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Sample records for adg average daily

  1. Effects of dam parity and pre-weaning average daily gain of Holstein calves on future milk production.

    PubMed

    Hoseyni, Fatemeh; Mahjoubi, Ehsan; Zahmatkesh, Davood; Yazdi, Mehdi Hossein

    2016-11-01

    This research communication describes relationships between pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG) and dam parity with future productivity of dairy calves. Higher ADG before weaning has been shown to be related to greater milk production in the first lactation of Holstein calves fed milk replacer. However, data is limited on the relationship between pre-weaning ADG and first lactation performance of Holstein calves fed whole milk. Data of three hundred and thirty-two Holstein calves from 35 primiparous and 297 multiparous cows was investigated to evaluate the relationship between the dam parity and pre-weaning ADG with the first lactation performance. Results indicated that birth (P < 0·01), and weaning body weight (P < 0·001) were greater in calves born from multiparous cows. Neither 305 d milk production nor pre-weaning ADG differed significantly between calves born to primiparous or multiparous cows, although milk yield tended to be higher in the former and ADG higher in the latter. Correlations between 305 d milk yield and pre-weaning ADG, dam parity and birth body weight were low and non-significant, although there was a tendency for a positive correlation between ADG and milk yield.

  2. Effects of metabolizable energy intake on tympanic temperature and average daily gain of steers finished in southern Chile during wintertime

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 Angus x Hereford steers (BW = 479.8 ± 4.48) were used to assess the effect of Metabolizable Energy Intake (MEI) on Average Daily Gain (ADG) and Tympanic Temperature (TT) during the wintertime in southern Chile. The study was conducted at the experimental field of the Catholic Universit...

  3. Genome-wide association study for feedlot average daily gain in Nellore cattle (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Gomes, R C; Garcia, J F; Fukumasu, H; Silva, S L; Leme, P R; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2014-06-01

    The genome-wide association study (GWAS) results are presented for average daily gain (ADG) in Nellore cattle. Phenotype of 720 male Bos indicus animals with information of ADG in feedlots and 354,147 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from a database added by information from Illumina Bovine HD (777,962 SNPs) and Illumina BovineSNP50 (54,609) by imputation were used. After quality control and imputation, 290,620 SNPs remained in the association analysis, using R package Genome-wide Rapid Association using Mixed Model and Regression method GRAMMAR-Gamma. A genomic region with six significant SNPs, at Bonferroni-corrected significance, was found on chromosome 3. The most significant SNP (rs42518459, BTA3: 85849977, p = 9.49 × 10(-8)) explained 5.62% of the phenotypic variance and had the allele substitution effect of -0.269 kg/day. Important genes such as PDE4B, LEPR, CYP2J2 and FGGY are located near this region, which is overlapped by 12 quantitative trait locus (QTLs) described for several production traits. Other regions with markers with suggestive effects were identified in BTA6 and BTA10. This study showed regions with major effects on ADG in Bos indicus in feedlots. This information may be useful to increase the efficiency of selecting this trait and to understand the physiological processes involved in its regulation.

  4. Relationships of milk yield and quality of six breed groups of beef cows to preweaning average daily gain of their calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk yield and quality influence calf preweaning growth and ultimately the sale value of the calf at weaning. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships of milk production and quality to calf preweaning average daily gain (ADG) of beef cows sired by Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvie...

  5. The effect of New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome (NNPDS) on average daily gain and mortality in 4 Danish pig herds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The study evaluated the effect of New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome (NNPDS) on average daily gain (ADG) and mortality and described the clinical manifestations in four herds suffering from the syndrome. NNPDS is a diarrhoeic syndrome affecting piglets within the first week of life, which is not caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) type A/C, Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), rotavirus A, coronavirus, Cystoisospora suis, Strongyloides ransomi, Giardia spp or Cryptosporidium spp. Results Piglets were estimated to have a negative ADG of 9 and 14 g when diarrhoeic for 1 day and >1 day respectively. However, if only diarrhoeic on the day of birth, no negative effect on ADG was seen. Piglets originating from severely affected litters were estimated to have a reduced ADG of 38 g. The study did not show an overall effect of diarrhoea on mortality, but herd of origin, sow parity, birth weight, and gender were significantly associated with mortality. In one of the herds, approximately 25% of the diarrhoeic piglets vs. 6% of the non-diarrhoeic piglets died, and 74% of necropsied piglets were diagnosed with enteritis. These findings indicate that the high mortality seen in this herd was due to diarrhoea. Conclusions NNPDS negatively affected ADG in piglets, and even piglets that were diarrhoeic for one day only experienced a reduction in ADG. However, the study showed that diarrhoea restricted to the day of birth did not affect ADG and suggested this phenomenon to be unrelated to the syndrome. Since the diarrhoeal status of the litter had important effects on ADG, future research on NNPDS probably ought to focus on piglets from severely affected litters. The study showed important dissimilarities in the course of diarrhoea between the herds, and one herd was considerably more affected than the others. Within this herd, NNPDS seemed to be associated with a higher mortality, whereas in general the

  6. Application of random regression model to estimate genetic parameters for average daily gains in Lori-Bakhtiari sheep breed of Iran.

    PubMed

    Farhangfar, H; Naeemipour, H; Zinvand, B

    2007-07-15

    A random regression model was applied to estimate (co) variances, heritabilities and additive genetic correlations among average daily gains. The data was a total of 10876 records belonging to 1828 lambs (progenies of 123 sires and 743 dams) born between 1995 and 2001 in a single large size flock of Lori-Bakhtiari sheep breed in Iran. In the model, fixed environmental effects of year-season of birth, sex, birth type, age of dam and random effects of direct and maternal additive genetic and permanent environment were included. Orthogonal polynomial regression (on the Legendre scale) of third order (cubic) was utilized to model the genetic and permanent environmental (co) variance structure throughout the growth trajectory. Direct and maternal heritability estimates of average daily gains ranged from 0.011 to 0.131 and 0.008 to 0.181, respectively in which pre-weaning average daily gain (0-3 in months) had the lowest direct and highest maternal heritability estimates among the other age groups. The highest and lowest positive direct additive genetic correlations were found to be 0.993 and 0.118 between ADG (0-9) and ADG (0-12) and between ADG (0-3) and ADG (0-12), respectively. The direct additive genetic correlations between adjacent age groups were more closely than between remote age groups.

  7. Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

    2013-06-17

    Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

  8. Relationships between inflammation- and immunity-related transcript abundance in the rumen and jejunum of beef steers with divergent average daily gain.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, J G; Foote, A P; Freetly, H C; Oliver, W T; Lindholm-Perry, A K

    2017-02-21

    The bovine rumen papillae are in contact with a wide array of microorganisms and the metabolites they produce, which may activate an inflammatory and/or immune response. Cytokines, chemokines and their receptor genes were tested for differential expression in the rumen and jejunum of beef steers with greater and lesser average daily body weight gain (ADG) near the average daily dry matter intake (DMI) for the population. Angus-sired steers (n = 16) were used to represent the greater (ADG = 2.2 ± 0.07 kg/day; DMI = 10.1 ± 0.05 kg/day) and lesser (ADG = 1.7 ± 0.05 kg/day; DMI = 10.1 ± 0.05 kg/day) ADG groups with eight steers each. Rumen epithelium and jejunum mucosal samples were collected at slaughter, and gene expression was evaluated using a commercially available qRT-PCR array containing 84 genes representing chemokines, cytokines and their receptors. None of the genes on the array were differentially expressed in the jejunum of the steers with greater vs. lesser ADG. However, in the rumen, two chemokine genes (CCL11, CXCL5) and one receptor gene (IL10RA) were detected as differentially expressed (P < 0.05). The genes IL1A, BMP2, CXCL12 and TNFSF13 also displayed trends for differential expression (P < 0.10). All of the genes identified were lower in transcript abundance in the greater ADG animals. Thus, greater ADG steers have a lesser inflammatory response in the rumen papillae, which may lead to a more efficient use of nutrients.

  9. Estimation of genetic parameters for average daily gain using models with competition effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Components of variance for ADG with models including competition effects were estimated from data provided by Pig Improvement Company on 11,235 pigs from 4 selected lines of swine. Fifteen pigs with average age of 71 d were randomly assigned to a pen by line and sex and taken off test after approxi...

  10. Multi-strategy genome-wide association studies identify the DCAF16-NCAPG region as a susceptibility locus for average daily gain in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wengang; Li, Junya; Guo, Yong; Zhang, Lupei; Xu, Lingyang; Gao, Xue; Zhu, Bo; Gao, Huijiang; Ni, Hemin; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Average daily gain (ADG) is the most economically important trait in beef cattle industry. Using genome-wide association study (GWAS) approaches, previous studies have identified several causal variants within the PLAG1, NCAPG and LCORL genes for ADG in cattle. Multi-strategy GWASs were implemented in this study to improve detection and to explore the causal genes and regions. In this study, we conducted GWASs based on the genotypes of 1,173 Simmental cattle. In the SNP-based GWAS, the most significant SNPs (rs109303784 and rs110058857, P = 1.78 × 10−7) were identified in the NCAPG intron on BTA6 and explained 4.01% of the phenotypic variance, and the independent and significant SNP (rs110406669, P = 5.18 × 10−6) explained 3.32% of the phenotypic variance. Similarly, in the haplotype-based GWAS, the most significant haplotype block, Hap-6-N1416 (P = 2.56 × 10−8), spanned 12.7 kb on BTA6 and explained 4.85% of the phenotypic variance. Also, in the gene-based GWAS, seven significant genes were obtained which included DCAF16 and NCAPG. Moreover, analysis of the transcript levels confirmed that transcripts abundance of NCAPG (P = 0.046) and DCAF16 (P = 0.046) were significantly correlated with the ADG trait. Overall, our results from the multi-strategy GWASs revealed the DCAF16-NCAPG region to be a susceptibility locus for ADG in cattle. PMID:27892541

  11. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    PubMed

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  12. Effects of Social Interactions on Empirical Responses to Selection for Average Daily Gain of Boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of competition on responses to selection for ADG were examined with records of 9,720 boars from dam lines (1 and 2) and sire lines (3 and 4) provided by Pig Improvement Company. Each line was analyzed separately. Pens contained 15 boars. Gains (ADG) were measured from about 71 to 161 d of...

  13. Alteration in gene expression in the jejunum mucosa of Angus steers with divergent ADG

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of differentially expressed genes in the jejunum of steers with average DMI and high or low ADG. Feed intake and growth were measured in a cohort of 144 commercial Angus steers consuming a finishing ration containing (on a DM basis) 67.8% ...

  14. Integration of amplified differential gene expression (ADGE) and DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijian J; Gaté, Laurent; Davis, Warren; Ile, Kristina E; Tew, Kenneth D

    2002-12-01

    Amplified Differential Gene Expression (ADGE) provides a new concept that the ratios of differentially expressed genes are magnified before detection in order to improve both sensitivity and accuracy. This technology is now implemented with integration of DNA reassociation and PCR. The ADGE technique can be used either as a stand-alone method or in series with DNA microarray. ADGE is used in sample preprocessing and DNA microarray is used as a displaying system in the series combination. These two techniques are mutually synergistic: the quadratic magnification of ratios of differential gene expression achieved by ADGE improves the detection sensitivity and accuracy; the PCR amplification of templates enhances the signal intensity and reduces the requirement for large amounts of starting material; the high throughput for DNA microarray is maintained.

  15. Assessment of estimated daily intakes of benzoates for average and high consumers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hae Jung; Cho, Yang Hee; Park, Juyeon; Lee, Chang Hee; Park, Sung Kwan; Cho, Young Ju; Han, Ki Won; Lee, Jong Ok; Lee, Chul Won

    2003-02-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the estimated daily intakes (EDI) of benzoates for the average and high (90th percentile) consumers by age and sex categories in Korea. The estimation of daily intakes of benzoates was based on individual dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 1998 and on the determination of benzoates in eight food categories. The EDI of benzoates for average consumers of different age groups ranged from 0.009 to 0.025 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). For high consumers, the range of EDI of benzoates was 0.195-1.878 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). The intakes represented 0.18-0.50% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of benzoates for average consumers and 3.9-37.6% of the ADI for high consumers. Foods that contributed most to the daily intakes of benzoates were mixed beverages and soy sauce in Korea.

  16. A randomised clinical trial on the efficacy of oxytetracycline dose through water medication of nursery pigs on diarrhoea, faecal shedding of Lawsonia intracellularis and average daily weight gain.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Inge; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Holm, Anders; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    Oral treatment with antimicrobials is widely used in pig production for the control of gastrointestinal infections. Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) causes enteritis in pigs older than six weeks of age and is commonly treated with antimicrobials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three oral dosage regimens (5, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight) of oxytetracycline (OTC) in drinking water over a five-day period on diarrhoea, faecal shedding of LI and average daily weight gain (ADG). A randomised clinical trial was carried out in four Danish pig herds. In total, 539 animals from 37 batches of nursery pigs were included in the study. The dosage regimens were randomly allocated to each batch and initiated at presence of assumed LI-related diarrhoea. In general, all OTC doses used for the treatment of LI infection resulted in reduced diarrhoea and LI shedding after treatment. Treatment with a low dose of 5mg/kg OTC per kg body weight, however, tended to cause more watery faeces and resulted in higher odds of pigs shedding LI above detection level when compared to medium and high doses (with odds ratios of 5.5 and 8.4, respectively). No association was found between the dose of OTC and the ADG. In conclusion, a dose of 5mg OTC per kg body weight was adequate for reducing the high-level LI shedding associated with enteropathy, but a dose of 10mg OTC per kg body weight was necessary to obtain a maximum reduction in LI shedding.

  17. Exponential approximation for daily average solar heating or photolysis. [of stratospheric ozone layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogley, A. C.; Borucki, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    When incorporating formulations of instantaneous solar heating or photolytic rates as functions of altitude and sun angle into long range forecasting models, it may be desirable to replace the time integrals by daily average rates that are simple functions of latitude and season. This replacement is accomplished by approximating the integral over the solar day by a pure exponential. This gives a daily average rate as a multiplication factor times the instantaneous rate evaluated at an appropriate sun angle. The accuracy of the exponential approximation is investigated by a sample calculation using an instantaneous ozone heating formulation available in the literature.

  18. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of heterogeneous variances in average daily weight gain of commercial feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Cernicchiaro, N; Renter, D G; Xiang, S; White, B J; Bello, N M

    2013-06-01

    Variability in ADG of feedlot cattle can affect profits, thus making overall returns more unstable. Hence, knowledge of the factors that contribute to heterogeneity of variances in animal performance can help feedlot managers evaluate risks and minimize profit volatility when making managerial and economic decisions in commercial feedlots. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate heteroskedasticity, defined as heterogeneity of variances, in ADG of cohorts of commercial feedlot cattle, and to identify cattle demographic factors at feedlot arrival as potential sources of variance heterogeneity, accounting for cohort- and feedlot-level information in the data structure. An operational dataset compiled from 24,050 cohorts from 25 U. S. commercial feedlots in 2005 and 2006 was used for this study. Inference was based on a hierarchical Bayesian model implemented with Markov chain Monte Carlo, whereby cohorts were modeled at the residual level and feedlot-year clusters were modeled as random effects. Forward model selection based on deviance information criteria was used to screen potentially important explanatory variables for heteroskedasticity at cohort- and feedlot-year levels. The Bayesian modeling framework was preferred as it naturally accommodates the inherently hierarchical structure of feedlot data whereby cohorts are nested within feedlot-year clusters. Evidence for heterogeneity of variance components of ADG was substantial and primarily concentrated at the cohort level. Feedlot-year specific effects were, by far, the greatest contributors to ADG heteroskedasticity among cohorts, with an estimated ∼12-fold change in dispersion between most and least extreme feedlot-year clusters. In addition, identifiable demographic factors associated with greater heterogeneity of cohort-level variance included smaller cohort sizes, fewer days on feed, and greater arrival BW, as well as feedlot arrival during summer months. These results support that

  19. Supplementation of cattle fed tropical grasses with microalgae increases microbial protein production and average daily gain.

    PubMed

    Costa, D F A; Quigley, S P; Isherwood, P; McLennan, S R; Poppi, D P

    2016-05-01

    A series of 3 experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of microalgae as supplements for ruminants consuming low-CP tropical grasses. In Exp. 1, the chemical composition and in vitro protein degradability of 9 algae species and 4 protein supplements were determined. In Exp. 2, rumen function and microbial protein (MCP) production were determined in steers fed speargrass hay alone or supplemented with , , , or cottonseed meal (CSM). In Exp. 3, DMI and ADG were determined in steers fed speargrass hay alone or supplemented with increasing amounts of NPN (urea combined with ammonia sulfate), CSM, or . In Exp. 1, the CP content of and (675 and 580 g/kg DM) was highest among the algae species and higher than the other protein supplements evaluated, and sp. had the highest crude lipid (CL) content (198 g/kg DM). In Exp. 2, supplementation increased speargrass hay intake, the efficiency of MCP production, the fractional outflow rate of digesta from the rumen, the concentration of NHN, and the molar proportion of branched-chain fatty acids in the rumen fluid of steers above all other treatments. acceptance by steers was low and this resulted in no significant difference to unsupplemented steers for all parameters measured for this algae supplement. In Exp. 3, ADG linearly increased with increasing supplementary N intake from both and NPN, with no difference between the 2 supplements. In contrast, ADG quadratically increased with increasing supplementary N intake from CSM. It was concluded that and may potentially be used as protein sources for cattle grazing low-CP pastures.

  20. Modeling daily average stream temperature from air temperature and watershed area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat restoration efforts within watersheds require spatial and temporal estimates of water temperature for aquatic species especially species that migrate within watersheds at different life stages. Monitoring programs are not able to fully sample all aquatic environments within watersheds under the extreme conditions that determine long-term habitat viability. Under these circumstances a combination of selective monitoring and modeling are required for predicting future geospatial and temporal conditions. This study describes a model that is broadly applicable to different watersheds while using readily available regional air temperature data. Daily water temperature data from thirty-eight gauges with drainage areas from 2 km2 to 2000 km2 in the Sonoma Valley, Napa Valley, and Russian River Valley in California were used to develop, calibrate, and test a stream temperature model. Air temperature data from seven NOAA gauges provided the daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. The model was developed and calibrated using five years of data from the Sonoma Valley at ten water temperature gauges and a NOAA air temperature gauge. The daily average stream temperatures within this watershed were bounded by the preceding maximum and minimum air temperatures with smaller upstream watersheds being more dependent on the minimum air temperature than maximum air temperature. The model assumed a linear dependence on maximum and minimum air temperature with a weighting factor dependent on upstream area determined by error minimization using observed data. Fitted minimum air temperature weighting factors were consistent over all five years of data for each gauge, and they ranged from 0.75 for upstream drainage areas less than 2 km2 to 0.45 for upstream drainage areas greater than 100 km2. For the calibration data sets within the Sonoma Valley, the average error between the model estimated daily water temperature and the observed water temperature data ranged from 0.7

  1. Understanding the gap between cognitive abilities and daily living skills in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders with average intelligence.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Amie W; Bishop, Somer L

    2015-01-01

    Daily living skills standard scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2nd edition were examined in 417 adolescents from the Simons Simplex Collection. All participants had at least average intelligence and a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regressions were used to examine the prevalence and predictors of a "daily living skills deficit," defined as below average daily living skills in the context of average intelligence quotient. Approximately half of the adolescents were identified as having a daily living skills deficit. Autism symptomatology, intelligence quotient, maternal education, age, and sex accounted for only 10% of the variance in predicting a daily living skills deficit. Identifying factors associated with better or worse daily living skills may help shed light on the variability in adult outcome in individuals with autism spectrum disorder with average intelligence.

  2. Relationships of feeding behaviors with average daily gain, dry matter intake, and residual feed intake in Red Angus-sired cattle.

    PubMed

    McGee, M; Welch, C M; Ramirez, J A; Carstens, G E; Price, W J; Hall, J B; Hill, R A

    2014-11-01

    Feeding behavior has the potential to enhance prediction of feed intake and to improve understanding of the relationships between behavior, DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle. Two cohorts, born in 2009 and 2010, the progeny of Red Angus bulls (n = 58 heifers and n = 53 steers), were evaluated during the growing phase, and the latter group of steers was also evaluated during the finishing phase. All behavior analyses were based on 7 feeding behavior traits (bunk visit frequency, bunk visit duration [BVDUR], feed bout frequency, feed bout duration, meal frequency, meal duration, and average meal intake) and their relationships with ADG, DMI, and RFI. During the growing phase, feeding duration traits were most indicative of DMI with positive correlations between BVDUR and DMI for cohort 1 steers, growing phase (n = 28, r = 0.52, P = 0.00); cohort 2 steers, growing phase (n = 25, r = 0.44, P = 0.01); and cohort 2 heifers, growing phase (n = 29, r = 0.28 P = 0.05). There were similar trends toward correlation of BVDUR and RFI for both steer groups and cohort 1 heifers, growing phase (C1HG; n = 29; r = 0.27, P = 0.06; r = 0.30, P = 0.07; and r = 0.26, P = 0.08, respectively). Feed bout frequency was correlated with ADG in C1HG and in cohort 2 steers, finishing phase (r = -0.31, P = 0.04, and r = 0.43, P = 0.01, respectively). Feed bout duration was correlated with ADG in heifer groups (r = 0.29 and r = 0.28, P = 0.05 for both groups) and DMI for all growing phase animals (r = 0.29 to 0.55, P ≤ 0.05 for all groups). Evaluation of growing vs. finishing phase steer groups suggests that all behaviors, RFI, and DMI, but not ADG, are correlated through the growing and finishing phases (P ≤ 0.01 for all variables excluding ADG), implying that feeding behaviors determined during the growing phase are strong predictors of DMI in either life stage. Sire maintenance energy EPD effects (measured as high or low groups) on progeny feeding behaviors revealed a

  3. A Temperature-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China. PMID:24605046

  4. A temperature-based model for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China.

  5. Instantaneous-to-daily GPP upscaling schemes based on a coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model: correcting the overestimation of GPP by directly using daily average meteorological inputs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fumin; Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M; Black, T Andrew; Zhou, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Daily canopy photosynthesis is usually temporally upscaled from instantaneous (i.e., seconds) photosynthesis rate. The nonlinear response of photosynthesis to meteorological variables makes the temporal scaling a significant challenge. In this study, two temporal upscaling schemes of daily photosynthesis, the integrated daily model (IDM) and the segmented daily model (SDM), are presented by considering the diurnal variations of meteorological variables based on a coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model. The two models, as well as a simple average daily model (SADM) with daily average meteorological inputs, were validated using the tower-derived gross primary production (GPP) to assess their abilities in simulating daily photosynthesis. The results showed IDM closely followed the seasonal trend of the tower-derived GPP with an average RMSE of 1.63 g C m(-2) day(-1), and an average Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E) of 0.87. SDM performed similarly to IDM in GPP simulation but decreased the computation time by >66%. SADM overestimated daily GPP by about 15% during the growing season compared to IDM. Both IDM and SDM greatly decreased the overestimation by SADM, and improved the simulation of daily GPP by reducing the RMSE by 34 and 30%, respectively. The results indicated that IDM and SDM are useful temporal upscaling approaches, and both are superior to SADM in daily GPP simulation because they take into account the diurnally varying responses of photosynthesis to meteorological variables. SDM is computationally more efficient, and therefore more suitable for long-term and large-scale GPP simulations.

  6. ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance System Window Manager Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Mike W.; Innis, John D.; Miller, Steven P.; Wagner, Lucas G.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in modeling languages have made it feasible to formally specify and analyze the behavior of large system components. Synchronous data flow languages, such as Lustre, SCR, and RSML-e are particularly well suited to this task, and commercial versions of these tools such as SCADE and Simulink are growing in popularity among designers of safety critical systems, largely due to their ability to automatically generate code from the models. At the same time, advances in formal analysis tools have made it practical to formally verify important properties of these models to ensure that design defects are identified and corrected early in the lifecycle. This report describes how these tools have been applied to the ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance Window Manager being developed by Rockwell Collins Inc. This work demonstrates how formal methods can be easily and cost-efficiently used to remove defects early in the design cycle.

  7. Estimation of annual average daily traffic for off-system roads in Florida. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, L.D.; Zhao, F.; Ospina, D.I.

