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Sample records for adf neutral detergent

  1. A ring test of in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility: Analytical variability and sample ranking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD) is an empirical measurement used to describe fermentability of NDF by rumen microbes. Variability is inherent in assays and affects the precision that can be expected for replicated samples. The study objective was to evaluate variability w...

  2. A ring test of in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility: analytical variability and sample ranking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD) is an empirical measurement used to describe fermentability of NDF by rumen microbes. Variability is inherent in assays and affects the precision that can be expected for replicated samples. The study objective was to evaluate variability w...

  3. Comparison of alternative methods, sample grinds, and fermentation times for determining indigestible neutral detergent fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of sample grind, fermentation method, and time on the determination of indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF). Samples of: 1) alfalfa hay and silage, 2) corn stalks and silage, and 3) ryegrass and mixed grass hays were ground through 2-m...

  4. Effects of replacing dietary starch with neutral detergent-soluble fibre on ruminal fermentation, microbial synthesis and populations of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC).

    PubMed

    Zhao, X H; Liu, C J; Liu, Y; Li, C Y; Yao, J H

    2013-12-01

    A rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) apparatus with eight 800 ml fermenters was used to investigate the effects of replacing dietary starch with neutral detergent-soluble fibre (NDSF) by inclusion of sugar beet pulp in diets on ruminal fermentation, microbial synthesis and populations of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria. Experimental diets contained 12.7, 16.4, 20.1 or 23.8% NDSF substituted for starch on a dry matter basis. The experiment was conducted over two independent 15-day incubation periods with the last 8 days used for data collection. There was a tendency that 16.4% NDSF in the diet increased the apparent disappearance of organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Increasing dietary NDSF level increased carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activity in the solid fraction and apparent disappearance of acid detergent fibre (ADF) but reduced the 16S rDNA copy numbers of Ruminococcus albus in both liquid and solid fractions and R. flavefaciens in the solid fraction. The apparent disappearance of dietary nitrogen (N) was reduced by 29.6% with increased dietary NDSF. Substituting NDSF for starch appeared to increase the ratios of acetate/propionate and methane/volatile fatty acids (VFA) (mol/mol). Replacing dietary starch with NDSF reduced the daily production of ammonia-N and increased the growth of the solid-associated microbial pellets (SAM). Total microbial N flow and efficiency of microbial synthesis (EMS), expressed as g microbial N/kg OM fermented, tended to increase with increased dietary NDSF, but the numerical increase did not continue as dietary NDSF exceeded 20.1% of diet DM. Results suggested that substituting NDSF for starch up to 16.4% of diet DM increased digestion of nutrients (except for N) and microbial synthesis, and further increases (from 16.4% to 23.8%) in dietary NDSF did not repress microbial synthesis but did significantly reduce digestion of dietary N.

  5. Harvest impacts on alfalfa stem neutral detergent fiber concentration and digestibility and cell wall concentration and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stem fiber concentration and digestibility, lignin, and polysaccharide composition impact energy availability for livestock and biofuel conversion efficiency and are affected by maturity stage and environmental influences. We evaluated stem neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ...

  6. Correlating Detergent Fiber Analysis and Dietary Fiber Analysis Data for Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfrum, E. J.; Lorenz, A. J.; deLeon, N.

    2009-01-01

    There exist large amounts of detergent fiber analysis data [neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL)] for many different potential cellulosic ethanol feedstocks, since these techniques are widely used for the analysis of forages. Researchers working in the area of cellulosic ethanol are interested in the structural carbohydrates in a feedstock (principally glucan and xylan), which are typically determined by acid hydrolysis of the structural fraction after multiple extractions of the biomass. These so-called dietary fiber analysis methods are significantly more involved than detergent fiber analysis methods. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is feasible to correlate detergent fiber analysis values to glucan and xylan content determined by dietary fiber analysis methods for corn stover. In the detergent fiber analysis literature cellulose is often estimated as the difference between ADF and ADL, while hemicellulose is often estimated as the difference between NDF and ADF. Examination of a corn stover dataset containing both detergent fiber analysis data and dietary fiber analysis data predicted using near infrared spectroscopy shows that correlations between structural glucan measured using dietary fiber techniques and cellulose estimated using detergent techniques, and between structural xylan measured using dietary fiber techniques and hemicellulose estimated using detergent techniques are high, but are driven largely by the underlying correlation between total extractives measured by fiber analysis and NDF/ADF. That is, detergent analysis data is correlated to dietary fiber analysis data for structural carbohydrates, but only indirectly; the main correlation is between detergent analysis data and solvent extraction data produced during the dietary fiber analysis procedure.

  7. Particle size alterations of feedstuffs during in situ neutral detergent fiber incubation.

    PubMed

    Krämer, M; Nørgaard, P; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-07-01

    Particle size alterations during neutral detergent fiber (NDF) determination and in situ rumen incubation were analyzed by dry sieving and image analysis to evaluate the in situ procedure for estimation of NDF degradation parameters and indigestible NDF concentration in terms of particle size. Early-cut and late-cut grass silages, corn silage, alfalfa silage, rapeseed meal, and dried distillers grains were examined. Treatments were (1) drying and grinding of forage samples and grinding of concentrates; (2) neutral detergent-soluble (NDS) extraction; (3) machine washing and NDS extraction; (4) 24-h rumen incubation, machine washing, and NDS extraction; and (5) 288-h rumen incubation, machine washing, and NDS extraction. Degradation profiles for potentially degradable NDF were determined and image analysis was used to estimate particle size profiles and thereby the risk for particle loss. Particle dimensions changed during NDF determination and in situ rumen incubation and variations depended on feedstuff and treatment. Corn silage and late-cut grass silage varied most in particle area among feedstuffs, with an increase of 139% between 0 and 24h and a decrease of 77% between 24 and 288 h for corn silage and a decrease of 74% for late-cut grass silage between 24- and 288-h in situ rumen incubation. Especially for late-cut grass silage residues after 288 h in situ rumen incubation, a high mass proportion in the critical zone for escape was found. Particle area decreased linearly with increasing incubation time. Particle loss during in situ rumen incubation cannot be excluded and is likely to vary among feedstuffs.

  8. Quantifying Ruminal Digestion of Organic Matter and Neutral Detergent Fiber Using Omasal Sampling in Cattle--A Meta-Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A data set from 32 studies (122 diets) was used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the omasal sampling technique by investigating the relationships between ruminal and total digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), between intake and apparent and true ruminal digestion of organic matter (O...

  9. Technical note: improved methodology for analyses of acid detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin.

    PubMed

    Raffrenato, E; Van Amburgh, M E

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the methodology of the acid detergent lignin (ADL) assay in an effort to evaluate particle loss, improve repeatability, and decrease variation within and among samples. The original ADL method relied on asbestos as a filtering aid, but that was removed in 1989 with the mandate from the Environmental Protection Agency to eliminate asbestos in the environment. Furthermore, recent work on fiber methodology indicated that pore size in the Gooch sintered glass crucible (40-60 μm) was too large to trap all of the small particles associated with neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). Thus, any loss of ADF could potentially result in a loss of ADL. Sixty forages including conventional and brown midrib corn silages, alfalfa silages and hays, mature grasses, early vegetative grasses, and 9 feces samples, were analyzed sequentially for ADF and ADL as outlined in the 1973 procedure of Van Soest except for the use of the asbestos fiber. A glass microfiber filter with a 1.5-μm pore size was chosen as a filtering aid because it met the criteria required by the assay: glass, heat resistant, acid resistant, chemically inert, and hydrophobic. To compare with the current ADF and ADL assays, the assays were conducted with either no filter or the glass filter inserted into crucibles, rinsed with acetone, and then according to the 1973 procedure of Van Soest. The samples analyzed covered a range from 18.11 to 55.79% ADF and from 0.96 to 9.94% ADL on a dry matter (DM) basis. With the use of the filter, the mean ADF values increased 4.2% and mean ADL values increased 18.9%. Overall, both ADF and ADL values were greater with the use of the glass microfiber filter than without, indicating that as the type of sample analyzed changed, use of the Gooch crucible without the filtering aid results in particle loss. The adoption of the use of a small pore size (1.5 μm) glass microfiber filter to improve filtration and recovery

  10. Milk production and composition responds to dietary neutral detergent fiber and starch ratio in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis.

  11. Effects of starch source and level of forage neutral detergent fiber on performance by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Slater, A L; Eastridge, M L; Firkins, J L; Bidinger, L J

    2000-02-01

    The effectiveness of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from soyhulls and whole cottonseed for replacing NDF from forage was evaluated in a lactation trial during wk 10 to 25 of lactation. Forty-eight cows were blocked and randomly assigned within a block to one of four diets: 1) 21% forage NDF with corn 2) 16% forage NDF with corn, 3) 16% forage NDF with corn and wheat (1:1) and, 4) 11% forage NDF with cottonseed and corn. Soybean hulls were added at approximately 23.0% of dry matter (DM) for the 16 and 11% forage NDF diets to replace forage and formulate diets with 35% nonfiber carbohydrates. Actual forage NDF concentration were 17.8, 14.0, 13.9, and 9.4%, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were highest for cows fed 11% forage NDF with cottonseed. Milk fat percentage was higher for cows consuming 21% forage NDF and 16% forage NDF with corn than for cows fed the two other diets. Cows fed 16% forage NDF with corn and wheat experienced milk fat-protein inversion, but ruminal acetate:propionate was lower for cows fed 11% forage NDF than cows fed 16% forage NDF. Body weight (BW) and BW change were not different among treatments. Time spent chewing was similar among all diets. For cows in midlactation, forage NDF may be reduced to 9 to 11% when cottonseed is at 11% of DM and dietary nonstructural carbohydrates are at 30% of DM. Forage NDF may be reduced to 14 to 16% without cottonseed when nonstructural carbohydrates are at 30% of DM.

  12. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  13. Crude protein, ash, phosphorus, neutral detergent fiber and starch concentrations in particle size distributions of corn steam flaked to varying bulk densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The particle size distribution that results from steam flaking cereal grains could be related to differences in the chemical composition of steam-flaked (SF) vs. unprocessed grain. Particle size distribution and associated crude protein (CP), phosphorus (P), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and starch...

  14. Variability in the relationships for alfalfa stem 16- and 96-h in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility with composition due to maturity and harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin concentration is strongly negatively correlated with in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (IVNDFD) when examined across a wide forage maturity range, but this relationship is less clear among forages of similar maturity. We examined the relationships of IVNDFD with lignin and oth...

  15. Neutral detergent fiber increases endogenous ileal losses but has no effect on ileal digestibility of amino acids in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Mariscal-Landín, Gerardo; Reis de Souza, Tércia Cesária; Bayardo Uribe, Alejandro

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on endogenous amino acids and protein ileal losses; and also apparent ileal digestibility (AID), and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids and crude protein. Sixteen barrows were fed four protein-free diets containing graded NDF levels in Experiment 1. NDF was a mixture of sugarcane bagasse and corn leaves (SBCL). Twenty-four barrows were fed diets with soybean protein concentrate (SPC) or casein as protein sources and SBCL or corncobs (CC) as NDF sources in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, a linear increase (P < 0.05) in endogenous amino acid and protein ileal losses was observed with increased NDF levels, except for arginine, histidine, methionine and proline. In Experiment 2, protein (P < 0.001) and NDF (P < 0.01) sources significantly affected AID of dry matter, which was higher in casein diets (71.7%) and CC diets (70.7%). Protein and NDF sources significantly affected (P < 0.05) SID of crude protein, which was higher in casein diets (92.8%) and CC diets (92.7%). NDF source had no effect (P > 0.05) on SID of amino acids. Overall, this study showed that NDF increased endogenous amino acid and protein ileal losses, but did not affect ileal digestibility of amino acids.

  16. Neutral detergent-soluble fiber improves gut barrier function in twenty-five-day-old weaned rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Conde, M S; García, J; Chamorro, S; Eiras, P; Rebollar, P G; Pérez de Rozas, A; Badiola, I; de Blas, C; Carabaño, R

    2007-12-01

    The effect of neutral detergent-soluble fiber level on gut barrier function and intestinal microbiota was examined in weaned rabbits. A control diet (AH) containing 103 g of neutral detergent-soluble fiber/ kg of DM included alfalfa hay as main source of fiber. Another diet (B-AP) was formulated by replacing half of the alfalfa hay with a mixture of beet and apple pulp resulting in 131 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM. A third diet (OH) was obtained by substituting half of the alfalfa hay with a mix of oat hulls and a soybean protein concentrate and contained 79 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM. Rabbits weaned at 25 d and slaughtered at 35 d were used to determine ileal digestibility, jejunal morphology, sucrase activity, lamina propria lymphocytes, and intestinal microbiota. Suckling 35-d-old rabbits were used to assess mucosa morphology. Mortality (from weaning to 63 d of age) was also determined. Villous height of the jejunal mucosa increased with soluble fiber (P = 0.001). Rabbits fed with the greatest level of soluble fiber (BA-P diet) showed the highest villous height/ crypt depth ratio (8.14; P = 0.001), sucrase specific activity (8,671 mumol of glucose/g of protein; P = 0.019), and the greatest ileal starch digestibility (96.8%; P = 0.002). The opposite effects were observed in rabbits fed decreased levels of soluble fiber (AH and OH diets; 4.70, 5,848 mumol of glucose/g of protein, as average, respectively). The lowest ileal starch digestibility was detected for animals fed OH diet (93.2%). Suckling rabbits of the same age showed a lower villous height/crypt depth ratio (6.70) compared with the B-AP diet group, but this ratio was higher than the AH or OH diet groups. Lower levels of soluble fiber tended (P = 0.074) to increase the cellular immune response (CD8+ lymphocytes). Diet affected IL-2 production (CD25+, P = 0.029; CD5+CD25+, P = 0.057), with no clear relationship between soluble fiber and IL-2. The intestinal microbiota biodiversity was not affected by

  17. Effects of an esterase-producing inoculant on fermentation, aerobic stability, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility of corn silage.

    PubMed

    Kang, T W; Adesogan, A T; Kim, S C; Lee, S S

    2009-02-01

    This experiment evaluated effects of an inoculant containing esterase-producing bacteria on fermentation, aerobic stability, in situ dry matter digestibility (DMD), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD) of corn silage. Two corn hybrids grown on adjacent fields [Croplan Genetics 851RR2 (CS1) and Vigoro 61R36 (CS2)] were harvested at approximately 39% dry matter. Each forage was conserved in quadruplicate in 20-L mini silos with or without application of an inoculant at a level to achieve 1.0 x 10(4) cfu/g of Lactobacillus casei and 1.0 x 10(5) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri. After 110 d of ensiling, silos were opened and silages were analyzed for chemical composition, fermentation indices, microbial counts, and aerobic stability. In situ DMD, 24-h and 48-h DMD, and NDFD were measured by incubating ground (6-mm) samples in triplicate in each of 2 lactating, fistulated dairy cows fed a corn silage-based diet. Inoculation decreased concentrations of total fermentation acids and lactate, as well as lactate to acetate ratio, and increased propionate concentration compared with the uninoculated control in CS1 but not CS2. Inoculation tended to decrease yeast counts of CS1 but increased yeast counts and tended to increase the mold counts of CS2. Consequently, inoculation improved the aerobic stability of CS1 by 57.3 h (98%) but decreased that of CS2 by 20.5 h (20%). Inoculation also increased the potentially degradable fraction of CS1 and the total degradable fraction, 24-h and 48-h DMD, and 48-h NDFD of CS2. Inoculation of CS1 modified the fermentation, improved the aerobic stability, and increased the potentially degradable DM fraction. Inoculation of CS2 did not affect fermentation, but decreased the aerobic stability and increased the total degradable DM fraction, 24-h and 48-h DMD, and 48-h NDFD.

  18. Effective rumen degradation of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in forage determined by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, C; Houmøller, L P; Weisbjerg, M R; Lund, P; Hvelplund, T

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine if near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) could be used to predict degradation parameters and effective degradation from scans of original forage samples. Degradability of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) of 61 samples of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) was tested by using the in situ technique. The grass samples were harvested at three different stages, early vegetative growth, early reproductive growth and late reproductive growth. Degradability was described in terms of immediately rumen soluble fraction (a fraction, for DM and CP only as NDF does not contain a soluble fraction), the degradable but not soluble faction (b fraction) and the rate of degradation of the b fraction (c value). Overall effective degradability of DM, CP and NDF was also calculated. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was examined for its ability to predict degradation parameters and to make a direct prediction of effective degradation from scans of the original samples of perennial ryegrass and orchardgrass. Prediction of effective degradation of the different feed fractions showed different accuracy. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) from regressions of predicted vs. measured effective degradation, using a cross-validation method, were 0.92 for DM, 0.78 for CP and 0.61 for NDF. The attempt to predict the degradation parameters (a, b and c) by NIRS was less successful as the coefficients of determination for the degradation parameters were low. Concentrations of CP and NDF in the original samples were predicted by using NIRS and the validated R(2) value was 0.98 for CP and 0.92 for NDF. It is concluded that using NIRS predictions from scans of original samples is a promising method to obtain values for the effective degradation of DM, CP and NDF in ruminant feeds, but that larger calibration sets are necessary for obtaining improved

  19. Gravimetric determination of amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber in feeds with refluxing in beakers or crucibles: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Mertens, David R

    2002-01-01

    As an important constituent of animal feeds, fiber represents the portion of feeds that is bulky and difficult to digest. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) method, developed over 30 years ago, is the method of choice for measuring total fiber in forages and other feeds. Several modifications that were made to improve its general applicability to all feeds and others developed in individual laboratories often resulted in variability among laboratories in measuring NDF. The amylase-treated NDF (aNDF) method, therefore, was developed as an accurate and precise method of measuring total insoluble fiber in feeds. A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of the aNDF method over the full range of animal feed materials. Twelve laboratories representing research, feed company, regulatory, and commercial feed testing laboratories analyzed 11 materials as blind duplicates. The materials represented feed matrixes, including animal products; high-protein, high-fat, and high-pectin feeds; oil seeds; grains; heated by-product feeds; and legume and grass hays and silages. Materials selected varied in chemical composition and contained 0-90% aNDF, 1-16% ash, 1-20% crude fat, 1-40% crude protein, and 0-50% starch. Correcting results for changes in blanks and reporting results as ash-free aNDF organic matter (aNDFom) improved the repeatability and reproducibility of results when aNDF was <25%. The within-laboratory repeatability standard deviation (Sr) for percentage aNDFom in feeds varied from 0.21 to 1.82 and among-laboratory reproducibility standard deviation (S(R)) varied from 0.37 to 2.24. The HORRAT was <2 for all materials except feed materials containing >10% fat. However, standard deviations of repeatability and reproducibility for feeds with >10% fat were similar to those of other materials. It is recommended that the aNDF method be accepted for Official First Action status.

  20. Measurement of rumen dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradability of feeds by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Belanche, A; Weisbjerg, M R; Allison, G G; Newbold, C J; Moorby, J M

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the potential of partial least squares (PLS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to predict rumen dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation parameters of a wide range of feeds for ruminants, as an alternative to the in situ method. In total, 663 samples comprising 80 different feed types were analyzed. In situ DM and NDF degradabilities were determined as follows: effective degradability (ED), rumen soluble fraction (A), degradable but not soluble fraction (B), rate of degradation of the B fraction (C), and indigestible NDF (iNDF). Infrared spectra of dry samples were collected by attenuated total reflectance from 600 to 4000cm(-1). Feeds were randomly classified into 2 subsets of samples with representation of all feed types; one subset was used to develop regression models using partial least squares, and the second subset was used to conduct an external validation of the models. This study indicated that universal models containing all feed types and specific models containing concentrate feeds could provide only a relatively poor estimation of in situ DM degradation parameters because of compositional heterogeneity. More research, such as a particle size distribution analysis, is required to determine whether this lack of accuracy was due to limitations of the FTIR approach, or simply due to methodological error associated with the in situ method. This latter hypothesis may explain the low accuracy observed in the prediction of degradation rates if there was physical leakage of fine particles from the mesh bags used during in situ studies. In contrast, much better predictions were obtained when models were developed for forage feeds alone. Models for forages led to accurate predictions of DMA, DMB, NDFED, and NDF concentration (R(2)=0.91, 0.89, 0.85, and 0.79, standard error = 4.34, 5.97, 4.59, and 4.41% of DM, respectively), and could be used for screening of DMED, NDFC, and iNDF. These models relied on

  1. Feeding of pellets rich in digestible neutral detergent fiber to lactating cows in an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Halachmi, I; Shoshani, E; Solomon, R; Maltz, E; Miron, J

    2006-08-01

    If the milking frequency in an automatic milking system (AMS) is increased, the intake of concentrated pellets in the robot may be raised accordingly. Consumption of a large quantity of starchy grains within a short time can impair the appetite, decrease voluntary visits to the milking stall, and lower intakes of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Therefore, the hypothesis to be tested in this study was whether conventional starchy pellets fed in the AMS could be replaced with pellets rich in digestible NDF without impairing the cows' motivation to visit a milking stall voluntarily. Fifty-four cows were paired according to age, milk yield, and days in milk, and were fed a basic mixture along the feeding lane (19.9 kg of DM/cow per d), plus a pelleted additive (approximately 5.4 kg of DM/cow per d) that they obtained in the milking stall and in the concentrate self-feeder that they could enter only after passing through the milking stall. The 2 feeding regimens differed only in the composition of the pelleted additive, which, for the control group, contained 49% starchy grain, and for the experimental group contained 25% starchy grain plus soy hulls and gluten feed as replacement for part of the grain and other low-digestible, NDF-rich feeds. Both diets resulted in similar rates of voluntary milkings (3.31 vs. 3.39 visits/cow per d). Average yields of milk and percentages of milk protein were also similar in the 2 groups. The results suggest that an alternative pellet composition can be allocated in the AMS in conjunction with basic mixture in the feeding lane, without any negative effect on appetite, milk yield, milk composition, or milking frequency of the cows. It also opens the opportunity to increase yields of milk and milk solids by increasing the amount of pelleted concentrates that can be allocated to selected high-yielding cows via the AMS, because this can be done while maintaining a high frequency of voluntary milkings.

  2. Detergent poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002777.htm Detergent poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Detergents are powerful cleaning products that may contain strong ...

  3. The effects of adding fat to diets of lactating dairy cows on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Weld, K A; Armentano, L E

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of supplemental fat on fiber digestibility in lactating dairy cattle. Published papers that evaluated the effects of adding fat to the diets of lactating dairy cattle on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (ttNDFd) and dry matter intake (DMI) were compiled. The final data set included 108 fat-supplemented treatment means, not including low-fat controls, from 38 publications. The fat-supplemented treatment means exhibited a wide range of ttNDFd (49.4% ± 9.3, mean ± standard deviation) and DMI (21.3 kg/d ± 3.5). Observations were summarized as the difference between the treatment means for fat-supplemented diets minus their respective low-fat control means. Additionally, those differences were divided by the difference in diet fatty acid (FA) concentration between the treatment and control diets. Treatment means were categorized by the type of fat supplement. Supplementing 3% FA in the diet as medium-chain fats (containing predominately 12- and 14-carbon saturated FA) or unsaturated vegetable oil decreased ttNDFd by 8.0 and 1.2 percentage units, respectively. Adding 3% calcium salts of long-chain FA or saturated fats increased ttNDFd by 3.2 and 1.3 percentage units, respectively. No other fat supplement type affected ttNDFd. Except for saturated fats and animal-vegetable fats, supplementing dietary fat decreased DMI. When the values for changes in ttNDFd are regressed on changes in DMI there was a positive relationship, though the coefficient of determination is only 0.20. When changes in ttNDFd were regressed on changes in DMI, within individual fat supplement types, there was no relationship within calcium salt supplements. There was a positive relationship between changes in ttNDFd and changes in DMI for saturated fats. Neither relationship suggested that the increased ttNDFd with calcium salts or saturated FA was due to decreased DMI for these fat sources. A subset of the means

  4. Effect of undigested neutral detergent fiber content of alfalfa hay on lactating dairy cows: Feeding behavior, fiber digestibility, and lactation performance.

    PubMed

    Fustini, M; Palmonari, A; Canestrari, G; Bonfante, E; Mammi, L; Pacchioli, M T; Sniffen, G C J; Grant, R J; Cotanch, K W; Formigoni, A

    2017-03-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF240). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40.2 and 31.2% and 53.6 and 45.7% for low- (LD) and high-digestibility (HD) hays, respectively. The 4 experimental diets (Hu-HD, Lu-HD, Hu-LD, and Lu-LD) contained 46.8, 36.8, 38.8, and 30.1% of alfalfa hay, respectively, 8.6% wheat straw, and 35.3% corn (50% flake and 50% meal; DM basis). Soy hulls and soybean meal were used to replace hay to balance protein and energy among diets. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (average milk production = 46.0 ± 5.2 kg/d, 101 ± 38 d in milk, and 662 ± 42 kg of average body weight) were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, with 2 wk of adaptation and a 1-wk collection period. Dry matter and water intake, rumination time, ruminal pH, and milk production and composition were measured. Diets and feces were analyzed for NDF on an organic matter basis (aNDFom), acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, and uNDF240 to estimate total-tract fiber digestibility. Dry matter intake and rumination times were higher in HD diets compared with LD diets, regardless of forage amount. Rumination time was constant per unit of dry matter intake but differed when expressed as a function of uNDF240, aNDFom, or physically effective NDF intake. No differences were found among treatments on average ruminal pH, but the amount of time with pH <5.8 was lower in Hu-HD diets. Milk production and components were not different among diets. Total-tract aNDFom and potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber fraction

  5. Exchanging physically effective neutral detergent fiber does not affect chewing activity and performance of late-lactation dairy cows fed corn and sugarcane silages.

    PubMed

    Sá Neto, A; Bispo, A W; Junges, D; Bercht, A K; Zopollatto, M; Daniel, J L P; Nussio, L G

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether replacing the physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) of corn silage with sugarcane silage peNDF would affect performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four late-lactation Holstein cows were assigned to eight 3 × 3 Latin squares with 21-d periods. The dietary treatments were (1) 25% peNDF of corn silage, (2) 25% peNDF of sugarcane silage, and (3) 12.5% peNDF of corn silage + 12.5% peNDF of sugarcane silage. The physical effectiveness factors (pef) were assumed to be 1 for corn silage and 1.2 for sugarcane silage, as measured previously by bioassay. Thus, peNDF was calculated as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) × pef. The concentrate ingredients were finely ground corn, soybean meal, pelleted citrus pulp, and mineral-vitamin premix. Dry matter intake (22.5 ± 0.63 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (28.8 ± 1.13 kg/d), milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, urea, casein, free fatty acids, and somatic cell count), and blood metabolites (glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids) were unaffected by the treatments. The time spent eating, ruminating, or chewing was also similar among the diets, as was particle-sorting behavior. By contrast, chewing per kilogram of forage NDF intake was higher for the sugarcane silage (137 min/kg) than the corn silage diet (116 min/kg), indicating the greater physical effectiveness of sugarcane fiber. Based on chewing behavior (min/d), the estimated pef of sugarcane silage NDF were 1.28 in the corn silage plus sugarcane silage diet and 1.29 in the sugarcane silage diet. Formulating dairy rations of equal peNDF content allows similar performance if corn and sugarcane silages are exchanged.

  6. Effects of Physically Effective Neutral Detergent Fiber Content on Intake, Digestibility, and Chewing Activity in Fattening Heifer Fed Total Mixed Ration

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Mi Rae; Hong, Heeok; Li, Hong Liang; Jeon, Byong Tae; Choi, Cheong Hee; Ding, Yu Ling; Tang, Yu Jiao; Kim, Eun Kyung; Jang, Se Young; Seong, Hye Jin; Moon, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) content in total mixed ration (TMR) on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in fattening Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) heifers. The experiment was designed as a replicated 3×3 Latin square using 12 heifers. Fattening heifers were offered one of three diets [high (T1), medium (T2), and low (T3) peNDF] obtained by different mixing times (3, 10, and 25 min) for the same TMR feed. The peNDF content of TMR was determined by multiplying the proportion of dry matter retained by a 1.18 mm-screen in a Penn State Particle Separator by the dietary NDF content. The peNDF1.18 content was 30.36%, 29.20%, and 27.50% for the T1, T2, and T3 diets, respectively (p<0.05). Dry matter intake was not affected by peNDF content in TMR. Total weight gain in T1 group was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in T2 and T3 groups. However, weight gain did not differ between T2 and T3 groups. The feed conversion ratio decreased with an increase in the peNDF content (T1: 12.18, T2: 14.17, and T3: 14.01 g/g). An increase in the peNDF content of TMR was associated with a linear increase in the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber (p<0.05). Also, an increase in peNDF content of the TMR resulted in a linear increase in the number of chews in eating and ruminating (p<0.05), and consequently in the number of total chews (p<0.05). These results indicate that peNDF content affects digestibility and chewing activity. Consequently, the peNDF content of TMR should be considered for improving feed efficiency, digestibility, body weight gain, and performance in fattening heifers. PMID:27488845

  7. Effects of spontaneous heating on fiber composition, fiber digestibility, and in situ disappearance kinetics of neutral detergent fiber for alfalfa-orchardgrass hays.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Hoffman, P C

    2009-06-01

    During 2006 and 2007, forages from 3 individual hay harvests were utilized to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on concentrations of fiber components, 48-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD), and in situ disappearance kinetics of NDF for large-round bales of mixed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Over the 3 harvests, 96 large-round bales were made at preset bale diameters of 0.9, 1.2, or 1.5 m, and at moisture concentrations ranging from 9.3 to 46.6%. Internal bale temperatures were monitored daily during an outdoor storage period, reaching maxima (MAX) of 77.2 degrees C and 1,997 heating degree days >30 degrees C (HDD) for one specific combination of bale moisture, bale diameter, and harvest. Concentrations of all fiber components (NDF, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin) increased in response to spontaneous heating during storage. Changes in concentrations of NDF during storage (poststorage - prestorage; DeltaNDF) were regressed on HDD using a nonlinear regression model (R(2) = 0.848) that became asymptotic after DeltaNDF increased by 8.6 percentage units. Although the specific regression model varied, changes (poststorage - prestorage) in concentrations of acid detergent fiber, cellulose, and lignin also increased in nonlinear relationships with HDD that exhibited relatively high coefficients of determination (R(2) = 0.710 to 0.885). Fiber digestibility, as determined by NDFD, was largely unaffected by heating characteristics except within bales incurring the most extreme levels of HDD or MAX. In situ assessment of ruminal NDF disappearance kinetics indicated that disappearance rate (K(d)) declined by about 40% within the range of heating incurred over these hay harvests. The change in K(d) during storage (DeltaK(d)) was related closely to both HDD and MAX by nonlinear models exhibiting high R(2) statistics (0.907 and 0.883, respectively). However, there was no regression

  8. Composition of structural carbohydrates in biomass: precision of a liquid chromatography method using a neutral detergent extraction and a charged aerosol detector.

    PubMed

    Godin, Bruno; Agneessens, Richard; Gerin, Patrick A; Delcarte, Jérôme

    2011-09-30

    We adapted and optimized a method to quantify the cellulose, hemicellulose, xylan, arabinan, mannan, galactan contents in lignocellulosic biomass. This method is based on a neutral detergent extraction (NDE) of the interfering biomass components, followed by a sulfuric acid hydrolysis (SAH) of the structural polysaccharides, and a liquid chromatography with charged aerosol detection (LC-CAD) to analyze the released monosaccharides. The first step of this NDE-SAH-LC-CAD method aims at removing all compounds that interfere with the subsequent sulphuric acid hydrolysis or with the subsequent chromatographic quantification of the cellulosic and hemicellulosic monosaccharides. This step includes starch hydrolysis with an analytical thermostable α-amylase followed by an extraction of soluble compounds by a Van Soest neutral detergent solution (NDE). The aim of this paper was to assess the precision of this method when choosing fiber sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as representative lignocellulosic biomass. The cellulose content of fiber sorghum, tall fescue and fiber hemp determined by the NDE-SAH-LC-CAD method were 28.7 ± 1.0, 29.7 ± 1.0 and 43.6 ± 1.2g/100g dry matter, respectively, and their hemicellulose content were 18.6 ± 0.5, 16.5 ± 0.5 and 14.5 ± 0.2g/100g dry matter, respectively. Cellulose, mannan and galactan contents were higher in fiber hemp (dicotyledon) as compared to tall fescue and fiber sorghum (monocotyledons). The xylan, arabinan and total hemicellulose contents were higher in tall fescue and fiber sorghum as compared to fiber hemp. The precision of the NDE-SAH-LC-CAD method was better for polysaccharide concentration levels above 1g/100g dry matter. Galactan analysis offered a lower precision, due to a lower CAD response intensity to galactose as compared to the other monosaccharides. The dispersions of the results (expanded uncertainty) of the NDE

  9. Effect of the Ratio of Non-fibrous Carbohydrates to Neutral Detergent Fiber and Protein Structure on Intake, Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Lambs.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Deng, K D; Diao, Q Y

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the ratio of non-fibrous carbohydrates to neutral detergent fibre (NFC/NDF) and undegraded dietary protein (UDP) on rumen fermentation and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs, averaging 62.3±1.9 kg of body weight and 10 mo of age, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments of combinations of two levels of NFC/NDF (1.0 and 1.7) and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of crude protein [CP]). Duodenal nutrient flows were measured with dual markers of Yb and Co, and microbial N (MN) synthesis was estimated using (15)N. High UDP decreased organic matter (OM) intake (p = 0.002) and CP intake (p = 0.005). Ruminal pH (p<0.001), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N; p = 0.008), and total volatile fatty acids (p<0.001) were affected by dietary NFC/NDF. The ruminal concentration of NH3-N was also affected by UDP (p<0.001). The duodenal flow of total MN (p = 0.007) was greater for lambs fed the high NFC/NDF diet. The amount of metabolisable N increased with increasing dietary NFC:NDF (p = 0.02) or UDP (p = 0.04). In conclusion, the diets with high NFC/NDF (1.7) and UDP (50% of CP) improved metabolisable N supply to lambs.

  10. Intake, digestibility and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fibre in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogen and/or starch.

    PubMed

    Souza, Marjorrie A; Detmann, Edenio; Paulino, Mário F; Sampaio, Cláudia B; Lazzarini, Isis; Valadares Filho, Sebastião C

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of nitrogenous compounds and/or starch supplementation on the intake, digestibility and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage. Four crossbred heifers (Holstein x Zebu) with a body weight 231.9 +/- 15.5 kg and fitted with ruminal cannulae were used. The forage fed to the animals consisted of low-quality signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.) hay, with an average crude protein (CP) level of 51.6 g/kg, on a dry matter (DM) basis. Four treatments were evaluated: control, without supplementation; supplementation with nitrogenous compounds (CP of the roughage was raised to 100 g/kg), on a DM basis; supplementation with starch at a ratio of 200 g/kg DM of roughage; and supplementation with nitrogenous compounds and starch as described above. A mixture of urea, ammonium sulphate and albumin was used as a source of nitrogenous compounds at a ratio of 4.5:0.5:1.0. The experiment was carried out according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. There was a positive effect of the nitrogenous compound supplementation on the DM and NDF intake (P < 0.01). In contrast, starch supplementation decreased forage intake (P < 0.10). Nitrogen supplementation increased the digestibility coefficient of DM and NDF (P < 0.05). Supplementation with nitrogen and starch together increased the microbial assimilation of nitrogenous compounds in the rumen (P < 0.05). We observed that nitrogen supplementation increased the estimated weighted degradation rate of NDF by 14.8%, whilst starch supplementation decreased this rate by 32.5%.

  11. Effects of varying dietary ratios of corn silage to alfalfa silage on digestion of neutral detergent fiber in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-09-01

    An in vivo study was performed to test an in vitro procedure and model that predicts total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility for lactating dairy cattle. Corn silage (CS) and alfalfa silage (AS) were used as forages for this study. These forages had similar NDF composition, but fiber in the CS contained less indigestible NDF compared with AS (35.5 and 47.8% of indigestible NDF, respectively). The in vitro method estimated rate of digestion of alfalfa potentially digestible NDF to be approximately 2 times faster than CS fiber (6.11 and 3.21%/h, respectively). Four diets were formulated containing different proportions of CS to AS: 100CS:0AS, 67CS:33AS, 33CS:67AS, and 0CS:100AS, as percentage of diet DM basis. The objective was to construct diets that contained approximately similar levels of NDF but with different pool sizes and rates of digestion of potentially digestible NDF. Diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, lactating dairy cows in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 21-d periods. Total-tract fiber digestibility and fiber digestion kinetic parameters observed in vivo were compared with the values predicted by the in vitro assay and model. Total-tract NDF digestibility coefficients were similar (41.8 and 40.6% of total NDF) for the in vitro and in vivo methods, respectively. As the proportion of dietary alfalfa increased, the digestibility of NDF increased. The rate of digestion of potentially digestible NDF predicted from the in vitro assay was also similar to what was observed in vivo. Results suggest that the in vitro total-tract NDF digestibility model could be used to predict rate of fiber digestion and NDF digestibility for lactating dairy cattle.

  12. Quantitative ADF STEM: acquisition, analysis and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative annular dark-field in the scanning transmission electron microscope (ADF STEM), where image intensities are used to provide composition and thickness measurements, has enjoyed a renaissance during the last decade. Now in a post aberration-correction era many aspects of the technique are being revisited. Here the recent progress and emerging best-practice for such aberration corrected quantitative ADF STEM is discussed including issues relating to proper acquisition of experimental data and its calibration, approaches for data analysis, the utility of such data, its interpretation and limitations.

  13. Experimenting with Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gail; Phillips, Donald B.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and procedures for experimenting with detergents. Included are methods for determination of the densities of dry detergents, ph values of detergent solutions, and a discussion of the ability of detergents to remove iodine stains from cloth. (CS)

  14. Ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of nitrogen and neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen from common crabgrass forages sampled on seven dates in northern Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Ogden, R K; Coblentz, W K; Coffey, K P; Turner, J E; Scarbrough, D A; Jennings, J A; Richardson, M D

    2006-03-01

    Southern crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) is often an undesirable species in field and forage crops, but visual observations suggest that livestock prefer it to many other summer forages. The objectives of this study were to assess the nutritive value of crabgrass sampled weekly between July 11 and August 22, 2001 and then to determine ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of N and neutral detergent insoluble N (NDIN) for these forages. A secondary objective was to compare these kinetic estimates for crabgrass with those of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.), and or-chardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) as control hays. All kinetic evaluations were conducted with 5 ruminally cannulated Gelbvieh x Angus x Brangus steers (383 +/- 22.7 kg). Concentrations of N for crabgrass decreased linearly (P < or = 0.002) across sampling dates for leaf, stem, and whole-plant tissues. Conversely, percentages of the total N pool within NDIN and ADIN fractions generally increased over sampling dates in mostly linear patterns. For crabgrass, the immediately soluble portion of the total N pool (fraction A; overall mean = 54.6% of N) was greater (P < 0.001) than for all control hays. Crabgrass exhibited a more rapid N disappearance rate (overall mean = 0.093/h; expressed as a proportion disappearing/h) than that of bermudagrass (0.046/h; P < 0.001), but the disappearance rate for alfalfa N (0.223/h) was considerably faster (P < 0.001) than for crabgrass. The effective ruminal disappearance of N was greater (P < 0.001) for crabgrass (overall mean = 85.4%) than for the alfalfa (83.3%), bermudagrass (72.3%), or orchardgrass (76.0%) control hays. For alfalfa, the ruminal disappearance rate of NDIN (0.150/h) was more rapid (P < 0.001) than for crabgrass (overall mean = 0.110/h); however, the disappearance rate for crabgrass was faster than that for bermudagrass (0.072/h; P < 0.001) or for orchardgrass (0.098/h; P = 0.010). Effective ruminal

  15. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and neutral detergent fiber source on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fredin, S M; Akins, M S; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatment diets were high corn grain (HCG; 38% corn silage, 19% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), high soy hulls (HSH; 38% corn silage, 11% dry ground corn, and 13% soy hulls), high corn silage (HCS; 50% corn silage, 6% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), and low corn silage (LCS; 29% corn silage, 15% corn, and 19% soy hulls). The HCG, HSH, HCS, and LCS diets contained 29, 23, 24, and 22% starch; 27, 32, 30, and 32% total NDF; and 21, 21, 25, and 17% forage NDF (dry matter basis), respectively. Mean dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment. Cows fed LCS had reduced milk fat content compared with HSH and HCS. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed HCS compared with the other treatments. Total-tract digestion of NDF was reduced for cows fed the HCG diet. Total-tract starch digestion was increased for cows fed the HSH and HCS compared with HCG and LCS diets. Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced in cows fed the HCG and LCS diets compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal propionate increased and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased in cows fed the LCS diet compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal pH was greater for cows fed the HCS diet compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Diet digestibility and performance of mid- to late-lactation cows fed reduced-starch diets by partially replacing corn grain with soy hulls or corn silage was similar to or improved compared with cows fed a normal-starch diet.

  16. SIDS-toADF File Mapping Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Douglas; Smith, Matthew; Poirier, Diane; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The "CFD General Notation System" (CGNS) consists of a collection of conventions, and conforming software, for the storage and retrieval of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) data. It facilitates the exchange of data between sites and applications, and helps stabilize the archiving of aerodynamic data. This effort was initiated in order to streamline the procedures in exchanging data and software between NASA and its customers, but the goal is to develop CGNS into a National Standard for the exchange of aerodynamic data. The CGNS development team is comprised of members from Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, NASA-Ames, NASA-Langley, NASA-Lewis, McDonnell-Douglas Corporation (now Boeing-St. Louis), Air Force-Wright Lab., and ICEM-CFD Engineering. The elements of CGNS address all activities associated with the storage of data on external media and its movement to and from application programs. These elements include: 1) The Advanced Data Format (ADF) Database manager, consisting of both a file format specification and its I/O software, which handles the actual reading and writing of data from and to external storage media; 2) The Standard Interface Data Structures (SIDS), which specify the intellectual content of CFD data and the conventions governing naming and terminology; 3) The SIDS-to-ADF File Mapping conventions, which specify the exact location where the CFD data defined by the SIDS is to be stored within the ADF file(s); and 4) The CGNS Mid-level Library, which provides CFD-knowledgeable routines suitable for direct installation into application codes. The SIDS-toADF File Mapping Manual specifies the exact manner in which, under CGNS conventions, CFD data structures (the SIDS) are to be stored in (i.e., mapped onto) the file structure provided by the database manager (ADF). The result is a conforming CGNS database. Adherence to the mapping conventions guarantees uniform meaning and location of CFD data within ADF files, and thereby allows the construction of

  17. Convenient and rapid removal of detergent from glycolipids in detergent-resistant membrane microdomains.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Kabayama, Kazuya

    2012-03-01

    Although detergents are often essential in protocols, they are usually incompatible with further biochemical analysis. There are several methods for detergent removal, but the procedures are complicated or suffer from sample loss. Here, we describe a convenient and rapid method for detergent removal from sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids (gangliosides) and neutral glycolipids in detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) microdomain. It is based on selective detergent extraction, in which the sample is dried on a glass tube, followed by washing with organic solvent. We investigated 18 organic solvents and used high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS) to confirm that dichloroethane (DCE) was the most suitable solvent and completely removed the nonionic detergent Triton X-100. Furthermore, DCE extraction effectively removed interference caused by other nonionic, zwitterionic, or ionic detergents in MALDI-QIT-TOF MS analysis.

  18. Solution structure and dynamics of ADF from Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rahul; Pathak, Prem Prakash; Shukla, Vaibhav Kumar; Jain, Anupam; Srivastava, Shubhra; Tripathi, Sarita; Krishna Pulavarti, S V S R; Mehta, Simren; Sibley, L David; Arora, Ashish

    2011-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii ADF (TgADF) belongs to a functional subtype characterized by strong G-actin sequestering activity and low F-actin severing activity. Among the characterized ADF/cofilin proteins, TgADF has the shortest length and is missing a C-terminal helix implicated in F-actin binding. In order to understand its characteristic properties, we have determined the solution structure of TgADF and studied its backbone dynamics from ¹⁵N-relaxation measurements. TgADF has conserved ADF/cofilin fold consisting of a central mixed β-sheet comprised of six β-strands that are partially surrounded by three α-helices and a C-terminal helical turn. The high G-actin sequestering activity of TgADF relies on highly structurally and dynamically optimized interactions between G-actin and G-actin binding surface of TgADF. The equilibrium dissociation constant for TgADF and rabbit muscle G-actin was 23.81 nM, as measured by ITC, which reflects very strong affinity of TgADF and G-actin interactions. The F-actin binding site of TgADF is partially formed, with a shortened F-loop that does not project out of the ellipsoid structure and a C-terminal helical turn in place of the C-terminal helix α4. Yet, it is more rigid than the F-actin binding site of Leishmania donovani cofilin. Experimental observations and structural features do not support the interaction of PIP2 with TgADF, and PIP2 does not affect the interaction of TgADF with G-actin. Overall, this study suggests that conformational flexibility of G-actin binding sites enhances the affinity of TgADF for G-actin, while conformational rigidity of F-actin binding sites of conventional ADF/cofilins is necessary for stable binding to F-actin.

  19. Exploring Detergent Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews the ecological dangers of certain types of detergents, and the action taken by government agencies and detergent manufacturers to alleviate the problem. Describes classroom activities and instructional procedures designed to illustrate detergent characteristics and the effects of detergent pollution. (MLH)

  20. Substitution of crude cell wall for neutral detergent fibre in the equations of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System that predict carbohydrate fractions: application to sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M A A; Fukushima, R S; Gomide, C A; Braga, M R

    2008-07-01

    Prediction of carbohydrate fractions using equations from the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) is a valuable tool to assess the nutritional value of forages. In this paper, these carbohydrate fractions were predicted using data from three sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars, fresh or as silage. The CNCPS equations for fractions B2 and C include measurement of ash and protein-free neutral detergent fibre (NDF) as one of their components. However, NDF lacks pectin and other non-starch polysaccharides that are found in the cell wall (CW) matrix, so this work compared the use of a crude CW preparation instead of NDF in the CNCPS equations. There were no differences in the estimates of fractions B1 and C when CW replaced NDF; however, there were differences in fractions A and B2. Some of the CNCPS equations could be simplified when using CW instead of NDF. Notably, lignin could be expressed as a proportion of DM, rather than on the basis of ash and protein-free NDF, when predicting CNCPS fraction C. The CNCPS fraction B1 (starch + pectin) values were lower than pectin determined through wet chemistry. This finding, along with the results obtained by the substitution of CW for NDF in the CNCPS equations, suggests that pectin was not part of fraction B1 but present in fraction A. We suggest that pectin and other non-starch polysaccharides that are dissolved by the neutral detergent solution be allocated to a specific fraction (B2) and that another fraction (B3) be adopted for the digestible cell wall carbohydrates.

  1. Comparative studies on ecotoxicology of synthetic detergents.

    PubMed

    Lal, H; Misra, V; Viswanathan, P N; Krishna Murti, C R

    1983-12-01

    To predict the comparative toxicological response of synthetic detergents on aquatic ecosystems, the effects of various concentrations of neutralized alkyl benzene sulfonate were studied. The median tolerance limit at 48 hr, 95% confidence limit, slope function, presumable harmless concentration, and rate of survival of different species of aquatic fauna such as water fleas (Daphnia magna), mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens), slug worms (Tubifex rivulorum), snails (Lymnaea vulgaris), tadpoles (Rana cyanophlyctis), and fish fingerlings (Cirrhina mrigala) were followed at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr. Any effect on quality of the water was also tested after the addition of various concentrations of detergents. The results showed that water fleas are more susceptible to detergent toxicity than fish fingerlings, tadpoles, slug worms, snails, and mosquito larvae. Behavioral changes were also observed as an index for detergent toxicity. The relative toxicity of the detergents to various species is discussed in relation to selective ecotoxicological response.

  2. The ADF/cofilin family: actin-remodeling proteins.

    PubMed

    Maciver, Sutherland K; Hussey, Patrick J

    2002-01-01

    The ADF/cofilins are a family of actin-binding proteins expressed in all eukaryotic cells so far examined. Members of this family remodel the actin cytoskeleton, for example during cytokinesis, when the actin-rich contractile ring shrinks as it contracts through the interaction of ADF/cofilins with both monomeric and filamentous actin. The depolymerizing activity is twofold: ADF/cofilins sever actin filaments and also increase the rate at which monomers leave the filament's pointed end. The three-dimensional structure of ADF/cofilins is similar to a fold in members of the gelsolin family of actin-binding proteins in which this fold is typically repeated three or six times; although both families bind polyphosphoinositide lipids and actin in a pH-dependent manner, they share no obvious sequence similarity. Plants and animals have multiple ADF/cofilin genes, belonging in vertebrates to two types, ADF and cofilins. Other eukaryotes (such as yeast, Acanthamoeba and slime moulds) have a single ADF/cofilin gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the ADF/cofilins reveals that, with few exceptions, their relationships reflect conventional views of the relationships between the major groups of organisms.

  3. Actin depolymerizing factors ADF7 and ADF10 play distinct roles during pollen development and pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Daher, Firas Bou; Geitmann, Anja

    2012-07-01

    An important player in actin remodeling is the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) which increases actin filament treadmilling rates. Previously, we had prepared fluorescent protein fusions of two Arabidopsis pollen specific ADFs, ADF7 and ADF10. These had enabled us to determine the temporal expression patterns and subcellular localization of these proteins during male gametophyte development. Here we generated stable transformants containing both chimeric genes allowing for simultaneous imaging and direct comparison. One of the striking differences between the two proteins was the localization profile in the growing pollen tube apex. Whereas ADF10 was associated with the filamentous actin array forming the subapical actin fringe, ADF7 was present in the same cytoplasmic region, but in diffuse form. This suggests that ADF7 is involved in the high actin turnover that is likely to occur in the fringe by continuously and efficiently depolymerizing filamentous actin and supplying monomeric actin to the advancing end of the fringe. The possibility to visualize both of these pollen-specific ADFs simultaneously opens avenues for future research into the regulatory function of actin binding proteins in pollen.

  4. Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber

  5. Implementation of the SM12 Solvation Model into ADF and Comparison with COSMO.

    PubMed

    Peeples, Craig A; Schreckenbach, Georg

    2016-08-09

    In this article, an implementation of the newest iteration of the Minnesota solvation model, SM12, into the Amsterdam density functional (ADF) computational package is presented. ADF makes exclusive use of Slater-type orbitals (STO), which correctly represent the true atomic orbitals for atoms, whereas SM12 and the underlying charge model 5 (CM5) have previously only been tested on Gaussian-type orbitals (GTO). This new implementation is used to prove the basis set independence of both CM5 and SM12. A detailed comparison of the SM12 and COSMO solvation models, as implemented in ADF, is also presented. We show that this new implementation of SM12 has a mean unsigned error (MUE) of 0.68 kcal/mol for 272 molecules in water solvent, 4.10 kcal/mol MUE for 112 charged ions in water, and 0.92 kcal/mol MUE for 197 solvent calculations of various molecules. SM12 outperforms COSMO for all neutral molecules and performs as well as COSMO for cationic molecules, only falling short when anionic molecules are taken into consideration, likely due to CM5's use of Hirshfeld charges and their poor description of anionic molecules, though CM5 seems to improve upon this discrepancy.

  6. Technical note: In vitro digestibility of amylase-treated, ash-corrected neutral detergent fiber, with addition of sodium sulfite, at 240 hours with or without rumen fluid reinoculation.

    PubMed

    Palmonari, A; Canestrari, G; Bonfante, E; Fustini, M; Mammi, L; Formigoni, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term in vitro fermentation (240 h) evaluating amylase-treated, ash-corrected neutral detergent fiber, with addition of sodium sulfite (aNDFom) digestibility is required to quantify the indigestible fiber fraction. It is commonly accepted to inoculate rumen fluid more than one time during such fermentations, every 96 h or at 120 h. However, no studies have been conducted to verify if the reinoculation is actually required to properly carry out the fermentation process. The current study aims to evaluate the effects of these procedures on aNDFom digestibility at 240 h. The study was conducted on a total of 24 forage samples (8 alfalfa hays, 8 grass hays, and 8 corn silages). Samples were digested in triplicate at 240 h in vitro. Rumen fluid was added twice (at 96 and 192 h) in treatment 1, after 120 h in treatment 2, whereas no addition was made in treatment 3. At the end of the fermentations, residual aNDFom was quantified to calculate digestibility. Among treatments, no difference was found in digestibility of aNDFom. Moreover, treatment 1 resulted in higher variability compared with other treatments. Results obtained in the current study show that subsequent addition of rumen fluid is not necessary for a proper estimation of aNDFom digestibility, and can be avoided.

  7. Comparison of near infra-red spectroscopy, neutral detergent fibre assay and in-vitro organic matter digestibility assay for rapid determination of the biochemical methane potential of meadow grasses.

    PubMed

    Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Ward, Alastair James; Nielsen, Lisbeth; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2011-09-01

    This paper investigates near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) as an indirect and rapid method to assess the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of meadow grasses. Additionally analytical methods usually associated with forage analysis, namely, the neutral detergent fibre assay (NDF), and the in-vitro organic matter digestibility assay (IVOMD), were also tested on the meadow grass samples and the applicability of the models in predicting the BMP was studied. Based on these, regression models were obtained using the partial least squares (PLS) method. Various data pre-treatments were also applied to improve the models. Compared to the models based on the NDF and IVOMD predictions of BMP, the model based on the NIRS prediction of BMP gave the best results. This model, with data pre-processed by the mean normalisation method, had an R(2) value of 0.69, a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 37.4 and a residual prediction deviation (RPD) of 1.75.

  8. Laundry detergents: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Divya; Tyagi, V K

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays laundry detergents are becoming increasingly popular as they can be metered automatically into the washing machine, impart softness, antistaticness, resiliency to fabrics, mild to eyes and skins and shows good dispersibility in water. Because it is consumed when it is used, the sale of laundry detergent is a rather large business. There are many different kinds or brands of laundry detergent sold, many of them claiming some special qualities as selling points. A Laundry detergent composition is a formulated mixture of raw materials that can be classified into different types based on their properties and function in the final product. The different classes of raw materials are surfactants, builders, bleaching agents, enzymes, and minors which remove dirt, stain, and soil from surfaces or textiles gave them pleasant feel and odour. The physico-chemical properties of surfactants make them suitable for laundry purposes. Laundry detergent has traditionally been a powdered or granular solid, but the use of liquid laundry detergents has gradually increased over the years, and these days use of liquid detergent equals or even exceeds use of solid detergent. This review paper describes the history, composition, types, mechanism, consumption, environmental effects and consumption of laundry detergents.

