted another retrospective study to explore the relationship between occupational exposure to radiation and opacity lens increase. Healthcare data (current occupational dosimetry, occupational history) are used to investigate risk of increase of opacity lens of eye. The sample of this study consisted of 148 health-workers (64 M and 84 W) aged from 28 to 66 years coming from different hospitals of the ASL of Potenza (clinic, hospital and institute with scientific feature). On the basis of the evaluation of the dosimetric history of the workers (global and effective dose) we agreed to ascribe the group of exposed subjects in cat A (equivalent dose > 2 mSV) and the group of non exposed subjects in cat B (workers with annual absorbed level of dose near 0 mSv). The analisys was conducted using SPSS 15.0 (Statistical Package for Social Science). A trend of increased ocular lens opacity was found with increasing number for workers in highest category of exposure (cat. A, Yates' chi-squared test = 13,7 p = 0,0002); variable significantly related to opacity lens results job: nurse (Χ(2)Y = 14,3 p = 0,0002) physician (Χ(2)Y = 2.2 p = 0,1360) and radiologic technologists (Χ(2)Y = 0,1 p = 0,6691). In conclusion our provides evidence that exposure to relatively low doses of ionizing radiation may be harmful to the lens of the eye and may increase a long-term risk of cataract formation; similary

  6. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  7. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  8. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  9. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  10. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  11. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  12. The role of biological monitoring in the health management of lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Lee, B K

    1999-09-01

    In 1967, the problem of occupational lead exposure came to public attention in Korea. Since then, regular progress has been made in lowering workplace lead exposures, instituting new workplace controls, and implementing health examinations of exposed workers. Serious lead poisoning episodes led to the introduction of biological monitoring programs on a voluntary basis in high lead exposure facilities in Korea. Occupational health services for lead workers in Korea during the last 10 years could be categorized into three phases. During the first phase (1988-1993), effort was directed at increasing awareness among workers concerning the hazards of lead exposure, biological monitoring was commenced with zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), and a respiratory protection program was introduced. During the second phase (1994-1996), a computerized health management system of lead workers was developed, blood lead measurement was added for biological monitoring, and engineering controls were introduced in the workplace to lower air lead levels to comply with air lead regulations. Finally, during the third phase (1997-present), bone lead measurement by X-ray fluorescence was introduced to evaluate total body lead burden. During the period 1988-1998, air lead levels have remained generally steady and above the permissible exposure level (PEL), but ZPP and blood lead levels have shown a steady decline. It was discovered that in a developing country like Korea, which cannot introduce engineering controls quickly to protect lead workers, biological monitoring was very useful in identifying and lowering excess lead absorption. In the future, as average exposure duration continues to rise, bone lead measurement may be recommended to adequately protect the long-term health of lead workers. PMID:10511256

  13. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Never-Smoking Male Workers Exposed To Hardwood Dust

    PubMed Central

    Bislimovska, Dragana; Petrovska, Sunchica; Minov, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from many studies suggest that workplace exposure to organic dust may lead to adverse respiratory effects in exposed workers. AIM: In order to assess the respiratory effects of the workplace exposure to hardwood dust we performed a cross-sectional study of never-smoking male workers employed in parquet manufacture and never-smoking male office workers as a control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study including 37 never-smoking male workers employed in parquet manufacture and an equal number of never-smoking male office workers studied as a control. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a questionnaire for respiratory symptoms in the last 12 months and baseline spirometry performed according to the actual recommendations. RESULTS: We found a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms in parquet manufacturers than in office workers with significant difference for cough and phlegm. Majority of the respiratory symptoms in the parquet manufacturers were work-related. The mean values of all spirometric parameters with exception of forced ventilatory capacity (FVC) were significantly lower in the parquet manufacturers as compared to their mean values in the office workers. We found close relationship between both the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the reduction of spirometric parameters in the parquet manufacturers and the duration of the workplace exposure to wood dust. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that workplace exposure to hardwood dust may lead to adverse respiratory effects indicating the need of adequate preventive measures in order to protect the respiratory health of exposed workers. PMID:27275278

  14. Workplace protection factors for an N95 filtering facepiece respirator.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Larry L; Nelson, Thomas J; Cuta, Karen T

    2007-09-01

    This study evaluated the workplace performance of an N95 filtering facepiece, air-purifying respirator in a steel foundry. Air samples were collected inside and outside respirators worn by workers who were properly trained and qualitatively fit tested. For most workers, three or four pairs of air samples were collected on each of 2 days. The 49 valid sample sets were analyzed for iron, silicon, and zirconium. Only iron was present in sufficient concentrations to perform workplace protection factor (WPF) calculations. Individual WPF measurements ranged from 5 to 753. The geometric mean of the distribution was 119 with a lower 5th percentile value of 19. Time-weighted average WPFs (WPF(TWA)) were also calculated for each day for each worker as an estimate of the protection an individual might receive with daily respirator use. The WPF(TWA) values ranged from 15 for the worker with the single WPF value of 5, to a high of 684. The distribution of WPF(TWA) had a geometric mean of 120 and a lower 5th percentile of 22. Both data treatments indicate this respirator's performance was consistent with the assigned protection factor of 10 typically used for half facepiece respirators. The respirator provided adequate protection as used in this study. All contaminant concentrations inside the respirator were well below the relevant occupational exposure limits. Data collected also illustrate the dynamic nature of faceseal leakage in the workplace. PMID:17654225

  15. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, M.D.; Farrell, R.F.; Newton, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    The recent 1995 WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Update provided detailed analyses of potential radiation doses to members of the public at the site boundary during postulated accident scenarios at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SAR Update addressed the complete spectrum of potential accidents associated with handling and emplacing transuranic waste at WIPP, including damage to waste drums from fires, punctures, drops, and other disruptions. The report focused on the adequacy of the multiple layers of safety practice ({open_quotes}defense-in-depth{close_quotes}) at WIPP, which are designed to (1) reduce the likelihood of accidents and (2) limit the consequences of those accidents. The safeguards which contribute to defense-in-depth at WIPP include a substantial array of inherent design features, engineered controls, and administrative procedures. The SAR Update confirmed that the defense-in-depth at WIPP is adequate to assure the protection of the public and environment. As a supplement to the 1995 SAR Update, we have conducted additional analyses to confirm that these controls will also provide adequate protection to workers at the WIPP. The approaches and results of the worker dose assessment are summarized here. In conformance with the guidance of DOE Standard 3009-94, we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposures under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR Update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment.

  16. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  17. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  18. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  19. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  20. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  3. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  4. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  5. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  6. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  7. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  8. Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y L; Wang, B J; Yeh, K C; Wang, J C; Kao, H H; Wang, M T; Shih, H C; Chen, C J

    1999-01-01

    Construction workers are known to have occupational dermatoses. The prevalence of such dermatoses was unknown in Taiwanese construction workers. The objective of this study was to determine the work exposure, prevalence of skin manifestations, and sensitivity to common contact allergens in cement workers of southern Taiwan. A total of 1147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high % of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. A high % of dermatitis was noted in the 166 workers examined, which correlated with reported skin problems. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. Sensitivity to chromate or cobalt was associated with reported skin problems, or dorsal hand dermatitis on examination. These workers' dermatitis was under-diagnosed and inadequately managed. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Protective measures, work practice, and physician education should be improved to prevent or manage such problems. PMID:9928797

  9. Special Issue: Workers' Education and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes papers from symposium on "Workers' Education and the Environment": "All Mobilizing to Contribute" (Taylor); "Trade Union Participation in Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development" (Brett); "ILO's Environment Policy and Programmes" (Kohler); "Workers' Education and the Environment in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean"; "Practical…

  10. Toward Better Child Care Worker Compensation: Advocacy in Three States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vita, Carol J.; Twombly, Eric C.; Montilla, Maria D.

    Although the demand for child care in the United States has risen over the past 40 years, the supply of good quality child care remains both limited and costly, and the supply of well-trained and adequately compensated workers remains low. This study reviewed how advocates have moved the issue of child care worker compensation forward in the…

  11. Health risk assessments of DEHP released from chemical protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Huang, Chan-Sheng; Wei, Chung-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The substance di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in chemical protective gloves to improve their flexibility and workability. However, it is possible that workers using protective gloves to handle various solvents may be exposed to DEHP leached by the solvents. Using an ASTM F739 permeation cell, it was found that BTEX solvents permeating through the glove samples dissolved DEHP from the gloves. Even without continuously contacting the permeant, DEHP was released from the contaminated glove samples during the desorption experiments. The DEHP leaching amounts were found to be inversely correlated to the permeability coefficients of BTEX in the glove samples. This result implied that the larger the amount of DEHP released from the glove samples, the higher the permeation resistance of gloves. Although chemical protective gloves provide adequate skin exposure protection to workers, the dermal exposure model developed herein indicates that leaching of DEHP from the glove samples may pose a potential health risk to the workers who handle BTEX. This study suggests that the selection of protective gloves should not only be concerned with the chemical resistance of the gloves but also the health risk associated with leaching of chemicals, such as DEHP, used in the manufacturing of the gloves. PMID:25261760

  12. Measurement of the exposure of workers to pesticides*

    PubMed Central

    Durham, William F.; Wolfe, Homer R.

    1962-01-01

    There is not a single pesticide for which the interrelationships between occupational exposure by different routes, the fate of the compound in the human body, and its clinical effects are all adequately known. Results of the direct measurement of exposure to pesticides may be used in evaluating the relative hazard of different routes of exposure, different operational procedures, and different protective devices. Results of the indirect measurement of exposure may be of use for the same purpose; in addition, these indirect measures may be used in relating exposures under observed conditions to clinical effects. This paper describes and evaluates detailed procedures for the use of air samples, pads, and washes in the direct measurement of the dermal and respiratory exposure of workers to pesticides. Good methods are not available for measuring oral exposure. Any measure of the absorption, storage, physiological effect, or excretion of a compound constitutes an indirect indication of exposure to it. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:13888659

  13. Duty of Care and Autonomy: How Support Workers Managed the Tension between Protecting Service Users from Risk and Promoting Their Independence in a Specialist Group Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, R.; Redley, M.; Holland, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the UK those paid to support adults with intellectual disabilities must manage two potentially conflicting duties that are set out in policy documents as being vital to their role: protecting service users (their duty of care) and recognising service users' autonomy. This study focuses specifically on the support of people with the…

  14. "One country, two systems": Sociopolitical implications for female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William CW; Holroyd, Eleanor; Chan, Emily Y; Griffiths, Sian; Bingham, Amie

    2008-01-01

    Background Under the "two countries, one system" policy implemented by China to manage the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty, Hong Kong has maintained a comparatively prosperous economy within the Asian region. This has resulted in an environment which fosters migration from the mainland to Hong Kong, due largely to proximity, higher earning potential, common language, and a relaxing of border control measures. However not all mainland China citizens are equally able to access these new migration schemes and indeed a number of women such as sex workers are either migrating and/or working illegally and without occupational, legal and health protection within Hong Kong. Discussion Female migrant sex workers are exposed to a number of significant threats to their health, however their illegal status contributes to even greater vulnerability. The prevailing discourses which view these women as either "trafficked women" or as "illegal immigrants" do not adequately account for the complex situations which result in such women's employment in Hong Kong's sex industry. Rather, their position can best be understood within the broader frameworks provided by migration literature and the concept of "structural violence". This allows for a greater understanding of the socio-political issues which are systematically denying migrant sex workers adequate access to health care and other opportunities for social advancement. When these issues are taken into account, it becomes clear that the current relevant legislation regarding both immigration and sex work is perpetuating the marginalised and vulnerable status of migrant sex workers. Unless changes are made, structural barriers will remain in place which impede the ability of migrant sex workers to manage their own health needs and status. Conclusion Female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong are extremely vulnerable to a number of occupational health and safety hazards which have significantly detrimental effects on their health

  15. Perception of Occupational Risks and Practices of Self-protection from Infectious Diseases Among Workers in Contact with International Migrants at Hungary’s Border

    PubMed Central

    Szilard, Istvan; Katz, Zoltan; Berenyi, Karoly; Csepregi, Peter; Huszar, Andras; Barath, Arpad; Marek, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate employees’ self-assessments of their occupational risks and health awareness as well as their perception of preventive methods. We also aimed to collect data on employees’ perception of some selected alarming signs and symptoms that may encourage them to take further actions (such as separation and calling an ambulance). Participants and methods: Between April and June 2013, an anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted with the participation of 70 employees working with migrants (both health-care and non-health-care staff) in 10 Hungarian settlements: 4 border crossing points along the eastern Schengen borderline, 3 asylum detention centers and 3 reception centers. Results: Our results demonstrated an increased perception of certain biological and mental health hazards at work among those working with migrants: 63.7% of the health-care workers and even 37.3% of the non-health-care staff come into contact with human secretions (feces, urine, saliva) “frequently” or “sometimes”. Self-assessed awareness of the signs and symptoms of infectious diseases was poor: only 12.8% of participants evaluated their awareness as “good” or “very good”. Threat of verbal violence may be considered a common mental risk at work for participants: 35% “sometimes” or “frequently” and 5% “always” face verbal violence during their work. The most commonly used preventive measures against infectious diseases included the use of gloves, masks and disinfectants; these were generally available to 70 to 80% of the workers and properly applied. Conclusions: Our results indicate considerable deficiencies in the participants’ preparedness in respect to their occupational health-related issues. Since it is essential for those having daily physical contact with migrants during their work to be properly informed about the occupational health hazards and consequences that may be associated with

  16. 48 CFR 970.2803-1 - Workers' Compensation Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Workers' Compensation...' Compensation Insurance. (a) Policies and requirements. (1) Workers' compensation insurance protects employers against liability imposed by workers' compensation laws for injury or death to employees arising out...

  17. 48 CFR 970.2803-1 - Workers' Compensation Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Workers' Compensation...' Compensation Insurance. (a) Policies and requirements. (1) Workers' compensation insurance protects employers against liability imposed by workers' compensation laws for injury or death to employees arising out...

  18. 48 CFR 970.2803-1 - Workers' Compensation Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' Compensation...' Compensation Insurance. (a) Policies and requirements. (1) Workers' compensation insurance protects employers against liability imposed by workers' compensation laws for injury or death to employees arising out...

  19. 48 CFR 970.2803-1 - Workers' Compensation Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Workers' Compensation...' Compensation Insurance. (a) Policies and requirements. (1) Workers' compensation insurance protects employers against liability imposed by workers' compensation laws for injury or death to employees arising out...

  20. Socio-demographic, Behavioral and Health Characteristics of Underage Female Sex Workers in Mozambique: The Need to Protect a Generation from HIV Risk.

    PubMed

    Inguane, Celso; Horth, Roberta Z; Miranda, Angélica E; Young, Peter W; Sathane, Isabel; Cummings, Beverley E; Augusto, Ângelo; Raymond, Henry F; Mcfarland, Willi

    2015-12-01

    Characteristics, HIV risk, and program coverage for underage female sex workers (FSW) are rarely systematically described worldwide. We compared characteristics of underage (15-17 years old) and adult (≥18 years old) FSW in three main urban areas of Mozambique (Maputo, Beira and Nampula) using data from three respondent-driven sampling surveys implemented in 2011-2012. Among survey participants, 9.8 % (39/400) in Maputo, 17.0 % (70/411) in Beira and 25.6 % (110/429) in Nampula were underage. Over half reported performing sex work to afford daily living, and 29.7-50.0 % had unprotected sex with their last client. The proportion of underage FSW having accessed care and prevention services was lower compared to adult FSW. While HIV prevalence among underage FSW was lower than in adults, it increased markedly with age. Our results point to the urgency of expanding prevention and care programs geared towards underage FSW. PMID:25931241

  1. International migration from non-endemic settings as a protective factor for HIV/STI risk among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Shira M.; Liu, Vivian; Nguyen, Paul; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Background Given heterogeneous evidence regarding the impacts of migration on HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs), we explored factors associated with international migration among FSWs in Vancouver, Canada. Methods We draw on baseline questionnaire and HIV/STI testing data from a community-based cohort, AESHA, from 2010-2012. Logistic regression identified correlates of international migration. Results Of 650 FSWs, 163 (25.1%) were international migrants, who primarily worked in formal indoor establishments. HIV/STI prevalence was lower among migrants than Canadian-born women (5.5% vs. 25.9%). In multivariate analysis, international migration was positively associated with completing high school, supporting dependents, and paying a third party, and negatively associated with HIV, injecting drugs and inconsistent condom use with clients. Discussion Although migrants experience lower workplace harms and HIV risk than Canadian-born women, they face concerning levels of violence, police harassment, and HIV/STIs. Research exploring structural and socio-cultural factors shaping risk mitigation and migrants’ access to support remains needed. PMID:24700025

  2. Workers compensation: coverage, benefits, and costs, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.N.

    1984-12-01

    Workers compensation provides medical care and income maintenance protection to workers disabled from work-related injury or illness. This program is of considerable interest to the Social Security Administration (SSA) from several perspectives. For example, since 1965 Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) benefits and workers compensation payments have been integrated. Information on the experience under workers compensation provides a framework for examining questions concerning gaps and overlaps in the Nation's social insurance system. In addition, since December 1969 SSA has administered claims filed through 1973 under part B of the Black Lung program--the program providing income maintenance protection to coal miners disabled by pneumoconiosis. The workers compensation experience reported here consists of information on benefits for work-related injury and disease, including data on the combined benefits paid under the entire Federal Black Lung program administered by the Labor Department and SSA.