    1999-07-28

    Estimation of Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) is extremely important in traffic planning and operations for the state departments of transportation (DOTs), because AADT provides information for the planning of new road construction, determination of roadway geometry, congestion management, pavement design, safety considerations, etc. AADT is also used to estimate state wide vehicle miles traveled on all the roads and is used by local governments and the environmental protection agencies to determine compliance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment. Additionally, AADT is reported annually by the Florida Department of transportation (FDOT) to the Federal Highway Administration. In the past, considerable efforts have been made in obtaining traffic counts to estimate AADT on state roads. However, traffic counts are often not available on off-system roads, and less attention has been paid to the estimation of AADT in the absence of counts. Current estimates rely on comparisons with roads that are subjectively considered to be similar. Such comparisons are inherently subject to large errors, and also may not be repeated often enough to remain current. Therefore, a better method is needed for estimating AADT for off-system roads in Florida. This study investigates the possibility of establishing one or more models for estimating AADT for off-system roads in Florida.

  8. [The influence of the trematode invasion on the average daily rations and electoral nourishment of Planorbarius corneus (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Bulinidae)].

    PubMed

    Stadnichenko, A P; Girin, V K

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the Trematode invasion on the average daily rations and electoral nourishment of the two size groups in the great ramshorn snail Planorbarius corneus, "young" (12-24 mm in diameter) and "old" (24-36.5 mm in diameter), have been investigated.

  9. Understanding the Gap between Cognitive Abilities and Daily Living Skills in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Average Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Amie W.; Bishop, Somer L.

    2015-01-01

    Daily living skills standard scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2nd edition were examined in 417 adolescents from the Simons Simplex Collection. All participants had at least average intelligence and a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regressions were used to examine the prevalence and…

  10. 34 CFR 222.37 - How does the Secretary calculate the average daily attendance of federally connected children?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does the Secretary calculate the average daily attendance of federally connected children? 222.37 Section 222.37 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... PROGRAMS Payments for Federally Connected Children Under Section 8003(b) and (e) of the Act § 222.37...

  11. Average daily variations in the magnetic field as observed by ATS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skillman, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    Hourly averages of the magnetic field components are determined and analyzed using the measurements of the magnetic field monitor aboard the ATS-5. The data covering the time period of September 1969 through September 1971 are sorted and analyzed for various Kp values, geomagnetic latitude of the subsolar point, and local time. Local time variations are harmonically analyzed, and amplitudes and phases are given up to the fourth harmonic.

  12. Average daily variations in the magnetic field as observed by ATS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skillman, T. L.

    1972-01-01

    Hourly averages of the magnetic field components are determined and analyzed using the measurements, by the magnetic field monitor (MFM) aboard the ATS-5 satellite. The data covering the time period of September 1969 through September 1971 are sorted and analyzed for various Kp values, geomagnetic latitude of the subsolar point, and local time. Local time variations are harmonically analyzed, and amplitudes and phases are given up to the fourth harmonic.

  13. Magnetic field measurements at Jupiter by Voyagers 1 and 2: Daily plots of 48 second averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Silverstein, M. J.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    A series of 24 hour summary plots of the magnetic field, in 48-s average form, measured in the vicinity of Jupiter by the magnetometers onboard Voyagers 1 and 2 are presented. The Voyager 1 data cover the period from 27 February 1979 (day = 58) to 23 March (day = 82) inclusive, and the Voyager 2 data cover the period from 2 July 1979 (day = 183) to 14 August (day = 226) inclusive. Closest approach to the planet occurred on days 64 (AT 1205 UT) and 190 (AT 2230 UT) for Voyagers 1 and 2, respectively. Also included are: a description of the characteristics of the magnetometers, a brief description of the near-planet trajectories of the two spacecraft, a listing of the bow shock and magnetopause crossing times, and a bibliography containing Voyager-Jupiter related papers and reports.

  14. Fabrication of refractive microlens array by etching ammonium dichromate gelatin (ADG) with enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jun; Gao, Fuhua; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Yixiao; Su, Jingqin; Guo, Yongkang; Cui, Zheng

    2000-08-01

    A new method has been developed to fabricate refractive microlens by etching ammonium dichromate gelatin (ADG) with enzyme solution. Unlike previous methods which are used to fabricate refractive microlens with photoresist, the process of fabricating microlens by etching ADG with enzyme solution doesn't require the use of expensive equipment, and it isn't sophisticated and time consuming. The light exposes ADG through a high contrast binary mask, then the exposed parts of ADS generate cross- linking reaction. Usually, the relief achieved by water developing is very shallow (<1um) when nonpre-harden gelatin is used, so we compound a certain concentration enzyme solution, and because of surface tension, ADG turns to spherical structure after developing. The optimum technique parameters of this process are presented. Results are presented for experiments and evaluated by profile meter and interference microscope.

  15. An environmental, economic, and social assessment of improving cattle finishing weight or average daily gain within U.S. beef production.

    PubMed

    White, R R; Capper, J L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental impact, economic viability, and social acceptability of 3 beef production systems with differing levels of efficiency. A deterministic model of U.S. beef production was used to predict the number of animals required to produce 1 × 10(9) kg HCW beef. Three production treatments were compared, 1 representing average U.S. production (control), 1 with a 15% increase in ADG, and 1 with a 15% increase in finishing weight (FW). For each treatment, various socioeconomic scenarios were compared to account for uncertainty in producer and consumer behavior. Environmental impact metrics included feed consumption, land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), and N and P excretion. Feed cost, animal purchase cost, animal sales revenue, and income over costs (IOVC) were used as metrics of economic viability. Willingness to pay (WTP) was used to identify improvements or reductions in social acceptability. When ADG improved, feedstuff consumption, land use, and water use decreased by 6.4%, 3.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the control. Carbon footprint decreased 11.7% and N and P excretion were reduced by 4% and 13.8%, respectively. When FW improved, decreases were seen in feedstuff consumption (12.1%), water use (9.2%). and land use (15.5%); total GHGe decreased 14.7%; and N and P excretion decreased by 10.1% and 17.2%, compared with the control. Changes in IOVC were dependent on socioeconomic scenario. When the ADG scenario was compared with the control, changes in sector profitability ranged from 51 to 117% (cow-calf), -38 to 157% (stocker), and 37 to 134% (feedlot). When improved FW was compared, changes in cow-calf profit ranged from 67% to 143%, stocker profit ranged from -41% to 155% and feedlot profit ranged from 37% to 136%. When WTP was based on marketing beef being more efficiently produced, WTP improved by 10%; thus, social acceptability increased. When marketing was based on production

  16. Estimation of daily average downward shortwave radiation from MODIS data using principal components regression method: Fars province case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzin, Razieh; Shirvani, Amin; Lotfi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Downward shortwave radiation is a key quantity in the land-atmosphere interaction. Since the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data has a coarse temporal resolution, which is not suitable for estimating daily average radiation, many efforts have been undertaken to estimate instantaneous solar radiation using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data. In this study, the principal components analysis technique was applied to capture the information of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer bands, extraterrestrial radiation, aerosol optical depth, and atmospheric water vapour. A regression model based on the principal components was used to estimate daily average shortwave radiation for ten synoptic stations in the Fars province, Iran, for the period 2009-2012. The Durbin-Watson statistic and autocorrelation function of the residuals of the fitted principal components regression model indicated that the residuals were serially independent. The results indicated that the fitted principal components regression models accounted for about 86-96% of total variance of the observed shortwave radiation values and the root mean square error was about 0.9-2.04 MJ m-2 d-1. Also, the results indicated that the model accuracy decreased as the aerosol optical depth increased and extraterrestrial radiation was the most important predictor variable among all.

  17. Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Daily Minimum Temperature, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average daily minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  18. Novel polymorphisms of the IGF1R gene and their association with average daily gain in Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    El-Magd, M A; Abbas, H E; El-kattawy, A M; Mokhbatly, A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to detect insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) polymorphisms, their allele, and genotype frequencies and to determine associations between these polymorphisms and growth traits in Egyptian water buffalo. Three loci of the IGF1R coding region were amplified by RT-PCR and, subsequently, subjected to sequence analysis, followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism to identify different allelic patterns. A total of 11 novel polymorphisms were detected; 6 SNPs among Egyptian water buffaloes and 5 polymorphisms compared with Indian buffalo (Y12700). Three of those polymorphisms; GAG Indel polymorphism, C261G, and G263C SNPs, were nonsynonymous mutations. The GAG Indel polymorphism led to deletion of E (glutamic) amino acid (aa) in the IGF1R of Egyptian water buffaloes compared with Indian buffalo. However, C261G SNP, which replaced A (alanine) by G (glycine) aa, and G263C SNP, which changed A (alanine) to P (proline) aa, were detected among Egyptian water buffaloes. Three different single-strand conformation polymorphism patterns were observed in exon 21: CC/CC, GG/GG, and CG/GC with frequencies of 0.291, 0.253, and 0.556, respectively. The heterozygous animals (CG/GC) had a higher ADG than homozygous animals (CC/CC and GG/GG) from birth to 6 mo of age. We conclude that the heterozygous haplotype, C261G/G263C, in exon 21 of the IGF1R gene is associated with the ADG during the early stages of life (from birth to 6 mo of age) and could be used as a genetic marker for selection of growth traits in Egyptian buffalo.

  19. Estimation of the monthly average daily solar radiation using geographic information system and advanced case-based reasoning.

    PubMed

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-05-07

    The photovoltaic (PV) system is considered an unlimited source of clean energy, whose amount of electricity generation changes according to the monthly average daily solar radiation (MADSR). It is revealed that the MADSR distribution in South Korea has very diverse patterns due to the country's climatic and geographical characteristics. This study aimed to develop a MADSR estimation model for the location without the measured MADSR data, using an advanced case based reasoning (CBR) model, which is a hybrid methodology combining CBR with artificial neural network, multiregression analysis, and genetic algorithm. The average prediction accuracy of the advanced CBR model was very high at 95.69%, and the standard deviation of the prediction accuracy was 3.67%, showing a significant improvement in prediction accuracy and consistency. A case study was conducted to verify the proposed model. The proposed model could be useful for owner or construction manager in charge of determining whether or not to introduce the PV system and where to install it. Also, it would benefit contractors in a competitive bidding process to accurately estimate the electricity generation of the PV system in advance and to conduct an economic and environmental feasibility study from the life cycle perspective.

  20. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in human milk samples in Vojvodina, Serbia: Estimation of average daily intake by babies.

    PubMed

    Radonić, Jelena R; Kocić Tanackov, Sunčica D; Mihajlović, Ivana J; Grujić, Zorica S; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana B; Škrinjar, Marija M; Turk Sekulić, Maja M

    2017-01-02

    The objectives of the study were to determine the aflatoxin M1 content in human milk samples in Vojvodina, Serbia, and to assess the risk of infants' exposure to aflatoxins food contamination. The growth of Aspergillus flavus and production of aflatoxin B1 in corn samples resulted in higher concentrations of AFM1 in milk and dairy products in 2013, indicating higher concentrations of AFM1 in human milk samples in 2013 and 2014 in Serbia. A total number of 60 samples of human milk (colostrum and breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery) were analyzed for the presence of AFM1 using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. The estimated daily intake of AFM1 through breastfeeding was calculated for the colostrum samples using an average intake of 60 mL/kg body weight (b.w.)/day on the third day of lactation. All breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery and 36.4% of colostrum samples were contaminated with AFM1. The greatest percentage of contaminated colostrum (85%) and all samples of breast milk collected 4-8 months after delivery had AFM1 concentration above maximum allowable concentration according to the Regulation on health safety of dietetic products. The mean daily intake of AFM1 in colostrum was 2.65 ng/kg bw/day. Results of our study indicate the high risk of infants' exposure, who are at the early stage of development and vulnerable to toxic contaminants.

  1. Prediction of preweaning ADG in beef calves from milk fatty acid methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown milk yield (MWT) has an important influence on calf preweaning ADG (PRWADG), but MWT accounts for only a moderate amount of variation in PRWADG. The objective of this study was to determine if milk fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), alone and in combination with MWT, could improve a...

  2. Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume 2: Average hourly and total daily insolation data for 235 localities. Alaska - Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Average hourly and daily total insolation estimates for 235 United States locations are presented. Values are presented for a selected number of array tilt angles on a monthly basis. All units are in kilowatt hours per square meter.

  3. Effect of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) load in serum on average daily weight gain during the postweaning period.

    PubMed

    López-Soria, S; Sibila, M; Nofrarías, M; Calsamiglia, M; Manzanilla, E G; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Mínguez, A; Serrano, J M; Marín, O; Joisel, F; Charreyre, C; Segalés, J

    2014-12-05

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous virus that mainly affects nursery and fattening pigs causing systemic disease (PCV2-SD) or subclinical infection. A characteristic sign in both presentations is reduction of average daily weight gain (ADWG). The present study aimed to assess the relationship between PCV2 load in serum and ADWG from 3 (weaning) to 21 weeks of age (slaughter) (ADWG 3-21). Thus, three different boar lines were used to inseminate sows from two PCV2-SD affected farms. One or two pigs per sow were selected (60, 61 and 51 piglets from Pietrain, Pietrain×Large White and Duroc×Large White boar lines, respectively). Pigs were bled at 3, 9, 15 and 21 weeks of age and weighted at 3 and 21 weeks. Area under the curve of the viral load at all sampling times (AUCqPCR 3-21) was calculated for each animal according to standard and real time quantitative PCR results; this variable was categorized as "negative or low" (<10(4.3) PCV2 genome copies/ml of serum), "medium" (≥10(4.3) to ≤10(5.3)) and "high" (>10(5.3)). Data regarding sex, PCV2 antibody titre at weaning and sow parity was also collected. A generalized linear model was performed, obtaining that paternal genetic line and AUCqPCR 3-21 were related to ADWG 3-21. ADWG 3-21 (mean±typical error) for "negative or low", "medium" and "high" AUCqPCR 3-21 was 672±9, 650±12 and 603±16 g/day, respectively, showing significant differences among them. This study describes different ADWG performances in 3 pig populations that suffered from different degrees of PCV2 viraemia.

  4. Spatialization of instantaneous and daily average net radiation and soil heat flux in the territory of Itaparica, Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Helio L.; Silva, Bernardo B.; Teixeira, Antônio H. C.; Accioly, Luciano J. O.

    2012-09-01

    This work has as aim to quantify the energy changes between atmosphere and surface by modeling both net radiation and soil heat flux related to land use and cover. The methodology took into account modeling and mapping of physical and biophysical parameters using MODIS images and SEBAL algorithm in an area of native vegetation and irrigated crops. The results showed that there are variations in the values of the estimated parameters for different land cover types and mainly in caatinga cover. The dense caatinga presents mean values of soil heat flux (Go) of 124.9 Wm-2 while sparse caatinga with incidence of erosion, present average value of 132.6 Wm-2. For irrigated plots cultivated with banana, coconut, and papaya the mean Go values were 103.8, 98.6, 113.9 Wm-2, respectively. With regard to the instantaneous net radiation (Rn), dense caatinga presented mean value of 626.1 Wm-2, while sparse caatinga a mean value of 575.2 Wm-2. Irrigated areas cultivated with banana, coconut, and papaya presented Rn of 658.1, 647.4 and 617.9 W m-2 respectively. Applying daily mean net radiation (RnDAve) it was found that dense caatinga had a mean value of 417.1 W m-2, while sparse caatinga had a mean value of 379.9 W m-2. For the irrigated crops of banana, coconut and papaya the RnDAve values were 430.9, 431.3 and 411.6 W m-2, respectively. Sinusoidal model can be applied to determine the maximum and RnDAve considering the diverse classes of LULC; however, there is a need to compare the results with field data for validation of this model.

  5. Changes in acyl and total ghrelin concentrations and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of finishing beef steers and heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in the gut that is implicated in signaling appetite and regulating DMI. The objective of this experiment was to determine the change in acyl ghrelin, total ghrelin, and the ghrelin ratio (acyl ghrelin/total ghrelin) over an 84-d DMI and ADG measurement period a...

  6. Case study: average daily gain and blood fatty acid composition of cattle grazing the non-bloating legumes birdsfoot trefoil and cicer milkvetch in the mountain west

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birdsfoot trefoil (BFT) is a forage legume that is productive and persistent under irrigation in the northern Mountain West U.S.A. The type and concentration of condensed tannins in BFT are beneficial for livestock production. We hypothesized that cattle grazing monoculture BFT would have high ADG b...

  7. No overall relationship between average daily weight gain and the serological response to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in eight chronically infected Danish swine herds.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, M; Mousing, J; Thomsen, L K

    2001-04-13

    The association between the average daily weight gain (from approximately 4 to 20 weeks of age) and the serological responses to respiratory infections was examined in a longitudinal study including 825 pigs from eight chronically infected herds. Pigs were bled every 4th week (starting from approximately 4 weeks of age), and sera were analyzed for antibodies to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7 and 12.Mixed analysis of covariance analyzed the relationship between the average daily weight gain and a categorical variable defining seroconversion as none, early or late as compared to the median time (estimated across herds) of seroconversion for the particular pathogen. The variables "gender", "weight at an approximate age of 4 weeks" and "time" (defining the exact length of the follow-up period), were included as explanatory variables, and "litter" and "herd" were included as explanatory random variables. The individual pig was the unit of concern. The variable defining time at seroconversion was not significantly associated with the average daily weight gain, when evaluating models across all eight herds. The apparent lack of effect could be because most pigs included in the study were subclinically infected, or because a temporary negative influence of the infections is hidden due to an increased growth in the period following infection. In conclusion, at least in these eight herds, seroresponses to M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae could not be used to predict the effect of the pathogens on the daily weight gain.

  8. Daily average temperature and mortality among the elderly: a meta-analysis and systematic review of epidemiological evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ye, Xiaofang; Guo, Yuming; Pan, Xiaochuan; Tong, Shilu

    2012-07-01

    The impact of climate change on the health of vulnerable groups such as the elderly has been of increasing concern. However, to date there has been no meta-analysis of current literature relating to the effects of temperature fluctuations upon mortality amongst the elderly. We synthesised risk estimates of the overall impact of daily mean temperature on elderly mortality across different continents. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and PubMed to identify papers published up to December 2010. Selection criteria including suitable temperature indicators, endpoints, study-designs and identification of threshold were used. A two-stage Bayesian hierarchical model was performed to summarise the percent increase in mortality with a 1°C temperature increase (or decrease) with 95% confidence intervals in hot (or cold) days, with lagged effects also measured. Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria and almost 13 million elderly deaths were included in this meta-analysis. In total, there was a 2-5% increase for a 1°C increment during hot temperature intervals, and a 1-2 % increase in all-cause mortality for a 1°C decrease during cold temperature intervals. Lags of up to 9 days in exposure to cold temperature intervals were substantially associated with all-cause mortality, but no substantial lagged effects were observed for hot intervals. Thus, both hot and cold temperatures substantially increased mortality among the elderly, but the magnitude of heat-related effects seemed to be larger than that of cold effects within a global context.

  9. Attributes for NHDPlus catchments (version 1.1) for the conterminous United States: Average Annual Daily Maximum Temperature, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average monthly maximum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the Near-Real-Time High-Resolution Monthly Average Maximum/Minimum Temperature for the Conterminous United States for 2002 raster dataset produced by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio

  10. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Average Annual Daily Minimum Temperature, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average monthly minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the Near-Real-Time High-Resolution Monthly Average Maximum/Minimum Temperature for the Conterminous United States for 2002 raster dataset produced by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio

  11. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Lin, W T; Liao, P C; Su, H J; Chen, H L

    2006-05-01

    An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P<0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory.

  12. The daily computed weighted averaging basic reproduction number R>0,k,ωn for MERS-CoV in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Darae; Lee, Chang Hyeong; Choi, Yongho; Kim, Junseok

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose the daily computed weighted averaging basic reproduction number R0,k,ωn for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in South Korea, May to July 2015. We use an SIR model with piecewise constant parameters β (contact rate) and γ (removed rate). We use the explicit Euler's method for the solution of the SIR model and a nonlinear least-square fitting procedure for finding the best parameters. In R0,k,ωn, the parameters n, k, and w denote days from a reference date, the number of days in averaging, and a weighting factor, respectively. We perform a series of numerical experiments and compare the results with the real-world data. In particular, using the predicted reproduction number based on the previous two consecutive reproduction numbers, we can predict the future behavior of the reproduction number.

  13. Metabolizable energy intake effects on tympanic temperature and ADG of steers finished in southern Chile during summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 red Angus steers (BW = 431.16 ± 10.44) were used to assess the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on ADG and tympanic temperature (TT) during the summer time in southern Chile. Steers were sorted by BW (lighter or heavier) and allocated in 4 pens (6 head/pen) equipped with a C...

  14. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Daily Minimum Temperature, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average daily minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  15. Vaccination of piglets at 1 week of age with an inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine reduces lung lesions and improves average daily gain in body weight.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen; Van Brussel, Leen; Saunders, Gillian; Taylor, Lucas; Zimmermann, Lisa; Heinritzi, Karl; Ritzmann, Mathias; Banholzer, Elisabeth; Eddicks, Matthias

    2012-12-14

    The field efficacy and safety of a single-dose inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine, Suvaxyn MH-One, was evaluated in 4-5-day-old piglets on a commercial farm with a history of Mycoplasma disease in Southern Germany. The piglets were injected intramuscularly with the vaccine or saline (control group) and raised under commercial conditions to slaughter weight. The efficacy of the vaccine was determined by comparing the lung lesions associated with infection by M. hyopneumoniae in control and vaccinated pigs post mortem. In this analysis the vaccinated pigs had the lower mean percentage lung lesion at 5% compared to 9% in controls. Of the vaccinated pigs 52.3% were shown to have low levels of lung lesions between 0% and 5% and no more than 5.4% were shown to have levels above 20%. In contrast, the pigs administered saline showed 36.5% in the lower category (0-5%), while 18.3% showed lesions greater than 20%. There were significant differences in the mean body weight of pigs at the final two weight measurements at approximately 21 weeks and 26 weeks of age, with those receiving Suvaxyn MH-One being on average 5 kg heavier at each time point. There was also a significant increase in average daily gain in the vaccinated animals compared to the control group, particularly in the period from vaccination to the final two body weight measurements on day 138 and 166, from weaning at day 28 to the final two body measurements and from mid-way during finishing at day 84 to the final two body weight measurements. Vaccination had no adverse impact on appetite, although small numbers of vaccinated and control pigs did show mild signs of coughing, sneezing, respiratory distress or depression. There was no adverse impact on rectal temperatures and no signs of injection site reactions during the course of the study. We can conclude that vaccination with Suvaxyn MH-One to pigs at less than 1 week of age is effective in reducing lung lesions resulting from M. hyopneumoniae and

  16. Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Tait, R G; Keisler, D H; Hales, K E; Freetly, H C

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition traits. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) and ADG were determined for 84 d using steers and heifers (n = 127 steers and n = 109 heifers). Blood was collected on day 0, day 42, and day 83 for determination of plasma leptin concentrations. Leptin concentrations were greater in heifers than those in steers on day 0 (P < 0.001 for sex by day interaction), and leptin concentrations increased in both sexes but were not different from each other on day 83. Leptin concentrations at all 3 time points and the mean were shown to be positively associated with DMI (P ≤ 0.006), whereas the mean leptin concentration explaining 8.3% of the variance of DMI. Concentrations of leptin at day 42, day 83, and the mean of all 3 time points were positively associated with ADG (P ≤ 0.011). Mean leptin concentration was negatively associated with gain:feed ratio and positively associated with residual feed intake (RFI), indicating that more efficient cattle had lower leptin concentrations. However, leptin concentrations explained very little of the variation in residual feed intake (≤ 3.2% of the variance). Leptin concentrations were positively associated with body fat measured by ultrasonography at the 12th rib and over the rump (P < 0.001), with the mean leptin concentration explaining 21.9% and 12.7% of the variance in 12th rib and rump fat thickness, respectively. The same trend was observed with carcass composition where leptin concentrations were positively associated with 12th rib fat thickness, USDA-calculated yield grade (YG), and marbling score (P ≤ 0.006) and mean leptin concentration explained 16.8, 18.2, and 4.6% of the variance for 12th

  17. Molecular characterization of the porcine JHDM1A gene associated with average daily gain: evaluation its role in skeletal muscle development and growth.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong-Bo; Fan, Bin; Han, Xue-Lei; Xu, Xue-Wen; Rothschild, Max F; Yerle, Martine; Liu, Bang

    2011-10-01

    JHDM1A, a member of the JHDM (JmjC-domain-containing histone demethylase) family, plays an central role in gene silencing, cell cycle, cell growth and cancer development through histone H3K36 demethylation modification. Here reported the cloning, expression, chromosomal location and association analysis with growth traits of porcine JHDM1A gene. Sequence analysis showed that the porcine JHDM1A gene encodes 1,162 amino acids and contains JmjC, F-box, and CXXC zinc-finger domains, which coding sequence and deduced protein shares 91 and 99% similarity with human JHDM1A, respectively. Spatio-Temporal expression analysis indicated that the mRNA expression of porcine JHDM1A had significantly higher levels in the middle (65 days) and later (90 days) period's embryo skeletal muscle than that of 33 days, and showed a ubiquitously expression but with the highest abundance in kidney, lung and liver of an adult pig. Radiation hybrid mapping and the following linkage mapping data indicate that JHDM1A maps to 2p17 region of pig chromosome 2 (SSC2). Allele frequency differences were detected in different pig breeds and an association study was performed with a SNP within 3'UTR. The results showed that there is a tendency for allele frequencies to differ between the fast growth breeds (Yorkshire) and slow growth pig breeds (Qingping pigs, Yushan Black pigs, Erhualian pigs and Dahuabai pigs). The association analysis using a Berkshire × Yorkshire F(2) population indicated that the C224G polymorphism had a highly significant association with average daily gain on test (P < 0.01), a trend association with average back fat thickness (P < 0.07), and significant associations (P < 0.01) on percent of average drip loss, Fiber Type II Ratio, muscle shear force and average lactate content in μmol/g. This study provides the first evidence that JHDM1A is differentially expressed in porcine embryonic skeletal muscle and associated with meat growth and quality traits.