  9. The effects of forage proportion and rapidly degradable dry matter from concentrate on ruminal digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with fixed neutral detergent fiber and starch contents.

    PubMed

    Lechartier, C; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio and the rate of ruminal degradation of carbohydrates from the concentrate on digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. Six cows with ruminal cannulas were assigned to 6 treatments in a 6x6 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 3x2 factorial design. Three proportions of neutral detergent fiber from forage [FNDF; 7.6, 13.2, and 18.9% of dry matter (DM)] were obtained by modifying F:C (20:80, 35:65, and 50:50). These F:C were combined with concentrates with either high or low content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates. The dietary content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates from the concentrate was estimated from the DM disappearance of concentrate after 4h of in sacco incubation (CRDM). Thus, 2 proportions of CRDM were tested (20 and 30% of DM). Wheat and corn grain were used as rapidly and slowly degradable starch sources, respectively. Soybean hulls and citrus pulp were used as slowly and rapidly degradable fiber sources, respectively. Concentrate composition was adjusted to maintain dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents at 35.9 and 28.9% of DM, respectively. There was no effect of the interaction between F:C and CRDM on DM intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and fibrolytic activity. When F:C decreased, DMI increased, the mean ruminal pH linearly decreased, and the pH range linearly increased from 0.95 to 1.27 pH unit. At the same time, the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased linearly. Decreasing F:C linearly decreased the average time spent chewing per kilogram of DMI from 35.2 to 19.5min/kg of DMI and decreased ruminal liquid outflow from 11.6 to 9.2L/kg of DMI, suggesting a decrease in the salivary flow. Increasing CRDM decreased DMI and increased the time during which pH was below 6.0 (3.1 vs. 4.8h), the pH range (0.90 vs. 1.33), and the initial rate of pH drop. It also increased the volatile fatty acid range (35 vs. 59mM), thus

  10. Aminoamide fuel detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Holtz, H.D.

    1981-02-10

    A detergent additive aminoamide, prepared by reacting a polycarboxylic amino acid with alkylamines, is combined into fuel for an internal combustion engine or lubricating oil as a composition suitable for reducing deposits in an internal combustion engine. In an embodiment of the invention, the aminoamide is further combined with a sulfonic acid to obtain a fuel detergent of improved operability.

  11. Imidazoline fuel detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B. R.; Holtz, H. D.

    1981-01-27

    A detergent additive imidazoline prepared by reacting carboxylic acid with polyamine is combined into fuel for an internal combustion engine or lubricating oil as a composition suitable for reducing deposits in an internal combustion engine. In an embodiment of the invention, the imidazoline is further combined with a sulfonic acid to obtain a fuel detergent of improved operability.

  12. The Bacterial Community Structure and Dynamics of Carbon and Nitrogen when Maize (Zea mays L.) and Its Neutral Detergent Fibre Were Added to Soil from Zimbabwe with Contrasting Management Practices.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz-Barrón, Magali; Cruz-Mendoza, Alejandra; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Ruiz-Valdiviezo, Victor M; Ortíz-Gutiérrez, Daniel; Ramírez-Villanueva, Daniel A; Luna-Guido, Marco; Thierfelder, Cristian; Wall, Patrick C; Verhulst, Nele; Govaerts, Bram; Dendooven, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Water infiltration, soil carbon content, aggregate stability and yields increased in conservation agriculture practices compared to conventionally ploughed control treatments at the Henderson research station near Mazowe (Zimbabwe). How these changes in soil characteristics affect the bacterial community structure and the bacteria involved in the degradation of applied organic material remains unanswered. Soil was sampled from three agricultural systems at Henderson, i.e. (1) conventional mouldboard ploughing with continuous maize (conventional tillage), (2) direct seeding with a Fitarelli jab planter and continuous maize (direct seeding with continuous maize) and (3) direct seeding with a Fitarelli jab planter with rotation of maize sunn hemp (direct seeding with crop rotation). Soil was amended with young maize plants or their neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and incubated aerobically for 56 days, while C and N mineralization and the bacterial community structure were monitored. Bacillus (Bacillales), Micrococcaceae (Actinomycetales) and phylotypes belonging to the Pseudomonadales were first degraders of the applied maize plants. At day 3, Streptomyces (Actinomycetales), Chitinophagaceae ([Saprospirales]) and Dyella (Xanthomonadales) participated in the degradation of the applied maize and at day 7 Oxalobacteraceae (Burkholderiales). Phylotypes belonging to Halomonas (Oceanospirillales) were the first degraders of NDF and were replaced by Phenylobacterium (Caulobacterales) and phylotypes belonging to Pseudomonadales at day 3. Afterwards, similar bacterial groups were favoured by application of NDF as they were by the application of maize plants, but there were also clear differences. Phylotypes belonging to the Micrococcaceae and Bacillus did not participate in the degradation of NDF or its metabolic products, while phylotypes belonging to the Acidobacteriaceae participated in the degradation of NDF but not in that of maize plants. It was found that agricultural

  13. Strain, composition and disorder in ADF imaging of semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, V.; Mueller, K.; Volz, K.; Glas, F.; Grieb, T.; Rosenauer, A.

    2011-11-01

    The effect of strain, composition and disorder in ADF images is systematically studied as a function of detection angle in order to understand the main contrast mechanisms. We demonstrate that the complex phenomenology in ADF images can be accounted for by accurate simulations and modelling. The advantage of an accurate modelling on the image interpretation will be demonstrated in the case of dislocations, chemical analysis of InGaP/GaAs and most noticeably the measurement of both In and N content in quaternary InGaAsN.

  14. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiling of ADF Family Genes in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    PubMed Central

    Khatun, Khadiza; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Park, Jong-In; Kim, Chang Kil; Lim, Ki-Byung; Kim, Min-Bae; Lee, Do-Jin; Nou, Ill Sup; Chung, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) proteins have growth, development, defense-related and growth regulatory functions in plants. The present study used genome-wide analysis to investigate ADF family genes in tomato. Eleven tomato ADF genes were identified and differential expression patterns were found in different organs. SlADF6 was preferentially expressed in roots, suggesting its function in root development. SlADF1, SlADF3 and SlADF10 were predominately expressed in the flowers compared to the other organs and specifically in the stamen compared to other flower parts, indicating their potential roles in pollen development. The comparatively higher expression of SlADF3 and SlADF11 at early fruit developmental stages might implicate them in determining final fruit size. SlADF5 and SlADF8 had relatively higher levels of expression five days after the breaker stage of fruit development, suggesting their possible role in fruit ripening. Notably, six genes were induced by cold and heat, seven by drought, five by NaCl, and four each by abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and wounding treatments. The differential expression patterns of the SlADF genes under different types of stresses suggested their function in stress tolerance in tomato plants. Our results will be helpful for the functional characterization of ADF genes during organ and fruit development of tomato under different stresses. PMID:27690110

  15. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiling of ADF Family Genes in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Khadiza; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Park, Jong-In; Kim, Chang Kil; Lim, Ki-Byung; Kim, Min-Bae; Lee, Do-Jin; Nou, Ill Sup; Chung, Mi-Young

    2016-09-29

    The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) proteins have growth, development, defense-related and growth regulatory functions in plants. The present study used genome-wide analysis to investigate ADF family genes in tomato. Eleven tomato ADF genes were identified and differential expression patterns were found in different organs. SlADF6 was preferentially expressed in roots, suggesting its function in root development. SlADF1, SlADF3 and SlADF10 were predominately expressed in the flowers compared to the other organs and specifically in the stamen compared to other flower parts, indicating their potential roles in pollen development. The comparatively higher expression of SlADF3 and SlADF11 at early fruit developmental stages might implicate them in determining final fruit size. SlADF5 and SlADF8 had relatively higher levels of expression five days after the breaker stage of fruit development, suggesting their possible role in fruit ripening. Notably, six genes were induced by cold and heat, seven by drought, five by NaCl, and four each by abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and wounding treatments. The differential expression patterns of the SlADF genes under different types of stresses suggested their function in stress tolerance in tomato plants. Our results will be helpful for the functional characterization of ADF genes during organ and fruit development of tomato under different stresses.

  16. Anaerobic degradation of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and the fate of ADF additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Thi Tham

    2002-11-01

    A central composite design was employed to methodically investigate anaerobic treatment of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in bench-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors. A total of 23 runs at 17 different operating conditions were conducted in continuous mode. The development of four empirical models describing process responses (i.e., chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, biomass specific acetoclastic activity, methane production rate, and methane production potential) as functions of ADF concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and biomass concentration is presented. Model verification indicated that predicted responses (COD removal efficiencies, biomass specific acetoclastic activity, and methane production rates and potential) were in good agreement with experimental results. Biomass specific acetoclastic activity was improved by almost two-fold during ADF treatment in UASB reactors. For the design window, COD removal efficiencies were higher than 90%. Predicted methane production potentials were close to theoretical values, and methane production rates increased as the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased. ADF toxicity effects were evident for 1.6% ADF at medium specific organic loadings (SOLR above 0.5 g COD/g VSS/d). In contrast, good reactor stability and excellent removal efficiencies were achieved at 1.2% ADF for reactor loadings approaching that of highly loaded systems (0.73 g COD/g VSS/d). Acclimation to ADF resulted in an initial reduction in the biomass settling velocity. The fate of ADF additives was also investigated. There was minimal sorption of benzotriazole (BT), 5-methyl-1 H-benzotriazole (MeBT), and 5,6-dimethyl-1 H-benzotriazole (DiMeBT) to anaerobic granules. A higher sorption capacity was measured for NP. Active transport may be one of the mechanisms for NP sorption. Ethylene glycol degradation experiments indicated that BT, MeBT, DiMeBT, and the nonionic surfactant Tergitol NP-4 had no significant

  17. Detergent gasoline composition

    SciTech Connect

    Biasotti, J.B.; Dille, K.L.; Dorn, P.; Herbstman, S.

    1980-05-27

    A detergent motor fuel composition is provided comprising a primary aliphatic hydrocarbon amino alkylene-substituted asparagine and an N-alkyl-alkylene diamine component. The additive composition consists of from 30 to 70 weight percent of aspargine.

  18. Detergent-Fearing Milk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Diane

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that demonstrates among the following: diffusion; cohesion and adhesion; properties of surface tension which include wicking, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic molecular behaviors; and break up of fat clusters by liquid dishwashing detergent. (DDR)

  19. Suppression of mTOR Signaling Pathways in Skeletal Muscle of Finishing Pigs by Increasing the Ratios of Ether Extract and Neutral Detergent Fiber at the Expense of Starch in Iso-energetic Diets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changning; Li, Yanjiao; Zhang, Bolin; Lin, Meng; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Tianjiao; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-02-24

    Three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets were fed to finishing pigs for 28 days to investigate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ubiquitin-proteasome signaling pathways of skeletal muscle by altering compositions of dietary energy sources. Diet A, diet B, and diet C contained 44.1%, 37.6%, and 30.9% starch; 5.9%, 9.5%, and 14.3% ether extract (EE); and 12.6%, 15.4%, and 17.8% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), respectively. An increase of mRNA expression of MuRF1 (1.09 ± 0.10 vs 1.00 ± 0.08) and MAFbx (1.10 ± 0.06 vs 1.00 ± 0.11) and a decrease of concentrations of plasma insulin (8.2 ± 0.8 vs 10.8 ± 1.2) and glucose (5.76 ± 0.12 vs 6.43 ± 0.33) together with mRNA expression of IRS (0.78 ± 0.19 vs 1.01 ± 0.05) and Akt (0.92 ± 0.01 vs 1.00 ± 0.05) were observed in pigs fed diet C compared with diet A. Protein levels of total and phosphorylated mTOR (0.31 ± 0.04 vs 0.48 ± 0.03 and 0.39 ± 0.01 vs 0.56 ± 0.02), 4EBP1 (0.66 ± 0.06 vs 0.90 ± 0.09 and 0.60 ± 0.12 vs 0.84 ± 0.09), and S6K1 (0.66 ± 0.01 vs 0.89 ± 0.01 and 0.48 ± 0.03 vs 0.79 ± 0.02) were decreased; however, total and phosphorylated AMPK (0.96 ± 0.06 vs 0.64 ± 0.04 and 0.97 ± 0.09 vs 0.61 ± 0.09) were increased in pigs fed diet C compared with diet A. In conclusion, diet C suppressed the mTOR pathway and accelerated the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs.

  20. Technical note: Evaluation of markers for estimating duodenal digesta flow and ruminal digestibility: Acid detergent fiber, sulfuric acid detergent lignin, and n-alkanes.

    PubMed

    Kozloski, G V; Stefanello, C M; Mesquita, F R; Alves, T P; Ribeiro Filho, H M N; Almeida, J G R; Moraes Genro, T C

    2014-03-01

    The amount of digesta flowing to the duodenum is a relevant measurement for the evaluation of nutrient supply to ruminants, which is usually estimated in animals fitted with a duodenal T-type cannula using internal or external markers. This study evaluated acid detergent fiber (ADF) compared with external (C32n-alkane) and internal [sulfuric acid lignin (ADL) and n-alkanes C31 and C33] markers for estimating duodenal flow and(or) ruminal digestibility of dry matter (DM) in cattle and sheep. In the first assay, 4 duodenally cannulated Holstein steers housed in metabolism cages, dosed with C32n-alkane, and fed Avena strigosa plus concentrate and increasing levels of tannin extract to reduce ruminal digestibility, were used in a Latin square design. The mobile-bag technique was used to measure the intestinal disappearance of ADL and ADF from forage (Avena strigosa, Pennisetum purpureum, Cynodon dactylon, and Medicago sativa) and concentrate (corn grain, soybean meal, and sunflower meal) samples that were previously incubated in the rumen of additional fistulated steer for 12, 24, 36, or 48 h. The ADF concentration in residues recovered in the feces was strongly related to the ADF concentration in residues at the duodenum (R(2)=0.93, standard deviation=30.0, n=901). This relationship showed a lower precision for ADL fraction (R(2)=0.88, standard deviation=12.6, n=590). In a second assay, duodenal flow and ruminal DM digestibility were calculated from the duodenal and fecal concentration of either marker. We observed a significant effect of marker type on ruminal DM digestibility values, and the effect of tannin treatments was observed only when ADF or ADL was used as the marker. The lowest residual error was obtained for ADF. Ruminal DM digestibility was, on average, higher for C31 and C(33)n-alkanes, and the use of dosed C(32)n-alkane resulted in a negative value. In the third assay, a data set of 235 individual observations was compiled from digestibility trials to

  1. Advanced Data Format (ADF) Software Library and Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Matthew; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The "CFD General Notation System" (CGNS) consists of a collection of conventions, and conforming software, for the storage and retrieval of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) data. It facilitates the exchange of data between sites and applications, and helps stabilize the archiving of aerodynamic data. This effort was initiated in order to streamline the procedures in exchanging data and software between NASA and its customers, but the goal is to develop CGNS into a National Standard for the exchange of aerodynamic data. The CGNS development team is comprised of members from Boeing Commercial. Airplane Group, NASA-Ames, NASA-Langley, NASA-Lewis, McDonnell-Douglas Corporation (now Boeing-St. Louis), Air Force-Wright Lab., and ICEM-CFD Engineering. The elements of CGNS address all activities associated with the storage of data on external media and its movement to and from application programs. These elements include: 1) The Advanced Data Format (ADF) Database manager, consisting of both a file format specification and its 1/0 software, which handles the actual reading and writing of data from and to external storage media; 2) The Standard Interface Data Structures (SIDS), which specify the intellectual content of CFD data and the conventions governing naming and terminology; 3) The SIDS-to-ADF File Mapping conventions, which specify the exact location where the CFD data defined by the SIDS is to be stored within the ADF file(s); and 4) The CGNS Mid-level Library, which provides CFD-knowledgeable routines suitable for direct installation into application codes. The ADF is a generic database manager with minimal intrinsic capability. It was written for the purpose of storing large numerical datasets in an efficient, platform independent manner. To be effective, it must be used in conjunction with external agreements on how the data will be organized within the ADF database such defined by the SIDS. There are currently 34 user callable functions that comprise the ADF

  2. Crystallization in detergent performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoes, D.; Van Landschoot, R. C.; Van Rosmalen, G. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various polymeric additives on the crystallization of CaCO 3 in simple soda-based detergent formulations were investigated. The adherence of CaCO 3 on cotton, a great disadvantage of soda-based detergents, was significantly diminished by copolymers of polystyrene sulfonates. A mechanism in which these additives promote the nucleation of CaCO 3 is proposed. Polyacrylates cause an increasing adherence of CaCO 3 on cotton, because the chains adsorb on cotton and CaCO 3

  3. Hydrocarbon fuel detergent

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.R.; Lyons, W.R.

    1990-01-23

    This patent describes a hydrocarbon fuel composition comprising: a hydrocarbon fuel; and a detergent amount of a detergent comprising an alkenylsuccinimide prepared by reacting an alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride with a mixture of amines, wherein at least 90 weight percent of the alkenyl substituent is derived from an olefin having a carbon chain of from 10 to 30 carbons or mixtures thereof, and wherein the alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride is reacted with the mixture of amines at a mole ratio of 0.8 to 1.5 moles of the amines per mole of the alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride.

  4. The effects of feeding rations that differ in neutral detergent fiber and starch concentration within a day on rumen digesta nutrient concentration, pH, and fermentation products in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ying, Y; Rottman, L W; Crawford, C; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2015-07-01

    There is a daily pattern of feed intake in the dairy cow, and feeding a single total mixed ration results in variation in the amount of fermentable substrate entering the rumen over the day. The object of this study was to determine if feeding multiple rations over the day that complement the pattern of feed intake would stabilize rumen pool sizes and fermentation. Nine ruminally cannulated cows were used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 23-d periods. Diets were a control diet [33.3% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)], a low-fiber diet (LF; 29.6% NDF), and a high-fiber diet (HF; 34.8% NDF). The LF and HF diets were balanced to provide the same nutrient composition as the control diet when cows were fed 3 parts of LF and 7 parts of HF. Cows on the control treatment (CON) were fed at 0900h, cows on the high/low treatment (H/L) were fed HF at 70% of daily offering at 0900h and LF at 30% of daily offering at 2200h, and cows on the low/high (L/H) treatment were fed LF at 30% of daily offering at 0900h and HF at 70% of daily offering at 1300h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Preplanned contrasts compared CON with H/L and H/L with L/H. Feeding the LF diet in the evening resulted in a large increase in the amount of feed consumed immediately after feed delivery at that feeding. Rumen digesta starch concentration increased and NDF concentration decreased following feeding of the LF diet in both the L/H and H/L treatments. Starch pool size also increased following feeding of the LF diet in the evening and tended to increase after feeding the LF diet in the morning. Rumen ammonia concentration was increased following feeding of the HF diet in the morning and the LF diet in the evening in the H/L treatment. Additionally, cis-9 C18:1 and cis-9,cis-12 18:2 are higher in concentrate feeds and were increased after feeding the LF diet in both treatments. Trans fatty acid isomers of the normal and alternate biohydrogenation pathways followed a daily pattern, and the H

  5. The effects of feeding rations that differ in neutral detergent fiber and starch concentration within a day on production, feeding behavior, total-tract digestibility, and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rottman, L W; Ying, Y; Zhou, K; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2015-07-01

    Dairy cows exhibit a daily pattern of feed intake and milk synthesis, and feeding a single total mixed ration over the day may not synchronize ruminal fermentation, nutrient absorption, and milk synthesis. Our hypothesis was that feeding a high-fiber diet during the high-intake period of the day and a low-fiber diet during the low-intake overnight period would stabilize rumen fermentation, nutrient absorption, and the availability of nutrients for milk synthesis. Nine ruminally cannulated cows were used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 23-d periods. Diets were a control [CON; 33.3% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)], a low-fiber diet (LF; 29.6% NDF), and a high-fiber diet (HF; 34.8% NDF). The HF and LF diets were balanced to provide the same nutrient composition as the control diet when cows were fed a 7:3 ratio of HF:LF. Control cows were fed once daily at 0900h. Cows in the high/low treatment (H/L) were fed HF at 70% of daily offering at 0900h and LF at 30% of daily offering at 2200h; cows in the low/high (L/H) treatment were fed LF at 30% of daily offering at 0900h and HF at 70% of daily offering at 1300h. Dry matter intake was decreased 1.9kg/d by H/L compared with CON, but intake did not differ between H/L and L/H. The H/L and L/H treatments resulted in a large amount of feed consumed after each feeding, which shifted the daily patterns of starch and fiber intake. Treatments did not differ in total-tract digestibility. We detected no differences between CON and H/L for milk yield and composition. The H/L treatment unexpectedly tended to reduce milk and reduced milk fat yield compared with L/H, although L/H was expected to result in poorer rumen fermentation and decreased milk fat yield. Treatment did not affect milk fat concentrations of trans-10 C18:1, trans-11 C18:1, or de novo synthesized fatty acids, but H/L increased milk fat concentration of preformed fatty acids compared with CON (39.15 vs. 37.38% of FA, respectively). Treatment had no effect on plasma

  6. Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.

    PubMed

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2014-10-01

    Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted.

  7. TaADF3, an Actin-Depolymerizing Factor, Negatively Modulates Wheat Resistance Against Puccinia striiformis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chunlei; Deng, Lin; Chang, Dan; Chen, Shuntao; Wang, Xiaojie; Kang, Zhensheng

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in plant defense against pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and bacteria. Actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are stimulus responsive actin cytoskeleton modulators. However, there is limited evidence linking ADFs with plant defense against pathogens. In this study, we have isolated and functionally characterized a stress-responsive ADF gene (TaADF3) from wheat, which was detectable in all examined wheat tissues. TaADF3 is a three-copy gene located on chromosomes 5AL, 5BL, and 5DL. A particle bombardment assay in onion epidermal cells revealed the cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of TaADF3. The expression of TaADF3 was inducible by abscisic acid (ABA), as well as various abiotic stresses (drought and cold) and virulent Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) but was down regulated in response to avirulent Pst. Virus-induced silencing of TaADF3 copies enhanced wheat resistance to avirulent Pst, with decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and hypersensitive response (HR). Upon treatment with virulent Pst, TaADF3-knockdown plants exhibited reduced susceptibility, which was accompanied by increased ROS production and HR. Interestingly, the silencing of TaADF3 resulted in hindered pathogen penetration and haustoria formation for both avirulent and virulent Pst. Moreover, the array and distribution of actin filaments was transformed in TaADF3-knockdown epidermal cells, which possibly facilitated attenuating the fungus penetration. Thus, our findings suggest that TaADF3 positively regulates wheat tolerance to abiotic stresses and negatively regulates wheat resistance to Pst in an ROS-dependent manner, possibly underlying the mechanism of impeding fungal penetration dependent on the actin architecture dynamics. PMID:26834758

  8. [Determination of the detergent efficiency of the detergents disinfecting for surfaces].

    PubMed

    Santucci, R; Kuntzmann, X; Mesli, N; Meunier, O

    2009-01-01

    Since the disinfecting activity of disinfectants is evaluated by standards, the intrinsic detergent activity is not easily quantifiable and no standard have been suggested yet. Beyond the physicochemical parameters like wettability or foaming presented by the manufacturers, it appears necessary to us to objectively measure the real effect of the detergent agent. The objective of our work is to propose a simple, fast and reproducible method to evaluate detersive activity of the disinfecting detergents. We measured three factors (total amount of extracted bacteria, extraction efficiency and slope of extracting curve) by using Rodac prints technique on two different supports (PVC, stainless steel) that have been contaminated by either E. coli or S. aureus. An increasing mark from 1 to 6 is given to each of these factors in case of statistically differences. The three factors allowed us to calculate a "Specific Index of detersion" (SI) for each germ/support couple (3 to 18). Addition of the marks given to each couple for each disinfecting detergent allowed to calculate a "Globally Index of detersion" (GI) (9 to 72). We tested 4 commercialised disinfecting detergents: Surfanios, Aniosurf, Major C100 and Ecodiol. All detergents may be classified according to their effectiveness on a bacterium/support couple (value of the SI). This enlights a specific spectrum for each disinfecting detergents. As a result, Ecodiol seems to be the most effective deterging agent on 3 of the 4 germ/support couples (S. aureus/PVC, E. coli/PVC and E. coli/stainless steel), whereas Aniosurf is most effective on the S. aureus/stainless steel couple. The GI is very useful to choose the best compromise between activities for all situations. GI rankings of the tested agents were as follows: water < Aniosurf < Surfanios < neutralizing < Major C100 < Ecodiol. This experimental model will be used to test and compare the intrinsic detergent activities of other commercialised products which are usually

  9. Detergent-mediated protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Neale, Chris; Ghanei, Hamed; Holyoake, John; Bishop, Russell E; Privé, Gilbert G; Pomès, Régis

    2013-04-01

    Because detergents are commonly used to solvate membrane proteins for structural evaluation, much attention has been devoted to assessing the conformational bias imparted by detergent micelles in comparison to the native environment of the lipid bilayer. Here, we conduct six 500-ns simulations of a system with >600,000 atoms to investigate the spontaneous self assembly of dodecylphosphocholine detergent around multiple molecules of the integral membrane protein PagP. This detergent formed equatorial micelles in which acyl chains surround the protein's hydrophobic belt, confirming existing models of the detergent solvation of membrane proteins. In addition, unexpectedly, the extracellular and periplasmic apical surfaces of PagP interacted with the headgroups of detergents in other micelles 85 and 60% of the time, respectively, forming complexes that were stable for hundreds of nanoseconds. In some cases, an apical surface of one molecule of PagP interacted with an equatorial micelle surrounding another molecule of PagP. In other cases, the apical surfaces of two molecules of PagP simultaneously bound a neat detergent micelle. In these ways, detergents mediated the non-specific aggregation of folded PagP. These simulation results are consistent with dynamic light scattering experiments, which show that, at detergent concentrations ≥600 mM, PagP induces the formation of large scattering species that are likely to contain many copies of the PagP protein. Together, these simulation and experimental results point to a potentially generic mechanism of detergent-mediated protein aggregation.

  10. Design for a source-agile automatic direction finder (ADF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myler, Harley

    2015-05-01

    The design is intended for aircraft although any vehicle or even a man-mobile system could use the concept. An automatically reconfigurable antenna using MEMS RF switches is driven to seek signals consistent with the current location of the system. The antenna feeds a Software Defined Radio (SDR) that scans for signals and when a signal is found, it is identified and then the azimuth to the signal is used, along with a signal strength parameter, to confirm the location of the system. This is an extension of the now obsolete Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) aircraft navigation tool that used AM broadcast non-directional beacons (NDB), many of which are still in service. The current system can access any radio signal within the limits of the reconfigurable antenna and the SDR.

  11. 22 CFR 1509.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) ADF awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are my responsibilities as a(n) ADF awarding official? 1509.400 Section 1509.400 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Responsibilities of ADF...

  12. 22 CFR 1509.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) ADF awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true What are my responsibilities as a(n) ADF awarding official? 1509.400 Section 1509.400 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Responsibilities of ADF...

  13. 22 CFR 1509.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) ADF awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true What are my responsibilities as a(n) ADF awarding official? 1509.400 Section 1509.400 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Responsibilities of ADF...

  14. 22 CFR 1509.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) ADF awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true What are my responsibilities as a(n) ADF awarding official? 1509.400 Section 1509.400 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Responsibilities of ADF...

  15. 22 CFR 1509.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) ADF awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true What are my responsibilities as a(n) ADF awarding official? 1509.400 Section 1509.400 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Responsibilities of ADF...

  16. [Analysis of alkaline CuO degradation products of acid detergent fiber from tobacco leaves by using liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Hao, Weiqiang; Wang, Leijun; Wu, Shun; Yue, Bangyi; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Peipei

    2015-07-01

    The acid detergent fiber (ADF) from tobacco leaves was obtained by treating the sample with petroleum ether-ethanol (6:4, v/v), 30 g/L sodium dodecylsulfate and 0.5 mol/L sulphuric acid containing 20 g/L hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide successively. The ADF was degraded by the alkaline CuO oxidation procedure. In this work, six samples of ADF degradation products from tobacco leaves were prepared. The samples were analyzed by using gradient liquid chromatography (LC) where an Ultimate XB C18 column was used as stationary phase, with a mixture of methanol and water as mobile phase, at a column temperature of 35 °C and a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Dual wavelengths of 280 nm and 320 nm were chosen for the detection. It was found that there were four characteristic peaks for the ADF degradation products. By taking these peaks as research object, the optimum time for the degradation was found to be 5 h and the sample solution could be kept stable within 7 days. The established method may provide a new approach for the studies of the differences between lignin composition in different tobacco leaves and the relationship between lignin content and the smoking quality of tobacco leaves.

  17. Annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) tomography of polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kangbo; Sourty, Erwan; Loos, Joachim

    2010-08-01

    We have utilized bright-field conventional transmission electron microscopy tomography and annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) tomography to characterize a well-defined carbon black (CB)-filled polymer nanocomposite with known CB volume concentration. For both imaging methods, contrast can be generated between the CB and the surrounding polymer matrix. The involved contrast mechanisms, in particular for ADF-STEM, will be discussed in detail. The obtained volume reconstructions were analysed and the CB volume concentrations were carefully determined from the reconstructed data. For both imaging modes, the measured CB volume concentrations are substantially different and only quantification based on the ADF-STEM data revealed about the same value as the known CB loading. Moreover, when applying low-convergence angles for imaging ADF-STEM tomography, data can be obtained of micrometre-thick samples.

  18. Thermodynamic characterization of the exchange of detergents and amphipols at the surfaces of integral membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Tribet, C; Diab, C; Dahmane, T; Zoonens, M; Popot, J-L; Winnik, F M

    2009-11-03

    The aggregation of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) in aqueous media is a significant concern for mechanistic investigations and pharmaceutical applications of this important class of proteins. Complexation of IMPs with amphiphiles, either detergents or short amphiphilic polymers known as amphipols (APols), renders IMPs water-soluble. It is common knowledge that IMP-detergent complexes are labile, while IMP-APol complexes are exceptionally stable and do not dissociate even under conditions of extreme dilution. To understand the thermodynamic origin of this difference in stability and to guide the design of new APols, we have studied by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) the heat exchanges during two reciprocal processes, the "trapping" of detergent-solubilized IMPs in APols and the "stripping" of IMP-APol complexes by detergents, using two IMPs (the transmembrane domain of porin OmpA from Escherichia coli and bacteriorhodopsin from Halobium salinarium), two APols [an anionic polymer derived from acrylic acid (A8-35) and a cationic phosphorylcholine-based polymer (C22-43)], and two neutral detergents [n-octyl thioglucoside (OTG) and n-octyltetraethylene glycol (C(8)E(4))]. In the presence of detergent, free APols and IMP-APol complexes form mixed particles, APol-detergent and IMP-APol-detergent, respectively, according to the regular mixing model. Diluting IMP-APol-detergent complexes below the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of the detergent triggers the dispersion of detergent molecules as monomers, a process characterized by an enthalpy of demicellization. The enthalpy of APol <--> detergent exchange on the hydrophobic surface of IMPs is negligibly small, an indication of the similarity of the molecular interactions of IMPs with the two types of amphiphiles. The enhanced stability against dilution of IMP-APol complexes, compared to IMP-detergent ones, originates from the difference in entropy gain achieved upon release in water of a few APol molecules

  19. Differential viability of phosphoglucose isomerase allozyme genotypes of marine snails in nonionic detergent and crude oil-surfactant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lavie, B; Nevo, E; Zoller, U

    1984-10-01

    The effects of a nonionic detergent and of crude oil-detergent mixtures in aqueous solutions on the allozyme frequencies of phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) genotypes were tested in the Mediterranean marine gastropods Monodonta turbinata and M. turbiformis. Our results indicate differential survivorship of electrophoretical Pgi allozyme genotypes for both detergent alone and for crude oil-detergent mixtures. These results reflect the adaptive nature of some Pgi genotypes in these marine gastropods and seem inconsistent with the neutral theory of allozyme polymorphisms. Furthermore, these findings suggest that allozyme variants demonstrate a differential tolerance to these organic pollutants and can, therefore, be used as detectors of organic pollutants in the sea.

  20. Detergent phosphate bans and eutrophication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    The Vollenweider-OECD eutrophication model has been expanded to approximately 400 lakes. It is possible to make a quantitative prediction of the effects of a detergent phosphate ban and thereby to ascertain the potential benefits of such a ban. In order to assess the effect of a detergent phosphate ban on water quality it is necessary to know the percentage of phosphorus in the domestic waste water that enters the water body, either directly or indirectly, and the percentage of the total phosphorus load that is derived from domestic wastewater. Although detergent phosphate bans generally will not result in an overall improvement to water quality, there may be some situations in which eutrophication-related water quality would be improved by a ban. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  1. Correlative microscopy of detergent granules.

    PubMed

    van Dalen, G; Nootenboom, P; Heussen, P C M

    2011-03-01

    The microstructure of detergent products for textile cleaning determines to a large extent the physical properties of these products. Correlative microscopy was used to reveal the microstructure by reconciling images obtained by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray microtomography and Fourier transform infrared microscopy. These techniques were applied on the same location of a subsample of a spray-dried detergent base powder embedded in polyacrylate. In this way, the three-dimensional internal and external structure of detergent granules could be investigated from milli to nano scale with detailed spatial information about the components present. This will generate knowledge how to design optimal microstructures for laundry products to obtain product properties demanded by the market. This method is also very useful for other powder systems used in a large variety of industries (e.g. for pharmaceutical, food, ceramic and metal industries).

  2. Evaluation of Liquid Detergents and Methods Used for Airfield Rubber Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-31

    Test Device GripTester Friction Tester 0.43 0.360.240.53 65 km/h (40mph) 0.74 95 km/h (60mph) 0.64 21 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public... friction . Each detergent is applied to the pavement surface in controlled 50’ x 30’ patches. There were three patches placed for each detergent with...employed to sufficiently rinse the airfield surface and neutralize the detergent agents. Friction measurements were conducted prior to and after

  3. Shell may expand detergent alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-23

    Shell Chemical is studying plans to expand detergent alcohols capacity in the US, CW has learned. The company is considering adding capacity for about 80 million lbs/year. If the project is approved, it would be implemented at the company`s Geismar, LA site. Shell will make a final decision on whether to proceed with the project within six months. It has been rumored to be considering a capacity addition as a result of tightening supply of natural and synthetic detergent alcohols.

  4. Utility of enzymes from Fibrobacter succinogenes and Prevotella ruminicola as detergent additives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Yuan; Wang, Han-Tsung

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the application of cellulase and protease purified from rumen bacteria as detergent additives. Cellulase and protease were purified from the rumen cellulytic bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, and Prevotella ruminicola 23, respectively. An inhibitor test indicated that the purified protease belongs to the category of serine proteases and metalloproteases. Both the enzymes were effective at a high temperature (50 degrees C) and neutral pH (pH 7-8), but the protease activity increased with the increase in temperature and pH. The purified protease was treated with ten types of surfactants/detergents; it was found to retain over 60% of its activity in the presence of anionic and nonionic detergents. The cellulose plus protease combination was still effective after treatment with Triton X-100 and Tween 80, but the residual activity was low after treatment with Tween 20 than that after treatment with other nonionic detergents. Washing tests indicated that enzyme addition produced no significant improvement in the removal of grass stains, but individual enzyme addition in surfactants/detergents, especially in nonionic detergents, could improve the washing performance of the detergents by improving its ability to remove blood stains. This suggested that the surfactant/detergent class, enzyme properties, and the mixing ratio of ingredients should be considered simultaneously to enhance the washing performance.

  5. Fiber and lignin analysis in concentrate, forage, and feces: detergent versus enzymatic-chemical method.

    PubMed

    Hindrichsen, I K; Kreuzer, M; Madsen, J; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2006-06-01

    Hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignin contents of contrasting feeds, with emphasis on concentrate ingredients and complete concentrates, were analyzed using the Van Soest detergent procedure (analyzing neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) and the enzymatic-chemical procedure (analyzing cellulose, soluble and insoluble noncellulosic polysaccharides, and Klason lignin). Also, feces from cows fed concentrates differing in carbohydrate composition were analyzed by the 2 procedures. The correlation between acid detergent lignin and Klason lignin was significant, but not as close as the one between individual structural polysaccharides measured with the 2 procedures. The correlation between the results of the 2 procedures was highly significant for apparent cellulose digestibility, as were the correlations between digestibilities of hemicelluloses with total as well as with insoluble noncellulosic polysaccharides. The relationship between dietary lignin content and fiber digestibility was weak. The exclusion of a group of cows fed a concentrate with apple pulp, however, improved the respective correlations. Klason lignin correlated more closely with the measured fiber digestibility than acid detergent lignin. The study showed that results of the detergent method were comparable to those of the enzymatic-chemical method with cellulose, hemicelluloses, and their digestibilities. However, acid detergent lignin was much lower than Klason lignin. When the carbohydrate composition of concentrate varied widely, lignin was not suitable for the prediction of fiber digestibility.

  6. Cofilin-1 and Other ADF/Cofilin Superfamily Members in Human Malignant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shishkin, Sergey; Eremina, Lidia; Pashintseva, Natalya; Kovalev, Leonid; Kovaleva, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Identification of actin-depolymerizing factor homology (ADF-H) domains in the structures of several related proteins led first to the formation of the ADF/cofilin family, which then expanded to the ADF/cofilin superfamily. This superfamily includes the well-studied cofilin-1 (Cfl-1) and about a dozen different human proteins that interact directly or indirectly with the actin cytoskeleton, provide its remodeling, and alter cell motility. According to some data, Cfl-1 is contained in various human malignant cells (HMCs) and is involved in the formation of malignant properties, including invasiveness, metastatic potential, and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. The presence of other ADF/cofilin superfamily proteins in HMCs and their involvement in the regulation of cell motility were discovered with the use of various OMICS technologies. In our review, we discuss the results of the study of Cfl-1 and other ADF/cofilin superfamily proteins, which may be of interest for solving different problems of molecular oncology, as well as for the prospects of further investigations of these proteins in HMCs. PMID:28025492

  7. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  8. Soaps and Detergents--A 'Social' Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, S. C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how social aspects of science can be incorporated into teaching soap and detergents in British secondary chemistry and general science courses. Historical background to the use and production of soap and the development of detergents are also presented. (HM)

  9. Atomic resolution ADF-STEM imaging of organic molecular crystal of halogenated copper phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Mitsutaka; Yoshida, Kaname; Kurata, Hiroki; Isoda, Seiji

    2008-05-01

    Annular dark-field (ADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) measurements are demonstrated for the first time to be applicable for acquiring Z-contrast images of organic molecules at atomic resolution. High-angle ADF imaging by STEM is a new technique that provides incoherent high-resolution Z-contrast images for organic molecules. In the present study, low-angle ADF-STEM is successfully employed to image the molecular crystal structure of hexadecachloro-Cu-phthalocyanine (Cl16-CuPc), an organic molecule. The structures of CuPc derivatives (polyhalogenated CuPc with Br and Cl) are determined quantitatively using the same technique to determine the occupancy of halogens at each chemical site. By comparing the image contrasts of atomic columns, the occupancy of Br is found to be ca. 56% at the inner position, slightly higher than that for random substitution and in good agreement with previous TEM results.

  10. Detergent induced lysis of erythrocytes in kwashiorkor.

    PubMed

    Rao, A; Onuora, C U; Cherian, A

    1987-09-15

    The effect of the non-ionic detergent Nonidet P40 on lysis of erythrocytes in children suffering from kwashiorkor was studied. The concentration of the detergent causing 50% haemolysis was significantly reduced in these patients. Detergent haemolysis was more sensitive than osmotic fragility (which was reduced). The abnormality was only slight in marasmic children.

  11. Concentrated liquid detergent pod ingestion in children.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Natasha; Jaeger, Matthew W

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated liquid detergent pods are an emerging public health hazard, especially in pediatric patients. Ingestion is a more common route of exposure for liquid detergent pods compared with non-pod detergents and it tends to be associated with more severe adverse effects. We present 3 cases that demonstrate the varied clinical symptoms resulting from detergent pod ingestion. These cases not only demonstrate findings such as gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms but also show more rare neurological symptoms. The cases highlight the dangers of concentrated liquid detergent pod ingestion. To help prevent further life-threatening injuries, there is a need for more consumer information and provider knowledge about the potential adverse complications.

  12. Affinity Chromatography in Nonionic Detergent Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Jack B.; Strottmann, James M.; Wick, Donald G.; Stellwagen, Earle

    1980-10-01

    Anionic dye affinity chromatography is commonly unproductive in the presence of nonionic detergents used to extract particulate proteins. Using lactate dehydrogenase as a model protein, Cibacron blue F3GA as a model dye, and Triton X-100 as a model detergent, we find that the dye is encapsulated in nonionic detergent micelles, rendering the dye incapable of ligation with the enzyme. However, the dye can be liberated from the micelles without altering the nonionic detergent concentration by addition of an anionic detergent, such as deoxycholate or sodium dodecyl sulfate, forming mixed anionic/nonionic micelles that displace the anionic dye. Encapsulation of the anionic detergents prevents their activity as protein denaturants. These observations have been successfully translated to the dye affinity chromatography of a detergent extract of brain particulate cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase.

  13. ADF/cofilin is not essential but is critically important for actin activities during phagocytosis in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Nanami; Nakano, Kentaro; Kushida, Yasuharu; Noguchi, Taro Q P; Uyeda, Taro Q P; Wloga, Dorota; Dave, Drashti; Vasudevan, Krishna Kumar; Gaertig, Jacek; Numata, Osamu

    2013-08-01

    ADF/cofilin is a highly conserved actin-modulating protein. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in vivo through severing and depolymerizing of F-actin by this protein is essential for various cellular events, such as endocytosis, phagocytosis, cytokinesis, and cell migration. We show that in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, the ADF/cofilin homologue Adf73p associates with actin on nascent food vacuoles. Overexpression of Adf73p disrupted the proper localization of actin and inhibited the formation of food vacuoles. In vitro, recombinant Adf73p promoted the depolymerization of filaments made of T. thermophila actin (Act1p). Knockout cells lacking the ADF73 gene are viable but grow extremely slowly and have a severely decreased rate of food vacuole formation. Knockout cells have abnormal aggregates of actin in the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, unlike the case in animals and yeasts, in Tetrahymena, ADF/cofilin is not required for cytokinesis. Thus, the Tetrahymena model shows promise for future studies of the role of ADF/cofilin in vivo.

  14. Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-06-01

    The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as a cleaning approach that reclaims the cleaning solutions and minimizes wastes. The ultrafiltration membrane is made from sheets of polymerized organic film. The sheets are rolled onto a supporting frame and installed in a tube. Spent cleaning solution is pumped into a filter chamber and filtered through the membrane that captures oils and dirt and allows water and detergent to pass. The membrane is monitored and when pressure builds from oil and dirt, an automatic system cleans the surface to maintain solution flow and filtration quality. The results show that the ultrafiltration does not disturb the detergent concentration or alkalinity but removed almost all the oils and dirt leaving the solution in condition to be reused.

  15. Influence of fermentation methods on neutral detergent fiber degradation parameters.

    PubMed

    Bossen, D; Mertens, D R; Weisbjerg, M R

    2008-04-01

    The effect of 3 fermentation methods, in situ (IS) in 4 lactating cows (average pH of 5.8), in vitro (IVn) with media pH of 6.8, or in vitro (IVa) with media pH adjusted to 6.0 using citric acid, on fiber degradation parameters was studied using feeds ground to different particle sizes. Corn silage (CS), grass silage (GS), barley grain (B), sugar beet pulp (BP), and rapeseed cake (RC) were ground using a shear mill. Silages were ground through 8-, 4-, 2-, or 1-mm screens, B and BP through 4-, 2-, or 1-mm screens, and RC through 2- or 1-mm screens. The amylase-treated NDF (aNDF) content of samples ground using a 1-mm screen was 399, 431, 197, 480, and 251 g/kg of DM for CS, GS, B, BP, and RC, respectively, but increased with increasing screen size. Materials were incubated for 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h IS, IVn, or IVa. Inoculum for IVn and IVa was prepared as a composite from the cows used for IS. The potentially degradable aNDF (D(0)), indegradable aNDF (I), lag time (L), and fractional rate of degradation of potential degradable aNDF (k(d)) were estimated using PROC NLIN in SAS. Except for RC, fermentation methods affected most degradation parameters, especially k(d) and L. The IVn, IVa, and IS methods resulted in k(d) values of 0.291, 0.105, 0.080 h(-1) and 0.262, 0.107, 0.103 h(-1) for BP and RC, respectively, demonstrating a decreasing rate of degradation for these feeds when fermented under suboptimal pH. In CS, GS, and B, no difference was found in k(d) between the IVn and IVa methods, which suggests that differences in pH did not alter k(d) in vitro. The k(d) values obtained for CS, GS, and B were 0.058, 0.109, 0.168, and 0.028, 0.054, and 0.069 h(-1) for the IVn and IS methods, respectively, indicating that the IS method using cows fed at production levels can underestimate the potential rate of NDF degradation. Using the IVa method, L was 12.1, 9.1, 7.8, and 2.5 h for CS, GS, BP, and RC, respectively, which was higher than L obtained from the IVn and IS methods for all feeds except B, where L in all methods were near the parameter boundary of zero hour in NLIN. It was concluded that fermentation methods were more important than grinding screen size on estimates for feed aNDF degradation and that the individual aNDF degradation parameters for the 5 feeds were affected differently by fermentation methods.

  16. Down-regulation of GhADF1 gene expression affects cotton fibre properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yun; Wang, Juan; Gao, Peng; Jiao, Gai-Li; Zhao, Pi-Ming; Li, Yan; Wang, Gui-Ling; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2009-01-01

    Cotton fibre is the most important natural fibres for textile industry. To date, the mechanism that governs the development of fibre traits is largely unknown. In this study, we have characterized the function of a member of the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) family in Gossypium hirsutum by down-regulation of the gene (designated as GhADF1) expression in the transgenic cotton plants. We observed that both the fibre length and strength of the GhADF1-underexpressing plants increased as compared to the wild-type fibre, and transgenic fibres contained more abundant F-actin filaments in the cortical region of the cells. Moreover, the secondary cell wall of the transgenic fibre appeared thicker and the cellulose content was higher than that of the control fibre. Our results suggest that organization of actin cytoskeleton regulated by actin-associated proteins such as GhADF1 plays a critical role in the processes of elongation and secondary cell wall formation during fibre development. Additionally, our study provided a candidate intrinsic gene for the improvement of fibre traits via genetic engineering.

  17. Slingshot-3 dephosphorylates ADF/cofilin but is dispensable for mouse development.

    PubMed

    Kousaka, Kazuyoshi; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Oshima, Naoko; Nagafuchi, Akira; Shima, Yasuyuki; Chisaka, Osamu; Uemura, Tadashi

    2008-05-01

    Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) and cofilin constitute a family of key regulators of actin filament dynamics. ADF/cofilin is inactivated by phosphorylation at Ser-3 by LIM-kinases and reactivated by dephosphorylation by Slingshot (SSH) family phosphatases. Defects in LIM kinases or ADF/cofilin have been implicated in morbidity in human or mice; however, the roles of mammalian SSH in vivo have not been addressed. In this study, we examined the endogenous expression of each mouse SSH member in various cell lines and tissues, and showed that SSH-3L protein was strongly expressed in epithelial cells. Our structure-function analysis of SSH-3L suggested the possibility that the C-tail unique to SSH-3L negatively regulates the catalytic activity of this phosphatase. Furthermore we made ssh-3 knockout mice to examine its potential in vivo roles. Unexpectedly, ssh-3 was not essential for viability, fertility, or development of epithelial tissues; and ssh-3 did not genetically modify the corneal disorder of the corn1/ADF/destrin mutant.

  18. Synthesis of basic and overbasic sulfonate detergent additives

    SciTech Connect

    Abou El Naga, H.H.; Abd El-Azim, W.M.; Bendary, S.A.; Awad, N.G.

    1993-12-01

    Heavy alkylbenzene, which accumulates as a by-product from linear alkylbenzene synthesis, is evaluated as a starting material for preparation of basic and over basic sulfonate detergent additives. Chemical structure analysis showed that this by-product contains several components in different proportions. Most of these components, as traced via mass spectrometry, showed the presence of paraffinic side chains within the carbon range C{sub 11}--C{sub 22}. Accordingly, sulfonation conditions for it were adjusted to optimize the reaction yield and sulfonic quality. Neutralization of the sulfonic acid was carried out by adding CaO in the presence of methanol as a promoter. Preparation of over basic sulfonate was run via a carbonation process at 55--60 C. Evaluations of synthesized basic calcium sulfonate in comparison to a commercial additive is supported by its efficiency as a detergent additive. The synthesized product has a higher total base number and Ca content than those for the commercial one. On the other hand, evaluation of the synthesized overbasic calcium sulfonate compared with overbasic commercial additives with medium and high alkalinity indicated that the synthesized product can be classified as overbasic calcium sulfonate with medium alkalinity, good dispersive power, and detergent efficiency.

  19. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detergent certification options. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.163 Detergent certification options. To be used to satisfy the detergency requirements under § 80.161(a), a detergent additive must...

  20. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detergent certification options. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.163 Detergent certification options. To be used to satisfy the detergency requirements under § 80.161(a), a detergent additive must...

  1. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Detergent certification options. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.163 Detergent certification options. To be used to satisfy the detergency requirements under § 80.161(a), a detergent additive must...

  2. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Detergent certification options. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.163 Detergent certification options. To be used to satisfy the detergency requirements under § 80.161(a), a detergent additive must...

  3. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detergent certification options. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.163 Detergent certification options. To be used to satisfy the detergency requirements under § 80.161(a), a detergent additive must...

  4. The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin signaling pathway and DNA damage responses in cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Yuan; Leu, Jyh-Der; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2015-02-13

    The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin protein family is essential for actin dynamics, cell division, chemotaxis and tumor metastasis. Cofilin-1 (CFL-1) is a primary non-muscle isoform of the ADF/cofilin protein family accelerating the actin filamental turnover in vitro and in vivo. In response to environmental stimulation, CFL-1 enters the nucleus to regulate the actin dynamics. Although the purpose of this cytoplasm-nucleus transition remains unclear, it is speculated that the interaction between CFL-1 and DNA may influence various biological responses, including DNA damage repair. In this review, we will discuss the possible involvement of CFL-1 in DNA damage responses (DDR) induced by ionizing radiation (IR), and the implications for cancer radiotherapy.

  5. Cellular functions of the ADF/cofilin family at a glance.

    PubMed

    Kanellos, Georgios; Frame, Margaret C

    2016-09-01

    The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin family comprises small actin-binding proteins with crucial roles in development, tissue homeostasis and disease. They are best known for their roles in regulating actin dynamics by promoting actin treadmilling and thereby driving membrane protrusion and cell motility. However, recent discoveries have increased our understanding of the functions of these proteins beyond their well-characterized roles. This Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster serve as an introduction to the diverse roles of the ADF/cofilin family in cells. The first part of the article summarizes their actions in actin treadmilling and the main mechanisms for their intracellular regulation; the second part aims to provide an outline of the emerging cellular roles attributed to the ADF/cofilin family, besides their actions in actin turnover. The latter part discusses an array of diverse processes, which include regulation of intracellular contractility, maintenance of nuclear integrity, transcriptional regulation, nuclear actin monomer transfer, apoptosis and lipid metabolism. Some of these could, of course, be indirect consequences of actin treadmilling functions, and this is discussed.

  6. Competition between Tropomyosin, Fimbrin, and ADF/Cofilin drives their sorting to distinct actin filament networks.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jenna R; Hocky, Glen M; Homa, Kaitlin E; Morganthaler, Alisha N; Hitchcock-DeGregori, Sarah E; Voth, Gregory A; Kovar, David R

    2017-03-10

    The fission yeast actin cytoskeleton is an ideal, simplified system to investigate fundamental mechanisms behind cellular self-organization. By focusing on the stabilizing protein tropomyosin Cdc8, bundling protein fimbrin Fim1, and severing protein coffin Adf1, we examined how their pairwise and collective interactions with actin filaments regulate their activity and segregation to functionally diverse F-actin networks. Utilizing multi-color TIRF microscopy of in vitro reconstituted F-actin networks, we observed and characterized two distinct Cdc8 cables loading and spreading cooperatively on individual actin filaments. Furthermore, Cdc8, Fim1, and Adf1 all compete for association with F-actin by different mechanisms, and their cooperative association with actin filaments affects their ability to compete. Finally, competition between Fim1 and Adf1 for F-actin synergizes their activities, promoting rapid displacement of Cdc8 from a dense F-actin network. Our findings reveal that competitive and cooperative interactions between actin binding proteins help define their associations with different F-actin networks.

  7. THE BACTERICIDAL ACTION OF SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS.

    PubMed

    Baker, Z; Harrison, R W; Miller, B F

    1941-11-30

    1. The bactericidal action of a number of anionic and cationic synthetic detergents on four Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria has been investigated. 2. Cationic detergents, as a group, were found to exhibit marked bactericidal effects on Gram-positive microorganisms and somewhat less pronounced action on Gram-negative organisms. 3. The anionic detergents were germicidal only against the Gram-positive organisms, and they were considerably less effective than the cationic compounds. Of the anionic detergents, the most active one was an alkyl sulfate derived from a branched-chain, secondary alcohol. 4. Correlations between bactericidal action and inhibition of bacterial metabolism, and also between bactericidal action and chemical structure of the detergents are discussed.

  8. Phylogenetic Patterns of Codon Evolution in the ACTIN-DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR/COFILIN (ADF/CFL) Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Roy-Zokan, Eileen M; Dyer, Kelly A; Meagher, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    The actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin (ADF/CFL) gene family encodes a diverse group of relatively small proteins. Once known strictly as modulators of actin filament dynamics, recent research has demonstrated that these proteins are involved in a variety of cellular processes, from signal transduction to the cytonuclear trafficking of actin. In both plant and animal lineages, expression patterns of paralogs in the ADF/CFL gene family vary among tissue types and developmental stages. In this study we use computational approaches to investigate the evolutionary forces responsible for the diversification of the ADF/CFL gene family. Estimating the rate of non-synonymous to synonymous mutations (dN/dS) across phylogenetic lineages revealed that the majority of ADF/CFL codon positions were under strong purifying selection, with rare episodic events of accelerated protein evolution. In both plants and animals these instances of accelerated evolution were ADF/CFL subclass specific, and all of the sites under selection were located in regions of the protein that could serve in new functional roles. We suggest these sites may have been important in the functional diversification of ADF/CFL proteins.