  3. Medical examinations for radiation workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    The NASA radiological protection policy allows an employee to be assigned work in a radiologically controlled area only if all of the following conditions are met: (1) The area must be radiologically safe for the intended operations; (2) the employee must be medically fit; (3) the employee must be properly trained; (4) appropriate radiation protection procedures must be prepared; (5) appropriate dosimetric, survey, surveillance and reporting procedures must be implemented; and (6) adequate controls and records must be established.

  4. 'Your health our concern, our health whose concern?': perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aberese-Ako, Matilda; van Dijk, Han; Gerrits, Trudie; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2014-09-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers' attitudes and performance in delivering maternal and neonatal health care in public hospitals. It consisted of an ethnographic study in two public hospitals in Southern Ghana. Participant observation, conversation and in-depth interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Ethical approval and consent were obtained from relevant persons and authorities. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 8 was used for coding and analysis of data. Main themes identified in the analysis form the basis for interpreting and reporting study findings. Findings showed that most workers perceived injustice in distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions at various levels in the health system. At the national policy level this included poor conditions of service. At the hospital level, it included perceived inequity in distribution of incentives, lack of protection and respect for workers. These influenced frontline worker motivation negatively and sometimes led to poor response to client needs. However, intrinsically motivated workers overcame these challenges and responded positively to clients' health care needs. It is important to recognize and conceptualize frontline workers in health systems as internal clients of the facilities and organizations within which they work. Their quality needs must be adequately met if they are to be highly motivated and supported to provide quality and responsive care to their clients. Meeting these quality needs of internal clients and creating a sense of fairness in governance arrangements between frontline workers, facilities and health system managers is crucial. Consequently, intervention measures such as creating more open door policies, involving frontline workers in decision making

  5. 49 CFR 218.29 - Alternate methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.29 Alternate methods of protection. Instead of providing blue signal protection for workers in accordance with § 218.27, the following methods for blue signal protection may be used: (a) When workers...

  6. Ethics of mandatory vaccination for healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Galanakis, E; Jansen, A; Lopalco, P L; Giesecke, J

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of contracting infections at work and further transmitting them to colleagues and patients. Immune HCWs would be protected themselves and act as a barrier against the spread of infections and maintain healthcare delivery during outbreaks, but vaccine uptake rates in HCWs have often been low. In order to achieve adequate immunisation rates in HCWs, mandatory vaccination policies are occasionally implemented by healthcare authorities, but such policies have raised considerable controversy. Here we review the background of this debate, analyse arguments for and against mandatory vaccination policies, and consider the principles and virtues of clinical, professional, institutional and public health ethics. We conclude that there is a moral imperative for HCWs to be immune and for healthcare institutions to ensure HCW vaccination, in particular for those working in settings with high-risk groups of patients. If voluntary uptake of vaccination by HCWs is not optimal, patients’ welfare, public health and also the HCW’s own health interests should outweigh concerns about individual autonomy: fair mandatory vaccination policies for HCWs might be acceptable. Differences in diseases, patient and HCW groups at risk and available vaccines should be taken into consideration when adopting the optimal policy. PMID:24229791

  7. The Foreign Workers and Foreign Workers' German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackshire-Belay, Carol

    Foreign Workers' German (FWG) refers to the acquired German language skills of workers from various countries who were recruited to West Germany between 1955 and 1973 to fill menial, undesirable jobs. Contact between these workers and native German speakers was limited because of the nature of the foreigners' work, the tendency toward residential…

  8. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    PubMed

    Zobel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for dicot plant root systems. PMID:26904040

  9. Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaigns: An Australian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Smit-Kroner, Christel; Brumby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation of all outdoor workers and the level of reported skin protection by farmers is suboptimal. Years of public health campaigns have failed to adequately address farmers' specific needs. Increased rates of skin cancer and subsequent higher costs are expected. Estimates of sun exposure and skin protection practice indicate that protective clothing is the most promising avenue to improve on farmers' skin protection. Early detection needs to be part of public health campaigns. This review explores the quantitative data about Australian farmers and their skin protective behaviours. We investigate what the documented measurable effect of the public health campaign Slip!Slop!Slap! has had on agricultural workers and farmers and make recommendations for future focus. PMID:26844126

  10. Risk of dust-induced lung disease in oil shale workers

    SciTech Connect

    Marine, W.M.; Savitz, D.A.; Gratt, L.B.; Perry, B.W.

    1984-04-01

    Risks of non-neoplastic lung diseases for future US oil shale worker dust exposures were estimated. In the absence of an active industry, health effects rates from surrogate industries were utilized. The risk of chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, and pneumoconiosis was quantified from British coal worker data. The risk of occupational silicosis in oil shale miners was estimated using Peruvian metal mines and Vermont granite worker data. Ten percent SiO/sub 2/ composition of the dust in the respirable range from oil shale mining and crushing was used. Risk estimates were calculated at the nuisance dust threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 mg/m/sup 3/ and at the current SiO/sub 2/ TLV of 100 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. Silicosis was the dominant pulmonary health effect, but at the 5 mg/m/sup 3/ dust level, pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, and chronic airway obstruction are also important risks. Designing oil shale facilities to meet the nuisance dust TLV may not provide adequate protection to the future generations of workers involved in oil shale extraction and processing. 32 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  11. Health Impact Assessment of Solid Waste Disposal Workers in Port Harocurt, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Confidence, Wachukwu K.; Eleanya, E. U.

    The various health risks associated with solid waste disposal workers in Port Harcourt, Rivers State of Nigeria, were investigated. The aim is to assess the extent of exposure in terms of inhalation of toxic substances and its inherent adverse health effects on them since the workers are not adequately protected while doing their jobs. About 10 mL of venous blood was collected from each of the 35 solid waste disposal workers aged 21-50 years and from each of the 15 control subjects of the same age bracket who are not exposed. A well structured questionnaire was also given to all the solid waste disposal workers to assess their health profile. Haematological parameters, liver function test (LFT) and toxic substance (Pb, Cu, Zn) concentration in the blood were carried out. There were slight decrease in the haematological parameters and liver function test (LFT) results, as compared with the control subjects. The values obtained are: Hb 13.43±1.14 g dL-1, HCT 37.13±3.22%, WBC6.35±1.86x109 L-1, platelet 236.15±104.33x109 L-1, neutrophil 42.60±11.11% and monocyte 3.05±2.41% for solid waste workers. While the values for control subjects are: Hb 14.69±0.4 g dL-1, HCT 41.77±2.74%, WBC 7.23±1.21x109 L-1, platelets 282.40±33.76x109 L-1, neutrophil 58.65±5.87% and monocyte 5.77±2.03%. The lymphocyte counts for waste disposal workers was significantly higher (50.42±11.30%) and (32.83±5.32%) for the control subjects. The AST values increased significantly for solid waste workers with a mean AST concentration of (11.19±2.36 µ L-1) and 8.97±4.07 µL-1 for the control subjects. And mean total bilirubin increased progressively as the number of years of exposure increased (19.00 μmol L-1). The peak value was for workers exposed for about 7 year. The result also showed that mean lead, copper and Zinc concentrations were high for the solid waste workers (Pb = 0.07±0.05 mg L-1, Cu =0.22±0.08 mg L-1 and Zn = 0.56±0.48 mg L-1) while that of control subjects were Pb

  12. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  13. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  14. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  15. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  16. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  17. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  18. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...

  19. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  20. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workers in petrochemical industries: baseline values and dermal uptake.

    PubMed

    Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

    1995-02-24

    The suitability of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker for the assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in petrochemical industries was evaluated in 562 workers involved in various operations in petrochemical industries. The median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in 121 of these workers (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAH was 0.11 mumol/mol creatinine. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval was 0.51 mumol/mol creatinine. During activities with a low potential exposure to PAH, such as loading bitumen and the handling of clarified slurry oils and furfural extracts, 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally increased compared with the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAH. Despite the substantially higher potential exposure to PAH during clean-out operations of various oil refinery installations, the concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene in the workers involved were in the same range. This suggests that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. However, in workers digging PAH-contaminated soil and workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, significantly increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. A major decrease in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene following the application of dermal protective equipment in the ground workers suggested that skin absorption plays a major role in occupational exposure to PAH. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the workers of the needle coke plant was investigated in relation to potential determinants of exposure to PAH. It was indeed found that not only inhalatory but also dermal exposure was a significant determinant of occupational exposure to PAH. PMID:7716500

  1. ‘Your health our concern, our health whose concern?’: perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Han; Gerrits, Trudie; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2014-01-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers’ attitudes and performance in delivering maternal and neonatal health care in public hospitals. It consisted of an ethnographic study in two public hospitals in Southern Ghana. Participant observation, conversation and in-depth interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Ethical approval and consent were obtained from relevant persons and authorities. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 8 was used for coding and analysis of data. Main themes identified in the analysis form the basis for interpreting and reporting study findings. Findings showed that most workers perceived injustice in distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions at various levels in the health system. At the national policy level this included poor conditions of service. At the hospital level, it included perceived inequity in distribution of incentives, lack of protection and respect for workers. These influenced frontline worker motivation negatively and sometimes led to poor response to client needs. However, intrinsically motivated workers overcame these challenges and responded positively to clients’ health care needs. It is important to recognize and conceptualize frontline workers in health systems as internal clients of the facilities and organizations within which they work. Their quality needs must be adequately met if they are to be highly motivated and supported to provide quality and responsive care to their clients. Meeting these quality needs of internal clients and creating a sense of fairness in governance arrangements between frontline workers, facilities and health system managers is crucial. Consequently, intervention measures such as creating more open door policies, involving frontline workers in decision

  2. Maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the nutritional and fluid requirements of enterally-fed patients can be challenging and the practicalities of ensuring adequate delivery must be taken into consideration. Patients who are enterally fed can be more reliant on clinicians, family members and carers to meet their nutrition and hydration needs and identify any deficiencies, excesses or problems with delivery. Estimating a patient's requirements can be challenging due to the limitations of using predictive equations in the clinical setting. Close monitoring by all those involved in the patient's care, as well as regular review by a dietitian, is therefore required to balance the delivery of adequate feed and fluids to meet each patient's individual needs and prevent the complications of malnutrition and dehydration. Increasing the awareness of the signs of malnutrition and dehydration in patients receiving enteral tube feeding among those involved in a patient's care will help any deficiencies to be detected early on and rectified before complications occur. PMID:26087203

  3. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  4. Grounding Headphones for Protection Against ESD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, John; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    A simple alternative technique has been devised protecting delicate equipment against electrostatic discharge (ESD) in settings in which workers wear communication headsets. In the original setting in which the technique was devised, the workers who wear the headsets also wear anti-ESD grounding straps on their wrists. The alternative technique eliminates the need for the wrist grounding straps by providing for grounding through the headsets. In place of the electrically insulating foam pads on the headsets, one installs pads made of electrically conductive foam like that commonly used to protect electronic components. Grounding wires are attached to the conductive foam pads, then possibly to the shielding cable which may be grounded to the backshell on the connector. The efficacy of this technique in protecting against ESD has been verified in experiments. The electrical resistance of the pads is a few megohms - about the same as that of a human body between the fingers of opposite hands and, hence, low enough for grounding. The only drawback of the technique is that care must be taken to place the foam pads in contact with the user s skin: any hair that comes between the foam pads and the skin must be pushed aside because hair is electrically insulating and thus prevents adequate grounding.

  5. [Health management of Italian workers abroad].

    PubMed

    Bianco, Paolo; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Ieraci, Roberto; Anzelmo, Vincenza

    2011-01-01

    In the last 20 years traveling workers abroad have increased markedly. This resulted in the need for standardized preventive tools available to protect workers-travelers in geographic areas with related additional risk factors. Health surveillance of these workers require a company organization that involves the components of the process prior: the occupational physician, safety service, administrative areas, travel clinic. The application phases of medical surveillance must be differentiated into two main phases: 1. pre-travel, in which successive stages also encoded by the SIMLII guidelines; 2. the return journey, where the paths are different for asymptomatic and symptomatic workers. The evaluation of fitness to perform the job abroad is based on general criteria that allow to correlate the health of the worker with respect to the destination area. The application methods actually available allow modulations of the health surveillance for companies of different dimension. PMID:22073692

  6. Radiation protection guidelines for the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    With the exception of the function of cells in the skin associated with immunocompetence nonstochastic effects have been well characterized and threshold doses are known with a precision appropriate for setting radiation protection standards. A dose limitation of 0.5 Sv per year and a working lifetime dose limit of 20 Sv should protect the worker population adequately and therefore, the current protection standards are quite adequate. The risk estimate for skin cancer is very dependent on the selection of the projection model and on the mortality rate assumed. Based on the relative risk model, a mortality rate of 0.2% and summing risks for both UVR exposed and shielded skin the risk is about twice (1.94/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}) that which ICRP derived in 1977. With the absolute model the risk is considerably less, about 0.5/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Asthma Diagnosed after 11 September 2001 among Rescue and Recovery Workers: Findings from the World Trade Center Health Registry

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Katherine; McKelvey, Wendy; Thorpe, Lorna; Perrin, Megan; Cone, James; Kass, Daniel; Farfel, Mark; Thomas, Pauline; Brackbill, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies have consistently documented declines in respiratory health after 11 September 2001 (9/11) among surviving first responders and other World Trade Center (WTC) rescue, recovery, and clean-up workers. Objectives The goal of this study was to describe the risk of newly diagnosed asthma among WTC site workers and volunteers and to characterize its association with WTC site exposures. Methods We analyzed 2003–2004 interview data from the World Trade Center Health Registry for workers who did not have asthma before 9/11 (n = 25,748), estimating the risk of newly diagnosed asthma and its associations with WTC work history, including mask or respirator use. Results Newly diagnosed asthma was reported by 926 workers (3.6%). Earlier arrival and longer duration of work were significant risk factors, with independent dose responses (p < 0.001), as were exposure to the dust cloud and pile work. Among workers who arrived on 11 September, longer delays in the initial use of masks or respirators were associated with increased risk of asthma; adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.63 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–2.56) for 1 day of delay to 3.44 (95% CI, 1.43–8.25) for 16–40 weeks delay. Conclusions The rate of self-reported newly diagnosed asthma was high in the study population and significantly associated with increased exposure to the WTC disaster site. Although we could not distinguish appropriate respiratory protection from inappropriate, we observed a moderate protective effect of mask or respirator use. The findings underscore the need for adequate and timely distribution of appropriate protective equipment and the enforcement of its use when other methods of controlling respiratory exposures are not feasible. PMID:18007989

  8. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang, Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Yepes, Pablo; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe

    2010-01-01

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy. PMID:20844607

  9. CHARACTERIZING AND PROVIDING ADEQUATE PROTECTION FOR SUSCEPTIBLE SUBPOPULATIONS: SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS: SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE AGED

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUMMARY: An important Agency mandate is to identify subpopulations particularly susceptible to adverse effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants. For example, a critical public health question is the extent to which exposure to environmental contaminants cont...

  10. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang, Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Yepes, Pablo; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe

    2009-03-01

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

  11. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe; Yepes, Pablo

    2009-03-10

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

  12. [Health problems of workers in the Americas].