  18. Use of n-fold cross-validation to evaluate three methods to calculate heavy truck annual average daily traffic and vehicle miles traveled.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Shauna L; Souleyrette, Reginald; Lamptey, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Reliable estimates of heavy-truck volumes in the United States are important in a number of transportation applications including pavement design and management, traffic safety, and traffic operations. Additionally, because heavy vehicles emit pollutants at much higher rates than passenger vehicles, reliable volume estimates are critical to computing accurate inventories of on-road emissions. Accurate baseline inventories are also necessary to forecast future scenarios. The research presented in this paper evaluated three different methods commonly used by transportation agencies to estimate annual average daily traffic (AADT), which is used to determine vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Traffic data from continuous count stations provided by the Iowa Department of Transportation were used to estimate AADT for single-unit and multiunit trucks for rural freeways and rural primary highways using the three methods. The first method developed general expansion factors, which apply to all vehicles. AADT, representing all vehicles, was estimated for short-term counts and was multiplied by statewide average truck volumes for the corresponding roadway type to obtain AADT for each truck category. The second method also developed general expansion factors and AADT estimates. Truck AADT for the second method was calculated by multiplying the general AADT by truck volumes from the short-term counts. The third method developed expansion factors specific to each truck group. AADT estimates for each truck group were estimated from short-term counts using corresponding expansion factors. Accuracy of the three methods was determined by comparing actual AADT from count station data to estimates from the three methods. Accuracy of the three methods was compared using n-fold cross-validation. Mean squared error of prediction was used to estimate the difference between estimated and actual AADT. Prediction error was lowest for the method that developed separate expansion factors for trucks

  19. Estimated daily average per capita water ingestion by child and adult age categories based on USDA's 1994-1996 and 1998 continuing survey of food intakes by individuals.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Henry D; Stralka, Kathleen

    2009-05-01

    Water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for a number of age range groups. The age ranges, based on guidance from the US EPA's Risk Assessment Forum, are narrow for younger ages when development is rapid and wider for older ages when the rate of development decreases. Estimates are based on data from the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1994-1996 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). Water ingestion estimates include water ingested directly as a beverage and water added to foods and beverages during preparation at home or in local establishments. Water occurring naturally in foods or added by manufacturers to commercial products (beverage or food) is not included. Estimates are reported in milliliters (ml/person/day) and milliliters per kilogram of body weight (ml/kg/day). As a by-product of constructing estimates in terms of body weight of respondents, distributions of self-reported body weights based on the CSFII were estimated and are also reported here.

  20. Framework for the mapping of the monthly average daily solar radiation using an advanced case-based reasoning and a geostatistical technique.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhyun; Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2014-04-15

    For the effective photovoltaic (PV) system, it is necessary to accurately determine the monthly average daily solar radiation (MADSR) and to develop an accurate MADSR map, which can simplify the decision-making process for selecting the suitable location of the PV system installation. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a framework for the mapping of the MADSR using an advanced case-based reasoning (CBR) and a geostatistical technique. The proposed framework consists of the following procedures: (i) the geographic scope for the mapping of the MADSR is set, and the measured MADSR and meteorological data in the geographic scope are collected; (ii) using the collected data, the advanced CBR model is developed; (iii) using the advanced CBR model, the MADSR at unmeasured locations is estimated; and (iv) by applying the measured and estimated MADSR data to the geographic information system, the MADSR map is developed. A practical validation was conducted by applying the proposed framework to South Korea. It was determined that the MADSR map developed through the proposed framework has been improved in terms of accuracy. The developed MADSR map can be used for estimating the MADSR at unmeasured locations and for determining the optimal location for the PV system installation.

  1. Evaluation of Potential Average Daily Doses (ADDs) of PM2.5 for Homemakers Conducting Pan-Frying Inside Ordinary Homes under Four Ventilation Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seonyeop; Yu, Sol; Kim, Sungroul

    2017-01-13

    Several studies reported that commercial barbecue restaurants likely contribute to the indoor emission of particulate matters with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5) while pan-frying meat. However, there is inadequate knowledge of exposure level to indoor PM2.5 in homes and the contribution of a typical indoor pan-frying event. We measured the indoor PM2.5 concentration and, using Monte-Carlo simulation, estimated potential average daily dose (ADD) of PM2.5 for homemakers pan-frying a piece of pork inside ordinary homes. Convenience-based sampling at 13 homes was conducted over four consecutive days in June 2013 (n = 52). Although we pan-fried 100 g pork for only 9 min, the median (interquartile range, IQR) value was 4.5 (2.2-5.6) mg/m³ for no ventilation and 0.5 (0.1-1.3) mg/m³ with an active stove hood ventilation system over a 2 h sampling interval. The probabilities that the ADDs from inhalation of indoor PM2.5 would be higher than the ADD from inhalation of PM2.5 on an outdoor roadside (4.6 μg/kg·day) were 99.44%, 97.51%, 93.64%, and 67.23%, depending on the ventilation conditions: (1) no window open; (2) one window open in the kitchen; (3) two windows open, one each in the kitchen and living room; and (4) operating a forced-air stove hood, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of Potential Average Daily Doses (ADDs) of PM2.5 for Homemakers Conducting Pan-Frying Inside Ordinary Homes under Four Ventilation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seonyeop; Yu, Sol; Kim, Sungroul

    2017-01-01

    Several studies reported that commercial barbecue restaurants likely contribute to the indoor emission of particulate matters with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5) while pan-frying meat. However, there is inadequate knowledge of exposure level to indoor PM2.5 in homes and the contribution of a typical indoor pan-frying event. We measured the indoor PM2.5 concentration and, using Monte-Carlo simulation, estimated potential average daily dose (ADD) of PM2.5 for homemakers pan-frying a piece of pork inside ordinary homes. Convenience-based sampling at 13 homes was conducted over four consecutive days in June 2013 (n = 52). Although we pan-fried 100 g pork for only 9 min, the median (interquartile range, IQR) value was 4.5 (2.2–5.6) mg/m3 for no ventilation and 0.5 (0.1–1.3) mg/m3 with an active stove hood ventilation system over a 2 h sampling interval. The probabilities that the ADDs from inhalation of indoor PM2.5 would be higher than the ADD from inhalation of PM2.5 on an outdoor roadside (4.6 μg/kg·day) were 99.44%, 97.51%, 93.64%, and 67.23%, depending on the ventilation conditions: (1) no window open; (2) one window open in the kitchen; (3) two windows open, one each in the kitchen and living room; and (4) operating a forced-air stove hood, respectively. PMID:28098788

  3. ESTIMATED DAILY AVERAGE PER CAPITA WATER INGESTION BY CHILD AND ADULT AGE CATEGORIES BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96 AND 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (JOURNAL ARTICLE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for 12 age range groups. The ...

  4. Quaternion Averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

  5. Daily Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing Dressing & Grooming Dental Care ... About Us | News | Events | Press | Careers | Privacy Policy | Copyrights & Reprints | Contact Us National Headquarters Alzheimer's Association National ...

  6. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Areal Average Albedo (AREALAVEALB)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Riihimaki, Laura; Marinovici, Cristina; Kassianov, Evgueni

    2008-01-01

    he Areal Averaged Albedo VAP yields areal averaged surface spectral albedo estimates from MFRSR measurements collected under fully overcast conditions via a simple one-line equation (Barnard et al., 2008), which links cloud optical depth, normalized cloud transmittance, asymmetry parameter, and areal averaged surface albedo under fully overcast conditions.

  8. Observability of market daily volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  9. States' Average College Tuition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eglin, Joseph J., Jr.; And Others

    This report presents statistical data on trends in tuition costs from 1980-81 through 1995-96. The average tuition for in-state undergraduate students of 4-year public colleges and universities for academic year 1995-96 was approximately 8.9 percent of median household income. This figure was obtained by dividing the students' average annual…

  10. Aggregation and Averaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Irving H.

    The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)

  11. Threaded average temperature thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Stanley W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is provided to measure the average temperature of a test situs of a test material 30. A ceramic insulator rod 15 with two parallel holes 17 and 18 through the length thereof is securely fitted in a cylinder 16, which is bored along the longitudinal axis of symmetry of threaded bolt 12. Threaded bolt 12 is composed of material having thermal properties similar to those of test material 30. Leads of a thermocouple wire 20 leading from a remotely situated temperature sensing device 35 are each fed through one of the holes 17 or 18, secured at head end 13 of ceramic insulator rod 15, and exit at tip end 14. Each lead of thermocouple wire 20 is bent into and secured in an opposite radial groove 25 in tip end 14 of threaded bolt 12. Resulting threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is ready to be inserted into cylindrical receptacle 32. The tip end 14 of the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is in intimate contact with receptacle 32. A jam nut 36 secures the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 to test material 30.

  12. The average enzyme principle

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, Ed; Chaudhary, Osman; Segrè, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The Michaelis-Menten equation for an irreversible enzymatic reaction depends linearly on the enzyme concentration. Even if the enzyme concentration changes in time, this linearity implies that the amount of substrate depleted during a given time interval depends only on the average enzyme concentration. Here, we use a time re-scaling approach to generalize this result to a broad category of multi-reaction systems, whose constituent enzymes have the same dependence on time, e.g. they belong to the same regulon. This “average enzyme principle” provides a natural methodology for jointly studying metabolism and its regulation. PMID:23892076

  13. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  14. Averaging of TNTC counts.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, C N; Heller, B

    1988-01-01

    When plate count methods are used for microbial enumeration, if too-numerous-to-count results occur, they are commonly discarded. In this paper, a method for consideration of such results in computation of an average microbial density is developed, and its use is illustrated by example. PMID:3178211

  15. Gender, Emotion Work, and Relationship Quality: A Daily Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Melissa A.; McDaniel, Brandon T.; Pollitt, Amanda M.; Totenhagen, Casey J.

    2015-01-01

    We use the gender relations perspective from feminist theorizing to investigate how gender and daily emotion work predict daily relationship quality in 74 couples (148 individuals in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships) primarily from the southwest U.S. Emotion work is characterized by activities that enhance others’ emotional well-being. We examined emotion work two ways: trait (individuals’ average levels) and state (individuals’ daily fluctuations). We examined actor and partner effects of emotion work and tested for gender differences. As outcome variables, we included six types of daily relationship quality: love, commitment, satisfaction, closeness, ambivalence, and conflict. This approach allowed us to predict three aspects of relationship quality: average levels, daily fluctuations, and volatility (overall daily variability across a week). Three patterns emerged. First, emotion work predicted relationship quality in this diverse set of couples. Second, gender differences were minimal for fixed effects: Trait and state emotion work predicted higher average scores on, and positive daily increases in, individuals’ own positive relationship quality and lower average ambivalence. Third, gender differences were more robust for volatility: For partner effects, having a partner who reported higher average emotion work predicted lower volatility in love, satisfaction, and closeness for women versus greater volatility in love and commitment for men. Neither gender nor emotion work predicted average levels, daily fluctuations, or volatility in conflict. We discuss implications and future directions pertaining to the unique role of gender in understanding the associations between daily emotion work and volatility in daily relationship quality for relational partners. PMID:26508808

  16. 40 CFR 60.1755 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units? (a) Use the equation in § 60.1935.... If you are monitoring the percent reduction of sulfur dioxide, use EPA Reference Method 19 in... Reference Method 19 in appendix A of this part, section 4.1, to calculate the daily arithmetic average...

  17. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2000-08-11

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

  18. Temperature averaging thermal probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermal probe to average temperature fluctuations over a prolonged period was formed with a temperature sensor embedded inside a solid object of a thermally conducting material. The solid object is held in a position equidistantly spaced apart from the interior surfaces of a closed housing by a mount made of a thermally insulating material. The housing is sealed to trap a vacuum or mass of air inside and thereby prevent transfer of heat directly between the environment outside of the housing and the solid object. Electrical leads couple the temperature sensor with a connector on the outside of the housing. Other solid objects of different sizes and materials may be substituted for the cylindrically-shaped object to vary the time constant of the probe.

  19. Temperature averaging thermal probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V.

    1985-12-01

    A thermal probe to average temperature fluctuations over a prolonged period was formed with a temperature sensor embedded inside a solid object of a thermally conducting material. The solid object is held in a position equidistantly spaced apart from the interior surfaces of a closed housing by a mount made of a thermally insulating material. The housing is sealed to trap a vacuum or mass of air inside and thereby prevent transfer of heat directly between the environment outside of the housing and the solid object. Electrical leads couple the temperature sensor with a connector on the outside of the housing. Other solid objects of different sizes and materials may be substituted for the cylindrically-shaped object to vary the time constant of the probe.

  20. Tips for Daily Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips and Gadgets for Daily Activities Dressing Tips Shopping Tips Modifying the Bathroom Driving After Stroke Medication ... and resources. Find a group in your area . Online Support If there is not a support group ...

  1. REL3.0 LPLA DAILY NC

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-05

    ... 3.0 Langley Parameterized Longwave Model daily Data in 1x1 Degree NetCDF Format News:  LPLA Project ... Temporal Resolution:  3-hourly averaged by day File Format:  NETCDF Tools:  Search and ...

  2. REL3.1 LW DAILY NC

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-05

    ... Budget (SRB) Release 3.1 GEWEX Longwave Daily Data in 1x1 Degree NetCDF Format News:  GEWEX Project ... Temporal Resolution:  3-hourly averaged by day File Format:  NETCDF Tools:  Search and ...

  3. Dissociating Averageness and Attractiveness: Attractive Faces Are Not Always Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Unger, Layla; Little, Anthony C.; Feinberg, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Although the averageness hypothesis of facial attractiveness proposes that the attractiveness of faces is mostly a consequence of their averageness, 1 study has shown that caricaturing highly attractive faces makes them mathematically less average but more attractive. Here the authors systematically test the averageness hypothesis in 5 experiments…

  4. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  5. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-08

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  6. Phosphorus balance with daily dialysis.

    PubMed

    Kooienga, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is an almost universal finding in patients with end-stage renal disease and is associated with increased all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and vascular calcification. These associations have raised the question of whether reducing phosphorus levels could result in improved survival. In light of the recent findings that increased per-session dialysis dose, as assessed by urea kinetics, did not result in improved survival, the definition of adequacy of dialysis should be re-evaluated and consideration given to alternative markers. Two alternatives to conventional thrice weekly dialysis (CHD) are nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) and short daily hemodialysis (SDHD). The elimination kinetics of phosphorus as they relate to these alternative daily dialysis schedules and the clinical implications of overall phosphorus balance are discussed here. The total weekly phosphorus removal with NHD is more than twice that removed by CHD (4985 mg/week +/- 1827 mg vs. 2347 mg/week +/- 697 mg) and this is associated with a significantly lower average serum phosphorous (4.0 mg/dl vs. 6.5 mg/dl). In spite of the observed increase in protein and phosphorus intake seen in patients on SDHD, phosphate binder requirements and serum phosphorus levels are generally stable to decrease although this effect is strongly dependent on the frequency and overall treatment time.

  7. Averaging Models: Parameters Estimation with the R-Average Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, G.; Massidda, D.; Noventa, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982), can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto &…

  8. New daily persistent headache.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Alok

    2012-08-01

    New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  9. The Average of Rates and the Average Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Defines arithmetic, harmonic, and weighted harmonic means, and discusses their properties. Describes the application of these properties in problems involving fuel economy estimates and average rates of motion. Gives example problems and solutions. (CW)

  10. 26 CFR 1.989(b)-1 - Definition of weighted average exchange rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of weighted average exchange rate. 1... of weighted average exchange rate. For purposes of section 989(b)(3) and (4), the term “weighted average exchange rate” means the simple average of the daily exchange rates (determined by reference to...

  11. 26 CFR 1.989(b)-1 - Definition of weighted average exchange rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of weighted average exchange rate. 1... of weighted average exchange rate. For purposes of section 989(b)(3) and (4), the term “weighted average exchange rate” means the simple average of the daily exchange rates (determined by reference to...

  12. 26 CFR 1.989(b)-1 - Definition of weighted average exchange rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of weighted average exchange rate. 1... average exchange rate. For purposes of section 989(b)(3) and (4), the term “weighted average exchange rate” means the simple average of the daily exchange rates (determined by reference to a qualified source...

  13. 26 CFR 1.989(b)-1 - Definition of weighted average exchange rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definition of weighted average exchange rate. 1... of weighted average exchange rate. For purposes of section 989(b)(3) and (4), the term “weighted average exchange rate” means the simple average of the daily exchange rates (determined by reference to...

  14. 26 CFR 1.989(b)-1 - Definition of weighted average exchange rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Definition of weighted average exchange rate. 1... of weighted average exchange rate. For purposes of section 989(b)(3) and (4), the term “weighted average exchange rate” means the simple average of the daily exchange rates (determined by reference to...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1265 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into the appropriate averaging times and units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... geometric average concentrations of sulfur dioxide emissions. If you are monitoring the percent reduction of... daily geometric average percent reduction of potential sulfur dioxide emissions. (c) If you operate a... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1265 How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into the...

  16. AVERAGE ANNUAL SOLAR UV DOSE OF THE CONTINENTAL US CITIZEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The average annual solar UV dose of US citizens is not known, but is required for relative risk assessments of skin cancer from UV-emitting devices. We solved this problem using a novel approach. The EPA's "National Human Activity Pattern Survey" recorded the daily ou...

  17. High average power pockels cell

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  18. 40 CFR 60.1755 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1755 How do I convert my 1.... If you are monitoring the percent reduction of sulfur dioxide, use EPA Reference Method 19 in appendix A of this part, section 5.4, to determine the daily geometric average percent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1755 - How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... part, section 4.3, to calculate the daily geometric average concentrations of sulfur dioxide emissions... potential sulfur dioxide emissions. (c) If you operate a Class I municipal waste combustion unit, use EPA... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed...

  20. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  1. Determining GPS average performance metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.

  2. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Vibrational averages along thermal lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Bartomeu

    2016-01-01

    A method is proposed for the calculation of vibrational quantum and thermal expectation values of physical properties from first principles. Thermal lines are introduced: these are lines in configuration space parametrized by temperature, such that the value of any physical property along them is approximately equal to the vibrational average of that property. The number of sampling points needed to explore the vibrational phase space is reduced by up to an order of magnitude when the full vibrational density is replaced by thermal lines. Calculations of the vibrational averages of several properties and systems are reported, namely, the internal energy and the electronic band gap of diamond and silicon, and the chemical shielding tensor of L-alanine. Thermal lines pave the way for complex calculations of vibrational averages, including large systems and methods beyond semilocal density functional theory.

  4. Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.

  5. Daily Water Use in Nine Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, David R.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin

    1986-06-01

    Transfer functions are used to model the short-term response of daily municipal water use to rainfall and air temperature variations. Daily water use data from nine cities are studied, three cities each from Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The dynamic response of water use to rainfall and air temperature is similar across the cities within each State; in addition the responses of the Texas and Florida cities are very similar to one another while the response of the Pennsylvania cities is more sensitive to air temperature and less to rainfall. There is little impact of city size on the response functions. The response of water use to rainfall depends first on the occurrence of rainfall and second on its magnitude. The occurrence of a rainfall more than 0.05 in./day (0.13 cm/day) causes a drop in the seasonal component of water use one day later that averages 38% for the Texas cities, 42% for the Florida cities, and 7% for the Pennsylvania cities. In Austin, Texas, a spatially averaged rainfall series shows a clearer relationship with water use than does rainfall data from a single gage. There is a nonlinear response of water use to air temperature changes with no response for daily maximum air temperatures between 40° and 70°F (4-21°C) an increase in water use with air temperature beyond 70°F; above 85°-90°F (29°-32°C) water use increases 3-5 times more per degree than below that limit in Texas and Florida. The model resulting from these studies can be used for daily water use forecasting and water conservation analysis.

  6. The Effect of Personality on Daily Life Emotional Processes

    PubMed Central

    Komulainen, Emma; Meskanen, Katarina; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari Marko; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Wichers, Marieke; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Personality features are associated with individual differences in daily emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. The existing literature is somewhat mixed and inconclusive about the nature of these associations. The aim of this study was to shed light on what personality features represent in daily life by investigating the effect of the Five Factor traits on different daily emotional processes using an ecologically valid method. The Experience Sampling Method was used to collect repeated reports of daily affect and experiences from 104 healthy university students during one week of their normal lives. Personality traits of the Five Factor model were assessed using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the effect of the personality traits on daily emotional processes. Neuroticism predicted higher negative and lower positive affect, higher affect variability, more negative subjective evaluations of daily incidents, and higher reactivity to stressors. Conscientiousness, by contrast, predicted lower average level, variability, and reactivity of negative affect. Agreeableness was associated with higher positive and lower negative affect, lower variability of sadness, and more positive subjective evaluations of daily incidents. Extraversion predicted higher positive affect and more positive subjective evaluations of daily activities. Openness had no effect on average level of affect, but predicted higher reactivity to daily stressors. The results show that the personality features independently predict different aspects of daily emotional processes. Neuroticism was associated with all of the processes. Identifying these processes can help us to better understand individual differences in daily emotional life. PMID:25343494

  7. Polyhedral Painting with Group Averaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Frank A.; Tsao, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The technique of "group-averaging" produces colorings of a sphere that have the symmetries of various polyhedra. The concepts are accessible at the undergraduate level, without being well-known in typical courses on algebra or geometry. The material makes an excellent discovery project, especially for students with some background in…

  8. Progress towards daily "swath" solutions from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, H.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Sakumura, C.

    2015-12-01

    The GRACE mission has provided invaluable and the only data of its kind that measures the total water column in the Earth System over the past 13 years. The GRACE solutions available from the project have been monthly average solutions. There have been attempts by several groups to produce shorter time-window solutions with different techniques. There is also an experimental quick-look GRACE solution available from CSR that implements a sliding window approach while applying variable daily data weights. All of these GRACE solutions require special handling for data assimilation. This study explores the possibility of generating a true daily GRACE solution by computing a daily "swath" total water storage (TWS) estimate from GRACE using the Tikhonov regularization and high resolution monthly mascon estimation implemented at CSR. This paper discusses the techniques for computing such a solution and discusses the error and uncertainty characterization. We perform comparisons with official RL05 GRACE solutions and with alternate mascon solutions from CSR to understand the impact on the science results. We evaluate these solutions with emphasis on the temporal characteristics of the signal content and validate them against multiple models and in-situ data sets.

  9. Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg; Behrend, Juliane E-mail: G.Robbers@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2009-04-15

    The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the {Lambda}CDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of {Omega}{sub eff}{sup 0} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10{sup -8} and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w{sub eff} < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

  10. The patient with daily headaches.

    PubMed

    Maizels, Morris

    2004-12-15

    The term "chronic daily headache" (CDH) describes a variety of headache types, of which chronic migraine is the most common. Daily headaches often are disabling and may be challenging to diagnose and treat. Medication overuse, or drug rebound headache, is the most treatable cause of refractory daily headache. A pathologic underlying cause should be considered in patients with recent-onset daily headache, a change from a previous headache pattern, or associated neurologic or systemic symptoms. Treatment of CDH focuses on reduction of headache triggers and use of preventive medication, most commonly anti-depressants, antiepileptic drugs, and beta blockers. Medication overuse must be treated with discontinuation of symptomatic medicines, a transitional therapy, and long-term prophylaxis. Anxiety and depression are common in patients with CDH and should be identified and treated. Although the condition is challenging, appropriate treatment of patients with CDH can bring about significant improvement in the patient's quality-of-life.