  9. Binding site number variation and high-affinity binding consensus of Myb-SANT-like transcription factor Adf-1 in Drosophilidae

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Michael; Juan, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the evolution of transcription factor binding sites and corresponding functional change of transcriptional regulation. In this context, we have examined the structural changes of the ADF-1 binding sites at the Adh promoters of Drosophila funebris and D. virilis. We detected an expanded footprinted region in D. funebris that contains various adjacent binding sites with different binding affinities. ADF-1 was described to direct sequence-specific DNA binding to sites consisting of the multiple trinucleotide repeat . The ADF-1 recognition sites with high binding affinity differ from this trinucleotide repeat consensus sequence and a new consensus sequence is proposed for the high-affinity ADF-1 binding sites. In vitro transcription experiments with the D. funebris and D. virilis ADF-1 binding regions revealed that stronger ADF-1 binding to the expanded D. funebris ADF-1 binding region only moderately lead to increased transcriptional activity of the Adh gene. The potential of this regional expansion is discussed in the context of different ADF-1 cellular concentrations and maintenance of the ADF-1 stimulus. Altogether, evolutionary change of ADF-1 binding regions involves both, rearrangements of complex binding site cluster and also nucleotide substitutions within sites that lead to different binding affinities. PMID:20542916

  10. Detergent-Specific Membrane Protein Crystallization Screens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A suite of reagents has been developed for three-dimensional crystallization of integral membranes present in solution as protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). The compositions of these reagents have been determined in part by proximity to the phase boundaries (lower consolute boundaries) of the detergents present in the PDCs. The acquisition of some of the requisite phase-boundary data and the preliminary design of several of the detergent- specific screens was supported by a NASA contract. At the time of expiration of the contract, a partial set of preliminary screens had been developed. This work has since been extended under non-NASA sponsorship, leading to near completion of a set of 20 to 30 different and unique detergent- specific 96-condition screens.

  11. Detergent water use eliminates VOC concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, M.

    1996-01-01

    The article describes an electronics manufacturer`s use of detergent water and mechanical equipment (heated pressure washers and floor scrubbers) to replace volatile organic compounds. The cleaning formula development and detergent recovery system are emphasized. Detailed chemical analyses of the waste detergent water and spent filters are provided. The rationale for using detergent water; a process flow diagram for cleaning, recovery and storage; and cost considerations are summarized. At a cost of $300,000, the system removed a significant source of air emissions and enabled the plant to eliminate 30 tons of liquid hazardous waste, improve cleaning effectiveness, and save $99,000 per year in cleaning-related costs. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents.

    PubMed

    Vojcic, Ljubica; Pitzler, Christian; Körfer, Georgette; Jakob, Felix; Ronny Martinez; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2015-12-25

    Proteases are essential ingredients in modern laundry detergents. Over the past 30 years, subtilisin proteases employed in the laundry detergent industry have been engineered by directed evolution and rational design to tailor their properties towards industrial demands. This comprehensive review discusses recent success stories in subtilisin protease engineering. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents comprise simultaneous improvement of thermal resistance and activity at low temperatures, a rational strategy to modulate pH profiles, and a general hypothesis for how to increase promiscuous activity towards the production of peroxycarboxylic acids as mild bleaching agents. The three protease engineering campaigns presented provide in-depth analysis of protease properties and have identified principles that can be applied to improve or generate enzyme variants for industrial applications beyond laundry detergents.

  13. [On health regulation of synthetic detergents].

    PubMed

    Frolova, A D; Sidorin, G I; Lukovnikova, L V; Skhodkina, N I; D'iakova, L I; Shaposhnikova, E S

    1999-01-01

    The authors present materials on hygienic regulation of such synthetic detergents as "Losk", "Dixan" in air of workplace and populated area, demonstrate results concerning evaluation of "Losk" effects. Discussion covers ways to evaluate chemical load caused by simultaneous emission of synthetic detergents from various environmental objects. For testing reliability of hygienic regulation for complex emission exemplified by "Losk", the authors suggest a model for express evaluation of complex exposure to chemicals.

  14. Combination detergent/MALDI matrix: functional cleavable detergents for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Norris, Jeremy L; Porter, Ned A; Caprioli, Richard M

    2005-08-01

    This study reports the synthesis of the first functional cleavable detergent designed specifically for applications in mass spectrometry. Upon cleavage, two inert compounds and the MALDI matrix are formed, eliminating sources of potential interference originating from traditional cleavable detergents. Analysis of peptides demonstrates that MALDI matrix generated in situ results in MALDI spectra equivalent to those prepared using established protocols. Analysis of the membrane protein diacylglycerol kinase was accomplished using the combination detergent/MALDI matrix. Applications of the functional cleavable detergents to the profiling of whole cell lysates results in increased signal-to-noise ratios of many ions and the detection of additional proteins previously not observed.

  15. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detergent additive certification... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.161 Detergent additive...) Detergent additives for the control of port fuel injector deposits (PFID) and/or intake valve deposits...

  16. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detergent additive certification... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.161 Detergent additive...) Detergent additives for the control of port fuel injector deposits (PFID) and/or intake valve deposits...

  17. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Detergent additive certification... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.161 Detergent additive...) Detergent additives for the control of port fuel injector deposits (PFID) and/or intake valve deposits...

  18. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interim detergent gasoline program. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.141 Interim detergent gasoline... ultimate consumer; (ii) All additized post-refinery component (PRC); and (iii) All detergent additives...

  19. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interim detergent gasoline program. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.141 Interim detergent gasoline... ultimate consumer; (ii) All additized post-refinery component (PRC); and (iii) All detergent additives...

  20. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Detergent additive certification... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.161 Detergent additive...) Detergent additives for the control of port fuel injector deposits (PFID) and/or intake valve deposits...

  1. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detergent additive certification... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.161 Detergent additive...) Detergent additives for the control of port fuel injector deposits (PFID) and/or intake valve deposits...

  2. Impact of urea on detergent micelle properties.

    PubMed

    Broecker, Jana; Keller, Sandro

    2013-07-09

    Co-solvents, such as urea, can entail drastic changes in the micellization behavior of detergents. We present a systematic quantification of the impact of urea on the critical micellar concentration, the micellization thermodynamics, and the micelle size in three homologous series of commonly used non-ionic alkyl detergents. To this end, we performed demicellization experiments by isothermal titration calorimetry and hydrodynamic size measurements by dynamic light scattering on alkyl maltopyranosides, cyclohexyl alkyl maltopyranosides, and alkyl glucopyranosides at urea concentrations of 0-8 M. For all detergents studied, we found that the critical micellar concentration increases exponentially because the absolute Gibbs free energy of micellization decreases linearly over the entire urea concentration range, as does the micelle size. In contrast, the enthalpic and entropic contributions to micellization reveal more complex, nonlinear dependences on urea concentration. Both free energy and size changes are more pronounced for long-chain detergents, which bury more apolar surface area upon micelle formation. The Gibbs free energy increments per methylene group within each detergent series depend on urea concentration in a linear fashion, although they result from the entropic term for alkyl maltosides but are of enthalpic origin for cyclohexyl alkyl maltosides. We compare our results to transfer free energies of amino acid side chains, relate them to protein-folding data, and discuss how urea-induced changes in detergent micelle properties affect in vitro investigations on membrane proteins.

  3. Quantification of Detergents Complexed with Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chaptal, Vincent; Delolme, Frédéric; Kilburg, Arnaud; Magnard, Sandrine; Montigny, Cédric; Picard, Martin; Prier, Charlène; Monticelli, Luca; Bornert, Olivier; Agez, Morgane; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Orelle, Cédric; Wagner, Renaud; Jawhari, Anass; Broutin, Isabelle; Pebay-Peyroula, Eva; Jault, Jean-Michel; Kaback, H. Ronald; le Maire, Marc; Falson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Most membrane proteins studies require the use of detergents, but because of the lack of a general, accurate and rapid method to quantify them, many uncertainties remain that hamper proper functional and structural data analyses. To solve this problem, we propose a method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) that allows quantification of pure or mixed detergents in complex with membrane proteins. We validated the method with a wide variety of detergents and membrane proteins. We automated the process, thereby allowing routine quantification for a broad spectrum of usage. As a first illustration, we show how to obtain information of the amount of detergent in complex with a membrane protein, essential for liposome or nanodiscs reconstitutions. Thanks to the method, we also show how to reliably and easily estimate the detergent corona diameter and select the smallest size, critical for favoring protein-protein contacts and triggering/promoting membrane protein crystallization, and to visualize the detergent belt for Cryo-EM studies. PMID:28176812

  4. Structure of a protein-detergent complex: the balance between detergent cohesion and binding.

    PubMed

    Khao, Jonathan; Arce-Lopera, Jaime; Sturgis, James N; Duneau, Jean-Pierre

    2011-10-01

    Despite the major interest in membrane proteins at functional, genomic, and therapeutic levels, their biochemical and structural study remains challenging, as they require, among other things, solubilization in detergent micelles. The complexity of this task derives from the dependence of membrane protein structure on their anisotropic environment, influenced by a delicate balance between many different physicochemical properties. To study such properties in a small protein-detergent complex, we used fluorescence measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the transmembrane part of glycophorin A (GpAtm) solubilized in micelles of dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) detergent. Fluorescence measurements show that DHPC has limited ability to solubilize the peptide, while MD provides a possible molecular explanation for this. We observe that the detergent molecules are balanced between two different types of interactions: cohesive interactions between detergent molecules that hold the micelle together, and adhesive interactions with the peptide. While the cohesive interactions are detergent mediated, the adhesion to the peptide depends on the specific interactions between the hydrophobic parts of the detergent and the topography of the peptide dictated by the amino acids. The balance between these two parameters results in a certain frustration of the system and rather slow equilibration. These observations suggest how molecular properties of detergents could influence membrane protein stabilization and solubilization.

  5. The Drosophila transcription factor Adf-1 (nalyot) regulates dendrite growth by controlling FasII and Staufen expression downstream of CaMKII and neural activity.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Christina; Suppiah, Somu; Gurudatta, Baraka V; Yang, Jingping; Banerjee, Christopher; Sandstrom, David J; Corces, Victor G; Sanyal, Subhabrata

    2013-07-17

    Memory deficits in Drosophila nalyot mutants suggest that the Myb family transcription factor Adf-1 is an important regulator of developmental plasticity in the brain. However, the cellular functions for this transcription factor in neurons or molecular mechanisms by which it regulates plasticity remain unknown. Here, we use in vivo 3D reconstruction of identifiable larval motor neuron dendrites to show that Adf-1 is required cell autonomously for dendritic development and activity-dependent plasticity of motor neurons downstream of CaMKII. Adf-1 inhibition reduces dendrite growth and neuronal excitability, and results in motor deficits and altered transcriptional profiles. Surprisingly, analysis by comparative chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq) of Adf-1, RNA Polymerase II (Pol II), and histone modifications in Kc cells shows that Adf-1 binding correlates positively with high Pol II-pausing indices and negatively with active chromatin marks such as H3K4me3 and H3K27ac. Consistently, the expression of Adf-1 targets Staufen and Fasciclin II (FasII), identified through larval brain ChIP-Seq for Adf-1, is negatively regulated by Adf-1, and manipulations of these genes predictably modify dendrite growth. Our results imply mechanistic interactions between transcriptional and local translational machinery in neurons as well as conserved neuronal growth mechanisms mediated by cell adhesion molecules, and suggest that CaMKII, Adf-1, FasII, and Staufen influence crucial aspects of dendrite development and plasticity with potential implications for memory formation. Further, our experiments reveal molecular details underlying transcriptional regulation by Adf-1, and indicate active interaction between Adf-1 and epigenetic regulators of gene expression during activity-dependent neuronal plasticity.

  6. Hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images.

    PubMed

    De Wael, Annelies; De Backer, Annick; Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D; Van Aert, Sandra

    2017-01-25

    A hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) images of monotype crystalline nanostructures is presented. Different atom-counting methods already exist for model-like systems. However, the increasing relevance of radiation damage in the study of nanostructures demands a method that allows atom-counting from low dose images with a low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the hybrid method directly includes prior knowledge from image simulations into the existing statistics-based method for atom-counting, and accounts in this manner for possible discrepancies between actual and simulated experimental conditions. It is shown by means of simulations and experiments that this hybrid method outperforms the statistics-based method, especially for low electron doses and small nanoparticles. The analysis of a simulated low dose image of a small nanoparticle suggests that this method allows for far more reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials.

  7. ADF/ADC Web Tools for Browsing and Visualizing Astronomical Catalogs and NASA Astrophysics Mission Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaya, E.; Kargatis, V.; Blackwell, J.; Borne, K.; White, R. A.; Cheung, C.

    1998-05-01

    Several new web based services have been introduced this year by the Astrophysics Data Facility (ADF) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. IMPReSS is a graphical interface to astrophysics databases that presents the user with the footprints of observations of space-based missions. It also aids astronomers in retrieving these data by sending requests to distributed data archives. The VIEWER is a reader of ADC astronomical catalogs and journal tables that allows subsetting of catalogs by column choices and range selection and provides database-like search capability within each table. With it, the user can easily find the table data most appropriate for their purposes and then download either the subset table or the original table. CATSEYE is a tool that plots output tables from the VIEWER (and soon AMASE), making exploring the datasets fast and easy. Having completed the basic functionality of these systems, we are enhancing the site to provide advanced functionality. These will include: market basket storage of tables and records of VIEWER output for IMPReSS and AstroBrowse queries, non-HTML table responses to AstroBrowse type queries, general column arithmetic, modularity to allow entrance into the sequence of web pages at any point, histogram plots, navigable maps, and overplotting of catalog objects on mission footprint maps. When completed, the ADF/ADC web facilities will provide astronomical tabled data and mission retrieval information in several hyperlinked environments geared for users at any level, from the school student to the typical astronomer to the expert datamining tools at state-of-the-art data centers.

  8. Coproduction of detergent compatible bacterial enzymes and stain removal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2015-10-01

    Most of the detergents that are presently produced contain the detergent compatible enzymes to improve and accelerate the washing performance by removing tough stains. The process is environment friendly as the use of enzymes in the detergent formulation reduces the utilization of toxic detergent constituents. The current trend is to use the detergent compatible enzymes that are active at low and ambient temperature in order to save energy and maintain fabric quality. As the detergent compatible bacterial enzymes are used together in the detergent formulation, it is important to co-produce the detergent enzymes in a single fermentation medium as the enzyme stability is assured, and production cost gets reduced enormously. The review reports on the production, purification, characterization and application of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases are available. However, there is no specific review or minireview on the concomitant production of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases. In this minireview, the coproduction of detergent compatible enzymes by bacterial species, enzyme stability towards detergents and detergent components, and stain release analysis were discussed.

  9. Movement and fate of detergents in groundwater: a field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Barber, L.B.; LeBlanc, D.

    1986-01-01

    The major cations, anions, and detergents in a plume of contaminated groundwater at Otis Air Base on Cape Cod (Mass., U.S.A.) have moved approximately 3.5 km down gradient from the disposal beds. We hypothesize that the detergents form two distinct plumes, which consist of alkyl benzene sulfonates (ABS) detergents and linear alkyl sulfonates (LAS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (NaLS) detergents. The ABS detergents were deposited from approximately 1940 through 1965, when ABS detergents were banned. From 1965 to the present, LAS and NaLS detergents were in the sewage. The ABS detergents appear to be transported in the aquifer at the same rate as the specific conductance (major cations and anions) and boron, which are currently used as conservative tracers of the plume of contaminated groundwater. There appears to be little or no biological degradation of the ABS detergents in the aquifer, based on their concentration in the plume. On the other hand, the LAS and NaLS detergents have degraded rapidly and have been detected only 0.6 km down gradient. The roleof the detergents in the transport of other organic compounds in the plume is nuclear. There is a separation of the ABS detergent plume and the volatile organic compound plume; however, the time of entry of the detergents and the volatile organic compounds is unknown. Therefore, it is not possible to conclude on the interaction of these two classes of compounds. ?? 1986.

  10. Fuel detergent compositions containing lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnetto, L.J.

    1982-04-20

    A motor fuel additive composition comprising a fuel detergent composition and a lubricating oil is disclosed. In preferred embodiments aminosuccinimide and amide-sulfonate fuel additive compositions are combined with lubricating oil in a fuel composition which exhibits reduced formation of engine deposits, particularly under additive-overdose conditions.

  11. Differential detergent sensitivity of extracellular vesicle subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Sódar, Barbara; Németh, Andrea; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Vukman, Krisztina V; Tamási, Viola; Balogh, Andrea; Kittel, Ágnes; Pállinger, Éva; Buzás, Edit Irén

    2015-10-14

    Extracellular vesicles (including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies) are currently attracting rapidly increasing attention from various fields of biology due to their ability to carry complex information and act as autocrine, paracrine and even endocrine intercellular messengers. In the present study we investigated the sensitivity of size-based subpopulations of extracellular vesicles to different concentrations of detergents including sodium dodecyl sulphate, Triton X-100, Tween 20 and deoxycholate. We determined the required detergent concentration that lysed each of the vesicle subpopulations secreted by Jurkat, THP-1, MiaPaCa and U937 human cell lines. We characterized the vesicles by tunable resistive pulse sensing, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. Microvesicles and apoptotic bodies were found to be more sensitive to detergent lysis than exosomes. Furthermore, we found evidence that sodium dodecyl sulphate and Triton X-100 were more effective in vesicle lysis at low concentrations than deoxycholate or Tween 20. Taken together, our data suggest that a combination of differential detergent lysis with tunable resistive pulse sensing or flow cytometry may prove useful for simple and fast differentiation between exosomes and other extracellular vesicle subpopulations as well as between vesicular and non-vesicular structures.

  12. Diesel fuel detergent additive performance and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, M.W.; Papachristos, M.J.; Williams, D.; Burton, J.

    1994-10-01

    Diesel fuel detergent additives are increasingly linked with high quality automotive diesel fuels. Both in Europe and in the USA, field problems associated with fuel injector coking or fouling have been experienced. In Europe indirect injection (IDI) light duty engines used in passenger cars were affected, while in the USA, a direct injection (DI) engine in heavy duty truck applications experienced field problems. In both cases, a fuel additive detergent performance test has evolved using an engine linked with the original field problem, although engine design modifications employed by the manufacturers have ensured improved operation in service. Increasing awareness of the potential for injector nozzle coking to cause deterioration in engine performance is coupled with a need to meet ever more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. These two requirements indicate that the use of detergency additives will continue to be associated with high quality diesel fuels. The paper examines detergency performance evaluated in a range of IDI and DI engines and correlates performance in the two most widely recognised test engines, namely the Peugeot 1.9 litre IDI, and Cummins L10 DI engines. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. [The forensic chemical study of synthetic detergents].

    PubMed

    Fartushnyĭ, A F; Sergeeva, E E; Kvasov, E B

    1994-01-01

    Six color reactions were developed and thin-layer chromatography conditions defined for identification of components of some synthetic detergents in preparations and cadaveric material. Sensitivity of toxic components identification in biologic objects is 0.1 mg for alkylbenzolsulfonate and 0.25 mg of sodium silicate per 100 g of the object.

  14. Laundry detergent and possible nonaccidental injury.

    PubMed

    Howieson, Alan J; Harley, Oliver J H; Tiernan, Eunan P

    2007-06-01

    Nonaccidental injury is always a concern when children present with unusual injuries. The case of a child who presented with a partial thickness burn secondary to prolonged contact with a liquid biological laundry detergent is described. Initially there was some doubt as to whether the agent in question could cause this injury but a small experiment on a volunteer confirmed it was possible.

  15. Laundry Detergent Pods Linked to Eye Burn Danger in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163388.html Laundry Detergent Pods Linked to Eye Burn Danger in Kids ... THURSDAY, Feb. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Liquid laundry detergent pods may be convenient, but young children are ...

  16. TaADF4, an actin-depolymerizing factor from wheat, is required for resistance to the stripe rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Hua, Yuan; Wang, Juan; Huo, Yan; Shimono, Masaki; Day, Brad; Ma, Qing

    2017-03-01

    Actin filament assembly in plants is a dynamic process, requiring the activity of more than 75 actin-binding proteins. Central to the regulation of filament assembly and stability is the activity of a conserved family of actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs), whose primarily function is to regulate the severing and depolymerization of actin filaments. In recent years, the activity of ADF proteins has been linked to a variety of cellular processes, including those associated with response to stress. Herein, a wheat ADF gene, TaADF4, was identified and characterized. TaADF4 encodes a 139-amino-acid protein containing five F-actin-binding sites and two G-actin-binding sites, and interacts with wheat (Triticum aestivum) Actin1 (TaACT1), in planta. Following treatment of wheat, separately, with jasmonic acid, abscisic acid or with the avirulent race, CYR23, of the stripe rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, we observed a rapid induction in accumulation of TaADF4 mRNA. Interestingly, accumulation of TaADF4 mRNA was diminished in response to inoculation with a virulent race, CYR31. Silencing of TaADF4 resulted in enhanced susceptibility to CYR23, demonstrating a role for TaADF4 in defense signaling. Using a pharmacological-based approach, coupled with an analysis of host response to pathogen infection, we observed that treatment of plants with the actin-modifying agent latrunculin B enhanced resistance to CYR23, including increased production of reactive oxygen species and enhancement of localized hypersensitive cell death. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that TaADF4 positively modulates plant immunity in wheat via the modulation of actin cytoskeletal organization.

  17. Activated ADF/cofilin sequesters phosphorylated microtubule-associated-protein during the assembly of Alzheimer-like neuritic cytoskeletal striations

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Ineka T.; Gervasio, Othon L.; Cullen, Karen M.; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Jeong, Erica V.; Witting, Paul K.; Antao, Shane T.; Minamide, Laurie S.; Bamburg, James R.; Goldsbury, Claire

    2009-01-01

    In Alzheimer disease (AD), rod-like cofilin aggregates (cofilin-actin rods) and thread-like inclusions containing phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein (pMAP) tau form in the brain (neuropil threads) and the extent of their presence correlates with cognitive decline and disease progression. The assembly mechanism of these respective pathological lesions and the relationship between them is poorly understood, yet vital to understanding the causes of sporadic AD. We demonstrate that during mitochondrial inhibition, activated actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin assemble into rods along processes of cultured primary neurons that recruit pMAP/tau and mimic neuropil threads. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) analysis revealed co-localization of cofilin-GFP and pMAP in rods, suggesting their close proximity within a cytoskeletal inclusion complex. The relationship between pMAP and cofilin-actin rods was further investigated using actin-modifying drugs and siRNA knockdown of ADF/cofilin in primary neurons. The results suggest that activation of ADF/cofilin and generation of cofilin-actin rods is required for the subsequent recruitment of pMAP into the inclusions. Additionally we were able to induce the formation of pMAP-positive ADF/cofilin rods by exposing cells to exogenous Aβ peptides. These results reveal a common pathway for pMAP and cofilin accumulation in neuronal processes. The requirement of activated ADF/cofilin for the sequestration of pMAP suggests that neuropil thread structures in the AD brain may be initiated by elevated cofilin activation and F-actin bundling that can be caused by oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction or Aβ peptides, all suspected initiators of synaptic loss and neurodegeneration in AD. PMID:19828813

  18. Intermolecular interactions at early stage of protein/detergent particle association induced by salt/polyethylene glycol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Odahara, Takayuki; Odahara, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Mixtures of neutral salts and polyethylene glycol are used for various purposes in biological studies. Although the effects of each component of the mixtures are theoretically well investigated, comprehension of their integrated effects remains insufficient. In this work, their roles and effects as a precipitant were clarified by studying dependence of precipitation curves on salt concentration for integral membrane protein/detergent particles of different physicochemical properties. The dependence of precipitation curves was reasonably related to intermolecular interactions among relevant molecules such as protein, detergent and polyethylene glycol by considering their physicochemical properties. The obtained relationships are useful as basic information to learn the early stage of biological macromolecular associations.

  19. Method of Improving the Storage Properties of Alkaline Detergent Compositions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The caking of powder detergent compositions in storage, with consequent loss of free flowing and granular characteristics, has been a serious problem...properties of detergent compositions by eliminating the caking thereof. A typical detergent composition in which the present invention could be

  20. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product intended to...

  1. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product intended to...

  2. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product intended to...

  3. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product intended to...

  4. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section...) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section, a foaming detergent bath product is any product intended to...

  5. On the interaction between synthetic detergents and enzymatic proteins.

    PubMed

    Treves, C; Vincenzini, M T; Favilli, F; Vanni, P; Baccari, V

    1984-01-01

    Eight highly purified and crystalline enzymes representative of fundamental metabolic pathways and of cellular structure were tested with seven detergents. The enzyme-detergent interaction was studied as a time-independent (inhibition) or time-dependent (inactivation) phenomenon. Our results imply a specificity of detergent action on the enzymes studied.

  6. Dietary fiber analysis of cassava using gravimetric methods.

    PubMed

    Rivera, C J; Gerardi, A G; Infante, R B; Carrasco, H J; Rodríguez, O

    1993-03-01

    We report the application of a method which combines digestion with pancreatin and neutral detergent treatment in the analytical study of dietary fiber from cassava. The use of pancreatin previous to the detergent extraction enabled rapid filtration, thus giving more reproducible results for neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemicellulose, lignin and pectin were also determined. The values obtained for NDF (4.65%) and pectin (1.17%) are very important, considering their role in the digestive process.

  7. Detergent-Mediated Formation of β-Hematin: Heme Crystallization Promoted by Detergents Implicates Nanostructure Formation for Use as a Biological Mimic

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hemozoin is a unique biomineral that results from the sequestration of toxic free heme liberated as a consequence of hemoglobin degradation in the malaria parasite. Synthetic neutral lipid droplets (SNLDs) and phospholipids were previously shown to support the rapid formation of β-hematin, abiological hemozoin, under physiologically relevant pH and temperature, though the mechanism by which heme crystallization occurs remains unclear. Detergents are particularly interesting as a template because they are amphiphilic molecules that spontaneously organize into nanostructures and have been previously shown to mediate β-hematin formation. Here, 11 detergents were investigated to elucidate the physicochemical properties that best recapitulate crystal formation in the parasite. A strong correlation between the detergent’s molecular structure and the corresponding kinetics of β-hematin formation was observed, where higher molecular weight polar chains promoted faster reactions. The larger hydrophilic chains correlated to the detergent’s ability to rapidly sequester heme into the lipophilic core, allowing for crystal nucleation to occur. The data presented here suggest that detergent nanostructures promote β-hematin formation in a similar manner to SNLDs and phospholipids. Through understanding mediator properties that promote optimal crystal formation, we are able to establish an in vitro assay to probe this drug target pathway. PMID:27175104

  8. Toxicity of laundry detergent components to a freshwater cladoceran and their contribution to detergent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Warne, M S; Schifko, A D

    1999-10-01

    The toxicity of 39 laundry detergent components including surfactants, enzymes, builders, fabric brighteners, fillers, and coloring agents to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia was determined. The difference between the most and the least toxic components was approximately 17,000-fold and 1,000,000-fold for the mg/L and mmol/L EC50 data, respectively. Two of the components had high toxicity (EC50 values < 1 mg/L), 11 moderate toxicity (EC50 values between 1 and 10 mg/L), and the remaining 26 components had low toxicity (EC50 values > 10 mg/L). Analysis revealed that mixtures of the components interacted antagonistically, additively, and synergistically. On a molarity basis the most toxic group of compounds was the surfactants followed by the brighteners. The most toxic individual components included sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium silicate solution, four brighteners, sodium perborate tetrahydrate, and the surfactants. Many of the most toxic components, however, contributed very little to the toxicity of the detergents due to being present in the detergents at low concentrations. The main contributors to the toxicity of detergents were the sodium silicate solution and the surfactants-with the remainder of the components contributing very little to detergent toxicity. The potential for acute aquatic toxic effects due to the release of secondary or tertiary sewage effluents containing the breakdown products of laundry detergents may frequently be low. However, untreated or primary treated effluents containing detergents may pose a problem. Chronic and/or other sublethal effects that were not examined in this study may also pose a problem.

  9. Susceptibility of biofilm Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus to detergents and sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shigeko; Kuwabara, Yoshihiro

    2007-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the susceptibility of the biofilm cells of Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus to some cleaning detergents and sanitizers. No weakly acidic, neutral, and weakly alkaline detergent could remove the biofilm bacteria from stainless steel chips at commonly used concentrations recommended by manufacturers. Among sanitizers, sodium hypochlorite did not completely inactivate any biofilm bacteria at active chlorine concentrations of 25 to 200 microg/ml. Benzalkonium chloride, alkyldiaminoethyl glycine hydrochloride, chlorhexidine digluconate, and polyhexamethylenebiganide inactivated the great majority of E. coli and S. Enteritidis at commonly used concentrations, but did not inactivate S. aureus effectively enough. The biofilm S. aureus population was shown to be more tolerant than the E. coli and/or S. Enteritidis populations to the sanitizers.

  10. Novel detergent for whole organ tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takanori; Kirita, Yuhei; Kami, Daisuke; Kitani, Tomoya; Ozaki, Chisa; Itakura, Yoko; Toyoda, Masashi; Gojo, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Whole organ tissue engineering for various organs, including the heart, lung, liver, and kidney, has demonstrated promising results for end-stage organ failure. However, the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-based protocol for standard decellularization has drawbacks such as clot formation in vascularized transplantation and poor cell engraftment in recellularization procedures. Preservation of the surface milieu of extracellular matrices (ECMs) might be crucial for organ generation based on decellularization/recellularization engineering. We examined a novel detergent, sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), to determine whether it could overcome the drawbacks associated with SDS using rat heart and kidney. Both organs were perfused in an antegrade fashion with either SLES or SDS. Although immunohistochemistry for collagen I, IV, laminin, and fibronectin showed similar preservation in both detergents, morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy and an assay of glycosaminoglycan content on ECMs showed that SLES-treated tissues had better-preserved ECMs than SDS-treated tissues. Mesenteric transplantation revealed SLES did not induce significant inflammation, as opposed to SDS. Platelet adhesion to decellularized tissues was significantly reduced with SLES. Overall, SLES could replace older detergents such as SDS in the decellularization process for generation of transplantable recellularized organs.

  11. Dislocation tomography made easy: a reconstruction from ADF STEM images obtained using automated image shift correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J. H.; Barnard, J. S.; Kaneko, K.; Higashida, K.; Midgley, P. A.

    2008-08-01

    After previous work producing a successful 3D tomographic reconstruction of dislocations in GaN from conventional weak-beam dark-field (WBDF) images, we have reconstructed a cascade of dislocations in deformed and annealed silicon to a comparable standard using the more experimentally straightforward technique of STEM annular dark-field imaging (STEM ADF). In this mode, image contrast was much more consistent over the specimen tilt range than in conventional weak-beam dark-field imaging. Automatic acquisition software could thus restore the correct dislocation array to the field of view at each tilt angle, though manual focusing was still required. Reconstruction was carried out by sequential iterative reconstruction technique using FEI's Inspect3D software. Dislocations were distributed non-uniformly along cascades, with sparse areas between denser clumps in which individual dislocations of in-plane image width 24 nm could be distinguished in images and reconstruction. Denser areas showed more complicated stacking-fault contrast, hampering tomographic reconstruction. The general three-dimensional form of the denser areas was reproduced well, showing the dislocation array to be planar and not parallel to the foil surfaces.

  12. Effects of Combining Feed Grade Urea and a Slow-release Urea Product on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy in Steers Fed Diets with Different Starch:ADF Ratios

    PubMed Central

    López-Soto, M. A.; Rivera-Méndez, C. R.; Aguilar-Hernández, J. A.; Barreras, A.; Calderón-Cortés, J. F.; Plascencia, A.; Dávila-Ramos, H.; Estrada-Angulo, A.; Valdes-García, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the cost of grains, the replacement of grains by co-products (i.e. DDGS) in feedlot diets is a common practice. This change produces diets that contain a lower amount of starch and greater amount of fibre. Hypothetically, combining feed grade urea (U) with slow release urea (Optigen) in this type of diet should elicit a better synchrony between starch (high-rate of digestion) and fibre (low-rate of digestion) promoting a better microbial protein synthesis and ruminal digestion with increasing the digestible energy of the diet. Four cannulated Holstein steers (213±4 kg) were used in a 4×4 Latin square design to examine the combination of Optigen and U in a finishing diet containing different starch:acid detergent fibre ratios (S:F) on the characteristics of digestive function. Three S:F ratios (3.0, 4.5, and 6.0) were tested using a combination of U (0.80%) and Optigen (1.0%). Additionally, a treatment of 4.5 S:F ratio with urea (0.80% in ration) as the sole source of non-protein nitrogen was used to compare the effect of urea combination at same S:F ratio. The S:F ratio of the diet was manipulated by replacing the corn grain by dried distillers grain with solubles and roughage. Urea combination did not affect ruminal pH. The S:F ratio did not affect ruminal pH at 0 and 2 h post-feeding but, at 4 and 6 h, the ruminal pH decreased as the S:F ratio increased (linear, p<0.05). Ruminal digestion of OM, starch and feed N were not affected by urea combination or S:F ratio. The urea combination did not affect ADF ruminal digestion. ADF ruminal digestion decreased linearly (p = 0.02) as the S:F ratio increased. Compared to the urea treatment (p<0.05) and within the urea combination treatment (quadratic, p<0.01), the flow of microbial nitrogen (MN) to the small intestine and ruminal microbial efficiency were greater for the urea combination at a S:F ratio of 4.5. Irrespective of the S:F ratio, the urea combination improved (2.8%, p = 0.02) postruminal N

  13. Enzymatic detergent formulation containing amylase from Aspergillus niger: a comparative study with commercial detergent formulations.

    PubMed

    Mitidieri, Sydnei; Souza Martinelli, Anne Helene; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene Henning

    2006-07-01

    There is a wide range of biotechnological applications for amylases, including the textile, pharmaceutical, food and laundry industries. Hydrolytic enzymes are 100% biodegradable and enzymatic detergents can achieve effective cleaning with lukewarm water. Microorganisms and culture media were tested for amylase production and the best producer was Aspergillus niger L119 (3.9 U ml(-1) +/- 0.2) in submerged culture and its amylase demonstrated excellent activity at 50-55 degrees C and pH 4.0, remaining stable at 53 degrees C for up to 200 h. In order to establish the potential uses of this enzyme in detergents, different formulations were tested using the A. niger amylase extract. Enzyme activity was compared with three commercial formulations. The detergents are used in hospitals to clean surgical and endoscopy equipment. The presence of amylase in the formulation is because of its action within hospital drainage system, whether or not it has any function in cleaning the equipment.

  14. The mechanism of detergent solubilization of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Dov; Ahyayauch, Hasna; Goñi, Félix M

    2013-07-16

    Multiple data are available on the self-assembly of mixtures of bilayer-forming amphiphiles, particularly phospholipids and micelle-forming amphiphiles, commonly denoted detergents. The structure of such mixed assemblies has been thoroughly investigated, described in phase diagrams, and theoretically rationalized in terms of the balance between the large spontaneous curvature of the curvophilic detergent and the curvophobic phospholipids. In this critical review, we discuss the mechanism of this process and try to explain the actual mechanism involved in solubilization. Interestingly, membrane solubilization by some detergents is relatively slow and the common attribute of these detergents is that their trans-bilayer movement, commonly denoted flip-flop, is very slow. Only detergents that can flip into the inner monolayer cause relatively rapid solubilization of detergent-saturated bilayers. This occurs via the following sequence of events: 1), relatively rapid penetration of detergent monomers into the outer monolayer; 2), trans-membrane equilibration of detergent monomers between the two monolayers; 3), saturation of the bilayer by detergents and consequent permeabilization of the membrane; and 4), transition of the whole bilayer to thread-like mixed micelles. When the detergent cannot flip to the inner monolayer, the outer monolayer becomes unstable due to mass imbalance between the monolayers and inclusion of the curvophilic detergent molecules in a flat surface. Consequently, the outer monolayer forms mixed micellar structures within the outer monolayer. Shedding of these micelles into the aqueous solution results in partial solubilization. The consequent leakage of detergent into the liposome results in trans-membrane equilibration of detergent and subsequent micellization through the rapid bilayer-saturation mechanism.

  15. Entamoeba invadens: identification of ADF/cofilin and their expression analysis in relation to encystation and excystation.

    PubMed

    Makioka, Asao; Kumagai, Masahiro; Hiranuka, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Seiki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    The differentiation processes of excystation and encystation of Entamoeba are essential for infection and completion of their life-cycle, and the processes need cell motility and its control by actin cytoskeletal reorganization. This study investigated actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin (Cfl) family proteins, which are important molecules in actin cytoskeletal reorganization, in Entamoeba invadens in relation to the encystation and excystation. Axenic culture systems were used to induce encystation and excystation. A homology search of the E. invadens genome database and molecular cloning identified three ADF/Cfl family proteins of the parasite (named for short as EiCfl-1, EiCfl-2, and EiCfl-3). This is different from other Entamoeba species, i.e. Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar, each of which has only one ADF/Cfl family protein. These ADF/Cfl of E. invadens do not have Ser3 (serine locates third from first methionine), similar to E. histolytica, E. dispar, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, although the activity of ADF/Cfl is negatively regulated by phosphorylation of the Ser3 in metazoans. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Entamoeba Cfl formed a distinctive clade that is separate from other organisms, and the branches of the tree were separated in two consistent with the presence and absence of Ser3. Rabbit anti-EiCfl-2 serum reacted with all recombinant EiCfls and EiCfl in lysates of cysts, trophozoites and metacystic amoebae. Immunofluorescence staining with this antiserum showed co-localization of EiCfl with actin beneath the cell membrane through the life stages. Both proteins proved to be rich in pseudopodia of trophozoites and metacystic amoebae. Real-time RT-PCR showed that mRNAs of EiCfl-2 and actins were highly expressed, but there were few mRNA of EiCfl-1 and EiCfl-3. Remarkably decreased mRNA levels were observed in EiCfl-2 and actins during encystation. All three EiCfls and actins became transcribed after the

  16. The Use of Detergents to Purify Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Orwick-Rydmark, Marcella; Arnold, Thomas; Linke, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of membrane proteins from biological membranes is usually accomplished with the help of detergents. This unit describes the use of detergents to solubilize and purify membrane proteins. The chemical and physical properties of the different classes of detergents typically used with biological samples are discussed. A separate section addresses the compatibility of detergents with applications downstream of the membrane protein purification process, such as optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, protein crystallography, biomolecular NMR, or electron microscopy. A brief summary of alternative membrane protein solubilizing and stabilizing systems is also included. Protocols in this unit include the isolation and solubilization of biological membranes and phase separation; support protocols for detergent removal, detergent exchange, and the determination of critical micelle concentration using different methods are also included.

  17. Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product Pretreatment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

  18. Toxicity following laundry detergent pod ingestion.

    PubMed

    Schneir, Aaron B; Rentmeester, Landen; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2013-06-01

    Laundry detergent pods (LDPs) have only recently become available in the United States, and there has been increasing concern regarding pediatric ingestions of them. We describe a 15-month-old female infant who ingested an LDP and had a depressed level of consciousness, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary toxicity, and swallowing difficulties. It is currently unclear what the exact etiologic agent(s) is responsible for the toxicity associated with LDPs. The case demonstrates the potential for significant toxicity following the ingestion of an LDP. Clearly, measures should be taken to avoid ingestions of these products.

  19. Detergent selection for enhanced extraction of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Arachea, Buenafe T; Sun, Zhen; Potente, Nina; Malik, Radhika; Isailovic, Dragan; Viola, Ronald E

    2012-11-01

    Generating stable conditions for membrane proteins after extraction from their lipid bilayer environment is essential for subsequent characterization. Detergents are the most widely used means to obtain this stable environment; however, different types of membrane proteins have been found to require detergents with varying properties for optimal extraction efficiency and stability after extraction. The extraction profiles of several detergent types have been examined for membranes isolated from bacteria and yeast, and for a set of recombinant target proteins. The extraction efficiencies of these detergents increase at higher concentrations, and were shown to correlate with their respective CMC values. Two alkyl sugar detergents, octyl-β-d-glucoside (OG) and 5-cyclohexyl-1-pentyl-β-d-maltoside (Cymal-5), and a zwitterionic surfactant, N-decylphosphocholine (Fos-choline-10), were generally effective in the extraction of a broad range of membrane proteins. However, certain detergents were more effective than others in the extraction of specific classes of integral membrane proteins, offering guidelines for initial detergent selection. The differences in extraction efficiencies among this small set of detergents supports the value of detergent screening and optimization to increase the yields of targeted membrane proteins.

  20. Diffuse corneal abrasion after ocular exposure to laundry detergent pod.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Rachel E; Baum, Carl R; Aronson, Paul L

    2015-02-01

    Although ocular injury from alkaline household cleaning products is well described, there is less known about the significance and extent of injury with ocular exposure to detergent pods. We report a 12-month-old with diffuse corneal abrasion caused by ocular contact with a laundry detergent pod. In addition to the known risks with aspiration with detergent pods, the potential for severe ocular injury is important for parents and clinicians to recognize. Children with ocular exposure to detergent pods should seek immediate medical care.

  1. ACTION OF SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS ON THE METABOLISM OF BACTERIA.

    PubMed

    Baker, Z; Harrison, R W; Miller, B F

    1941-01-31

    A study of the effects of synthetic detergents and wetting agents on respiration and glycolysis of Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms has led to the following conclusions. 1. All the cationic detergents studied are very effective inhibitors of bacterial metabolism at 1:3000 concentration, and several are equally active at 1:30,000. Few of the anionic detergents inhibit as effectively as the cationic compounds. 2. Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms are equally sensitive to the action of the cationic detergents. On the other hand, all the anionic detergents included in our studies selectively inhibit the metabolism of Gram-positive microorganisms. 3. The inhibitory action of both types of detergents is influenced markedly by hydrogen ion concentration. Cationic detergents exhibit their maximum activity in the alkaline pH range, and the anionic, in the acid range. 4. Studies of homologous series of straight chain alkyl sulfates and sulfoacetates (C(8) to C(18)) demonstrate that maximum inhibition is exerted by the 12, 14, and 16 carbon compounds (lauryl, myristyl, and cetyl). 5. It has been observed that three lauryl esters of amino acids are powerful inhibitors of bacterial metabolism. To our knowledge, the effects on bacterial metabolism of such cationic detergents (without the quaternary ammonium structure) have not been studied previously. Our results demonstrate that other cationic detergents can exhibit an inhibitory activity comparable to quaternary ammonium compounds. 6. Certain detergents stimulate bacterial metabolism at concentrations lower than the inhibiting values. This effect has been found more frequently among the anionic detergents.

  2. Tryptophan octyl ester in detergent micelles of dodecylmaltoside: fluorescence properties and quenching by brominated detergent analogs.

    PubMed Central

    de Foresta, B; Gallay, J; Sopkova, J; Champeil, P; Vincent, M

    1999-01-01

    The fluorescence properties of tryptophan octyl ester (TOE), a hydrophobic model of Trp in proteins, were investigated in various mixed micelles of dodecylmaltoside (DM) and 7,8-dibromododecyl beta-maltoside (BrDM) or 10,11-dibromoundecanoyl beta-maltoside (BrUM). This study focuses on the mechanism via which these brominated detergents quench the fluorescence of TOE in a micellar system. The experiments were performed at a pH at which TOE is uncharged and almost completely bound to detergent micelles. TOE binding was monitored by its enhanced fluorescence in pure DM micelles or its quenched fluorescence in pure BrUM or BrDM micelles. In DM/BrUM and DM/BrDM mixed micelles, the fluorescence intensity of TOE decreased, as a nonlinear function of the molar fraction of brominated detergent, to almost zero in pure brominated detergent. The indole moiety of TOE is therefore highly accessible to the bromine atoms located on the detergent alkyl chain because quenching by bromines occurs by direct contact with the fluorophore. TOE is simultaneously poorly accessible to iodide (I(-)), a water-soluble collisional quencher. TOE time-resolved fluorescence intensity decay is heterogeneous in pure DM micelles, with four lifetimes (from 0.2 to 4.4 ns) at the maximum emission wavelength. Such heterogeneity may arise from dipolar relaxation processes in a motionally restricted medium, as suggested by the time-dependent (nanoseconds) red shift (11 nm) of the TOE emission spectrum, and from the existence of various TOE conformations. Time-resolved quenching experiments for TOE in mixed micelles showed that the excited-state lifetime values decreased only slightly with increases in the proportion of BrDM or BrUM. In contrast, the relative amplitude of the component with the longest lifetime decreased significantly relative to that of the short-lived species. This is consistent with a mainly static mechanism for the quenching of TOE by brominated detergents. Molecular modeling of TOE

  3. ATP-dependent regulation of actin monomer-filament equilibrium by cyclase-associated protein and ADF/cofilin.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kazumi; Ono, Shoichiro

    2013-07-15

    CAP (cyclase-associated protein) is a conserved regulator of actin filament dynamics. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, CAS-1 is an isoform of CAP that is expressed in striated muscle and regulates sarcomeric actin assembly. In the present study, we report that CAS-2, a second CAP isoform in C. elegans, attenuates the actin-monomer-sequestering effect of ADF (actin depolymerizing factor)/cofilin to increase the steady-state levels of actin filaments in an ATP-dependent manner. CAS-2 binds to actin monomers without a strong preference for either ATP- or ADP-actin. CAS-2 strongly enhances the exchange of actin-bound nucleotides even in the presence of UNC-60A, a C. elegans ADF/cofilin that inhibits nucleotide exchange. UNC-60A induces the depolymerization of actin filaments and sequesters actin monomers, whereas CAS-2 reverses the monomer-sequestering effect of UNC-60A in the presence of ATP, but not in the presence of only ADP or the absence of ATP or ADP. A 1:100 molar ratio of CAS-2 to UNC-60A is sufficient to increase actin filaments. CAS-2 has two independent actin-binding sites in its N- and C-terminal halves, and the C-terminal half is necessary and sufficient for the observed activities of the full-length CAS-2. These results suggest that CAS-2 (CAP) and UNC-60A (ADF/cofilin) are important in the ATP-dependent regulation of the actin monomer-filament equilibrium.

  4. DETERGENCY OF THE 12 TO 18 CARBON SATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    saturated fatty acids ) were explored to determine the relationship of the detergencies of such systems to the physico-chemical nature (HLB, hydrophile...suggested that in such systems the chief action is van der Waals adsorption between hydr oxide mole ratio adducts of tridecyl alcohol are poor detergents of the saturated fatty acids .

  5. Biodegradability, toxicity and mutagenicity of detergents: Integrated experimental evaluations.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzani, Roberta; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zerbini, Ilaria; Casale, Rosario; Gozio, Eleonora; Bertanza, Giorgio; Gelatti, Umberto; Donato, Francesco; Feretti, Donatella

    2012-10-01

    The widespread use of detergents has raised concern with regard to the environmental pollution caused by their active ingredients, which are biorefractory, toxic and persistent. Since detergents are complex mixtures of different substances, in which synergistic effects may occur, we aimed to assess the mutagenicity of different detergent formulations, taking into account aquatic toxicity and ready biodegradability. We performed a ready biodegradability test (OECD 301 F), Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri toxicity tests, and mutagenicity tests (Salmonella/microsome test, Allium cepa test and comet assay). Six detergent formulations were examined, 3 pre-manufacture and 3 commercially available. All detergents presented ready biodegradability. EC50 values varied for all products, according to the marker organism used, but were always higher than the more stringent value considered for aquatic toxicity assessment (V. fischeri 10-60 mg/L; D. magna 25-300 mg/L; A. cepa 250-2000 mg/L). None of the detergents caused mutations in bacteria. However, one commercial ecolabelled product induced an increase in micronucleus frequency in A. cepa root cells. All pre-manufacture detergents and one commercial one, which gave negative results in the Ames and A. cepa tests, induced DNA damage in human leukocytes. A more accurate evaluation of the environmental impact of complex mixtures such as detergents requires a battery of tests to describe degradation, as well as toxicological and mutagenic features.

  6. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., or share common ownership with, the blender, and the modified detergent is not sold or transferred to... detergent flow in cold weather; and (C) Gasoline is the only diluting agent used; and (D) The diluted... contained in common; and (B) The minimum concentration recommended for the use of each such additive...

  7. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or share common ownership with, the blender, and the modified detergent is not sold or transferred to... detergent flow in cold weather; and (C) Gasoline is the only diluting agent used; and (D) The diluted... contained in common; and (B) The minimum concentration recommended for the use of each such additive...

  8. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., or share common ownership with, the blender, and the modified detergent is not sold or transferred to... detergent flow in cold weather; and (C) Gasoline is the only diluting agent used; and (D) The diluted... contained in common; and (B) The minimum concentration recommended for the use of each such additive...

  9. Variation of the Detergent-Binding Capacity and Phospholipid Content of Membrane Proteins When Purified in Different Detergents

    PubMed Central

    Ilgü, Hüseyin; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Gachet, María Salomé; Boggavarapu, Rajendra; Ucurum, Zöhre; Gertsch, Jürg; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Purified membrane proteins are ternary complexes consisting of protein, lipid, and detergent. Information about the amounts of detergent and endogenous phospholipid molecules bound to purified membrane proteins is largely lacking. In this systematic study, three model membrane proteins of different oligomeric states were purified in nine different detergents at commonly used concentrations and characterized biochemically and biophysically. Detergent-binding capacities and phospholipid contents of the model proteins were determined and compared. The insights on ternary complexes obtained from the experimental results, when put into a general context, are summarized as follows. 1), The amount of detergent and 2) the amount of endogenous phospholipids bound to purified membrane proteins are dependent on the size of the hydrophobic lipid-accessible protein surface areas and the physicochemical properties of the detergents used. 3), The size of the detergent and lipid belt surrounding the hydrophobic lipid-accessible surface of purified membrane proteins can be tuned by the appropriate choice of detergent. 4), The detergents n-nonyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and Cymal-5 have exceptional delipidating effects on ternary complexes. 5), The types of endogenous phospholipids bound to membrane proteins can vary depending on the detergent used for solubilization and purification. 6), Furthermore, we demonstrate that size-exclusion chromatography can be a suitable method for estimating the molecular mass of ternary complexes. The findings presented suggest a strategy to control and tune the numbers of detergent and endogenous phospholipid molecules bound to membrane proteins. These two parameters are potentially important for the successul crystallization of membrane proteins for structure determination by crystallographic approaches. PMID:24739165

  10. Variation of the detergent-binding capacity and phospholipid content of membrane proteins when purified in different detergents.

    PubMed

    Ilgü, Hüseyin; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Gachet, María Salomé; Boggavarapu, Rajendra; Ucurum, Zöhre; Gertsch, Jürg; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2014-04-15

    Purified membrane proteins are ternary complexes consisting of protein, lipid, and detergent. Information about the amounts of detergent and endogenous phospholipid molecules bound to purified membrane proteins is largely lacking. In this systematic study, three model membrane proteins of different oligomeric states were purified in nine different detergents at commonly used concentrations and characterized biochemically and biophysically. Detergent-binding capacities and phospholipid contents of the model proteins were determined and compared. The insights on ternary complexes obtained from the experimental results, when put into a general context, are summarized as follows. 1), The amount of detergent and 2) the amount of endogenous phospholipids bound to purified membrane proteins are dependent on the size of the hydrophobic lipid-accessible protein surface areas and the physicochemical properties of the detergents used. 3), The size of the detergent and lipid belt surrounding the hydrophobic lipid-accessible surface of purified membrane proteins can be tuned by the appropriate choice of detergent. 4), The detergents n-nonyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and Cymal-5 have exceptional delipidating effects on ternary complexes. 5), The types of endogenous phospholipids bound to membrane proteins can vary depending on the detergent used for solubilization and purification. 6), Furthermore, we demonstrate that size-exclusion chromatography can be a suitable method for estimating the molecular mass of ternary complexes. The findings presented suggest a strategy to control and tune the numbers of detergent and endogenous phospholipid molecules bound to membrane proteins. These two parameters are potentially important for the successul crystallization of membrane proteins for structure determination by crystallographic approaches.

  11. Membrane proteins, lipids and detergents: not just a soap opera.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Annela M; Curnow, Paul; Booth, Paula J

    2004-11-03

    Studying membrane proteins represents a major challenge in protein biochemistry, with one of the major difficulties being the problems encountered when working outside the natural lipid environment. In vitro studies such as crystallization are reliant on the successful solubilization or reconstitution of membrane proteins, which generally involves the careful selection of solubilizing detergents and mixed lipid/detergent systems. This review will concentrate on the methods currently available for efficient reconstitution and solubilization of membrane proteins through the use of detergent micelles, mixed lipid/detergent micelles and bicelles or liposomes. We focus on the relevant molecular properties of the detergents and lipids that aid understanding of these processes. A significant barrier to membrane protein research is retaining the stability and function of the protein during solubilization, reconstitution and crystallization. We highlight some of the lessons learnt from studies of membrane protein folding in vitro and give an overview of the role that lipids can play in stabilizing the proteins.

  12. Quantification of detergent using colorimetric methods in membrane protein crystallography.

    PubMed

    Prince, Chelsy; Jia, Zongchao

    2015-01-01

    Membrane protein crystallography has the potential to greatly aid our understanding of membrane protein biology. Yet, membrane protein crystals remain challenging to produce. Although robust methods for the expression and purification of membrane proteins continue to be developed, the detergent component of membrane protein samples is equally important to crystallization efforts. This chapter describes the development of three colorimetric assays for the quantitation of detergent in membrane protein samples and provides detailed protocols. All of these techniques use small sample volumes and have potential applications in crystallography. The application of these techniques in crystallization prescreening, detergent concentration modification, and detergent exchange experiments is demonstrated. It has been observed that the concentration of detergent in a membrane protein sample can be just as important as the protein concentration when attempting to reproduce crystallization lead conditions.

  13. Skin safety evaluation of laundry detergent products.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seok; Holland, Daniela; Kern, Petra

    2009-01-01

    The conduct of a scientifically sound safety assessment of new ingredients and finished products is essential prior to their introduction into the marketplace. Such assessments are based on a risk assessment paradigm established by the National Academy of Science (NAS, 1983) that consists of a four-step process: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. This risk assessment paradigm has been (1) used as a framework for estimating an adverse health risk posed by environmental chemicals, and (2) applied to systemic toxicological endpoints. The general principles of risk assessment may be applied to skin safety evaluation of consumer products, considering that dermal toxicity is also a threshold phenomenon. This study describes a risk assessment-based approach for skin safety evaluation of laundry detergent products.