    PubMed

    Villafaña, C

    1983-12-01

    Most of the problems concerning the health of the workers in developing countries exist in Latin America : rapid urbanisation, dearth of information on the risks the workers face, intensification of efforts to increase returns. The geographic situation of a country also has its importance: working conditions are more difficult in tropical climates. Over populated, poor districts increase the danger of transmission of infectious diseases. Loneliness, a change in the mode of life are an incentive to alcoholism. The vast majority of Latin American workers are employed in small workshops. In Puerto Rico, 90 per cent of them work in firms employing less than fifty people. It is precisely in these small workshops that health problems are the most serious. The publication of laws to protect health is not sufficient, education campaigns must be organized at all levels: government officials, trade-unions, entrepreneurs and the workers themselves. Education programmes to protect the health of the workers must include the prevention of new risks due to environmental conditions. Health education is essential to protect and improve the health of the workers in Latin America. PMID:6667932

  13. Adequation of mini satellites to oceanic altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaieche, G.; Aguttes, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Association of the mini satellite concept and oceanic altimetry missions is discussed. Mission definition and most constraining requirements (mesoscale for example) demonstrate mini satellites to be quite adequate for such missions. Progress in altimeter characteristics, orbit determination, and position reporting allow consideration of oceanic altimetry missions using low Earth orbit satellites. Satellite constellation, trace keeping and orbital period, and required payload characteristics are exposed. The mission requirements covering Sun synchronous orbit, service area, ground system, and launcher characteristics as well as constellation maintenance strategy are specified. Two options for the satellite, orbital mechanics, propulsion, onboard power and stabilizing subsystems, onboard management, satellite ground linkings, mechanical and thermal subsystems, budgets, and planning are discussed.

  14. Study of kidney dysfunction in non-silicotic Egyptian workers.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Ahmed, Safia B; Amer, Nagat M

    2011-01-01

    urine of each of Zn and Cu. Measurement of the levels of urinary zinc and copper may serve as a sensitive indicator of the impaired renal function caused by silica exposure. The corresponding analytes could have potential value as indicators of renal function before the kidney is irreversibly injured and, thus could be suitable as monitoring tools for at-risk persons exposed to silica. Researches should assess whether the current occupational standards for silica adequately protect workers from renal disease or this established standard needs to be revised. PMID:20851677

  15. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  16. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  17. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  18. Worker-to-Worker Violence in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Lydia E.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Ager, Joel; Upfal, Mark; Luborsky, Mark; Russell, Jim; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Worker-to-worker (Type III) violence is prevalent in health care settings and has potential adverse consequences for employees and organizations. Little research has examined perpetrator characteristics of this type of violence. The current study is a descriptive examination of the common demographic and work-related characteristics of perpetrators of Type III workplace violence among hospital workers. Analysis was based on documented incidents of Type III violence reported within a large hospital system from 2010 to 2012. Nurses were involved as either the perpetrator or target in the five most common perpetrator–target dyads. Incidence rate ratios revealed that patient care associates and nurses were significantly more likely to be perpetrators than other job titles. By examining characteristics of perpetrators and common worker dyads involved in Type III workplace violence, hospital stakeholders and unit supervisors have a starting point to develop strategies for reducing conflict between workers. PMID:26450899

  19. Implementation guide for use with suspect/counterfeit items: Requirements of DOE O 440.1, worker protection management; 10 CFR 830.120; and DOE 5700.6C, quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) Order (O) 440.1, Worker Protection Management For DOE Federal and Contractors Employees, [7] sets forth requirements for DOE and its contractors to implement suspect and counterfeit items (S/CI) controls as part of the quality assurance (QA) programs required by 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 830.120 [8] or DOE 5700.6C, Quality Assurance [9]. DOE G-830.120, Implementation Guide for Use with 10 CFR Part 830.120, Quality Assurance, [10] provides additional guidance on establishing and implementing effective QA processes to control S/CIs. DOE O 232.1, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations, [11] specifies requirements for reporting S/CIs under the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS). DOE promulgated the requirements and guidance to control or eliminate the hazards posed by S/CIs, which can lead to unexpected equipment failures and undue risks to the DOE mission, the environment, and personnel. This Guide is a compendium of information contained in the referenced DOE directives and other documents concerning S/CI controls. It incorporates, updates, and supersedes earlier guidance issued in Plan for the Suspect/Counterfeit Products Issue in the Department of Energy, dated October 1993, [4] and in memoranda issued by Defense Programs (DP) [12-16] and other DOE program offices. This guidance was developed to strengthen the procurement process, identify and eliminate S/CIs, and improve the reporting of S/CIs. The information in this Guide, when implemented by DOE and its contractors, will satisfy the S/CI requirements contained in the referenced DOE directives.

  20. Colleges Protect Workers and Cut Elsewhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    Most colleges have steered through the first jolts of the recession without resorting to layoffs, cutting employee benefits, or imposing across-the-board freezes on hiring. But the economic pain is afflicting campuses in many other ways, according to the findings from a new survey of chief business officers conducted last month by "The Chronicle"…

  1. Protecting Older Workers Against Discrimination Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2012-03-13

    03/13/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1616-1617) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Are PPS payments adequate? Issues for updating and assessing rates

    PubMed Central

    Sheingold, Steven H.; Richter, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Declining operating margins under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) have focused attention on the adequacy of payment rates. The question of whether annual updates to the rates have been too low or cost increases too high has become important. In this article we discuss issues relevant to updating PPS rates and judging their adequacy. We describe a modification to the current framework for recommending annual update factors. This framework is then used to retrospectively assess PPS payment and cost growth since 1985. The preliminary results suggest that current rates are more than adequate to support the cost of efficient care. Also discussed are why using financial margins to evaluate rates is problematic and alternative methods that might be employed. PMID:10127450

  3. Precautions for Workers 1

    PubMed Central

    Guest, G. H.

    1948-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes are now available from Chalk River for use by Canadian biologists. Experience has shown that the handling of radioactive isotopes may involve health hazards unless adequate precautions are taken. The nature of these hazards and the type of precautions which must be taken when working with radioactive isotopes are considered. Successful work with radioactive isotopes other than in the smallest tracer amounts requires the use of laboratories and equipment especially designed for the purpose and this is dealt with briefly. The operation of a radioactive laboratory requires certain auxiliary equipment and services, such as health instruments, film monitoring, special laboratory clothing, special cleanable surfaces and disposal of radioactive waste materials. These topics are discussed briefly. Handling of radioactive isotopes involves certain special precautions and a few of these, such as protection of hands, cleaning of glassware, handling of solutions, etc. are reviewed. In addition to protecting all personnel in a laboratory from harmful amounts of radiation, it is necessary to keep the laboratory and the building in which it is housed as free as possible from radioactive substances and this important fact has been stressed. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 4.Fig. 6. PMID:17648375

  4. [The pregnant employee in anaesthesia and intensive care - An evidence-based approach to designing adequate workplaces].

    PubMed

    Röher, Katharina; Göpfert, Matthias S

    2015-07-01

    In the light of a rising percentage of women among employees in anaesthesia and intensive care designing adequate workplaces for pregnant employees plays an increasingly important role. Here it is necessary to align the varied interests of the pregnant employee, fellow employees and the employer, where the legal requirements of the Maternity Protection Act ("Mutterschutzgesetz") form the statutory framework. This review describes how adequate workplaces for pregnant employees in anaesthesia and intensive care can be established considering the scientific evidence on the subject. PMID:26230896

  5. Using interactive computer simulation for teaching the proper use of personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pan-Pan; Choi, Kup-Sze; Chiang, Vico Chung-Lim

    2015-02-01

    The use of personal protective equipment is one of the basic infection control precautions in health care. The effectiveness of personal protective equipment is highly dependent on adequate staff training. In this project, a computer simulation program, as a supplement to conventional training approaches, was developed to facilitate the learning of the proper use of personal protective equipment. The simulation program was a Web-based interactive software with user-friendly graphical interface for users to practice the use of personal protective equipment usage via drag-and-drop metaphors and respond to questions online. The effectiveness of the computer simulation software was investigated by a controlled study. Fifty healthcare workers were randomly assigned into two groups: one received conventional personal protective equipment training only (control group), whereas the other also received the same conventional training but followed by using the developed simulation program for self-learning (experimental group). Their performance was assessed by personal protective equipment donning and doffing evaluation before and after the training. The results showed that the computer simulation program is able to improve the healthcare workers' understanding and competence in using personal protective equipment. PMID:25521788

  6. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  7. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    PubMed

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  8. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  9. Assembling Webs of Support: Child Domestic Workers in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasiuzzaman, Shaziah; Wells, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses ethnographic and qualitative interview data with Muslim child domestic workers, their families and employers to investigate the social ties between young workers and their employers. Our analysis shows that working-class families use children's domestic work with middle-class families as part of a web of resources to protect them…

  10. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  11. INDUSTRIAL INJURIES OF FARM WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    LaTourette, Donald P.

    1957-01-01

    Most industrial employees receive physical examinations to evaluate their physical fitness in relation to their work. The farm worker is neglected in this matter, in that he is hired for almost any type of work without physical evaluation. As a result, his accident rate is high. His efficiency at his work is low. His time loss from work because of sickness and accident is high, and the employer pays a very high rate of insurance for the patient's care and his own legal protection. Physical fitness cards should be carried by all farm laborers so that they would be put in properly graded jobs. PMID:13460719

  12. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  13. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  14. Outdoor Workers and Tick-Borne Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... long pants tucked into boots or socks. Use insect repellents that provide protection for the amount of time ... Fact Sheet for outdoor workers - En Español CDC Insect Repellent Use and Safety Other Resources OSHA Logging eTool: ...

  15. Human research subjects as human research workers.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Holly Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research involving human subjects has traditionally been treated as a unique endeavor, presenting special risks and demanding special protections. But in several ways, the regulatory scheme governing human subjects research is counter-intuitively less protective than the labor and employment laws applicable to many workers. This Article relies on analogical and legal reasoning to demonstrate that this should not be the case; in a number of ways, human research subjects ought to be fundamentally recast as human research workers. Like other workers protected under worklaw, biomedical research subjects often have interests that diverge from those in positions of control but little bargaining power for change. Bearing these important similarities in mind, the question becomes whether there is any good reason to treat subjects and protected workers differently as a matter of law. With regard to unrestricted payment, eligibility for a minimum wage, compensation for injury, and rights to engage in concerted activity, the answer is no and human subjects regulations ought to be revised accordingly. PMID:25051653

  16. Special tool kit aids heavily garmented workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, A. E.

    1966-01-01

    Triangular aluminum tool kit, filled with polyurethane is constructed to receive various tools and hold them in a snug but quick-release fit as an aid to heavily gloved workers. The kit is designed to allow mounting within easily accessable reach and to provide protection of the tools during storage.

  17. Review of health hazards and prevention measures for response and recovery workers and volunteers after natural disasters, flooding, and water damage: mold and dampness.

    PubMed

    Johanning, Eckardt; Auger, Pierre; Morey, Philip R; Yang, Chin S; Olmsted, Ed

    2014-03-01

    Health problems and illnesses encountered by unprotected workers, first-responders, home-owners, and volunteers in recovery and restoration of moldy indoor environments after hurricanes, typhoons, tropical storms, and flooding damage are a growing concern for healthcare providers and disaster medicine throughout the world. Damp building materials, particularly cellulose-containing substrates, are prone to fungal (mold) and bacterial infestation. During remediation and demolition work, the airborne concentrations of such microbes and their by-products can rise significantly and result in an exposure risk. Symptoms reported by unprotected workers and volunteers may relate to reactions of the airways, skin, mucous membranes, or internal organs. Dampness-related fungi are primarily associated with allergies, respiratory symptoms or diseases such as dermatitis, rhinosinusitis, bronchitis, and asthma, as well as changes of the immunological system. Also, cognitive, endocrine, or rheumatological changes have been reported. Based on the consensus among experts at a recent scientific conference and a literature review, it is generally recommended to avoid and minimize unnecessary fungal exposure and use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) in disaster response and recovery work. Mycologists recommend addressing any moisture or water intrusion rapidly, since significant mold growth can occur within 48 h. Systematic source removal, cleaning with "soap and water," and "bulk removal" followed by high-efficiency particulate air vacuuming is recommended in most cases; use of "biocides" should be avoided in occupied areas. Public health agencies recommend use of adequate respiratory, skin, and eye protection. Workers can be protected against these diseases by use of dust control measures and appropriate personal protective equipment. At a minimum, a facial dust mask such as the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved N95 respirator should

  18. The President's Veto of the Minimum Wage Bill: Impact on Poor and Minority Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Isaac

    Restoration of an adequate minimum wage remains a critical ingredient in efforts to provide income security for poor and minority workers. The experience of recent years indicates that work does not provide economic security for many poor, Black, and Hispanic workers. National and minority unemployment rates have dropped during the economic…

  19. EXPOSURE OF PESTICIDE FORMULATING PLANT WORKERS TO PARATHION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential hazard to workers exposed to the organophosphorus pesticide, parathion, in formulating plants was studied. Potential dermal and respiratory exposure near certain work stations was determined. Calculations were based on the use of minimum protection (no respirator, s...

  20. HIV Programs for Sex Workers: Lessons and Challenges for Developing and Delivering Programs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David

    2015-06-01

    There is evidence that HIV prevention programs for sex workers, especially female sex workers, are cost-effective in several contexts, including many western countries, Thailand, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. The evidence that sex worker HIV prevention programs work must not inspire complacency but rather a renewed effort to expand, intensify, and maximize their impact. The PLOS Collection "Focus on Delivery and Scale: Achieving HIV Impact with Sex Workers" highlights major challenges to scaling-up sex worker HIV prevention programs, noting the following: sex worker HIV prevention programs are insufficiently guided by understanding of epidemic transmission dynamics, situation analyses, and programmatic mapping; sex worker HIV and sexually transmitted infection services receive limited domestic financing in many countries; many sex worker HIV prevention programs are inadequately codified to ensure consistency and quality; and many sex worker HIV prevention programs have not evolved adequately to address informal sex workers, male and transgender sex workers, and mobile- and internet-based sex workers. Based on the wider collection of papers, this article presents three major clusters of recommendations: (i) HIV programs focused on sex workers should be prioritized, developed, and implemented based on robust evidence; (ii) national political will and increased funding are needed to increase coverage of effective sex worker HIV prevention programs in low and middle income countries; and (iii) comprehensive, integrated, and rapidly evolving HIV programs are needed to ensure equitable access to health services for individuals involved in all forms of sex work. PMID:26079267

  1. 49 CFR 214.337 - On-track safety procedures for lone workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection...-track equipment is not impaired by background noise, lights, precipitation, fog, passing trains, or...

  2. 49 CFR 214.337 - On-track safety procedures for lone workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection...-track equipment is not impaired by background noise, lights, precipitation, fog, passing trains, or...

  3. 49 CFR 218.29 - Alternate methods of protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate methods of protection. 218.29 Section....29 Alternate methods of protection. Instead of providing blue signal protection for workers in accordance with § 218.27, the following methods for blue signal protection may be used: (a) When workers...

  4. Organizing marginalized workers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A K

    1999-01-01

    Figures from the U.S. Department of Labor show that low-wage or marginalized workers are more likely to be injured on the job and suffer more work-related medical conditions than better-paid workers. Despite an increasingly hostile organizing climate, market globalization, and corporate downsizing, significant progress has been made in organizing marginalized workers. A multifaceted, comprehensive organizing strategy, incorporating union-building strategies that include (but are not limited to) safety and health, must be used by unions to successfully organize marginalized workers and obtain the first contract. PMID:10378982

  5. Direct Care Workers' Recommendations for Training and Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menne, Heather L.; Ejaz, Farida K.; Noelker, Linda S.; Jones, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Training of direct care workers (DCWs) varies depending upon the setting in which they work and the state in which they are trained. Evidence points to the importance of adequate training as critical to DCW job satisfaction and reduction in turnover. Several approaches have been taken to enhance the training of DCWs with the objective that as job…

  6. Aspects of operational radiation protection during dismantling of nuclear facilities relevant for the estimation of internal doses.