  11. Achronal averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D.

    2007-09-15

    The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

  12. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  13. Daily torpor and hibernation in birds and mammals

    PubMed Central

    RUF, THOMAS; GEISER, FRITZ

    2014-01-01

    Many birds and mammals drastically reduce their energy expenditure during times of cold exposure, food shortage, or drought, by temporarily abandoning euthermia, i.e., the maintenance of high body temperatures. Traditionally, two different types of heterothermy, i.e., hypometabolic states associated with low body temperatures (torpor), have been distinguished: Daily torpor, which lasts less than 24 h and is accompanied by continued foraging, versus hibernation, with torpor bouts lasting consecutive days to several weeks in animals that usually do not forage but rely on energy stores, either food caches or body energy reserves. This classification of torpor types has been challenged however, suggesting that these phenotypes may merely represent the extremes in a continuum of traits. Here, we investigate whether variables of torpor in 214 species, 43 birds and 171 mammals form a continuum or a bimodal distribution. We use Gaussian-mixture cluster analysis as well as phylogenetically informed regressions to quantitatively assess the distinction between hibernation and daily torpor and to evaluate the impact of body mass and geographical distribution of species on torpor traits. Cluster analysis clearly confirmed the classical distinction between daily torpor and hibernation. Overall, heterothermic endotherms are small on average, but hibernators are significantly heavier than daily heterotherms and also are distributed at higher average latitudes (~35°) than daily heterotherms (~25°). Variables of torpor for an average 30-g heterotherm differed significantly between daily heterotherms and hibernators. Average maximum torpor bout duration was >30-fold longer, and mean torpor bout duration >25-fold longer in hibernators. Mean minimum body temperature differed by ~13°C, and the mean minimum torpor metabolic rate was ~35% of the BMR in daily heterotherms but only 6% of basal metabolic rate in hibernators. Consequently, our analysis strongly supports the view that

  14. Daily Self-Disclosure and Sleep in Couples

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Heidi S.; Slatcher, Richard B.; Reynolds, Bridget M.; Repetti, Rena L.; Robles, Theodore F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective An emerging literature provides evidence for the association between romantic relationship quality and sleep, an important factor in health and well-being. However, we still know very little about the specific relationship processes that affect sleep behavior. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine how self-disclosure, an important relational process linked to intimacy, relationship satisfaction and health, is associated with sleep behavior. Method As part of a larger study of family processes, wives (n=46) and husbands (n=38) from 46 cohabiting families completed 56 days of daily diaries. Spouses completed evening diaries assessing daily self-disclosure, relationship satisfaction, and mood and morning diaries assessing the prior night's sleep. Multilevel modeling was used to explore the effects of both daily variation in and average levels across the 56 days of self-disclosure on sleep. Results Daily variation in self-disclosure predicted sleep outcomes for wives, but not for husbands. On days when wives self-disclosed more to their spouses than their average level, their subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency that night improved. Furthermore, daily self-disclosure buffered the negative effect of daily negative mood on sleep latency for wives, but not husbands. In contrast, higher average levels of self-disclosure predicted less waking during the night for husbands, but not for wives. Conclusion The association between self-disclosure and sleep is one mechanism by which daily relationship functioning may influence health and well-being. Gender may play a role in how self-disclosure is associated with sleep. PMID:25068453

  15. Estimating the real world daily usage and cost for exenatide twice daily and liraglutide in Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK based on volumes dispensed by pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    McDonell, Amanda L; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Zammit, Danielle C; Kotchie, Robert W; Thuresson, Per-Olof; Nicolay, Claudia; Haslam, Thomas; Bruinsma, Michiel; Janszen-Van Oosterhout, Anne-Jeanine; Otto, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are indicated for improvement of glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Cost is one aspect of treatment to be considered, in addition to clinical benefits, when selecting optimal therapy for a patient. The objective of this study was to estimate the average dose usage and real world daily cost of the GLP-1 receptor agonists, exenatide twice daily and liraglutide once daily, in Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. Methods Administrative databases were used to source the data from longitudinal records of dispensed prescriptions. Data were extracted from the IMS Longitudinal Prescription database which captures details of prescriptions dispensed in pharmacies. Information on the dispensed quantity of each product was used to estimate average daily usage per patient. Daily dose usage was multiplied by the public price per unit to estimate daily cost. Results The dispensed volume in Germany corresponded to a mean dispensed daily dose of 16.81 μg for exenatide twice daily and 1.37 mg for liraglutide (mean daily cost €4.02 and €4.54, respectively). In the Netherlands, average dispensed daily doses of 17.07 μg and 1.49 mg were observed for exenatide twice daily and liraglutide (mean daily cost €3.05 and €3.97, respectively). In the UK, the mean dispensed volume corresponded to a daily usage of 20.49 μg for exenatide twice daily and 1.50 mg for liraglutide (mean daily cost £2.53 and £3.28, respectively). Conclusion Estimates of average daily dispensed doses of GLP-1 receptor agonists derived from pharmacy data in real world settings corresponded to the dosing recommendation of the summaries of product characteristics. Nevertheless, the mean daily cost of exenatide twice daily was lower than that of liraglutide in Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. Such estimates can be used to inform health care decision-makers on the real world usage and cost of medications effective in achieving

  16. Daily practices, consumption and citizenship.

    PubMed

    Mazzarino, Jane M; Morigi, Valdir J; Kaufmann, Cristine; Farias, Alessandra M B; Fernandes, Diefersom A

    2011-12-01

    This paper promotes a reflection on the relationship between daily practices and consumption. Understanding how conflicts, resistance and consensus are generated from daily consumption practices opens up possibilities for reflecting on the construction of sustainability in the context of diversity, one of the landmarks of the globalized world. Within this socio-cultural context, the central issue is: can consumption generate citizenship practices? The concepts of subject and agent help one think about collective action and subjectivation processes and their interferences on the collective consuming behavior. Based on empirical data from a research carried out in the municipality of Estrela in 2007, in the Taquari Valley - Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) on local reality consumption practices, it was possible to conclude that various reasoning mechanisms and values underlie the daily consumption practices. Citizenship construction, based on consumption practices, depends on the subject's reflection capacity on his/her daily practices or on what goes through the circulation of environmental information based on sociability spaces.

  17. Tractor Operation and Daily Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fore, J. M.; And Others

    Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

  18. Southern California Daily Energy Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    EIA has updated its Southern California Daily Energy Report to provide additional information on key energy market indicators for the winter season. The dashboard includes information that EIA regularly compiles about energy operations and the management of natural gas and electricity systems in Southern California in the aftermath of a leak at the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage facility outside of Los Angeles

  19. Teaching Activities of Daily Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.

    Provided are strategies for teaching activities of daily living (ADL), which include dressing, eating, grooming, toileting, and basic homemakine, to severely retarded students. Reviewed are the steps necessary to teach ADL skills: ADL assessment, identification of appropriate strategies and tactics, and task analysis. Explained are four common…

  20. Weak associations between the daily number of suicide cases and amount of daily sunlight.

    PubMed

    Seregi, Bernadett; Kapitány, Balázs; Maróti-Agóts, Ákos; Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Döme, Péter

    2017-02-06

    Several environmental factors with periodic changes in intensity during the calendar year have been put forward to explain the increase in suicide frequency during spring and summer. In the current study we investigated the effect of averaged daily sunshine duration of periods with different lengths and 'lags' (i.e. the number of days between the last day of the period for which the averaged sunshine duration was calculated and the day of suicide) on suicide risk. We obtained data on daily numbers of suicide cases and daily sunshine duration in Hungary from 1979 to 2013. In order to remove the seasonal components from the two time series (i.e. numbers of suicide and sunshine hours) we used the differencing method. Pearson correlations (n=22,950) were calculated to reveal associations between sunshine duration and suicide risk. The final sample consisted of 122,116 suicide cases. Regarding the entire investigated period, after differencing, sunshine duration and number of suicides on the same days showed a distinctly weak, but highly significant positive correlation in the total sample (r=0.067; p=1.17*10(-13)). Positive significant correlations (p˂0.0001) between suicide risk on the index day and averaged sunshine duration in the previous days (up to 11days) were also found in the total sample. Our results from a large sample strongly support the hypothesis that sunshine has a prompt, but very weak increasing effect on the risk of suicide (especially violent cases among males). The main limitation is that possible confounding factors were not controlled for.

  1. Single daily dosing of aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Preston, S L; Briceland, L L

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the rationale behind dosing aminoglycosides as a single daily dose versus traditional dosing approaches, we conducted a MEDLINE search to identify all pertinent articles, and also reviewed the references of all articles. Single daily dosing of aminoglycosides is not a new concept, having been examined since 1974. The advantages of this regimen include optimum concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, longer dosing intervals due to the postantibiotic effect (PAE), and prevention of bacterial adaptive resistance. Because of longer dosing intervals, toxicity may also be delayed or reduced. Costs may be reduced due to decreased monitoring and administration. Clinically, the regimen has been implemented in various patient populations with reported success. Questions remain, however, about optimum dose, peak and trough serum concentrations, and dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment or neutropenia. More clinical experience with this method in large numbers of patients has to be published. Pharmacists can be instrumental in monitoring patients receiving once-daily therapy and by educating health care professionals as to the rationale behind the therapy.

  2. 50 CFR 20.24 - Daily limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Daily limit. 20.24 Section 20.24 Wildlife... (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.24 Daily limit. No person shall take in any 1 calendar day, more than the daily bag limit or aggregate daily bag limit, whichever applies....

  3. Spatial downscaling and mapping of daily precipitation and air temperature using daily station data and monthly mean maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate maps of daily weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses daily station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of daily maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for global applications) to the scale of the daily data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the daily time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale daily maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima

  4. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it may also improve other maternal and birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of daily oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (2 July 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 July 2012) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with daily iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results We included 60 trials. Forty-three trials, involving more than 27,402 women, contributed data and compared the effects of daily oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo. Overall, women taking iron supplements were less likely to have low birthweight newborns (below 2500 g) compared with controls (8.4% versus 10.2%, average risk ratio (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.97, 11 trials, 8480 women) and mean birthweight was 30.81 g greater for those infants whose mothers received iron during pregnancy (average mean difference (MD) 30.81; 95% CI 5.94 to 55.68, 14 trials, 9385 women). Preventive iron supplementation reduced the risk of maternal anaemia at term by 70% (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women) and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women

  5. Models for estimating daily rainfall erosivity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yun; Yin, Shui-qing; Liu, Bao-yuan; Nearing, Mark A.; Zhao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    The rainfall erosivity factor (R) represents the multiplication of rainfall energy and maximum 30 min intensity by event (EI30) and year. This rainfall erosivity index is widely used for empirical soil loss prediction. Its calculation, however, requires high temporal resolution rainfall data that are not readily available in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to parameterize models suitable for estimating erosivity from daily rainfall data, which are more widely available. One-minute resolution rainfall data recorded in sixteen stations over the eastern water erosion impacted regions of China were analyzed. The R-factor ranged from 781.9 to 8258.5 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 y-1. A total of 5942 erosive events from one-minute resolution rainfall data of ten stations were used to parameterize three models, and 4949 erosive events from the other six stations were used for validation. A threshold of daily rainfall between days classified as erosive and non-erosive was suggested to be 9.7 mm based on these data. Two of the models (I and II) used power law functions that required only daily rainfall totals. Model I used different model coefficients in the cool season (Oct.-Apr.) and warm season (May-Sept.), and Model II was fitted with a sinusoidal curve of seasonal variation. Both Model I and Model II estimated the erosivity index for average annual, yearly, and half-month temporal scales reasonably well, with the symmetric mean absolute percentage error MAPEsym ranging from 10.8% to 32.1%. Model II predicted slightly better than Model I. However, the prediction efficiency for the daily erosivity index was limited, with the symmetric mean absolute percentage error being 68.0% (Model I) and 65.7% (Model II) and Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency being 0.55 (Model I) and 0.57 (Model II). Model III, which used the combination of daily rainfall amount and daily maximum 60-min rainfall, improved predictions significantly, and produced a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency

  6. Analysis of daily latitude variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The daily latitude measurements of the International polar motion service are analyzed. The results indicate that the annual polar oscillation is probably due to local phenomena with amplitudes varying from 0.05 to 0.15 min. Within the resolution of the residuals (150 cm), there is no indication of the sharp changes which might be associated with earthquake effects. Then, applying Schuster's test to a periodogram of the residuals indicates that there are probably several processes occurring at amplitudes between 0.007 and 0.03 min whose solution awaits a more precise measurement technique.

  7. Managing Hypertriglyceridemia in Daily Practice.

    PubMed

    Pramono, Laurentius A; Harbuwono, Dante S

    2015-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a form of dyslipidemia, which usually occurs in combination with hypercholesterolemia, high-LDL or low-HDL cholesterol level. Most studies suggest that hypertriglyceridemia is associated with many metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, and also cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia is often not comprehensively addressed by many physicians, who usually only include prescribing drugs without encouraging patients to perform physical activity, to take a true healthy diet for dyslipidemia and to stop smoking. This review article discusses evaluation, diagnosis and a comprehensive, yet simple management of hypertriglyceridemia, which can be easily applied in daily clinical practice.

  8. Older Adults with Diabetes and Osteoarthritis and Their Spouses: Effects of Activity Limitations, Marital Happiness, and Social Contacts on Partners' Daily Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Susanne Olsen; Yorgason, Jeremy B.

    2009-01-01

    Using daily diary data from 28 later life couples where one spouse had diabetes and osteoarthritis, we examined crossover effects of target spouses' daily activity limitations and their partners' daily mood. On days when target spouses' daily activity limitations were higher than average, partners' positive mood decreased and negative mood…

  9. Below-Average, Average, and Above-Average Readers Engage Different and Similar Brain Regions while Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Dennis L.; Key, Alexandra Fonaryova; Kelly, Spencer; Cunningham, Natalie; Terrell, Shona; Ferguson, Melissa; Molfese, Victoria J.; Bonebright, Terri

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between children with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP…

  10. Daily cycles in coastal dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

  11. Perceived health status and daily activity participation of older Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.

  12. The Wear-and-Tear of Daily Stressors on Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan T.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Mogle, Jacqueline; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers assert that affective responses to seemingly minor daily events have long-term implications for mental health, yet this phenomenon has rarely been investigated. In the current study, we examined how levels of daily negative affect and affective reactivity in response to daily stressors predicted general affective distress and self-reported anxiety and depressive disorders 10 years after they were first assessed. Across eight consecutive evenings, participants (N = 711; age = 25 to 74 years) reported their daily stressors and their daily negative affect. Increased levels of negative affect on nonstressor days were related to general affective distress and symptoms of an affective disorder 10 years later. Heightened affective reactivity to daily stressors predicted greater general affective distress and increased likelihood of reporting an affective disorder. These findings suggest that the average levels of negative affect that people experience and how they respond to seemingly minor events in their daily lives have long-term implications for their mental health. PMID:23531486

  13. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  14. Ozone and daily mortality in Shanghai, China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.H.; Huang, W.; London, S.J.; Song, G.X.; Chen, G.H.; Jiang, L.L.; Zhao, N.Q.; Chen, B.H.; Kan, H.D.

    2006-08-15

    Given the changes in types of air pollution from conventional coal combustion to the mixed coal combustion/motor vehicle emissions in China's large cities, it is worthwhile to investigate the acute effect of O{sub 3} on mortality outcomes in the country. We conducted a time-series study to investigate the relation between O{sub 3} and daily mortality in Shanghai using 4 years of daily data (2001-2004). O{sub 3} was found to be significantly associated with total and cardiovascular mortality in the cold season but not in the warm season. In the whole-year analysis, an increase of 10 pg/m{sup 3} of 2-day average O{sub 3} corresponds to 0.45% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.16-0.73%), 0.53% (95% CI, 0.10-0.96%), and 0.35% (95% CI, -0.40 to 1.09%) increase of total nonaccidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. In the cold season, the estimates increased to 1.38% (95% CI , 0.68-2.07%), 1.53% (95% CI, 0.54-2.52%), and 0.95% (95% CI, -0.71 to 2.60%), respectively. In the warm season, we did not observe significant associations for both total and causespecific mortality. The results were generally insensitive to model specifications such as lag structure of O{sub 3} concentrations and degree of freedom for time trend. Multipoflutant models indicate that the effect of O{sub 3} was not confounded by particulate matter {<=} 10 {mu} m in diameter (PM10) or by sulfur dioxide; however, after adding nitrogen dioxide into the model, the association of O{sub 3} with total and cardiovascular mortality became statistically insignificant.

  15. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  16. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  17. Analyzing clinical trial outcomes based on incomplete daily diary reports.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Neal; Harel, Ofer; Little, Roderick J A

    2016-07-30

    A case study is presented assessing the impact of missing data on the analysis of daily diary data from a study evaluating the effect of a drug for the treatment of insomnia. The primary analysis averaged daily diary values for each patient into a weekly variable. Following the commonly used approach, missing daily values within a week were ignored provided there was a minimum number of diary reports (i.e., at least 4). A longitudinal model was then fit with treatment, time, and patient-specific effects. A treatment effect at a pre-specified landmark time was obtained from the model. Weekly values following dropout were regarded as missing, but intermittent daily missing values were obscured. Graphical summaries and tables are presented to characterize the complex missing data patterns. We use multiple imputation for daily diary data to create completed data sets so that exactly 7 daily diary values contribute to each weekly patient average. Standard analysis methods are then applied for landmark analysis of the completed data sets, and the resulting estimates are combined using the standard multiple imputation approach. The observed data are subject to digit heaping and patterned responses (e.g., identical values for several consecutive days), which makes accurate modeling of the response data difficult. Sensitivity analyses under different modeling assumptions for the data were performed, along with pattern mixture models assessing the sensitivity to the missing at random assumption. The emphasis is on graphical displays and computational methods that can be implemented with general-purpose software. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Estimates of Random Error in Satellite Rainfall Averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.

    2003-01-01

    Satellite rain estimates are most accurate when obtained with microwave instruments on low earth-orbiting satellites. Estimation of daily or monthly total areal rainfall, typically of interest to hydrologists and climate researchers, is made difficult, however, by the relatively poor coverage generally available from such satellites. Intermittent coverage by the satellites leads to random "sampling error" in the satellite products. The inexact information about hydrometeors inferred from microwave data also leads to random "retrieval errors" in the rain estimates. In this talk we will review approaches to quantitative estimation of the sampling error in area/time averages of satellite rain retrievals using ground-based observations, and methods of estimating rms random error, both sampling and retrieval, in averages using satellite measurements themselves.

  19. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    SciTech Connect

    Paiz, Mary Rose

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  20. Averaging and Adding in Children's Worth Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Harman, Rachel M.; Paine, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Under the normative Expected Value (EV) model, multiple outcomes are additive, but in everyday worth judgement intuitive averaging prevails. Young children also use averaging in EV judgements, leading to a disordinal, crossover violation of utility when children average the part worths of simple gambles involving independent events (Schlottmann,…

  1. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...

  2. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...

  3. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...

  4. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...

  5. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...

  6. Designing Digital Control Systems With Averaged Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.; Beale, Guy O.

    1990-01-01

    Rational criteria represent improvement over "cut-and-try" approach. Recent development in theory of control systems yields improvements in mathematical modeling and design of digital feedback controllers using time-averaged measurements. By using one of new formulations for systems with time-averaged measurements, designer takes averaging effect into account when modeling plant, eliminating need to iterate design and simulation phases.

  7. GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS FOR FEED EFFICIENCY IN ANGUS CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypes for average daily feed intake (AFI; kg/d), residual feed intake (RFI; kg/d), average daily gain (ADG; kg/d) and predicted dry matter required (pDMR; kg/d) were estimated by correcting field records for effects of pen, year and season using a mixed linear model incorporating genomic relati...

  8. Analysis of daily latitude variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The daily latitude measurements of the International Polar Motion Service are analyzed. The annual oscillation in the data was modeled by separate oscillations in each observatory's latitude data. The separate oscillations varied in amplitude from 0.05 sec to 0.15 sec with standard deviations of about 0.007 sec. Within the resolution of the latitude residuals (150 cm), there is no indication of the sharp changes which might be associated with earthquake effects. Then, applying Schuster's test to a periodogram of the residuals indicates that there are probably several processes occurring at amplitudes between 0.007 sec and 0.03 sec whose solution awaits a more precise measurement technique.

  9. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...

  10. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2014-01-01

    This article considers Bayesian model averaging as a means of addressing uncertainty in the selection of variables in the propensity score equation. We investigate an approximate Bayesian model averaging approach based on the model-averaged propensity score estimates produced by the R package BMA but that ignores uncertainty in the propensity score. We also provide a fully Bayesian model averaging approach via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling (MCMC) to account for uncertainty in both parameters and models. A detailed study of our approach examines the differences in the causal estimate when incorporating noninformative versus informative priors in the model averaging stage. We examine these approaches under common methods of propensity score implementation. In addition, we evaluate the impact of changing the size of Occam's window used to narrow down the range of possible models. We also assess the predictive performance of both Bayesian model averaging propensity score approaches and compare it with the case without Bayesian model averaging. Overall, results show that both Bayesian model averaging propensity score approaches recover the treatment effect estimates well and generally provide larger uncertainty estimates, as expected. Both Bayesian model averaging approaches offer slightly better prediction of the propensity score compared with the Bayesian approach with a single propensity score equation. Covariate balance checks for the case study show that both Bayesian model averaging approaches offer good balance. The fully Bayesian model averaging approach also provides posterior probability intervals of the balance indices.

  11. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2011-01-01

    While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

  12. Enhancement of the MODIS Daily Snow Albedo Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Wang, Zhuosen; Riggs, George A.

    2009-01-01

    compare a daily version of MCD43B3 with the daily albedo from MOD10A1. and MCD43B3 with a 16-day average of MOD10A1, over Greenland. We also discuss some near-future planned enhancements to MOD10A1.

  13. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  14. Average-cost based robust structural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant structural systems with parameterized uncertainty. The method involves minimizing quantities related to the quadratic cost (H2-norm) averaged over a set of systems described by real parameters such as natural frequencies and modal residues. Bounded average cost is shown to imply stability over the set of systems. Approximations for the exact average are derived and proposed as cost functionals. The properties of these approximate average cost functionals are established. The exact average and approximate average cost functionals are used to derive dynamic controllers which can provide stability robustness. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated in illustrative numerical examples and tested in a simple SISO experiment on the MIT multi-point alignment testbed.

  15. Daily Report, Supplement, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Personnel Size Assets of the State Forest Manage- ments (Million Leva ) Potential Personnel Size Total Logged Mass Large- Construc...on the loan market averaging 6-8 percent annually, would be about 8,500-9,000 leva . If we take into consider- ation the current price of capital on...the loan market (50-55 percent), the value would reach 13,000 to 14,000 leva . On the basis of such a price we could organize a real market and not

  16. Sedoanalgesia in pediatric daily surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Aybars; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Murat; Kaya, Ertugrul; Kucuk, Adem; Erbas, Mesut; Kutlucan, Leyla; Sahan, Leyla

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present report was focused on clinical advantages of sedoanalgesia in the pediatric outpatient surgical cases. Method: Sedoanalgesia has been used to sedate patients for a variety of pediatric procedures in our department between 2007 and 2010. This is a retrospective review of 2720 pediatric patients given ketamine for sedation with midazolam premedication. Ketamine was given intravenously (1-2 mg/kg) together with atropine (0.02 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) + a local infiltration anesthetic 2 mg/kg 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride. Result: Median age of the patients included in the study was 5.76 ± 2.12 (0-16 years). The main indications for ketamine include circumcision (69%), inguinal pathologies (inguinal hernia (17%), orchidopexy (2.68%), hydrocele (3.38%), hypospadias (1.94%), urethral fistula repair (0.33%), urethral dilatation (0.25%), and other conditions. All of our patients were discharged home well. In this regard, we have the largest group of patients ever given ketamine. Conclusion: Sedoanalgesia might be used as a quite effective method for daily surgical procedures in children. PMID:23936597

  17. Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, P.

    1994-02-01

    A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.

  18. Cosmological ensemble and directional averages of observables

    SciTech Connect

    Bonvin, Camille; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Maartens, Roy; Umeh, Obinna E-mail: chris.clarkson@gmail.com E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com

    2015-07-01

    We show that at second order, ensemble averages of observables and directional averages do not commute due to gravitational lensing—observing the same thing in many directions over the sky is not the same as taking an ensemble average. In principle this non-commutativity is significant for a variety of quantities that we often use as observables and can lead to a bias in parameter estimation. We derive the relation between the ensemble average and the directional average of an observable, at second order in perturbation theory. We discuss the relevance of these two types of averages for making predictions of cosmological observables, focusing on observables related to distances and magnitudes. In particular, we show that the ensemble average of the distance in a given observed direction is increased by gravitational lensing, whereas the directional average of the distance is decreased. For a generic observable, there exists a particular function of the observable that is not affected by second-order lensing perturbations. We also show that standard areas have an advantage over standard rulers, and we discuss the subtleties involved in averaging in the case of supernova observations.