  14. Characterization of the Protease Activity of Detergents: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Protease Profile and Activity of Various Commercial Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valls, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Detergent enzymes account for about 30% of the total worldwide production of enzymes and are one of the largest and most successful applications of modern industrial biotechnology. Proteases can improve the wash performance of household, industrial, and institutional laundry detergents used to remove protein-based stains such as blood, grass, body…

  15. A novel method to determine residual detergent in biological samples post endotoxin reduction treatment and evaluation of strategies for subsequent detergent removal.

    PubMed

    London, Anne Serdakowski; Japutra, Chietara; Planck, Kyle; Lihon, Michael; Nguyen, Andrew Anh

    2016-08-01

    Endotoxin removal using detergent washes and extractions are well-established, efficient, and cost-effective methods; however, removing residual detergent post treatment has been shown to be a challenge. In this communication, we show a simple and fast method for determining the detergent concentration in a protein solution post treatment and highlight strategies for detergent removal to achieve levels below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the minimum concentration at which detergent micelles form.

  16. Experimental Validation of Advanced Dispersed Fringe Sensing (ADFS) Algorithm Using Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Correction Testbed (AWCT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xu; Shi, Fang; Sigrist, Norbert; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Tang, Hong; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa; Basinger, Scott; Lay, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Large aperture telescope commonly features segment mirrors and a coarse phasing step is needed to bring these individual segments into the fine phasing capture range. Dispersed Fringe Sensing (DFS) is a powerful coarse phasing technique and its alteration is currently being used for JWST.An Advanced Dispersed Fringe Sensing (ADFS) algorithm is recently developed to improve the performance and robustness of previous DFS algorithms with better accuracy and unique solution. The first part of the paper introduces the basic ideas and the essential features of the ADFS algorithm and presents the some algorithm sensitivity study results. The second part of the paper describes the full details of algorithm validation process through the advanced wavefront sensing and correction testbed (AWCT): first, the optimization of the DFS hardware of AWCT to ensure the data accuracy and reliability is illustrated. Then, a few carefully designed algorithm validation experiments are implemented, and the corresponding data analysis results are shown. Finally the fiducial calibration using Range-Gate-Metrology technique is carried out and a <10nm or <1% algorithm accuracy is demonstrated.

  17. Immunological Responses and Actin Dynamics in Macrophages Are Controlled by N-Cofilin but Are Independent from ADF

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Friederike; Gurniak, Christine B.; Fleischer, Bernhard; Kirfel, Gregor; Witke, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton are essential for immune cell function and a number of immune deficiencies have been linked to mutations, which disturb the actin cytoskeleton. In macrophages and dendritic cells, actin remodelling is critical for motility, phagocytosis and antigen presentation, however the actin binding proteins, which control antigen presentation have been poorly characterized. Here we dissect the specific roles of the family of ADF/cofilin F-actin depolymerizing factors in macrophages and in local immune responses. Macrophage migration, cell polarization and antigen presentation to T-cells require n-cofilin mediated F-actin remodelling. Using a conditional mouse model, we show that n-cofilin also controls MHC class II-dependent antigen presentation. Other cellular processes such as phagocytosis and antigen processing were found to be independent of n-cofilin. Our data identify n-cofilin as a novel regulator of antigen presentation, while ADF on the other hand is dispensable for macrophage motility and antigen presentation. PMID:22558315

  18. Downregulation of LIMK1–ADF/cofilin by DADS inhibits the migration and invasion of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jian; Zhou, Yujuan; Pan, Zhibing; Shi, Ling; Yang, Jing; Liao, Aijun; Liao, Qianjin; Su, Qi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore whether the downregulation of LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1)-actin depolymerization factor (ADF, also known as destrin)/cofilin by diallyl disulfide (DADS) inhibited the migration and invasion of colon cancer. Previous studies have shown that silencing LIMK1 could significantly enhance the inhibitory effect of DADS on colon cancer cell migration and invasion, suggesting that LIMK1 was a target molecule of DADS, which needed further confirmation. This study reported that LIMK1 and destrin were highly expressed in colon cancer and associated with poor prognosis of patients with colon cancer. Also, the expression of LIMK1 was positively correlated with the expression of destrin. The overexpression of LIMK1 significantly promoted colon cancer cell migration and invasion. DADS obviously inhibited migration and invasion by suppressing the phosphorylation of ADF/cofilin via downregulation of LIMK1 in colon cancer cells. Furthermore, DADS-induced suppression of cell proliferation was enhanced and antagonized by the knockdown and overexpression of LIMK1 in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Similar results were observed for DADS-induced changes in the expression of vimentin, CD34, Ki-67, and E-cadherin in xenografted tumors. These results indicated that LIMK1 was a potential target molecule for the inhibitory effect of DADS on colon cancer cell migration and invasion. PMID:28358024

  19. Electrical lysis of cells for detergent-free droplet assays

    PubMed Central

    Tran, T. M.; Abate, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient lysis is critical when analyzing single cells in microfluidic droplets, but existing methods utilize detergents that can interfere with the assays to be performed. We demonstrate robust cell lysis without the use of detergents or other chemicals. In our method, cells are exposed to electric field immediately before encapsulation in droplets, resulting in cell lysis. We characterize lysis efficiency as a function of control parameters and demonstrate compatibility with enzymatic assays by measuring the catalysis of β-glucosidase, an important cellulase used in the conversion of biomass to biofuel. Our method enables assays in microfluidic droplets that are incompatible with detergents. PMID:27051471

  20. Effect of synthetic detergents on germination of fern spores

    SciTech Connect

    Devi, Y.; Devi, S.

    1986-12-01

    Synthetic detergents constitute one of the most important water pollutants by contaminating the lakes and rivers through domestic and industrial use. Considerable information is now available for the adverse effects of detergents an aquatic fauna including fish, algae, and higher aquatic plants. Marked inhibition of germination in orchids and brinjals and of seedlings growth in raddish suggest that rapidly growing systems could be sensitive to detergent polluted water. The present study of the effect of linear alkyl benzene sulphonate on germination of the spores of a fern, Diplazium esculentum aims at the understanding of the effects of water pollution on pteridophytes and the development of spore germination assay for phytoxicity evaluation.

  1. Canopy visible and near-infrared reflectance data to estimate alfalfa nutritive attributes before harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proximal sensing could help improve profit margins by timing the cutting or harvesting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), in rapid assessment of nutritive values, such as total nitrogen (N), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) as well as nutritive quality indicators such as r...

  2. Characterization of the protease activity of detergents: laboratory practicals for studying the protease profile and activity of various commercial detergents.

    PubMed

    Valls, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2011-07-01

    Detergent enzymes account for about 30% of the total worldwide production of enzymes and are one of the largest and most successful applications of modern industrial biotechnology. Proteases can improve the wash performance of household, industrial, and institutional laundry detergents used to remove protein-based stains such as blood, grass, body fluids, and food soils. This article describes two easy and cheap laboratory exercises to study the presence, profile, and basic enzymology of detergent proteases. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the detergent protease activity of various commercial detergents using the N-succinyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-phenylalanine p-nitroanilide method and the bovine serum albumin degradation capacity. Students are also required to elucidate the enzymatic subtype of detergent proteases by studying the inhibitory potential of several types of protease inhibitors revealed by the same experimental methodology. Additionally, the results of the exercises can be used to provide additional insights on elementary enzymology by studying the influence of several important parameters on protease activity such as temperature (in this article) and the influence of pH and effects of surfactants and oxidizers (proposed). Students also develop laboratory skills, problem-solving capacities, and the ability to write a laboratory report. The exercises are mainly designed for an advanced undergraduate project in the biochemistry and biotechnology sciences. Globally, these laboratory practicals show students the biotechnological applications of proteases in the detergent industry and also reinforce important enzymology concepts.

  3. Enzymes, detergents and skin: facts and fantasies.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D A; English, J S C; Wakelin, S H; White, I R

    2008-06-01

    In their raw state, enzymes of bacterial/fungal origin cause allergic reactions in the lung. Proteolytic enzymes also cause irritation to skin, eyes and the respiratory tract. For 40 years, encapsulated enzymes have been used worldwide in detergent products, especially laundry formulations, and have increasing importance due to biodegradability and functionality at low temperatures, offering environmental benefits. Uniquely to the U.K., for years it has been suggested that the inclusion of enzymes in such products leads to adverse skin reactions, including erythema, pruritus and exacerbation of eczema. In this review, we look at the facts, asking whether there is evidence that the hazards identified for enzymes translate into any risk for consumer health. By considering the actual exposures in consumer use and exaggerated product usage, it is concluded that the irritating and allergenic hazards of enzyme raw materials do not translate into a risk of skin reactions, either irritant or allergic. Investigations of numerous individuals with skin complaints attributed to laundry products demonstrate convincingly that enzymes were not responsible. Indeed, enzyme-containing laundry products have an extensive history of safe use. Thus, the supposed adverse effects of enzymes on skin seem to be a consequence of a mythology. The important practical lesson is that when primary or secondary care practitioners are presented with a skin complaint, it should not be dismissed as a result of using an enzyme-containing laundry product as the diagnosis will certainly lie elsewhere. Education for healthcare professionals could usefully be enhanced to take this on board.

  4. Structure, composition, and peptide binding properties of detergent soluble bilayers and detergent resistant rafts.

    PubMed Central

    Gandhavadi, M; Allende, D; Vidal, A; Simon, S A; McIntosh, T J

    2002-01-01

    Lipid bilayers composed of unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC), sphingomyelin (SM), and cholesterol are thought to contain microdomains that have similar detergent insolubility characteristics as rafts isolated from cell plasma membranes. We chemically characterized the fractions corresponding to detergent soluble membranes (DSMs) and detergent resistant membranes (DRMs) from 1:1:1 PC:SM:cholesterol, compared the binding properties of selected peptides to bilayers with the compositions of DSMs and DRMs, used differential scanning calorimetry to identify phase transitions, and determined the structure of DRMs with x-ray diffraction. Compared with the equimolar starting material, DRMs were enriched in both SM and cholesterol. Both transmembrane and interfacial peptides bound to a greater extent to DSM bilayers than to DRM bilayers, likely because of differences in the mechanical properties of the two bilayers. Thermograms from 1:1:1 PC:SM:cholesterol from 3 to 70 degrees C showed no evidence for a liquid-ordered to liquid-disordered phase transition. Over a wide range of osmotic stresses, each x-ray pattern from equimolar PC:SM:cholesterol or DRMs contained a broad wide-angle band at 4.5 A, indicating that the bilayers were in a liquid-crystalline phase, and several sharp low-angle reflections that indexed as orders of a single lamellar repeat period. Electron density profiles showed that the total bilayer thickness was 57 A for DRMs, which was approximately 5 A greater than that of 1:1:1 PC:SM:cholesterol and 10 A greater than the thickness of bilayers with the composition of DSMs. These x-ray data provide accurate values for the widths of raft and nonraft bilayers that should be important in understanding mechanisms of protein sorting by rafts. PMID:11867462

  5. Detergent and corrosion inhibitor and motor fuel composition containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, B.J.; Herbstman, S.; Levin, M.

    1983-09-13

    As a detergent and corrosion inhibiting fuel additive, the product is claimed resulting from reaction of trimellitic anhydride and a N- C/sub 10/-C/sub 25/-hydrocarbyl-1,3-diaminopropane and a fuel composition containing same.

  6. Impact of detergent systems on bacterial survival on laundered fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Jaska, J M; Fredell, D L

    1980-01-01

    The survival of Staphylococcus aureus was determined from inoculated swatches laundered in either a phosphate or a phosphate-substitute detergent. In a Plackett-Burman design study, the independent variables of detergent type, concentration, and variation, wash water temperature, soil load, cycle time, and water hardness were assigned high and low values. Wash water temperatures of 27, 38, 49, and 60 degrees C were employed. Viable bacteria were recovered from macerated swatches. Statistical analysis disclosed that there was no practical difference in the ability of phosphate or phosphate-substitute detergents to reduce the level of S. aureus on the laundered swatches in this controlled design. Analysis did reveal that water temperature was the most significant independent variables. The remaining variables did not appear to have any practical significance upon bacterial reduction. This bacteriological study did not evaluate other essential detergent properties. PMID:7377775

  7. Mixing and Matching Detergents for Membrane Protein NMR Structure Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Columbus, Linda; Lipfert, Jan; Jambunathan, Kalyani; Fox, Daniel A.; Sim, Adelene Y.L.; Doniach, Sebastian; Lesley, Scott A.

    2009-10-21

    One major obstacle to membrane protein structure determination is the selection of a detergent micelle that mimics the native lipid bilayer. Currently, detergents are selected by exhaustive screening because the effects of protein-detergent interactions on protein structure are poorly understood. In this study, the structure and dynamics of an integral membrane protein in different detergents is investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The results suggest that matching of the micelle dimensions to the protein's hydrophobic surface avoids exchange processes that reduce the completeness of the NMR observations. Based on these dimensions, several mixed micelles were designed that improved the completeness of NMR observations. These findings provide a basis for the rational design of mixed micelles that may advance membrane protein structure determination by NMR.

  8. Development of a tactile sensor for evaluation of detergents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Mami

    2007-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a tactile sensor using PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride) film as a receptor of the sensor to evaluate a detergent. Tactile sense is the most important sense in the sensation receptor of the human body along with eyesight. When the dish which washed cleanly is rubbed with a finger of human, good tactile sense and sound (vibration signal) like "Kyu-kyu" are obtained. From this tactile sense and sound, we judge that a dish becomes squeaky-clean. This tactile sense and sound are evaluation parameters when consumer selects a detergent. In this study, a tactile sensor using PVDF film as the receptor is fabricated. Sensory test of detergents was conducted. Measurement experiment by the sensor is carried out. Experiment results show that sensor output have good correlation with the result of human sensory test of detergent.

  9. Laundry detergents and skin irritancy--a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Charles; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Surface-active agents (surfactants) form the foundation of an effective detergent formulation. As such, surfactants are a major component of laundry detergents. Depending on multiple factors, the amount of residual detergent surfactants in clothing after washing varies but may be sufficient to elicit skin irritation in susceptible individuals and in patients with existing dermatologic disorders. The goal of this review is to examine the relationship between surfactants commonly used in laundry detergent formulations and their potential for skin irritancy. In this context, the role of surfactants in achieving broad-spectrum cleaning performance in laundry is discussed, and currently available methodologies to evaluate and measure the effect of surfactant exposure on the skin are reviewed.

  10. Differential effects of detergents on keratinocyte gene expression.

    PubMed

    van Ruissen, F; Le, M; Carroll, J M; van der Valk, P G; Schalkwijk, J

    1998-04-01

    We have studied the effect of various detergents on keratinocyte gene expression in vitro, using an anionic detergent (sodium dodecyl sulfate), a cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB), and two nonionic detergents, Nonidet P-40 and Tween-20. We measured the effect of these detergents on direct cellular toxicity (lactate dehydrogenase release), on the expression of markers for normal differentiation (cytokeratin 1 and involucrin expression), and on disturbed keratinocyte differentiation (SKALP) by northern blot analysis. As reported in other studies, large differences were noted in direct cellular toxicity. In a culture model that mimics normal epidermal differentiation we found that low concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate could induce the expression of SKALP, a proteinase inhibitor that is not normally expressed in human epidermis but is found in hyperproliferative skin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate caused upregulation of involucrin and downregulation of cytokeratin 1 expression, which is associated with the hyperproliferative/inflammatory epidermal phenotype found in psoriasis, wound healing, and skin irritation. These changes were not induced after treatment of cultures with CTAB, Triton X-100, and Nonidet-P40. This effect appeared to be specific for the class of anionic detergents because sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and sodium laurate also induced SKALP expression. These in vitro findings showed only a partial correlation with the potential of different detergents to induce clinical, biophysical, and cell biologic changes in vivo in human skin. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate and CTAB were found to cause induction and upregulation of SKALP and involucrin at low doses following a 24 h patch test, whereas high concentrations of Triton X-100 did not. Sodium dodecyl sulfate induced higher rates of transepidermal water loss, whereas CTAB treated skin showed more signs of cellular toxicity. We conclude that the action of anionic detergents on

  11. 40 CFR 80.155 - Interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interim detergent program controls and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.155 Interim detergent... wholesale purchaser-consumer, and no person shall detergent-additize gasoline, unless such gasoline...

  12. 40 CFR 80.155 - Interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interim detergent program controls and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.155 Interim detergent... wholesale purchaser-consumer, and no person shall detergent-additize gasoline, unless such gasoline...

  13. 40 CFR 80.155 - Interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim detergent program controls and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.155 Interim detergent... wholesale purchaser-consumer, and no person shall detergent-additize gasoline, unless such gasoline...

  14. 40 CFR 80.155 - Interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interim detergent program controls and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.155 Interim detergent... wholesale purchaser-consumer, and no person shall detergent-additize gasoline, unless such gasoline...

  15. 40 CFR 80.155 - Interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interim detergent program controls and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.155 Interim detergent... wholesale purchaser-consumer, and no person shall detergent-additize gasoline, unless such gasoline...

  16. The size and detergent binding of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S

    1975-07-25

    Sucrose density gradient centrifugation has been used to measure the binding of Triton X-100 above its critical micellar concentration to a variety of purified membrane and non-membrane proteins. In addition, binding studies were done on the three proteins below the critical micellar concentration of detergent to distinguish between the interaction of proteins with detergent monomers and detergent micelles. A procedure is described for the calculation of the molecular weight of these Triton X-100 protein complexes and measurements were made for opsin, plasma low density lipoprotein, the (Na-+ plus K-+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase, the human red blood cell major sialoglycoprotein (PAS-1) and the human red blood cell minor glycoprotein (bandIII). These proteins behave as monomers or dimers in detergent and bind between 0.28 and 1.12 g of detergent per g of protein. A general method is also present for calculating the molecular size and shape of impure membrane proteins in detergent. Finally, Triton X-100 was shown to replace bound Na dodecyl-SO4 on the minor glycoprotein of the red blood cell.

  17. Laundry detergent compatibility of the alkaline protease from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Banik, Rathindra Mohan; Prakash, Monika

    2004-01-01

    The endogenous protease activity in various commercially available laundry detergents of international companies was studied. The maximum protease activity was found at 50 degrees C in pH range 10.5-11.0 in all the tested laundry detergents. The endogenous protease activity in the tested detergents retained up to 70% on incubation at 40 degrees C for 1 h, whereas less than 30% activity was only found on incubation at 50 degrees C for 1 h. The alkaline protease from an alkalophilic strain of Bacillus cereus was studied for its compatibility in commercial detergents. The cell free fermented broth from shake flask culture of the organism showed maximum activity at pH 10.5 and 50 degrees C. The protease from B. cereus showed much higher residual activity (more than 80%) on incubation with laundry detergents at 50 degrees C for 1 h or longer. The protease enzyme from B. cereus was found to be superior over the endogenous proteases present in the tested commercial laundry detergents in comparison to the enzyme stability during the washing at higher temperature, e.g., 40-50 degrees C.

  18. Effects of wastewater sludge and its detergents on the stability of rotavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.L.; Ashley, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    Wastewater sludge reduced the heat required to inactivate rotavirus SA-11, and ionic detergents were identified as the sludge components responsible for this effect. A similar result was found previously with reovirus. The quantitative effects of individual ionic detergents on rotavirus and reovirus were very different, and rotavirus was found to be extremely sensitive to several of these detergents. However, neither virus was destabilized by nonionic detergents. On the contrary, rotavirus was stabilized by a nonionic detergent against the potent destabilizing effects of the ionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate. The destabilizing effects of both cationic and anionic detergents on rotavirus were greatly altered by changes in the pH of the medium.

  19. Detergent and detergent-free methods to define lipid rafts and caveolae.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Rennolds S; Liu, Xiaoqiu

    2007-01-01

    Lipid rafts and their related membrane vesicular structures, caveolae, are cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich microdomains of the plasma membrane that have attracted considerable interest because of their ability to concentrate numerous signaling proteins. Efforts to define the proteins that reside in lipid rafts and caveolae as well as investigations into the functional role of these microdomains in signaling, endocytosis, and other cellular processes have led to the hypothesis that they compartmentalize or prearrange molecules involved in regulating these pathways. This chapter describes biochemical approaches for defining lipid rafts and caveolae. Included are detergent- and nondetergent-based fractionations on sucrose-density gradients that isolate buoyant lipid rafts and caveolae as well as caveolin antibody-based immunoisolation of detergent-insoluble membranes that selectively isolates caveolae and not lipid rafts. Also, a general method to disrupt lipid rafts and caveolae using beta-cyclodextrin that is useful for probing the role of these microdomains in cellular processes is described. The advantages and disadvantages of the respective approaches are discussed. Taken together, these methods are useful for defining the role of lipid rafts and caveolae in cell signaling.

  20. Detergent decellularization of heart valves for tissue engineering: toxicological effects of residual detergents on human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cebotari, Serghei; Tudorache, Igor; Jaekel, Thomas; Hilfiker, Andres; Dorfman, Suzanne; Ternes, Waldemar; Haverich, Axel; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2010-03-01

    Detergents are powerful agents for tissue decellularization. Despite this, the high toxicity of detergent residua can be a major limitation. This study evaluated the efficacy of detergent removal from decellularized pulmonary valves (PVs) and the consequences of repopulation with human endothelial cells (HECs). Porcine PVs were treated with 1% sodium deoxycholate (SDC), group A; 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), group B; and a mixture of 0.5% SDC/0.5% SDS, group C (n = 5 each). After each of 10 succeeding wash cycles (WCs), samples of the washing solution (WS) were analyzed by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography for the presence of detergents. Metabolic activity of HEC was also assessed in the WS samples (cytotoxicity and MTS assays). Decellularized and washed PVs were reseeded with HEC. Histological analysis demonstrated efficient tissue decellularization in all groups. Detergents' concentration in all WSs decreased exponentially and was below 50 mg/L after 6, 8, and 4 WCs in groups A, B, and C, respectively. This concentration resulted in no significant toxic influence on cell cultures, and scaffolds could be efficiently reseeded with HEC. In conclusion, intensive washing of detergent decellularized valvular scaffolds lowers the residual contamination below a hazardous threshold and allows their successful repopulation with HEC for tissue engineering purposes.

  1. Amino phenol-detergent/dispersant combinations and fuels and lubricants containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Clason, D.L.; Cohen, J.M.; Pindar, J.F.

    1980-04-29

    Disclosed are combinations of amino phenols, wherein said phenols contain a substantially saturated hydrocarbon substituent of at least 10 aliphatic carbon atoms, and one or more detergent/dispersants selected from the group consisting of (I) neutral or basic metal salts of an organic sulfur acid, phenol or carboxylic acid; (II) hydrocarbyl-substituted amines wherein the hydrocarbyl substituent is substantially aliphatic and contains at least 12 carbon atoms; (III) acylated nitrogen-containing compounds having a substituent of at least 10 aliphatic carbon atoms; and (IV) nitrogen-containing condensates of a phenol, aldehyde and amino compound. Fuels and lubricants containing such combinations as additives are particularly useful in two-cycle (two-stroke) engines.

  2. Introduction of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma to Aqueous Detergent Processes.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Keiko; Kanasaki, Yu; Uchinomaru, Haruka

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exposure of polymer surfaces to atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) on detergency were investigated from the viewpoint of pretreatment to cleaning in aqueous systems using three PET substrates: film, mesh, and fabric. The PET substrates were soiled with stearic acid as a model oily contaminant, and were treated with the APP jet immediately before cleaning. Stir washing in aqueous solutions with and without alkali or anionic surfactant was performed, and then the detergency was evaluated from the microscopic image analysis or surface reflectance measurement. For all PET samples and detergent solutions, APP exposure was found to promote the removal of stearic acid. Contact angle measurements showed that APP exposure enhanced the hydrophilicity of PET and stearic acid. The increase in the surface oxygen concentration on PET and stearic acid due to the APP exposure was also observed by XPS analysis. The simultaneous oxidation of the PET substrate and stearic acid soil by the APP pretreatment resulted in detergency improvement via surface hydrophilization. Furthermore, microscopic observations suggested that the collapse of crystallized stearic acid deposited on the PET substrate by APP heating facilitated its removal. In situ detergency evaluation by a quartz crystal microbalance technique confirmed that the removal of stearic acid from the PET substrate was promoted by the APP exposure. The experimental findings of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the APP exposure before cleaning in aqueous solutions.

  3. Detergent interaction with tethered bilayer lipid membranes for protein reconstitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broccio, Matteo; Zan Goh, Haw; Loesche, Mathias

    2009-03-01

    Tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) are self-assembled biomimetic structures in which the membrane is separated from a solid substrate by a nm-thick hydrated submembrane space. These model systems are being used in binding studies of peripheral proteins and exotoxins. Here we aim at their application for the reconstitution of water-insoluble integral membrane proteins. As an alternative to fusion of preformed proteoliposomes we study the direct reconstitution of such proteins for applications in biosensing and pharmaceutical screening. For reconstitution, highly insulating tBLMs (R˜10^5-10^6 φ) were temporarily incubated with a detergent to screen for conditions that keep the detergent-saturated membranestable and ready to incorporate detergent-solubilized proteins. We assess the electrical characteristics, i.e. specific resistance and capacitance, by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) under timed incubation with decylmaltoside and dodecylmaltoside detergents in a regime around their critical micelle concentration, 1.8 mM and 0.17 mM respectively and demonstrate the restoration of the tBLM upon detergent removal. Thereby a range of concentration and incubation times was identified, that represents optimal conditions for the subsequent membrane protein reconstitution.

  4. Lipids that determine detergent resistance of MDCK cell membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Manni, Marco M; Cano, Ainara; Alonso, Cristina; Goñi, Félix M

    2015-10-01

    A comparative lipidomic study has been performed of whole Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells and of the detergent-resistant membrane fraction (DRM) obtained after treating the cells with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100. The DRM were isolated following a standard procedure that is extensively used in cell biology studies. Significant differences were found in the lipid composition of the whole cells and of DRM. The latter were enriched in all the analyzed sphingolipid classes: sphingomyelins, ceramides and hexosylceramides. Diacylglycerols were also preferentially found in DRM. The detergent-resistant fraction was also enriched in saturated over unsaturated fatty acyl chains, and in sn-1 acyl chains containing 16 carbon atoms, over the longer and shorter ones. The glycerophospholipid species phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols, that were mainly unsaturated, did not show a preference for DRM. Phosphatidylcholines were an intermediate case: the saturated, but not the unsaturated species were found preferentially in DRM. The question remains on whether these DRM, recovered from detergent-membrane mixtures by floatation over a sucrose gradient, really correspond to membrane domains existing in the cell membrane prior to detergent treatment.

  5. Detergent-compatible proteases: microbial production, properties, and stain removal analysis.

    PubMed

    Niyonzima, Francois Niyongabo; More, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are one of the most important commercial enzymes used in various industrial domains such as detergent and leather industries. The alkaline proteases as well as other detergent-compatible enzymes such as lipases and amylases serve now as the key components in detergent formulations. They break down various stains during fabric washing. The search for detergent-compatible proteases with better properties is a continuous exercise. The current trend is to use detergent-compatible proteases that are stable over a wide temperature range. Although the proteases showing stability at elevated pH have the capacity to be used in detergent formulations, their usage can be significant if they are also stable and compatible with detergent and detergent ingredients, and also able to remove protein stains. Despite the existence of some reviews on alkaline proteases, there is no specification for the use of alkaline proteases as detergent additives. The present review describes the detergent-compatible proteases tested as detergent additives. An overview was provided for screening, optimization, purification, and properties of detergent compatible proteases, with an emphasis on the stability and compatibility of the alkaline proteases with the detergent and detergent compounds, as well as stain removal examination methods.

  6. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  7. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  8. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  9. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  10. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  11. Detergent activation of the binding protein in the folate radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Lyngbye, J.

    1982-01-01

    A minor cow's whey protein associated with ..beta..-lactoglobulin is used as binding protein in the competitive radioassay for serum and erythrocyte folate. Seeking to optimize the assay, we tested the performance of binder solutions of increasing purity. The folate binding protein was isolated from cow's whey by means of CM-Sepharose CL-6B cation-exchange chromatography, and further purified on a methotrexate-AH-Sepharose 4B affinity matrix. In contrast to ..beta..-lactoglobulin, the purified protein did not bind folate unless the detergents cetyltrimethylammonium (10 mmol/Ll) or Triton X-100 (1 g/L) were present. Such detergent activation was not needed in the presence of serum. There seems to be a striking analogy between these phenomena and the well-known reactivation of certain purified membrane-derived enzymes by surfactants (lipids/detergents).

  12. Investigations on ionic detergents with unusual aggregation behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, H.; Platz, G.; Ulbricht, W.

    1981-05-14

    The aggregation behavior of the 2 surfactants dodecylammonium trifluoroacetate (DATFA) and tetradecylammonium trifluoroacetate (TATFA) has been studied at different concentrations and temperatures with several techniques. Rodlike aggregates are present in solutions of DATFA. The length of these anisotropic micelles which was determined by electric birefringence, viscosity, and quasielastic light-scattering measurements varies little with total detergent concentration but decreases rapidly with increasing temperature. The aggregation behavior of TATFA show no electric birefringence but the hydrodynamic radius for the micelles which is determined from the quasielastic light-scattering measurements is too large for normal spherical micelles. Furthermore, the residence times of the detergent ions inside the micelles are too long also. The data are explained on the basis of micellar aggregates that contain solubilized ion pairs of the detergent ion and its counterion in the interior of the micelles. 27 references.

  13. Detergent solubilization of the EGF receptor from A431 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanidhi, R.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of purified preparations of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires dissociation of the protein from its plasma membrane lipid environment. Solubilization of membrane proteins in this manner requires the use of detergents, which are known to disrupt plasma membrane lipid/protein interactions. We have investigated the ability of three nonionic detergents to solubilize the human EGFR selectively, and have also analyzed the effect of these various treatments on the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the receptor. The nonionic detergent known as n-octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) was found to give the best combination of selectivity, yield, and maintenance of enzymatic activity of the human EGFR.

  14. Isolation and Analysis of Detergent-Resistant Membrane Fractions.

    PubMed

    Aureli, Massimo; Grassi, Sara; Sonnino, Sandro; Prinetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that the Golgi apparatus is capable of sorting proteins and sending them to the plasma membrane through "lipid rafts," membrane lipid domains highly enriched in glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin, ceramide, and cholesterol, was formulated by van Meer and Simons in 1988 and came to a turning point when it was suggested that lipid rafts could be isolated thanks to their resistance to solubilization by some detergents, namely Triton X-100. An incredible number of papers have described the composition and properties of detergent-resistant membrane fractions. However, the use of this method has also raised the fiercest criticisms. In this chapter, we would like to discuss the most relevant methodological aspects related to the preparation of detergent-resistant membrane fractions, and to discuss the importance of discriminating between what is present on a cell membrane and what we can prepare from cell membranes in a laboratory tube.

  15. Late-onset respiratory distress after inhalation of laundry detergent.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Derek S; Bonny, Andrea E; Ruddy, Richard M; Jacobs, Brian R

    2003-04-01

    Accidental poisoning with household cleaning products can pose significant risks to children. Exposure to granular laundry detergents accounts for a number of calls each year to poison control centers, though few of these exposures result in hospitalization. While caustic gastrointestinal injury resulting from ingestion of these highly alkaline cleaning agents is well-recognized, few reports address the potential damage to the respiratory tract that can occur following ingestion or inhalation of granular laundry detergent. We present a previously healthy 1-year-old who presented to the emergency department with Late-onset stridor and increased work of breathing following presumed inhalation of granular laundry detergent. Parents, primary care providers, and emergency department physicians need to be aware of the potential toxicity of these widely used household products.

  16. Effective detergent/chlorophyll ratio and detergent concentration in the aqueous phase during solubilization of Phormidium laminosum membranes.

    PubMed

    Ochoa de Alda, J A; Llama, M J; Serra, J L

    1995-12-13

    Experiments of turbidity decrease induced by detergents were systematically performed to characterize the solubilization of Phormidium laminosum membrane fragments. SDS, Triton X-100 and a mixture of octyl glucoside/decyl maltoside/lithium dodecyl sulfate (OG/DM/LiDS, in a molar ratio of 4.19:2.54:1) were used. The detergent concentration in the aqueous phase (DW) and the effective detergent/chlorophyll ratio in mixed aggregates (Re) were determined. Both parameters increased during the solubilization and in an exponential way in the range from 10 to 90% solubilization. At detergent concentrations which caused the complete solubilization, Dw values were close to the described critical micellar concentrations (cmc), but solubilization started at concentrations well below the cmc. At the onset of solubilization five molecules of SDS, one of Triton X-100 and three of the mixture OG/DM/LiDS, per chlorophyll molecule, saturated the membrane fragments. The increase of Dw and Re values was characterized by two constants. This permits the design of a model to predict the detergent concentration which produces a desired solubilization of thylakoid membrane fragments for a given chlorophyll concentration.

  17. Intermolecular detergent-membrane protein noes for the characterization of the dynamics of membrane protein-detergent complexes.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, Cédric; Orts, Julien; Tzitzilonis, Christos; Vögeli, Beat; Smrt, Sean; Lorieau, Justin; Riek, Roland

    2014-12-11

    The interaction between membrane proteins and lipids or lipid mimetics such as detergents is key for the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of membrane proteins. In NMR-based structural studies of membrane proteins, qualitative analysis of intermolecular nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOEs) or paramagnetic resonance enhancement are used in general to identify the transmembrane segments of a membrane protein. Here, we employed a quantitative characterization of intermolecular NOEs between (1)H of the detergent and (1)H(N) of (2)H-perdeuterated, (15)N-labeled α-helical membrane protein-detergent complexes following the exact NOE (eNOE) approach. Structural considerations suggest that these intermolecular NOEs should show a helical-wheel-type behavior along a transmembrane helix or a membrane-attached helix within a membrane protein as experimentally demonstrated for the complete influenza hemagglutinin fusion domain HAfp23. The partial absence of such a NOE pattern along the amino acid sequence as shown for a truncated variant of HAfp23 and for the Escherichia coli inner membrane protein YidH indicates the presence of large tertiary structure fluctuations such as an opening between helices or the presence of large rotational dynamics of the helices. Detergent-protein NOEs thus appear to be a straightforward probe for a qualitative characterization of structural and dynamical properties of membrane proteins embedded in detergent micelles.

  18. Outer membrane protein A of E. coli folds into detergent micelles, but not in the presence of monomeric detergent.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinschmidt, J. H.; Wiener, M. C.; Tamm, L. K.

    1999-01-01

    Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Escherichia coli is a beta-barrel membrane protein that unfolds in 8 M urea to a random coil. OmpA refolds upon urea dilution in the presence of certain detergents or lipids. To examine the minimal requirements for secondary and tertiary structure formation in beta-barrel membrane proteins, folding of OmpA was studied as a function of the hydrophobic chain length, the chemical structure of the polar headgroup, and the concentration of a large array of amphiphiles. OmpA folded in the presence of detergents only above a critical minimal chain length of the apolar chain as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy and a SDS-PAGE assay that measures tertiary structure formation. Details of the chemical structure of the polar headgroup were unimportant for folding. The minimal chain length required for folding correlated with the critical micelle concentration in each detergent series. Therefore, OmpA requires preformed detergent micelles for folding and does not adsorb monomeric detergent to its perimeter after folding. Formation of secondary and tertiary structure is thermodynamically coupled and strictly dependent on the interaction with aggregated amphiphiles. PMID:10548052

  19. Differential sensitivity to detergents of actin cytoskeleton from nerve endings.

    PubMed

    Cubí, Roger; Matas, Lluís A; Pou, Marta; Aguilera, José; Gil, Carles

    2013-11-01

    Detergent-resistant membranes (DRM), an experimental model used to study lipid rafts, are typically extracted from cells by means of detergent treatment and subsequent ultracentrifugation in density gradients, Triton X-100 being the detergent of choice in most of the works. Since lipid rafts are membrane microdomains rich in cholesterol, depletion of this component causes solubilization of DRM with detergent. In previous works from our group, the lack of effect of cholesterol depletion on DRM solubilization with Triton X-100 was detected in isolated rat brain synaptosomes. In consequence, the aim of the present work is to explore reasons for this observation, analyzing the possible role of the actin cytoskeleton, as well as the use of an alternative detergent, Brij 98, to overcome the insensitivity to Triton X-100 of cholesterol-depleted DRM. Brij 98 yields Brij-DRM that are highly dependent on cholesterol, since marker proteins (Flotillin-1 and Thy-1), as well as actin, appear solubilized after MCD treatment. Pretreatment with Latrunculin A results in a significant increase in Flotillin-1, Thy-1 and actin solubilization by Triton X-100 after cholesterol depletion. Studies with transmission electron microscopy show that combined treatment with MCD and Latrunculin A leads to a significant increase in solubilization of DRM with Triton X-100. Thus, Triton-DRM resistance to cholesterol depletion can be explained, at least partially, thanks to the scaffolding action of the actin cytoskeleton, without discarding differential effects of Brij 98 and Triton X-100 on specific membrane components. In conclusion, the detergent of choice is important when events that depend on the actin cytoskeleton are going to be studied.

  20. Effect of urea and urea-gamma treatments on cellulose degradation of Thai rice straw and corn stalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banchorndhevakul, Siriwattana

    2002-08-01

    Cellulose degradation of 20% urea treated and 20% urea-10 kGy gamma treated Thai rice straw and corn stalk showed that combination effect of urea and gamma radiation gave a higher % decrease in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and cutin in comparison with urea effect only for both room temperature storage and room temperature +258 K storage. The results also indicated that cellulose degradation proceeded with time, even at 258 K. A drastic drop to less than half of the original contents in NDF, ADF, and ADL could not be obtained in this study.

  1. Measurement of the rates of detergent exchange between micelles and the aqueous phase using phosphorescent labelled detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Bolt, J.D.; Turro, N.J.

    1981-12-24

    Phosphorescence quenching is used to measure micelle-probe detergent dynamics. For phosphorescent detergent probes with varying hydrocarbon length the rate constants from escape (K-) from cationic host micelles are measured using cobalt(III) hexamine as an aqueous soluble triplet quencher. For 10-(4-bromo-1-naphthoyl) decyltrimethylammonium bromide (BND-10), K- is 3.2 x 10/sup 3/ S/sup -1/, and K+, the reentry rate constant, is 5.7 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/ S/sup -1/ for hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (HDTCL) host micelles at 25 C. The log of K- is a linear function of the number of methylenes in the probe alkyl chain, in agreement with rates determined previously with relaxation methods. The apparent activation energy for escape of BND-10 from HDTCL micelles is 9 kcal/mol. Escape rates are measured for several host micelles and for micelles composed of probe detergents - self-micelles. 15 references.

  2. Reorganization of actin filaments by ADF/cofilin is involved in formation of microtubule structures during Xenopus oocyte maturation

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Yuka; Abe, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We examined the reorganization of actin filaments and microtubules during Xenopus oocyte maturation. Surrounding the germinal vesicle (GV) in immature oocytes, the cytoplasmic actin filaments reorganized to accumulate beneath the vegetal side of the GV, where the microtubule-organizing center and transient microtubule array (MTOC-TMA) assembled, just before GV breakdown (GVBD). Immediately after GVBD, both Xenopus ADF/cofilin (XAC) and its phosphatase Slingshot (XSSH) accumulated into the nuclei and intranuclear actin filaments disassembled from the vegetal side with the shrinkage of the GV. As the MTOC-TMA developed well, cytoplasmic actin filaments were retained at the MTOC-TMA base region. Suppression of XAC dephosphorylation by anti-XSSH antibody injection inhibited both actin filament reorganization and proper formation and localization of both the MTOC-TMA and meiotic spindles. Stabilization of actin filaments by phalloidin also inhibited formation of the MTOC-TMA and disassembly of intranuclear actin filaments without affecting nuclear shrinkage. Nocodazole also caused the MTOC-TMA and the cytoplasmic actin filaments at its base region to disappear, which further impeded disassembly of intranuclear actin filaments from the vegetal side. XAC appears to reorganize cytoplasmic actin filaments required for precise assembly of the MTOC and, together with the MTOC-TMA, regulate the intranuclear actin filament disassembly essential for meiotic spindle formation. PMID:26424802

  3. The Normal-Theory and Asymptotic Distribution-Free (ADF) Covariance Matrix of Standardized Regression Coefficients: Theoretical Extensions and Finite Sample Behavior.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeff A; Waller, Niels G

    2015-06-01

    Yuan and Chan (Psychometrika, 76, 670-690, 2011) recently showed how to compute the covariance matrix of standardized regression coefficients from covariances. In this paper, we describe a method for computing this covariance matrix from correlations. Next, we describe an asymptotic distribution-free (ADF; Browne in British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 37, 62-83, 1984) method for computing the covariance matrix of standardized regression coefficients. We show that the ADF method works well with nonnormal data in moderate-to-large samples using both simulated and real-data examples. R code (R Development Core Team, 2012) is available from the authors or through the Psychometrika online repository for supplementary materials.

  4. Soaps and detergents: understanding their composition and effect.

    PubMed

    Kirsner, R S; Froelich, C W

    1998-03-01

    Soaps have been used for thousands of years as part of religious ceremonies and daily life. Derived from fatty acids or triglycerides (fats or oils) into their alkali derivatives through a process called saponification, soaps are important for healthcare professionals in preventing the spread of disease. Partly due to their alkaline nature, soaps are limited by their irritancy to the skin and their tendency to form insoluble and inactive salts when combined with either hard water or sea water. Therefore, soap alternatives or synthetic detergents have been developed. Detergents are classified into four groups: anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and non-ionic. These four groups are based on the hydrophilic qualities and surfactants they possess. Each group has characteristics that pertain to its main uses, irritancy, and toxicity. Understanding soaps and detergents may assist clinicians in making intelligent choices when using these agents on their patients as either skin cleansers or wound cleansers. Understanding the characteristics of soaps and detergents is especially important when dealing with at-risk patients such as the elderly.

  5. Effects of detergents on the West Nile virus protease activity.

    PubMed

    Ezgimen, Manolya D; Mueller, Niklaus H; Teramoto, Tadahisa; Padmanabhan, R

    2009-05-01

    Detergents such as Triton X-100 are often used in drug discovery research to weed out small molecule promiscuous and non-specific inhibitors which act by aggregation in solution and undesirable precipitation in aqueous assay buffers. We evaluated the effects of commonly used detergents, Triton X-100, Tween-20, Nonidet-40 (NP-40), Brij-35, and CHAPS, on the enzymatic activity of West Nile virus (WNV) protease. Unexpectedly, Triton X-100, Tween-20, and NP-40 showed an enhancement of in vitro WNV protease activity from 2 to 2.5-fold depending on the detergent and its concentration. On the other hand, Brij-35, at 0.001% enhanced the protease activity by 1.5-fold and CHAPS had the least enhancing effect. The kinetic analysis showed that the increase in protease activity by Triton X-100 was dose-dependent. Furthermore, at Triton X-100 and Tween-20 concentrations higher than 0.001%, the inhibition of compound B, one of the lead compounds against WNV protease identified in a high throughput screen (IC(50) value of 5.7+/-2.5 microM), was reversed. However, in the presence of CHAPS, compound B still showed good inhibition of WNV protease. Our results, taken together, indicate that nonionic detergents, Triton X-100, Tween, and NP-40 are unsuitable for the purpose of discrimination of true versus promiscuous inhibitors of WNV protease in high throughput assays.

  6. A Lab Experience to Illustrate the Physicochemical Principles of Detergency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Bethencourt-Nunez, M.; Moreno, C.; Pinto-Ganfornina, J. J.; Moreno-Dorado, F. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a lab experience to study detergency from a physicochemical point of view intended for undergraduate students. By means of a simple experimental device, we analyze the influence of the surfactant concentration in both distilled water and tap water. Our method is based on the measurement of diffuse reflectances of polyester…

  7. Arsenic in detergents: Possible danger and pollution hazard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angino, E.E.; Magnuson, L.M.; Waugh, T.C.; Galle, O.K.; Bredfeldt, J.

    1970-01-01

    Arsenic at a concentration of 10 to 70 parts per million has been detected in several common presoaks and household detergents. Arsenic values of 2 to 8 parts per billion have been measured in the Kansas River. These concentrations are close to the amount (10 parts per billion) recommended by the United States Public Health Service as a drinking-water standard.

  8. Action on ileal smooth muscle of synthetic detergents and pardaxin.

    PubMed

    Primor, N

    1986-01-01

    Pardaxin (PX), a toxic and repellent substance isolated from the Red Sea flatfish, causes a sharp ball-like profile of drop of saline placed on a hydrophobic film to turn into a flattened one. This effect results with a decrease of the contact angle (theta) from 96 degrees to a maximum of 42 degrees at 10(-4) M of PX. The action of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), a synthetic anionic detergent, benzalkonium chloride (BAC) cationic detergent and pardaxin (PX) a toxic protein with detergent properties, were studied in the ileal guinea-pig longitudinal smooth muscle preparation. SDS (4 X 10(-4) M) and PX (5 X 10(-6) M) diminished the muscle contractile response to field stimulation (0.1 Hz, 1 msec) and to acetylcholine (Ach) and to histamine and elicited a prolonged (4-6 min) TTX-insensitive muscle contraction. The dose dependence of muscle contraction to SDS and PX was found to be sigmoidal and occurred over a narrow range of concentrations. The SDS- but not PX-induced muscle contraction could be reduced by diphenhydramine (H1 antihistamine). BAC (10(-5)-10(-4) M) suppressed the muscle's contractile response to electrical stimulation (0.1 Hz, 1 msec), to Ach, histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine but did not produce muscle contraction. PX at concentrations higher than 5 X 10(-6) M is a potent detergent and at this concentration shares several pharmacological similarities with SDS.

  9. Common Laundry Detergent Ingredient May Help Preserve Muscle Tissue After Severe Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Research 2013 October 2013 (historical) Common Laundry Detergent Ingredient May Help Preserve Muscle Tissue After Severe Injury A compound commonly found in household laundry detergents may help preserve muscle tissue after a severe ...

  10. A Forward Genetic Screen and Whole Genome Sequencing Identify Deflagellation Defective Mutants in Chlamydomonas, Including Assignment of ADF1 as a TRP Channel

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Laura K.; Meili, Fabian; Buckoll, Paul D.; Rodriguez-Pike, Julie C.; Choutka, Courtney P.; Kirschner, Jaime A.; Warner, Freda; Lethan, Mette; Garces, Fabian A.; Qi, Jingnan; Quarmby, Lynne M.

    2016-01-01

    With rare exception, ciliated cells entering mitosis lose their cilia, thereby freeing basal bodies to serve as centrosomes in the formation of high-fidelity mitotic spindles. Cilia can be lost by shedding or disassembly, but either way, it appears that the final release may be via a coordinated severing of the nine axonemal outer doublet microtubules linking the basal body to the ciliary transition zone. Little is known about the mechanism or regulation of this important process. The stress-induced deflagellation response of Chlamydomonas provides a basis to identifying key players in axonemal severing. In an earlier screen we uncovered multiple alleles for each of three deflagellation genes, ADF1, FA1, and FA2. Products of the two FA genes localize to the site of axonemal severing and encode a scaffolding protein and a member of the NIMA-related family of ciliary-cell cycle kinases. The identity of the ADF1 gene remained elusive. Here, we report a new screen using a mutagenesis that yields point mutations in Chlamydomonas, an enhanced screening methodology, and whole genome sequencing. We isolated numerous new alleles of the three known genes, and one or two alleles each of at least four new genes. We identify ADF1 as a TRP ion channel, which we suggest may reside at the flagellar transition zone. PMID:27520959

  11. [Response of the algae Gymnodinium kovalevskii (Dinophyta) to exposure to synthetic detergents and distillation].

    PubMed

    Aĭzdaĭcher, N A

    2000-01-01

    The effects of synthetic detergents and combined effects of synthetic detergents and water freshening on growth characteristics of the alga Gymnodinium kovalevskii (Dinophyta) were studied. Low concentrations of synthetic detergents (0.1 and 1.0 mg/l) stimulated the algal growth. Elevated concentrations inhibited cell division, affected their motility and induced morphological changes. Contamination with synthetic detergents adversely affected the adaptation plasticity of algae with respect to salinity.

  12. 40 CFR 417.160 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory. 417.160 Section 417.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.160 Applicability; description of...

  13. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.150...

  14. 40 CFR 417.170 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. 417.170 Section 417.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.170...

  15. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.156 Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or...

  16. 40 CFR 417.160 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory. 417.160 Section 417.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.160 Applicability; description of...

  17. 40 CFR 417.170 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. 417.170 Section 417.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.170...

  18. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190...

  19. 40 CFR 80.168 - Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detergent certification program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.168 Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. (a)(1) No person shall sell, offer for...

  20. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.150...

  1. 40 CFR 80.169 - Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. 80.169 Section 80.169 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.169 Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or...

  2. 40 CFR 80.169 - Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. 80.169 Section 80.169 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.169 Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or...

  3. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190...

  4. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  5. 40 CFR 80.169 - Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. 80.169 Section 80.169 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.169 Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or...

  6. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  7. 76 FR 9013 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Detergent Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Detergent Gasoline... this action are those who (1) Manufacture gasoline, post-refinery component, or detergent additives, (2) blend detergent additives into gasoline or post-refinery component, or (3) transport or receive...

  8. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190...

  9. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.150...

  10. 40 CFR 417.160 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory. 417.160 Section 417.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.160 Applicability; description of...

  11. 40 CFR 80.168 - Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Detergent certification program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.168 Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. (a)(1) No person shall sell, offer for...

  12. 40 CFR 80.168 - Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detergent certification program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.168 Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. (a)(1) No person shall sell, offer for...

  13. 40 CFR 417.170 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. 417.170 Section 417.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.170...

  14. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  15. 40 CFR 80.168 - Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Detergent certification program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.168 Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. (a)(1) No person shall sell, offer for...

  16. 40 CFR 80.168 - Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detergent certification program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.168 Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. (a)(1) No person shall sell, offer for...

  17. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.150...

  18. 40 CFR 417.170 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. 417.170 Section 417.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.170...

  19. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190...

  20. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  1. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.150...

  2. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.156 Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or...

  3. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190...

  4. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.156 Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or...

  5. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  6. 40 CFR 417.170 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. 417.170 Section 417.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.170...

  7. 40 CFR 80.169 - Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. 80.169 Section 80.169 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.169 Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or...

  8. 40 CFR 417.160 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory. 417.160 Section 417.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.160 Applicability; description of...

  9. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.156 Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or...

  10. 40 CFR 417.160 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory. 417.160 Section 417.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.160 Applicability; description of...

  11. Detergent-free domain isolated from Xenopus egg plasma membrane with properties similar to those of detergent-resistant membranes.

    PubMed

    Luria, Ayala; Vegelyte-Avery, Vaida; Stith, Brad; Tsvetkova, Nelly M; Wolkers, Willem F; Crowe, John H; Tablin, Fern; Nuccitelli, Richard

    2002-11-05

    Microdomains known as "rafts" have been isolated from many cell types as detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) and are enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol. However, there has been considerable controversy over whether such domains are found in native membranes or are artificially generated by the purification procedure. This controversy is based at least in part on the fact that raft membranes were first detected following detergent extraction in the cold. We isolated two plasma membrane fractions, without detergent treatment, using a discontinuous sucrose density gradient. One fraction was designated "light" and the other "heavy." These fractions were compared with DRMs, which were isolated in the presence of 1% Triton X-100. We found that Xenopus DRMs are enriched with sphingomyelin and cholesterol and exhibit a phase state similar to the liquid-ordered phase. Comparison of DRM complexes with the light and heavy plasma membrane fractions revealed some physical and biochemical similarities between the light fraction of the plasma membrane and the DRM complexes, based on (1) the phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin ratio and (2) the protein composition visualized on a two-dimensional gel. These two fractions are also quite similar in their thermotropic phase behavior, and their high levels of ganglioside GM1. We conclude that the light membrane fraction isolated in a detergent-free environment has many of the characteristics normally associated with DRMs.

  12. On the interaction of ionic detergents with lipid membranes. Thermodynamic comparison of n-alkyl-+N(CH₃)₃ and n-alkyl-SO₄⁻.

    PubMed

    Beck, Andreas; Li-Blatter, Xiaochun; Seelig, Anna; Seelig, Joachim

    2010-12-09

    Ionic detergents find widespread commercial applications as disinfectants, fungicides, or excipients in drug formulations and cosmetics. One mode of action is their ease of insertion into biological membranes. Very little quantitative information on this membrane-binding process is available to date. Using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), we have made a systematic comparison of the binding of cationic and anionic detergents to neutral and negatively charged lipid membranes. The detergents investigated were n-alkyl chains carrying either the trimethylammonium chloride (-(+)N(CH₃)₃Cl⁻) or the sodium sulfate (-SO₄⁻Na(+)) headgroup with chain lengths of n = 10-16. The titration of lipid vesicles into detergent solutions provided the binding enthalpy and the binding isotherm in a model-independent manner. At 25 °C the membrane binding enthalpies, ΔH(mem)(0), were small (-0.4 to -4.2 kcal/mol) and showed little correlation with the length of the alkyl chains. The ITC binding isotherms were analyzed in terms of a surface partition model. To this purpose, the surface concentration, cM, of detergent immediately above the plane of binding was calculated with the Gouy-Chapman theory. The surface concentration corrects for electrostatic attraction or repulsion and can be larger or smaller than the bulk detergent concentration, c(eq), at equilibrium. The analysis provides the chemical or hydrophobic binding constant, K(D)(0), of the detergent and the corresponding free energy. The free energies of binding, ΔG(mem)(0), vary between -4 and -10 kcal/mol. They show a linear dependence on the chain length, which can be used to separate the contributions of the polar group and the hydrocarbon tail in membrane binding. The neutral maltose and the cationic (+)N(CH₃)₃ headgroup show steric repulsion energies of about 2.5 kcal/mol counteracting the hydrophobic binding of the alkyl tail, whereas the anionic SO₄⁻ headgroup

  13. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to monitor detergents removal from a membrane protein sample.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chaowei; Han, Fang; Xiong, Ying; Tian, Changlin

    2009-12-01

    In membrane protein biochemical and structural studies, detergents are used to mimic membrane environment and maintain functional, stable conformation of membrane proteins in the absence of lipid bilayers. However, detergent concentration, esp. molar ratio of membrane protein to detergent is usually unknown. Here, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM) method was developed to quantify four detergents which are frequently used in membrane protein structural studies. To remove excessive detergents, a filtered centrifugation using Centricon tubes was applied. A membrane protein Ig-Beta fragment in four different detergent micelles was exemplified. Detergent concentrations in the upper and lower fraction of the Centricon tube were measured after each round of centrifugation. The results were very consistent to basic properties of detergent micelles in aqueous solvents. Therefore, coupling of GC-MS-SIM and detergent removal by Centricon tubes, detergents concentration, esp. molar ratio of membrane protein to detergent could be controlled, which will expedite membrane protein structural and biochemical studies.