    PubMed

    Labarta, T

    2007-01-01

    Operational radiation protection of workers during the dismantling of nuclear facilities is based on the same radiation protection principles as that applied in its exploitation period with the objective of ensuring proper implementation of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) principle. These principles are: prior determination of the nature and magnitude of radiological risk; classification of workplaces and workers depending on the risks; implementation of control measures; monitoring of zones and working conditions, including, if necessary, individual monitoring. From the experiences and the lessons learned during the dismantling processes carried out in Spain, several important aspects in the practical implementation of these principles that directly influence and ensure an adequate prevention of exposures and the estimation of internal doses are pointed out, with special emphasis on the estimation of internal doses due to transuranic intakes. PMID:17951606

  7. Mothers, domestic violence, and child protection.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Heather; Walsh, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    This article explores the relationship between understandings of domestic violence and the child protection response drawing on material gathered in focus groups with workers who support mothers dealing with both domestic violence and child protection issues. The interviewees expressed concern that the dynamics of domestic violence are often misunderstood and inappropriately responded to by child protection workers. This article critically examines the interviewees' concerns and concludes that to properly protect children, it is crucial that child protection workers have a clear understanding of the dynamics of and issues related to domestic violence. PMID:20348440

  8. Stakeholders’ Perceptions on Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Primary Healthcare in Botswana: Focus Group Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Shaibu, Sheila; Phaladze, Nthabiseng

    2015-01-01

    Background An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana. Method Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data. Results There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service. Conclusions Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved. PMID:26284617

  9. 10 CFR 851.11 - Development and approval of worker safety and health program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... other related site-specific worker protection activities and with the integrated safety management... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Development and approval of worker safety and health program. 851.11 Section 851.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM...

  10. A Comparison Study of Conjunctiva Disorders in Technical and Administrative Sawmill Workers in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Njinaka, Itiyafa; Uhumwangho, Odarosa M; Edema, Omolabake T; Dawodu, Oseluese A; Omoti, Afekhide E

    2011-01-01

    Background: Workers in the sawmilling industry are at risk of various ocular hazards as a direct result of the sawmilling processes. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of conjunctival disorders between technical and administrative sawmill workers in Benin, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on sawmill workers in Benin, Nigeria, between January and May 2009, with the aid of pre-tested questionnaires. Ocular examination was performed on all subjects. Data obtained were recorded and analysed using SPSS version 13. Results: A total of 553 sawmill workers were studied, among whom 449 (81.2%) and 104 (18.8%) were technical and administrative workers, respectively. There were 496 (89.7%) males and 57 (10.3%) females. The age range was 15–80 years, with a mean of 38.9 years (SD 12.8). Pingueculum was found in 127 (23%) workers, among whom 122 (27.2%) were technical workers and 5 (4.8%) were administrative workers. Pterygium was present in 65 (11.8%) workers, among whom 64 (14.3%) were technical workers and 1 (1%) was an administrative worker. Seven (1.6%) technical workers used protective eyewear; 2 (0.4%) wore this protective eyewear regularly. Conclusion: Technical sawmill workers are at risk of developing conjunctival disorders, which result from chronic ocular irritation. This can be prevented by the provision of protective eye devices in the workplace. PMID:22135600

  11. Total Worker Health: Implications for the Occupational Health Nurse.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen; Burns, Candace

    2015-07-01

    Total Worker Health™ is defined as a "strategy integrating occupational safety and health protection with health promotion to prevent worker injury and illness and to advance worker health and well-being." This strategy aligns workplace safety with individual behaviors that support healthy lifestyles. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 presumes that incentive-oriented worksite health promotion provides a critical pathway to reduce group health costs. Because of their scientific and clinical backgrounds, professional nurses are well qualified to educate and assist individuals with healthy lifestyle choices. Occupational health nurses and patient advocates can shape wellness initiatives that best serve both employees and their employers. PMID:26187174

  12. Workers Kaleidoscope: 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This manual was prepared to provide union leaders, organizers, and local officers with information about the experiences of Asian-American, Black, Hispanic-American, female, and part-time workers. The Asian-American workers section includes information on Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian-Indians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders…

  13. Special Issue: Rural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

  14. Are Social Workers Homophobic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Jack J.; Toomey, Beverly G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a study of attitudes towards homosexuality in representative sample of social workers (N=77) in Columbus, Ohio using Hudson's Index of Attitudes toward Homosexuals. Results lend preliminary empirical support to the implied assumption that social workers manifest signs of homophobia. (ABL)

  15. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  16. Immigrant workers are our allies, not our enemies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Garrett

    2006-01-01

    The cold, hard reality of the global "savage capitalism" will be the greatest recruiter for unions offering real protections for workers. Health and safety issues have long been recognized as key to organizing workers. There is a positive "union effect" on workplace health and safety when informed and active workers are part of a member-controlled union on site. Solidarity among all working people in the global economy is essential. It will be a challenge in the U.S. because of recent efforts to scapegoat immigrant workers. But it is crucial that we overcome that corporation-absolving approach. Our future depends on us seeing Mexican or Chinese workers-- in the U.S. or in their own countries--as "fellow workers" with the same problems and goals as us. PMID:16867887

  17. Prevalence of Acute Symptoms among Workers in Printing Factories

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify socioeconomic situation factors and behavioral factors associated with the prevalence of acute symptoms among 150 printing workers in 16 printing factories in Southern Thailand. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 150 printing workers in 16 printing factories in Southern Thailand. Results. Acute symptoms comprised dizziness, drowsiness, eye irritation, light-headedness, rhinitis, shortness of breath, cough, chest tightness, nausea/vomiting, exacerbation of asthma, allergic skin reaction, and visual disorder. The prevalence of symptoms was consistently higher among workers in the printing process than among other workers. Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol were not associated with an increased prevalence of acute symptoms among these printing-factory workers. Conclusion. The significant associations were found between personal protective equipment and personal hygiene and prevalence of acute symptoms in printing workers. PMID:25386365

  18. Migrant workers: victims of war in Gulf.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    The Persian Gulf War forced millions of migrant workers in the region to return home, causing hardship not only on the workers but also on their home countries. Prior to the war, the region's oil wealth had attracted migrants from around the world. By 1990, some 3 million resided in Iraq and Kuwait alone. Many more worked in other Gulf countries. But only 2 months after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, over 2 million workers had fled the region or had been returned home. Yemenis and Egyptians alone accounted for 750,000 and 1/2 million workers, respectively. There were also an estimated 600,000 Asians. Although many of the migrants were unskilled laborers, many also were skilled laborers and professionals. Jordanians and Palestinians made up much of the Kuwaiti civil service. As the war unfolded, it became clear that the migrant workers lacked any of the legal rights and protection granted to other citizens. Many workers were not allowed to return home because of their importance to the economy. Others, like some 35,000 Sri Lankan housemaids in Kuwait, were stranded in the war zone, lacking the money and means to return home. In most cases, the workers also suffered from frozen bank accounts, unpaid wages and benefits, and property loss. Their return home also created problems for their countries. Jordan's population increased by 10% in 1990 due to the returning population. Yemen's unemployment increased from 10% to 25%. As a result of the Gulf war experience, the UN General Assembly adopted the International Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families, which must now be ratified by 20 nations before implementation begins. PMID:12285238

  19. HIV Programs for Sex Workers: Lessons and Challenges for Developing and Delivering Programs

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that HIV prevention programs for sex workers, especially female sex workers, are cost-effective in several contexts, including many western countries, Thailand, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. The evidence that sex worker HIV prevention programs work must not inspire complacency but rather a renewed effort to expand, intensify, and maximize their impact. The PLOS Collection “Focus on Delivery and Scale: Achieving HIV Impact with Sex Workers” highlights major challenges to scaling-up sex worker HIV prevention programs, noting the following: sex worker HIV prevention programs are insufficiently guided by understanding of epidemic transmission dynamics, situation analyses, and programmatic mapping; sex worker HIV and sexually transmitted infection services receive limited domestic financing in many countries; many sex worker HIV prevention programs are inadequately codified to ensure consistency and quality; and many sex worker HIV prevention programs have not evolved adequately to address informal sex workers, male and transgender sex workers, and mobile- and internet-based sex workers. Based on the wider collection of papers, this article presents three major clusters of recommendations: (i) HIV programs focused on sex workers should be prioritized, developed, and implemented based on robust evidence; (ii) national political will and increased funding are needed to increase coverage of effective sex worker HIV prevention programs in low and middle income countries; and (iii) comprehensive, integrated, and rapidly evolving HIV programs are needed to ensure equitable access to health services for individuals involved in all forms of sex work. PMID:26079267

  20. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries. PMID:2773946

  1. Respiratory effects of exposure of shipyard workers to epoxy paints.

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, D; Jones, J; Atterbury, M; Balmes, J

    1991-01-01

    Epoxy resin systems have been associated with occupational asthma in several case reports, but medical publications contain little on the potential adverse respiratory effects of these chemicals in exposed worker populations. To further evaluate the association of workplace exposure to epoxy paints and respiratory dysfunction, the cross workshift changes in pulmonary function and symptoms of 32 shipyard painters exposed to epoxy paints were compared with 28 shipyard painters not exposed to epoxy paints. The prevalence of lower respiratory tract symptoms was significantly higher among painters exposed to epoxy paints compared with controls. Among exposed painters the mean cross workshift change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (-3.4%) was greater than the decrement in the non-exposed group (-1.4%). A significant linear relation was seen between % decrement in FEV1 and hours of exposure to epoxy paints. This study suggests that epoxy resin coatings as used by shipyard painters are associated with increased lower respiratory tract symptoms and acute decrements in FEV1. Adequate respiratory protection and medical surveillance programmes should be established in workplaces where exposure to epoxy resin systems occurs. PMID:1954156

  2. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  3. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  4. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  5. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  6. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  7. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  8. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  9. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  10. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  11. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  12. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  13. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  14. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  15. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  16. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  17. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  18. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  19. Sex worker health: San Francisco style

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, D; Lutnick, A; Davidson, P; Cloniger, C; Herlyn, A; Breyer, J; Cobaugh, C; Wilson, D; Klausner, J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the characteristics of sex workers accessing care at a peer based clinic in San Francisco and to evaluate predictors of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Methods We conducted an observational study of sex workers at St James Infirmary. Individuals underwent an initial questionnaire, and we offered screening for STI at each clinic visit. We performed univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses to assess for predictors of STI in this population. Results We saw 783 sex workers identifying as female (53.6%), male (23.9%), male to female transgender (16.1%), and other (6.5%). 70% had never disclosed their sex work to a medical provider. Participants represented a wide range of ethnicities, educational backgrounds, and types of sex work. The most common substance used was tobacco (45.8%). Nearly 40% reported current illicit drug use. Over half reported domestic violence, and 36.0% reported sex work related violence. Those screened had gonorrhoea (12.4%), chlamydia (6.8%), syphilis (1.8%), or herpes simplex virus 2 (34.3%). Predictors of STI included African‐American race (odds ratio (OR) 3.3), male gender (OR 1.9), and sex work related violence (OR 1.9). In contrast, participants who had only ever engaged in collective sex work were less likely to have an STI (OR 0.4). Conclusions The majority of sex workers have never discussed their work with a medical provider. Domestic violence is extremely prevalent as is work related violence. Working with other sex workers appears to be protective of STIs. STI prevention interventions should target African‐American and male sex workers. Addressing violence in the workplace and encouraging sex workers to work collectively may be effective prevention strategies. PMID:16854996

  20. OCCUPATIONAL SKIN PROBLEMS IN CONSTRUCTION WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kartik R; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R

    2010-01-01

    Background Construction workers handle cement which has constituents to produce both irritant contact dermatitis and corrosive effects (from alkaline ingredients, such as lime) and sensitization, leading to allergic contact dermatitis (from ingredients, such as chromium). Aim: The present study has been carried out among unorganized construction workers to find the prevalence of skin problems. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 construction workers of Ahmedabad and Vadodara. Results and Discussion: All the workers were subjected to clinical examination after collection of information regarding demographic characteristics, occupational characteristics and clinical history on a predesigned proforma. Of them, 47.8% had morbid skin conditions. Frictional callosities in palm were observed in 18 (19.6%) subjects while 4 (4.3%) subjects had contact dermatitis. Other conditions included dry, fissured and scaly skin, infectious skin lesion, tinea cruris, lesion and ulcers on hands and/or soles. Conclusion The skin conditions were common in the age group of 20–25 years, males, those having ≥1 year exposure and those working for longer hours. Half of the workers not using personal protective equipment had reported skin-related symptoms. PMID:21430887

  1. A new glove for glovebox workers

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, J.M.; Nekimken, H.L.; Hermes, R.E.; Castro, J.M.; Evans, M.E.

    1996-10-01

    Lead-lined gloves used during the processing of nuclear materials within gloveboxes is an example of a barrier. To help prevent work contamination, current practice includes visual inspection and radiological monitoring of each glove on a regular basis. One administrative control requires radiological workers to monitor their hands upon removal form the glovebox gloves. In reality, either a catastrophic glove failure or the formation of pinholes can cause contamination which is detected after the fact. Real-time monitoring of glove integrity during use would help prevent the spread of contamination, minimize decontamination costs, and protect the glovebox worker. Another benefit of real-time monitoring is remotely alerting proper personnel of a glovebox glove breech. One of the most exciting aspects of this technology is the rapid detection of a breech in the glovebox glove. A puncture to a glove can be detected followed by an alert to a worker in less than a second. The benefits of a real-time monitoring system for glove integrity are immense. Examples of benefits using this new glove are: reducing work stoppage, personnel contamination, glovebox glove replacements, and the filing of costly reports. The primary application of this technology at Los Alamos National Laboratory would be protecting the worker with these newly designed lead-lined gloves.

  2. Child Protection Decision Making: A Factorial Analysis Using Case Vignettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Jacqueline; Schmidt, Glen

    2012-01-01

    This study explored decision making by child protection social workers in the province of British Columbia, Canada. A factorial survey method was used in which case vignettes were constructed by randomly assigning a number of key characteristics associated with decision making in child protection. Child protection social workers (n = 118) assessed…

  3. Surveillance of work-related cold injuries using workers' compensation claims.

    PubMed

    Sinks, T; Mathias, C G; Halperin, W; Timbrook, C; Newman, S

    1987-06-01

    The usefulness of workers' compensation claims for the surveillance of occupational injuries was evaluated by analyzing claims for cold injury. Five hundred ten claims filed in 1983 from 23 states participating in the Bureau of Labor Statistics Supplementary Data System and an additional 147 claims filed with the Division of Safety and Hygiene of the Industrial Commission of Ohio from Jan 1, 1984, to June 30, 1985, were examined. As expected, the number of injuries per winter day increased as temperature decreased and wind speed increased. The rate of injury began to increase when temperatures fell below 10 degrees F and wind speeds exceeded 10 mph. These weather conditions were milder than previously published cold hazard charts suggest. Frostbite injuries of the lower extremities occurred at milder temperatures, required more lost workdays, and were more costly than cold injuries to the head and face or to the upper extremities. Industries with the highest rates of injury included agriculture, oil and gas extraction, trucking and warehousing, protective services, and interurban transportation. Injuries during nonwinter months involved the processing, distribution, and preparation of food. Vehicle breakdown or contact with water, gasoline, alcohol, or cold water were noted as contributing factors on many of the compensation claims. This probe suggests that claims for workers' compensation adequately reflect the expected association of environmental factors and the occurrence of cold injury. PMID:2956381

  4. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here. PMID:12363179

  5. The screening unit: an experimental approach to child protective service.

    PubMed

    Barone, N; Adams, W; Tooman, P

    1981-03-01

    The Bronx screening unit was established on the assumption that in a populous urban area, a central registry reporting system would receive a sizable number of bogus or malicious reports. The unit tried to identify some of these reports by their characteristics and then to verify these suspicions through the diagnostic skill of experienced and highly motivated workers. The short-term goal was the easing of a workload crisis. The experiences of the screening unit showed that the process was highly successful, and represents an important way to use staff more efficiently in case management. During the 19-month period, an average of 93 regular CPS workers processed 4282 cases, or 46 cases per worker. During that same period, four screening workers averaged 186 cases per worker. The screening process allows the regular CPS worker additional time to focus on serious cases. It also minimizes intrusion into the lives of persons harassed by bogus reporting. The process meets the legally mandated requirements of New York State and the federal government and provides for adequate case recording and record maintenance. One aspect of the Bronx screening unit worthy of special mention is the emphasis on referrals to community services. More than a third of the "unfounded" cases, though not requiring agency intervention, did warrant some type of social service and were referred for assistance. It is important that screening unit workers be familiar with community social service programs in order to serve as resource persons for clients. There exists a tendency to prematurely view cases for screening as easy or unfounded. Determining that a child abuse or neglect report is unfounded is the result of a specific investigative process, and only some cases lend themselves to shortening of this process. Administrative awareness of screening unit limitations will enable these units to function effectively and fulfill their primary responsibility of safeguarding children. Screening