  19. Spatial limitations in averaging social cues

    PubMed Central

    Florey, Joseph; Clifford, Colin W. G.; Dakin, Steven; Mareschal, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The direction of social attention from groups provides stronger cueing than from an individual. It has previously been shown that both basic visual features such as size or orientation and more complex features such as face emotion and identity can be averaged across multiple elements. Here we used an equivalent noise procedure to compare observers’ ability to average social cues with their averaging of a non-social cue. Estimates of observers’ internal noise (uncertainty associated with processing any individual) and sample-size (the effective number of gaze-directions pooled) were derived by fitting equivalent noise functions to discrimination thresholds. We also used reverse correlation analysis to estimate the spatial distribution of samples used by participants. Averaging of head-rotation and cone-rotation was less noisy and more efficient than averaging of gaze direction, though presenting only the eye region of faces at a larger size improved gaze averaging performance. The reverse correlation analysis revealed greater sampling areas for head rotation compared to gaze. We attribute these differences in averaging between gaze and head cues to poorer visual processing of faces in the periphery. The similarity between head and cone averaging are examined within the framework of a general mechanism for averaging of object rotation. PMID:27573589

  20. Cell averaging Chebyshev methods for hyperbolic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Cai; Gottlieb, David; Harten, Ami

    1990-01-01

    A cell averaging method for the Chebyshev approximations of first order hyperbolic equations in conservation form is described. Formulas are presented for transforming between pointwise data at the collocation points and cell averaged quantities, and vice-versa. This step, trivial for the finite difference and Fourier methods, is nontrivial for the global polynomials used in spectral methods. The cell averaging methods presented are proven stable for linear scalar hyperbolic equations and present numerical simulations of shock-density wave interaction using the new cell averaging Chebyshev methods.

  1. Estimation of Daily Stream Temperatures in a Mountain River Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Benjankar, R. M.; Isaak, D.; Wenger, S.; Tonina, D.

    2013-12-01

    Stream temperature plays an important role in aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen, water and spawning habitat quality, growth of fish populations are functions of stream temperature. Therefore, accurate estimates of daily stream temperatures can provide beneficial information for water resource managers and decision makers. Here, we develop a model for precise daily water temperature estimates that is applicable even in places lacking various meteorological and hydrological data. The water temperature model in this study is a piecewise model that considers both linear and non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables including maximum and minimum temperature (meteorological derivers) and precipitation (hydrological deriver). We demonstrated the model in the Boise River Basin, in central Idaho, USA. The hydrology of this basin is snow-dominated and complex due to the mountainous terrain. We predicted daily stream temperature at 34 sites using 12 weather and Snowtel stations for deriving variables. Results of the stream temperature model indicate average Root Mean Square Error of 1.28 degree of Celsius along with average 0.91 of Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for all stations. Comparison of the results of this study to Mohseni et al.'s model (1998), which is widely applied in water temperature studies, shows better performance of the model presented in this study. Our approach can be used to provide historical reconstructions of daily stream temperatures or projections of stream temperatures under climate change scenarios in any location with at least one year of daily stream temperature observations and with contemporaneous regional air temperature and precipitation data.

  2. Weather, season, and daily stroke admissions in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggins, William B.; Woo, Jean; Ho, Suzanne; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Chau, P. H.

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies examining daily temperature and stroke incidence have given conflicting results. We undertook this retrospective study of all stroke admissions in those aged 35 years old and above to Hong Kong public hospitals from 1999 through 2006 in order to better understand the effects of meteorological conditions on stroke risk in a subtropical setting. We used Poisson Generalized Additive Models with daily hemorrhagic (HS) and ischemic stroke (IS) counts separately as outcomes, and daily mean temperature, humidity, solar radiation, rainfall, air pressure, pollutants, flu consultation rates, day of week, holidays, time trend and seasonality as predictors. Lagged effects of temperature, humidity and pollutants were also considered. A total of 23,457 HS and 107,505 IS admissions were analyzed. Mean daily temperature had a strong, consistent, negative linear association with HS admissions over the range (8.2-31.8°C) observed. A 1°C lower average temperature over the same day and previous 4 days (lags 0-4) being associated with a 2.7% (95% CI: 2.0-3.4%, P < .0.0001) higher admission rate after controlling for other variables. This association was stronger among older subjects and females. Higher lag 0-4 average change in air pressure from previous day was modestly associated with higher HS risk. The association between IS and temperature was weaker and apparent only below 22°C, with a 1°C lower average temperature (lags 0-13) below this threshold being associated with a 1.6% (95% CI:1.0-2.2%, P < 0.0001) higher IS admission rate. Pollutant levels were not associated with HS or IS. Future studies should examine HS and IS risk separately.

  3. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical

  4. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  5. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  6. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  7. Whatever Happened to the Average Student?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Mandated state testing, college entrance exams and their perceived need for higher and higher grade point averages have raised the anxiety levels felt by many of the average students. Too much focus is placed on state test scores and college entrance standards with not enough focus on the true level of the students. The author contends that…

  8. 40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... class or subclass: Credit = (Average Standard − Emission Level) × (Total Annual Production) × (Useful Life) Deficit = (Emission Level − Average Standard) × (Total Annual Production) × (Useful Life) (l....000 Where: FELi = The FEL to which the engine family is certified. ULi = The useful life of the...

  9. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

  10. Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

  11. Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.-K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.

    2006-01-01

    Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analogue Divider by Averaging a Triangular Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, Krishnagiri Chinnathambi

    2017-03-01

    A new analogue divider circuit by averaging a triangular wave using operational amplifiers is explained in this paper. The triangle wave averaging analog divider using operational amplifiers is explained here. The reference triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level up towards positive power supply voltage level. Its positive portion is obtained by a positive rectifier and its average value is obtained by a low pass filter. The same triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level to down towards negative power supply voltage level. Its negative portion is obtained by a negative rectifier and its average value is obtained by another low pass filter. Both the averaged voltages are combined in a summing amplifier and the summed voltage is given to an op-amp as negative input. This op-amp is configured to work in a negative closed environment. The op-amp output is the divider output.

  13. [Relationship of T-->A mutation in the promoter region of myostatin gene with growth traits in swine].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun-Liang; Li, Ning; Du, Li-Xin; Wu, Chang-Xin

    2002-05-01

    A T-->A mutation in the promoter region of porcine myostatin (MSTN) gene has been identified in previous work. Associations of the myostatin genotypes with growth traits are unknown in swine. The present study attempts to analyze the relationship of the mutation with the growth traits which included body weight at 60 d (BW60), average daily gain from 25 kg to 60 kg(ADG1), average daily gain from 60 kg to 100 kg (ADG2) and average daily gain from 25 kg to 100 kg (ADG). Data from 165, 275, 276 and 276 unrelated individuals respectively were collected from three different swine breeding companies. Detections of the mutation were carried out by PCR-RFLP approach. The effect of MSTN genotypes (TT and TA) on growth traits was estimated by GLM procedure. The results showed that for ADG2, individuals with TA genotype were higher than those of TT genotype (P = 0.052), indicating a positive effect for A allele. For BW60, ADG1 and ADG, the effect of porcine MSTN genotype was non-significant (P > 0.1). Studies are still necessary for examining the effects in "double-muscled" pigs.

  14. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Olli; Haakana, Piia; Pesola, Arto J; Häkkinen, Keijo; Rantalainen, Timo; Havu, Marko; Pullinen, Teemu; Finni, Taija

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg) were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours). EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC)) during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC)). During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC) (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s) which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC)). Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min). Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC) than men (p<0.05). In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  15. Daily doses of biologically active UV radiation retrieved from commonly available parameters.

    PubMed

    de La Casinière, Alain; Touré, Mamadou Lamine; Masserot, Dominique; Cabot, Thierry; Pinedo Vega, Jose Luis

    2002-08-01

    A multiple linear correlation is done between atmospheric transmissivity for four biologically active radiation daily doses (UVB, erythemal, DNA and plant damage) T, and three parameters (daily sunshine fraction sigma, cosine of the daily minimum solar zenith angle mu min and daily total ozone column omega). T is defined as the ratio of a daily dose to its extra-atmospheric value. The data used are spectral UV measurements (390-400 nm at 0.5 nm step) recorded along year 2000 and over 8 months of year 2001 at Briançon Station (Alps, 1300 m above sea level) that forms part of the French UV network. The coefficients obtained from year 2000 correlation permit to retrieve daily doses for year 2001 with an average error running from 3 to 9% for monthly mean values and from 2 to 4.5% for 3-monthly mean values, depending on daily dose type. The retrieval of yearly mean value gives an error between 4 and 7.5%. Retrieving the daily dose of a given day, where sigma > or = 0.2, introduces error running from 16 to 32% depending on daily dose. An attempt to retrieve the yearly mean UVB daily dose for a northern France site, from the previous coefficients, gives encouraging results.

  16. Light propagation in the averaged universe

    SciTech Connect

    Bagheri, Samae; Schwarz, Dominik J. E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2014-10-01

    Cosmic structures determine how light propagates through the Universe and consequently must be taken into account in the interpretation of observations. In the standard cosmological model at the largest scales, such structures are either ignored or treated as small perturbations to an isotropic and homogeneous Universe. This isotropic and homogeneous model is commonly assumed to emerge from some averaging process at the largest scales. We assume that there exists an averaging procedure that preserves the causal structure of space-time. Based on that assumption, we study the effects of averaging the geometry of space-time and derive an averaged version of the null geodesic equation of motion. For the averaged geometry we then assume a flat Friedmann-Lemaître (FL) model and find that light propagation in this averaged FL model is not given by null geodesics of that model, but rather by a modified light propagation equation that contains an effective Hubble expansion rate, which differs from the Hubble rate of the averaged space-time.

  17. An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamazaki, Y.; Yumoto, K.; Cardinal, M.G.; Fraser, B.J.; Hattori, P.; Kakinami, Y.; Liu, J.Y.; Lynn, K.J.W.; Marshall, R.; McNamara, D.; Nagatsuma, T.; Nikiforov, V.M.; Otadoy, R.E.; Ruhimat, M.; Shevtsov, B.M.; Shiokawa, K.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2011-01-01

    An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation has been constructed based on geomagnetic data obtained from 21 stations along the 210 Magnetic Meridian of the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) from 1996 to 2007. Using the least squares fitting method for geomagnetically quiet days (Kp ??? 2+), the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation at each station was described as a function of solar activity SA, day of year DOY, lunar age LA, and local time LT. After interpolation in latitude, the model can describe solar-activity dependence and seasonal dependence of solar quiet daily variations (S) and lunar quiet daily variations (L). We performed a spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) on these S and L variations to examine average characteristics of the equivalent external current systems. We found three particularly noteworthy results. First, the total current intensity of the S current system is largely controlled by solar activity while its focus position is not significantly affected by solar activity. Second, we found that seasonal variations of the S current intensity exhibit north-south asymmetry; the current intensity of the northern vortex shows a prominent annual variation while the southern vortex shows a clear semi-annual variation as well as annual variation. Thirdly, we found that the total intensity of the L current system changes depending on solar activity and season; seasonal variations of the L current intensity show an enhancement during the December solstice, independent of the level of solar activity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Development of daily "swath" mascon solutions from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas

    2016-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has provided invaluable and the only data of its kind over the past 14 years that measures the total water column in the Earth System. The GRACE project provides monthly average solutions and there are experimental quick-look solutions and regularized sliding window solutions available from Center for Space Research (CSR) that implement a sliding window approach and variable daily weights. The need for special handling of these solutions in data assimilation and the possibility of capturing the total water storage (TWS) signal at sub-monthly time scales motivated this study. This study discusses the progress of the development of true daily high resolution "swath" mascon total water storage estimate from GRACE using Tikhonov regularization. These solutions include the estimates of daily total water storage (TWS) for the mascon elements that were "observed" by the GRACE satellites on a given day. This paper discusses the computation techniques, signal, error and uncertainty characterization of these daily solutions. We discuss the comparisons with the official GRACE RL05 solutions and with CSR mascon solution to characterize the impact on science results especially at the sub-monthly time scales. The evaluation is done with emphasis on the temporal signal characteristics and validated against in-situ data set and multiple models.

  19. 17 CFR 41.11 - Method for determining market capitalization and dollar value of average daily trading volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... business. (3) Depositary share has the same meaning as in § 240.12b-2. (4) Foreign financial regulatory... been reported to a foreign financial regulatory authority in the jurisdiction where such...

  20. Plasma concentrations of acyl-ghrelin are associated with average daily gain and feeding behavior in grow-finish pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding behavior is an important component of growth and feed efficiency in swine. Acyl-ghrelin is a peptide produced in the stomach that is orexigenic. The role of ghrelin in regulating feeding behavior in swine under commercial conditions is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine ...

  1. 34 CFR 222.37 - How does the Secretary calculate the average daily attendance of federally connected children?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distributing State aid for education. (ii) If an LEA provides a program of free public summer school... practice. (iii) An LEA's ADA count includes attendance data for children for whom it makes tuition... for the child; or (ii) Attending the applicant's schools under a tuition arrangement with another...

  2. 34 CFR 222.37 - How does the Secretary calculate the average daily attendance of federally connected children?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... distributing State aid for education. (ii) If an LEA provides a program of free public summer school... practice. (iii) An LEA's ADA count includes attendance data for children for whom it makes tuition... for the child; or (ii) Attending the applicant's schools under a tuition arrangement with another...

  3. 34 CFR 222.37 - How does the Secretary calculate the average daily attendance of federally connected children?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distributing State aid for education. (ii) If an LEA provides a program of free public summer school... practice. (iii) An LEA's ADA count includes attendance data for children for whom it makes tuition... for the child; or (ii) Attending the applicant's schools under a tuition arrangement with another...

  4. 34 CFR 222.37 - How does the Secretary calculate the average daily attendance of federally connected children?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... distributing State aid for education. (ii) If an LEA provides a program of free public summer school... practice. (iii) An LEA's ADA count includes attendance data for children for whom it makes tuition... for the child; or (ii) Attending the applicant's schools under a tuition arrangement with another...

  5. Genetic variance and covariance components for feed intake, average daily gain, and postweaning gain in growing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed is the single most expensive cost related to a beef cattle production enterprise. Data collection to determine feed efficient animals is also costly. Currently a 70 d performance test is recommended for accurate calculation of efficiency. Previous research has suggested intake tests can be l...

  6. 17 CFR 41.11 - Method for determining market capitalization and dollar value of average daily trading volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... securities with the largest market capitalization shall be identified from the universe of all NMS securities... identified from the universe of all NMS securities as defined in § 242.600 that are common stock...

  7. 17 CFR 41.11 - Method for determining market capitalization and dollar value of average daily trading volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... securities with the largest market capitalization shall be identified from the universe of all NMS securities... identified from the universe of all NMS securities as defined in § 242.600 that are common stock...

  8. 17 CFR 41.11 - Method for determining market capitalization and dollar value of average daily trading volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... securities with the largest market capitalization shall be identified from the universe of all NMS securities... identified from the universe of all NMS securities as defined in § 242.600 that are common stock...

  9. 17 CFR 41.11 - Method for determining market capitalization and dollar value of average daily trading volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... securities with the largest market capitalization shall be identified from the universe of all NMS securities... identified from the universe of all NMS securities as defined in § 242.600 that are common stock...

  10. Average shape of transport-limited aggregates.

    PubMed

    Davidovitch, Benny; Choi, Jaehyuk; Bazant, Martin Z

    2005-08-12

    We study the relation between stochastic and continuous transport-limited growth models. We derive a nonlinear integro-differential equation for the average shape of stochastic aggregates, whose mean-field approximation is the corresponding continuous equation. Focusing on the advection-diffusion-limited aggregation (ADLA) model, we show that the average shape of the stochastic growth is similar, but not identical, to the corresponding continuous dynamics. Similar results should apply to DLA, thus explaining the known discrepancies between average DLA shapes and viscous fingers in a channel geometry.

  11. Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.

    PubMed

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

    2008-10-31

    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.

  12. Average-passage flow model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark

    1989-01-01

    A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

  13. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  14. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  15. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  16. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  17. Bimetal sensor averages temperature of nonuniform profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittrich, R. T.

    1968-01-01

    Instrument that measures an average temperature across a nonuniform temperature profile under steady-state conditions has been developed. The principle of operation is an application of the expansion of a solid material caused by a change in temperature.

  18. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  19. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  20. Longitudinal Patterns of Employment and Postsecondary Education for Adults with Autism and Average-Range IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Henninger, Natalie A.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined correlates of participation in postsecondary education and employment over 12?years for 73 adults with autism spectrum disorders and average-range IQ whose families were part of a larger, longitudinal study. Correlates included demographic (sex, maternal education, paternal education), behavioral (activities of daily living,…

  1. Monthly average polar sea-ice concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1995-01-01

    The data contained in this CD-ROM depict monthly averages of sea-ice concentration in the modern polar oceans. These averages were derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instruments aboard satellites of the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1978 through 1992. The data are provided as 8-bit images using the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

  2. Radial averages of astigmatic TEM images.

    PubMed

    Fernando, K Vince

    2008-10-01

    The Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) of an image, which modulates images taken from a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), is usually determined from the radial average of the power spectrum of the image (Frank, J., Three-dimensional Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006). The CTF is primarily defined by the defocus. If the defocus estimate is accurate enough then it is possible to demodulate the image, which is popularly known as the CTF correction. However, it is known that the radial average is somewhat attenuated if the image is astigmatic (see Fernando, K.V., Fuller, S.D., 2007. Determination of astigmatism in TEM images. Journal of Structural Biology 157, 189-200) but this distortion due to astigmatism has not been fully studied or understood up to now. We have discovered the exact mathematical relationship between the radial averages of TEM images with and without astigmatism. This relationship is determined by a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind and hence we can exactly quantify this distortion in the radial averages of signal and power spectra of astigmatic images. The argument to this Bessel function is similar to an aberration function (without the spherical aberration term) except that the defocus parameter is replaced by the differences of the defoci in the major and minor axes of astigmatism. The ill effects due this Bessel function are twofold. Since the zeroth order Bessel function is a decaying oscillatory function, it introduces additional zeros to the radial average and it also attenuates the CTF signal in the radial averages. Using our analysis, it is possible to simulate the effects of astigmatism in radial averages by imposing Bessel functions on idealized radial averages of images which are not astigmatic. We validate our theory using astigmatic TEM images.

  3. Instrument to average 100 data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, G. B.; Birchenough, A. G.; Rice, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    An instrumentation system is currently under development which will measure many of the important parameters associated with the operation of an internal combustion engine. Some of these parameters include mass-fraction burn rate, ignition energy, and the indicated mean effective pressure. One of the characteristics of an internal combustion engine is the cycle-to-cycle variation of these parameters. A curve-averaging instrument has been produced which will generate the average curve, over 100 cycles, of any engine parameter. the average curve is described by 2048 discrete points which are displayed on an oscilloscope screen to facilitate recording and is available in real time. Input can be any parameter which is expressed as a + or - 10-volt signal. Operation of the curve-averaging instrument is defined between 100 and 6000 rpm. Provisions have also been made for averaging as many as four parameters simultaneously, with a subsequent decrease in resolution. This provides the means to correlate and perhaps interrelate the phenomena occurring in an internal combustion engine. This instrument has been used successfully on a 1975 Chevrolet V8 engine, and on a Continental 6-cylinder aircraft engine. While this instrument was designed for use on an internal combustion engine, with some modification it can be used to average any cyclically varying waveform.

  4. A stochastic model for the analysis of maximum daily temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model for the analysis of the daily maximum temperature is proposed. First, a deseasonalization procedure based on the truncated Fourier expansion is adopted. Then, the Johnson transformation functions were applied for the data normalization. Finally, the fractionally autoregressive integrated moving average model was used to reproduce both short- and long-memory behavior of the temperature series. The model was applied to the data of the Cosenza gauge (Calabria region) and verified on other four gauges of southern Italy. Through a Monte Carlo simulation procedure based on the proposed model, 105 years of daily maximum temperature have been generated. Among the possible applications of the model, the occurrence probabilities of the annual maximum values have been evaluated. Moreover, the procedure was applied for the estimation of the return periods of long sequences of days with maximum temperature above prefixed thresholds.

  5. The generic modeling fallacy: Average biomechanical models often produce non-average results!

    PubMed

    Cook, Douglas D; Robertson, Daniel J

    2016-11-07

    Computational biomechanics models constructed using nominal or average input parameters are often assumed to produce average results that are representative of a target population of interest. To investigate this assumption a stochastic Monte Carlo analysis of two common biomechanical models was conducted. Consistent discrepancies were found between the behavior of average models and the average behavior of the population from which the average models׳ input parameters were derived. More interestingly, broadly distributed sets of non-average input parameters were found to produce average or near average model behaviors. In other words, average models did not produce average results, and models that did produce average results possessed non-average input parameters. These findings have implications on the prevalent practice of employing average input parameters in computational models. To facilitate further discussion on the topic, the authors have termed this phenomenon the "Generic Modeling Fallacy". The mathematical explanation of the Generic Modeling Fallacy is presented and suggestions for avoiding it are provided. Analytical and empirical examples of the Generic Modeling Fallacy are also given.

  6. The Daily Routine of the Oldest Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barer, Barbara M.

    Individuals who are beyond the age of 85 have to confront the decrements of aging that are commonly recognized. This study examined the daily routine of the oldest old through interviews. Subjects were asked about the logistics of their daily lives, what they liked best to do, what they didn't like to do, what made a day good for them, and what…

  7. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  8. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  9. How the Daily Press Looks at Hunger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sondra G.

    Utilizing both content analysis of 139 editorials appearing in 19 United States daily newspapers and the results of a survey of 146 newspaper editors, a study asked three questions: (1) To what extent is hunger covered in the news and editorial columns of U.S. daily newspapers? (2) How is hunger defined as a problem in terms of its causes in those…

  10. Techniques for Daily Living: Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others

    Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for daily living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what daily living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…

  11. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  12. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  13. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....

  14. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…

  15. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einolf, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…

  16. Averaged controllability of parameter dependent conservative semigroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohéac, Jérôme; Zuazua, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    We consider the problem of averaged controllability for parameter depending (either in a discrete or continuous fashion) control systems, the aim being to find a control, independent of the unknown parameters, so that the average of the states is controlled. We do it in the context of conservative models, both in an abstract setting and also analysing the specific examples of the wave and Schrödinger equations. Our first result is of perturbative nature. Assuming the averaging probability measure to be a small parameter-dependent perturbation (in a sense that we make precise) of an atomic measure given by a Dirac mass corresponding to a specific realisation of the system, we show that the averaged controllability property is achieved whenever the system corresponding to the support of the Dirac is controllable. Similar tools can be employed to obtain averaged versions of the so-called Ingham inequalities. Particular attention is devoted to the 1d wave equation in which the time-periodicity of solutions can be exploited to obtain more precise results, provided the parameters involved satisfy Diophantine conditions ensuring the lack of resonances.

  17. Adolescent daily and general maladjustment: is there reactivity to daily repeated measures methodologies?

    PubMed

    Nishina, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or experienced and witnessed negative events, or they completed no daily reports. General maladjustment was measured in 2-week intervals before, at the end of, and 2 weeks after the daily report study. Daily maladjustment either decreased or did not change across the 5 daily report exposures. General maladjustment decreased across the three 2-week intervals. Combined, results indicate that short-term daily report studies do not place youth at risk for increased maladjustment.