  14. Evaluation of oxidative stress and genetic damage caused by detergents in the zebrafish Danio rerio (Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Sobrino-Figueroa, Alma S

    2013-08-01

    Detergents are used in large quantities and some of their ingredients are highly toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study the toxicity (lipid peroxidation) and genotoxic (frequency of DNA strand breaks) effects were evaluated in the gill and liver tissues of zebrafish (Danio rerio), exposed for 16days to a sublethal concentration (CL10) of two commercial detergents (laundry and dishwasher use) and an anionic surfactant: alkyl lauryl sulfonate (LAS). The results demonstrated high toxicity with dishwasher detergent, resulting in high lipid peroxidation levels (MDA malondialdehyde evaluation). No differences in MDA concentrations were found among fish exposed to laundry detergent and organisms exposed to LAS. In the genetic damage evaluation, significant differences in the number of cells with DNA strand breaks (comets) were observed: the fish exposed to dishwasher detergent presented the highest number of damaged cells (79%), in comparison with those exposed to other products (laundry and LAS) and the control group (8% damaged cells). The toxicity of dishwasher detergent (biological detergent containing enzymes and perfume) was higher than the value observed with LAS. Laundry detergent does not contain enzymes or perfume and its toxicity was similar to LAS. Since detergents are complex mixtures of different substances, in which additive and/or synergistic effects may occur, the deleterious effect caused by the dishwasher detergent was probably due to the combined effects of the ingredients of detergent.

  15. Effects of wastewater sludge and its detergents on the stability of rotavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, R L; Ashley, C S

    1980-01-01

    Wastewater sludge reduced the heat required to inactivate rotavirus SA-11, and ionic detergents were identified as the sludge components responsible for this effect. A similar result was found previously with reovirus (R. L. Ward and C. S. Ashley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol 36:889-897, 1978). The quantitative effects of individual ionic detergents on rotavirus and reovirus were very different, and rotavirus was found to be extremely sensitive to several of these detergents. However, neither virus was destabilized by nonionic detergents. On the contrary, rotavirus was stabilized by a nonionic detergent against the potent destabilizing effects of the ionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate. The destabilizing effects of both cationic and anionic detergents on rotavirus were greatly altered by changes in the pH of the medium. PMID:6250475

  16. Interactions of lipids and detergents with a viral ion channel protein: molecular dynamics simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Sarah L; Sansom, Mark S P

    2015-01-22

    Structural studies of membrane proteins have highlighted the likely influence of membrane mimetic environments (i.e., lipid bilayers versus detergent micelles) on the conformation and dynamics of small α-helical membrane proteins. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to compare the conformational dynamics of BM2 (a small α-helical protein from the membrane of influenza B) in a model phospholipid bilayer environment with its behavior in protein-detergent complexes with either the zwitterionic detergent dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) or the nonionic detergent dodecylmaltoside (DDM). We find that DDM more closely resembles the lipid bilayer in terms of its interaction with the protein, while the short-tailed DHPC molecule forms "nonphysiological" interactions with the protein termini. We find that the intrinsic micelle properties of each detergent are conserved upon formation of the protein-detergent complex. This implies that simulations of detergent micelles may be used to help select optimal conditions for experimental studies of membrane proteins.

  17. Detergent quantification in membrane protein samples and its application to crystallization experiments.

    PubMed

    Prince, Chelsy C; Jia, Zongchao

    2013-12-01

    The structural characterization of membrane proteins remains a challenging field, largely because the use of stabilizing detergents is required. Researchers must first select a suitable detergent for the solubility and stability of their protein during in vitro studies. In addition, an appropriate concentration of detergent in membrane protein samples can be essential for protein solubility, stability, and experimental success. For example, in membrane protein crystallography, detergent concentration in the crystallization drop can be a critical parameter influencing crystal growth. Over the past decade, multiple techniques have been developed for the measurement of detergent concentration using a wide variety of strategies. These methods include colorimetric reactions, which target specific detergent classes, and analytical techniques applicable to a wide variety of detergents. This review will summarize and discuss the available options. It will be a useful resource to those selecting a strategy that best fits their experimental requirements and available instruments.

  18. An impedimetric chemical sensor for determination of detergents residues.

    PubMed

    Bratov, Andrey; Abramova, Natalia; Ipatov, Andrey; Merlos, Angel

    2013-03-15

    A new impedimetric sensor based on an interdigitated electrode array with electrode digits located at the bottom of microcapillaries formed in silicon dioxide is presented. Microcapillaries are opened at the top, so that in contact with an electrolyte solution the ac current flows close to the surface of the capillary wall from one electrode to another and is significantly affected by changes in the surface conductance at the SiO2/electrolyte interface. Adsorption of detergents on the sensor surface affects the charge distribution in the electrical double layer and thus the surface conductance. These changes are registered by measuring impedance. Effect of surface adsorption of ionic and non-ionic surfactants on the sensor impedance is studied. The sensor is shown to be able to measure commercial detergents residues in a tap water starting from 5 ppm even in solutions with high electrolyte conductivity.

  19. Detergent Stabilized Nanopore Formation Kinetics of an Anthrax Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Kelby

    2015-03-01

    This summer research project funded through the Society of Physics Students Internship Program and The National Institute of Standards and Technology focused on optimization of pore formation of Protective Antigen protein secreted by Bacillus Anthraces. This experiment analyzes the use of N-tetradecylphosphocholine (FOS-14 Detergent) to stabilize the water soluble protein, protective antigen protein (PA63) to regulate the kinetics of pore formation in a model bilayer lipid membrane. The FOS-14 Detergent was tested under various conditions to understand its impact on the protein pore formation. The optimization of this channel insertion is critical in preparing samples of oriented for neutron reflectometry that provide new data to increase the understanding of the protein's structure.

  20. Inactivation of avian influenza virus using common detergents and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, M E; Ladman, B S; Alphin, R L; Benson, E R

    2008-03-01

    Six disinfectant chemicals were tested individually for effectiveness against low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) A/H7N2/Chick/MinhMa/04. The tested agents included acetic acid (C2H4O2), citric acid (C6H8O7), calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a powdered laundry detergent with peroxygen (bleach), and a commercially available iodine/acid disinfectant. Four of the six chemicals, including acetic acid (5%), citric acid (1% and 3%), calcium hypochlorite (750 ppm), and sodium hypochlorite (750 ppm) effectively inactivated LPAIV on hard and nonporous surfaces. The conventional laundry detergent was tested at multiple concentrations and found to be suitable for inactivating LPAIV on hard and nonporous surfaces at 6 g/L. Only citric acid and commercially available iodine/acid disinfectant were found to be effective at inactivating LPAIV on both porous and nonporous surfaces.

  1. Effects of disinfectants and detergents on skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Slotosch, Caroline M; Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the biological response of regular human skin to alcohol-based disinfectants and detergents in a repetitive test design. Using non-invasive diagnostic tools such as transepidermal water loss, laser-Doppler flowmetry and corneometry, we quantified the irritative effects of a propanol-based hand disinfectant (Sterillium), its propanol mixture (2-propanol 45% w/w and 1-propanol 30% w/w), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) 0.5% and distilled water. The substances were applied in a 2-D patch test in a repetitive occlusive test design to the back. Additionally, we performed a wash test on the forearms that was supposed to mimic the skin affection in the normal daily routine of health care workers. In this controlled half-side test design, we included the single application of the hand rub, SLS 0.5% and water as well as a tandem application of the same substances. Patch test and wash test showed similar results. The alcohol-based test preparations showed minimal irritation rather comparable to the application of water. However, the detergent SLS produced stronger barrier disruption, erythema and dryness than the alcohol-based preparations. There was no additional irritation at the combined use of SLS and disinfectants. By contrary, there was even a decrease in barrier disruption and erythema induced by the tandem application of SLS followed by alcohol-based disinfection compared with the use of SLS alone. These findings show a less irritant effect of alcohol-based disinfectants on the skin than detergents. Our study shows that there is no summation of irritating effects of a common detergent and propanol and that the combination of washing and disinfection has a rather protective aspect compared with washing alone.

  2. Detergent alkaline proteases: enzymatic properties, genes, and crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Katsuhisa; Ozaki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Tohru; Ito, Susumu

    2007-06-01

    Subtilisin-like serine proteases from bacilli have been used in various industrial fields worldwide, particularly in the production of laundry and automatic dishwashing detergents. They belong to family A of the subtilase superfamily, which is composed of three clans, namely, true subtilisins, high-alkaline proteases, and intracellular proteases. We succeeded in the large-scale production of a high-alkaline protease (M-protease) from alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii KSM-K16, and the enzyme has been introduced into compact heavy-duty laundry detergents. We have also succeeded in the industrial-scale production of a new alkaline protease, KP-43, which was originally resistant to chemical oxidants and to surfactants, produced by alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain KSM-KP43 and have incorporated it into laundry detergents. KP-43 and related proteases form a new clan, oxidatively stable proteases, in subtilase family A. In this review, we describe the enzymatic properties, gene sequences, and crystal structures of M-protease, KP-43, and related enzymes.

  3. Heterodimerization of BAK and MCL-1 activated by detergent micelles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Gehring, Kalle

    2010-12-24

    BAK is a key protein mediating mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization; however, its behavior in the membrane is poorly understood. Here, we characterize the conformational changes in BAK and MCL-1 using detergents to mimic the membrane environment and study their interaction by in vitro pulldown experiments, size exclusion chromatography, titration calorimetry, and NMR spectroscopy. The nonionic detergent IGEPAL has little impact on the structure of MCL-1 but induces a conformational change in BAK, whereby its BH3 region is able to engage the hydrophobic groove of MCL-1. Although the zwitterionic detergent CHAPS induces only minor conformational changes in both proteins, it is still able to initiate heterodimerization. The complex of MCL-1 and BAK can be disrupted by a BID-BH3 peptide, which acts through binding to MCL-1, but a mutant peptide, BAK-BH3-L78A, with low affinity for MCL-1 failed to dissociate the complex. The mutation L78A in BAK prevented binding to MCL-1, thus demonstrating the essential role of the BH3 region of BAK in its regulation by MCL-1. Our results validate the current models for the activation of BAK and highlight the potential value of small molecule inhibitors that target MCL-1 directly.

  4. Biphasic interaction of Triton detergents with the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Trägner, D; Csordas, A

    1987-01-01

    Octylphenoxy polyoxyethylene ethers (Triton detergents) interact with the erythrocyte membrane in a biphasic manner, i.e. they stabilize erythrocytes against hypo-osmotic haemolysis at low concentrations (0.0001-0.01%, v/v), but become haemolytic at higher concentrations. This biphasic behaviour was demonstrated with Triton X-114, Triton X-100 and Triton X-102. However, a critical chain length is a prerequisite for the haemolytic effect, because Triton X-45, which differs from the other Tritons only by the shorter chain of the polyoxyethylene residue, does not exhibit this biphasic behaviour, but goes on protecting against osmotic rupture up to saturating concentrations. Even a 1% solution of Triton X-45 does not cause haemolysis. This structural specificity of Triton X-45, namely the lack of haemolysis and efficient stabilization against osmolysis even at higher concentrations of the detergent, is exhibited at 0 degree and 37 degrees C as well as at room temperature. Three conclusions are reached: (i) a critical chain length of the octylphenoxy polyoxyethylene ethers is required for the haemolytic effect; (ii) the different structural requirements would suggest that different mechanisms are responsible for the haemolytic and the stabilizing effect of amphiphilic substances; (iii) the results suggest that haemolysis is not caused simply by dissolution of the membrane by the detergent but is a rather more specific process. PMID:3446180

  5. The safety of synthetic zeolites used in detergents.

    PubMed

    Fruijtier-Pölloth, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic zeolites are replacing phosphates as builders in laundry detergents; workers and consumers may, therefore, increasingly be exposed to these materials and it is important to assess their safety. This article puts mechanistic, toxicological and exposure data into context for a safety assessment. Zeolites are hygroscopic compounds with ion-exchanging properties. They may partially decompose under acidic conditions such as in the stomach releasing sodium ions, silicic acid and aluminum salts. The intact molecule is not bioavailable after oral intake or exposure through the dermal and inhalational routes. Under current conditions of manufacture and use, no systemic toxicity is to be expected from neither the intact molecule nor the degradation products; a significant effect on the bioavailability of other compounds is not likely. Zeolites may cause local irritation. It is, therefore, important to minimise occupational exposure. The co-operation of detergent manufacturers with the manufacturers of washing machines is necessary to find the right balance between environmental aspects such as energy and water savings and the occurrence of detergent residues on textiles due to insufficient rinsing.

  6. Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

  7. Characterization of Structure, Dynamics, and Detergent Interactions of the Anti-HIV Chemokine Variant 5P12-RANTES

    PubMed Central

    Wiktor, Maciej; Hartley, Oliver; Grzesiek, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    RANTES (CCL5) is a chemokine that recruits immune cells to inflammatory sites by interacting with the G-protein coupled receptor CCR5, which is also the primary coreceptor used together with CD4 by HIV to enter and infect target cells. Ligands of CCR5, including chemokines and chemokine analogs, are capable of blocking HIV entry, and studies of their structures and interactions with CCR5 will be key to understanding and optimizing HIV inhibition. The RANTES derivative 5P12-RANTES is a highly potent HIV entry inhibitor that is being developed as a topical HIV prevention agent (microbicide). We have characterized the structure and dynamics of 5P12-RANTES by solution NMR. With the exception of the nine flexible N-terminal residues, 5P12-RANTES has the same structure as wild-type RANTES but unlike the wild-type, does not dimerize via its N-terminus. To prepare the ground for interaction studies with detergent-solubilized CCR5, we have also investigated the interaction of RANTES and 5P12-RANTES with various commonly used detergents. Both RANTES variants are stable in Cymal-5, DHPC, Anzergent-3-12, dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride, and a DDM/CHAPS/CHS mixture. Fos-Cholines, dodecyldimethylglycine, and sodium dodecyl-sulfate denature both RANTES variants at low pH, whereas at neutral pH the stability is considerably higher. The onset of Fos-Choline-12-induced denaturation and the denatured state were characterized by circular dichroism and NMR. The detergent interaction starts below the critical micelle concentration at a well-defined mixed hydrophobic/positive surface region of the chemokine, which overlaps with the dimer interface. An increase of Fos-Choline-12 concentration above the critical micelle concentration causes a transition to a denatured state with a high α-helical content. PMID:24314089

  8. Toxic effect of commercial detergents on organisms from different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Sobrino-Figueroa, A

    2016-10-18

    The toxic effects of four powder detergents: two laundry detergents (A and B), one household detergent (C), one dishwashing detergent (D), and the surfactant alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were analyzed in this study on organisms from different trophic levels (microalgae, cladocerans, ostracods, amphipods, macrophytes, and fish). LC50 and EC50 values obtained in the toxicity bioassays varied between 0.019 and 116.9 mg L(-1). The sensitivity of the organisms to the detergents was (from most sensitive to least sensitive) Ostracods > microalgae > amphipods > cladocerans > fishes > macrophytes. The toxicity of the commercial products (from most toxic to least toxic) was LAS > D (dishwashing detergent) > A (laundry detergent) > B (laundry detergent) > C (household detergent). When comparing the sensitivity of organisms that inhabit temperate zones (T = 18 °C) to those that are found in tropical zones (T > 25 °C), it was clear that the species that inhabit the tropics are more sensitive to detergents.

  9. Kinetics of Detergent-Induced Activation and Inhibition of a Minimal Lipase.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Daniel; Bergmann, Anna; Weger, Lukas; Ingenbosch, Kim N; Hoffmann-Jacobsen, Kerstin

    2017-02-16

    Detergents are commonly applied in lipase assays to solubilize sparingly soluble model substrates. However, detergents affect lipases as well as substrates in multiple ways. The effect of detergents on lipase activity is commonly attributed to conformational changes in the lid region. This study deals with the effect of the nonionic detergent, poly(ethylene glycol) dodecyl ether, on a lipase that does not contain a lid sequence, lipase A from Bacillus subtilis (BSLA). We show that BSLA activity depends strongly on the detergent concentration and the dependency profile changes with pH. The interaction of BSLA with detergent monomers and micelles is studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, time-resolved anisotropy decay, and temperature-induced unfolding. Detergent-dependent hydrolysis kinetics of two different substrates at two pH values are fitted with a microkinetic model. This analysis shows that the mechanism of interfacial lipase catalysis is strongly affected by the detergent. It reveals an activation mechanism by monomeric detergent that does not result from structural changes of the lipase. Instead, we propose that interfacial diffusion of the lipase is enhanced by detergent binding.

  10. Detergent properties influence the stability of the glycophorin A transmembrane helix dimer in lysophosphatidylcholine micelles.

    PubMed

    Stangl, Michael; Veerappan, Anbazhagan; Kroeger, Anja; Vogel, Peter; Schneider, Dirk

    2012-12-19

    Detergents might affect membrane protein structures by promoting intramolecular interactions that are different from those found in native membrane bilayers, and fine-tuning detergent properties can be crucial for obtaining structural information of intact and functional transmembrane proteins. To systematically investigate the influence of the detergent concentration and acyl-chain length on the stability of a transmembrane protein structure, the stability of the human glycophorin A transmembrane helix dimer has been analyzed in lyso-phosphatidylcholine micelles of different acyl-chain length. While our results indicate that the transmembrane protein is destabilized in detergents with increasing chain-length, the diameter of the hydrophobic micelle core was found to be less crucial. Thus, hydrophobic mismatch appears to be less important in detergent micelles than in lipid bilayers and individual detergent molecules appear to be able to stretch within a micelle to match the hydrophobic thickness of the peptide. However, the stability of the GpA TM helix dimer linearly depends on the aggregation number of the lyso-PC detergents, indicating that not only is the chemistry of the detergent headgroup and acyl-chain region central for classifying a detergent as harsh or mild, but the detergent aggregation number might also be important.

  11. The 'sticky business' of cleaning gas-phase membrane proteins: a detergent oriented perspective.

    PubMed

    Borysik, Antoni J; Robinson, Carol V

    2012-11-14

    In recent years the properties of gas-phase detergent clusters have come under close scrutiny due in part to their participation in the analysis of intact membrane protein complexes by mass spectrometry. The detergent molecules that cover the protein complex are removed in the gas-phase by thermally agitating the ions by collision-induced dissociation. This process however, is not readily controlled and can frequently result in the disruption of protein structure. Improved methods of releasing proteins from detergent clusters are clearly required. To facilitate this the structural properties of detergent clusters along with the mechanistic details of their dissociation need to be understood. Pivotal to understanding the properties of gas-phase detergent clusters is the technique of ion mobility mass spectrometry. This technique can be used to assign polydisperse detergent clusters and provide information about their geometries and packing densities. In this article we consider the shapes of detergent clusters and show that these clusters possess geometries that are inconsistent with those in solution. We analyse the distributions of clusters in detail using tandem mass spectrometry and suggest that the mean charge of clusters formed from certain detergents is governed by electrostatic repulsion. We discuss the dissociation of detergent clusters and propose that detergent evaporation it a key process in the protection of protein complexes during high energy collisions in the gas-phase.

  12. Health hazards associated with laundry detergent pods - United States, May-June 2012.

    PubMed

    2012-10-19

    During May and early June 2012, the Carolinas Poison Center and the Poison Control Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia received four reports of children with vomiting, mental status changes, and respiratory distress after ingesting the contents of laundry detergent pods. Laundry detergent pods are single-load capsules that contain concentrated liquid detergent within a water-soluble membrane that dissolves when in contact with moisture. Laundry detergent pods were introduced in the U.S. market in 2010, and multiple manufacturers now sell laundry detergent packaged in pods (2-4). On May 17, 2012, CDC and the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) began tracking and characterizing reported exposures to laundry detergent from pods. During May 17-June 17, 2012, poison centers reported 1,008 laundry detergent exposures to the National Poison Data System (NPDS), of which 485 (48%) exposures involved laundry detergent pods. Age was recorded for 481 exposures, of which 454 (94%) exposures involved children aged ≤5 years. Among children aged ≤5 years, a significantly greater proportion of those exposed to laundry detergent from pods had gastrointestinal and respiratory adverse health effects and mental status changes compared with those with non-pod laundry detergent exposures. Parents and caregivers should keep laundry detergent pods, as well as other household cleaning products, out of reach and out of sight of children. Health-care providers should be aware that exposure to laundry detergent from pods might be associated with adverse health effects more often than exposure to non-pod laundry detergents.

  13. Slow Phospholipid Exchange between a Detergent-Solubilized Membrane Protein and Lipid-Detergent Mixed Micelles: Brominated Phospholipids as Tools to Follow Its Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Montigny, Cédric; Dieudonné, Thibaud; Orlowski, Stéphane; Vázquez-Ibar, José Luis; Gauron, Carole; Georgin, Dominique; Lund, Sten; le Maire, Marc; Møller, Jesper V.; Champeil, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Membrane proteins are largely dependent for their function on the phospholipids present in their immediate environment, and when they are solubilized by detergent for further study, residual phospholipids are critical, too. Here, brominated phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid which behaves as an unsaturated phosphatidylcholine, was used to reveal the kinetics of phospholipid exchange or transfer from detergent mixed micelles to the environment of a detergent-solubilized membrane protein, the paradigmatic P-type ATPase SERCA1a, in which Trp residues can experience fluorescence quenching by bromine atoms present on phospholipid alkyl chains in their immediate environment. Using dodecylmaltoside as the detergent, exchange of (brominated) phospholipid was found to be much slower than exchange of detergent under the same conditions, and also much slower than membrane solubilization, the latter being evidenced by light scattering changes. The kinetics of this exchange was strongly dependent on temperature. It was also dependent on the total concentration of the mixed micelles, revealing the major role for such exchange of the collision of detergent micelles with the detergent-solubilized protein. Back-transfer of the brominated phospholipid from the solubilized protein to the detergent micelle was much faster if lipid-free DDM micelles instead of mixed micelles were added for triggering dissociation of brominated phosphatidylcholine from the solubilized protein, or in the additional presence of C12E8 detergent during exchange, also emphasizing the role of the chemical nature of the micelle/protein interface. This protocol using brominated lipids appears to be valuable for revealing the possibly slow kinetics of phospholipid transfer to or from detergent-solubilized membrane proteins. Independently, continuous recording of the activity of the protein can also be used in some cases to correlate changes in activity with the exchange of a specific phospholipid, as shown here

  14. Removal of detergents from proteins and peptides in a spin-column format.

    PubMed

    Antharavally, Babu S

    2012-08-01

    To enable downstream analysis, it is critical to remove unbound detergents from protein and peptide samples. This unit describes the use of a high-performance resin that offers exceptional detergent removal for proteins and peptides. The easy-to-use spin format significantly improves results over the standard drip column and batch methodologies, with >95% removal of 1% to 5% detergents, including SDS, sodium deoxycholate, CHAPS, Triton X-100, Triton X-114, NP-40, Brij-35, octyl glucoside, octyl thioglucoside, and lauryl maltoside, with high recovery of proteins and peptides. Detergent removal efficiency is evaluated using colorimetric methods and mass spectrometry (MS). BSA tryptic peptides have been successfully analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MS for identification of protein, following detergent removal using the resin. Advantages of this method include speed (less than 15 min), efficient detergent removal, and high recovery of proteins and peptides.

  15. Effects of household detergent on anaerobic fermentation of kitchen wastewater from food waste disposer.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Park, K Y; Khanal, S K; Lee, J W

    2013-01-15

    This study examines the effects of household detergent on anaerobic methane fermentation of wastewater from food waste disposers (FWDs). Anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) demonstrated that methane production substantially decreased at a higher detergent concentration. The Gompertz three-parameter model fitted well with the ATA results, and both the extent of methane production (M) and methane production rate (R(m)) obtained from the model were strongly affected by the concentration of the detergent. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the detergent was 603 mg/L based on R(m). Results from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) analysis of microbial culture revealed that deterioration of methane fermentation was attributed to impaired structure of anaerobic microbial membrane due to detergent. This study suggests that wastewater from FWD could be used for methane production, but it is necessary to reduce the concentration of detergent prior to anaerobic fermentation.

  16. Human glioblastoma ADF cells express tyrosinase, L-tyrosine hydroxylase and melanosomes and are sensitive to L-tyrosine and phenylthiourea.

    PubMed

    Bonfigli, Antonella; Zarivi, Osvaldo; Colafarina, Sabrina; Cimini, Anna Maria; Ragnelli, Anna Maria; Aimola, Pierpaolo; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Cerù, Maria Paola; Amicarelli, Fernanda; Miranda, Michele

    2006-06-01

    Melanocytes and neuroblasts share the property of transforming L-tyrosine through two distinct metabolic pathways leading to melanogenesis and catecholamine synthesis, respectively. While tyrosinase (TYR) activity has been shown to be expressed by neuroblastoma it remains to be established as to whether also glioblastomas cells are endowed with this property. We have addressed this issue using the human continuous glioblastoma cell line ADF. We demonstrated that these cells possess tyrosinase as well as L-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and synthesize melanosomes. Because the two pathways are potentially cyto-genotoxic due to production of quinones, semiquinones, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), we have also investigated the expression of the peroxisomal proliferators activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and nuclear factor-kB (NFkB) transcription factor as well the effect of L-tyrosine concentration on cell survival. We report that L-tyrosine down-regulates PPARalpha expression in ADF cells but not neuroblastoma and that this aminoacid and phenylthiourea (PTU) induces apoptosis in glioblastoma and neuroblastoma.

  17. Development of detergent additives for automotive fuels in other countries

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharova, E.L.; Emel`yanov, V.E.; Deineko, P.S.

    1994-09-01

    With increasing demands on environmental protection and with the production of reformulated unleaded motor fuels, new and effective detergent additives are urgently needed. A number of monographs and scientific works have been devoted to problems involved in the development and application of such additives. Since the mid-1980s in the United States and certain other countries, a crisis has been noted in the application of detergent additives. It has been found that certain types of detergents not only fail to give the required cleaning effect, but even promote the formation of deposits. This situation can be attributed primarily to the development of automotive gasoline engines with direct fuel injection. In the United States in 1989, about 90% of all automotive vehicles were equipped with such engines, which have very definite advantages in fuel economy, less smoking, and a number of other areas. However, after a few thousand kilometers of travel, the characteristics of these engines deteriorate, and undesirable changes are observed, including excessive fuel consumption, a reduction of the vehicle speed, and increased contents of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. These changes occur because of deposit formation in the fuel intake system, particularly on the intake valves. As the deposits continue to accumulate, the engines gradually experience an increase in octane number demand for engine operation without knocking. This phenomenon, which is known in American publications as {open_quotes}octane requirement increase{close_quotes} or ORI (Russian initialism RTOCh, literal translation, {open_quotes}increase of requirements for octane number{close_quotes}), continues until a certain equilibrium octane number is reached. This equilibrium value may change, depending on the engine design and other factors. In all cases, however, the ORI of modern engines is significant, amount to 2-14 octane numbers.

  18. Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Carrier, Chris; Vega, Leticia; Casteel, Michael; Verostko, chuck; Pickering, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

  19. [Industrial hygiene in the modern manufacture of synthetic detergents].

    PubMed

    Akinfieva, T A; Kuchma, V R; Lashnev, M P; Moiseev, Iu V; Strongina, O M

    1992-01-01

    Work conditions in the synthetic detergents production according to the new technology created by Sumitomo (Japan) were evaluated from hygienic point of view. The main unfavourable factor is the contamination of air by initial products (aerosols of sodium tripoli phosphate, carboxy methylcellulose, optic bleacher, enzymes et al.) and dust of the final product. Sulphur oxides appear in the air of the sulphating unit. Levels of noise and vibration are surpassed. At the same time the studied technology is more profitable than the current ones. Parameters of the cardiovascular, central nervous and neuromuscular systems do not indicate the physical and neuropsychic fatigue.

  20. Characterizing detergent mediated reconstitution of viral protein M2 in large unilamellar vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyre, Mariel; Grossman, Carl; Crouch, Catherine; Howard, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    Influenza M2 is a model membrane protein whose function is to induce curvature and vesicle formation in the process of viral infection. To study embedded M2 in synthetic phospholipid vesicles (large unilamellar vesicles or LUVs), a concentration of detergent and buffer is optimized to balance protein solubility, proteolipid concentration, and LUV stability. Adding detergent also causes the LUVs to partially disassemble and form micelles, which warrants detergent removal to restore LUV integrity. We explore methods of measuring the coexistence of detergent micelles and LUVs to track the different phases of the system as detergent is removed. A combination of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and chemical analysis are used to measure the properties of this system. With detergent/LUV number densities as high as 5 we find coexistence of micelles and LUVs at 50% to 60%. As the detergent is removed, the micelle concentration drops to lower than 30% while detergent levels drop to nearly zero. These results may indicate a polydispersed LUV size distribution after detergent mediated reconstitution. Supported by HHMI and Swarthmore College.

  1. Evaluation of a new lipase from Staphylococcus sp. for detergent additive capability.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Mamta; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Garlapati, Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Lipases are the enzymes of choice for laundry detergent industries owing to their triglyceride removing ability from the soiled fabric which eventually reduces the usage of phosphate-based chemical cleansers in the detergent formulation. In the present study, a partially purified bacterial lipase from Staphylococcus arlettae JPBW-1 isolated from the rock salt mine has been assessed for its triglyceride removing ability by developing a presoak solution so as to use lipase as an additive in laundry detergent formulations. The effects of selected surfactants, commercial detergents, and oxidizing agents on lipase stability were studied in a preliminary evaluation for its further usage in the industrial environment. Partially purified lipase has shown good stability in presence of surfactants, commercial detergents, and oxidizing agents. Washing efficiency has been found to be enhanced while using lipase with 0.5% nonionic detergent than the anioinic detergent. The wash performance using 0.5% wheel with 40 U lipase at 40°C in 45 min results in maximum oil removal (62%) from the soiled cotton fabric. Hence, the present study opens the new era in enzyme-based detergent sector for formulation of chemical-free detergent using alkaline bacterial lipase.

  2. Calorimetric Quantification of Cyclodextrin-Mediated Detergent Extraction for Membrane-Protein Reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Textor, Martin; Keller, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    For many in vitro studies, purified membrane proteins need to be reconstituted from detergent micelles into lipid bilayers to regain their native structures and functions. Stoichiometric complexation of detergent by cyclodextrin provides a tightly controllable strategy for detergent extraction. Here, we describe a practical approach making use of isothermal titration calorimetry to obtain a complete set of thermodynamic parameters that allows for quantitative prediction of the transition from micelles to bilayer membranes during reconstitution. These parameters include the dissociation constant of the cyclodextrin/detergent inclusion complex, the critical micellar concentration of the detergent, and the phase boundaries of the lipid/detergent phase diagram. The underlying theoretical framework involves linked equilibria among all pseudophases, as described previously (Textor, Vargas, & Keller, 2015). This chapter focuses on practical aspects of the approach and discusses caveats and calorimetry-specific details of data analysis. With the entire parameter set at hand, exploration of different reconstitution trajectories within the lipid/detergent phase diagram is possible. Together with the straightforward control over the rate of detergent extraction offered by cyclodextrin complexation, this opens the possibility of systematically tuning and optimizing the reconstitution process of membrane proteins. Provided some particular precautions are taken, the approach can be adapted to many other combinations of proteins, lipids, detergents, and cyclodextrins.

  3. Evaluation of a New Lipase from Staphylococcus sp. for Detergent Additive Capability

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Mamta; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Garlapati, Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Lipases are the enzymes of choice for laundry detergent industries owing to their triglyceride removing ability from the soiled fabric which eventually reduces the usage of phosphate-based chemical cleansers in the detergent formulation. In the present study, a partially purified bacterial lipase from Staphylococcus arlettae JPBW-1 isolated from the rock salt mine has been assessed for its triglyceride removing ability by developing a presoak solution so as to use lipase as an additive in laundry detergent formulations. The effects of selected surfactants, commercial detergents, and oxidizing agents on lipase stability were studied in a preliminary evaluation for its further usage in the industrial environment. Partially purified lipase has shown good stability in presence of surfactants, commercial detergents, and oxidizing agents. Washing efficiency has been found to be enhanced while using lipase with 0.5% nonionic detergent than the anioinic detergent. The wash performance using 0.5% wheel with 40 U lipase at 40°C in 45 min results in maximum oil removal (62%) from the soiled cotton fabric. Hence, the present study opens the new era in enzyme-based detergent sector for formulation of chemical-free detergent using alkaline bacterial lipase. PMID:24106703

  4. Lipid rafts and detergent-resistant membranes in epithelial keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    McGuinn, Kathleen P; Mahoney, Mỹ G

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the plasma membrane has markedly increased since Singer and Nicolson proposed the fluid mosaic model in 1972. While their revolutionary theory of the lipid bilayer remains largely valid, it is now known that lipids and proteins are not randomly dispersed throughout the plasma membrane but instead may be organized within membrane microdomains, commonly referred to as lipid rafts. Lipid rafts are highly dynamic, detergent resistant, and enriched with both cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. The two main types are flotillin-rich planar lipid rafts and caveolin-rich caveolae. It is proposed that flotillin and caveolin proteins regulate cell communication by compartmentalizing and interacting with signal transduction proteins within their respective lipid microdomains. Consequently, membrane rafts play an important role in vital cellular functions including migration, invasion, and signaling; thus, alterations in their microenvironment can initiate signaling pathways that affect cellular function and behavior. Therefore, the identification of lipid rafts and their associated proteins is integral to the study of transmembrane signaling. Here, we review the current standard protocols and biochemical approaches used to isolate and define raft proteins from epithelial cells and tissues. Furthermore, in Section 3 of this chapter, detailed protocols are offered for isolating lipid rafts by subjection to detergent and sucrose density centrifugation, as well as an approach for selectively isolating caveolae. Methods to manipulate rafts with treatments such as methyl-β-cyclodextrin and flotillin III are also described.

  5. Safe use of detergent enzymes in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Peters, G; Johnson, G Q; Golembiewski, A

    2001-03-01

    This article gives a detailed description of a program to control workplace exposure to enzymes during manufacture of laundry detergents. We believe this same program could, in large part, be re-applied to control exposure to enzymes in other industries or to control exposure to other industrial allergens. We chose to publish at this time because we believe enzyme use will increase in the future. The information contained here could potentially help new users ensure safe deployment of enzyme technology. Also, we have recently acquired new knowledge to improve our management system: this knowledge could help current enzyme users. We offer two new approaches that greatly increase worker participation and also improve understanding of the production process. We also highlight limitations of traditional air sampling. The new approaches are semi-quantitative tools to detect, rank, and control sources of dust release and product spillage. Our main conclusions are that detergent enzymes can be handled safely in the workplace provided there is no visible dust or spillage. Finally, we highlight the value of prick testing as a safe, simple tool to objectively asses the effectiveness of a hygiene program and to provide an "early alert" in the event of outages in the management system.

  6. Transfer Specificity of Detergent-Solubilized Fenugreek Galactomannan Galactosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Mary E.; Marshall, Elaine; Gidley, Michael J.; Reid, J.S. Grant

    2002-01-01

    The current experimental model for galactomannan biosynthesis in membrane-bound enzyme systems from developing legume-seed endosperms involves functional interaction between a GDP-mannose (Man) mannan synthase and a UDP-galactose (Gal) galactosyltransferase. The transfer specificity of the galactosyltransferase to the elongating mannan chain is critical in regulating the distribution and the degree of Gal substitution of the mannan backbone of the primary biosynthetic product. Detergent solubilization of the galactosyltransferase of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) with retention of activity permitted the partial purification of the enzyme and the cloning and sequencing of the corresponding cDNA with proof of functional identity. We now document the positional specificity of transfer of (14C)Gal from UDP-(14C)Gal to manno-oligosaccharide acceptors, chain lengths 5 to 8, catalyzed by the detergent-solubilized galactosyltransferase. Enzymatic fragmentation analyses of the labeled products showed that a single Gal residue was transferred per acceptor molecule, that the linkage was (1→6)-α, and that there was transfer to alternative Man residues within the acceptor molecules. Analysis of the relative frequencies of transfer to alternative Man residues within acceptor oligosaccharides of different chain length allowed the deduction of the substrate subsite recognition requirement of the galactosyltransferase. The enzyme has a principal recognition sequence of six Man residues, with transfer of Gal to the third Man residue from the nonreducing end of the sequence. These observations are incorporated into a refined model for enzyme interaction in galactomannan biosynthesis. PMID:12114592

  7. Membrane protein stability can be compromised by detergent interactions with the extramembranous soluble domains

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhengrong; Wang, Chi; Zhou, Qingxian; An, Jianli; Hildebrandt, Ellen; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Kappes, John C; DeLucas, Lawrence J; Riordan, John R; Urbatsch, Ina L; Hunt, John F; Brouillette, Christie G

    2014-01-01

    Detergent interaction with extramembranous soluble domains (ESDs) is not commonly considered an important determinant of integral membrane protein (IMP) behavior during purification and crystallization, even though ESDs contribute to the stability of many IMPs. Here we demonstrate that some generally nondenaturing detergents critically destabilize a model ESD, the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) from the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a model IMP. Notably, the detergents show equivalent trends in their influence on the stability of isolated NBD1 and full-length CFTR. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to monitor changes in NBD1 stability and secondary structure, respectively, during titration with a series of detergents. Their effective harshness in these assays mirrors that widely accepted for their interaction with IMPs, i.e., anionic > zwitterionic > nonionic. It is noteworthy that including lipids or nonionic detergents is shown to mitigate detergent harshness, as will limiting contact time. We infer three thermodynamic mechanisms from the observed thermal destabilization by monomer or micelle: (i) binding to the unfolded state with no change in the native structure (all detergent classes); (ii) native state binding that alters thermodynamic properties and perhaps conformation (nonionic detergents); and (iii) detergent binding that directly leads to denaturation of the native state (anionic and zwitterionic). These results demonstrate that the accepted model for the harshness of detergents applies to their interaction with an ESD. It is concluded that destabilization of extramembranous soluble domains by specific detergents will influence the stability of some IMPs during purification. PMID:24652590

  8. Detection of antibiotics in goat's milk: effect of detergents on the response of microbial inhibitor tests.

    PubMed

    Romero, Tamara; Beltrán, María Carmen; Althaus, Rafael Lisandro; Molina, María Pilar

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the interference of acid and alkaline detergents employed in the cleaning of milking equipment of caprine dairy farms on the performance of microbial tests used in antibiotic control (BRT MRL, Delvotest MCS, and Eclipse 100). Eight concentrations of commercial detergents, five acid (0-0.25%) and five alkaline (0-1%) were add to antimicrobial-free goat's milk to evaluate the detergent effect on the response of microbial inhibitor tests. To evaluate the effect of detergents on the detection capability of microbial tests two detergents at 0.5 ml/l (one acid and one basic) and eight concentrations of four β-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin and benzylpenicillin) were used. Milk without detergents was used as control. The spiked samples were analysed twelve times by three microbial tests. The results showed that the presence of acid detergents did not affect the response of microbial tests for any of the concentrations tested. However, at concentrations equal to or greater than 2 ml/l alkaline detergents positive results were found in microbial tests (16.7-100%). The detection limits of the screening tests for penicillins were not modified substantially by the presence of detergents. In general, the presence of acid and alkaline detergents in goat's milk did not produce a great interference in the microbial tests, only high concentrations of detergents could cause non-compliant results, but these concentrations are difficult to find in practice if proper cleaning procedures are applied in goat dairy farms.

  9. Membrane protein stability can be compromised by detergent interactions with the extramembranous soluble domains.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengrong; Wang, Chi; Zhou, Qingxian; An, Jianli; Hildebrandt, Ellen; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Kappes, John C; DeLucas, Lawrence J; Riordan, John R; Urbatsch, Ina L; Hunt, John F; Brouillette, Christie G

    2014-06-01

    Detergent interaction with extramembranous soluble domains (ESDs) is not commonly considered an important determinant of integral membrane protein (IMP) behavior during purification and crystallization, even though ESDs contribute to the stability of many IMPs. Here we demonstrate that some generally nondenaturing detergents critically destabilize a model ESD, the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) from the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a model IMP. Notably, the detergents show equivalent trends in their influence on the stability of isolated NBD1 and full-length CFTR. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to monitor changes in NBD1 stability and secondary structure, respectively, during titration with a series of detergents. Their effective harshness in these assays mirrors that widely accepted for their interaction with IMPs, i.e., anionic > zwitterionic > nonionic. It is noteworthy that including lipids or nonionic detergents is shown to mitigate detergent harshness, as will limiting contact time. We infer three thermodynamic mechanisms from the observed thermal destabilization by monomer or micelle: (i) binding to the unfolded state with no change in the native structure (all detergent classes); (ii) native state binding that alters thermodynamic properties and perhaps conformation (nonionic detergents); and (iii) detergent binding that directly leads to denaturation of the native state (anionic and zwitterionic). These results demonstrate that the accepted model for the harshness of detergents applies to their interaction with an ESD. It is concluded that destabilization of extramembranous soluble domains by specific detergents will influence the stability of some IMPs during purification.

  10. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  11. Efficacy of Detergent and Water Versus Bleach for the Disinfection of Direct Contact Ophthalmic Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Ashkan M.; Gregori, Ninel Z.; Surapaneni, Krishna; Miller, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While manufacturers recommend cleaning ophthalmic lenses with detergent and water and then a specific disinfectant, disinfectants are rarely used in ophthalmic practices. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of detergent and water versus bleach, a recommended disinfectant, to eliminate common ocular bacteria and viruses from ophthalmic lenses. Methods Three bacterial strains (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium straitum, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and two viral strains (adenovirus and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1) were individually inoculated to 20 gonioscopy and laser lenses. Lenses were washed with detergent and water and then disinfected with 10% bleach. All lenses were cultured after inoculation, after detergent and water, and after the bleach. Bacterial cultures in thioglycollate broth were observed for 3 weeks and viral cultures for 2 weeks. The presence of viruses was also detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results All 20 lenses inoculated with Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium straitum, adenovirus, and HSV-1 showed growth after inoculation, but no growth after detergent/water and after the bleach. All lenses showed positive HSV and adenovirus PCR after inoculation and negative PCR after detergent/water and after bleach. All MRSA contaminated lenses showed growth after inoculation and no growth after detergent and water. However, one lens showed positive growth after bleach. Conclusions Cleaning with detergent and water appeared to effectively eliminate bacteria and viruses from the surface of contaminated ophthalmic lenses. Further studies are warranted to design practical disinfection protocols that minimize lens damage. PMID:24747806

  12. Synthesis and properties of dodecyl trehaloside detergents for membrane protein studies.

    PubMed

    Tao, Houchao; Fu, Yu; Thompson, Aaron; Lee, Sung Chang; Mahoney, Nicholas; Stevens, Raymond C; Zhang, Qinghai

    2012-07-31

    Sugar-based detergents, mostly derived from maltose or glucose, prevail in the extraction, solubilization, stabilization, and crystallization of membrane proteins. Inspired by the broad use of trehalose for protecting biological macromolecules and lipid bilayer structures, we synthesized new trehaloside detergents for potential applications in membrane protein research. We devised an efficient synthesis of four dodecyl trehalosides, each with the 12-carbon alkyl chain attached to different hydroxyl groups of trehalose, thus presenting a structurally diverse but related family of detergents. The detergent physical properties, including solubility, hydrophobicity, critical micelle concentration (CMC), and size of micelles, were evaluated and compared with the most popular maltoside analogue, β-D-dodecyl maltoside (DDM), which varied from each other due to distinct molecular geometries and possible polar group interactions in resulting micelles. Crystals of 2-dodecyl trehaloside (2-DDTre) were also obtained in methanol, and the crystal packing revealed multiple H-bonded interactions among adjacent trehalose groups. The few trehaloside detergents were tested for the solubilization and stabilization of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptor (ORL1) and MsbA, which belong to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and ATP-binding cassette transporter families, respectively. Our results demonstrated the utility of trehaloside detergents as membrane protein solubilization reagents with the optimal detergents being protein dependent. Continuing development and investigations of trehaloside detergents are attractive, given their interesting and unique chemical-physical properties and potential interactions with membrane lipids.

  13. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1022 Section 180.1022 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1022 Section 180.1022 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement...

  15. The effects of intake valve detergent structure on combustion chamber deposits (CCD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelemen, S.R.; Maxey, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) have been heavily researched in the past with regard to Octane Requirement Increase (ORI). New concerns about their role in combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI) and their potential contribution to exhaust emissions have reinforced interest in defining the underlying factors that contribute to CCD. In this study, intake valve detergents were evaluated in the absence of any fluidizer in L-6 1987 BMW 325e engines using 10,000 mile tests run with a BMW IVD driving cycle. The chemical structure of detergents used to reduce Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) has been systematically varied to determine its effect on the quantity and the composition of CCD. In general, chemical changes in the intake valve detergent had little effect on the amount and chemical composition of CCD. The composition of CCD was determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). All CCDs produced with fuels containing intake valve detergents showed the same types and similar levels of organic oxygen, sulfur and aromatic carbon. The CCDs did not contain intact additive backbone fragments or detergent head groups. The only distinguishing feature of these CCDs was the varying nitrogen content that appeared to depend on the type and number of amine groups in the detergent. However, the types of nitrogen present in the CCDs were chemically different from those present in the initial detergent suggesting that, although some of the nitrogen in the detergent head group remains in the CCD, it is chemically transformed.

  16. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1022 Section 180.1022 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1022 Section 180.1022 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1022 Section 180.1022 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement...

  19. Properties of Zeolite A Obtained from Powdered Laundry Detergent: An Undergraduate Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoot, Alison L.; Lindquist, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Presents experiments that introduce students to the myriad properties of zeolites using the sodium form of zeolite A (Na-A) from laundry detergent. Experiments include extracting Na-A from detergent, water softening properties, desiccant properties, ion-exchange properties, and Zeolite HA as a dehydration catalyst. (JRH)

  20. Proteolytic Enzymes in Detergents: Evidence of Their Presence through Activity Measurements Based on Electrophoresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperas, Nuria; Fonfria-Subiros, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise uses a problem-based approach to expose students to some basic concepts relating to proteins and enzymes. One of the main applications of enzymes at the industrial level is their use in the detergent market. The students examine a detergent sample to ascertain whether proteolytic enzymes are a component and, if so, which…

  1. Structure formation in binary mixtures of lipids and detergents: Self-assembly and vesicle division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Self-assembly dynamics in binary surfactant mixtures and structure changes of lipid vesicles induced by detergent solution are studied using coarse-grained molecular simulations. Disk-shaped micelles, the bicelles, are stabilized by detergents surrounding the rim of a bilayer disk of lipids. The self-assembled bicelles are considerably smaller than bicelles formed from vesicle rupture, and their size is determined by the concentrations of lipids and detergents and the interactions between the two species. The detergent-adsorption induces spontaneous curvature of the vesicle bilayer and results in vesicle division into two vesicles or vesicle rupture into worm-like micelles. The division occurs mainly via the inverse pathway of the modified stalk model. For large spontaneous curvature of the monolayers of the detergents, a pore is often opened, thereby leading to vesicle division or worm-like micelle formation.

  2. Chronic toxicity of a laundry detergent to the freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Richter, Peter; Jamil, Muhammad; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2012-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of the common laundry detergent Ariel on the freshwater alga Euglena gracilis was investigated by growing the alga in a medium containing the detergent for 7 days. Cell density, motility, swimming velocity, gravitactic orientation, cell shape, photosynthesis and concentration of light-harvesting pigments were used as end point parameters for the assessment of toxicity. Cell density was significantly reduced at a concentration of 1 mg l(-1) or above. Among the other tested parameters, with the exception of cell shape, gravitaxis and chlorophyll b, all were adversely affected by the detergent at concentrations exceeding 1 mg l(-1). It is concluded that long-term (7-days) exposure to the detergent caused significant toxicity to E. gracilis. Furthermore, long-term tests with E. gracilis can be used as sensitive indicator for the toxicity assessment of laundry detergents in aquatic environments.

  3. INHIBITION BY PHOSPHOLIPIDS OF THE ACTION OF SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS ON BACTERIA.

    PubMed

    Baker, Z; Harrison, R W; Miller, B F

    1941-11-30

    1. Lecithin, cephalin, and sphingomyelin prevent the inhibition of bacterial metabolism which is caused by synthetic anionic and cationic detergents. The phospholipids must be added either before or simultaneously with the detergent. Addition after the detergent is without effect. Bacteria still exhibit this phenomenon after they have been exposed to the phospholipid and thoroughly washed. 2. A similar action of the phospholipids has been demonstrated towards the bactericidal compounds isolated by Dubos and Hoogerheide from soil bacteria. There is very little effect with bactericidal mercury compounds. 3. The effect of lecithin against the bactericidal action of synthetic detergents was also determined. It was found that germicidal quantities of the detergents were not effective in the presence of the phospholipids.

  4. Determination of nonylphenol polyethoxylates in household detergents by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Yuan; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2002-08-30

    Preliminary survey results of the content of nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) in various household detergents sold in Taiwan are presented. This survey was conducted to elucidate the concentration of NPEOs in household detergents and support pollution prevention and control programs. The concentrations of NPEOs in detergents and cleaners were determined by HPLC with a C8 reversed-phase column and equipped with fluorescence detection. The accuracy and precision of the method was validated and was successfully applied to determine concentrations of NPEOs in household detergents. The results show that NPEOs were detected in 41% of 90 household detergents at concentrations from 0.2 to 21%. The highest concentration of NPEOs (21%) was detected in a laundry liquid especially designed for washing socks. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography connected with electrospray mass spectrometry confirmed the results.

  5. Neutralization Assay for Chikungunya Virus Infection: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test.

    PubMed

    Azami, Nor Azila Muhammad; Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Neutralization assay is a technique that detects and quantifies neutralizing antibody in serum samples by calculating the percentage of reduction of virus activity, as the concentration of virus used is usually constant. Neutralizing antibody titer is conventionally determined by calculating the percentage reduction in total virus infectivity by counting and comparing number of plaques (localized area of infection due to cytopathic effect) with a standard amount of virus. Conventional neutralizing test uses plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to determine neutralizing antibody titers against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Here we describe the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) using Vero cell lines to obtain neutralizing antibody titers.

  6. A novel method of plasmid isolation using laundry detergent.

    PubMed

    Yadav, P; Yadav, A; Garg, V; Datta, T K; Goswami, S L; De, S

    2011-07-01

    Since the discovery of plasmid, various methods have been developed to isolate plasmid DNA. All the methods have one common and important target of isolating plasmid DNA of high quality and quantity in less time. These methods are not completely safe because of use of toxic chemicals compounds. The developed protocol for plasmid extraction is based on the alkaline lysis method of plasmid preparation (extraction atpH 8.0) with slight modifications. Cell lysis reagent sodium dodecyl sulfate is replaced by lipase enzyme present in laundry detergent. A good plasmid preparation can be made, which is well suited for subsequent molecular biology applications. By taking safety measures on count, contaminants like, RNA and protein can be completely avoided with maximized plasmid yield. The resultant plasmid quality and quantity can be well comparable to other prevalent methods.

  7. Solar Neutral Particles

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows a neutral solar particle's path leaving the sun, following the magnetic field lines out to the heliosheath. The solar particle hits a hydrogen atom, stealing its electron, and ...

  8. Ions and neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncet, A.

    After a short presentation of intensity limitations examples due to trapped ions, the processes of ionization and neutralization build up in particle accelerators and storage rings are briefly reviewed. The tolerable limits in neutralization are then assessed at the light of current theories of incoherent and coherent effects driven by ions. Finally the usual antidotes such as clearing electrodes, missing bunch schemes and beam shaking are presented.

  9. Calorimetric quantification of linked equilibria in cyclodextrin/lipid/detergent mixtures for membrane-protein reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Textor, Martin; Vargas, Carolyn; Keller, Sandro

    2015-04-01

    Reconstitution from detergent micelles into lipid bilayer membranes is a prerequisite for many in vitro studies on purified membrane proteins. Complexation by cyclodextrins offers an efficient and tightly controllable way of removing detergents for membrane-protein reconstitution, since cyclodextrins sequester detergents at defined stoichiometries and with tuneable affinities. To fully exploit the potential advantages of cyclodextrin for membrane-protein reconstitution, we establish a quantitative model for predicting the supramolecular transition from mixed micelles to vesicles during cyclodextrin-mediated detergent extraction. The model is based on a set of linked equilibria among all pseudophases present in the course of the reconstitution process. Various isothermal titration-calorimetric protocols are used for quantifying a detergent's self-association as well as its colloidal and stoichiometric interactions with lipid and cyclodextrin, respectively. The detergent's critical micellar concentration, the phase boundaries in the lipid/detergent phase diagram, and the dissociation constant of the cyclodextrin/detergent complex thus obtained provide all thermodynamic parameters necessary for a quantitative prediction of the transition from micelles to bilayer membranes during cyclodextrin-driven reconstitution. This is exemplified and validated by stepwise complexation of the detergent lauryldimethylamine N-oxide in mixtures with the phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine upon titration with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, both in the presence and in the absence of the membrane protein Mistic. The calorimetric approach presented herein quantitatively predicts the onset and completion of the reconstitution process, thus obviating cumbersome trial-and-error efforts and facilitating the rational optimisation of reconstitution protocols, and can be adapted to different cyclodextrin/lipid/detergent combinations.

  10. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Detergent substances, other than soap, intended... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its... nonvolatile matter in the product consists of an alkali salt of fatty acids and the detergent properties...

  11. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detergent substances, other than soap, intended... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its... nonvolatile matter in the product consists of an alkali salt of fatty acids and the detergent properties...

  12. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detergent substances, other than soap, intended... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its... nonvolatile matter in the product consists of an alkali salt of fatty acids and the detergent properties...

  13. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its... nonvolatile matter in the product consists of an alkali salt of fatty acids and the detergent properties...

  14. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Detergent substances, other than soap, intended... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its... nonvolatile matter in the product consists of an alkali salt of fatty acids and the detergent properties...