  6. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements. PMID:26237715

  7. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities. PMID:10886936

  8. Migration of health workers.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area. PMID:18561695

  9. Evolution of worker policing.

    PubMed

    Olejarz, Jason W; Allen, Benjamin; Veller, Carl; Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-06-21

    Workers in insect societies are sometimes observed to kill male eggs of other workers, a phenomenon known as worker policing. We perform a mathematical analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of policing. We investigate the selective forces behind policing for both dominant and recessive mutations for different numbers of matings of the queen. The traditional, relatedness-based argument suggests that policing evolves if the queen mates with more than two males, but does not evolve if the queen mates with a single male. We derive precise conditions for the invasion and stability of policing alleles. We find that the relatedness-based argument is not robust with respect to small changes in colony efficiency caused by policing. We also calculate evolutionarily singular strategies and determine when they are evolutionarily stable. We use a population genetics approach that applies to dominant or recessive mutations of any effect size. PMID:26976051

  10. Elevated lead contamination in homes of construction workers.

    PubMed

    Piacitelli, G M; Whelan, E A; Sieber, W K; Gerwel, B

    1997-06-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health investigators studied lead exposures among 37 families of construction workers; 22 neighborhood families with no known lead exposures were included for comparison. Workers were identified as having blood lead levels at or above 25 micrograms/dL. This article reports the levels of lead contamination on hands and interior surfaces of homes and automobiles of study participants. Results indicate that the hands of lead-exposed workers were seven times more contaminated with lead compared with control workers; no difference was found between exposed and control family members' hands. Surface lead contamination was significantly higher in automobiles driven by the lead-exposed workers; some locations, such as armrests, were 10 times more contaminated for the exposed group. High lead loadings in lead workers' automobiles were found on the driver's floor (geometric mean [GM] = 1100 micrograms/m2), driver's armrest (2000 micrograms/m2), and passenger's armrest (1200 micrograms/m2). Surface lead concentrations were significantly higher for exposed homes compared with control homes in rooms where work clothing was changed (GM = 370 versus 120 ppm; p = 0.005). While environmental sources of lead were also evaluated, study results strongly suggest that construction workers' occupational exposures together with poor hygiene practices were the primary causes of lead contamination. Requirements intended to prevent "take-home" lead exposures were reported by workers in this study to be infrequently followed by employers. These findings may be limited in representativeness since only highly exposed workers were selected from a specific geographic area. Regardless, targeted education and enforcement efforts are necessary to help ensure that preventive measures are adequately practiced throughout the construction industry. PMID:9183839

  11. Respiratory symptoms associated with low level sulphur dioxide exposure in silicon carbide production workers.

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, J W; Greaves, I A; Smith, T J; Hammond, S K; Robins, J M; Thériault, G

    1989-01-01

    Relations between pulmonary symptoms and exposure to respirable dust and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were evaluated for 145 silicon carbide (SiC) production workers with an average of 13.9 (range 3-41) years of experience in this industry. Eight hour time weighted average exposures to SO2 were 1.5 ppm or less with momentary peaks up to 4 ppm. Cumulative SO2 exposure averaged 1.94 (range 0.02-19.5) ppm-years. Low level respirable dust exposures also occurred (0.63 +/- 0.26 mg/m3). After adjusting for age and current smoking status in multiple logistic regression models, highly significant, positive, dose dependent relations were found between cumulative and average exposure to SO2, and symptoms of usual and chronic phlegm, usual and chronic wheeze, and mild exertional dyspnoea. Mild and moderate dyspnoea were also associated with most recent exposure to SO2. Cough was not associated with SO2. No pulmonary symptoms were associated with exposure to respirable dust nor were any symptoms attributable to an interaction between dust and SO2. Cigarette smoking was strongly associated with cough, phlegm, and wheezing, but not dyspnoea. A greater than additive (synergistic) effect between smoking and exposure to SO2 was present for most symptoms. These findings suggest that long term, variable exposure to SO2 at 1.5 ppm or less was associated with significantly raised rates of phlegm, wheezing, and mild dyspnoea in SiC production workers, and that current threshold limits for SO2 may not adequately protect workers in this industry. PMID:2789966

  12. Cumulative exposure to dust and gases as determinants of lung function decline in tunnel construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Bakke, B; Ulvestad, B; Stewart, P; Eduard, W

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To study the relation between lung function decrease and cumulative exposure to dust and gases in tunnel construction workers. Methods: A total of 651 male construction workers (drill and blast workers, tunnel concrete workers, shotcreting operators, and tunnel boring machine workers) were followed up by spirometric measurements in 1989–2002 for an average of six years. Outdoor concrete workers, foremen, and engineers served as a low exposed referent population. Results: The between worker component of variability was considerably reduced within the job groups compared to the whole population, suggesting that the workers within job groups had similar exposure levels. The annual decrease in FEV1 in low-exposed non-smoking workers was 21 ml and 24 ml in low-exposed ever smokers. The annual decrease in FEV1 in tunnel construction workers was 20–31 ml higher than the low exposed workers depending on job group for both non-smokers and ever smokers. After adjustment for age and observation time, cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide showed the strongest association with a decrease in FEV1 in both non-smokers, and ever smokers. Conclusion: Cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide appeared to be a major risk factor for lung function decreases in these tunnel construction workers, although other agents may have contributed to the observed effect. Contact with blasting fumes should be avoided, diesel exhaust emissions should be reduced, and respiratory devices should be used to protect workers against dust and nitrogen dioxide exposure. PMID:14985522

  13. An Examination of Blood Lead Levels in Thai Nielloware Workers

    PubMed Central

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Thampoophasiam, Prapin; Thetkathuek, Anamai

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the lead levels in blood samples from nielloware workers, to determine airborne lead levels, to describe the workers' hygiene behaviors, and to ascertain and describe any correlations between lead levels in blood samples and lead levels in airborne samples. Methods Blood samples and airborne samples from 45 nielloware workers were collected from nielloware workplaces in Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province, Thailand. Lead levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), at a wavelength of 283.3 nm. FAAS was used especially adequate for metals at relatively high concentration levels. Results The geometric mean of the 45 airborne lead levels was 81.14 µg/m3 (range 9.0-677.2 µg/m3). The geometric mean blood lead level of the 45 workers was 16.25 µg/dL (range 4.59-39.33 µg/dL). No worker had a blood lead level > 60 µg/dL. A statistically significantly positive correlation was found between airborne lead level and blood lead levels (r = 0.747, p < 0.01). It was observed that personal hygiene was poor; workers smoked and did not wash their hands before drinking or eating. It was concluded that these behaviors had a significant correlation with blood lead levels (p < 0.001). Conclusion Improvements in working conditions and occupational health education are required due to the correlation found between blood leads and airborne lead levels. PMID:23019534

  14. Training "Expendable" Workers: Temporary Foreign Workers in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alison; Foster, Jason; Cambre, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of Temporary Foreign Workers in health care in Alberta, Canada. In 2007-2008, one of the regional health authorities in the province responded to a shortage of workers by recruiting 510 health-care workers internationally; most were trained as Registered Nurses (RNs) in the Philippines.…

  15. The Impaired Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reamer, Frederic G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses concept of the impaired professional; reviews research on various types of impairment (personality disorders, depression and other emotional problems, marital problems, and physical illness), prevalence and causes of impairment, and responses to it; and outlines model assessment and action plan for social workers who encounter an…

  16. Doctoring the Knowledge Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I examine the impact of the new 'knowledge economy' on contemporary doctoral education. I argue that the knowledge economy promotes a view of knowledge and knowledge workers that fundamentally challenges the idea of a university as a community of autonomous scholars transmitting and adding to society's 'stock of knowledge'. The paper…

  17. Residential Workers' Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Alan, Ed.

    The packet of information is intended to help residential workers with disturbed children in the United Kingdom. The first section on theory contains two papers: "Which Children Come Into Residential Care?" (Robin Benians); and "Models of Treatment: Behavioral, Psychodynamic, Cognitive" (Daphne Lennox). The next section contains practical guidance…

  18. The Tree Worker's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithyman, S. J.

    This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…

  19. Food Service Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of…

  20. Perspectives about Social Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Mark E.; And Others

    Previous research has shown that career preferences are dependent upon the words and images that individuals associate with various occupations. The present study sought to identify differences and similarities between college students' and social workers' views toward social work. College students majoring in psychology (N=25) and social workers…

  1. Worker-Directed Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2001-01-01

    Describes the training at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the foremost nuclear energy and environmental laboratory in the United States. Suggests that the key to assurance is getting workers, most of whom are unionized, involved in their own safety training. (JOW)

  2. Educating the Knowledge Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddick, Susan; Gharajedaghi, Jamshid

    2001-01-01

    In the new economy, knowledge (not labor, raw material, or capital) is the key resource to be converted to goods and services. Public schools will have to educate three tiers of knowledge workers (doers, problem solvers, and designers) using differentiated assessment, curricula, and instruction. Organizational action, not mantras, is needed. (MLH)

  3. Business and Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This study updates a 1985 study which examined the perceptions, policies, and practices of American business regarding older workers, and placed them in the context of larger economic, demographic, and social trends shaping the business climate. The new survey was conducted in July 1989 among a random sample of 400 companies, with 100 each in 4…

  4. Dislocated Worker Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1988

    Due to the severe economic decline in the automobile manufacturing industry in southeastern Michigan, a Dislocated Workers Program has been developed through the partnership of the Flint Area Chamber of Commerce, three community colleges, the National Center for Research in Vocational Education, the Michigan State Department of Education, the…

  5. NURSERY WORKER, TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST IN THE PREPARATION OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS OVER 16 YEARS OF AGE AS NURSERY WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS WITH ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS. UNITS ARE (1) INTRODUCTION TO HORTICULTURE, (2) CONSTRUCTING, MAINTAINING,…

  6. Information Workers within Bureaucracies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porat, Marc

    1984-01-01

    Report on the conference on information workers held as part of the White House Conference on Productivity covers statistics on the information work force and findings and recommendations from the conference on productivity within bureaucracies, e.g., productivity measures for determining wage increases and formal price systems. (EJS)

  7. Women Workers' History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter

    This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…

  8. Curbing Workers' Comp Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeb, William S.

    1998-01-01

    An actuarial study revealed that Pasadena Schools had an unfunded worker's compensation liability of over $10 million and 400 open claims. Advised to implement strong cost-containment measures (an early return-to-work program) and equally strong accountability measures (strict performance guides and safe work practices), the district achieved…

  9. Identifying Unique Ethical Challenges of Indigenous Field-Workers: A Commentary on Alexander and Richman's "Ethical Dilemmas in Evaluations Using Indigenous Research Workers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nick L.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast with nonindigenous workers, to what extent do unique ethical problems arise when indigenous field-workers participate in field studies? Three aspects of study design and operation are considered: data integrity issues, risk issues, and protection issues. Although many of the data quality issues that arise with the use of indigenous…

  10. Another Look at Women Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, R.

    1986-01-01

    Women now comprise 30 percent of trade union membership worldwide. The International Labour Organisation's Workers' Education Branch is attempting to improve the status of women workers and increase their participation in union activities and labor education. (SK)

  11. Innovative Older-Worker Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, Denise; Greenberg, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Describes program innovations to keep older workers employed: retraining, job sharing, flexible working hours, job redesign, and phased retirement. Addresses costs and savings, disincentives for workers and employers, and future trends. (SK)

  12. Perceived heat stress and health effects on construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Priya; Rajiva, Ajit; Andhare, Dileep; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Tiwari, Abhiyant; Sheffield, Perry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing heat waves-particularly in urban areas where construction is most prevalent, highlight a need for heat exposure assessment of construction workers. This study aims to characterize the effects of heat on construction workers from a site in Gandhinagar. Materials and Methods: This study involved a mixed methods approach consisting of a cross sectional survey with anthropometric measurements (n = 219) and four focus groups with construction workers, as well as environmental measurements of heat stress exposure at a construction site. Survey data was collected in two seasons i.e., summer and winter months, and heat illness and symptoms were compared between the two time periods. Thematic coding of focus group data was used to identify vulnerability factors and coping mechanisms of the workers. Heat stress, recorded using a wet bulb globe temperature monitor, was compared to international safety standards. Results: The survey findings suggest that heat-related symptoms increased in summer; 59% of all reports in summer were positive for symptoms (from Mild to Severe) as compared to 41% in winter. Focus groups revealed four dominant themes: (1) Non-occupational stressors compound work stressors; (2) workers were particularly attuned to the impact of heat on their health; (3) workers were aware of heat-related preventive measures; and (4) few resources were currently available to protect workers from heat stress. Working conditions often exceed international heat stress safety thresholds. Female workers and new employees might be at increased risk of illness or injury. Conclusion: This study suggests significant health impacts on construction workers from heat stress exposure in the workplace, showed that heat stress levels were higher than those prescribed by international standards and highlights the need for revision of work practices, increased protective measures, and possible development of indigenous work safety standards for heat exposure

  13. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-evident (general anesthetics, drug metabolism). (3) The method of selection of subjects provides adequate... respect to pertinent variables such as age, sex, severity of disease, duration of disease, and use of... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies....

  14. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  15. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a)...

  16. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care §...

  17. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  18. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  19. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  20. From the Horse Worker's Mouth: A Detailed Account of Injuries Experienced by Latino Horse Workers.

    PubMed

    Swanberg, Jennifer E; Clouser, Jessica Miller; Bush, Ashley; Westneat, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Horse breeding farms are hazardous. Yet, little is known about the injuries of Latino horse workers. This study assesses Latino horse workers' injury prevalence, describes their injuries, and analyzes differences between injuries receiving medical versus those receiving first aid care. Data were gathered from 225 Latino thoroughbred workers via a community-based purposive sampling strategy. Questions included injury experiences in the past year and details about each person's two most severe injuries. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted. Nearly half of workers experienced an injury in the past year, often involving a horse. Bruises and sprains/strains were most common, as were injuries to upper/lower appendages. Head/face injuries more often resulted in medical care. The injury burden in this Latino worker population is high. Personal protective equipment (PPE) and training is advised due to the high prevalence of horse-related injuries. Future research should investigate aspects of the work environment that may influence injury risk. PMID:26458955

  1. Office Workers Stress Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Project, Durham.

    A survey of office workers employed by North Carolina telephone companies was conducted to determine the extent and types of health problems experienced by office workers who use video display terminals (VDTs). Data were gathered by questionnaires mailed to 2,478 office workers, with 966 responses. Questions concerning a wide range of health…

  2. Workers' Compensation and Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Michael K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Workers' Compensation system and teacher stress to determine if a burned-out teacher should be eligible for Workers' Compensation benefits. Concludes that although most states do not allow Workers' Compensation benefits to burned-out teachers, compensation should be granted because the injuries are real and work-related. (Contains 48…

  3. How To Train Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Because of the aging of the labor force and legislation designed to keep older workers on the job, employers will have to deal with increasing numbers of older workers. For this transition to be as smooth as possible, employers must first overcome age-related stereotypes that have taken hold since the 1930s. Dealing with older workers involves two…

  4. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

  5. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  6. [Shoe factory workers, solvents and health].

    PubMed

    Foà, Vito; Martinotti, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to organic solvents in footwear manufacturing industry came from the glues used adhering the shoe parts to each other. Benzene was the first solvent used in shoe factories until the evidence of its capacity to cause leukaemia. Then, the demonstration that exposure to n-hexane was related to distal polyneuropathy limited the use of this substance. After that, results of neurotoxicological studies conducted on workers exposed to different mixtures of organic solvents make necessary prevention measure directed to a progressive reduction of air dispersion of these chemicals. Today exposure to solvents in workplaces is regulated by health based exposure limit values that should warranty absence of central nervous system effects. One of the most important rules of occupational medicine is verify that these exposure levels are really health protective also for workers with increased susceptibility. PMID:22697025

  7. Risk analysis for worker exposure to benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallenbeck, William H.; Flowers, Roxanne E.

    1992-05-01

    Cancer risk factors (characterized by route, dose, dose rate per kilogram, fraction of lifetime exposed, species, and sex) were derived for workers exposed to benzene via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure at the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) and at leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites were evaluated. At the current PEL of 1 ppm, the theoretical lifetime excess risk of cancer from benzene inhalation is ten per 1000. The theoretical lifetime excess risk for worker inhalation exposure at LUST sites ranged from 10 to 40 per 1000. These results indicate that personal protection should be required. The theoretical lifetime excess risk due to soil ingestion is five to seven orders of magnitude less than the inhalation risks.