  18. Genetic analysis of growth traits in Harnali sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lalit; Malik, Z. S.; Dalal, D. S.; Dahiya, S. P.; Patil, C. S.; Dahiya, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation was to study genetic characteristics of Harnali sheep with respect to growth performance and to estimate genetic parameters. Materials and Methods: The 22 years (1992-2013) data of growth traits of a 1603 synthetic population of Harnali sheep maintained at Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, was utilized for this study. A mixed methodology with regression on their dam's weight was used to study the effect of non-genetic factors on growth traits. Heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated using paternal half-sib analysis for body weight at various ages and average daily gain (ADG) for different growth periods. Result: The overall least squares mean of body weights recorded for birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), six months body weight (SMW), one yearling body weight (YBW), average daily gain from birth to 3 months (ADG1) and average daily gain from 3 to 12 months (ADG2) were 3.35±0.05 kg, 12.41±0.08 kg, 16.30±0.12 kg, 21.88±0.08 kg, 100.66±0.86 g/day and 35.07±0.39 g/day, respectively. The effects of year of birth significantly (p<0.01) influenced the BW, WW, SMW, YWB, ADG1 and ADG2. The effects of sex of lamb significantly (p<0.01) influenced the BW, WW SMW, YWB, ADG1 and ADG2. The effects of dam's weight at lambing significantly (p<0.01) influenced BW, WW, SMW, YWB, ADG1 and ADG2. No definite trend was observed over the years for the averages of body weight and gain. The heritability estimates of BW, WW, SMW, YBW, ADG1 and ADG2 were 0.40±0.05, 0.38±0.05, 0.45±0.06, 0.29±0.05, 0.40±0.06 and 0.33±0.02, respectively. The male lambs were significantly heavier than females at all stages of growth. The heritability estimates were moderate for all the growth traits and high genetic correlations of BW and WW with SMW were found. Conclusion: Due to high heritability and positive correlations of SMW with other body weights and daily gain, it was concluded that selection on

  19. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  20. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  1. Attractors and Time Averages for Random Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Vitor

    2006-07-01

    Considering random noise in finite dimensional parameterized families of diffeomorphisms of a compact finite dimensional boundaryless manifold M, we show the existence of time averages for almost every orbit of each point of M, imposing mild conditions on the families. Moreover these averages are given by a finite number of physical absolutely continuous stationary probability measures. We use this result to deduce that situations with infinitely many sinks and Henon-like attractors are not stable under random perturbations, e.g., Newhouse's and Colli's phenomena in the generic unfolding of a quadratic homoclinic tangency by a one-parameter family of diffeomorphisms.

  2. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  3. Average power meter for laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevnina, Elena I.; Maraev, Anton A.; Ishanin, Gennady G.

    2016-04-01

    Advanced metrology equipment, in particular an average power meter for laser radiation, is necessary for effective using of laser technology. In the paper we propose a measurement scheme with periodic scanning of a laser beam. The scheme is implemented in a pass-through average power meter that can perform continuous monitoring during the laser operation in pulse mode or in continuous wave mode and at the same time not to interrupt the operation. The detector used in the device is based on the thermoelastic effect in crystalline quartz as it has fast response, long-time stability of sensitivity, and almost uniform sensitivity dependence on the wavelength.

  4. An improved moving average technical trading rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papailias, Fotis; Thomakos, Dimitrios D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes a modified version of the widely used price and moving average cross-over trading strategies. The suggested approach (presented in its 'long only' version) is a combination of cross-over 'buy' signals and a dynamic threshold value which acts as a dynamic trailing stop. The trading behaviour and performance from this modified strategy are different from the standard approach with results showing that, on average, the proposed modification increases the cumulative return and the Sharpe ratio of the investor while exhibiting smaller maximum drawdown and smaller drawdown duration than the standard strategy.

  5. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the

  6. Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

  7. Average length of stay in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Egawa, H

    1984-03-01

    The average length of stay is essentially an important and appropriate index for hospital bed administration. However, from the position that it is not necessarily an appropriate index in Japan, an analysis is made of the difference in the health care facility system between the United States and Japan. Concerning the length of stay in Japanese hospitals, the median appeared to better represent the situation. It is emphasized that in order for the average length of stay to become an appropriate index, there is need to promote regional health, especially facility planning.

  8. 40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certification: (1) A statement that, to the best of your belief, you will not have a negative credit balance for... calculations of projected emission credits (zero, positive, or negative) based on production projections. If..., rounding to the nearest tenth of a gram: Deficit = (Emission Level − Average Standard) × (Total...

  9. 40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certification: (1) A statement that, to the best of your belief, you will not have a negative credit balance for... calculations of projected emission credits (zero, positive, or negative) based on production projections. If..., rounding to the nearest tenth of a gram: Deficit = (Emission Level − Average Standard) × (Total...

  10. 40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... certification: (1) A statement that, to the best of your belief, you will not have a negative credit balance for... calculations of projected emission credits (zero, positive, or negative) based on production projections. If..., rounding to the nearest tenth of a gram: Deficit = (Emission Level − Average Standard) × (Total...

  11. Measuring Time-Averaged Blood Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothman, Neil S.

    1988-01-01

    Device measures time-averaged component of absolute blood pressure in artery. Includes compliant cuff around artery and external monitoring unit. Ceramic construction in monitoring unit suppresses ebb and flow of pressure-transmitting fluid in sensor chamber. Transducer measures only static component of blood pressure.

  12. Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturrock, Alan

    1997-01-01

    During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…

  13. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…

  14. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants § 63.846...

  15. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants § 63.846...

  16. Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.

    2010-01-01

    The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…

  17. Average thermal characteristics of solar wind electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    Average solar wind electron properties based on a 1 year Vela 4 data sample-from May 1967 to May 1968 are presented. Frequency distributions of electron-to-ion temperature ratio, electron thermal anisotropy, and thermal energy flux are presented. The resulting evidence concerning heat transport in the solar wind is discussed.

  18. World average top-quark mass

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.

  19. Averaging on Earth-Crossing Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronchi, G. F.; Milani, A.

    The orbits of planet-crossing asteroids (and comets) can undergo close approaches and collisions with some major planet. This introduces a singularity in the N-body Hamiltonian, and the averaging of the equations of motion, traditionally used to compute secular perturbations, is undefined. We show that it is possible to define in a rigorous way some generalised averaged equations of motion, in such a way that the generalised solutions are unique and piecewise smooth. This is obtained, both in the planar and in the three-dimensional case, by means of the method of extraction of the singularities by Kantorovich. The modified distance used to approximate the singularity is the one used by Wetherill in his method to compute probability of collision. Some examples of averaged dynamics have been computed; a systematic exploration of the averaged phase space to locate the secular resonances should be the next step. `Alice sighed wearily. ``I think you might do something better with the time'' she said, ``than waste it asking riddles with no answers'' (Alice in Wonderland, L. Carroll)

  20. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  1. How Young Is Standard Average European?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haspelmath, Martin

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of Standard Average European, a European linguistic area, looks at 11 of its features (definite, indefinite articles, have-perfect, participial passive, antiaccusative prominence, nominative experiencers, dative external possessors, negation/negative pronouns, particle comparatives, A-and-B conjunction, relative clauses, verb fronting…

  2. A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…

  3. Monitored daily ambulatory activity, inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients with claudication.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E; Montgomery, Polly S; Blevins, Steve M; Teague, April M; Casanegra, Ana I

    2014-07-01

    We determined the association between daily ambulatory activity and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and claudication. Patients with PAD (n = 134) limited by claudication were studied. Patients took 3275 ± 1743 daily strides for 273 ± 112 minutes each day, and their average daily cadence was 11.7 ± 2.7 strides/min. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was significantly and negatively associated with the total number of daily strides (P < .001), total daily ambulatory time (P < .01), peak activity index (P < .01), daily average cadence (P < .05), and the maximum cadences for 60 minutes (P < .05), 30 minutes (P < .05), 20 minutes (P < .05), and 5 minutes (P < .01). Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 were not significantly associated with any of the ambulatory measures (P > .05). We conclude that higher levels of community-based, daily ambulatory activity are associated with lower levels of inflammation but are not associated with markers of oxidative stress.

  4. Comparison of mouse brain DTI maps using K-space average, image-space average, or no average approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shu-Wei; Mei, Jennifer; Tuel, Keelan

    2013-11-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is achieved by collecting a series of diffusion-weighted images (DWIs). Signal averaging of multiple repetitions can be performed in the k-space (k-avg) or in the image space (m-avg) to improve the image quality. Alternatively, one can treat each acquisition as an independent image and use all of the data to reconstruct the DTI without doing any signal averaging (no-avg). To compare these three approaches, in this study, in vivo DTI data were collected from five normal mice. Noisy data with signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) that varied between five and 30 (before averaging) were then simulated. The DTI indices, including relative anisotropy (RA), trace of diffusion tensor (TR), axial diffusivity (λ║), and radial diffusivity (λ⊥), derived from the k-avg, m-avg, and no-avg, were then compared in the corpus callosum white matter, cortex gray matter, and the ventricles. We found that k-avg and m-avg enhanced the SNR of DWI with no significant differences. However, k-avg produced lower RA in the white matter and higher RA in the gray matter, compared to the m-avg and no-avg, regardless of SNR. The latter two produced similar DTI quantifications. We concluded that k-avg is less preferred for DTI brain imaging.

  5. The impact of feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Lovatto, P A; Radünz Neto, J

    2014-09-01

    The impact of moving from conventional to precision feeding systems in growing-finishing pig operations on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition was studied. Fifteen animals per treatment for a total of 60 pigs of 41.2 (SE = 0.5) kg of BW were used in a performance trial (84 d) with 4 treatments: a 3-phase (3P) feeding program obtained by blending fixed proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); a 3-phase commercial (COM) feeding program; and 2 daily-phase feeding programs in which the blended proportions of feeds A and B were adjusted daily to meet the estimated nutritional requirements of the group (multiphase-group feeding, MPG) or of each pig individually (multiphase-individual feeding, MPI). Daily feed intake was recorded each day and pigs were weighed weekly during the trial. Body composition was assessed at the beginning of the trial and every 28 d by dual-energy X-ray densitometry. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion was estimated as the difference between retention and intake. Organ, carcass, and primal cut measurements were taken after slaughter. The COM feeding program reduced (P < 0.05) ADFI and improved G:F rate in relation to other treatments. The MPG and MPI programs showed values for ADFI, ADG, G:F, final BW, and nitrogen and phosphorus retention that were similar to those obtained for the 3P feeding program. However, compared with the 3P treatment, the MPI feeding program reduced the standardized ileal digestible lysine intake by 27%, the estimated nitrogen excretion by 22%, and the estimated phosphorus excretion by 27% (P < 0.05). Organs, carcass, and primal cut weights did not differ among treatments. Feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques is an effective approach to reduce nutrient excretion without compromising pig performance or carcass composition.

  6. Estimation of human daily boron exposure in a boron-rich area.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Mehmet; Sayli, Uğur; Sayli, Bekir Sitki; Bakirdere, Sezgin; Titretir, Serap; Yavuz Ataman, Osman; Keskin, Siddik

    2007-09-01

    Although, the safe limits of human daily boron (B) exposure are not absolutely clear, there is a growing interest in B and its effects on human health. The aim of the present study was to estimate daily B exposure in 66 males in Turkey living in a B-rich area using water containing at least 2 mg/l boron, with an average age of 38.55 (se 1.66) years and an average number of years of residence in the B-rich area of 35.89 (se 1.73). Another group of males (n 57), living in the city centres of Balikesir and Ankara, were taken as controls; the average age and number of years of residence for this group were 29.44 (se 1.43) and 10.26 (se 1.83) years, respectively. As it is assumed that the B level in urine reflects daily B exposure, the amount of urinary B of both the study and control groups was analysed by using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique. The average daily B exposure value was calculated as 6.77 (se 0.47) mg in the study group and 1.26 (se 0.1) mg in the controls. The results of this study are expected to contribute to creating a reference value for a safe daily B exposure.

  7. Reconstruction of missing daily streamflow data using dynamic regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tencaliec, Patricia; Favre, Anne-Catherine; Prieur, Clémentine; Mathevet, Thibault

    2015-12-01

    River discharge is one of the most important quantities in hydrology. It provides fundamental records for water resources management and climate change monitoring. Even very short data-gaps in this information can cause extremely different analysis outputs. Therefore, reconstructing missing data of incomplete data sets is an important step regarding the performance of the environmental models, engineering, and research applications, thus it presents a great challenge. The objective of this paper is to introduce an effective technique for reconstructing missing daily discharge data when one has access to only daily streamflow data. The proposed procedure uses a combination of regression and autoregressive integrated moving average models (ARIMA) called dynamic regression model. This model uses the linear relationship between neighbor and correlated stations and then adjusts the residual term by fitting an ARIMA structure. Application of the model to eight daily streamflow data for the Durance river watershed showed that the model yields reliable estimates for the missing data in the time series. Simulation studies were also conducted to evaluate the performance of the procedure.

  8. Bayesian multinomial probit modeling of daily windows of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Past epidemiologic studies suggest maternal ambient air pollution exposure during critical periods of the pregnancy is associated with fetal development. We introduce a multinomial probit model that allows for the joint identification of susceptible daily periods during the pregnancy for 12 individual types of CHDs with respect to maternal PM2.5 exposure. We apply the model to a dataset of mothers from the National Birth Defect Prevention Study where daily PM2.5 exposures from weeks 2-8 of pregnancy are assigned (specific to each location and pregnancy date) using predictions from the downscaler pollution model. Results are compared to an aggregated exposure model which defines exposure as the average value over pregnancy weeks 2-8. Increased PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy days 53 and 50-51 for pulmonary valve stenosis and tetralogy of Fallot, respectively, are associated with an increased probability of development of each CHD. The largest estimated effect is seen for atrioventricular septal defects on pregnancy day 14. The aggregated exposure model fails to identify any significant windows of susceptibility during pregnancy weeks 2-8 for the considered CHDs. Considering daily PM2.5 exposures in a new modeling framework revealed positive associations for defects that the standard aggregated exposure model was unable to identify. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policie

  9. REL3.0 SW DAILY UTC

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-05

    ... Active Radiation Flux Cloud Fraction Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Satellite Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Astronomy ... ISCCP Data Table SSE Renewable Energy Readme Files:  Readme_3.0_sw_daily ...

  10. REL3.0 SW DAILY LOCAL

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-05

    ... Active Radiation Flux Cloud Fraction Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Satellite Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Astronomy ... ISCCP Data Table SSE Renewable Energy Readme Files:  Readme_3.0_sw_daily ...

  11. Percent Daily Value: What Does It Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating What do the Daily Value numbers mean on food labels? Answers from ... 15, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/food-and- ...

  12. AMSR2 Daily Arctic Sea Ice - 2014

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this animation, the daily Arctic sea ice and seasonal land cover change progress through time, from March 21, 2014 through the 3rd of August, 2014. Over the water, Arctic sea ice changes from da...

  13. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, M.

    2013-11-07

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today’s CEBAF polarized source operating at ∼ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  14. Rigid shape matching by segmentation averaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Oliensis, John

    2010-04-01

    We use segmentations to match images by shape. The new matching technique does not require point-to-point edge correspondence and is robust to small shape variations and spatial shifts. To address the unreliability of segmentations computed bottom-up, we give a closed form approximation to an average over all segmentations. Our method has many extensions, yielding new algorithms for tracking, object detection, segmentation, and edge-preserving smoothing. For segmentation, instead of a maximum a posteriori approach, we compute the "central" segmentation minimizing the average distance to all segmentations of an image. For smoothing, instead of smoothing images based on local structures, we smooth based on the global optimal image structures. Our methods for segmentation, smoothing, and object detection perform competitively, and we also show promising results in shape-based tracking.

  15. Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

  16. Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, M. K.; Bagchi, A.

    1998-11-15

    We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

  17. The Average Velocity in a Queue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frette, Vidar

    2009-01-01

    A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…

  18. Disk-Averaged Synthetic Spectra of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong ,William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-08-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  19. Digital Averaging Phasemeter for Heterodyne Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Donald; Spero, Robert; Shaklan, Stuart; Halverson, Peter; Kuhnert, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A digital averaging phasemeter has been built for measuring the difference between the phases of the unknown and reference heterodyne signals in a heterodyne laser interferometer. This phasemeter performs well enough to enable interferometric measurements of distance with accuracy of the order of 100 pm and with the ability to track distance as it changes at a speed of as much as 50 cm/s. This phasemeter is unique in that it is a single, integral system capable of performing three major functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate systems: (1) measurement of the fractional-cycle phase difference, (2) counting of multiple cycles of phase change, and (3) averaging of phase measurements over multiple cycles for improved resolution. This phasemeter also offers the advantage of making repeated measurements at a high rate: the phase is measured on every heterodyne cycle. Thus, for example, in measuring the relative phase of two signals having a heterodyne frequency of 10 kHz, the phasemeter would accumulate 10,000 measurements per second. At this high measurement rate, an accurate average phase determination can be made more quickly than is possible at a lower rate.

  20. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  1. On the ensemble averaging of PIC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codur, R. J. B.; Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.

    2016-10-01

    Particle-in-cell simulations are used ubiquitously in plasma physics to study a variety of phenomena. They can be an efficient tool for modeling the Vlasov or Vlasov Fokker Planck equations in multi-dimensions. However, the PIC method actually models the Klimontovich equation for finite size particles. The Vlasov Fokker Planck equation can be derived as the ensemble average of the Klimontovich equation. We present results of studying Landau damping and Stimulated Raman Scattering using PIC simulations where we use identical ``drivers'' but change the random number generator seeds. We show that even for cases where a plasma wave is excited below the noise in a single simulation that the plasma wave can clearly be seen and studied if an ensemble average over O(10) simulations is made. Comparison between the results from an ensemble average and the subtraction technique are also presented. In the subtraction technique two simulations, one with the other without the ``driver'' are conducted with the same random number generator seed and the results are subtracted. This work is supported by DOE, NSF, and ENSC (France).

  2. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-08-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  3. Modern average global sea-surface temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

  4. A simple algorithm for averaging spike trains.

    PubMed

    Julienne, Hannah; Houghton, Conor

    2013-02-25

    Although spike trains are the principal channel of communication between neurons, a single stimulus will elicit different spike trains from trial to trial. This variability, in both spike timings and spike number can obscure the temporal structure of spike trains and often means that computations need to be run on numerous spike trains in order to extract features common across all the responses to a particular stimulus. This can increase the computational burden and obscure analytical results. As a consequence, it is useful to consider how to calculate a central spike train that summarizes a set of trials. Indeed, averaging responses over trials is routine for other signal types. Here, a simple method for finding a central spike train is described. The spike trains are first mapped to functions, these functions are averaged, and a greedy algorithm is then used to map the average function back to a spike train. The central spike trains are tested for a large data set. Their performance on a classification-based test is considerably better than the performance of the medoid spike trains.

  5. Twice-Daily versus Once-Daily Pramipexole Extended Release Dosage Regimens in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui-Jun; Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beomseok

    2017-01-01

    This open-label study aimed to compare once-daily and twice-daily pramipexole extended release (PER) treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy, but with unsatisfactory control, were enrolled. Existing agonist doses were switched into equivalent PER doses. Subjects were consecutively enrolled into either once-daily-first or twice-daily-first groups and received the prescribed amount in one or two, respectively, daily doses for 8 weeks. For the second period, subjects switched regimens in a crossover manner. The forty-four patients completed a questionnaire requesting preference during their last visit. We measured the UPDRS-III, Hoehn and Yahr stages (H&Y) in medication-on state, Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Eighteen patients preferred a twice-daily regimen, 12 preferred a once-daily regimen, and 14 had no preference. After the trial, 14 subjects wanted to be on a once-daily regimen, 25 chose a twice-daily regimen, and 5 wanted to maintain the prestudy regimen. Main reasons for choosing the twice-daily regimen were decreased off-duration, more tolerable off-symptoms, and psychological stability. The mean UPDRS-III, H&Y, and PDSS were not different. Daytime sleepiness was significantly high in the once-daily regimen, whereas nocturnal hallucinations were more common in the twice-daily. Multiple dosing should be considered if once-daily dosing is unsatisfactory. This study is registered as NCT01515774 at ClinicalTrials.gov.

  6. Twice-Daily versus Once-Daily Pramipexole Extended Release Dosage Regimens in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui-Jun; Kim, Han-Joon

    2017-01-01

    This open-label study aimed to compare once-daily and twice-daily pramipexole extended release (PER) treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy, but with unsatisfactory control, were enrolled. Existing agonist doses were switched into equivalent PER doses. Subjects were consecutively enrolled into either once-daily-first or twice-daily-first groups and received the prescribed amount in one or two, respectively, daily doses for 8 weeks. For the second period, subjects switched regimens in a crossover manner. The forty-four patients completed a questionnaire requesting preference during their last visit. We measured the UPDRS-III, Hoehn and Yahr stages (H&Y) in medication-on state, Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Eighteen patients preferred a twice-daily regimen, 12 preferred a once-daily regimen, and 14 had no preference. After the trial, 14 subjects wanted to be on a once-daily regimen, 25 chose a twice-daily regimen, and 5 wanted to maintain the prestudy regimen. Main reasons for choosing the twice-daily regimen were decreased off-duration, more tolerable off-symptoms, and psychological stability. The mean UPDRS-III, H&Y, and PDSS were not different. Daytime sleepiness was significantly high in the once-daily regimen, whereas nocturnal hallucinations were more common in the twice-daily. Multiple dosing should be considered if once-daily dosing is unsatisfactory. This study is registered as NCT01515774 at ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:28265478

  7. Daily intakes of copper, zinc and arsenic in drinking water by population of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Huang, Shengbiao; Wang, Zijian; Lagos, Gustavo

    2006-06-01

    Daily intakes of metals in drinking water are of extreme importance in risk assessment to human health. Some papers focused on this topic, but most of them did not consider the effect of age, gender and work location on daily intakes of metals in drinking water. The objective of present paper is to estimate the levels of Cu, Zn and As ingestion in drinking water in Shanghai, China and the effect of age, gender and work location on daily intakes of these metals. It was also the first time that such a detailed investigation on daily intakes of metals in drinking water was carried out in China in recent years. Drink/Sample (D/S) method was used to estimate the daily intakes of Cu, Zn and As in drinking water. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn and As in drinking water were 10.8 microg/l, 0.29 mg/l and 0.91 microg/l, which were lower than U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Equivalent Level (DWEL) and WHO guideline values. The average daily intakes of Cu, Zn and As in drinking water was 21.12 microg/d, 0.65 mg/d, and 1.83 microg/d, which were on average 0.01%, 1.1% and 1.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. There was a significant difference in daily intake of Zn for different work locations (P=0.04). But no other significant differences in daily intakes of metals in drinking water were found according to age, gender and work location.

  8. The key to winter survival: daily torpor in a small arid-zone marsupial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2009-04-01

    Mammalian hibernation, which lasts on average for about 6 months, can reduce energy expenditure by >90% in comparison to active individuals. In contrast, the widely held view is that daily torpor reduces energy expenditure usually by about 30%, is employed for a few hours every few days, and often occurs only under acute energetic stress. This interpretation is largely based on laboratory studies, whereas knowledge on daily torpor in the field is scant. We used temperature telemetry to quantify thermal biology and activity patterns of a small arid-zone marsupial, the stripe-faced dunnart Sminthopsis macroura (16.9 g), in the wild and to test the hypothesis that daily torpor is a crucial survival strategy of this species in winter. All individuals entered torpor daily with the exception of a single male that remained normothermic for a single day (torpor on 212 of 213 observation days, 99.5%). Torpor was employed at air temperatures ( T a) ranging from approximately -1°C to 36°C. Dunnarts usually entered torpor during the night and aroused at midday with the daily increase of T a. Torpor was on average about twice as long (mean 11.0 ± 4.7 h, n = 8) than in captivity. Animals employed sun basking during rewarming, reduced foraging time significantly, and occasionally omitted activity for several days in sequence. Consequently, we estimate that daily torpor in this species can reduce daily energy expenditure by up to 90%. Our study shows that for wild stripe-faced dunnarts daily torpor is an essential mechanism for overcoming energetic challenges during winter and that torpor data obtained in the laboratory can substantially underestimate the ecological significance of daily torpor in the wild.

  9. A Green's function quantum average atom model

    DOE PAGES

    Starrett, Charles Edward

    2015-05-21

    A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.

  10. Temporal disaggregation of daily meteorological grid data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vormoor, K.; Skaugen, T.

    2012-04-01

    For operational flood forecasting, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE) applies the conceptual HBV rainfall-runoff model for 117 catchments. The hydrological models are calibrated and run using an extensive meteorological grid data set providing daily temperature and precipitation data back to 1957 for entire Norway at 1x1 km grid resolution (seNorge grids). The daily temporal resolution is dictated by the resolution of historical meteorological data. However, since meteorological forecasts and runoff observations are also available at a much finer than a daily time-resolution (e.g. 6 hourly), and many hydrological extreme events happens at a temporal scale of less than daily, it is important to try to establish a historical dataset of meteorological input at a finer corresponding temporal resolution. We present a simple approach for the temporal disaggregation of the daily meteorological seNorge grids into 6-hour values by consulting a HIRLAM hindcast grid data series with an hourly time resolution and a 10x10 km grid resolution. The temporal patterns of the hindcast series are used to disaggregate the daily interpolated observations from the seNorge grids. In this way, we produce a historical grid dataset from 1958-2010 with 6-hourly temperature and precipitation for entire Norway on a 1x1 km grid resolution. For validation and to see if additional information is gained, the disaggregated data is compared with observed values from selected meteorological stations. In addition, the disaggregated data is evaluated against daily data, simply split into four fractions. The validation results indicate that additional information is indeed gained and point out the benefit of disaggregated data compared to daily data split into four. With regard to temperature, the disaggregated values show very low deviations (MAE, RMSE), and are highly correlated with observed values. Regarding precipitation, the disaggregated data shows cumulative

  11. Total ozone trend significance from space time variability of daily Dobson data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of standard errors of total ozone time and area means, as derived from ozone's natural temporal and spatial variability and autocorrelation in middle latitudes determined from daily Dobson data are presented. Assessing the significance of apparent total ozone trends is equivalent to assessing the standard error of the means. Standard errors of time averages depend on the temporal variability and correlation of the averaged parameter. Trend detectability is discussed, both for the present network and for satellite measurements.