  15. Detergents modify proteinase K resistance of PrPSc in different transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs)

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Johanna; Wemheuer, Wiebke M.; Wrede, Arne; Graham, Catherine; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Brenig, Bertram; Richt, Jürgen A.; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are diagnosed by the detection of their proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment (PrPSc). Various biochemical protocols use different detergents for the tissue preparation. We found that the resistance of PrPSc against proteinase K may vary strongly with the detergent used. In our study, we investigated the influence of the most commonly used detergents on eight different TSE agents derived from different species and distinct prion disease forms. For a high throughput we used a membrane adsorbtion assay to detect small amounts of prion aggregates, as well as Western blotting. Tissue lysates were prepared using DOC, SLS, SDS or Triton X-100 in different concentrations and these were digested with various amounts of proteinase K. Detergents are able to enhance or diminish the detectability of PrPSc after proteinase K digestion. Depending on the kind of detergent, its concentration - but also on the host species that developed the TSE and the disease form or prion type - the detectability of PrPSc can be very different. The results obtained here may be helpful during the development or improvement of a PrPSc detection method and they point towards a detergent effect that can be additionally used for decontamination purposes. A plausible explanation for the detergent effects described in this article could be an interaction with the lipids associated with PrPSc that may stabilize the aggregates. PMID:22226540

  16. Detergent-like stressor and nutrient in metabolism of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Violeta; Milićević, Jasmina; Stojanović, Jelica

    2014-01-02

    The influence of detergents on the metabolism of Penicillium chrysogenum from two aspects, as a stress factor and potential nutrient, was studied. The fungus was isolated from the river bed Lepenica, Kragujevac, at a place where sewage domestic wastewater discharged into the river. The fungus was grown in a liquid nutrient medium according to Czapek with and without addition of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia) at a concentration of 0.3% and 0.5%. The biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, free and total organic acids, total dry weight biomass, activity of alkaline and acid invertase and alkaline phosphatase were evaluated from day 3 to day 16 of the fungus growth. At the same time, detergent disappearance in terms of methylene blue active substances in the medium was measured. The detergent at a concentration of 0.5% showed a fungicide effect. In the medium with 0.3% of detergent, there was increased pH and concentration of organic acids, but decreased redox potential and total dry weight biomass. The detergent also showed an inhibitory effect on invertase and phosphatase activity. P. chrysogenum decomposed 50.2% of the total detergent concentration for an experimental period of 16 days.

  17. Effect of detergents on the thermal behavior of elastin-like polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Arjun; Han, Wei; Simons, Robin H; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Chi, Eva Y; López, Gabriel P

    2013-01-01

    Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) fusions have been designed to allow large-scale, nonchromatographic purification of many soluble proteins by using the inverse transition cycling (ITC) method; however, the sensitivity of the aqueous lower critical solubility phase transition temperature (T(t)) of ELPs to the addition of cosolutes, including detergents, may be a potential hindrance in purification of proteins with surface hydrophobicity in such a manner. To identify detergents that are known to solubilize such proteins (e.g., membrane proteins) and that have little effect on the T(t) of the ELP, we screened a number of detergents with respect to their effects on the T(t) and secondary structures of a model ELP (denoted here as ELP180). We found that mild detergents (e.g., n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside, Triton-X100, and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylamino]-1-propanesulfonate) do not alter the phase transition behavior or structure (as probed by circular dichroism) of ELP180. This result is in contrast to previous studies that showed a strong effect of other detergents (e.g., sodium dodecylsulfate) on the T(t) of ELPs. Our results clearly indicate that mild detergents do not preclude ITC-based separation of ELPs, and thus that ELP fusions may prove to be useful in the purification of detergent-solubilized recombinant hydrophobic proteins, including membrane proteins, which are otherwise notoriously difficult to extract and purify by conventional separation methods (e.g., chromatography).

  18. Detergents modify proteinase K resistance of PrP Sc in different transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

    PubMed

    Breyer, Johanna; Wemheuer, Wiebke M; Wrede, Arne; Graham, Catherine; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brenig, Bertram; Richt, Jürgen A; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J

    2012-05-25

    Prion diseases are diagnosed by the detection of their proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment (PrP(Sc)). Various biochemical protocols use different detergents for the tissue preparation. We found that the resistance of PrP(Sc) against proteinase K may vary strongly with the detergent used. In our study, we investigated the influence of the most commonly used detergents on eight different TSE agents derived from different species and distinct prion disease forms. For a high throughput we used a membrane adsorption assay to detect small amounts of prion aggregates, as well as Western blotting. Tissue lysates were prepared using DOC, SLS, SDS or Triton X-100 in different concentrations and these were digested with various amounts of proteinase K. Detergents are able to enhance or diminish the detectability of PrP(Sc) after proteinase K digestion. Depending on the kind of detergent, its concentration - but also on the host species that developed the TSE and the disease form or prion type - the detectability of PrP(Sc) can be very different. The results obtained here may be helpful during the development or improvement of a PrP(Sc) detection method and they point towards a detergent effect that can be additionally used for decontamination purposes. A plausible explanation for the detergent effects described in this article could be an interaction with the lipids associated with PrP(Sc) that may stabilize the aggregates.

  19. Interactions of Lipids and Detergents with a Viral Ion Channel Protein: Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Structural studies of membrane proteins have highlighted the likely influence of membrane mimetic environments (i.e., lipid bilayers versus detergent micelles) on the conformation and dynamics of small α-helical membrane proteins. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to compare the conformational dynamics of BM2 (a small α-helical protein from the membrane of influenza B) in a model phospholipid bilayer environment with its behavior in protein–detergent complexes with either the zwitterionic detergent dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) or the nonionic detergent dodecylmaltoside (DDM). We find that DDM more closely resembles the lipid bilayer in terms of its interaction with the protein, while the short-tailed DHPC molecule forms “nonphysiological” interactions with the protein termini. We find that the intrinsic micelle properties of each detergent are conserved upon formation of the protein–detergent complex. This implies that simulations of detergent micelles may be used to help select optimal conditions for experimental studies of membrane proteins. PMID:25286030

  20. Cellular localization and detergent dependent oligomerization of rice allene oxide synthase-1.

    PubMed

    Yoeun, Sereyvath; Kim, Jeong-Il; Han, Oksoo

    2015-01-01

    Allene oxide synthase-1 from Oryza sativa (OsAOS1) localizes to the chloroplast, but lacks a putative chloroplast targeting sequence typically found in dicot AOS. Here, kinetic parameters and the oligomerization state/subunit composition of OsAOS1 were characterized in vitro in the absence or presence of detergent micelles. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of OsAOS1 reached a maximum near the critical micelle concentration for polyoxyethylene 10 tridecyl ether. Native gel analysis showed that OsAOS1 exists as a multimer in the absence of detergent micelles. The multimeric form of OsAOS1 was stably cross-linked in the absence of detergents, while only monomeric OsAOS1 was detected in the presence of detergent micelles. Gel filtration analysis indicated that the oligomeric state of OsAOS1 depends strongly on the detergents and that the monomer becomes the predominant form in the presence of detergent micelles. These data suggest that the detergent-dependent oligomeric state of OsAOS1 is an important factor for the regulation of its catalytic efficiency.

  1. All-atom molecular dynamics simulation of a photosystem i/detergent complex.

    PubMed

    Harris, Bradley J; Cheng, Xiaolin; Frymier, Paul

    2014-10-09

    All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to investigate the solution structure and dynamics of the photosynthetic pigment-protein complex photosystem I (PSI) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus embedded in a toroidal belt of n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) detergent. Evaluation of root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) relative to the known crystal structure show that the protein complex surrounded by DDM molecules is stable during the 200 ns simulation time, and root-mean-square fluctuation (RMSF) analysis indicates that regions of high local mobility correspond to solvent-exposed regions such as turns in the transmembrane α-helices and flexible loops on the stromal and lumenal faces. Comparing the protein-detergent complex to a pure detergent micelle, the detergent surrounding the PSI trimer is found to be less densely packed but with more ordered detergent tails, contrary to what is seen in most lipid bilayer models. We also investigated any functional implications for the observed conformational dynamics and protein-detergent interactions, discovering interesting structural changes in the psaL subunits associated with maintaining the trimeric structure of the protein. Importantly, we find that the docking of soluble electron mediators such as cytochrome c6 and ferredoxin to PSI is not significantly impacted by the solubilization of PSI in detergent.

  2. Interaction of nonionic detergents with the specific sites of lysozyme amyloidogenic region - inhibition of amyloid fibrillization.

    PubMed

    Siposova, Katarina; Kozar, Tibor; Musatov, Andrey

    2017-02-01

    Two nonionic detergents, Triton X-100 (TX-100) and n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) were tested for their ability to affect lysozyme amyloid aggregation. We have demonstrated that fibrillization of lysozyme is completely inhibited by low sub-micellar concentrations of both of these detergents. The apparent IC50 values were calculated to be 22μM and 26μM for TX-100 and DDM, respectively. The detergent/protein ratio is not the only parameter controlling inhibition. The precise timing of the detergent addition was found to be also crucial. It appears that the primary inhibitory activity of detergents resulted from inhibition of nuclei formation, in addition to inhibition of fibril polymerization at the early stage of protofibrils growth. The docking study revealed that Asn-59, Trp-63 and Ala-107, all present within the lysozyme amyloidogenic region, were involved in the interaction with both detergents. In addition, TX-100 also interacted with Gln-57 and Asp-103 within lysozyme. Moreover, based on our computational results, TX-100 bridges the Gln-57 and Ala-107 amino acids of the amyloidogenic segment of lysozyme and therefore inhibits more effectively the amyloid fibril formation. Along these lines, the knowledge gained from our study indicates that the detergents or their derivatives may be applicable as a promising strategy for the modulation of lysozyme protein aggregation.

  3. Detergent Analysis in Protein Samples Using Mid-Infrared (MIR) Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Das, Chandreyee; Nadler, Timothy; Strug, Ivona

    2015-08-03

    Quantitating relative levels of detergent present in protein preparations or samples derived from biological material, such as tissue or body fluids, is important because the presence of detergent may affect downstream analyses as well as protein structure/function. Especially because sample volumes, analysts' available time, and other resources may be limited, a method that consumes little sample and that is rapid and simple is needed for detergent analysis. It would also be preferable to have a method that is generally applicable across many aliphatic chain-containing molecules with many different physical properties. In this unit, methods are described for analyzing detergents and proteins in detergent-protein mixtures using mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. A protocol is also included for efficient removal of unbound detergents from a protein sample accompanied by MIR-based monitoring of both detergent and protein content. This rapid monitoring of sample preparation during the workflow enables users to make timely decisions about sample preparation strategies that maximize both analyte purity and yield.

  4. Enhanced detergent extraction for analysis of membrane proteomes by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Churchward, Matthew A; Butt, R Hussain; Lang, John C; Hsu, Kimberly K; Coorssen, Jens R

    2005-01-01

    Background The analysis of hydrophobic membrane proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has long been hampered by the concept of inherent difficulty due to solubility issues. We have optimized extraction protocols by varying the detergent composition of the solubilization buffer with a variety of commercially available non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents and detergent-like phospholipids. Results After initial analyses by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE, quantitative two-dimensional analyses of human erythrocyte membranes, mouse liver membranes, and mouse brain membranes, extracted with buffers that included the zwitterionic detergent MEGA 10 (decanoyl-N-methylglucamide) and the zwitterionic lipid LPC (1-lauroyl lysophosphatidylcholine), showed selective improvement over extraction with the common 2-DE detergent CHAPS (3 [(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate). Mixtures of the three detergents showed additive improvements in spot number, density, and resolution. Substantial improvements in the analysis of a brain membrane proteome were observed. Conclusion This study demonstrates that an optimized detergent mix, coupled with rigorous sample handling and electrophoretic protocols, enables simple and effective analysis of membrane proteomes using two-dimensional electrophoresis. PMID:15941475

  5. A study of cleansing property of detergents on cotton, polyester and their blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Vaishali P.

    Proper cleaning of clothes is one of the important aspects to be considered for increasing their life. Soil gets accumulated on textiles which needs to be cleaned for reusability. There are a variety of textile materials available and a variety brands of detergents for laundry purpose, to select the right brand is of much importance as it is based on detergent performance and money spent. The present study is an effort to determine which are the various popular brands of detergents, and to study the ability of cleaning property of a few of them. Eight brand of detergents namely: Ariel Microshine, Surf Excel, Surf, Super Nirma, Super Wheel with lemon, Hipolin, Rin were studied by artificially soiling of cotton, polyester and cotton/polyester blend fabrics, at four different concentration of soiling of washing with four different concentration of detergents. Both hand washing and machine washing technique was followed. All the detergent showed batter cleaning in hand washing technique in comparison with machine washing amongst all the various brands of detergents studied, Ariel Microshine show the best cleaning property, the poorest were Wheel and Rin. Ariel Microshine was the costliest of all. The best bargain in terms of cleansing property and price was Hipolin.

  6. Detergent-like stressor and nutrient in metabolism of Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Jakovljević, Violeta; Milićević, Jasmina; Stojanović, Jelica

    2014-01-01

    The influence of detergents on the metabolism of Penicillium chrysogenum from two aspects, as a stress factor and potential nutrient, was studied. The fungus was isolated from the river bed Lepenica, Kragujevac, at a place where sewage domestic wastewater discharged into the river. The fungus was grown in a liquid nutrient medium according to Czapek with and without addition of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia) at a concentration of 0.3% and 0.5%. The biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, free and total organic acids, total dry weight biomass, activity of alkaline and acid invertase and alkaline phosphatase were evaluated from day 3 to day 16 of the fungus growth. At the same time, detergent disappearance in terms of methylene blue active substances in the medium was measured. The detergent at a concentration of 0.5% showed a fungicide effect. In the medium with 0.3% of detergent, there was increased pH and concentration of organic acids, but decreased redox potential and total dry weight biomass. The detergent also showed an inhibitory effect on invertase and phosphatase activity. P. chrysogenum decomposed 50.2% of the total detergent concentration for an experimental period of 16 days. PMID:26019487

  7. Dependence of micelle size and shape on detergent alkyl chain length and head group.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Ryan C; Lipfert, Jan; Fox, Daniel A; Lo, Ryan H; Doniach, Sebastian; Columbus, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Micelle-forming detergents provide an amphipathic environment that can mimic lipid bilayers and are important tools for solubilizing membrane proteins for functional and structural investigations in vitro. However, the formation of a soluble protein-detergent complex (PDC) currently relies on empirical screening of detergents, and a stable and functional PDC is often not obtained. To provide a foundation for systematic comparisons between the properties of the detergent micelle and the resulting PDC, a comprehensive set of detergents commonly used for membrane protein studies are systematically investigated. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), micelle shapes and sizes are determined for phosphocholines with 10, 12, and 14 alkyl carbons, glucosides with 8, 9, and 10 alkyl carbons, maltosides with 8, 10, and 12 alkyl carbons, and lysophosphatidyl glycerols with 14 and 16 alkyl carbons. The SAXS profiles are well described by two-component ellipsoid models, with an electron rich outer shell corresponding to the detergent head groups and a less electron dense hydrophobic core composed of the alkyl chains. The minor axis of the elliptical micelle core from these models is constrained by the length of the alkyl chain, and increases by 1.2-1.5 Å per carbon addition to the alkyl chain. The major elliptical axis also increases with chain length; however, the ellipticity remains approximately constant for each detergent series. In addition, the aggregation number of these detergents increases by ∼16 monomers per micelle for each alkyl carbon added. The data provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of micelle shape and size and provide a baseline for correlating micelle properties with protein-detergent interactions.

  8. Use of the NP-40 Detergent-Mediated Assay in Discovery of Inhibitors of β-Hematin Crystallization▿†

    PubMed Central

    Sandlin, Rebecca D.; Carter, Melissa D.; Lee, Patricia J.; Auschwitz, Jennifer M.; Leed, Susan E.; Johnson, Jacob D.; Wright, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite responsible for malaria affects over 500 million people each year. Current antimalarials have experienced decreased efficacy due to the development of drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium spp., resulting in a critical need for the discovery of new antimalarials. Hemozoin, a crystalline by-product of heme detoxification that is necessary for parasite survival, serves as an important drug target. The quinoline antimalarials, including amodiaquine and chloroquine, act by inhibiting the formation of hemozoin. The formation of this crystal does not occur spontaneously, and recent evidence suggests crystallization occurs in the presence of neutral lipid particles located in the acidic digestive vacuole of the parasite. To mimic these conditions, the lipophilic detergent NP-40 has previously been shown to successfully mediate the formation of β-hematin, synthetic hemozoin. Here, an NP-40 detergent-based assay was successfully adapted for use as a high-throughput screen to identify inhibitors of β-hematin formation. The resulting assay exhibited a favorable Z′ of 0.82 and maximal drift of less than 4%. The assay was used in a pilot screen of 38,400 diverse compounds at a screening concentration of 19.3 μM, resulting in the identification of 161 previously unreported β-hematin inhibitors. Of these, 48 also exhibited ≥90% inhibition of parasitemia in a Plasmodium falciparum whole-cell assay at a screening concentration of 23 μM. Eight of these compounds were identified to have nanomolar 50% inhibitory concentration values near that of chloroquine in this assay. PMID:21518844

  9. Use of the NP-40 detergent-mediated assay in discovery of inhibitors of beta-hematin crystallization.

    PubMed

    Sandlin, Rebecca D; Carter, Melissa D; Lee, Patricia J; Auschwitz, Jennifer M; Leed, Susan E; Johnson, Jacob D; Wright, David W

    2011-07-01

    The protozoan parasite responsible for malaria affects over 500 million people each year. Current antimalarials have experienced decreased efficacy due to the development of drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium spp., resulting in a critical need for the discovery of new antimalarials. Hemozoin, a crystalline by-product of heme detoxification that is necessary for parasite survival, serves as an important drug target. The quinoline antimalarials, including amodiaquine and chloroquine, act by inhibiting the formation of hemozoin. The formation of this crystal does not occur spontaneously, and recent evidence suggests crystallization occurs in the presence of neutral lipid particles located in the acidic digestive vacuole of the parasite. To mimic these conditions, the lipophilic detergent NP-40 has previously been shown to successfully mediate the formation of β-hematin, synthetic hemozoin. Here, an NP-40 detergent-based assay was successfully adapted for use as a high-throughput screen to identify inhibitors of β-hematin formation. The resulting assay exhibited a favorable Z' of 0.82 and maximal drift of less than 4%. The assay was used in a pilot screen of 38,400 diverse compounds at a screening concentration of 19.3 μM, resulting in the identification of 161 previously unreported β-hematin inhibitors. Of these, 48 also exhibited ≥ 90% inhibition of parasitemia in a Plasmodium falciparum whole-cell assay at a screening concentration of 23 μM. Eight of these compounds were identified to have nanomolar 50% inhibitory concentration values near that of chloroquine in this assay.

  10. The role of detergent in refolding of GdnHCl-denatured arginine kinase from shrimp Fenneropenaeus Chinensis: the solubilization of aggregate and refolding in detergent solutions.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ji-Cheng; Wang, Jin-Song; Cheng, Yuan; Yu, Zhenhang; Rao, Xue-Ming; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2005-04-01

    Strong aggregation occurred in the refolding route of arginine kinase (AK) denatured with 3 mol GdnHCl/L (GdnHCl, guanidine hydrochloride). The activity recovery of GdnHCl-denatured AK was very low and dependent on the protein concentration in the process of refolding. For denatured AK at 1.2 micromol/L concentration, the recovered activity yield was about 45.2% of the native enzyme, whereas at 5.2 micromol/L the activity recovery yield was only 20% of native activity. The nonionic detergent Triton X-100 and Tween 20 (< or = 100 mmol/L concentration) not only effectively blocked the aggregation but also enabled the denatured AK to recover most of its native activity. The kinetics of aggregate solubilization showed that there was an induction phase dependent on the detergent, but there was no dependency when detergent was absent. The apparent activity recovery had a cooperative relation with detergents in the process of refolding, which suggested the existence of some interaction between the detergent and the refolding intermediate. On the basis of the study results, a scheme of refolding was proposed.

  11. Rapid detergent removal from peptide samples with ethyl acetate for mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Yee-Guide; Stanley, E Richard

    2010-02-01

    Detergents are required for the extraction of hydrophobic proteins and for the maintenance of their solubility in solution. However, the presence of detergents in the peptide samples severely suppresses ionization in mass spectrometry (MS) analysis and decreases chromatographic resolution in LC-MS. Thus, detergents must be removed for sensitive detection of peptides by MS. This unit describes a rapid protocol in which ethyl acetate extraction is used to remove octylglucoside from protease digests without loss of peptides. This procedure can also be used to reduce interference by sodium dodecyl sulfate, Nonidet P-40, or Triton X-100 in peptide samples for MS analysis.

  12. Harmful Effects of Synthetic Surface-Active Detergents against Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, Hajime; Aoyama, Riho; Takahashi, Hideaki; Isobe, Yoshinari; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We report herein two cases of intractable atopic dermatitis successfully treated by simply avoiding the contact with surface-active detergents in the daily life and living. The detergents were closely related to the exacerbation and remission of the disease. Steroid ointment was no longer used. We discuss that the removal of horny layer lipids by surface-active detergents accelerates the transepidermal water loss and disturbs the barrier function of the epidermis and thus is intimately involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. PMID:25648414

  13. Tautomerism in neutral histidine.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2014-10-06

    Histidine is an important natural amino acid, involved in many relevant biological processes, which, because of its physical properties, proved difficult to characterize experimentally in its neutral form. In this work, neutral histidine has been generated in the gas phase by laser ablation of solid samples and its N(ε)H tautomeric form unraveled through its rotational spectrum. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, arising from the existing three (14)N nuclei, constituted a site-specifically probe for revealing the tautomeric form as well as the side chain configuration of this proteogenic amino acid.

  14. Comparisons of in vitro fermentation and high moisture forage processing methods for determination of neutral detergent fiber digestibility.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro fermentation systems are widely used to measure fiber digestibility of feedstuffs in order to assess feeding values for use in diet formulation and feed valuation. In this study, an in vitro fermentation method with the potential to improve sample throughput and ease of handling was investi...

  15. Comparison of some aspects of the in situ and in vitro methods in evaluation of neutral detergent fiber digestion.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, S J; Jančík, F; Ramin, M; Huhtanen, P

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare digestion rates (kd) of NDF for different feeds estimated with the in situ method or derived from an automated gas in vitro system. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate how in situ derived kd of NDF related to in vivo digestibility of NDF. Furthermore, in vitro true digestibility of the feed samples incubated within filter bags or dispersed in the medium was compared, and kd for insoluble and soluble components of those feeds were estimated. Four different concentrates and 4 forages were used in this study. Two lactating Swedish Red cows fed a diet of 60% grass silage and 40% concentrate on DM basis were used for in situ incubations and for collection of rumen fluid. The feed samples were ground through a 2.0-mm screen before the in situ incubations and a 1.0-mm screen before the in vitro gas incubations. In situ nylon bags were introduced into the rumen for determination of kd of NDF. Additional kinetic data were produced from isolated NDF and intact samples subjected to in vitro incubations in which gas production was recorded for 72 h. Samples were weighed in the bottles or within filter bags (for fiber and in vitro studies) that were placed in the bottles. The interaction between feed and method was significant (P < 0.01); kd of NDF for grass hay tended (P = 0.06) to be less whereas kd of NDF for alfalfa, barley grain, canola meal, and dried sugar beet pulp were greater (P < 0.01) when estimated with the in situ method than from gas production recordings. The meta-analysis suggested that in situ derived kd of NDF were biased and underestimated in vivo digestibility of NDF. Digestion rates of the intact samples were lower for all feeds, except for the hay, when incubated within the bags compared with dispersed in the medium (P < 0.01). Less OM and NDF were digested for all feeds when incubated within bags than dispersed in the medium (P < 0.01). It is concluded from the in vitro study that microbial activity within the bags is less than in the medium. Significant interactions between method (in situ vs. in vitro) and feed suggest that one or both methods result in biased estimates of digestion kinetics.

  16. Modulation of Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase by Neutral Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Pignataro, María Florencia; Dodes-Traian, Martín M.; González-Flecha, F. Luis; Sica, Mauricio; Mangialavori, Irene C.; Rossi, Juan Pablo F. C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lipids on membrane proteins are likely to be complex and unique for each membrane protein. Here we studied different detergent/phosphatidylcholine reconstitution media and tested their effects on plasma membrane Ca2+ pump (PMCA). We found that Ca2+-ATPase activity shows a biphasic behavior with respect to the detergent/phosphatidylcholine ratio. Moreover, the maximal Ca2+-ATPase activity largely depends on the length and the unsaturation degree of the hydrocarbon chain. Using static light scattering and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we monitored the changes in hydrodynamic radius of detergent/phosphatidylcholine particles during the micelle-vesicle transition. We found that, when PMCA is reconstituted in mixed micelles, neutral phospholipids increase the enzyme turnover. The biophysical changes associated with the transition from mixed micelles to bicelles increase the time of residence of the phosphorylated intermediate (EP), decreasing the enzyme turnover. Molecular dynamics simulations analysis of the interactions between PMCA and the phospholipid bilayer in which it is embedded show that in the 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayer, charged residues of the protein are trapped in the hydrophobic core. Conversely, in the 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayer, the overall hydrophobic-hydrophilic requirements of the protein surface are fulfilled the best, reducing the thermodynamic cost of exposing charged residues to the hydrophobic core. The apparent mismatch produced by a 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine thicker bilayer could be a structural foundation to explain its functional effect on PMCA. PMID:25605721

  17. Soaping the NMDA receptor: Various types of detergents influence differently [(3)H]MK-801 binding to rat brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Membranes prepared from rat brain were treated with increasing concentrations of cationic, neutral, anionic and zwitterionic surfactants. Potent inactivation of [(3)H]MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors (NRs) was provided by the cation cetyl pyridinium (IC50 25 μM) and the neutral digitonin (IC50 37 μM). A 2 h incubation of rat brain membranes at 24°C with 100 μM of the neutral Triton X-100 resulted in about 50% reversible inhibition (without inactivation). Reversible inhibition was also effected by the anion deoxycholate (IC50 700 μM), and by the zwitterions N-lauryl sulfobetaine (12-SB(±), 400 μM) and CHAPS (1.5 mM), with inactivation at higher concentrations. Keeping the NR cation channel in the closed state significantly protected against inactivation by cations and by 12-SB(±), but not by the other detergents. Inactivation depended differentially on the amount of the membranes, on the duration of the treatment, and on the temperature. Varying the amount of membranes by a factor 8 yielded for cetyl trimethylammonium (16-NMe3(+)) IC50s of inactivation from 10 to 80 μM, while for deoxycholate the IC50 of inactivation was 1.2 mM for all tissue quantities. Some compounds inactivated within a few min (16-NMe3(+), digitonin, CHAPS), while inactivation by others took at least half an hour (Triton X-100, deoxycholate, 12-SB(±)). These last 3 ones also exhibited the steepest temperature dependence. Knowledge about the influence of various parameters is helpful in selecting appropriate conditions allowing the treatment of brain membranes with amphiphiles without risking irreversible inactivation.

  18. Designer lipid-like peptides: a class of detergents for studying functional olfactory receptors using commercial cell-free systems.

    PubMed

    Corin, Karolina; Baaske, Philipp; Ravel, Deepali B; Song, Junyao; Brown, Emily; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Wienken, Christoph J; Jerabek-Willemsen, Moran; Duhr, Stefan; Luo, Yuan; Braun, Dieter; Zhang, Shuguang

    2011-01-01

    A crucial bottleneck in membrane protein studies, particularly G-protein coupled receptors, is the notorious difficulty of finding an optimal detergent that can solubilize them and maintain their stability and function. Here we report rapid production of 12 unique mammalian olfactory receptors using short designer lipid-like peptides as detergents. The peptides were able to solubilize and stabilize each receptor. Circular dichroism showed that the purified olfactory receptors had alpha-helical secondary structures. Microscale thermophoresis suggested that the receptors were functional and bound their odorants. Blot intensity measurements indicated that milligram quantities of each olfactory receptor could be produced with at least one peptide detergent. The peptide detergents' capability was comparable to that of the detergent Brij-35. The ability of 10 peptide detergents to functionally solubilize 12 olfactory receptors demonstrates their usefulness as a new class of detergents for olfactory receptors, and possibly other G-protein coupled receptors and membrane proteins.

  19. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  20. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  1. Beyond Viral Neutralization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, George K; Pazgier, Marzena; Evans, David; Ferrari, Guido; Bournazos, Stylianos; Parsons, Matthew S; Bernard, Nicole F; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-01-13

    It has been known for more than 30 years that Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) infection drives a very potent B cell response resulting in the production of anti-HIV-1 antibodies targeting several viral proteins, particularly its envelope glycoproteins (Env). Env epitopes are exposed on the surfaces of viral particles and infected cells where they are targets of potentially protective antibodies. These antibodies can interdict infection by neutralization and there is strong evidence suggesting that Fc-mediated effector function can also contribute to protection. Current evidence suggests that Fc-mediated effector function plays a role in protection against infection by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and it might be important for protection by non-neutralizing antibodies. Fc-mediated effector function includes diverse mechanisms that include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-mediated complement activation (ADC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), antibody-mediated trancytosis inhibition, and antibody-mediated virus opsonization. All these functions could be beneficial in fighting viral infections including HIV-1. In this perspective, we discuss the latest developments for ADCC responses discussed at the HIVR4P satellite session on non-neutralizing antibodies, with emphasis on the mechanisms of ADCC resistance employed by HIV-1, the structural basis of epitopes recognized by antibodies that mediate ADCC, NK-cell education and ADCC, and murine models to study ADCC against HIV-1.

  2. Hydrolysis of triphosphate from detergents in a rural waste water system.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, D J; McKelvie, I D; Hart, B T; Dunhill, R H

    2001-02-01

    The concentrations of detergent phosphates in raw sewage entering a small, predominantly domestic waste water treatment facility were determined using an ion chromatographic-flow injection analysis technique. Hourly loads of detergent phosphates were measured between 0600 and 2300 hrs (the major flow period in the plant) on days of both low and high phosphorus loads. The calculated loads of detergent phosphorus entering the plant on low and high load days were 260 g P/day and 350 g P/day, respectively. The half-life of detergent phosphates (triphosphate) in waste waters was measured to be 7.3 hours at 15 degrees C and 3.0 h at 20 degrees C. The major factor contributing to triphosphate degradation in waste water was shown to be biological in nature, with the most likely mechanism being enzymatic hydrolysis.

  3. Structural carbohydrates in a plant biomass: correlations between the detergent fiber and dietary fiber methods.

    PubMed

    Godin, Bruno; Agneessens, Richard; Gerin, Patrick; Delcarte, Jérôme

    2014-06-18

    We compared the detergent fiber and dietary fiber methods to analyze the cellulose and hemicellulose contents of commelinid and non-commelinid magnoliophyta biomass. A good linear correlation was found between both methods. Compared to the more accurate dietary fiber method, the detergent fiber method overestimates the content of cellulose, whereas the detergent fiber method, as compared to the dietary fiber method, overestimates and underestimates the hemicellulose content in commelinid and non-commelinid magnoliophyta biomass, respectively. Because of the good linear correlations, conversion factors were determined to predict the cellulose, hemicellulose, and xylan contents to be expected from the dietary fiber method, on the basis of analyses made by the faster, cheaper, and more commonly practiced detergent fiber method. Nevertheless, the dietary fiber method offers the advantage of providing the detailed composition of the hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinan, hemicellulosic glucan, galactan, and mannan), and that is of interest for biorefining purposes.

  4. Exploring the protein stability landscape: Bacillus subtilis lipase A as a model for detergent tolerance.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Alexander; Frauenkron-Machedjou, Victorine Josiane; Skoczinski, Pia; Wilhelm, Susanne; Zhu, Leilei; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2015-04-13

    A systematic study was conducted with Bacillus subtilis lipase A (BSLA) to determine the effect of every single amino acid substitution on detergent tolerance. BSLA is a minimal α/β-hydrolase of 181 amino acids with a known crystal structure. It can be expressed in Escherichia coli and is biochemically well characterized. Site saturation mutagenesis resulted in a library of 3439 variants, each with a single amino acid exchange as confirmed by DNA sequencing. The library was tested against four detergents, namely SDS, CTAB, Tween 80, and sulfobetaine. Surface remodeling emerged as an effective engineering strategy to increase tolerance towards detergents. Amino acid residues that significantly affect the tolerance for each of the four detergents were identified. In summary, this systematic analysis provides an experimental dataset to help derive novel protein engineering strategies as well as to direct modeling efforts.

  5. Washing of Cloth Contaminated with Radionuclides Using A Detergent-Free Laundry System

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, S. P.; Ahn, B. G.; Lee, H. J.; Shon, J. S.; Chung, H.; Kim, K. J.; Kim, H. J.; Park, J. H.; Lee, W. S.

    2003-02-25

    In this study, we describe a new laundry system to wash clothes, including those contaminated with radionuclides, without using detergent. The main part of this system is electrolytic cell that consists of a cathode with a special coating of nickel, an anode of nickel, and a cation exchange membrane between the two electrodes. The electrolyte is supplied to the anode and the tap-water to the cathode. When an electricity of 5 volts and 25 amperes is applied to the electrodes, the processed water is produced from the cathode. This processed water containing no detergent was investigated experimentally with regard to its decontamination efficiency of radionuclides and detergency of soil as compared to the conventional washing using detergent. It was found that the processed water from this system has an ability to simultaneously remove radionuclides and soil from the cloth with good efficiency.

  6. The need for mechanical ventilation in a child exposed to a laundry detergent pod.

    PubMed

    Kamit-Can, Fulya; Alparslan, Caner; Anıl, Ayşe Berna; Anıl, Murat; Zengin, Neslihan; Can, Ender

    2016-01-01

    Laundry detergent pods (LDPs) are a new, concentrated form of detergent covered by a membrane of polyvinyl alcohol or other water-soluble material. In contrast to traditional laundry detergents, the spectrum of responses to exposure to LDPs ranges from mild to life-threatening events. This is a case report of a 3-year-old male who ingested part of an LDP, leading to a depressed level of consciousness, upper airway obstruction, and severe respiratory distress. The patient required intubation and mechanical ventilation for 2 days before being discharged. This rare, severe clinical pattern demonstrates the potential toxicity of these laundry detergents. In the literature, few cases that required intubation and ventilation have been reported. To our knowledge, this is also the first case of LDP exposure reported from Turkey.

  7. Determinations and residual characteristics of triclosan in household food detergents of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih-Wei; Shih, Mei-Wen; Pan, Yi-Ping

    2008-07-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is a widely used antibacterial agent. However, it was concerned recently that triclosan might act as an antibiotic and will cause resistant bacterial strains. Furthermore, possible formation of toxic chloroform was also reported when the triclosan contained in household dishwashing soaps reacted with the chlorinated water. To assess the associate risks from possible exposures, concentrations of triclosan in household food detergents of Taiwan were determined in this study. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detector at 280 nm was used to analyze the triclosan in samples. Factors that might affect the residual characteristics of triclosan from detergents on dishware and fruits, including the concentrations of detergents used, the temperature and immersion time for water before the cleaning processes, the temperatures of water used for the cleaning processes, and the materials of dishware made of, were evaluated under the orthogonal experiment design by the Taguchi method. By the analysis of variance, the orders of importance of different parameters were determined. The concentrations of triclosan detected in household food detergents were found to be 1.7 x 10(-2) -5.6 x 10(-1) (triclosan/detergent, mg g(-1)). For residual characteristics, the concentration of detergents used as well as the materials of dishware were found to be the significant factors that will affect the triclosan left on the dishware. On the other hand, the concentration of triclosan in the detergents was found to be the only factor that will affect the triclosan left on fruits. The maximum dose of triclosan exposures from the use of household food detergents in Taiwan was also estimated in the study.

  8. Alkaline cellulases from alkaliphilic Bacillus: enzymatic properties, genetics, and application to detergents.

    PubMed

    Ito, S

    1997-05-01

    We have isolated a number of alkaliphilic Bacillus that produce alkaline exoenzymes and found a possible use for alkaline cellulase (carboxymethylcellulase) as an additive for improving the cleaning effect of detergents. Enzymatic properties of some candidate cellulases fulfilled the essential requirements for enzymes to be used practically in laundry detergents. Here I describe the properties and possible catalytic mechanism of the hydrolytic reaction and the gene for the industrial alkaline cellulase produced by one of the isolates, Bacillus sp. KSM-635.

  9. Direct molecular evolution of detergent-stable G protein-coupled receptors using polymer encapsulated cells.

    PubMed

    Scott, Daniel J; Plückthun, Andreas

    2013-02-08

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of pharmaceutical protein targets, yet drug development is encumbered by a lack of information about their molecular structure and conformational dynamics. Most mechanistic and structural studies as well as in vitro drug screening with purified receptors require detergent solubilization of the GPCR, but typically, these proteins exhibit only low stability in detergent micelles. We have developed the first directed evolution method that allows the direct selection of GPCRs stable in a chosen detergent from libraries containing over 100 million individual variants. The crucial concept was to encapsulate single Escherichia coli cells of a library, each expressing a different GPCR variant, to form detergent-resistant, semipermeable nano-containers. Unlike naked cells, these containers are not dissolved by detergents, allowing us to solubilize the GPCR proteins in situ while maintaining an association with the protein's genetic information, a prerequisite for directed evolution. The pore size was controlled to permit GPCR ligands to permeate but the solubilized receptor to remain within the nanocapsules. Fluorescently labeled ligands were used to bind to those GPCR variants inside the nano-containers that remained active in the detergent tested. With the use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting, detergent-stable mutants derived from two different family A GPCRs could be identified, some with the highest stability reported in short-chain detergents. In principle, this method (named cellular high-throughput encapsulation, solubilization and screening) is not limited to engineering stabilized GPCRs but could be used to stabilize other proteins for biochemical and structural studies.

  10. Insight into the Structure of Light Harvesting Complex II and its Stabilization in Detergent Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, Mateus B; Smolensky, Dmitriy; Heller, William T; O'Neill, Hugh Michael

    2009-01-01

    The structure of spinach light-harvesting complex II (LHC II), stabilized in a solution of the detergent n-octyl-{beta}-d-glucoside (BOG), was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Physicochemical characterization of the isolated complex indicated that it was pure (>95%) and also in its native trimeric state. SANS with contrast variation was used to investigate the properties of the protein-detergent complex at three different H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O contrast match points, enabling the scattering properties of the protein and detergent to be investigated independently. The topological shape of LHC II, determined using ab initio shape restoration methods from the SANS data at the contrast match point of BOG, was consistent with the X-ray crystallographic structure of LHC II (Liu et al. Nature 2004 428, 287-292). The interactions of the protein and detergent were investigated at the contrast match point for the protein and also in 100% D{sub 2}O. The data suggested that BOG micelle structure was altered by its interaction with LHC II, but large aggregate structures were not formed. Indirect Fourier transform analysis of the LHC II/BOG scattering curves showed that the increase in the maximum dimension of the protein-detergent complex was consistent with the presence of a monolayer of detergent surrounding the protein. A model of the LHC II/BOG complex was generated to interpret the measurements made in 100% D{sub 2}O. This model adequately reproduced the overall size of the LHC II/BOG complex, but demonstrated that the detergent does not have a highly regular shape that surrounds the hydrophobic periphery of LHC II. In addition to demonstrating that natively structured LHC II can be produced for functional characterization and for use in artificial solar energy applications, the analysis and modeling approaches described here can be used for characterizing detergent-associated {alpha}-helical transmembrane proteins.

  11. Synthetic detergents induced-biochemical and histological changes in skin of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, C; Mathur, A K; Gupta, B N; Singh, A; Shanker, R

    1990-06-01

    The linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) based synthetic detergents-induced decrease in lipid peroxydation and increase in histamine content in exposed skin of guinea pigs in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological alterations of exposed skin included moderate degree of hyperkeratinization at lower concentration but necrosis, scarring, sloughing as well as discontinuity of epidermis at higher concentrations. The results shows that the contact of skin with detergents causes dermal toxicity.

  12. [Forensic-medical examination of the effect of current synthetic detergents on the exhibits].

    PubMed

    Galitskiĭ, F A; Musabekova, S A

    2007-01-01

    A test for trace quantities of synthetic detergents on fabric is described in detail. Feasibility of detergents identification in the spots on the exhibits with thin-layer chromatography on silufol is shown and cases of such identification in biological material are given for illustration. Adequacy of the results is confirmed. Such investigation in forensic-medical practice will raise informative value of expert certification in cases when standard biological methods are unable to provide necessary precision.

  13. Transglutaminase treatment of wool fabrics leads to resistance to detergent damage.

    PubMed

    Cortez, João; Bonner, Philip L R; Griffin, Martin

    2005-04-06

    Biological detergents are now routinely used in domestic laundry because the enzymes they contain provide the added benefit of low temperature washes with improved cleaning performance. One of the key enzymes found in these detergents are proteases, which if exposed to natural protein fibres such as wool or silk can cause irreversible damage, leading to loss of fabric strength, shape and poor colour fastness. Transglutaminases (TGases) are protein cross-linking enzymes capable of adding tensile strength to wool proteins, and as a consequence are capable of remediating the damage caused by previous chemical treatments, and more importantly, by proteases. In this paper we treated dyed wool fabric with TGase and then washed the fabric with biological and non-biological detergents to investigate whether TGases would protect wool garments from damage by the undue use of biological detergents in domestic laundry. We demonstrate using different cycles of detergent washes containing biological and non-biological detergents and different TGase treatments, that wool fabric treated previously with TGase release less dye into the washing liquor and in addition maintain fabric strength at levels greater than the washed controls. As a consequence, wool garments previously treated with TGase are likely to have increased resistance to domestic washing and thus provide increased longevity.

  14. Determination of the aggregation number of detergent micelles using steady-state fluorescence quenching.

    PubMed Central

    Tummino, P J; Gafni, A

    1993-01-01

    The development of a simple, reliable method for determination of detergent micelle aggregation number that relies solely on measurement of steady-state fluorescence quenching is presented. The degree of steady-state fluorescence quenching of a micelle-solubilized fluorophore (pyrene) by a quencher that partitions greatly into the micelles (coumarin 153) is dependent on the micelle concentration, which can therefore be determined. The aggregation number is calculated as the micelle concentration/detergent monomer concentration (the total detergent concentration above the critical micelle concentration). For the determination to be accurate, the partition coefficient of the quencher into the micelle phase is determined and used to calculate the micellar concentration of quencher. Also, the quenching of pyrene by a coumarin 153 molecule within the same micelle must be complete, and this was confirmed by time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Aggregation numbers were determined for one cationic and several nonionic detergents and were found to be consistent with literature values. The approach presented is an improvement on a previous luminescence quenching technique (Turro, N.J., and A. Yekta. 1978. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 100:5951-5952) and can be used on cationic, anionic, and nonionic detergents with micelles ranging greatly in size and under varying conditions, such as detergent concentration, ionic strength, or temperature. PMID:8324192

  15. Death following the ingestion of detergent: an autopsy case with special regard to the histochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takaki; Oritani, Shigeki; Kuramoto, Yuko; Michiue, Tomomi; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    We report an autopsy case of death due to accidental ingestion of a liquid laundry detergent with special regard to the histochemical findings. A female inpatient suffering from schizophrenia in a psychiatric institution, was found unconscious lying on the floor of her room, with a container of detergent nearby, and died despite intensive life-support measures. At autopsy, the stomach and duodenum contained whitish translucent foamy viscous fluid, and the mucous membranes, from the esophagus to the duodenum, had diffuse erosions with congestion and edema. There was otherwise no significant pathology other than signs of acute death and hemolysis. Toxicological investigations detected 1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene (detergent additive) in the gastric contents using headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and a nonionic surfactant by a color identification test. Although these substances could not be detected in the blood, body fluid or viscera, histochemical examination using Oil red O demonstrated droplet-like staining in the pulmonary alveoli, suggesting aspiration of detergent, and similar staining in the vasculature of the lung, Kupffer cells of the liver, Bowman capsules of the kidney, and capillaries of the brain, suggesting the systemic effect of ingested/aspirated detergent. These findings were in keeping with death from ingestion of detergent and demonstrated the importance of preventing accidents such as this in healthcare facilities for elderly people.

  16. NMR study of a membrane protein in detergent-free aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zoonens, Manuela; Catoire, Laurent J; Giusti, Fabrice; Popot, Jean-Luc

    2005-06-21

    One of the major obstacles to membrane protein (MP) structural studies is the destabilizing effect of detergents. Amphipols (APols) are short amphipathic polymers that can substitute for detergents to keep MPs water-soluble under mild conditions. In the present work, we have explored the feasibility of studying the structure of APol-complexed MPs by NMR. As a test MP, we chose the 171-residue transmembrane domain of outer MP A from Escherichia coli (tOmpA), whose x-ray and NMR structures in detergent are known. 2H,15N-labeled tOmpA was produced as inclusion bodies, refolded in detergent solution, trapped with APol A8-35, and the detergent removed by adsorption onto polystyrene beads. The resolution of transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy-heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectra of tOmpA/A8-35 complexes was found to be close to that of the best spectra obtained in detergent solutions. The dispersion of chemical shifts indicated that the protein had regained its native fold and retained it during the exchange of surfactants. MP-APol interactions were mapped by substituting hydrogenated for deuterated A8-35. The resulting dipolar broadening of amide proton linewidths was found to be limited to the beta-barrel region of tOmpA, indicating that A8-35 binds specifically to the hydrophobic transmembrane surface of the protein. The potential of this approach to MP studies by solution NMR is discussed.

  17. Effects of detergents on catalytic activity of human endometase/matrilysin 2, a putative cancer biomarker.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun I; Lee, Seakwoo; Ullah, Asad; Cao, Qiang; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2010-01-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of hydrolytic enzymes that play significant roles in development, morphogenesis, inflammation, and cancer invasion. Endometase (matrilysin 2 or MMP-26) is a putative early biomarker for human carcinomas. The effects of the ionic and nonionic detergents on catalytic activity of endometase were investigated. The hydrolytic activity of endometase was detergent concentration dependent, exhibiting a bell-shaped curve with its maximum activity near the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of nonionic detergents tested. The effect of Brij-35 on human gelatinase B (MMP-9), matrilysin (MMP-7), and membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP) was further explored. Their maximum catalysis was observed near the CMC of Brij-35 ( approximately 90muM). Their IC(50) values were above the CMC. The inhibition mechanism of MMP-7, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP by Brij-35 was a mixed type as determined by Dixon's plot; however, the inhibition mechanism of endometase was noncompetitive with a K(i) value of 240muM. The catalytic activities of MMPs are influenced by detergents. Monomer of detergents may activate and stabilize MMPs to enhance catalysis, but micelle of detergents may sequester enzyme and block the substrate binding site to impede catalysis. Under physiological conditions, a lipid or membrane microenvironment may regulate enzymatic activity.

  18. Protein error of pH indicators in the presence of detergents.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuji

    2007-06-01

    The characteristics of color development due to a protein error in the dye-binding method in the presence of a non-ionic detergent has been investigated by the calculations based on the chemical equilibrium of a protein error. The calculation results were compared with those obtained using three pH indicators (Bromophenol Blue, Bromocresol Green and Bromocresol Purple) and three non-ionic detergents in the pH region from 1 to 13. In the experiments, the color development increased with the lower concentrations of the detergents, but decreased at higher concentrations. The pH where the color development reached a maximum value shifted to a higher pH as the detergent was added. These experimental results were reproduced by the calculation when the molar absorptivity of the dye-protein complex was assumed to increase due to adding the detergent. Such agreement between the experimental and the calculated results indicates that the characteristics of the color development in the dye-binding method in the presence of a non-ionic detergent can be analyzed by calculations based on the chemical equilibrium of a protein error.

  19. Detergent-associated Solution Conformations of Helical and Beta-barrel Membrane Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Yiming; Lee, Byung-Kwon; Ankner, John Francis; Becker, Jeffrey Marvin; Heller, William T

    2008-01-01

    Membrane proteins present major challenges for structural biology. In particular, the production of suitable crystals for high-resolution structural determination continues to be a significant roadblock for developing an atomic-level understanding of these vital cellular systems. The use of detergents for extracting membrane proteins from the native membrane for either crystallization or reconstitution into model lipid membranes for further study is assumed to leave the protein with the proper fold with a belt of detergent encompassing the membrane-spanning segments of the structure. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to probe the detergent-associated solution conformations of three membrane proteins, namely bacteriorhodopsin (BR), the Ste2p G-protein coupled receptor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the Escherichia coli porin OmpF. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the traditional model of a detergent-associated membrane protein, the helical proteins BR and Ste2p are not in the expected, compact conformation and associated with detergent micelles, while the ?-barrel OmpF is indeed embedded in a disk-like micelle in a properly folded state. The comparison provided by the BR and Ste2p, both members of the 7TM family of helical membrane proteins, further suggests that the interhelical interactions between the transmembrane helices of the two proteins differ, such that BR, like other rhodopsins, can properly refold to crystallize, while Ste2p continues to prove resistant to crystallization from an initially detergent-associated state.

  20. Ecotoxicity evaluation of a liquid detergent using the automatic biotest ECOTOX.

    PubMed

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Richter, Peter; Ullah, Waheed; Ali, Imran; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2013-08-01

    Synthetic detergents are common pollutants reaching aquatic environments in different ways after usage at homes, institutions and industries. In this study a liquid detergent, used for dish washing, was evaluated for its toxicity during long- and short-term tests using the automatic biotest ECOTOX. Different parameters of Euglena gracilis like motility, swimming velocity, gravitactic orientation, cell compactness and cell growth were used as end points. In short-term experiments, the maximum adverse effects on motility, velocity, cell shape and gravitaxis were observed after 1 h of exposure. With further increase in exposure time to the detergent a slight recovery of these parameters was observed. In long-term experiments, the detergent caused severe disturbances to E. gracilis. Motility, cell growth and cell compactness (shape) with EC50 values of 0.064, 0.18 and 2.05 %, respectively, were found as the most sensitive parameters to detergent stress. There was a slight positive effect on gravitactic orientation at the lowest two concentrations; at higher concentrations of the detergent cells orientation was highly impaired giving EC50 values of 1.75 and 2.52 % for upward swimming and r-value, respectively.

  1. Waste prevention in liquid detergent distribution: a comparison based on life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2014-11-15

    The distribution of liquid detergents through self-dispensing systems has been adopted in some Italian retail stores over the last few years. By enabling the consumer to refill several times the same container, it is proposed as a less waste-generating and more environmentally friendly alternative to the traditional distribution with single-use plastic containers. For this reason, its implementation is encouraged by the national waste prevention programme recently adopted in Italy. In order to assess such claims, a life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate whether detergent distribution through self-dispensing systems actually allows to achieve the expected reduction in waste generation and environmental impacts. The focus was on the distribution within the large-scale retail trade and on the categories of laundry detergents, fabric softeners and hand dishwashing detergents. For each of them, a set of baseline single-use scenarios were compared with two alternative waste prevention scenarios, where the detergent is distributed through self-dispensing systems. Beyond waste generation, also the Cumulative Energy Demand and thirteen midpoint-level potential impact indicators were calculated for the comparison. Results showed that a reduction in waste generation up to 98% can be achieved, depending on the category of detergent, on the baseline scenario of comparison and on the number of times the refillable container is used. A progressive reduction in the energy demand and in most of the potential impacts was also observed, starting from a minimum number of uses of the refillable container.

  2. Identification and absolute quantification of enzymes in laundry detergents by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Alexandra; Jeudy, Jérémy; Rougemont, Blandine; Bordes, Claire; Lemoine, Jérôme; Casabianca, Hervé; Salvador, Arnaud

    2016-07-01

    In a stricter legislative context, greener detergent formulations are developed. In this way, synthetic surfactants are frequently replaced by bio-sourced surfactants and/or used at lower concentrations in combination with enzymes. In this paper, a LC-MS/MS method was developed for the identification and quantification of enzymes in laundry detergents. Prior to the LC-MS/MS analyses, a specific sample preparation protocol was developed due to matrix complexity (high surfactant percentages). Then for each enzyme family mainly used in detergent formulations (protease, amylase, cellulase, and lipase), specific peptides were identified on a high resolution platform. A LC-MS/MS method was then developed in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) MS mode for the light and corresponding heavy peptides. The method was linear on the peptide concentration ranges 25-1000 ng/mL for protease, lipase, and cellulase; 50-1000 ng/mL for amylase; and 5-1000 ng/mL for cellulase in both water and laundry detergent matrices. The application of the developed analytical strategy to real commercial laundry detergents enabled enzyme identification and absolute quantification. For the first time, identification and absolute quantification of enzymes in laundry detergent was realized by LC-MS/MS in a single run. Graphical Abstract Identification and quantification of enzymes by LC-MS/MS.

  3. Empigen BB: a useful detergent for solubilization and biochemical analysis of keratins.

    PubMed

    Lowthert, L A; Ku, N O; Liao, J; Coulombe, P A; Omary, M B

    1995-01-05

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins make up some of the most insoluble proteins known, and within the IF protein family, keratins are the least soluble. We compared the efficiency of nonionic, cationic, mixed nonionic and anionic, and zwitterionic detergents in solubilizing keratins from insect cells that express recombinant human keratins and from human colonic cell lines and normal keratinocytes. The cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was similar to the zwitterionic detergent Empigen BB in its ability to efficiently solubilize keratins, but the latter detergent was superior in that it maintained antibody reactivity and allowed for immunoprecipitation of the keratins. Although Nonidet-P40 partially solubilizes keratins, Empigen BB solubilizes a significant amount of keratins not solubilized by Nonidet-P40. In the case of vimentin, differences in solubilization efficiency among the detergents was not as dramatic as with keratins. Our results show that Empigen BB solubilizes a significant amount of epidermal and glandular keratins while preserving antigenicity. This detergent should prove useful for carrying out biochemical and molecular studies on these proteins and may be similarly beneficial for other IF proteins.

  4. Modeling of Zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) and Zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) using ADF-GUI Software

    SciTech Connect

    Lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Kamaluddin, Burhanuddin

    2010-07-07

    Natural zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) has very high concentration of Uranium and Thorium of up to 5000 ppm. Radioactive decay process of alpha particles from these impurities affects some changes like several atomic displacements in the crystalline structure of zircon. The amount of track density caused by alpha particles decay process of these radioactive materials in zircon can be decreased with annealing temperatures from 700 deg. C to 980 deg. C. Recently it has been extensively studied as the possible candidate material for immobilization of fission products and actinides. Besides, zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}), product from natural zircon, is widely used in industrial field because it has excellent chemical and mechanical properties at high temperature. Dielectric constant of monoclinic, cubic and tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} can be found in the range of 22, 35 and 50 by computer simulation works. In recent years, atomistic simulations and modeling have been studied, because a lot of computational techniques can offer atomic-level approaching with minimum errors in estimations. One favorite methods is Density Functional Theory (DFT). In this study, ADF-GUI software from DFT will be used to calculate the frequency and absorption Intensity of zircon and zirconia molecules. The data from calculations will be verified with experimental works such as Raman Spectroscopy, AFM and XRD.