  8. Violence against women migrant workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaiyanukij, Charnchao

    2004-10-01

    A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non

  9. Social Workers as Research Psychotherapists in an Investigation of Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy among Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Avani; Scogin, Forrest; Presnell, Andrew; Morthland, Martin; Kaufman, Allan V.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the treatment fidelity of in-home cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) delivered by a sample of clinically trained, master's-level social workers to a group of primarily rural, medically frail older adults as part of the Project to Enhance Aged Rural Living (PEARL) clinical trial. The social workers in this study received brief didactic and experiential CBT training. Audiotaped sessions were randomly selected and evaluated by independent reviewers. Results showed that the social workers adequately delivered CBT as measured by the Cognitive Therapy Scale. Older adult participants also evidenced pre- posttreatment improvements, suggesting that the social workers' delivery of CBT facilitated improvement. PMID:25949093

  10. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  11. Mixed donor chimerism and low level iduronidase expression may be adequate for neurodevelopmental protection in Hurler Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Conway, Jennifer; Dyack, Sarah; Crooks, Bruce N A; Fernandez, Conrad V

    2005-07-01

    Hurler syndrome is a lysosomal storage disease resulting in fatal cardiac or neurologic sequelae unless alpha-iduronidase production is reconstituted with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We report on a 4-year, 6-month-old boy with mixed donor chimerism and low enzyme levels but a normal neurodevelopmental trajectory. PMID:16027706

  12. Respiratory Health in Waste Collection and Disposal Workers.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, Luigi; Baldassarre, Antonio; Gatti, Maria Franca; De Maria, Luigi; Caputi, Antonio; Dirodi, Angelica A; Cuccaro, Francesco; Bellino, Raffaello Maria

    2016-01-01

    Waste management, namely, collection, transport, sorting and processing, and disposal, is an issue of social concern owing to its environmental impact and effects on public health. In fact, waste management activities are carried out according to procedures that can have various negative effects on the environment and, potentially, on human health. The aim of our study was to assess the potential effects on respiratory health of this exposure in workers in the waste management and disposal field, as compared with a group of workers with no occupational exposure to outdoor pollutants. The sample consisted of a total of 124 subjects, 63 waste collectors, and 61 office clerks. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects before inclusion in the study. The entire study population underwent pulmonary function assessments with spirometry and completed two validated questionnaires for the diagnosis of rhinitis and chronic bronchitis. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 13. Spirometry showed a statistically significant reduction in the mean Tiffenau Index values in the exposed workers, as compared with the controls, after adjusting for the confounding factors of age, BMI, and smoking habit. Similarly, the mean FEV1 values were lower in the exposed workers than in the controls, this difference being again statistically significant. The FVC differences measured in the two groups were not found to be statistically significant. We ran a cross-sectional study to investigate the respiratory health of a group of workers in the solid waste collection and disposal field as compared with a group of office workers. In agreement with most of the data in the literature, our findings support the existence of a prevalence of respiratory deficits in waste disposal workers. Our data suggest the importance of adopting preventive measures, such as wearing specific individual protection devices, to protect this particular category of workers from adverse effects on respiratory

  13. Respiratory Health in Waste Collection and Disposal Workers

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Luigi; Baldassarre, Antonio; Gatti, Maria Franca; De Maria, Luigi; Caputi, Antonio; Dirodi, Angelica A.; Cuccaro, Francesco; Bellino, Raffaello Maria

    2016-01-01

    Waste management, namely, collection, transport, sorting and processing, and disposal, is an issue of social concern owing to its environmental impact and effects on public health. In fact, waste management activities are carried out according to procedures that can have various negative effects on the environment and, potentially, on human health. The aim of our study was to assess the potential effects on respiratory health of this exposure in workers in the waste management and disposal field, as compared with a group of workers with no occupational exposure to outdoor pollutants. The sample consisted of a total of 124 subjects, 63 waste collectors, and 61 office clerks. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects before inclusion in the study. The entire study population underwent pulmonary function assessments with spirometry and completed two validated questionnaires for the diagnosis of rhinitis and chronic bronchitis. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 13. Spirometry showed a statistically significant reduction in the mean Tiffenau Index values in the exposed workers, as compared with the controls, after adjusting for the confounding factors of age, BMI, and smoking habit. Similarly, the mean FEV1 values were lower in the exposed workers than in the controls, this difference being again statistically significant. The FVC differences measured in the two groups were not found to be statistically significant. We ran a cross-sectional study to investigate the respiratory health of a group of workers in the solid waste collection and disposal field as compared with a group of office workers. In agreement with most of the data in the literature, our findings support the existence of a prevalence of respiratory deficits in waste disposal workers. Our data suggest the importance of adopting preventive measures, such as wearing specific individual protection devices, to protect this particular category of workers from adverse effects on respiratory

  14. Failing Harvest: How America Is Dooming Children of Hispanic Migrant Workers to Academic Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria-Greene, Jamie

    1997-01-01

    Reviews conditions in the environment that put the children of Hispanic migrant workers at risk for developing physical and cognitive disabilities. These include inadequate environmental protection, poor housing, and lack of access to health care and community resources. Strategies to facilitate positive change for farm worker families and…

  15. 3 CFR 8964 - Proclamation 8964 of April 26, 2013. Workers Memorial Day, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., their country stands alongside them, protecting their safety and their stake in the American dream. NOW... Proclamation Our country boasts the world's most talented, driven, effective labor force. American workers..., thousands of American workers die on the job each year, and millions more suffer work-related injuries...

  16. [Carpal tunnel syndrome in workers engaged in the assembly of manufactured products in various industries in the province of Brescia].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G

    1996-01-01

    Tests were carried out on five manual assembly departments in a variety of different factories, in order to assess the risks associated with the onset of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and to describe the prevalence of this disorder among exposed workers. The application of the risk analysis method proposed by the EPM Research Unit in Milan (Italy) demonstrated the presence of numerous jobs featuring both a high frequency of actions per minute and a total lack of recovery times, in addition to a variety of incongrous upper limb postures. The clinical and instrumental investigation diagnosed 76 cases of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among the 170 exposed workers. 62% of the cases was bilateral and 24% was associated with Guyon Channel Syndrome. In two of the five departments reviewed, the carpal tunnel disorders detected were endemic, and featured unusually high prevalence. The situation had been seriously underestimated by the company technical and medical staff, resulting in a failure to call for the urgent adoption of individual protection and collective prevention measures. The authors recommend that an extensive and adequate occupational risk assessment analysis be performed: the local occupational health services could play a critical role in identifying the highest risk industries and the diseases diagnosed in a hospital environment. PMID:9148125

  17. Nepotism and brood reliability in the suppression of worker reproduction in the eusocial Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Nonacs, Peter

    2006-12-22

    In many eusocial Hymenoptera, workers prevent each other from producing male offspring by destroying worker-laid eggs. Kin selection theory predicts that such 'worker policing' behaviour can evolve by increasing the average relatedness between workers and their male brood. Alternatively, if worker-laid eggs are of low relative viability, their replacement would increase the developmental reliability of the brood. Less colony investment in terms of time and resources would be lost on poor males. This gain is independent of the relatedness of the males. Unfortunately, both nepotistic and group efficiency benefits can simultaneously accrue with the replacement of worker-laid eggs. Therefore, worker behaviour towards eggs cannot completely resolve whether both processes have been equally evolutionarily important. Adequate resolution requires the presentation of worker-produced brood of various ages. The stage at which brood are replaced can discriminate whether worker policing occurs owing to a preference for closer genetic kin, a preference for the more reliable brood or both. PMID:17148292

  18. Nepotism and brood reliability in the suppression of worker reproduction in the eusocial Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Nonacs, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In many eusocial Hymenoptera, workers prevent each other from producing male offspring by destroying worker-laid eggs. Kin selection theory predicts that such ‘worker policing’ behaviour can evolve by increasing the average relatedness between workers and their male brood. Alternatively, if worker-laid eggs are of low relative viability, their replacement would increase the developmental reliability of the brood. Less colony investment in terms of time and resources would be lost on poor males. This gain is independent of the relatedness of the males. Unfortunately, both nepotistic and group efficiency benefits can simultaneously accrue with the replacement of worker-laid eggs. Therefore, worker behaviour towards eggs cannot completely resolve whether both processes have been equally evolutionarily important. Adequate resolution requires the presentation of worker-produced brood of various ages. The stage at which brood are replaced can discriminate whether worker policing occurs owing to a preference for closer genetic kin, a preference for the more reliable brood or both. PMID:17148292

  19. Radiation protection in space

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  20. Review of standards for limitation of radiation dose to radiation workers and members of the public

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Topics covered in the review include: current radiation protection standards for workers; current radiation protection standards for the routine exposures of the public; environmental radiation standards for specific practices or sources; protective action guides for accidental releases of radioactivity to the environment; de minimis dose, exempt levels of radioactivity, and below regulatory concern.

  1. Review of standards for limitation of radiation dose to radiation workers and members of the public

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1992-07-01

    Topics covered in the review include: current radiation protection standards for workers; current radiation protection standards for the routine exposures of the public; environmental radiation standards for specific practices or sources; protective action guides for accidental releases of radioactivity to the environment; de minimis dose, exempt levels of radioactivity, and below regulatory concern.

  2. Stigma Related to HIV among Community Health Workers in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824

  3. 20. TAKING A CAST AT BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. WORKERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TAKING A CAST AT BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. WORKERS, LIKE THE ONE STANDING ON THE BRIDGE ABOVE THE 'BOTTLE' INTO WHICH THE HOT IRON FLOWS, ARE PROTECTED BY HEAVY FIREPROOF GARMENTS. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. 49 CFR 214.345 - Training for all roadway workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... working on or near railroad tracks, including review of on-track safety rules and procedures. ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.345...-track safety is required. (b) The functions and responsibilities of various persons involved with...

  5. 49 CFR 214.345 - Training for all roadway workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... working on or near railroad tracks, including review of on-track safety rules and procedures. ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.345...-track safety is required. (b) The functions and responsibilities of various persons involved with...

  6. 49 CFR 214.345 - Training for all roadway workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... working on or near railroad tracks, including review of on-track safety rules and procedures. ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.345...-track safety is required. (b) The functions and responsibilities of various persons involved with...

  7. 49 CFR 214.345 - Training for all roadway workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... working on or near railroad tracks, including review of on-track safety rules and procedures. ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.345...-track safety is required. (b) The functions and responsibilities of various persons involved with...

  8. Child Care Workers' Knowledge about Reporting Suspected Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; Schmitt, Ann

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the knowledgeability of child care workers (n=97) regarding their rights and responsibilities in reporting suspected child sexual abuse. Day care personnel knew significantly less about procedures for reporting suspected abuse and their protection under the law (when compared to child sexual abuse experts). (Author/DB)

  9. Radiological worker training

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  10. Integrating The Non-Electrical Worker Into The Electrical Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, T. David; McAlhaney, John H.

    2012-08-17

    The intent of this paper is to demonstrate an electrical safety program that incorporates all workers into the program, not just the electrical workers. It is largely in response to a paper presented at the 2012 ESW by Lanny Floyd entitled "Facilitating Application of Electrical Safety Best Practices to "Other" Workers" which requested all attendees to review their electrical safety program to assure that non-electrical workers were protected as well as electrical workers. The referenced paper indicated that roughly 50% of electrical incidents involve workers whose primary function is not electrical in nature. It also encouraged all to "address electrical safety for all workers and not just workers whose job responsibilities involve working on or near energized electrical circuits." In this paper, a program which includes specific briefings to non-electrical workers as well as to workers who may need to perform their normal activities in proximity to energized electrical conductors is presented. The program uses a targeted approach to specific areas such as welding, excavating, rigging, chart reading, switching, cord and plug equipment and several other general areas to point out hazards that may exist and how to avoid them. NFPA 70E-2004 was incorporated into the program several years ago and with it the need to include the "other" workers became apparent. The site experience over the years supports the assertion that about half of the electrical incidents involve non-electrical workers and this prompted us to develop specific briefings to enhance the knowledge of the non-electrical worker regarding safe electrical practices. The promotion of "May is Electrical Safety Month" and the development of informative presentations which are delivered to the general site population as well as electrical workers have greatly improved the hazards awareness status of the general worker on site.

  11. "Cloud" health-care workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sherertz, R. J.; Bassetti, S.; Bassetti-Wyss, B.

    2001-01-01

    Certain bacteria dispersed by health-care workers can cause hospital infections. Asymptomatic health-care workers colonized rectally, vaginally, or on the skin with group A streptococci have caused outbreaks of surgical site infection by airborne dispersal. Outbreaks have been associated with skin colonization or viral upper respiratory tract infection in a phenomenon of airborne dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus called the "cloud" phenomenon. This review summarizes the data supporting the existence of cloud health-care workers. PMID:11294715

  12. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: Victorian Aged Care Workers Survey. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  13. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: South Australian Aged Care Workers Study. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  14. Profiles of Protection from Substance Use among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Michael J.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Tibbits, Melissa K.; Faulk, Monique T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether adolescents (N=10,287) could be classified into homogeneous subgroups based on their protective factors and, if so, whether these constellations of protection differentially relate to adolescents’ lifetime and 30-day alcohol and tobacco use. Latent class analysis with eight protective factors—four internal and four external—were used to identify the underlying latent class structure. Five profiles of protection emerged: Adequate Protection (54%), Adequate External Protection (9%), Adequate Protection with Low Adult Communication (16%), Adequate Protection with Risky Friends (9%), and Inadequate Protection (12%). Lifetime alcohol use was associated with only a modest increase in odds of belonging to the Adequate External or Low Adult Communication latent classes, but an enormous increase in odds of having Inadequate Protection or Risky Friends. Similar effects were found for past month alcohol use. Unlike alcohol use, which was related most strongly with membership in the Risky Friends latent class (relative to Adequate Protection), cigarette use was most strongly related to membership in the Inadequate Protection latent class. Findings can be used to inform prevention programs as they illustrate the relationships that exist between adolescents’ profiles of protection and substance use. PMID:19844790

  15. Educating Today's School Social Workers: Are School Social Work Courses Responding to the Changing Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; O'Connor, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    School social work takes place within the dynamic context of the educational landscape, yet research indicates that school social work practice has been slow to adjust to the demands of that landscape. Little research has assessed whether school social workers are being adequately prepared to address the educational shifts that underlie today's…

  16. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that results from breathing in dust from coal, graphite, or man-made carbon over a long time. ... Wear a protective mask when working around coal, graphite, or man-made carbon. Companies should enforce the ...

  17. Immigrant workers and worker's compensation: the need for reform.

    PubMed

    Rebecca Smith, J D

    2012-06-01

    Foreign-born workers in the United States suffer high rates of workplace injuries and accidents. Both for workers who are unauthorized to work in the United States and for those who are present legally under guest worker programs, access to workers' compensation benefits presents nearly insurmountable barriers. Some of these are longstanding, such as employer retaliation and aggressive litigation of claims. Some are more recent and related to the increasingly transnational character of the workforce and to barriers put in place by administrators. This is a legal overview of the cases, statutes, and policies that act as barriers to access for immigrant workers, conducted by reviewing case law and basic compensation statutes in all fifty states. Where these are known, policies that keep workers locked out of workers' compensation are also discussed. It concludes that reform of the system is needed in order to ensure its standing as an insurance program with universal application. As part of that reform, further state by state research and advocacy would discover specific administrative practices in each state that keep immigrant workers from receiving the benefits to which they are entitled. PMID:22457221

  18. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  19. Disturbed sleep in shift workers, day workers, and insomniacs.