  12. Stochastic daily modeling of arctic tundra ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, A.; Epstein, H. E.; Frazier, J.

    2011-12-01

    ArcVeg is a dynamic vegetation model that has simulated interannual variability of production and abundance of arctic tundra plant types in previous studies. In order to address the effects of changing seasonality on tundra plant community composition and productivity, we have uniquely adapted the model to operate on the daily timescale. Each section of the model-weather generation, nitrogen mineralization, and plant growth dynamics-are driven by daily fluctuations in simulated temperature conditions. These simulation dynamics are achieved by calibrating stochastic iterative loops and mathematical functions with raw field data. Air temperature is the fundamental driver in the model, parameterized by climate data collected in the field across numerous arctic tundra sites, and key daily statistics are extracted (mean and standard deviation of temperature for each day of the year). Nitrogen mineralization is calculated as an exponential function from the simulated temperature. The seasonality of plant growth is driven by the availability of nitrogen and constrained by historical patterns and dynamics of the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), as they pertain to the seasonal onset of growth. Here we describe the methods used for daily weather generation, nitrogen mineralization, and the daily competition among twelve plant functional types for nitrogen and subsequent growth. This still rather simple approach to vegetation dynamics has the capacity to generate complex relationships between seasonal patterns of temperature and arctic tundra vegetation community structure and function.

  13. Local average height distribution of fluctuating interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

    2017-01-01

    Height fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of height in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1 +1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average height. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average height. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time height-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1 +1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of height in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2 +1 dimensions.

  14. Average neutronic properties of prompt fission products

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, D.G. Jr.; Arthur, E.D.

    1982-02-01

    Calculations of the average neutronic properties of the ensemble of fission products producted by fast-neutron fission of /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu, where the properties are determined before the first beta decay of any of the fragments, are described. For each case we approximate the ensemble by a weighted average over 10 selected nuclides, whose properties we calculate using nuclear-model parameters deduced from the systematic properties of other isotopes of the same elements as the fission fragments. The calculations were performed primarily with the COMNUC and GNASH statistical-model codes. The results, available in ENDF/B format, include cross sections, angular distributions of neutrons, and spectra of neutrons and photons, for incident-neutron energies between 10/sup -5/ eV and 20 MeV. Over most of this energy range, we find that the capture cross section of /sup 239/Pu fission fragments is systematically a factor of two to five greater than for /sup 235/U fission fragments.

  15. Local average height distribution of fluctuating interfaces.

    PubMed

    Smith, Naftali R; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V

    2017-01-01

    Height fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of height in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1+1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average height. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average height. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time height-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1+1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of height in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2+1 dimensions.

  16. The daily rhythm of body temperature, heart and respiratory rate in newborn dogs.

    PubMed

    Piccione, Giuseppe; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Mortola, Jacopo P

    2010-08-01

    We asked whether, during the postnatal period, the daily patterns of body temperature (Tb), heart rate (HR) and breathing frequency (f) begin and develop in synchrony. To this end, measurements of HR, f and Tb were performed weekly, on two consecutive days, for the first two postnatal months on puppies of three breeds of dogs (Rottweiler, Cocker Spaniel and Carlino dogs) with very different birth weights and postnatal growth patterns. Ambient conditions and feeding habits were constant for all puppies. The results indicated that (1) the 24-h average Tb increased and average HR and f decreased with growth, (2) the daily rhythms in Tb were apparent by 4 weeks, irrespective of the puppy's growth pattern, (3) the daily rhythm of Tb in the puppy was not necessarily following that of the mother; in fact, it could anticipate it. (4) The daily rhythms in HR and f were not apparent for the whole study period. We conclude that in neonatal dogs the onset of the daily rhythms of Tb has no obvious relationship with body size or rate of growth and is not cued by the maternal Tb rhythm. The daily rhythms of HR and f do not appear before 2 months of age. Hence, they are not in synchrony with those of Tb.

  17. Lagrangian averaging, nonlinear waves, and shock regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Harish S.

    In this thesis, we explore various models for the flow of a compressible fluid as well as model equations for shock formation, one of the main features of compressible fluid flows. We begin by reviewing the variational structure of compressible fluid mechanics. We derive the barotropic compressible Euler equations from a variational principle in both material and spatial frames. Writing the resulting equations of motion requires certain Lie-algebraic calculations that we carry out in detail for expository purposes. Next, we extend the derivation of the Lagrangian averaged Euler (LAE-alpha) equations to the case of barotropic compressible flows. The derivation in this thesis involves averaging over a tube of trajectories etaepsilon centered around a given Lagrangian flow eta. With this tube framework, the LAE-alpha equations are derived by following a simple procedure: start with a given action, expand via Taylor series in terms of small-scale fluid fluctuations xi, truncate, average, and then model those terms that are nonlinear functions of xi. We then analyze a one-dimensional subcase of the general models derived above. We prove the existence of a large family of traveling wave solutions. Computing the dispersion relation for this model, we find it is nonlinear, implying that the equation is dispersive. We carry out numerical experiments that show that the model possesses smooth, bounded solutions that display interesting pattern formation. Finally, we examine a Hamiltonian partial differential equation (PDE) that regularizes the inviscid Burgers equation without the addition of standard viscosity. Here alpha is a small parameter that controls a nonlinear smoothing term that we have added to the inviscid Burgers equation. We show the existence of a large family of traveling front solutions. We analyze the initial-value problem and prove well-posedness for a certain class of initial data. We prove that in the zero-alpha limit, without any standard viscosity

  18. Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

  19. Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Caponi, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine.

  20. Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Comprehensive time average digital holographic vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít; Doleček, Roman; Mokrý, Pavel; Vojtíšek, Petr; Václavík, Jan

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a method that simultaneously deals with drawbacks of time-average digital holography: limited measurement range, limited spatial resolution, and quantitative analysis of the measured Bessel fringe patterns. When the frequency of the reference wave is shifted by an integer multiple of frequency at which the object oscillates, the measurement range of the method can be shifted either to smaller or to larger vibration amplitudes. In addition, phase modulation of the reference wave is used to obtain a sequence of phase-modulated fringe patterns. Such fringe patterns can be combined by means of phase-shifting algorithms, and amplitudes of vibrations can be straightforwardly computed. This approach independently calculates the amplitude values in every single pixel. The frequency shift and phase modulation are realized by proper control of Bragg cells and therefore no additional hardware is required.

  2. High average power linear induction accelerator development

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, J.R.; Adler, R.J.

    1987-07-01

    There is increasing interest in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) for applications including free electron lasers, high power microwave generators and other types of radiation sources. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed LIA technology in combination with magnetic pulse compression techniques to achieve very impressive performance levels. In this paper we will briefly discuss the LIA concept and describe our development program. Our goals are to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of LIA systems. An accelerator is presently under construction to demonstrate these improvements at an energy of 1.6 MeV in 2 kA, 65 ns beam pulses at an average beam power of approximately 30 kW. The unique features of this system are a low cost accelerator design and an SCR-switched, magnetically compressed, pulse power system. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  4. The Average-Value Correspondence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Philip

    2007-12-01

    In previous work [1], we have presented an attempt to derive the finite-dimensional abstract quantum formalism from a set of physically comprehensible assumptions. In this paper, we continue the derivation of the quantum formalism by formulating a correspondence principle, the Average-Value Correspondence Principle, that allows relations between measurement outcomes which are known to hold in a classical model of a system to be systematically taken over into the quantum model of the system, and by using this principle to derive many of the correspondence rules (such as operator rules, commutation relations, and Dirac's Poisson bracket rule) that are needed to apply the abstract quantum formalism to model particular physical systems.

  5. Average prime-pair counting formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korevaar, Jaap; Riele, Herman Te

    2010-04-01

    Taking r>0 , let π_{2r}(x) denote the number of prime pairs (p, p+2r) with p≤ x . The prime-pair conjecture of Hardy and Littlewood (1923) asserts that π_{2r}(x)˜ 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) with an explicit constant C_{2r}>0 . There seems to be no good conjecture for the remainders ω_{2r}(x)=π_{2r}(x)- 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) that corresponds to Riemann's formula for π(x)-{li}(x) . However, there is a heuristic approximate formula for averages of the remainders ω_{2r}(x) which is supported by numerical results.

  6. Evaluation of Time-Averaged CERES TOA SW Product Using CAGEX Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Ann B.; Wong, Takmeng

    1998-01-01

    A major component in the analysis of the Earth's radiation budget is the recovery of daily and monthly averaged radiative parameters using noncontinuous spatial and temporal measurements from polar orbiting satellites. In this study, the accuracy of the top of atmosphere (TOA) shortwave (SW) temporal interpolation model for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is investigated using temporally intensive half-hourly TOA fluxes from the CERES/ARM/GEWEX Experiment (CAGEX) over Oklahoma (Charlock et al., 1996).

  7. Patterns of change in daily step counts, where does the change happen?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the change in the average daily steps taken at different cadence (steps/min) levels when a change in total steps/day occurs. A total of 43 people participated in a one-week intervention with the goal to increase time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical act...

  8. Time Series in Education: The Analysis of Daily Attendance in Two High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses the use of a time series approach to the analysis of daily attendance in two urban high schools over the course of one school year (2009-10). After establishing that the series for both schools were stationary, they were examined for moving average processes, autoregression, seasonal dependencies (weekly cycles),…

  9. Seasonal greenhouse gas emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide) from engineered landfills: Daily, intermediate, and final California cover soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We quantified the seasonal variability of CH4, CO2, and N2O emissions from fresh refuse and daily, intermediate, and final cover materials at two California landfills. Fresh refuse fluxes (g m-2 d-1) averaged CH4 0.053[+/-0.03], CO2 135[+/-117], and N2O 0.063[+/-0.059]. Average CH4 emissions across ...

  10. Deriving Daily Purpose through Daily Events and Role Fulfillment among Asian American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Establishing life purpose is a key developmental task; however, how it is linked to adolescents' everyday family, school, extracurricular, and leisure experiences remains unclear. Using daily diary data from 180 Asian American ninth and tenth graders (50% ninth; 58% female; 25% first generation), daily purpose was positively related to daily…

  11. Products to Aid in Daily Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... for an update to this message. Product List Product/Services Topics Care Services Information and Referral Service (800) 782-4747 alsinfo@alsa-national.org For People with ALS and ... Videos Factsheets Products to Aid in Daily Living Informative Web Links ...

  12. Modelling erosion on a daily basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikha Shrestha, Dhruba; Jetten, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Effect of soil erosion causing negative impact on ecosystem services and food security is well known. To assess annual erosion rates various empirical models have been extensively used in all the climatic regions. While these models are simple to operate and do not require lot of input data, the effect of extreme rain is not taken into account in the annual estimations. For analysing the effects of extreme rain the event- based models become handy. These models can simulate detail erosional processes including particle detachment, transportation and deposition of sediments during a storm. But they are not applicable for estimating annual erosion rates. Moreover storm event data may not be available everywhere which prohibits their extensive use. In this paper we describe a method by adapting the revised MMF model to assess erosion on daily basis so that the effects of extreme rains are taken into account. We couple it to a simple surface soil moisture balance on a daily basis and include estimation of daily vegetation cover changes. Annual soil loss is calculated by adding daily erosion rates. We compare the obtained results with that obtained from applying the revised MMF model in a case study in the Mamora plateau in northwest Morocco which is affected by severe gully formation. The results show clearly the effects of exceptional rain in erosional processes which cannot be captured in an annual model.

  13. Daily Physical Education/Fitness. Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    Physical education staff (principals and division superintendents) in the Manitoba, Canada department of education responded to a survey pertaining to time allotments of physical education programs. Survey results indicated that all levels of administration supported the implementation of daily physical education programs. There is general…

  14. Big Ideas behind Daily 5 and CAFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The Daily 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…

  15. INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S DAILY AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of daily ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...

  16. Daily Routines of Young Children. (Draft).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossbach, Hans-Guenther

    This pilot study of the structural characteristics of daily routines of young children also explored aspects of conceptual framework and research instruments. Four data collection instruments were developed. Two of the three retrospective measures used were questionnaires for mothers about their child's routine on the previous day. The other…

  17. Good Ideas for Teaching Daily Adult Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Robert K.

    Intended for practicing Adult Basic Education teachers, this handbook provides materials for teaching specific coping skills in the area of daily adult living. Three areas of study are explored: (1) community, which includes organizations, health, nutrition, safety, money management, and media; (2) government and law, which includes citizenship,…

  18. 27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...

  19. 27 CFR 19.829 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Records § 19.829 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing process shall keep accurate... spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of vinegar produced; and (f) The...

  20. 27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...

  1. 27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...

  2. 27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...

  3. Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

  4. Average oxidation state of carbon in proteins.

    PubMed

    Dick, Jeffrey M

    2014-11-06

    The formal oxidation state of carbon atoms in organic molecules depends on the covalent structure. In proteins, the average oxidation state of carbon (Z(C)) can be calculated as an elemental ratio from the chemical formula. To investigate oxidation-reduction (redox) patterns, groups of proteins from different subcellular locations and phylogenetic groups were selected for comparison. Extracellular proteins of yeast have a relatively high oxidation state of carbon, corresponding with oxidizing conditions outside of the cell. However, an inverse relationship between Z(C) and redox potential occurs between the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm. This trend provides support for the hypothesis that protein transport and turnover are ultimately coupled to the maintenance of different glutathione redox potentials in subcellular compartments. There are broad changes in Z(C) in whole-genome protein compositions in microbes from different environments, and in Rubisco homologues, lower Z(C) tends to occur in organisms with higher optimal growth temperature. Energetic costs calculated from thermodynamic models are consistent with the notion that thermophilic organisms exhibit molecular adaptation to not only high temperature but also the reducing nature of many hydrothermal fluids. Further characterization of the material requirements of protein metabolism in terms of the chemical conditions of cells and environments may help to reveal other linkages among biochemical processes with implications for changes on evolutionary time scales.

  5. Average oxidation state of carbon in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    The formal oxidation state of carbon atoms in organic molecules depends on the covalent structure. In proteins, the average oxidation state of carbon (ZC) can be calculated as an elemental ratio from the chemical formula. To investigate oxidation–reduction (redox) patterns, groups of proteins from different subcellular locations and phylogenetic groups were selected for comparison. Extracellular proteins of yeast have a relatively high oxidation state of carbon, corresponding with oxidizing conditions outside of the cell. However, an inverse relationship between ZC and redox potential occurs between the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm. This trend provides support for the hypothesis that protein transport and turnover are ultimately coupled to the maintenance of different glutathione redox potentials in subcellular compartments. There are broad changes in ZC in whole-genome protein compositions in microbes from different environments, and in Rubisco homologues, lower ZC tends to occur in organisms with higher optimal growth temperature. Energetic costs calculated from thermodynamic models are consistent with the notion that thermophilic organisms exhibit molecular adaptation to not only high temperature but also the reducing nature of many hydrothermal fluids. Further characterization of the material requirements of protein metabolism in terms of the chemical conditions of cells and environments may help to reveal other linkages among biochemical processes with implications for changes on evolutionary time scales. PMID:25165594

  6. Combination of radar and daily precipitation data to estimate meaningful sub-daily point precipitation extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárdossy, András; Pegram, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    The use of radar measurements for the space time estimation of precipitation has for many decades been a central topic in hydro-meteorology. In this paper we are interested specifically in daily and sub-daily extreme values of precipitation at gauged or ungauged locations which are important for design. The purpose of the paper is to develop a methodology to combine daily precipitation observations and radar measurements to estimate sub-daily extremes at point locations. Radar data corrected using precipitation-reflectivity relationships lead to biased estimations of extremes. Different possibilities of correcting systematic errors using the daily observations are investigated. Observed gauged daily amounts are interpolated to unsampled points and subsequently disaggregated using the sub-daily values obtained by the radar. Different corrections based on the spatial variability and the subdaily entropy of scaled rainfall distributions are used to provide unbiased corrections of short duration extremes. Additionally a statistical procedure not based on a matching day by day correction is tested. In this last procedure as we are only interested in rare extremes, low to medium values of rainfall depth were neglected leaving a small number of L days of ranked daily maxima in each set per year, whose sum typically comprises about 50% of each annual rainfall total. The sum of these L day maxima is first iterpolated using a Kriging procedure. Subsequently this sum is disaggregated to daily values using a nearest neighbour procedure. The daily sums are then disaggregated by using the relative values of the biggest L radar based days. Of course, the timings of radar and gauge maxima can be different, so the method presented here uses radar for disaggregating daily gauge totals down to 15 min intervals in order to extract the maxima of sub-hourly through to daily rainfall. The methodologies were tested in South Africa, where an S-band radar operated relatively continuously at

  7. Passive wireless sensor systems can recognize activites of daily living.

    PubMed

    Urwyler, Prabitha; Stucki, Reto; Muri, Rene; Mosimann, Urs P; Nef, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    The ability to determine what activity of daily living a person performs is of interest in many application domains. It is possible to determine the physical and cognitive capabilities of the elderly by inferring what activities they perform in their houses. Our primary aim was to establish a proof of concept that a wireless sensor system can monitor and record physical activity and these data can be modeled to predict activities of daily living. The secondary aim was to determine the optimal placement of the sensor boxes for detecting activities in a room. A wireless sensor system was set up in a laboratory kitchen. The ten healthy participants were requested to make tea following a defined sequence of tasks. Data were collected from the eight wireless sensor boxes placed in specific places in the test kitchen and analyzed to detect the sequences of tasks performed by the participants. These sequence of tasks were trained and tested using the Markov Model. Data analysis focused on the reliability of the system and the integrity of the collected data. The sequence of tasks were successfully recognized for all subjects and the averaged data pattern of tasks sequences between the subjects had a high correlation. Analysis of the data collected indicates that sensors placed in different locations are capable of recognizing activities, with the movement detection sensor contributing the most to detection of tasks. The central top of the room with no obstruction of view was considered to be the best location to record data for activity detection. Wireless sensor systems show much promise as easily deployable to monitor and recognize activities of daily living.

  8. Air pollution and daily mortality in Seoul and Ulsan, Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J T; Shin, D; Chung, Y

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between air pollution and daily mortality for the period 1991-1995 was examined in two Korean cities, Seoul and Ulsan. The observed concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2; mean = 28.7 ppb), ozone (O3; mean = 29.2 ppb), and total suspended particulates (TSP; mean = 82.3 microg/m3) during the study period were at levels below Korea's current ambient air quality standards. Daily death counts were regressed separately in the two cities, using Poisson regression on SO2, O3, and/or TSP controlling for variability in the weather and seasons. When considered singly in Poisson regression models controlling for seasonal variations and weather conditions, the nonaccidental mortality associated with a 50-ppb increment in a 3-day moving average of SO2 concentrations, including the concurrent day and the preceding 2 days, was 1.078 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.057-1.099] for Seoul and 1.051 (CI, 0.991-1.115) for Ulsan. The rate ratio was 1.051 (CI, 1.031-1.072) in Seoul and 0.999 (CI, 0. 961-1.039) in Ulsan per 100 microg/m3 for TSP, and 1.015 (CI, 1. 005-1.025) in Seoul and 1.020 (0.889-1.170) in Ulsan per 50 ppb for 1-hr maximum O3. When TSP was considered simultaneously with other pollutants, the TSP association was no longer significant. We observed independent pollution effects on daily mortality even after using various approaches to control for either weather or seasonal variables in the regression model. This study demonstrated increased mortality associated with air pollution at both SO2 and O3 levels below the current World Health Organization recommendations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924011

  9. Spatial interpolation schemes of daily precipitation for hydrologic modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hwang, Y.; Clark, M.; Rajagopalan, B.; Leavesley, G.

    2012-01-01

    Distributed hydrologic models typically require spatial estimates of precipitation interpolated from sparsely located observational points to the specific grid points. We compare and contrast the performance of regression-based statistical methods for the spatial estimation of precipitation in two hydrologically different basins and confirmed that widely used regression-based estimation schemes fail to describe the realistic spatial variability of daily precipitation field. The methods assessed are: (1) inverse distance weighted average; (2) multiple linear regression (MLR); (3) climatological MLR; and (4) locally weighted polynomial regression (LWP). In order to improve the performance of the interpolations, the authors propose a two-step regression technique for effective daily precipitation estimation. In this simple two-step estimation process, precipitation occurrence is first generated via a logistic regression model before estimate the amount of precipitation separately on wet days. This process generated the precipitation occurrence, amount, and spatial correlation effectively. A distributed hydrologic model (PRMS) was used for the impact analysis in daily time step simulation. Multiple simulations suggested noticeable differences between the input alternatives generated by three different interpolation schemes. Differences are shown in overall simulation error against the observations, degree of explained variability, and seasonal volumes. Simulated streamflows also showed different characteristics in mean, maximum, minimum, and peak flows. Given the same parameter optimization technique, LWP input showed least streamflow error in Alapaha basin and CMLR input showed least error (still very close to LWP) in Animas basin. All of the two-step interpolation inputs resulted in lower streamflow error compared to the directly interpolated inputs. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Approach to forecasting daily maximum ozone levels in St. Louis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prior, E. J.; Schiess, J. R.; Mcdougal, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements taken in 1976 from the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data base, conducted by EPA, were analyzed to determine an optimum set of air-quality and meteorological variables for predicting maximum ozone levels for each day in 1976. A 'leaps and bounds' regression analysis was used to identify the best subset of variables. Three particular variables, the 9 a.m. ozone level, the forecasted maximum temperature, and the 6-9 a.m. averaged wind speed, have useful forecasting utility. The trajectory history of air masses entering St. Louis was studied, and it was concluded that transport-related variables contribute to the appearance of very high ozone levels. The final empirical forecast model predicts the daily maximum ozone over 341 days with a standard deviation of 11 ppb, which approaches the estimated error.

  11. Trends in Observed Summer Daily Temperature Maximum Across Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangwala, I.; Arvidson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Increases in the anthropogenic greenhouse forcing are expected to increase the tendency for longer and stronger heat waves in summer. We examine if there is a trend in the observed daytime extreme temperature (Tmax) during summer between 1900-2014 at select high quality stations (n=9) across Colorado. We compile daily observations of Tmax and other variables during summer (JJA), and derive and analyze trends in five different extreme metrics from this data that include the maximum five-day Tmax average, warm spell duration index, and the number of days when Tmax exceeds the 95th, 99th, and 99.9th percentile conditions. We find that the 1930s and 2000s in Colorado had some outstandingly hot years, when we also find exceptionally high count of summer Tmax extremes. Five out of the nine stations show increases in extreme temperature indicators in the more recent decades. The variability in trends in the daily summer Tmax extremes across the nine stations correspond with the mean annual warming trends at those stations. We also find that wetter summers have much smaller instances of Tmax extremes as compared to drier summers.

  12. Regulating positive and negative emotions in daily life.

    PubMed

    Nezlek, John B; Kuppens, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The present study examined how people regulate their emotions in daily life and how such regulation is related to their daily affective experience and psychological adjustment. Each day for an average of 3 weeks, participants described how they had regulated their emotions in terms of the reappraisal and suppression (inhibiting the expression) of positive and negative emotions, and they described their emotional experience, self-esteem, and psychological adjustment in terms of Beck's triadic model of depression. Reappraisal was used more often than suppression, and suppressing positive emotions was used less than the other three strategies. In general, regulation through reappraisal was found to be beneficial, whereas regulation by suppression was not. Reappraisal of positive emotions was associated with increases in positive affect, self-esteem, and psychological adjustment, whereas suppressing positive emotions was associated with decreased positive emotion, self-esteem, and psychological adjustment, and increased negative emotions. Moreover, relationships between reappraisal and psychological adjustment and self-esteem were mediated by experienced positive affect, whereas relationships between suppression of positive emotions and self-esteem adjustment were mediated by negative affect.