  5. Viral safety of solvent/detergent-treated blood products.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, B; Prince, A M; Hamman, J; Watklevicz, C

    1994-12-01

    Laboratory research that began in 1982 led to the licensing in the USA of a solvent/detergent (SD)-treated factor VIII concentrate in 1985. The licence was granted on the basis of several factors. First, studies had demonstrated the inactivation of several marker viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, Sindbis virus, Sendai virus) and other viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and non-A, non-B hepatitis virus (NANBHV; now known principally to be hepatitis C virus) added to the factor VIII concentrate just before treatment. Secondly, it had been realized that the relevant viruses in transfusion (e.g. HIV, HBV, NANBHV) all had lipid envelopes. Finally, laboratory, preclinical and clinical evidence indicated that factor VIII and other proteins present in the preparation were unaffected by SD treatment. The applicability of the SD method to a wide range of products and preparations, high process recoveries and a growing body of viral safety information linked with the failure of several other virus-inactivation methods to eliminate hepatitis transmission fostered the adoption of SD technology by more than 50 organizations worldwide. SD mixtures are now used in the preparation of a diverse array of products. Numerous laboratory and clinical studies suggest that coagulation-factor concentrates and other SD-treated products prepared from plasma pools are now safer than the individual units from which they were derived. Also, a large body of evidence indicates that hepatitis A virus (HAV) is not typically transmitted by blood and blood products.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Risk characterization of detergent surfactants in the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Feijtel, T.; Plassche, E. van de

    1995-12-31

    The Dutch Soap Association (NVZ) and the Dutch Environmental Ministry (VROM) developed in 1991 an aquatic hazard priority list of all detergent ingredients. The agreed priority list consisted of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), alcohol ethoxylates (AE), alcohol ethoxylated sulfates (AES), and soap. A stepwise or tiered risk assessment approach was adopted as the recommended approach to evaluate the risk of these surfactants. This implies that depending on the risk (or PEC/PNEC) ratio, the sequential test program or assessment would proceed further, to ensure adequate protection of the ecosystem. The agreed calculation scheme for the aquatic compartment is based on the comparison of the 90th percentile of Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) in the Netherlands -- at 1,000 meter below the sewage outfall -- to the Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for ecosystems. The 90th percentile surfactant concentrations at 1,000 meter below the sewage outfall can be calculated using information or data on (1) release, (2) in-sewer removal, (3) treatment efficiency, (4) dilution and (5) instream-removal and/or measured in representative sites in The Netherlands. In addition, all toxicological data was critically reviewed by company experts and experts of RIVM and VROM to present a rationale for a sound database for the derivation of a Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC). It was concluded that the risk of LAS, AE and AES and soap for the aquatic environment is low. Also taking the estimated uncertainty into account, the predicted environmental concentrations are always considerably lower that the predicted no effect concentrations.

  7. Carbon neutral hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Frank S; Keith, David W

    2008-11-13

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector may be the most difficult aspect of climate change mitigation. We suggest that carbon neutral hydrocarbons (CNHCs) offer an alternative pathway for deep emission cuts that complement the use of decarbonized energy carriers. Such fuels are synthesized from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon neutral hydrogen. The result is a liquid fuel compatible with the existing transportation infrastructure and therefore capable of a gradual deployment with minimum supply disruption. Capturing the atmospheric CO2 can be accomplished using biomass or industrial methods referred to as air capture. The viability of biomass fuels is strongly dependent on the environmental impacts of biomass production. Strong constraints on land use may favour the use of air capture. We conclude that CNHCs may be a viable alternative to hydrogen or conventional biofuels and warrant a comparable level of research effort and support.

  8. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  9. Detergent enhancement of on-tissue protein analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mainini, Veronica; Angel, Peggi M; Magni, Fulvio; Caprioli, Richard M

    2011-01-15

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) is a molecular technology that allows simultaneous investigation of the content and spatial distribution of molecules within tissue. In this work, we examine different classes of detergents, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the nonionic detergents Triton X-100, Tween 20 and Tween 80, and the zwitterionic 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) for use in MALDI IMS of analytes above m/z 4000. These detergents were found to be compatible with MALDI MS and did not cause signal suppression relative to non-detergent applications and did not produce interfering background signals. In general, these detergents enhanced signal acquisition within the mass range m/z 4-40 000. Adding detergents into the matrix was comparable with the separate application of detergent and matrix. Evaluation of spectra collected from organ-specific regions of a whole mouse pup section showed that different detergents perform optimally with different organs, indicating that detergent selection should be optimized on the specific tissue for maximum gain. These data show the utility of detergents towards enhancement of protein signals for on-tissue MALDI IMS analysis.

  10. Neutral atom traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  11. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Fred L.; Blank, Merle L.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated ether-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood pressure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  12. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  13. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  14. Characterization of the activity and stability of amylase from saliva and detergent: laboratory practicals for studying the activity and stability of amylase from saliva and various commercial detergents.

    PubMed

    Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2012-07-01

    This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of α-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test (qualitative) under different conditions (e.g. variations in temperature and alkalinity). This work also proposes the study of enzyme stability in the presence of several surfactants and oxidizing agents using the same technical approach. The proposed laboratory exercises promote the understanding of the physiological function of this enzyme and the biotechnological applications of AAMYs in the detergent industry. The exercises also promote the understanding that the enzymatic stability and performance are dependent on the organism of origin, and if necessary, these properties could be modified by genetic engineering. In addition, this article reinforces the development of laboratory skills, problem-solving capabilities, and the ability to write a laboratory report. The exercises are proposed primarily as an undergraduate project for advanced students in the biochemical and biotechnological sciences. These laboratory practicals are complementary to the previously published BAMBED article (Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 280-290, 2011) on detergent proteases.

  15. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  16. Neutrality between Government and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall guiding principle of neutrality between government and religion masks a tension that exists between free exercise of religion and establishment of religion. Reviews the development and current status of "Lemon" as a test for neutrality; proposes a new test for neutrality, evenhandedness, that is common to both the Free…

  17. Effect of Detergent Micelle Environment on P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)-Ligand Interactions.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Suneet; Abel, Biebele; Chufan, Eduardo E; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2017-03-10

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a multidrug transporter that utilizes energy from ATP hydrolysis to efflux a variety of structurally dissimilar hydrophobic and amphipathic compounds including anticancer drugs from cells. Several structural studies on purified P-gp have been reported and there is very limited and in some cases conflicting information available on ligand interactions with isolated transporter in a dodecyl maltoside detergent environment. In this report, we compare the biochemical properties of human and mouse P-gp in native membranes, detergent micelles, and after reconstitution in artificial membranes. We found that the modulators zosuquidar, tariquidar and elacridar stimulated the ATPase activity of purified human or mouse P-gp in a detergent micelle environment, whereas these drugs inhibited the ATPase activity of the transporter in native membranes or when it was reconstituted in proteoliposomes, with IC50 values in the 10 to 40 nanomolar range. Similarly, a 30- to 150-fold decrease in the apparent affinity for verapamil and cyclic peptide inhibitor QZ59-SSS was observed in detergent micelles compared to native or artificial membranes. These findings in aggregate demonstrate that the high-affinity site is inaccessible either due to a conformational change or binding of detergent at the binding site in a detergent micelle environment. The ligands bind to a low-affinity site, resulting in altered modulation of P-gp ATPase activity. We recommend that structural and functional aspects of ligand interactions with purified P-gp and other ATP-Binding Cassette transporters that transport amphipathic or hydrophobic substrates be studied in a detergent-free native or artificial membrane environment.

  18. Comparative lipidomics and proteomics analysis of platelet lipid rafts using different detergents.

    PubMed

    Rabani, Vahideh; Davani, Siamak; Gambert-Nicot, Ségolène; Meneveau, Nicolas; Montange, Damien

    2016-11-01

    Lipid rafts play a pivotal role in physiological functions of platelets. Their isolation using nonionic mild detergents is considered as the gold standard method, but there is no consensual detergent for lipid raft studies. We aimed to investigate which detergent is the most suitable for lipid raft isolation from platelet membrane, based on lipidomics and proteomics analysis. Platelets were obtained from healthy donors. Twelve sucrose fractions were extracted by three different detergents, namely Brij 35, Lubrol WX, and Triton X100, at 0.05% and 1%. After lipidomics analysis and determination of fractions enriched in cholesterol (Ch) and sphingomyelin (SM), proteomics analysis was performed. Lipid rafts were mainly observed in 1-4 fractions, and non-rafts were distributed on 5-12 fractions. Considering the concentration of Ch and SM, Lubrol WX 1% and Triton X100 1% were more suitable detergents as they were able to isolate lipid raft fractions that were more enriched than non-raft fractions. By proteomics analysis, overall, 822 proteins were identified in platelet membrane. Lipid raft fractions isolated with Lubrol WX 0.05% and Triton X100 1% contained mainly plasma membrane proteins. However, only Lubrol WX 0.05 and 1% and Triton X100 1% were able to extract non-denaturing proteins with more than 10 transmembrane domains. Our results suggest that Triton X100 1% is the most suitable detergent for global lipid and protein studies on platelet plasma membrane. However, the detergent should be adapted if investigation of an association between specific proteins and lipid rafts is planned.

  19. Oral mucosal desquamation caused by two toothpaste detergents in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Herlofson, B B; Barkvoll, P

    1996-02-01

    Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), the most widely used detergent in toothpastes, has been reported to cause adverse effects on oral soft tissues. This double-blind cross-over study describes the oral mucosal effects of SLS-containing toothpastes and pastes containing a zwitterionic detergent, cocoamidopropyl-betaine (CAPB) in an experimental model in 28 healthy females. Seven toothpastes, differing only in detergent concentration and/or type, were used: SLS (0.5, 1.0, 1.5%), CAPB (0.64, 1.27, 1.90%) and a placebo. Each participant applied 1 cm of assigned test toothpaste via a cap splint to the teeth and the mucosa of the upper jaw. The splints were used twice daily for 2 min during a period of 4 d, after which the participants were examined for oral desquamation. No other oral hygiene was allowed during the test periods. Ten days brushing with a detergent-free toothpaste was performed between each test period. Forty-five desquamative reactions were observed in 21 of 27 subjects (one was excluded) during the trial. Forty-two reactions were recorded during the SLS periods and the remaining three during the CAPB periods. The detergent-free toothpaste did not result in oral desquamation. SLS in toothpastes significantly increased the incidence of desquamation of the oral mucosa compared with toothpastes containing the detergent CAPB. The model used is not directly relevant to normal toothbrushing with toothpaste, but indicates that sensitive patients may contract mucosal irritation through SLS in toothpastes. Less toxic detergents, e.g. CAPB, are desirable in oral hygiene products.

  20. Use of anionic denaturing detergents to purify insoluble proteins after overexpression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many proteins form insoluble protein aggregates, called “inclusion bodies”, when overexpressed in E. coli. This is the biggest obstacle in biotechnology. Ever since the reversible denaturation of proteins by chaotropic agents such as urea or guanidinium hydrochloride had been shown, these compounds were predominantly used to dissolve inclusion bodies. Other denaturants exist but have received much less attention in protein purification. While the anionic, denaturing detergent sodiumdodecylsulphate (SDS) is used extensively in analytical SDS-PAGE, it has rarely been used in preparative purification. Results Here we present a simple and versatile method to purify insoluble, hexahistidine-tagged proteins under denaturing conditions. It is based on dissolution of overexpressing bacterial cells in a buffer containing sodiumdodecylsulfate (SDS) and whole-lysate denaturation of proteins. The excess of detergent is removed by cooling and centrifugation prior to affinity purification. Host- and overexpressed proteins do not co-precipitate with SDS and the residual concentration of detergent is compatible with affinity purification on Ni/NTA resin. We show that SDS can be replaced with another ionic detergent, Sarkosyl, during purification. Key advantages over denaturing purification in urea or guanidinium are speed, ease of use, low cost of denaturant and the compatibility of buffers with automated FPLC. Conclusion Ionic, denaturing detergents are useful in breaking the solubility barrier, a major obstacle in biotechnology. The method we present yields detergent-denatured protein. Methods to refold proteins from a detergent denatured state are known and therefore we propose that the procedure presented herein will be of general application in biotechnology. PMID:23231964

  1. Ultracold neutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, M.; Rolston, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    By photoionizing samples of laser-cooled atoms with laser light tuned just above the ionization limit, plasmas can be created with electron and ion temperatures below 10 K. These ultracold neutral plasmas have extended the temperature bounds of plasma physics by two orders of magnitude. Table-top experiments, using many of the tools from atomic physics, allow for the study of plasma phenomena in this new regime with independent control over the density and temperature of the plasma through the excitation process. Characteristic of these systems is an inhomogeneous density profile, inherited from the density distribution of the laser-cooled neutral atom sample. Most work has dealt with unconfined plasmas in vacuum, which expand outward at velocities of order 100 m/s, governed by electron pressure, and with lifetimes of order 100 μs, limited by stray electric fields. Using detection of charged particles and optical detection techniques, a wide variety of properties and phenomena have been observed, including expansion dynamics, collective excitations in both the electrons and ions, and collisional properties. Through three-body recombination collisions, the plasmas rapidly form Rydberg atoms, and clouds of cold Rydberg atoms have been observed to spontaneously avalanche ionize to form plasmas. Of particular interest is the possibility of the formation of strongly coupled plasmas, where Coulomb forces dominate thermal motion and correlations become important. The strongest impediment to strong coupling is disorder-induced heating, a process in which Coulomb energy from an initially disordered sample is converted into thermal energy. This restricts electrons to a weakly coupled regime and leaves the ions barely within the strongly coupled regime. This review will give an overview of the field of ultracold neutral plasmas, from its inception in 1999 to current work, including efforts to increase strong coupling and effects on plasma properties due to strong coupling.

  2. Pulsed field sample neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Dahl, David A.; Delmore, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for alternating voltage and for varying the rate of extraction during the extraction of secondary particles, resulting in periods when either positive ions, or negative ions and electrons are extracted at varying rates. Using voltage with alternating charge during successive periods to extract particles from materials which accumulate charge opposite that being extracted causes accumulation of surface charge of opposite sign. Charge accumulation can then be adjusted to a ratio which maintains a balance of positive and negative charge emission, thus maintaining the charge neutrality of the sample.

  3. Neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Duesing, G.; Altmann, H.; Falter, H.; Goede, A.; Haange, R.; Hemsworth, R.S.; Kupschus, P.; Stork, D.; Thompson, E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the neutral injection (NI) system for the Joint European Torus and its status in 1985 are reported. First the system parameters are discussed and the layout is described, followed by a summary of the physics design calculations, the development, production, and testing of the components and the subsystem assembly. The system commissioning is presented, including a description of the function and the realization of the NI test bed. A summary of performance predictions for 80-keV beam heating experiments, and of the experimental evidence on balanced versus coinjection, is presented. The operational experience with the first injector and the plasma physics results obtained so far are summarized.

  4. Surfactant/detergent titration analysis method and apparatus for machine working fluids, surfactant-containing wastewater and the like

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.; Hiller, J.M.

    1998-02-24

    The present invention is an improved method and related apparatus for quantitatively analyzing machine working fluids and other aqueous compositions such as wastewater which contain various mixtures of cationic, neutral, and/or anionic surfactants, soluble soaps, and the like. The method utilizes a single-phase, non-aqueous, reactive titration composition containing water insoluble bismuth nitrate dissolved in glycerol for the titration reactant. The chemical reaction of the bismuth ion and glycerol with the surfactant in the test solutions results in formation of micelles, changes in micelle size, and the formation of insoluble bismuth soaps. These soaps are quantified by physical and chemical changes in the aqueous test solution. Both classical potentiometric analysis and turbidity measurements have been used as sensing techniques to determine the quantity of surfactant present in test solutions. This method is amenable to the analysis of various types of new, in-use, dirty or decomposed surfactants and detergents. It is a quick and efficient method utilizing a single-phase reaction without needing a separate extraction from the aqueous solution. It is adaptable to automated control with simple and reliable sensing methods. The method is applicable to a variety of compositions with concentrations from about 1% to about 10% weight. It is also applicable to the analysis of waste water containing surfactants with appropriate pre-treatments for concentration. 1 fig.

  5. A detergent-based procedure for the preparation of IgG-like bispecific antibodies in high yield

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Jyoti; Hoque, Mehboob; Zaman, Masihuz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Saleemuddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs), with the ability to recognize two different epitopes simultaneously, offer remarkable advantages in bioassays, cancer therapy, biosensors, and enzyme electrodes. Preparation and purification of BsAbs in adequate quantities remains a major hurdle in their use in various applications. Poor yield is also the principal limitation in the preparation of BsAbs by the redox procedure. IgG with reduced inter-heavy chain disulfides do not dissociate into half molecules at neutral pH. In this study, we report that the dissociation occurs in presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and inclusion of the detergent during the redox procedure results in remarkable increase in the formation of the BsAbs. Exposure of antibodies to 0.1% (w/v) SDS causes only minor loss in secondary/tertiary structure and the ability to bind the antigen. The BsAbs prepared using the modified redox procedure that recognize the antigens HRP and α-LA were prepared and successfully employed for detecting α-LA in milk/dairy products by ELISA and dot blot techniques. BsAbs were also prepared from partially purified immunoglobulin gamma (IgG). This work shows for the first time that SDS, by dissociating IgG with reduced inter-heavy chain disulfides into half molecules, markedly enhances the formation of BsAbs by the redox procedure. PMID:27982091

  6. Surfactant/detergent titration analysis method and apparatus for machine working fluids, surfactant-containing wastewater and the like

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Douglas D.; Hiller, John M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method and related apparatus for quantitatively analyzing machine working fluids and other aqueous compositions such as wastewater which contain various mixtures of cationic, neutral, and/or anionic surfactants, soluble soaps, and the like. The method utilizes a single-phase, non-aqueous, reactive titration composition containing water insoluble bismuth nitrate dissolved in glycerol for the titration reactant. The chemical reaction of the bismuth ion and glycerol with the surfactant in the test solutions results in formation of micelles, changes in micelle size, and the formation of insoluble bismuth soaps. These soaps are quantified by physical and chemical changes in the aqueous test solution. Both classical potentiometric analysis and turbidity measurements have been used as sensing techniques to determine the quantity of surfactant present in test solutions. This method is amenable to the analysis of various types of new, in-use, dirty or decomposed surfactants and detergents. It is a quick and efficient method utilizing a single-phase reaction without needing a separate extraction from the aqueous solution. It is adaptable to automated control with simple and reliable sensing methods. The method is applicable to a variety of compositions with concentrations from about 1% to about 10% weight. It is also applicable to the analysis of waste water containing surfactants with appropriate pre-treatments for concentration.

  7. Efficacy of lipase from Aspergillus niger as an additive in detergent formulations: a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Saisubramanian, N; Edwinoliver, N G; Nandakumar, N; Kamini, N R; Puvanakrishnan, R

    2006-08-01

    The efficacy of lipase from Aspergillus niger MTCC 2594 as an additive in laundry detergent formulations was assessed using response surface methodology (RSM). A five-level four-factorial central composite design was chosen to explain the washing protocol with four critical factors, viz. detergent concentration, lipase concentration, buffer pH and washing temperature. The model suggested that all the factors chosen had a significant impact on oil removal and the optimal conditions for the removal of olive oil from cotton fabric were 1.0% detergent, 75 U of lipase, buffer pH of 9.5 and washing temperature of 25 degrees C. Under optimal conditions, the removal of olive oil from cotton fabric was 33 and 17.1% at 25 and 49 degrees C, respectively, in the presence of lipase over treatment with detergent alone. Hence, lipase from A. niger could be effectively used as an additive in detergent formulation for the removal of triglyceride soil both in cold and warm wash conditions.

  8. NMR characterization of membrane protein-detergent micelle solutions by use of microcoil equipment.

    PubMed

    Stanczak, Pawel; Horst, Reto; Serrano, Pedro; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2009-12-30

    Using microcoil NMR technology, the uniformly (2)H,(15)N-labeled integral membrane protein OmpX, and the phosphocholine derivative detergent Fos-10 (n-decylphosphocholine), we investigated solutions of mixed protein-detergent micelles to determine the influence of the detergent concentration on the NMR spectra of the protein. In a first step, we identified key parameters that influence the composition of the micelle solutions, which resulted in a new protocol for the preparation of well-defined concentrated protein solutions. This led to the observation that high-quality 2D [(15)N,(1)H]-transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) spectra of OmpX reconstituted in mixed micelles with Fos-10 were obtained only in a limited range of detergent concentrations. Outside of this range from about 90-180 mM, we observed a significant decrease of the average peak intensity. Relaxation-optimized NMR measurements of the rotational and translational diffusion coefficients of the OmpX/Fos-10 mixed micelles, D(r) and D(t), respectively, then showed that the stoichiometry and the effective hydrodynamic radius of the protein-containing micelles are not significantly affected by high Fos-10 concentrations and that the deterioration of NMR spectra is due to the increased viscosity at high detergent concentrations. The paper thus provides a basis for refined guidelines on the preparation of integral membrane proteins for structural studies.

  9. Development of USEtox characterisation factors for dishwasher detergents using data made available under REACH.

    PubMed

    Igos, Elorri; Moeller, Ruth; Benetto, Enrico; Biwer, Arno; Guiton, Mélanie; Dieumegard, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Because of the more and more stringent regulations and customer demand, dishwasher detergent manufacturers are constantly improving the composition of the products towards better environmental performances. In order to quantify the pros and cons of these changes on the lifecycle of detergents, as compared to conventional products, the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a meaningful opportunity. However, the application of the methodology is hampered by the lack of Characterisation Factors (CFs) relative to the specific chemical substances included in the detergents composition, which cannot be included in the impact assessment of the effluent discharge. In this study we have tackled this problem, taking advantage of the specific case of three dishwasher detergents produced by the Chemolux/McBride group: phosphate-based, eco-labelled and phosphate-free formulations. Nine CFs for freshwater ecotoxicity and seven CFs for human toxicity have been developed, using the USEtox methodology and data made available under the REACH regulation. As a result, the dishwasher effluent composition could be characterised by more than 95% for freshwater ecotoxicity whereas for human toxicity the percentage was less than 36%, due to the lack of adequate and reliable repeated dose toxicity studies. The main contributing substances to freshwater ecotoxicity were found to be sodium percarbonate and sodium triphosphate, the latter confirming the pertinence of phosphates banning in the detergent industry. Regarding human toxicity, zinc shows the highest contribution. Further comparison to previous studies and sensitivity analysis substantiated the robustness of these conclusions.

  10. [Short gel method for pretreatment of protein samples with high concentration of detergent].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shouzhi; Zhang, Tao; Zhai, Linhui; Sun, Yulin; Xu, Ping; Zhao, Xiaohang

    2014-09-01

    In proteomic research, to improve protein solubility of membrane proteins and nuclear proteins, buffers containing high concentration of detergent, such as 4% SDS, were widely used. However, high concentration of detergent might severely interfere with the downstream proteomic analysis, including protein quantitation and trypsin digestion. To improve the proteomic compatibility of buffers with high concentration of detergent, we used short gel method to pretreat buffers containing detergent. Protein samples were first separated by a short (2-2.5 mm) SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and proteins were quantitated by comparing with bovine serum albumin standards via optical density analysis. The gel was then cut and peptides were recovered using in-gel digestion. The quantitative linearity range of this method was 1 to 8 μg. The quantitation was accurate and reproducible. After short gel analysis, recovered peptides generated high mass spectrometry signals. In conclusion, short gel method eliminated the interference of high concentration detergent in the proteomics analysis, and it was suitable for protein samples' pretreatment, and was worth to apply in proteomic research.

  11. Additive and synergistic membrane permeabilization by antimicrobial (lipo)peptides and detergents.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hiren; Huynh, Quang; Bärlehner, Dominik; Heerklotz, Heiko

    2014-05-20

    Certain antibiotic peptides are thought to permeabilize membranes of pathogens by effects that are also observed for simple detergents, such as membrane thinning and disordering, asymmetric bilayer expansion, toroidal pore formation, and micellization. Here we test the hypothesis that such peptides act additively with detergents when applied in parallel. Additivity is defined analogously to a fractional inhibitory concentration index of unity, and the extent and mechanism of leakage is measured by the fluorescence lifetime-based vesicle leakage assay using calcein-loaded vesicles. Good additivity was found for the concerted action of magainin 2, the fungicidal lipopeptide class of surfactins from Bacillus subtilis QST713, and the detergent octyl glucoside, respectively, with the detergent C12EO8. Synergistic or superadditive action was observed for fengycins from B. subtilis, as well as the detergent CHAPS, when combined with C12EO8. The results illustrate two mechanisms of synergistic action: First, maximal leakage requires an optimum degree of heterogeneity in the system that may be achieved by mixing a graded with an all-or-none permeabilizer. (The optimal perturbation should be focused to certain defect structures, yet not to the extent that some vesicles are not affected at all.) Second, a cosurfactant may enhance the bioavailability of a poorly soluble peptide. The results are important for understanding the concerted action of membrane-permeabilizing compounds in biology as well as for optimizing formulations of such antimicrobials for medical applications or crop protection.

  12. Membrane proteins, detergents and crystals: what is the state of the art?

    PubMed

    Loll, Patrick J

    2014-12-01

    At the time when the first membrane-protein crystal structure was determined, crystallization of these molecules was widely perceived as extremely arduous. Today, that perception has changed drastically, and the process is regarded as routine (or nearly so). On the occasion of the International Year of Crystallography 2014, this review presents a snapshot of the current state of the art, with an emphasis on the role of detergents in this process. A survey of membrane-protein crystal structures published since 2012 reveals that the direct crystallization of protein-detergent complexes remains the dominant methodology; in addition, lipidic mesophases have proven immensely useful, particularly in specific niches, and bicelles, while perhaps undervalued, have provided important contributions as well. Evolving trends include the addition of lipids to protein-detergent complexes and the gradual incorporation of new detergents into the standard repertoire. Stability has emerged as a critical parameter controlling how a membrane protein behaves in the presence of detergent, and efforts to enhance stability are discussed. Finally, although discovery-based screening approaches continue to dwarf mechanistic efforts to unravel crystallization, recent technical advances offer hope that future experiments might incorporate the rational manipulation of crystallization behaviors.

  13. Toxicity assessment of a common laundry detergent using the freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2011-09-01

    Synthetic detergents are among the commonly used chemicals in everyday life. Detergents, reaching aquatic environments through domestic and municipal wastewater, can cause many different effects in aquatic organisms. The present study was aimed at the toxicity evaluation of a commonly used laundry detergent, Ariel, using the freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis as a biotest organism. Different parameters of the flagellate like motility, swimming velocity, cell shape, gravitactic orientation, photosynthesis and concentration of light harvesting pigments were used as end points for the toxicity assessment. No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) and EC(50) values were calculated for the end point parameters at four different incubation times, i.e. 0, 6, 24 and 72 h. After 72 h incubation, swimming velocity of the cells was found to be the most sensitive parameter giving NOEC and EC(50) values of 10.8 and 34 mg L(-1), respectively. After 72 h exposure to the detergent, chlorophyll a and total carotenoids were significantly decreased in cultures treated with Ariel at concentrations of 50 mg L(-1) and above while chlorophyll b significantly decreased at concentrations above 750 mg L(-1). The maximum inhibitory effect on the quantum yield of photosystem II was observed after 24 h exposure and thereafter a recovery trend was observed. Motility, gravitaxis and cell shape were strongly impaired immediately upon exposure to the detergent, but with increasing exposure time these parameters showed acclimatization to the stress and thus the NOEC values obtained after 72 h were higher than those immediately after exposure.

  14. [The effect of the synthetic detergents on the formazan formation of various environmental bacteria (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Dákay, M; Fodor, F; Nikodemusz, I

    1981-01-01

    The authors studied the changes in activity of the dehydrogenase enzyme purifier of in the hygiene important bacteria, caused by different concentrations of various detergents with the aid of the triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride test (TTC) (Simmons-Williams test). The cation-active CTAB, in a contentration of only -0.008%, inhibited the enzymatic activity in all bacteria tested, whereas the non-ionic detergents (Praewozell and G 3707), even in high concentrations (5%) produced no inhibiting effect. The anion-active detergents (DBSNa-LSNa) differed in their action on the test bacteria, but Str. faecalis appears to be the most sensitive species, but Micrococcus was also sensitive. In the case of Str. faecalis a 0.03% DBSNa concentration and a 0.008% LSNa concentration was needed to produce the same effect in micrococci. E. coli pathogens proved relatively resistant to anionic detergents; a complete inhibition of the enzymatic activity was brought about by a 1% DBSNa and 0.63% LSNa concentrations. The results suggest that the TTC testing method is suitable for the evaluation of the action of ionic detergents in the organism.

  15. Membrane proteins, detergents and crystals: what is the state of the art?

    PubMed Central

    Loll, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    At the time when the first membrane-protein crystal structure was determined, crystallization of these molecules was widely perceived as extremely arduous. Today, that perception has changed drastically, and the process is regarded as routine (or nearly so). On the occasion of the International Year of Crystallography 2014, this review presents a snapshot of the current state of the art, with an emphasis on the role of detergents in this process. A survey of membrane-protein crystal structures published since 2012 reveals that the direct crystallization of protein–detergent complexes remains the dominant method­ology; in addition, lipidic mesophases have proven immensely useful, particularly in specific niches, and bicelles, while perhaps undervalued, have provided important contributions as well. Evolving trends include the addition of lipids to protein–detergent complexes and the gradual incorporation of new detergents into the standard repertoire. Stability has emerged as a critical parameter controlling how a membrane protein behaves in the presence of detergent, and efforts to enhance stability are discussed. Finally, although discovery-based screening approaches continue to dwarf mechanistic efforts to unravel crystallization, recent technical advances offer hope that future experiments might incorporate the rational manipulation of crystallization behaviors. PMID:25484203

  16. Stability of thermostable alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis RP1 in commercial solid laundry detergent formulations.

    PubMed

    Sellami-Kamoun, Alya; Haddar, Anissa; Ali, Nedra El-Hadj; Ghorbel-Frikha, Basma; Kanoun, Safia; Nasri, Moncef

    2008-01-01

    The stability of crude extracellular protease produced by Bacillus licheniformis RP1, isolated from polluted water, in various solid laundry detergents was investigated. The enzyme had an optimum pH and temperature at pH 10.0-11.0 and 65-70 degrees C. Enzyme activity was inhibited by PMSF, suggesting that the preparation contains a serine-protease. The alkaline protease showed extreme stability towards non-ionic (5% Tween 20% and 5% Triton X-100) and anionic (0.5% SDS) surfactants, which retained 100% and above 73%, respectively, of its initial activity after preincubation 60 min at 40 degrees C. The RP1 protease showed excellent stability and compatibility with a wide range of commercial solid detergents at temperatures from 40 to 50 degrees C, suggesting its further application in detergent industry. The enzyme retained 95% of its initial activity with Ariel followed by Axion (94%) then Dixan (93.5%) after preincubation 60 min at 40 degrees C in the presence of 7 mg/ml of detergents. In the presence of Nadhif and New Det, the enzyme retained about 83.5% of the original activity. The effects of additives such as maltodextrin, sucrose and PEG 4000 on the stability of the enzyme during spray-drying and during subsequent storage in New Det detergent were also examined. All additives tested enhanced stability of the enzyme.

  17. The evaluation of possible false positives with detergents when performing amylase serological testing on clothing.

    PubMed

    Feia, Andrea; Novroski, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    For almost 40 years, detergent companies have been adding enzymes such as amylases to their products as an effective method of breaking down tough stains created by polysaccharides and proteins. The possibility that α-amylases present in common household laundry detergents may contribute to the positive detection of α-amylase on evidentiary samples during forensic presumptive screening procedures is a potential problem that has not yet been investigated. To determine whether α-amylase detection is possible following routine laundering, five different fabrics were laundered in a variety of detergents, and presumptive testing using RSID(™)-Saliva and Phadebas(®) Amylase Test was conducted. Our results demonstrate that clothing laundered in detergents known to contain enzymes does not retain any detectable levels of α-amylase following a typical wash cycle. We also show that, unlike laundered clothing, undiluted detergents do contain detectable levels of α-amylase; however, these findings were only observed using the Phadebas(®) Amylase Test.

  18. PEE-PEO block copolymer exchange rate between micelles is detergent and temperature activated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schantz, Allen; Saboe, Patrick; Lee, Hee-Young; Sines, Ian; Butler, Paul; Bishop, Kyle; Maranas, Janna; Kumar, Manish

    We examine the kinetics of polymer chain exchange between polymer/detergent micelles, a system relevant to the synthesis of protein-containing biomimetic membranes. Although chain exchange between polymer aggregates in water is too slow to observe, adding detergent allows us to determine chain exchange rates using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). We examine a membrane-protein-relevant, vesicle-forming ultra-short polymer, Poly(ethyl ethylene)20-Poly(ethylene oxide)18 (PEE20-PEO18). PEE20-PEO18 is solubilized in mixed micelles with the membrane-protein-compatible non-ionic detergent octyl- β -D-glucoside (OG). We show that OG activates block copolymer exchange, and obtain rate constants at two detergent concentrations above the CMC (critical micellar concentration) of OG. We find that chain exchange increases two orders of magnitude when temperature increases from 308 to 338 K, and that even a 1 mg/mL increase in OG concentration leads to a noticeable increase in exchange rate. We also calculate the activation energy for chain exchange and find that it is much higher than for lipid exchange. These findings explain the need for high detergent concentration and/or temperature to synthesize densely packed polymer/protein membranes.

  19. TDS and BMT for CASES ADF (ADF RAMS), acceptance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Hugh W.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls, Astrophysics, and Structures Experiment (CASES) is a proposed experiment to collect x ray images of the galactic center and solar disk with unprecedented resolution. This requires precision pointing and suppression of vibrations in the long, flexible structure that comprises the 32-m x ray telescope optical bench. Two separate electro-optical sensors systems are provided for the ground test facility (GTF). The Boom Motion Tracker (BMT) measures eigenvector data for post-mission use in system identification. The Tip Displacement Sensor (TDS) measures boom tip position and is used as feedback for the closed-loop control system that stabilizes the boom. The deployment and testing of the BMT and TDS systems is summarized.

  20. Occupational asthma caused by cellulase and lipase in the detergent industry.

    PubMed

    Brant, A; Hole, A; Cannon, J; Helm, J; Swales, C; Welch, J; Taylor, A Newman; Cullinan, P

    2004-09-01

    Three employees from two different detergent companies were investigated for occupational asthma, using skin prick tests, serum specific IgE, and specific bronchial challenge. Two were challenged with lipase and one with cellulase. All three cases had immunological evidence of sensitisation to the detergent enzymes with which they worked. Bronchial challenge in each provoked a reproducible dual asthmatic response, which reproduced their work related symptoms. These are the first reported cases of occupational asthma attributable to cellulase and lipase in the detergent industry. Four of the most common enzymes used in this industry have now been reported to cause occupational asthma; continued vigilance and caution are needed when working with these or other enzymes.

  1. Refolding of detergent-denatured lysozyme using β-cyclodextrin-assisted ion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Qinming; Wang, Chaozhan

    2013-03-01

    Chromatography-based protein refolding is widely used. Detergent is increasingly used for protein solubilization from inclusion bodies. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a refolding method for detergent-denatured/solubilized proteins based on liquid chromatography. In the present work, sarkosyl-denatured/dithiothreitol-reduced lysozyme was used as a model, and a refolding method based on ion exchange chromatography, assisted by β-cyclodextrin, was developed for refolding detergent-denatured proteins. Many factors affecting the refolding, such as concentration of urea, concentration of β-cyclodextrin, pH and flow rate of mobile phases, were investigated to optimize the refolding conditions for sarkosyl-denatured lysozymes. The results showed that the sarkosyl-denatured lysozyme could be successfully refolded using β-cyclodextrin-assisted ion exchange chromatography.

  2. The effect of two toothpaste detergents on the frequency of recurrent aphthous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Herlofson, B B; Barkvoll, P

    1996-06-01

    The aim of the present clinical double-blind crossover study was to investigate the effect of two different toothpaste detergents, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and cocoamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), as compared with a detergent-free paste, on 30 patients with frequent occurrences of recurrent aphthous ulcers. The study consisted of three 6-week periods during which the patients brushed twice daily with the different test toothpastes. The localization and number of new ulcers were assessed. A significantly higher frequency of aphthous ulcers was demonstrated when the patients brushed with an SLS- than with a CAPB-containing or a detergent-free placebo paste. An SLS-free toothpaste may thus be recommended for patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers.

  3. NMR study of a membrane protein in detergent-free aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Zoonens, Manuela; Catoire, Laurent J.; Giusti, Fabrice; Popot, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-01

    One of the major obstacles to membrane protein (MP) structural studies is the destabilizing effect of detergents. Amphipols (APols) are short amphipathic polymers that can substitute for detergents to keep MPs water-soluble under mild conditions. In the present work, we have explored the feasibility of studying the structure of APol-complexed MPs by NMR. As a test MP, we chose the 171-residue transmembrane domain of outer MP A from Escherichia coli (tOmpA), whose x-ray and NMR structures in detergent are known. 2H,15N-labeled tOmpA was produced as inclusion bodies, refolded in detergent solution, trapped with APol A8-35, and the detergent removed by adsorption onto polystyrene beads. The resolution of transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy–heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectra of tOmpA/A8-35 complexes was found to be close to that of the best spectra obtained in detergent solutions. The dispersion of chemical shifts indicated that the protein had regained its native fold and retained it during the exchange of surfactants. MP–APol interactions were mapped by substituting hydrogenated for deuterated A8-35. The resulting dipolar broadening of amide proton linewidths was found to be limited to the β-barrel region of tOmpA, indicating that A8-35 binds specifically to the hydrophobic transmembrane surface of the protein. The potential of this approach to MP studies by solution NMR is discussed. PMID:15956183

  4. Detergent-protein interactions in aqueous buffer suspensions of Photosystem I (PS I).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dibyendu; May, Mark; Khomami, Bamin

    2011-06-15

    Systematic and uniform monolayer formation of Photosystem I (PS I) onto self-assembled monolayer (SAM) substrates to enable unidirectional electron transfer is crucial for its successful use in the fabrication of bio-hybrid solid-state electronic or photovoltaic devices. Yet, our recent studies (Mukherjee et al., 2010) indicate that surface self-assembly of PS I from aqueous buffer suspensions onto alkanethiolate SAM/Au substrates frequently leads to complex columnar structures due to solution phase protein aggregations. We investigate the effect of two prototypical non-ionic detergents, n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltoside (DM) and Triton X-100 (TX-100), on protein-protein interactions via the protein-detergent interfacial chemistry. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments are used to demonstrate the impact of relative protein/detergent concentrations on aggregation dynamics of PS I suspensions. In turn, the surface attachment characteristics of PS I adsorbed from the aforementioned suspensions onto SAM/Au substrate is examined by atomic force (AFM) microscopy. Our results indicate that relative concentration of PS I and detergents (DM or, TX-100) with respect to their critical micelle concentrations (CMC) determines the extent of self-association between PS I complexes driven by the screening induced by detergent micelles and/or, inter-protein distances. Such interfacial phenomena during the PS I-detergent complexation process drives the colloidal system through various regimes of phase separations, suspension and/or, de-aggregation, wherein individual PS I complexes can exist in a frustrated state that prevents favorable orientations for PS I-PS I interactions. The present study presents a novel strategy, heretofore not considered, for tailoring inter-protein distances and protein-protein interactions in solution phase, thereby allowing a superior control on the surface attachment of PS I onto SAM/Au substrates.

  5. Neutral polypropylene laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolfino, Chiara; Lertora, Enrico; Gambaro, Carla

    2016-10-01

    The joining of polymeric materials is a technology used in many industrial applications, from transport to telecommunications and the medical sector. A new technology for the joining of polymers is the laser welding process. In particular, fibre laser welding is a flexible technology which allows high process speed and the realization of good quality joints. Despite its application becoming more widespread in the production of assemblies of high precision, the application of laser technology for the welding of polymers has not been the subject of many studies up to now. This study focused on the welding of neutral polypropylene. The window process parameter was identified, without the use of additives to increase radiation absorption, and a mechanical characterization was conducted in order to evaluate the quality of the joints realized.

  6. Protein-detergent interactions in single crystals of membrane proteins studied by neutron crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Timmins, P.A.; Pebay-Peyroula, E.

    1994-12-31

    The detergent micelles surrounding membrane protein molecules in single crystals can be investigated using neutron crystallography combined with H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O contrast variation. If the protein structure is known then the contrast variation method allows phases to be determined at a contrast where the detergent dominates the scattering. The application of various constraints allows the resulting scattering length density map to be realistically modeled. The method has been applied to two different forms of the membrane protein porin. In one case both hydrogenated and partially deuterated protein were used, allowing the head group and tail to be distinguished.

  7. Solution structure of detergent micelles at conditions relevant to membrane protein crystallization.

    SciTech Connect

    Littrell, K.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Tiede, D.; Urban, V.

    1999-07-02

    In this study small angle neutron scattering was used to characterize the formation of micelles in aqueous solutions of the detergents DMG and SPC as a function of detergent concentration and ionic strength of the solvent. The effects on the micelle structure of the additives glycerol and PEG, alone as well as in combination typical for actual membrane protein crystallization, were also explored. This research suggests that the micelles are cigar-like in form at the concentrations studied. The size of the micelles was observed to increase with increasing ionic strength but decrease with the addition of glycerol or PEG.

  8. Solvent/detergent-treated plasma: a tale of 30 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria; Marano, Giuseppe; Grazzini, Gioia; Capuzzo, Enrico; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Solvent/detergent-treated plasma was licensed >30 years ago. It has several specific characteristics, the most important being the standardized content of clotting factors, the lack of antibodies implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury pathogenesis and the very high level of safety against transfusion-related viral infections. Since 1992, many clinical studies have confirmed its safety and efficacy in a wide range of congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. After a brief analysis of the pharmaceutical characteristics of solvent/detergent plasma, this review will focus on the clinical experience with this virus-inactivated plasma.

  9. An ELISA for screening hybridoma cultures for monoclonal antibodies against a detergent solubilized integral membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, W D; Knurr, K E; Kim, H S; Richmond, W G; Martin, A P; Vorbeck, M L

    1984-12-14

    A method is described for the binding of a detergent solubilized integral membrane protein to polystyrene immunoassay plates. Addition of Bouin's fluid, a histochemical fixative, to wells of plates containing the detergent solubilized antigen, followed by low speed centrifugation, is sufficient to promote binding of antigen in the presence of Triton X-100 concentrations as high as 1.75%. The binding of antigen is rapid and the entire binding procedure, including removal of fixative and washing of the plates, can be accomplished in less than 15 min. Immunological specificity of the bound antigen is retained. This method has been used to effectively screen hybridoma cultures for specific antibodies.

  10. [Relationship between the sensitivity of the delayed agglutination test and synthetic detergents].

    PubMed

    Iovchev, E; Vodas, K

    1977-01-01

    Residual amounts of detergents (Losk, Bio-73, Alka-lux, Bourgas, Bourgaslux, and Vero) in a concentration of 10-5 to 10-7 in physiologic saline can inhibit the agglutination titers by 3 to 5 degrees. This could mislead in the assessment of the reaction with regard to its diagnostic value. It is admitted that the inhibition produced is due to changes in the antibodies--drop in the total protein and light variations in all protein fractions as well as in the probable surface deterioration of the antigen, leading to its defective agglutinability. It is suggested to rinse more than five times all glassware that has been cleaned with detergents.

  11. Two detergent stable alkaline serine-proteases from Bacillus mojavensis A21: purification, characterization and potential application as a laundry detergent additive.

    PubMed

    Haddar, Anissa; Agrebi, Rym; Bougatef, Ali; Hmidet, Noomen; Sellami-Kamoun, Alya; Nasri, Moncef

    2009-07-01

    Two detergent stable alkaline serine-proteases (BM1 and BM2) from Bacillus mojavensis A21 were purified. The molecular weights of BM1 and BM2 enzymes determined by SDS-PAGE were approximately 29,00 Da and 15,50 Da, respectively. The optimum pH values of BM1 and BM2 proteases were shown to be 8.0-10.0 and 10.0, respectively. Both enzymes exhibited maximal activity at 60 degrees C, using casein as a substrate. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of BM1 and BM2 proteases were AQSVPYGISQIKA and AIPDQAATTLL, respectively. Both proteases showed high stability towards non-ionic surfactants. The enzymes were found to be relatively stable towards oxidizing agents. In addition, both enzymes showed excellent stability and compatibility with a wide range of commercial liquid and solid detergents. These properties and the high activity in high alkaline pH make these proteases an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations.

  12. Transient Photochemistry of Neutral Red.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    ascorbic acid system to 50 successive flashes, indicating that no ground state neutral red is permanently converted to leuco dye . Since leuco neutral...complete regeneration of ground state neutral red in this pH range in the present study suggests that formation of leuco dye is not significant. The second...radical disproportionation step is followed by a slower step which converts leuco dye to semireduced radical. Because coupling the two steps

  13. Transient ion neutralization by electrons.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    The nonlinear initial-boundary-value problems describing the lateral neutralization of ion beams for the cases that (1) an auxiliary electric field accelerates the electrons into the ion space, and (2) the electrons are injected into the ion space at a prescribed current density are treated. Analytical solutions are derived which give the position and speed of the neutralization front as a function of time, and the temporal development of the electron density, velocity, and electric fields during the neutralization process.

  14. Constraining the Europa Neutral Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard T.; Mitchell, Donald; mauk, Barry; Johnson, Robert E.; clark, george

    2016-10-01

    "Neutral tori" consist of neutral particles that usually co-orbit along with their source forming a toroidal (or partial toroidal) feature around the planet. The distribution and composition of these features can often provide important, if not unique, insight into magnetospheric particles sources, mechanisms and dynamics. However, these features can often be difficult to directly detect. One innovative method for detecting neutral tori is by observing Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) that are generally considered produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between charged and neutral particles.Mauk et al. (2003) reported the detection of a Europa neutral particle torus using ENA observations. The presence of a Europa torus has extremely large implications for upcoming missions to Jupiter as well as understanding possible activity at this moon and providing critical insight into what lies beneath the surface of this icy ocean world. However, ENAs can also be produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between two ionized particles and in that case cannot be used to infer the presence of neutral particle population. Thus, a detailed examination of all possible source interactions must be considered before one can confirm that likely original source population of these ENA images is actually a Europa neutral particle torus. For this talk, we examine the viability that the Mauk et al. (2003) observations were actually generated from a neutral torus emanating from Europa as opposed to charge particle interactions with plasma originating from Io. These results help constrain such a torus as well as Europa source processes.

  15. Effect of some detergents, humate, and composition of seedbed on crop of tomato plants in a hydroponic culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guminka, A. Z.; Gracz-Nalepka, M.; Lukasiewicz, B.; Sobolewicz, E.; Turkiewicz, I. T.

    1978-01-01

    It is established that single detergent doses distinctly stimulate vegetative development of plants in the initial stage when humates are available. When detergents are applied every four weeks in a hydroponic culture, in which the seedbed does not contain active humates, the crop is reduced by 50%. This adverse effect does not occur when the seedbed is a mixture of brown coal and peat.

  16. Ligand-induced association of surface immunoglobulin with the detergent insoluble cytoskeleton may involve an 89K protein

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.K.; Woda, B.

    1986-03-01

    Membrane immunoglobulin of B-lymphocytes is thought to play an important role in antigen recognition and cellular activation. Binding of cross-linking ligands to surface immunoglobulin (SIg) on intact cells converts it to a detergent insoluble state, and this conversion is associated with the transmission of a mitogenic signal. Insolubilized membrane proteins may be solubilized by incubating the detergent insoluble cytoskeletons in buffers which convert F-actin to G-actin ((Buffer 1), 0.34M sucrose, 0.5mM ATP, 0.5mM Dithiothrietol and lmM EDTA). Immunoprecipitation of SIg from the detergent soluble fraction of /sup 35/S-methionine labeled non ligand treated rat B-cells results in the co-isolation of an 89K protein and a 44K protein, presumably actin. The 89K protein is not associated with the fraction of endogenous detergent insoluble SIg. On treatment of rat B cells with cross-linking ligand (anti-Ig) the 89K protein becomes detergent insoluble along with most of the SIg and co-isolates with SIg on immunoprecipitation of the detergent insoluble, buffer l solubilized fraction. The migration of the SIg-associated 89K protein from the detergent soluble fraction to the detergent insoluble fraction after ligand treatment, suggests that this protein might be involved in linking SIg to the underlying cytoskeleton and could be involved in the transmission of a mitogenic signal.

  17. Detergent release prolongs the lifetime of native-like membrane protein conformations in the gas-phase.

    PubMed

    Borysik, Antoni J; Hewitt, Dominic J; Robinson, Carol V

    2013-04-24

    Recent studies have suggested that detergents can protect the structure of membrane proteins during their transition from solution to the gas-phase. Here we provide mechanistic insights into this process by interrogating the structures of membrane protein-detergent assemblies in the gas-phase using ion mobility mass spectrometry. We show a clear correlation between the population of native-like protein conformations and the degree of detergent attachment to the protein in the gas-phase. Interrogation of these protein-detergent assemblies, by tandem mass spectrometry, enables us to define the mechanism by which detergents preserve native-like protein conformations in a solvent free environment. We show that the release of detergent is more central to the survival of these conformations than the physical presence of detergent bound to the protein. We propose that detergent release competes with structural collapse for the internal energy of the ion and permits the observation of transient native-like membrane protein conformations that are otherwise lost to structural rearrangement in the gas-phase.

  18. Adamantane-based amphiphiles (ADAs) for membrane protein study: importance of a detergent hydrophobic group in membrane protein solubilisation.

    PubMed

    Chae, Pil Seok; Bae, Hyoung Eun; Das, Manabendra

    2014-10-21

    We prepared adamantane-containing amphiphiles and evaluated them using a large membrane protein complex in terms of protein solubilisation and stabilization efficacy. These agents were superior to conventional detergents, especially in terms of the membrane protein solubilisation efficiency, implying a new detergent structure-property relationship.

  19. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in

  20. CO2-neutral fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  1. Rapid screening for detection and differentiation of detergent powder adulteration in infant milk formula by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Tay, Manjun; Fang, Guihua; Chia, Poh Ling; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2013-10-10

    Reports of infant milk formula adulteration by detergent powders as economic frauds and poisoning incidents are common as detergents are readily available and are inexpensive household items. Liquid chromatography (LC)-Qtrap and LC-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) in combination with chemometrics were effectively employed to detect the presence of detergent powder adulterated in infant milk formula. Partial least square analysis (PLS) regression was also utilized to quantify the amount of detergent powder in adulterated infant milk formula without the need to purchase any standards. Dodecylbenzenesulfonate (C12-LAS) was identified and verified as the marker which existed in detergent powder using LC-QTOF-MS. The amount of C12-LAS present in the admixture was successfully quantified through standard addition method.

  2. Detergents enhance EspB secretion from Escherichia coli strains harboring the locus for the enterocyte effacement (LEE) gene.

    PubMed

    Nakasone, Noboru; Toma, Claudia; Higa, Naomi; Koizumi, Yukiko; Ogura, Yasunori; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    2011-02-01

    The effects of detergents (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, Triton X-100, and Nonidet P-40) on the secretion of EspB from the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE) gene-positive Escherichia coli strains were examined. Clinical isolates of eight EPEC strains and seven STEC strains were used to detect EspB after they had been cultivated in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth containing one of the detergents. When the bacteria were cultured in LB broth supplemented with one of the detergents, the amount of EspB produced was increased by 2-32-fold depending on the detergent and the strain used. EspB was detected in all strains when they were cultured in LB broth containing all of the detergents. The results obtained in this study can be applied to immunological diagnostic methods for detecting EspB and also to the production of EspB for research purposes.

  3. Is science metaphysically neutral?

    PubMed

    Fry, Iris

    2012-09-01

    This paper challenges the claim that science is metaphysically neutral upheld by contenders of the separation of peacefully co-existent science and religion and by evolutionary theists. True, naturalistic metaphysical claims can neither be refuted nor proved and are thus distinct from empirical hypotheses. However, metaphysical assumptions not only regulate the theoretical and empirical study of nature, but are increasingly supported by the growing empirical body of science. This historically evolving interaction has contributed to the development of a naturalistic worldview that renounces the necessity of a transcendent god and of purposeful design. The thesis presented here differs not only from the claims of the "separatists" and of evolutionary theists. In pointing to the metaphysical aspects of science, I also criticize the failure of some evolutionary naturalists to distinguish between empirical and metaphysical contentions. Most important, based on the examination of science suggested here, creationists' false accusation that science is only a naturalistic dogma is refuted. Finally, the difficulties involved in the position endorsed here for the public support of evolution are acknowledged, taking into account the high religious profile of the American society and the social and political context in the US and in other countries.

  4. Weak neutral current chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R.

    1996-07-01

    Metal cluster organic complexes, neither atomic nor solid but in analogy to atomic nuclei and to mesoscopic systems, have unusual dynamics and catalytic properties. Organo-metal clusters as quintessence prebiotic enzymes could have originated the homochirality of the molecules from achiral precursors, controlled from the atomic-nucleus, with the initial product itself serving subsequently as chiral auxiliary transferring and amplifying the chirality in the autocatalytic process now. High resolution spectroscopic studies of diatomic molecules beginning now may lead to upper estimates of the interaction strength of weak neutral currents (WNG) with valence electrons of metal clusters and suggest kinetic pathways to dynamic symmetry breaking in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral molecules. An estimate of 10{sup {minus}5} kT (thousand times larger than for radiolysis) for the parity violating energy (PVE) could be sufficient to run an entropy driven spin-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. Expect then, wherever there are metal clusters in interstellar dust or under the sea chiral molecular production. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Weak neutral current chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, R.

    1996-07-01

    Metal cluster organic complexes, neither atomic nor solid but in analogy to atomic nuclei and to mesoscopic systems, have unusual dynamics and catalytic properties. Organo-metal clusters as quintessence prebiotic enzymes could have originated the homochirality of the molecules from achiral precursors, controlled from the atomic-nucleus, with the initial product itself serving subsequently as chiral auxiliary transferring and amplifying the chirality in the autocatalytic process now. High resolution spectroscopic studies of diatomic molecules beginning now may lead to upper estimates of the interaction strength of weak neutral currents (WNG) with valence electrons of metal clusters and suggest kinetic pathways to dynamic symmetry breaking in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral molecules. An estimate of 10-5 kT (thousand times larger than for radiolysis) for the parity violating energy (PVE) could be sufficient to run an entropy driven spin-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. Expect then, wherever there are metal clusters in interstellar dust or under the sea chiral molecular production.