    PubMed

    Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Ingre, Michael; Broman, Jan-Erik; Kecklund, Göran

    2008-04-01

    Very little is known about differences in sleep between day and shift workers in representative samples of the population. This study compared a national representative sample (N=3400) of shift (with night shifts) and day workers regarding the different types of sleep disturbances and also the level of sleep symptoms with that of insomnia patients. The results showed very few differences between shift and day workers; only "too little sleep" and "nodding off at work" were marginally higher among shift workers. The results also showed that the complaints of insomnia patients for most sleep disturbances corresponded to the 2nd-16th percentile of the shift workers' levels of complaints. The results suggest, at least with the present questionnaire methodology, that shift work does not appear to be a major source of sleep disturbances and that their complaint levels bear no resemblance to those seen in insomniac patients. PMID:18484368

  20. Do hornets have zombie workers?

    PubMed

    Foster, K R; Ratnieks, F L; Raybould, A F

    2000-06-01

    Colonies of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, are typically founded by a single queen mated to a single male. From the resulting colony relatedness pattern we predicted strong worker-queen conflict over male production where both the workers and the queen attempt to produce the colony's males. To test for this conflict, male production was studied in 15 hornet nests using a combination of DNA microsatellite analysis (282 males), worker ovary dissections (500 workers from eight nests) and 50 h of observation (four nests). In contrast to our prediction, the data show that hornet males are queens' sons, that workers never attempt to lay eggs, rarely have activated ovaries, and that there is no direct aggression between the queen and the workers. This contrasts with other data for vespine wasps, which support relatedness predictions. Dolichovespula arenaria has the same kin structure as V. crabro and workers produce males in many colonies. The similarity between these two species makes it difficult to explain why workers do not reproduce in V. crabro. Self-restraint is expected if worker reproduction significantly reduces colony productivity but there is no obvious reason why this should be important to V. crabro but not to D. arenaria. Alternatively, queen control may be important. The absence of expressed queen-worker conflict rules out physical control. Indirect pheromonal control is a possibility and is supported by the occurrence of royal courts and queen pheromone in Vespa but not Dolichovespula. Pheromonal queen control is considered evolutionarily unstable, but could result from a queen-worker arms race over reproductive control in which the queen is ahead. The genetic data also revealed diploid males in one colony, the first example in the vespine wasps, and two colonies with double matrilines, suggesting that occasional usurpation by spring queens occurs. PMID:10849289

  1. Worker health is good for the economy: union density and psychosocial safety climate as determinants of country differences in worker health and productivity in 31 European countries.

    PubMed

    Dollard, Maureen F; Neser, Daniel Y

    2013-09-01

    Work stress is recognized globally as a social determinant of worker health. Therefore we explored whether work stress related factors explained national differences in health and productivity (gross domestic product (GDP)). We proposed a national worker health productivity model whereby macro market power factors (i.e. union density), influence national worker health and GDP via work psychosocial factors and income inequality. We combined five different data sets canvasing 31 wealthy European countries. Aggregated worker self-reported health accounted for 13 per cent of the variance in national life expectancy and in national gross domestic product (GDP). The most important factors explaining worker self-reported health and GDP between nations were two levels of labor protection, macro-level (union density), and organizational-level (psychosocial safety climate, PSC, i.e. the extent of management concern for worker psychological health). The majority of countries with the highest levels of union density and PSC (i.e., workplace protections) were Social Democratic in nature (i.e., Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway). Results support a type of society explanation that social and economic factors (e.g., welfare regimes, work related policies) in concert with political power agents at a national level explain in part national differences in workplace protection (PSC) that are important for worker health and productivity. Attention should be given across all countries, to national policies to improve worker health, by bolstering national and local democratic processes and representation to address and implement policies for psychosocial risk factors for work stress, bullying and violence. Results suggest worker health is good for the economy, and should be considered in national health and productivity accounting. Eroding unionism may not be good for worker health or the economy either. PMID:23849285

  2. Academic Compensation: Are Faculty and Staff in American Higher Education Adequately Paid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Howard R.

    Salaries, wages, and fringe benefits of faculty, administrators, and general service workers who are employed in higher education are examined from a public interest point of view. The report is divided into three major parts. Chapter II presents an overview of the whole report including a summary of findings, conclusions, and recommendations. The…

  3. An action agenda for HIV and sex workers.

    PubMed

    Beyrer, Chris; Crago, Anna-Louise; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Butler, Jenny; Shannon, Kate; Kerrigan, Deanna; Decker, Michele R; Baral, Stefan D; Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Weir, Brian W; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Kazatchkine, Michel; Sidibé, Michel; Dehne, Karl-Lorenz; Boily, Marie-Claude; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-17

    The women, men, and transgender people who sell sex globally have disproportionate risks and burdens of HIV in countries of low, middle, and high income, and in concentrated and generalised epidemic contexts. The greatest HIV burdens continue to be in African female sex workers. Worldwide, sex workers still face reduced access to needed HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Legal environments, policies, police practices, absence of funding for research and HIV programmes, human rights violations, and stigma and discrimination continue to challenge sex workers' abilities to protect themselves, their families, and their sexual partners from HIV. These realities must change to realise the benefits of advances in HIV prevention and treatment and to achieve global control of the HIV pandemic. Effective combination prevention and treatment approaches are feasible, can be tailored for cultural competence, can be cost-saving, and can help to address the unmet needs of sex workers and their communities in ways that uphold their human rights. To address HIV in sex workers will need sustained community engagement and empowerment, continued research, political will, structural and policy reform, and innovative programmes. But such actions can and must be achieved for sex worker communities everywhere. PMID:25059950

  4. The Worker Exposure Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2005-05-15

    The Worker Exposure Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (WE-FMEA) is a new approach to quantitatively evaluate worker risks from possible failures of co-located equipment in the complex environment of a magnetic or inertial fusion experiment. For next-step experiments such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) or the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the systems and equipment will be larger, handle more throughput or power, and will, in general, be more robust than past experiments. These systems and equipment are necessary to operate the machine, but the rooms are congested with equipment, piping, and cables, which poses a new level of hazard for workers who will perform hands-on maintenance. The WE-FMEA systematically analyzes the nearby equipment and the work environment for equipment failure or inherent hazards, and then develops exposure scenarios. Once identified, the exposure scenarios are evaluated for the worker hazards and quantitative worker risk is calculated. Then risk scenarios are quantitatively compared to existing statistical data on worker injuries; high-risk scenarios can be identified and addressed in more detail to determine the proper means to reduce, mitigate, or protect against the hazard. The WE-FMEA approach is described and a cooling system maintenance example is given.

  5. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043

  6. Occupational health and safety among commercial sex workers.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael W; Crisp, Beth R; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Hawkes, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    The concept of occupational health and safety (OHS) for commercial sex workers has rarely been investigated, perhaps because of the often informal nature of the workplace, the associated stigma, and the frequently illegal nature of the activity. We reviewed the literature on health, occupational risks, and safety among commercial sex workers. Cultural and local variations and commonalities were identified. Dimensions of OHS that emerged included legal and policing risks, risks associated with particular business settings such as streets and brothels, violence from clients, mental health risks and protective factors, alcohol and drug use, repetitive strain injuries, sexually transmissible infections, risks associated with particular classes of clients, issues associated with male and transgender commercial sex workers, and issues of risk reduction that in many cases are associated with lack of agency or control, stigma, and legal barriers. We further discuss the impact and potential of OHS interventions for commercial sex workers. The OHS of commercial sex workers covers a range of domains, some potentially modifiable by OHS programs and workplace safety interventions targeted at this population. We argue that commercial sex work should be considered as an occupation overdue for interventions to reduce workplace risks and enhance worker safety. PMID:21808944

  7. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043

  8. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  9. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-01

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  10. A method for determining adequate resistance form of complete cast crown preparations.

    PubMed

    Weed, R M; Baez, R J

    1984-09-01

    A diagram with various degrees of occlusal convergence, which takes into consideration the length and diameter of complete crown preparations, was designed as a guide to assist the dentist to obtain adequate resistance form. To test the validity of the diagram, five groups of complete cast crown stainless steel dies were prepared (3.5 mm long, occlusal convergence 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees). Gold copings were cast for each of the 50 preparations. Displacement force was applied to the casting perpendicularly to a simulated 30-degree cuspal incline until the casting was displaced. Castings were deformed at margins except for the 22-degree group. Castings from this group were displaced without deformation, and it was concluded that there was a lack of adequate resistance form as predicted by the diagram. The hypothesis that the diagram could be used to predict adequate or inadequate resistance form was confirmed by this study. PMID:6384470

  11. INCOMES OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    METZLER, WILLIAM H.; SARGENT, FREDERIC O.

    A SURVEY ON THE INCOME OF MIGRATORY WORKERS LOCATED IN SOUTH TEXAS DURING THE WINTER OF 1956-57 WAS PRESENTED. IN 446 HOUSEHOLDS SURVEYED, THERE WERE 1,334 WORKERS, APPROXIMATELY HALF OF THESE WERE HOUSEHOLD HEADS OR THEIR WIVES. WORKING WIVES WERE A LITTLE MORE THAN HALF AS NUMEROUS AS WORKING HUSBANDS. MOST OF THE HUSBANDS WERE 45 TO 54 YEARS OF…

  12. Retraining Displaced Workers. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…

  13. The Tree Worker's Manual. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, S. J.

    This manual acquaints readers with the general operations of the tree care industry. The manual covers subjects important to a tree worker and serves as a training aid for workers at the entry level as tree care professionals. Each chapter begins with a set of objectives and may include figures, tables, and photographs. Ten chapters are included:…

  14. Personal Epistemologies and Older Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; van Woerkom, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the need and prospects for older workers to develop and deploy effective and critical personal epistemologies in order to maintain workplace competence, successfully negotiate work transitions and secure ontological security in their working life. Furthermore, it addresses different ways of reflecting by workers, which types…

  15. Bilingual Education for Guest Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Susanne

    Bilingual education programs in West Germany and Sweden for the children of foreign workers are described. The 4.5 million foreign workers come particularly from Turkey, but also from other southern European countries, from other member nations of the European Economic Community, and from Asia and Latin America. Some are immigrants, some political…

  16. Comparison of four standards for determining adequate water intake of nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Phyllis M

    2011-01-01

    Adequate hydration for nursing home residents is problematic. The purpose of this study was to compare four standards used to determine a recommended water intake among nursing home residents. Inconsistencies in the amount of water intake recommended based on the standards compared were identified. The standard based on height and weight provides the most individualized recommendation. An individualized recommendation would facilitate goal setting for the care plan of each older person and assist in the prevention of dehydration. It is essential that a cost-effective and clinically feasible approach to determine adequate water intake be determined for this population to prevent the adverse outcomes associated with dehydration. PMID:21469538

  17. Why healthcare workers are sick of TB.

    PubMed

    von Delft, Arne; Dramowski, Angela; Khosa, Celso; Kotze, Koot; Lederer, Philip; Mosidi, Thato; Peters, Jurgens A; Smith, Jonathan; van der Westhuizen, Helene-Mari; von Delft, Dalene; Willems, Bart; Bates, Matthew; Craig, Gill; Maeurer, Markus; Marais, Ben J; Mwaba, Peter; Nunes, Elizabete A; Nyirenda, Thomas; Oliver, Matt; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-03-01

    Dr Thato Mosidi never expected to be diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB), despite widely prevalent exposure and very limited infection control measures. The life-threatening diagnosis of primary extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) came as an even greater shock. The inconvenient truth is that, rather than being protected, Dr Mosidi and thousands of her healthcare colleagues are at an increased risk of TB and especially drug-resistant TB. In this viewpoint paper we debunk the widely held false belief that healthcare workers are somehow immune to TB disease (TB-proof) and explore some of the key factors contributing to the pervasive stigmatization and subsequent non-disclosure of occupational TB. Our front-line workers are some of the first to suffer the consequences of a progressively more resistant and fatal TB epidemic, and urgent interventions are needed to ensure the safety and continued availability of these precious healthcare resources. These include the rapid development and scale-up of improved diagnostic and treatment options, strengthened infection control measures, and focused interventions to tackle stigma and discrimination in all its forms. We call our colleagues to action to protect themselves and those they care for. PMID:25809771

  18. Minority workers and communities.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, H; Walker, E D; Friedman-Jiménez, G

    1999-01-01

    Environmental and occupational hazards do not affect all communities equally. Members of ethnic and racial minorities, whether as working people or as community residents, sustain disproportionate risks from chemical, physical, and biological hazards. This paper reviews the nature of these disproportionate risks, focusing primarily on the workplace, but considering general environmental exposures as well. It discusses three principal mechanisms of increased risk: excessive hazardous exposures in both the workplace and the general environment, increased susceptibility, and inferior healthcare. It presents evidence that, as the result of these factors, members of minority groups display elevated rates of work-related illness, injury, fatality, and disability. Finally, it offers recommendations with regard to research, primary prevention, minority recruitment into the occupational health professions, and treatment and compensation for injured and ill minority workers. PMID:10378973

  19. Radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, R.E.; Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated.

  20. Workers' Education Methods and Techniques for Rural Workers and Their Organisations: Summary of Views Expressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Several issues concerning rural workers' organizations and workers' education are discussed: motivation for self-organization, workers' education needs of rural workers, workers' education methods and techniques, training institutions and training personnel, financial resources, and the role of the International Labor Organization workers'…

  1. Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P

    1998-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence. PMID:10024736

  2. Prevalence of beryllium sensitization among aluminium smelter workers

    PubMed Central

    Slade, M. D.; Cantley, L. F.; Kirsche, S. R.; Wesdock, J. C.; Cullen, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Beryllium exposure occurs in aluminium smelters from natural contamination of bauxite, the principal source of aluminium. Aims To characterize beryllium exposure in aluminium smelters and determine the prevalence rate of beryllium sensitization (BeS) among aluminium smelter workers. Methods A population of 3185 workers from nine aluminium smelters owned by four different aluminium-producing companies were determined to have significant beryllium exposure. Of these, 1932 workers participated in medical surveillance programmes that included the serum beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), confirmation of sensitization by at least two abnormal BeLPT test results and further evaluation for chronic beryllium disease in workers with BeS. Results Personal beryllium samples obtained from the nine aluminium smelters showed a range of <0.01–13.00 μg/m3 time-weighted average with an arithmetic mean of 0.25 μg/m3 and geometric mean of 0.06 μg/m3. Nine workers were diagnosed with BeS (prevalence rate of 0.47%, 95% confidence interval = 0.21–0.88%). Conclusions BeS can occur in aluminium smelter workers through natural beryllium contamination of the bauxite and further concentration during the refining and smelting processes. Exposure levels to beryllium observed in aluminium smelters are similar to those seen in other industries that utilize beryllium. However, compared with beryllium-exposed workers in other industries, the rate of BeS among aluminium smelter workers appears lower. This lower observed rate may be related to a more soluble form of beryllium found in the aluminium smelting work environment as well as the consistent use of respiratory protection. PMID:20610489

  3. Survey on low-dose medical radiation exposure in occupational workers: the effect on hematological change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, J. K.; Cho, S. M.; Cho, J. H.; Dong, K. R.; Chung, W. K.; Lee, J. W.

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the changes in the hematological index caused by low-dose medical radiation exposure in workers in a medical radiation-exposed environment. The cumulative dose was obtained using thermoluminescent dosimeters over a 9-year period, and the changes in hematological index count (red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cells (WBCs), monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils) were examined in both the occupational workers and controls. In total, 370 occupational workers and 335 controls were compared. The analysis led to the following observations: (1) The average cumulative dose in males and females was 9.65±15.2 and 4.82±5.55 mSv, respectively. (2) In both males and females, there was a very low correlation between the occupation period and the cumulative dose (r<±0.25). (3) When the occupation period was longer, the WBC counts both decreased and increased in the male workers and the RBC counts were lower in the workers than in the control group (p<0.05). In females, the WBC counts both decreased and increased in the workers and the eosinophil counts were lower in the workers than in the control group (p<0.01). (4) When the cumulative dose was large, the lymphocyte counts decreased in male workers and the platelet count was lower in the workers than in the control group (p<0.05). In females, the lymphocyte count and RBC count were lower in the workers than in the control group (p<0.05). Abnormal distributions of some blood indices were observed in the occupational radiation workers compared with the controls. Attempts were made to limit radiation exposure to personnel, but the employees did not always follow the preset rules. Actually, the adverse effects of low-level radiation were attributed to probability. Overall, workers should obey the radiation protection regulations provided by the government and a national system of radiation protection is needed.

  4. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.28... workers who: (1) Are exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium at or above the action level, or...

  5. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.28... workers who: (1) Are exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium at or above the action level, or...

  6. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.28... workers who: (1) Are exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium at or above the action level, or...

  7. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.28... workers who: (1) Are exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium at or above the action level, or...

  8. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.28... workers who: (1) Are exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium at or above the action level, or...

  9. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  10. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  11. Calculating and Reducing Errors Associated with the Evaluation of Adequate Yearly Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    In the Spring, 1996, issue of "CRESST Line," E. Baker and R. Linn commented that, in efforts to measure the progress of schools, "the fluctuations due to differences in the students themselves could conceal differences in instructional effects." This is particularly true in the context of the evaluation of adequate yearly progress required by…

  12. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  13. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  14. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...

  15. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  16. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  17. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  18. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  19. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  20. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  1. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  2. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  3. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  4. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  5. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  7. Special or Not so Special: Special Education Background Experiences of Principals and Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study researched the special education background experience of principals and the effect on students in the subgroup of Students with Disabilities in making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). In the state of Ohio, schools and districts are expected to make AYP as a whole and additionally make AYP for each subgroup (various…

  8. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6-12 (n = 1,203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in…

  9. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the State's requirements for availability of services, as set forth in § 438.206. (e) CMS' right... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and Performance... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services....

  10. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  11. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  12. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  13. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  14. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conducting clinical investigations of a drug is to distinguish the effect of a drug from other influences... recognized by the scientific community as the essentials of an adequate and well-controlled clinical... randomization and blinding of patients or investigators, or both. If the intent of the trial is to...

  15. Final 2004 Report on Adequate Yearly Progress in the Montgomery County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jose W.

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of Montgomery County public schools made sufficient progress on state testing and accountability standards in 2004 to comply with the adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements under the "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001." Information released by the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) in October 2004 shows that…

  16. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  17. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  18. Estimates of Adequate School Spending by State Based on National Average Service Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Jerry

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a method for estimating expenditures per student needed to provide educational adequacy in each state. Illustrates the method using U.S., Arkansas, New York, Texas, and Washington State data, covering instruction, special needs, operations and maintenance, administration, and other costs. Estimates ratios of "adequate" to actual spending…

  19. Leadership Style and Adequate Yearly Progress: A Correlational Study of Effective Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leapley-Portscheller, Claudia Iris

    2008-01-01

    Principals are responsible for leading efforts to reach increasingly higher levels of student academic proficiency in schools associated with adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to identify the degree to which perceptions of principal transformational, transactional, and…

  20. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...

  1. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate cost data and cost finding. 413.24 Section 413.24 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY...

  2. Principals' Perceptions of Effective Strategies in Meeting Adequate Yearly Progress in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jadie K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of principals who have met Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) with the special education subgroup. This was a qualitative study, utilizing interviews to answer the research questions. The first three research questions analyzed the areas of assessment, building-level leadership, and curriculum…

  3. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  4. Evaluating Rural Progress in Mathematics Achievement: Threats to the Validity of "Adequate Yearly Progress"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    2003-01-01

    This article examines major threats to the validity of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in the context of rural schools. Although rural students and their schools made significant academic progress in the past on national and state assessments, the current goal of AYP turns out to be highly unrealistic for them unless states set far lower…

  5. What Is the Cost of an Adequate Vermont High School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Access to an adequate education has been widely considered an undeniable right since Chief Justice Warren stated in his landmark decision that "Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments...it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an…

  6. Knowledge Levels Regarding Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Among Emergency Healthcare Workers in an Endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    Yolcu, Sadiye; Kader, Cigdem; Kayipmaz, Afsin Emre; Ozbay, Sedat; Erbay, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, we aimed to determine knowledge levels regarding Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) among emergency healthcare workers (HCWs) in an endemic region. Methods A questionnaire form consisting of questions about CCHF was applied to the participants. Results The mean age was 29.6 ± 6.5 years (range 19 - 45). Fifty-four (49.5%) participants were physicians, 39 (35.8%) were nurses and 16 (14.7%) were paramedics. All of the participants were aware of CCHF, and 48 (44%) of them had previously followed CCHF patients. Rates of the use of protective equipment (masks and gloves) during interventions for patients who were admitted to the emergency service with active hemorrhage were 100% among paramedics, 76.9% among nurses and 61.1% among physicians (P = 0.003). Among 86 (78.9%) HCWs who believed that their knowledge regarding CCHF was adequate, 62 (56.9%) declared that they would prefer not to care for patients with CCHF (P = 0.608). Conclusions The use of techniques to prevent transmission of this disease, including gloves, face masks, face visors and box coats, should be explained to emergency room HCWs, and encouragement should be provided for using these techniques. PMID:24734146

  7. Placing Evidence-Based Interventions at the Fingertips of School Social Workers.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Humberto López; Rivers, Tommi; Randall, Catherine; Gaughan, Ken; Ojanen, Tiina; Massey, Oliver Tom; Burton, Donna

    2016-07-01

    Through a university-community collaborative partnership, the perceived needs of evidence-based practices (EBPs) among school social workers (SSWs) in a large school district in central Florida was assessed. A survey (response rate = 83.6%) found that although 70% of SSWs claim to use EBPs in their everyday practice, 40% do not know where to find them, which may partially explain why 78% of respondents claim to spend 1 to 4 h every week looking for adequate EBPs. From this needs assessment, the translational model was used to address these perceived needs. A systematic review of the literature found 40 tier 2 EBPs, most of which (23%) target substance use, abuse, and dependence. After discussion with academic and community partners, the stakeholders designed, discussed, and implemented a searchable, online, password-protected, interface of these tier 2 EBPs, named Evidence-Based Intervention Toolkit (eBIT). Lessons learned, future directions, and implications of this "one-stop shop" for behavioral health are discussed. PMID:26659382

  8. [Health Risk Assessment of Tunnel Workers Based on the Investigation and Analysis of Occupational Exposure to PM10].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hua-li; Yang, Jun; Qiu, Zhen-zhen; Lei, Wan-xiong; Zeng, Ting-ting; Lan, Zhi-cai

    2015-08-01

    The health risk of tunnel workers' occupational exposure to PM10, was evaluated applying public health exposure evaluation nodel. A questionnaire survey of 250 tunnel workers was conducted in a construction site of Ma-zhu Highway in Hubei Province, and the concentrations of PM10 were monitored. The results showed that the PM10 exposure concentrations of different types of tunnel workers were extremely high. Compared with the limited value, the PM10 exposure concentrations were 83 times, 18 times, 8 times, 9 times Emd 9 times for excavation workers, blasting workers, supporting workers, slag-out workers and secondary-lining workers, respectively. For secondary-lining workers, the average daily exposure time was the longest, which was 11.48 h x d(-1), and the energy metabolism rate was also the highest, which was 1067.43 kj x (m2 x h)(-1). Regarding the inhalation rates, secondary-lining workers could be classified to high-level working intensity, and the other four types of tunnel workers could he classified to middle-level working intensity. The health risk assessment results showed that all tunnel workers had health risk. High exposure concentration of PM10 was the main reason for excavation workers' highest hazard quotient, and it was the same for the blasting workers. The reason for secondary-lining workers' high hazard quotient was that they had higher inhalation rates and longer average daily exposure time. In order to reduce the health risk of tunnel workers, firstly the workers should be equipped with appropriate respiratory protective equipment; secondly an appropriate tunnel working standard should be developed to set a reasonable working-years for reducing the exposure time. PMID:26592002

  9. Screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders by Nonmedical Community Workers

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Mary J.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tomlinson, Mark; Bill, Claudine; LeRoux, Ingrid M.; Stewart, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Background South Africa has the highest prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) in the world yet many women have no access to clinic care or to physicians in their communities. The shortage of physicians trained in the diagnosis of FASD is even more severe. Thus there is a need to train community workers to assist in the delivery of health care. Objectives This study reports on the effectiveness of training community workers to screen for a possible diagnosis of a FASD. Methods Community workers in Cape Town, South Africa were trained to screen for FASD in 139, 18-month-old toddlers with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Children were assessed according to the salient characteristics of individuals with PAE using height, weight, head circumference (OFC), philtrum, and lip measurements according to criteria set forth by the Institute of Medicine. Screen-positive children were referred for diagnostic assessment to a pediatrician reliably trained in the diagnosis of FASD. Results Of the screen-positive children, 93% received an FASD diagnosis suggesting that the screening procedure was highly sensitive. Diagnoses included 15% with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), 23% with Partial FAS, and 62% with Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND, provisional). Conclusion The use of community workers to screen for FASD represents a promising approach to effective diagnosis of children affected by PAE in areas lacking adequate medical resources. PMID:25658901

  10. [Ways of improving health care of industrial workers of Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Petrov, P P; Asylbekova, G O; Zhakashov, N Zh; Kul'zhanov, M K

    1992-01-01

    The health of industrial workers should be considered from the point of view of broad social positions and primarily from the working and living conditions and the state of health services. Environmental factors should also be taken into consideration. Periodic medical check-ups of industrial workers indicate that their health is improving. Despite the success achieved, this problem in Kazakhstan is not being adequately solved, there are only 61 health units. Hospital beds in these institutions do not have necessary specialization corresponding to the profile of industrial enterprises. Numerous industrial enterprises, oil-and-gas extracting works pollute the environment, which has been confirmed by respective examples. The authors provide evidence for the necessity of economic education for the population. Preliminary results of experimental introduction of a new economic mechanism and medical insurance in Kazakhstan are being considered as factors contributing to the improvement of public health financing resources. PMID:1470989

  11. Invited commentary: electromagnetic fields and cancer in railway workers.

    PubMed

    Savitz, D A

    2001-05-01

    The ideal study of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and cancer risk would have a clear exposure source, historically stable exposures, and comparable groups of exposed and unexposed workers. Cohorts of railway workers have marked exposure contrasts and limited job changes and provide marginally adequate study sizes, but there have been important changes in their exposures over time, and the field frequency involved is unusual. The results of Minder and Pfluger's study (Am J Epidemiol 2001;153:825--35) add modest support for an association between electromagnetic field exposure and leukemia. However, given the large size and high quality of a number of previous studies of occupational electromagnetic field exposure and cancer, additional studies similar to past ones are unlikely to yield important new insights. PMID:11323312

  12. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Takaro Jordan Firestone

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997

  13. [HCV prevalence in health workers].

    PubMed

    Vassia, M A; Curciarello, J O; Bologna, A; De Barrio, S; Belloni, P; Jmelnitzky, C A

    1999-01-01

    The risk of HBV infections in health workers and the different prevalence according to the hospital activities has been shown in a great number of papers. In order to establish the prevalence of serological HBV markers in health workers fron high complexity hospital, we have analyzed 730 inquiries refilled in the period 1994-1995 before receiving the antihepatitis B vaccine. We studied 730 health workers, 282 (38.8%) males and 447 (61.2%) females with a mean age of 40.1 years old. We found 75/730 (10.2) serums antiçHBc reactives. The found prevalence was significantly larger than the one found in blood donors. The analysis of the prevalence according to the hospital activities showed that the infirmary personnel is the only with anti-HBc prevalence significantly superior to the blood donors, and the other health workers prevalence. Differences in the anti-HBc prevalence between the physicians specialties were not found. Our results agree with other publications that clearly show that health workers are a risk group for HBV infection. However, what attracts attention in the analyzed population is that the only ones with anti-HBc prevalence significantly superior to the blood donors' and the other health workers prevalence were the nurses, suggesting that nurses are the only health workers that have risk of HBV infections. PMID:10599401

  14. Pain and the injured worker.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James P; Glass, Lee S

    2015-05-01

    Physicians who treat injured workers with painful conditions face complex challenges that require skills beyond those of a clinician. To address these challenges effectively, physicians need to understand the logic of workers' compensation systems and the interests of the various participants in the systems. They must be prepared to interface constructively between their patients and the workers' compensation carrier and attend to a multitude of administrative issues. In the present article, the authors provide an extended case history with commentary to illustrate the challenges that physicians face and the ways they can respond to these challenges. PMID:25952072

  15. GLOVEBOX DISMANTLEMENT AND EQUIPMENT PROTECTION IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Akihiro; Stallings, Ellen; Wilburn, Dianne W.

    2003-02-27

    It has been revealed from the experiences of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities that even a small improvement in performance can result in significant risk reduction and cost savings. For example, Race Scan Ear Mic System, which was originally developed for communications between racecar drivers and crews in loud environments, has been successfully applied to D&D work and proved to enhance worker safety and communications. Glovebox dismantlement is an important and costly process in D&D activities of nuclear facilities. Adequate decontamination and size reduction of the gloveboxes are especially important in this activity because they have the potential to reduce risks and costs significantly. This paper presents some simple approaches to support D&D tasks and discusses their potential advantages. Examples discussed include: Repeated shear wiping of large pipes and ducts; Application of thin layers on radiological counters for uninterrupted use; and Partial use of robotics for glovebox dismantling. The paper also discusses schematics for protecting equipment interiors and/or glovebox inner surfaces from contamination, which may result in significant savings and waste minimization upon future dismantlement. Examples discussed include: Smart coating for contamination prevention; and Protecting equipment by geometrically simple cover.

  16. Preventing Absenteeism and Promoting Resilience Among Health Care Workers In Biological Emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Miller, James S.

    2009-05-08

    The ability to ensure adequate numbers of medical staff represents a crucial part of the medical response to any disaster. However, healthcare worker absenteeism during disasters, especially in the event of an attack of biological terrorism or an epidemic such as pandemic influenza, is a serious concern. Though a significant rate of absenteeism is often included as a baseline assumption in emergency planning, published reports on strategies to minimize absenteeism are comparatively few. This report documents interviews with managers and emergency response planners at hospitals and public health agencies and reviews existing survey data on healthcare worker absenteeism and studies of disasters to glean lessons about the needs of healthcare workers during those disasters. Based on this research, expected rates of absenteeism and individual determinants of absenteeism are presented along with recommendations of steps that hospitals, emergency medical services departments, public health organizations, and government agencies can take to meet the needs of healthcare workers and minimize absenteeism during a biological event.

  17. Frequency and quality of radiation monitoring of construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Eula; Ringen, Knut; Dement, John; Cameron, Wilfrid; McGowan, William; Welch, Laura; Quinn, Patricia

    2006-09-01

    Construction workers were and are considered temporary workers at many construction sites. Since World War II, large numbers of construction workers were employed at U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons sites for periods ranging from a few days to over 30 years. These workers performed tasks during new construction and maintenance, repair, renovation, and demolition of existing facilities. Such tasks may involve emergency situations, and may entail opportunities for significant radiation exposures. This paper provides data from interviews with more than 750 construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio regarding radiation monitoring practices. The aim was to determine the extent to which workers believed they were monitored during tasks involving potential radiation exposures. The adequacy of monitoring practices is important for two reasons: (a) Protecting workers from exposures: Construction workers were employed by sub-contractors, and may frequently been excluded from safety and health programs provided to permanent employees; and (b) Supporting claims for compensation: The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA) requires dose reconstruction of radiation exposures for most workers who file a claim regarding cancer. The use of monitoring data for radiation to qualify a worker means that there should be valid and complete monitoring during the work time at the various nuclear plants or workers may be unfairly denied compensation. The worker interviews from Paducah and Portsmouth were considered especially useful because these sites were designated as Special Exposure Cohorts (SECs) and the workers did not have to have a dose reconstruction to qualify for compensation for most cancers. Therefore, their responses were less likely to be affected by compensation concerns. Interview questions included asking for information regarding whether monitoring was performed, how

  18. 29 CFR 1926.652 - Requirements for protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... excavation shall be protected from cave-ins by an adequate protective system designed in accordance with... no indication of a potential cave-in. (2) Protective systems shall have the capacity to resist... installed and removed in a manner that protects employees from cave-ins, structural collapses, or from...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.652 - Requirements for protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... excavation shall be protected from cave-ins by an adequate protective system designed in accordance with... no indication of a potential cave-in. (2) Protective systems shall have the capacity to resist... installed and removed in a manner that protects employees from cave-ins, structural collapses, or from...

  20. Swine Worker Precautions During Suspected Outbreaks of Influenza in Swine.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Gibbs, Shawn; Torremorell, Montserrat; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the behavior and precautions that swine workers take during suspected influenza outbreaks in swine, six commercial swine farms in the Midwest U.S. region were visited when influenza outbreaks were suspected in herds during the fall/winter of 2012-2013. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and type of task performed by swine workers were recorded based on farm representative reports. Between one to two workers were working on the day of each visit and spent approximately 25 minutes performing work-related tasks that placed them in close contact with the swine. The most common tasks reported were walking the aisles (27%), handling pigs (21%), and handling equipment (21%). The most common PPE were boots (100%), heavy rubber gloves (75%), and dedicated nondisposable clothing (74%). Use of N95 respirators was reported at three farms. Hand hygiene practices were common in most of the farms, but reportedly performed for only 20% to 25% of tasks. PMID:27263180