  6. The neutral upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. N.

    2002-07-01

    After World War II, Professor S.K. Mitra wrote a comprehensive book called The Upper Atmosphere, which dealt with information available from ground-based and balloon-borne experiments. As a result, topics such as day airglow were investigated and further ground-based experiments using incoherent back-scattering were carried out. These activities resulted in important new information on the ozonosphere. The dramatic discovery of ozone holes forms a new and exciting chapter in the discovery of atmospheric processes. While dealing with the limits of the atmosphere, reference may be made to interstellar molecules whose discovery has raised considerable scientific curiosity. Knowledge on the solar-terrestrial relationship advanced a great deal when more information on solar radiation became available by measuring higher energy photons in the UV, EUV, and even X-ray regime. All this information is incorporated in this volume and presented under the title The Neutral Upper Atmosphere. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/0-7923-6434-1

  7. How Do Detergents Work? A Qualitative Assay to Measure Amylase Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novo, M. Teresa; Casanoves, Marina; Garcia-Vallvé, Santi; Pujadas, Gerard; Mulero, Miquel; Valls, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical activity focusing on two main goals: to give learners the opportunity to experience how the scientific method works and to increase their knowledge about enzymes in everyday situations. The exercise consists of determining the amylase activity of commercial detergents. The methodology is based on a qualitative assay using a…

  8. Skin irritancy and sensitivity to laundry detergents containing proteolytic enzymes. Part I.

    PubMed

    Valér, M

    1975-02-01

    In the present study the contact irritative--eczematogenic--effect of alkaline protease enzymes (PE) contained in syndet laundry detergents has been investigated. The method employed was the occlusive epicutaneous test (ET) involving the use of increasing serial dilutions of PE and various times of exposure. The tests were made on sympton-free skin, on skin showing premorbid or slight irritative changes, on skin previously acid- or base-treated, in the presence of increased skin permeability and following the skin stripping method. The results obtained in the 912 test series indicate that the PEs tested ("Tenzym prilled" Grindstedvoerkek, and "Maxatase" Gist-Brocases) caused no irritation or other damage to the intact or slightly lesioned skin even in response to close contact lasting several days. When as a result of increased irritation, or for other reasons, the PEs may be assumed to penetrate into the subcorneal layers, they may exert a proteolytic effect, as manifested in the increasing number of positive ETs. In such cases the PE concentrations exceeded by far those employed in the commercial detergents. It is most likely that the skin changes noted in connection with the use of bioactive laundry detergents are due not to the PE content of these detergents, but to other factors.

  9. A newly high alkaline lipase: an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial lipases received much attention for their substrate specificity and their ability to function in extreme environments (pH, temperature...). Many staphylococci produced lipases which were released into the culture medium. Reports of thermostable lipases from Staphylococcus sp. and active in alkaline conditions are not previously described. Results A newly soil-isolated Staphylococcus sp. strain ESW secretes an induced lipase in the culture medium. The effects of temperature, pH and various components in a detergent on the activity and stability of Staphylococcus sp. lipase (SL1) were studied in a preliminary evaluation for use in detergent formulation solutions. The enzyme was highly active over a wide range of pH from 9.0 to 13.0, with an optimum at pH 12.0. The relative activity at pH 13.0 was about 60% of that obtained at pH 12.0. It exhibited maximal activity at 60°C. This novel lipase, showed extreme stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants after pre-incubation for 1 h at 40°C, and relative stability towards oxidizing agents. Additionally, the crude enzyme showed excellent stability and compatibility with various commercial solid and liquid detergents. Conclusions These properties added to the high activity in high alkaline pH make this novel lipase an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations. PMID:22123072

  10. Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Ming-Shiang; Ciou, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34 and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5 crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1 of 0.5 SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared. PMID:21151446

  11. Foam properties and detergent abilities of the saponins from Camellia oleifera.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Ming-Shiang; Ciou, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chun

    2010-11-04

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34 and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5 crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1 of 0.5 SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared.

  12. Gasoline compositions containing reaction products of fatty acid esters and amines as carburetor detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Schlicht, R.C.; Herbstman, S.; Levin, M.D.; Sung, R.L.

    1988-03-08

    A motor fuel composition is described comprising (a) a major portion of a fuel consisting essentially of a hydrocarbon boiling in the gasoline boiling range; and (b) a minor effective amount of, as detergent additive, a reaction product of C/sub 6/-C/sub 20/ fatty acid and a mono- or di-(hydroxy hydrocarbyl) amine.

  13. Inclusion of detergent in a cleaning regime and effect on microbial load in livestock housing

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, L. R.; Le Bon, M.; Dodd, C. E. R.; Mellits, K. H.

    2013-01-01

    Determining effective cleaning and disinfection regimes of livestock housing is vital to improving the health of resident animals and reducing zoonotic disease. A cleaning regime consisting of scraping, soaking with or without detergent (treatment and control), pressure washing, disinfection and natural drying was applied to multiple pig pens. After each cleaning stage, samples were taken from different materials and enumerated for total aerobic count (TAC) and Enterobacteriaceae (ENT). Soaking with detergent (Blast-Off, Biolink) caused significantly greater reductions of TAC and ENT on metal, and TAC on concrete, compared with control. Disinfection effect (Virkon S, DuPont) was not significantly associated with prior detergent treatment. Disinfection significantly reduced TAC and ENT on concrete and stock board but not on metal. Twenty-four hours after disinfection TAC and ENT on metal and stock board were significantly reduced, but no significant reductions occurred in the subsequent 96 hours. Counts on concrete did not significantly reduce during the entire drying period (120 hours). Detergent and disinfectant have varying bactericidal effects according to the surface and bacterial target; however, both can significantly reduce microbial numbers so should be used during cleaning, with a minimum drying period of 24 hours, to lower bacterial counts effectively. PMID:23839725

  14. Removal of detergents by activated petroleum coke from a clarified wastewater treated for reuse.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Zamora, R M; Durán Pilotzi, A; Domínguez Mora, R; Durán Moreno, A

    2004-01-01

    The removal of detergents from clarified wastewaters by activated petroleum coke (CAPA) was assessed. These substances, owing to their foamy properties, constitute a problem for ammonia removal by the air stripping process that could be installed in a wastewater treatment train to produce reclaimed water. CAPA was evaluated as a more economical alternative than a commercial activated carbon. Experimental work was divided in three stages: 1) production and characterisation of materials; 2) pretreatment of raw wastewater through the Fenton's reagent or coagulation-flocculation process with Al2(SO4)3; and 3) adsorption and bio-adsorption tests of clarified effluents. These tests were carried out in the laboratory in discontinuous and continuous reactors, the former by the "point-by-point" technique, with and without a previous fixing of bacteria, and the latter by the Rapid Small Scale Column Test. Detergents content, color, COD and UV254nm were measured in raw and treated wastewaters. Results show that the best pretreatment for the adsorption process was coagulation-flocculation rather than Fenton's method. Oxidation by this process decreased the adsorptive properties of detergents. Biomass fixed on the CAPA particles significantly increased the UV254nm and COD removal efficiencies (20% and 170% respectively). The breakthrough curves showed that CAPA could attain the expected detergents removal efficiency (66%) for the alum effluent.

  15. Enhanced gene delivery to the lung using biodegradable polyunsaturated cationic phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Philippe; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Lux, Marie; Lebeau, Luc; Pons, Françoise

    2016-09-10

    Lung diseases are among the more representative causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide and gene therapy is considered as a promising therapeutic approach for their treatment. However the design of efficient nucleic acid carriers for airway administration still is a challenge and there is a pressing need for new developments in this field. Herein, new synthetic DNA carriers based on the conjugation of a phospholipid and C12E4, a nonionic detergent, are developed. DNA complexes with phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates are administered in mouse airways, and transgene expression and inflammatory activity as an index of toxicity are investigated as a function of time, DNA dose, and presence of helper and stealth lipids. Introduction of a biodegradable linker between the phosphatidylcholine and detergent moieties significantly attenuates the severity of inflammatory response that characterizes cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer. Concurrent introduction of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains in the carrier scaffold improves transgene expression and further reduces airway inflammation. Finally, the biodegradable phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates favorably compare to GL67A, the gold standard for DNA delivery to the airway that is currently under clinical evaluation. Our findings indicate that the lipid formulations described herein may have great potential as nucleic acid carriers for gene therapy.

  16. Association of protein kinase A type I with detergent-resistant structures of mammalian sperm cells.

    PubMed

    Moos, J; Pĕknicová, J; Geussova, G; Philimonenko, V; Hozák, P

    1998-05-01

    The finding that flagellar movement in detergent-permeabilized sperm cells is restored when Mg ATP and cAMP are added implicated detergent-resistant protein kinase A (PKA) in the regulation of sperm motility. It is widely believed that only the PKA regulatory subunit RII can associate with the cytoskeleton and/or organelles. In this paper we used monoclonal antibodies against the PKA catalytic subunit and RI subunit and demonstrated that PKA type I is also associated with the sperm cytoskeleton. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing anchored PKA type I. This association was found in sperm of nonrodent mammalian species and, to a lesser extent, also in mouse sperm. The PKA catalytic subunit is bound to the cytoskeleton secondarily via its complex with the regulatory subunit. The detergent-resistant complexes of RI and catalytic subunits localize predominantly to the flagellum. Ultrastructural immunogold labeling revealed the association of detergent-resistant PKA type I with outer dense fibers (ODF) and the fibrous sheath (FS) but not with microtubules. This location is consistent with a proposed role of PKA in regulation of FS sliding on underlying ODF.

  17. Determination of detergents in washing machine wastewater with a voltammetric electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Olsson, J; Ivarsson, P; Winquist, F

    2008-06-30

    A voltammetric electronic tongue (ET) and a conductivity meter were used to predict amounts of detergents in process water from washing machines. The amount of detergent in over sixty samples was also determined by a HPLC reference method. Prediction was more accurate for the electronic tongue, but both techniques could be used. The composition of the detergent, e.g. supporting electrolyte, is an important factor for the ability to predict the detergent quantity by conductivity. Also two different surfactants, alkyl benzyl sulfonate (ABS) and etoxylated fatty alcohol (EOA), were fingerprinted by the HPLC. Their behaviour during the wash cycle differs from each other, ABS rinses away in the same proportions as the supporting electrolyte, but EOA appears to stay within the machine and laundry. Prediction models for ABS are accurate both with ET and conductivity meter, mostly due to the correlation with supporting electrolyte. The behaviour of EOA, with almost no correlation to the supporting electrolyte makes it difficult to predict using conductivity but ET prediction models give promising indications of its capabilities.

  18. Detergent disruption of bacterial inner membranes and recovery of protein translocation activity

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, K.; Wickner, W.T. )

    1989-11-01

    Isolation of the integral membrane components of protein translocation requires methods for fractionation and functional reconstitution. The authors treated inner-membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli with mixtures of octyl {beta}-D-glucoside, phospholipids, and an integral membrane carrier protein under conditions that extract most of the membrane proteins into micellar solution. Upon dialysis, proteoliposomes were reconstituted that supported translocation of radiochemically pure ({sup 35}S)pro-OmpA (the precursor of outer membrane protein A). Translocation into these proteoliposomes required ATP hydrolysis and membrane proteins, indicating that the reaction is that of the inner membrane. The suspension of membranes in detergent was separated into supernatant and pellet fractions by ultracentrifugation. After reconstitution, translocation activity was observed in both fractions, but processing by leader peptidase of translocated pro-OmpA to OmpA was not detectable in the reconstituted pellet fraction. Processing activity was restored by addition of pure leader peptidase as long as this enzyme was added before detergent removal, indicating that the translocation activity is not associated with detergent-resistant membrane vesicles. These results show that protein translocation activity can be recovered from detergent-disrupted membrane vesicles, providing a first step towards the goal of isolating the solubilized components.

  19. A Guide to Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Membrane and Soluble Proteins in Detergents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengrong; Brouillette, Christie G

    2016-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) detects protein thermal unfolding by directly measuring the heat absorbed. Simple DSC experiments that require relatively small amounts of pure material can provide a wealth of information related to structure, especially with respect to domain architecture, without the need for a complete thermodynamic analysis. Thus, DSC is an ideal additional tool for membrane protein characterization and also offers several advantages over indirect thermal unfolding methods. Integral membrane proteins (IMPs) that comprise both large multitopic transmembrane domains (TMDs) and extramembranous domains (EMDs) are differentially affected by detergent interactions with both domains. In fact, in some cases, destabilization of the EMD by detergent may dominate overall IMP stability. This chapter will (1) provide a perspective on the advantages of DSC for membrane protein characterization and stability measurements, including numerous examples spanning decades of research; (2) introduce models for the interaction and destabilization of IMPs by detergents; (3) discuss two case studies from the authors' lab; and (4) offer practical advice for performing DSC in the presence of detergents.

  20. Sanitizer Solutions Containing Detergents for Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Romaine Lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Numerous Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been linked to consumption of fresh lettuce. The development of effective and easily implemented wash treatment could reduce such incidents. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the addition of food-grade detergents to sa...

  1. Sanitizer solutions containing detergents for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on romaine lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been linked to consumption of fresh lettuce. The development of effective and easily implemented wash treatment could reduce such incidents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the addition of food-grade detergents to sanitizer solutions for i...

  2. New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko

    2007-01-01

    The use of harmful organic solvents in classrooms has become a critical issue of concern in the field of chemistry education. This article describes a classroom activity at a high school in which an acrylic fabric was used as the extraction medium in the analysis of the detergent concentration in water instead of organic solvents. Dyes were used…

  3. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... assuming party is fiscally sound and able to pay its penalty for the VAR violation; and (iv) The employees or agents of the party raising the defense did not cause the violation. (6) Defense to liability for... detergent storage tank will not be deemed to violate or cause violations of any of the provisions of...

  4. Jatropha oil derived sophorolipids: production and characterization as laundry detergent additive.

    PubMed

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage.

  5. Jatropha Oil Derived Sophorolipids: Production and Characterization as Laundry Detergent Additive

    PubMed Central

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage. PMID:24455261

  6. Modeling detergent organization around aquaporin-0 using small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Berthaud, Alice; Manzi, John; Pérez, Javier; Mangenot, Stéphanie

    2012-06-20

    Solubilization of integral membrane proteins in aqueous solutions requires the presence of amphiphilic molecules like detergents. The transmembrane region of the proteins is then surrounded by a corona formed by these molecules, ensuring a hydrophilic outer surface. The presence of this corona has strongly hampered structural studies of solubilized membrane proteins by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), a technique frequently used to monitor conformational changes of soluble proteins. Through the online combination of size exclusion chromatography, SAXS, and refractometry, we have determined a precise geometrical model of the n-dodecyl β-d-maltopyranoside corona surrounding aquaporin-0, the most abundant membrane protein of the eye lens. The SAXS data were well-fitted by a detergent corona shaped in an elliptical toroid around the crystal structure of the protein, similar to the elliptical shape recently reported for nanodiscs (Skar-Gislinge et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 13713-13722). The torus thickness determined from the curve-fitting protocol is in excellent agreement with the thickness of a lipid bilayer, while the number of detergent molecules deduced from the volume of the torus compares well with those obtained on the same sample from refractometry and mass analysis based on SAXS forward scattering. For the first time, the partial specific volume of the detergent surrounding a protein was measured. The present protocol is a crucial step toward future conformational studies of membrane proteins in solution.

  7. Systematic analysis of protein-detergent complexes applying dynamic light scattering to optimize solutions for crystallization trials.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Arne; Dierks, Karsten; Hussein, Rana; Brillet, Karl; Brognaro, Hevila; Betzel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Detergents are widely used for the isolation and solubilization of membrane proteins to support crystallization and structure determination. Detergents are amphiphilic molecules that form micelles once the characteristic critical micelle concentration (CMC) is achieved and can solubilize membrane proteins by the formation of micelles around them. The results are presented of a study of micelle formation observed by in situ dynamic light-scattering (DLS) analyses performed on selected detergent solutions using a newly designed advanced hardware device. DLS was initially applied in situ to detergent samples with a total volume of approximately 2 µl. When measured with DLS, pure detergents show a monodisperse radial distribution in water at concentrations exceeding the CMC. A series of all-trans n-alkyl-β-D-maltopyranosides, from n-hexyl to n-tetradecyl, were used in the investigations. The results obtained verify that the application of DLS in situ is capable of distinguishing differences in the hydrodynamic radii of micelles formed by detergents differing in length by only a single CH2 group in their aliphatic tails. Subsequently, DLS was applied to investigate the distribution of hydrodynamic radii of membrane proteins and selected water-insoluble proteins in presence of detergent micelles. The results confirm that stable protein-detergent complexes were prepared for (i) bacteriorhodopsin and (ii) FetA in complex with a ligand as examples of transmembrane proteins. A fusion of maltose-binding protein and the Duck hepatitis B virus X protein was added to this investigation as an example of a non-membrane-associated protein with low water solubility. The increased solubility of this protein in the presence of detergent could be monitored, as well as the progress of proteolytic cleavage to separate the fusion partners. This study demonstrates the potential of in situ DLS to optimize solutions of protein-detergent complexes for crystallization applications.

  8. High-melting lipid mixtures and the origin of detergent-resistant membranes studied with temperature-solubilization diagrams.

    PubMed

    Sot, Jesús; Manni, Marco M; Viguera, Ana R; Castañeda, Verónica; Cano, Ainara; Alonso, Cristina; Gil, David; Valle, Mikel; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M

    2014-12-16

    The origin of resistance to detergent solubilization in certain membranes, or membrane components, is not clearly understood. We have studied the solubilization by Triton X-100 of binary mixtures composed of egg sphingomyelin (SM) and either ceramide, diacylglycerol, or cholesterol. Solubilization has been assayed in the 4-50°C range, and the results are summarized in a novel, to our knowledge, form of plots, that we have called temperature-solubilization diagrams. Despite using a large detergent excess (lipid/detergent 1:20 mol ratio) and extended solubilization times (24-48 h) certain mixtures were not amenable to Triton X-100 solubilization at one or more temperatures. DSC of all the lipid mixtures, and of all the lipid + detergent mixtures revealed that detergent resistance was associated with the presence of gel domains at the assay temperature. Once the system melted down, solubilization could occur. In general adding high-melting lipids limited the solubilization, whereas the addition of low-melting lipids promoted it. Lipidomic analysis of Madin-Darby canine kidney cell membranes and of the corresponding detergent-resistant fraction indicated a large enrichment of the nonsolubilized components in saturated diacylglycerol and ceramide. SM-cholesterol mixtures were special in that detergent solubilization was accompanied, for certain temperatures and compositions, by an independent phenomenon of reassembly of the partially solubilized lipid bilayers. The temperature at which lysis and reassembly prevailed was ∼25°C, thus for some SM-cholesterol mixtures solubilization occurred both above and below 25°C, but not at that temperature. These observations can be at the origin of the detergent resistance effects observed with cell membranes, and they also mean that cholesterol-containing detergent-resistant membrane remnants cannot correspond to structures existing in the native membrane before detergent addition.

  9. Photosynthesis and photosynthetic pigments in the flagellate Euglena gracilis - as sensitive endpoints for toxicity evaluation of liquid detergents.

    PubMed

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2014-04-05

    The present study was designed to validate the applicability of photosynthetic performance using a PAM fluorometer and photosynthetic pigments in Euglena gracilis as endpoint parameters in toxicity assessment of liquid detergents using a dish washing liquid detergent during short- (0-72h) and long-term (7days) exposure. In short-term experiments, the detergent affected the photosynthetic efficiency with EC50 values (calculated for Fv/Fm) of 22.07%, 7.27%, 1.4% and 2.34%, after 0, 1, 24 and 72h, respectively. The relative electron transport rate (rETR) and quantum yield measured with increasing irradiances were also inhibited by the detergent. The most severe effect of the detergent on the light-harvesting pigments (μgmL(-1)) was observed after 72h where chlorophyll a and total carotenoids were decreased at concentrations above 0.1% and chlorophyll b was decreased at concentrations above 0.5%. In long-term experiments, the detergent reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of cultures giving an EC50 value of 0.867% for Fv/Fm. rETR and quantum yield with increasing irradiance were shown to be adversely affected at concentrations of 0.1% or above. A decrease in chlorophyll a and total carotenoids (μgmL(-1)) was observed at concentrations of 0.05% detergent or above. Chlorophyll b was shown to be comparatively less affected by detergent stress, and a significant decrease was observed at concentrations of 0.5% or above. However, there was no prominent decrease in per cell (Euglena) concentration of any pigment. It can be concluded that photosynthesis and light-harvesting pigments in E. gracilis were sensitive to detergent stress and can be used as sensitive parameters in toxicity assessment of detergents in aquatic environments.

  10. Neutralization tests on the SERT 2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Domitz, S.

    1979-01-01

    Neutralization test data obtained on the SERT 2 spacecraft are presented. Tests included ion beam neutralization of a thruster by a close (normal design) neutralizer as well as by a distant (1 meter) neutralizer. Parameters affecting neutralization, such as neutralizer bias voltage, neutralizer anode voltage, local spacecraft plasma density, and solar array voltage configuration were varied and changes in plasma potentials were measured. A plasma model is presented as an approximation of observed results.

  11. The Effects of Plasma-Neutral Interactions on Neutral Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, V.; Thayer, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma-neutral interactions are fundamental to the structure and behavior of the neutral thermosphere. This interaction, primarily through ion-neutral collisions, ties electrodynamics with hydrodynamics requiring a fully coupled ionosphere - thermosphere model to simulate and dissect the sequence of responses that occur in the neutral gas when a change occurs in the ionosphere. In particular, changes in the ion drag force prompt a hydrodynamic response that will alter several properties of the thermosphere, including neutral winds. Here, the fully coupled National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR TIEGCM) is used to evaluate how changes in mechanical coupling, through the ion drag force, alter thermosphere properties, with a focus on thermospheric neutral winds. The equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) produces a transient wind system, and a dissection of the hydrodynamic processes responsible for its formation will be used to demonstrate the causal structure in neutral gas response to a change in field-aligned ion drag force. This well-behaved response elucidates processes that must be occurring in other regions of the thermosphere where more significant changes in the ion drag force occur.

  12. Detergent-free purification of ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporters.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sonali; Jamshad, Mohammed; Knowles, Timothy J; Morrison, Kerrie A; Downing, Rebecca; Cant, Natasha; Collins, Richard; Koenderink, Jan B; Ford, Robert C; Overduin, Michael; Kerr, Ian D; Dafforn, Timothy R; Rothnie, Alice J

    2014-07-15

    ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporters carry out many vital functions and are involved in numerous diseases, but study of the structure and function of these proteins is often hampered by their large size and membrane location. Membrane protein purification usually utilizes detergents to solubilize the protein from the membrane, effectively removing it from its native lipid environment. Subsequently, lipids have to be added back and detergent removed to reconstitute the protein into a lipid bilayer. In the present study, we present the application of a new methodology for the extraction and purification of ABC transporters without the use of detergent, instead, using a copolymer, SMA (polystyrene-co-maleic acid). SMA inserts into a bilayer and assembles into discrete particles, essentially solubilizing the membrane into small discs of bilayer encircled by a polymer, termed SMALPs (SMA lipid particles). We show that this polymer can extract several eukaryotic ABC transporters, P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), MRP1 (multidrug-resistance protein 1; ABCC1), MRP4 (ABCC4), ABCG2 and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; ABCC7), from a range of different expression systems. The SMALP-encapsulated ABC transporters can be purified by affinity chromatography, and are able to bind ligands comparably with those in native membranes or detergent micelles. A greater degree of purity and enhanced stability is seen compared with detergent solubilization. The present study demonstrates that eukaryotic ABC transporters can be extracted and purified without ever being removed from their lipid bilayer environment, opening up a wide range of possibilities for the future study of their structure and function.

  13. Expression, detergent solubilization, and purification of a membrane transporter, the MexB multidrug resistance protein.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Forum H; Jeffery, Constance J

    2010-12-03

    Multidrug resistance (MDR), the ability of a cancer cell or pathogen to be resistant to a wide range of structurally and functionally unrelated anti-cancer drugs or antibiotics, is a current serious problem in public health. This multidrug resistance is largely due to energy-dependent drug efflux pumps. The pumps expel anti-cancer drugs or antibiotics into the external medium, lowering their intracellular concentration below a toxic threshold. We are studying multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes infections in patients with many types of injuries or illness, for example, burns or cystic fibrosis, and also in immuno-compromised cancer, dialysis, and transplantation patients. The major MDR efflux pumps in P. aeruginosa are tripartite complexes comprised of an inner membrane proton-drug antiporter (RND), an outer membrane channel (OMF), and a periplasmic linker protein (MFP). The RND and OMF proteins are transmembrane proteins. Transmembrane proteins make up more than 30% of all proteins and are 65% of current drug targets. The hydrophobic transmembrane domains make the proteins insoluble in aqueous buffer. Before a transmembrane protein can be purified, it is necessary to find buffer conditions containing a mild detergent that enable the protein to be solubilized as a protein detergent complex (PDC). In this example, we use an RND protein, the P. aeruginosa MexB transmembrane transporter, to demonstrate how to express a recombinant form of a transmembrane protein, solubilize it using detergents, and then purify the protein detergent complexes. This general method can be applied to the expression, purification, and solubilization of many other recombinantly expressed membrane proteins. The protein detergent complexes can later be used for biochemical or biophysical characterization including X-ray crystal structure determination or crosslinking studies.

  14. Detergent-induced activation of the hepatitis C virus genotype 1b RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Weng, Leiyun; Kohara, Michinori; Wakita, Takaji; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Toyoda, Tetsuya

    2012-04-01

    Recently, we found that sphingomyelin bound and activated hepatitis C virus (HCV) 1b RNA polymerase (RdRp), thereby recruiting the HCV replication complex into lipid raft structures. Detergents are commonly used for resolving lipids and purifying proteins, including HCV RdRp. Here, we tested the effect of detergents on HCV RdRp activity in vitro and found that non-ionic (Triton X-100, NP-40, Tween 20, Tween 80, and Brij 35) and twitterionic (CHAPS) detergents activated HCV 1b RdRps by 8-16.6 folds, but did not affect 1a or 2a RdRps. The maximum effect of these detergents was observed at around their critical micelle concentrations. On the other hand, ionic detergents (SDS and DOC) completely inactivated polymerase activity at 0.01%. In the presence of Triton X-100, HCV 1b RdRp did not form oligomers, but recruited more template RNA and increased the speed of polymerization. Comparison of polymerase and RNA-binding activity between JFH1 RdRp and Triton X-100-activated 1b RdRp indicated that monomer RdRp showed high activity because JFH1 RdRp was a monomer in physiological conditions of transcription. Besides, 502H plays a key role on oligomerization of 1b RdRp, while 2a RdRps which have the amino acid S at position 502 are monomers. This oligomer formed by 502H was disrupted both by high salt and Triton X-100. On the contrary, HCV 1b RdRp completely lost fidelity in the presence of 0.02% Triton X-100, which suggests that caution should be exercised while using Triton X-100 in anti-HCV RdRp drug screening tests.

  15. Effects of Water Hardness on Textile Detergency Performance in Aqueous Cleaning Systems.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Keiko; Horibe, Kaori; Mei, Yang; Tsujisaka, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The effects of water hardness on textile detergency in aqueous solutions were systematically investigated using four surfactants: sodium oleate (OLNa), linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (AS), and polyoxyethylene (10) dodecyl ether (AE). Water hardness was adjusted according to the standard procedure described in IEC 60734:2012. As expected, by adding hardness salts the surface tension of the OLNa solution increased. Surprisingly, the addition of hardness salts lowers the surface tension for the LAS and AS solutions. In the case of the AE solution, hardness salt did not affect the surface tension. A decrease in transmittance and foamability after adding hardness salts was observed for every anionic surfactant solution, indicating that anionic surfactants can combine with divalent ions to form insoluble precipitates. Detergency experiments were performed using cotton plain-woven and towel fabrics soiled with a carbon black and oleic acid mixture. One piece each of untreated and soiled fabric were stacked and placed horizontally in detergent solution with or without hardness salts. As a mechanical action of soil removal, the shaking of 190 spm was applied. Soil removal and redeposition due to washing were evaluated from changes in values of the Kubelka-Munk function for both fabrics. With increasing water hardness, soil removal decreased and redeposition increased. In order of decreasing detergency, the surfactants were as follows: LAS > OLNa ≈ AS > AE. The results indicate that precipitates, formed by reaction of LAS or AS with hardness salts, are strongly adsorbed on the water surface because of their hydrophobicity, but they have no detergency power. The field emission scanning electron microscopic observation and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis showed that Ca(LAS)2 precipitation clung to fiber surfaces, and remained on the surfaces after washing. Significant changes in the cotton fabric due to washing were observed in

  16. Thermostable, alkaline and detergent-tolerant lipase from a newly isolated thermophilic Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Moubayed, Nadine M S; Abid, Islam

    2015-04-01

    Lipases are the enzymes of choice for laundry detergent industries, owing to their triglyceride removing ability from the soiled fabric, which eventually reduces the usage of phosphate-based chemical cleansers in the detergent formulation. In this study, a novel thermo-alkaline lipase-producing strain identified as Bacillus stearothermophilus was isolated from the soil samples of olive oil mill. Enhanced lipase production was observed at 55 degrees C, pH 11 and after 48 h of incubation. Among the substrates tested, xylose (a carbon source), peptone (a nitrogen source) and olive oil at a concentration of 1% were suitable substrates for enhancing lipase production. MgSO4 and Tween-80 were suitable substrates for maximizing lipase production. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a single CM-Sephadex column chromatography and revealed molecular mass of 67 kDa. The enzyme (BL1) was active over a wide range of pH from 9.0 to 13.0, with an optimum at pH 11.0, exhibited maximal activity at 55 degreesC and retained more than 70% of its activity after incubation at 70 degrees C or pH 13 for 0.5 h or 24 h, respectively. The enzyme hydrolyzed both short and long-chain triacylglycerols at comparable rates. BL1 was studied in a preliminary evaluation for use in detergent formulation solutions. This novel lipase showed extreme stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants after pre-incubation for 1 h at 40 degrees C, and good stability towards oxidizing agents. Additionally, the enzyme showed excellent stability and compatibility with various commercial detergents, suggesting its potential as an additive in detergent formulations.

  17. Size And Shape of Detergent Micelles Determined By Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, Jan; Columbus, Linda; Chu, Vincent B.; Lesley, Scott A.; Doniach, Sebastian; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL /Pasteur Inst., Paris /Scripps Res. Inst. /Novartis Res. Found.

    2009-04-29

    We present a systematic analysis of the aggregation number and shape of micelles formed by nine detergents commonly used in the study of membrane proteins. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements are reported for glucosides with 8 and 9 alkyl carbons (OG/NG), maltosides and phosphocholines with 10 and 12 alkyl carbons (DM/DDM and FC-10/FC-12), 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (DHPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (LPPG), and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPS). The SAXS intensities are well described by two-component ellipsoid models, with a dense outer shell corresponding to the detergent head groups and a less electron dense hydrophobic core. These models provide an intermediate resolution view of micelle size and shape. In addition, we show that Guinier analysis of the forward scattering intensity can be used to obtain an independent and model-free measurement of the micelle aggregation number and radius of gyration. This approach has the advantage of being easily generalizable to protein-detergent complexes, where simple geometric models are inapplicable. Furthermore, we have discovered that the position of the second maximum in the scattering intensity provides a direct measurement of the characteristic head group-head group spacing across the micelle core. Our results for the micellar aggregation numbers and dimensions agree favorably with literature values as far as they are available. We de novo determine the shape of FC-10, FC-12, DM, LPPG, and CHAPS micelles and the aggregation numbers of FC-10 and OG to be ca. 50 and 250, respectively. Combined, these data provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of micelle formation and serve as a starting point to correlate detergent properties with detergent-protein interactions.

  18. Fatty acid profiles from the plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes of two plant species.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Salazar, Laura; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Gutiérrez-Nájera, Nora; Noyola-Martínez, Liliana; González-Solís, Ariadna; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish the composition of the plant plasma membrane in order to understand its organization and behavior under continually changing environments. Knowledge of the lipid phase, in particular the fatty acid (FA) complex repertoire, is important since FAs determine many of the physical-chemical membrane properties. FAs are constituents of the membrane glycerolipid and sphingolipid backbones and can also be linked to some sterols. In addition, FAs are components of complex lipids that can constitute membrane micro-domains, and the use of detergent-resistant membranes is a common approach to study their composition. The diversity and cellular allocation of the membrane lipids containing FAs are very diverse and the approaches to analyze them provide only general information. In this work, a detailed FA analysis was performed using highly purified plasma membranes from bean leaves and germinating maize embryos and their respective detergent-resistant membrane preparations. The analyses showed the presence of a significant amount of very long chain FAs (containing 28C, 30C and 32C), in both plasma membrane preparations from bean and maize, that have not been previously reported. Herein is demonstrated that a significant enrichment of very long chain saturated FAs and saturated FAs can occur in detergent-resistant membrane preparations, as compared to the plasma membranes from both plant species. Considering that a thorough analysis of FAs is rarely performed in purified plasma membranes and detergent-resistant membranes, this work provides qualitative and quantitative evidence on the contributions of the length and saturation of FAs to the organization of the plant plasma membrane and detergent-resistant membranes.

  19. Environmental neutralization of polonium-218

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.D.; Hopke, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that two mechanisms of neutralization of the singly charged polonium ion exist. Charged Polonium-218 can be neutralized by reacting with oxygen to form a polonium oxide ion with a higher ionization potential than that of the polonium metal and then accepting an electron transferred from a lower ionization potential gas. In this present work, this mechanism has been verified by determining that the polonium oxide has an ionization potential in the range 10.35-10.53 eV. It was also previously reported that /sup 218/Po can be neutralized, in the absence of oxygen, by the scavenging of electrons by a trace gas such as water or nitrogen dioxide and their diffusion to the polonium ion. To verify this second neutralization mechanism, concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in nitrogen in the range of 50 ppb-1 ppm were examined for their ability to neutralize the polonium ion. Complete neutralization of /sup 218/Po was observed at nitrogen dioxide concentrations greater than 700 ppb. For concentrations below 700 ppb, the degree of neutralization was found to increase smoothly with the nitrogen dioxide concentration.

  20. Neutralization of reovirus: the gene responsible for the neutralization antigen

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    The S1 genome segment of reovirus is linked to type specificity as determined by neutralization antibody. This gene segment codes for a minor outer capsid polypeptide (sigma1). Therefore, sigma1 is the peptide responsible for induction of neutralization antibody and confers type specificity. This biologic property of reovirus was defined using hybrid recombinants clones between reovirus types 1 and 3 and 2 and 3. PMID:925604

  1. Reconstitution of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein into lipid membranes and biophysical evidence for its detergent-driven association with the pro-apoptotic Bax protein.

    PubMed

    Wallgren, Marcus; Lidman, Martin; Pedersen, Anders; Brännström, Kristoffer; Karlsson, B Göran; Gröbner, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic B-cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein and its counterpart, the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), are key players in the regulation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. However, how they interact at the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) and there determine whether the cell will live or be sentenced to death remains unknown. Competing models have been presented that describe how Bcl-2 inhibits the cell-killing activity of Bax, which is common in treatment-resistant tumors where Bcl-2 is overexpressed. Some studies suggest that Bcl-2 binds directly to and sequesters Bax, while others suggest an indirect process whereby Bcl-2 blocks BH3-only proteins and prevents them from activating Bax. Here we present the results of a biophysical study in which we investigated the putative interaction of solubilized full-length human Bcl-2 with Bax and the scope for incorporating the former into a native-like lipid environment. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was used to detect direct Bcl-2-Bax-interactions in the presence of polyoxyethylene-(23)-lauryl-ether (Brij-35) detergent at a level below its critical micelle concentration (CMC). Additional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements confirmed this observation and revealed a high affinity between the Bax and Bcl-2 proteins. Upon formation of this protein-protein complex, Bax also prevented the binding of antimycin A2 (a known inhibitory ligand of Bcl-2) to the Bcl-2 protein, as fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed. In addition, Bcl-2 was able to form mixed micelles with Triton X-100 solubilized neutral phospholipids in the presence of high concentrations of Brij-35 (above its CMC). Following detergent removal, the integral membrane protein was found to have been fully reconstituted into a native-like membrane environment, as confirmed by ultracentrifugation and subsequent SDS-PAGE experiments.

  2. Incomplete Neutralization and Deviation from Sigmoidal Neutralization Curves for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Laura E; Falkowska, Emilia; Doores, Katie J; Le, Khoa; Sok, Devin; van Gils, Marit J; Euler, Zelda; Burger, Judith A; Seaman, Michael S; Sanders, Rogier W; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Poignard, Pascal; Wrin, Terri; Burton, Dennis R

    2015-08-01

    The broadly neutralizing HIV monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) PG9, PG16, PGT151, and PGT152 have been shown earlier to occasionally display an unusual virus neutralization profile with a non-sigmoidal slope and a plateau at <100% neutralization. In the current study, we were interested in determining the extent of non-sigmoidal slopes and plateaus at <100% for HIV bnMAbs more generally. Using both a 278 panel of pseudoviruses in a CD4 T-cell (U87.CCR5.CXCR4) assay and a panel of 117 viruses in the TZM-bl assay, we found that bnMAbs targeting many neutralizing epitopes of the spike had neutralization profiles for at least one virus that plateaued at <90%. Across both panels the bnMAbs targeting the V2 apex of Env and gp41 were most likely to show neutralization curves that plateaued <100%. Conversely, bnMAbs targeting the high-mannose patch epitopes were less likely to show such behavior. Two CD4 binding site (CD4bs) Abs also showed this behavior relatively infrequently. The phenomenon of incomplete neutralization was also observed in a large peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-grown molecular virus clone panel derived from patient viral swarms. In addition, five bnMAbs were compared against an 18-virus panel of molecular clones produced in 293T cells and PBMCs and assayed in TZM-bl cells. Examples of plateaus <90% were seen with both types of virus production with no consistent patterns observed. In conclusion, incomplete neutralization and non-sigmoidal neutralization curves are possible for all HIV bnMAbs against a wide range of viruses produced and assayed in both cell lines and primary cells with implications for the use of antibodies in therapy and as tools for vaccine design.

  3. Vendor neutral archive in PACS.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Tapesh Kumar; Sanjeev

    2012-10-01

    An archive is a location containing a collection of records, documents, or other materials of historical importance. An integral part of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is archiving. When a hospital needs to migrate a PACS vendor, the complete earlier data need to be migrated in the format of the newly procured PACS. It is both time and money consuming. To address this issue, the new concept of vendor neutral archive (VNA) has emerged. A VNA simply decouples the PACS and workstations at the archival layer. This is achieved by developing an application engine that receives, integrates, and transmits the data using the different syntax of a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) format. Transferring the data belonging to the old PACS to a new one is performed by a process called migration of data. In VNA, a number of different data migration techniques are available to facilitate transfer from the old PACS to the new one, the choice depending on the speed of migration and the importance of data. The techniques include simple DICOM migration, prefetch-based DICOM migration, medium migration, and the expensive non-DICOM migration. "Vendor neutral" may not be a suitable term, and "architecture neutral," "PACS neutral," "content neutral," or "third-party neutral" are probably better and preferred terms. Notwithstanding this, the VNA acronym has come to stay in both the medical IT user terminology and in vendor nomenclature, and radiologists need to be aware of its impact in PACS across the globe.

  4. Comparative studies of the artificial chaperone-assisted refolding of thermally denatured bovine carbonic anhydrase using different capturing ionic detergents and beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Yazdanparast, Razieh; Khodarahmi, Reza; Soori, Effat

    2005-05-15

    Artificial chaperone-assisted refolding has been shown to be an effective approach for improving the refolding yield of some of the denatured proteins. Since identical concentrations of various detergents do not induce similar variations in the protein structures, we arranged to evaluate the artificial chaperoning capabilities of several ionic detergents as a function of charge, structure, and the hydrophobic tail length of the detergent. Our results indicate that carbonic anhydrase can be refolded from its denatured state via artificial chaperone strategy using both anionic and cationic detergents. However, the extent of refolding assistance (kinetic and refolding yield) were different due to protein and detergent net charges, detergent concentrations, and the length of hydrophobic portion of each detergent. These observed differences were attributed to physical properties of CA-detergent complexes and/or to the kinetics of detergent stripping by beta-cyclodextrin from the protein-detergent complexes which is apparently dependent on the detergent-beta-CD association constants and the nature of the partially stripped complexes.

  5. Wheat germ cell-free expression: Two detergents with a low critical micelle concentration allow for production of soluble HCV membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Fogeron, Marie-Laure; Badillo, Aurélie; Jirasko, Vlastimil; Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Paul, David; Lancien, Loick; Moradpour, Darius; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Meier, Beat H; Penin, François; Böckmann, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are notoriously difficult to express in a soluble form. Here, we use wheat germ cell-free expression in the presence of various detergents to produce the non-structural membrane proteins 2, 4B and 5A of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). We show that lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol (MNG-3) and dodecyl octaethylene glycol ether (C12E8) detergents can yield essentially soluble membrane proteins at detergent concentrations that do not inhibit the cell-free reaction. This finding can be explained by the low critical micelle concentration (CMC) of these detergents, which keeps the monomer concentrations low while at the same time providing the necessary excess of detergent concentration above CMC required for full target protein solubilization. We estimate that a tenfold excess of detergent micelles with respect to the protein concentration is sufficient for solubilization, a number that we propose as a guideline for detergent screening assays.

  6. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using detergent-soluble Plasmodium vivax antigen for seroepidemiological surveys.

    PubMed

    González-Cerón, L; Rodríguez, M H

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to Plasmodium vivax parasites in human sera was developed using P. vivax-infected erythrocytes from local malarious patients in southern Mexico. Infected cells were concentrated using a discontinuous Percoll gradient and detergent-soluble antigens obtained using Triton X100. The use of detergent and the addition of protease inhibitors to the antigen preparation ensured high sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay. No cross reactions were observed in sera immune to other protozoan, helmintic and bacterial infections, although some cross reactivity was seen in P. falciparum immune sera. A strong correlation between antibody titre values obtained by the ELISA and those obtained using an IFAT was observed. In a small field trial, carried out in a village where malaria transmission occurs, both ELISA and IFAT produced similar seroepidemiological profiles with regard to frequency of positive antibody titres and their distribution among the different age groups of the population.

  7. Automated sequencing of insoluble peptides using detergent. Bacteriophage fl coat protein.

    PubMed

    Bailey, G S; Gillett, D; Hill, D F; Petersen, G B

    1977-04-10

    Peptides which are highly nonpolar and insoluble under moderate conditions of pH and ionic strength cannot be subjected to automated sequence analysis. We report a method for solubilization of one such peptide, bacteriophage fl coat protein, by chemical modification in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Following this treatment the 50-residue peptide was degraded stepwise in an automated sequenator using a single cleavage Quadrol program with high repetitive yield through residue 47. We also report a modified program using detergent incorporated into dimethylallylamine buffer which permitted sequencing with high repetitive yields for at least the first 18 residues of the unmodified and otherwise highly insoluble coat protein. The presence of detergent caused no observable difficulties in detection of residues by gas chromatography, thin layer chromatography, or amino acid analysis.

  8. Chassis dynamometer study of the effects of AGO detergent and ignition improver on vehicle fuel consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Reading, K.; Evans, T.M.

    1994-10-01

    The benefits of diesel fuel additives have been demonstrated in a broad range of performance and operational areas from the refinary, through storage and distribution to fuel dispensing and vehicle operation. The object of this study is to devise a method to measure the effects of individual additives on fuel economy, at conditions representative of urban driving conditions, and to make preliminary measurements of the effects of a detergent and ignition improver. In this study a vehicle was prepared and run on a chasis dynamometer under steady-state urban cruise conditions according to a specially designed procedure. The results show that benefits in fuel economy can be gained both by using detergents in avoiding the build-up of excessive nozzle fouling and maintaining fuel injection equipment close to its design conditions - and also by using ignition improver. Changes in emissions consistent with previous studies were noted in both cases. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Detergent-dispersant additives based on high-molecular-weight alkylphenols

    SciTech Connect

    Kulieva, K.N.; Namazova, I.I.; Ismailova, N.D.; Dorokhina, I.V.

    1988-09-01

    This article describes the synthesis and investigation of Mannich bases produced for alkylphenols, obtained in turn from ethylene oligomers. These oligomers are the still bottoms from distillation products of high-temperature oligomerization of ethylene in the presence of triethylaluminum. Two narrow cuts obtained from the distillation of oligomer fraction were used to study the influence of ethylene oligomer molecular weight on the properties of the additives. The additives were blended in DS-11 oil to evaluate their detergency-dispersancy and other properties. Comparison blends were made with succinimide additives based on the same ethylene oligomers. The Mannich bases give improvements in the oxidation resistance, anticorrosion properties, and detergency-dispersancy of the DS-11 diesel oil.

  10. Chemical relaxation and equilibrium studies of association in aqueous solutions of bolaform detergents. Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    Zana, R.; Yiv, S.; Kale, K.M.

    1980-10-01

    Micelle formation in aqueous solutions of docasane-1,22-bis(trimethylammonium bromide) (C22ME6) has been investigated by means of conductivity, EMF (concentration cell and bromide ion and detergent ion specific electrodes), density, light scattering, fluorescence, and chemical relaxation (p-jump, t-jump, shock tube, ultrasonic absorption). The CMC, micelle ionization degree, micelle ionization degree, micelle aggregation number, and volume change upon micellization were calculated. The slope of the plot log CMC vs. number m of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of bolaforms of the CMME6 type as well as several other results reveal that these bolaforms behave like detergents with 2 charged groups on the first carbon of the alkyl chain. The conclusion is that the bolaform alkyl chain may be somewhat folded both in aqueous solution and in the micellized state. 25 references.

  11. A study on needle crystals formation in engine oils containing a magnesium-based detergent

    SciTech Connect

    Minamitani, H.; Hirose, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Kumakura, A.; Kanai, S.

    1988-01-01

    In the case of some engine oils, under specific conditions, engine oil additives may precipitate in the form of needle crystals which cause clogging of oil filters. A simple laboratory test has been developed to study the formation of needle crystal precipitates in engine oils. The influences of various conditions and the combination of engine oil additives on this formation were investigated using this test procedure. This laboratory testing showed that needle crystals form when the engine oil containing a magnesium-based detergent comes into contact with both water and carbonic acid under restricted conditions. It was discovered that there is a large difference in the formation of needle crystals between different magnesium-based detergents.

  12. Solution structure of the integral human membrane protein VDAC-1 in detergent micelles**

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Sebastian; Garces, Robert G.; Malia, Thomas J.; Orekhov, Vladislav Y.; Colombini, Marco; Wagner, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) mediates trafficking of small molecules and ions across the eukaryotic outer mitochondrial membrane. VDAC also interacts with anti-apoptotic proteins from the Bcl-2 family and this interaction inhibits release of apoptogenic proteins from the mitochondrion. We present the NMR solution structure of recombinant human VDAC-1 reconstituted in detergent micelles. It forms a 19-stranded β-barrel with the first and last strand parallel. The hydrophobic outside perimeter of the barrel is covered by detergent molecules in a belt-like fashion. In the presence of cholesterol recombinant VDAC-1 can form voltage-gated channels in phospholipid bilayers similar to the native protein. NMR measurements revealed the binding sites of VDAC-1 for the Bcl-2 protein Bcl-xL, for β-NADH and for cholesterol. Bcl-xL interacts with the VDAC barrel laterally at strands 17 and 18. PMID:18755977

  13. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This guide was prepared to help those involved in the manufacturing of soap, detergent, and related products to identify potential process improvements that will reduce production costs and conserve resources. The guide offers a series of generic process descriptions and checklists of improvement opportunities specific to each of five major processes used in the industry: Soap production, surfactant production, solid cake product formulation, liquid product formulation, and granulated powdered product formulation. The checklists identify thermal, electrical, environmental, water use, and low- or no-cost measures that can be implemented, as well as retrofit technology options. A variety of new technologies that may exhibit future potential are also described. Appendices include a glossary, background information on the Ontario soap/detergent industry, and description of the four major categories of ingredients used in the industry.

  14. Improving thermal and detergent stability of Bacillus stearothermophilus neopullulanase by rational enzyme design.

    PubMed

    Ece, Selin; Evran, Serap; Janda, Jan-Oliver; Merkl, Rainer; Sterner, Reinhard

    2015-06-01

    Neopullulanase, a glycosyl hydrolase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (bsNpl), is a potentially valuable enzyme for starch and detergent industries. However, as the protein is not active at elevated temperatures and high surfactant concentrations, we aimed to increase its stability by rational enzyme design. Nine potentially destabilizing cavities were identified in the crystal structure of the enzyme. Based on computational predictions, these cavities were filled by residues with bulkier side chains. The five Asp46Glu, Val239Leu, Val404Leu, Ser407Thr and Ala566Leu exchanges resulted in a drastic stabilization of bsNpl against inactivation by heat and detergents. The catalytic activity of the variants was identical to the wild-type enzyme.

  15. Asthmagenic properties of a newly developed detergent ingredient: sodium iso-nonanoyl oxybenzene sulphonate.

    PubMed Central

    Stenton, S C; Dennis, J H; Walters, E H; Hendrick, D J

    1990-01-01

    The suspicion that a newly developed detergent ingredient, sodium iso-nonanoyl oxybenzene sulphonate (SINOS), was inducing asthma among a workforce led to a series of inhalation challenge tests to determine the specificity and dose response characteristics of its asthma provoking properties. Three previously exposed workers, three non-exposed non-asthmatic controls, and three non-exposed asthmatic controls were challenged with SINOS 0.01-100 micrograms and another chemically similar surface active detergent ingredient, linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LAS) 0.01-100 micrograms. Asthmatic symptoms, late falls in FEV1, and increases in non-specific bronchial responsiveness were seen after the inhalation of SINOS in all three workers, confirming SINOS as a cause of occupational asthma. No changes were seen after the inhalation of SINOS in either group of control subjects nor after LAS in any subject. These findings suggest that SINOS causes asthma through a specific hypersensitivity mechanism unrelated to its surface active properties. PMID:2165800

  16. Laundry detergents as a source of heavy metals in Irish domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Aonghusa, Caitríona Níc; Gray, Nick F

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn in 175 detergent samples representing twenty-one brands of washing powders were analysed. Mean concentrations of 3.03 (+/- 0.50) microg Cd/g, 2.61 (+/- 1.22) microg Cu/g and 15.23 (+/- 7.26) microg Zn/g were recorded. The concentration of cadmium was much lower than previously reported. The daily contribution of metals from laundry washing are in the order of 54.5 microg Cd/ca/d, 47.0 microg Cu/ca/d and 274.1 microg Zn/ca/d. In Irish municipal wastewater the contribution from detergents of these metals are 31.9% for Cd, 0.24% Cu and 0.30% for Zn. This has important implications for sewage sludge disposal.

  17. Who is the real killer? Chlorfenapyr or detergent micelle-chlorfenapyr complex?

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Srinivasan; Deng, Jou-Fang; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2016-10-03

    1. Chlorfenapyr [4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(ethoxymethl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile] is a commonly employed pesticide throughout the world. The mechanism of chlorfenapyr action is to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. The characteristic features of chlorfenapyr intoxication are high fever, rhabdomyolysis and neurologic symptoms that gradually get worse until death. 2. In recent years, suicide attempt cases using commercial chlorfenapyr pesticide were reported. Even small doses of commercial chlorfenapyr pesticide intoxication caused human fatality. However, world health organization (WHO) has classified chlorfenapyr as class 2-moderately hazardous chemical. Animal studies using technical grade (94.5%; AC 7504-59A) chlorfenapyr in 0.5% carboxy methyl cellulose as the vehicle, single dose through oral route in male rats were well tolerated. 3. We planned a therapeutic strategy for suicidal chlorfenapyr intoxication, therefore we evaluated the three different toxic doses of chlorfenapyr (10% chlorfenapyr and 90% detergent) through oral route in male rats for human extrapolation. The major difference between the technical grade chlorfenapyr and commercial grade chlorfenapyr was the vehicle. In the technical grade chlorfenapyr study, 0.5% carboxy methyl cellulose was used as a vehicle, whereas in the present study 90% detergent acted as a vehicle. The LD50 of commercial grade chlorfenapyr-40.63 mg/kg bw, which was approximately tenfold decrease than technical grade chlorfenapyr, LD50 - 441 mg/kg bw. 4. The combination of chlorfenapyr and detergent, a deadly cocktail to form micelle complex that can greatly influence bioavailability by attaching to biological membranes in vivo. To conclude, the enhanced bioavailability of chlorfenapyr by the detergent causes the fatality in suicidal attempts using chlorfenapyr.

  18. New vehicles allow detergent-free mass spectrometry of membrane protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Jonathan T.S.; Yu, Yvonne Ting-Chun; Li, Dianfan; Raymond, Alison; Bostock, Mark; Liko, Idlir; Mikhailov, Victor; Laganowsky, Arthur; Benesch, Justin L.P.; Caffrey, Martin; Nietlispach, Daniel; Robinson, Carol V.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth in the study of membrane protein complexes in lipid microenvironments prompts new methods for their characterization. Here we develop mass spectrometry as a method for studying membrane proteins incorporated into amphipols, bicelles and nanodiscs. We compare these detergent-free vehicles with micelles for their ability to preserve the interactions of oligomeric complexes and to stabilize proteins that require defined lipid environments. PMID:24122040

  19. Use of quaternary ammonium salts of nitrogen containing polymers for improved carburetor detergency

    SciTech Connect

    Biasotti, J.B.; Vartanian, P.F.

    1980-01-15

    A quaternary ammonium salt is described of a copolymer, said copolymer being the olefin polymerization product of: (A) a nitrogen amine free ester of a C/sub 1/-C/sub 6/ olefinically unsaturated aliphatic mono-, di-, or polycarboxylic acid having a tertiary nitrogen atom; and (B) an olefinically unsaturated co-monomer containing a basic nitrogen atom in a side chain; a fuel component, especially gasoline, containing such quaternary ammonium salt of such copolymer as a detergent.

  20. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10-5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod's model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour-1.