  13. Global Average Brightness Temperature for April 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows average temperatures in April, 2003, observed by AIRS at an infrared wavelength that senses either the Earth's surface or any intervening cloud. Similar to a photograph of the planet taken with the camera shutter held open for a month, stationary features are captured while those obscured by moving clouds are blurred. Many continental features stand out boldly, such as our planet's vast deserts, and India, now at the end of its long, clear dry season. Also obvious are the high, cold Tibetan plateau to the north of India, and the mountains of North America. The band of yellow encircling the planet's equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of persistent thunderstorms and associated high, cold clouds. The ITCZ merges with the monsoon systems of Africa and South America. Higher latitudes are increasingly obscured by clouds, though some features like the Great Lakes, the British Isles and Korea are apparent. The highest latitudes of Europe and Eurasia are completely obscured by clouds, while Antarctica stands out cold and clear at the bottom of the image.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Daily affective experiences predict objective sleep outcomes among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Royette; Choo, Sungsub B; Grant, Kathryn; Adam, Emma K

    2016-02-01

    Adolescence is a sensitive period for changes in both sleep and affect. Although past research has assessed the association between affect and sleep among adolescents, few studies have examined both trait (typical) and day-to-day changes in affect, and fewer still have specifically examined negative social evaluative emotions (e.g. embarrassment) in relation to sleep. Both between- and within-person variations in daily affect were examined in relation to four objectively-measured sleep outcomes (sleep hours; sleep latency; sleep efficiency; and length of wake bouts) among adolescents. Participants (N = 77 high-school students; 42.9% female; M = 14.37 years) wore an actiwatch and completed daily-diaries for 3 days. The results of hierarchical linear models (controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, parental employment status, income, puberty and caffeine) indicated that negative social evaluative emotions and high-arousal affective experiences generally predicted poor sleep outcomes, whereas low-arousal affective experiences were associated with good sleep outcomes. Specifically, at the person level, adolescents reporting higher negative social evaluative emotions had shorter average sleep hours, and those experiencing higher anxiety–nervousness had longer wake bouts. In addition, individuals experiencing more dysphoria (sad, depressed, lonely) had longer average sleep hours and shorter wake bouts, while those experiencing more calmness had shorter sleep latencies. At the within-person level, individuals had longer sleep latencies following days that they had experienced high-arousal positive affect (e.g. excitement), and had longer wake bouts following days they had experienced more negative social evaluative emotions. The results highlight the detrimental effects of negative social evaluative emotions and high-arousal affective states for adolescent sleep.

  15. Daily Affective Experiences Predict Objective Sleep Outcomes among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tavernier, Royette; Choo, Sungsub B; Grant, Kathryn; Adam, Emma K

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adolescence is a sensitive period for changes in both sleep and affect. Although past research has assessed the association between affect and sleep among adolescents, few studies have examined both trait (typical) and day-to-day changes in affect, and fewer still have specifically examined negative social evaluative emotions (NSEE; e.g., embarrassment) in relation to sleep. We examined both between- and within-person variations in daily affect in relation to four objectively-measured sleep outcomes (sleep hours, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, and length of wake bouts) among adolescents. Participants (N = 77 high school students, 42.9% female; M = 14.37 years) wore an actiwatch and completed daily diaries for 3 days. Results of hierarchical linear models (controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, parental employment status, income, puberty, and caffeine) indicated that NSEE and high arousal affective experiences generally predicted poor sleep outcomes, whereas low arousal affective experiences were associated with good sleep outcomes. Specifically, at the person level, adolescents reporting higher NSEE had shorter average sleep hours, and those experiencing higher anxiety-nervousness had longer wake bouts. In addition, individuals experiencing more dysphoria (sad, depressed, lonely) had longer average sleep hours and shorter wake bouts, while those experiencing more calmness had shorter sleep latencies. At the within person level, individuals had longer sleep latencies following days that they had experienced high arousal positive affect (e.g., excitement) and had longer wake bouts following days they had experienced more NSEE. Results highlight the detrimental effects of NSEE and high arousal affective states for adolescent sleep. PMID:26365539

  16. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  17. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  18. Daily Bone Alignment With Limited Repeat CT Correction Rivals Daily Ultrasound Alignment for Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    O'Daniel, Jennifer C.; Dong Lei Zhang Lifei; Wang He; Tucker, Susan L.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Cox, James D.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Mohan, Radhe

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of daily ultrasound (US)- and computed tomography (CT)-guided alignments with an off-line correction protocol using daily bone alignment plus a correction factor for systematic internal prostate displacement (CF{sub ID}). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients underwent CT scans three times weekly using an integrated CT-linear accelerator system, followed by alignment using US for daily radiotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were designed with our current clinical margins. The treatment plan was copied onto the repeat CT images and aligned using several methods: (1) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after three off-line CT scans (bone+3CT), (2) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after six off-line CT scans (bone+6CT), (3) US alignment, and (4) CT alignment. The accuracy of the repeated US and CT measurements to determine the CF{sub ID} was compared. The target dosimetric effect was quantified. Results: The CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacements was more accurately measured with limited repeat CT scans than with US (residual error, 0.0 {+-} 0.7 mm vs. 2.0 {+-} 3.2 mm). Bone+3CT, bone+6CT, and US provided equivalent prostate and seminal vesicle dose coverage, but bone+3CT and bone+6CT produced more precise daily alignments. Daily CT alignment provided the greatest target dose coverage. Conclusion: Daily bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacement provided better daily alignment precision and equivalent dose coverage compared with daily US alignment. The CF{sub ID} should be based on at least three repeat CT scans, which could be collected before the start of treatment or during the first 3 treatment days. Daily bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} provides another option for accurate prostate cancer patient positioning.

  19. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation

  20. Interracial roommate relationships: negotiating daily interactions.

    PubMed

    Trail, Thomas E; Shelton, J Nicole; West, Tessa V

    2009-06-01

    Jobs, social group memberships, or living arrangements lead many people to interact every day with another person from a different racial background. Given that research has shown that interracial interactions are often stressful, it is important to know how these daily interactions unfold across time and what factors contribute to the success or failure of these interactions. Both members of same-race and mixed-race college roommate pairs completed daily questionnaires measuring their emotional experiences and their perceptions of their roommate. Results revealed that roommates in mixed-race dyads experienced less positive emotions and intimacy toward their roommates than did roommates in same-race dyads and that the experience of positive emotions declined over time for ethnic minority students with White roommates. Mediation analyses showed that the negative effects of roommate race were mediated by the level of intimacy-building behaviors performed by the roommate. Implications for future research and university policies are discussed.

  1. An introduction to quiet daily geomagnetic fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet daily field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet Daily Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

  2. Weather factors in the short-term forecasting of daily ambulance calls.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ho-Ting; Lai, Poh-Chin

    2014-07-01

    The daily ambulance demand for Hong Kong is rising, and it has been shown that weather factors (temperature and humidity) play a role in the demand for ambulance services. This study aimed at developing short-term forecasting models of daily ambulance calls using the 7-day weather forecast data as predictors. We employed the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method to analyze over 1.3 million cases of emergency attendance in May 2006 through April 2009 and the 7-day weather forecast data for the same period. Our results showed that the ARIMA model could offer reasonably accurate forecasts of daily ambulance calls at 1-7 days ahead of time and with improved accuracy by including weather factors. Specifically, the inclusion of average temperature alone in our ARIMA model improved the predictability of the 1-day forecast when compared to that of a simple ARIMA model (8.8% decrease in the root mean square error, RMSE=53 vs 58). The improvement in the 7-day forecast with average temperature as a predictor was more pronounced, with a 10% drop in prediction error (RMSE=62 vs 69). These findings suggested that weather forecast data can improve the 1- to 7-day forecasts of daily ambulance demand. As weather forecast data are readily accessible from Hong Kong Observatory's official website, there is virtually no cost to including them in the ARIMA models, which yield better prediction for forward planning and deployment of ambulance manpower.

  3. Daily Deviations in Anger, Guilt, and Sympathy: A Developmental Diary Study of Aggression.

    PubMed

    Colasante, Tyler; Zuffianò, Antonio; Malti, Tina

    2016-11-01

    With a diary study of 4- and 8-year-olds, we tested the association between daily deviations in anger and aggressive behavior, and whether this link was moderated by feelings of guilt and sympathy. Caregivers reported their children's anger and aggression for 10 consecutive days (470 records; N = 80, 53 % girls). To calculate daily anger deviations from average anger levels, we subtracted each child's average anger score (i.e., across 10 days) from his/her daily anger scores. Children reported their guilty feelings in response to vignettes depicting intentional harm, as well as their dispositional sympathy levels. Multilevel modeling indicated that within-child spikes in daily anger were associated with more aggression, above and beyond between-child differences in average anger levels. However, this association was weaker for children who reported higher levels of guilt. Sympathy did not moderate the anger-aggression link. We discuss potential implications for affective-developmental models of aggression and interventions that target anger-related aggression.

  4. Physiological responses to daily light exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming

    2016-04-01

    Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth.

  5. Daily animal exposure and children's biological concepts.

    PubMed

    Geerdts, Megan S; Van de Walle, Gretchen A; LoBue, Vanessa

    2015-02-01

    A large body of research has focused on the developmental trajectory of children's acquisition of a theoretically coherent naive biology. However, considerably less work has focused on how specific daily experiences shape the development of children's knowledge about living things. In the current research, we investigated one common experience that might contribute to biological knowledge development during early childhood-pet ownership. In Study 1, we investigated how children interact with pets by observing 24 preschool-aged children with their pet cats or dogs and asking parents about their children's daily involvement with the pets. We found that most of young children's observed and reported interactions with their pets are reciprocal social interactions. In Study 2, we tested whether children who have daily social experiences with animals are more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than children without pets. Both 3- and 5-year-olds with pets were more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than those without pets. Similarly, both older and younger children with pets showed less anthropocentric patterns of extension of novel biological information. The results suggest that having pets may facilitate the development of a more sophisticated, human-inclusive representation of animals.

  6. The Probability Distribution of Daily Streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, A.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Flow duration curves (FDCs) are a graphical illustration of the cumulative distribution of streamflow. Daily streamflows often range over many orders of magnitude, making it extremely challenging to find a probability distribution function (pdf) which can mimic the steady state or period of record FDC (POR-FDC). Median annual FDCs (MA-FDCs) describe the pdf of daily streamflow in a typical year. For POR- and MA-FDCs, Lmoment diagrams, visual assessments of FDCs and Quantile-Quantile probability plot correlation coefficients are used to evaluate goodness of fit (GOF) of candidate probability distributions. FDCs reveal that both four-parameter kappa (KAP) and three-parameter generalized Pareto (GP3) models result in very high GOF for the MA-FDC and a relatively lower GOF for POR-FDCs at over 500 rivers across the coterminous U.S. Physical basin characteristics, such as baseflow index as well as hydroclimatic indices such as the aridity index and the runoff ratio are found to be correlated with one of the shape parameters (kappa) of the KAP and GP3 pdfs. Our work also reveals several important areas for future research including improved parameter estimators for the KAP pdf, as well as increasing our understanding of the conditions which give rise to improved GOF of analytical pdfs to large samples of daily streamflows.

  7. Daily Interpersonal Events in Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary C.; Affleck, Glenn; Zautra, Alex J.; Tennen, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Action theory proposes that individuals actively shape and then respond to their environments, highlighting the role of stable person characteristics in the development and maintenance of life’s interpersonal difficulties. In this study, we adopted the action perspective in our examination of the daily lives of chronic pain patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Our evaluation of patients’ daily diary reports indicated that individuals played a more prominent role in shaping their positive versus their negative social worlds. The contribution of symptoms of ill health and demographic characteristics, as well as personality attributes were also examined as stable factors that predicted exposure to and appraisal of events. In addition to between-person measures, day to day variations in illness symptoms also played a key role in predicting their social experinces. Together, these findings suggest that stable person characteristics and within-person fluctuations in ill health are each tied to daily interpersonal experiences for those in chronic pain. More broadly, they point to the value of capturing the experiences of individuals intensively over time, an approach that can help to elaborate the contributions of both stable factors and circumstance in shaping our social contexts. PMID:16810668

  8. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  9. Physiological responses to daily light exposure

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth. PMID:27098210

  10. 20 CFR 330.3 - Daily rate of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Daily rate of compensation. 330.3 Section 330... INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.3 Daily rate of compensation. (a) Definition. An employee's daily rate of compensation is his or her straight-time rate of pay, including any...

  11. The Impact of Intercity Competition on Daily Newspaper Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Stephen

    A study examined whether intercity competition affects the content of daily newspapers and whether the content profile is consistent with the umbrella competition theory elaborated by James N. Rosse. Rosse's theory hypothesized four layers of newspaper competition--large metropolitan dailies, satellite daily papers, suburban dailies, and weekly…

  12. Hemoglobin A1c and Self-Monitored Average Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Kovatchev, Boris P.; Breton, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previously we have introduced the eA1c—a new approach to real-time tracking of average glycemia and estimation of HbA1c from infrequent self-monitoring (SMBG) data, which was developed and tested in type 2 diabetes. We now test eA1c in type 1 diabetes and assess its relationship to the hemoglobin glycation index (HGI)—an established predictor of complications and treatment effect. Methods: Reanalysis of previously published 12-month data from 120 patients with type 1 diabetes, age 39.15 (14.35) years, 51/69 males/females, baseline HbA1c = 7.99% (1.48), duration of diabetes 20.28 (12.92) years, number SMBG/day = 4.69 (1.84). Surrogate fasting BG and 7-point daily profiles were derived from these unstructured SMBG data and the previously reported eA1c method was applied without any changes. Following the literature, we calculated HGI = HbA1c – (0.009 × Fasting BG + 6.8). Results: The correlation of eA1c with reference HbA1c was r = .75, and its deviation from reference was MARD = 7.98%; 95% of all eA1c values fell within ±20% from reference. The HGI was well approximated by a linear combination of the eA1c calibration factors: HGI = 0.007552*θ1 + 0.007645*θ2 – 3.154 (P < .0001); 73% of low versus moderate-high HGIs were correctly classified by the same factors as well. Conclusions: The eA1c procedure developed in type 2 diabetes to track in real-time changes in average glycemia and present the results in HbA1c-equivalent units has shown similar performance in type 1 diabetes. The eA1c calibration factors are highly predictive of the HGI, thereby explaining partially the biological variation causing discrepancies between HbA1c and its linear estimates from SMBG data. PMID:26553023

  13. Global daily reference evapotranspiration modeling and evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Lietzow, R.; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and reliable evapotranspiration (ET) datasets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located in selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2001, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing six-hourly climate parameter datasets that are used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1-degree spatial resolution. The U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science has been producing daily reference ET (ETo) since 2001, and it has been used on a variety of operational hydrological models for drought and streamflow monitoring all over the world. With the increasing availability of local station-based reference ET estimates, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CIMIS reference ET estimates from 85 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using five-year daily data from 2002 through 2006. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs. ∼100 km grid cell) between the two datasets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.97 on a daily basis to more than 0.99 on time scales of more than 10 days. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two datasets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter-based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world

  14. Difference in nephrotoxicity of vancomycin administered once daily and twice daily in rats.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Hiroki; Morita, Yukiko; Mizumura, Miyo; Iga, Ikumi; Nagai, Katsuhito

    2013-10-01

    We compared the degree of nephrotoxicity of vancomycin (VCM) administered once daily and twice daily in rats. VCM was intraperitoneally administered once daily to rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg (VCM-1-treated) or administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg twice daily at 12-hour intervals (VCM-2-treated) for 7 consecutive days. Creatinine clearance was decreased more markedly in VCM-1 rats relative to VCM-2 rats, although there was no significant difference in renal accumulation of VCM between the two groups. Renal superoxide dismutase activity was lower in VCM-1 rats than that in VCM-2 rats. The magnitude of histological change in kidney tissue was in agreement with the degree of alterations in the abovementioned biochemical values. These results suggest that the nephrotoxic effect of once-daily VCM administration is more pronounced than that of the twice-daily treatment. Our findings provide fundamental evidence for the advantage in choosing a divided VCM administration to attenuate nephrotoxicity.

  15. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  16. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  17. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  18. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  19. A comparison of climatological observing windows and their impact on detecting daily temperature extrema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žaknić-Ćatović, Ana; Gough, William A.

    2017-02-01

    Climatological observing window (COW) is defined as a time frame over which continuous or extreme air temperature measurements are collected. A 24-h time interval, ending at 00UTC or shifted to end at 06UTC, has been associated with difficulties in characterizing daily temperature extrema. A fixed 24-h COW used to obtain the temperature minima leads to potential misidentification due to fragmentation of "nighttime" into two subsequent nighttime periods due to the time discretization interval. The correct identification of air temperature extrema is achievable using a COW that identifies daily minimum over a single nighttime period and maximum over a single daytime period, as determined by sunrise and sunset. Due to a common absence of hourly air temperature observations, the accuracy of the mean temperature estimation is dependent on the accuracy of determination of diurnal air temperature extrema. Qualitative and quantitative criteria were used to examine the impact of the COW on detecting daily air temperature extrema. The timing of the 24-h observing window occasionally affects the determination of daily extrema through a mischaracterization of the diurnal minima and by extension can lead to errors in determining daily mean temperature. Hourly air temperature data for the time period from year 1987 to 2014, obtained from Toronto Buttonville Municipal Airport weather station, were used in analysis of COW impacts on detection of daily temperature extrema and calculation of annual temperature averages based on such extrema.

  20. Load along the femur shaft during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    D'Angeli, V; Belvedere, C; Ortolani, M; Giannini, S; Leardini, A

    2013-08-09

    A comprehensive knowledge of the loads applied during activities of daily living to the femur shaft is necessary to the design of direct attachments of relevant prostheses. A motion analysis system was used together with an established protocol with skin markers to estimate the three components of the forces and moments acting on ten equidistant points along the full femur shaft. Twenty healthy young volunteers were analyzed while performing three repetitions of the following tasks: level walking at three different speeds, straight-line and with sudden changes of direction to the right and to the left, stairs ascending and descending, squat, rising from a chair and sitting down. Average load patterns, after normalisation for body weight and height, were calculated over subjects for each point, about the three anatomical axes, and for each motor task. These patterns were found consistent over subjects, but different among the anatomical axes and tasks. In general, the moments were observed limitedly influenced by the progression speed, and higher for more proximal points. The moments were also higher in abd/adduction (8.1% body weight*height on average), nearly three times larger than those in flex/extension (2.6) during stair descending. The largest value over all moments was 164.8 N m, abd/adduction in level walking at high speed. The present results should be of value also for a most suitable level for amputation in transfemoral amputation, for in-vitro mechanical tests and for finite element models of the femur.

  1. Instantaneous, phase-averaged, and time-averaged pressure from particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kat, Roeland

    2015-11-01

    Recent work on pressure determination using velocity data from particle image velocimetry (PIV) resulted in approaches that allow for instantaneous and volumetric pressure determination. However, applying these approaches is not always feasible (e.g. due to resolution, access, or other constraints) or desired. In those cases pressure determination approaches using phase-averaged or time-averaged velocity provide an alternative. To assess the performance of these different pressure determination approaches against one another, they are applied to a single data set and their results are compared with each other and with surface pressure measurements. For this assessment, the data set of a flow around a square cylinder (de Kat & van Oudheusden, 2012, Exp. Fluids 52:1089-1106) is used. RdK is supported by a Leverhulme Trust Early Career Fellowship.

  2. Determining average path length and average trapping time on generalized dual dendrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong

    2015-03-01

    Dendrimer has wide number of important applications in various fields. In some cases during transport or diffusion process, it transforms into its dual structure named Husimi cactus. In this paper, we study the structure properties and trapping problem on a family of generalized dual dendrimer with arbitrary coordination numbers. We first calculate exactly the average path length (APL) of the networks. The APL increases logarithmically with the network size, indicating that the networks exhibit a small-world effect. Then we determine the average trapping time (ATT) of the trapping process in two cases, i.e., the trap placed on a central node and the trap is uniformly distributed in all the nodes of the network. In both case, we obtain explicit solutions of ATT and show how they vary with the networks size. Besides, we also discuss the influence of the coordination number on trapping efficiency.

  3. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction. PMID:25525291

  4. The probability distribution of intense daily precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavanaugh, Nicholas R.; Gershunov, Alexander; Panorska, Anna K.; Kozubowski, Tomasz J.

    2015-03-01

    The probability tail structure of over 22,000 weather stations globally is examined in order to identify the physically and mathematically consistent distribution type for modeling the probability of intense daily precipitation and extremes. Results indicate that when aggregating data annually, most locations are to be considered heavy tailed with statistical significance. When aggregating data by season, it becomes evident that the thickness of the probability tail is related to the variability in precipitation causing events and thus that the fundamental cause of precipitation volatility is weather diversity. These results have both theoretical and practical implications for the modeling of high-frequency climate variability worldwide.

  5. BOREAS TE-21 Daily Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, John; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-21 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the meteorology of boreal forest areas. Daily meteorological data were derived from half-hourly BOREAS tower flux (TF) and Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) mesonet measurements collected in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) for the period of 01 Jan 1994 until 31 Dec 1994. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  6. DNA polymorphisms and transcript abundance of PRKAG2 and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase in the rumen are associated with gain and feed intake in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef steers with variation in feed efficiency phenotypes were evaluated previously on a high density SNP panel. Ten markers from rs110125325-rs41652818 on bovine chromosome 4 were associated with average daily gain (ADG). To identify the gene(s) in this 1.2Mb region responsible for variation in AD...

  7. Performance and carcass parameters when meat goats were finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The meat goat industry is growing rapidly in the eastern U.S., particularly on small farms, to supply ethnic market demands. Body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), and carcass parameters were determined when meat goat kids were finished on pastures of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC), bird...

  8. Chemical suppression of seedhead emergence in toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue for improving cattle weight gain and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures that were either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide to determine if suppression of seedhead emergence and maturity can increase average daily gain (ADG) and alleviate fescue toxicosis....

  9. Differences in transcript abundance of genes on BTA15 located within a region associated with gain in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six markers on the Illumina Bovine 50k BeadChip within a 229 Kb region on bovine chromosome 15 were associated (P=0.002) with average daily gain (ADG) in beef cattle. We chose to evaluate seven genes located within this region for variation in RNA transcript abundance in a library of tissue samples ...

  10. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  11. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Computing average monthly compensation. 226.62... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation is...

  12. 40 CFR 1033.710 - Averaging emission credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Averaging emission credits. 1033.710... Averaging emission credits. (a) Averaging is the exchange of emission credits among your engine families. You may average emission credits only as allowed by § 1033.740. (b) You may certify one or more...

  13. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation...

  14. Changes in average length of stay and average charges generated following institution of PSRO review.

    PubMed

    Westphal, M; Frazier, E; Miller, M C

    1979-01-01

    A five-year review of accounting data at a university hospital shows that immediately following institution of concurrent PSRO admission and length of stay review of Medicare-Medicaid patients, there was a significant decrease in length of stay and a fall in average charges generated per patient against the inflationary trend. Similar changes did not occur for the non-Medicare-Medicaid patients who were not reviewed. The observed changes occurred even though the review procedure rarely resulted in the denial of services to patients, suggesting an indirect effect of review.

  15. Vestibular Function and Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Harun, Aisha; Semenov, Yevgeniy R.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Vestibular dysfunction increases with age and is associated with mobility difficulties and fall risk in older individuals. We evaluated whether vestibular function influences the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Method: We analyzed the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of adults aged older than 40 years (N = 5,017). Vestibular function was assessed with the Modified Romberg test. We evaluated the association between vestibular function and difficulty level in performing specific basic and instrumental ADLs, and total number of ADL impairments. Results: Vestibular dysfunction was associated with significantly higher odds of difficulty with nine ADLs, most strongly with difficulty managing finances (odds ratio [OR] = 2.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.18, 5.90]). In addition, vestibular dysfunction was associated with a significantly greater number of ADL impairments (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.09, 0.33]). This effect size was comparable with the influence of heavy smoking (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.06, 0.36]) and hypertension (β = .10, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.18]) on the number of ADL impairments. Conclusion: Vestibular dysfunction significantly influences ADL difficulty, most strongly with a cognitive rather than mobility-based task. These findings underscore the importance of vestibular inputs for both cognitive and physical daily activities. PMID:26753170

  16. Chronic daily headache in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Özge, Aynur

    2013-12-01

    Disabling headache disorders are ubiquitous in all age groups, including the elderly, yet they are under-recognized, underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide. Surveys and clinic-based research reports on headache disorders in elderly populations are extremely limited in number. Chronic daily headache (CDH) is an important and growing subtype of primary headache disorders, associated with increased burden and disruption to quality of life. CDH can be divided into two forms, based on headache duration. Common forms of primary headache disorders of long duration (>4 hours) were comprehensively defined in the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). These include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Rarer short-duration (<4 hours) forms of CDH are chronic cluster headache, chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT, and hypnic headache. Accurate diagnosis, management, and relief of the burden of CDH in the elderly population present numerous unique challenges as the "aging world" continues to grow. In order to implement appropriate coping strategies for the elderly, it is essential to establish the correct diagnosis at each step and to exercise caution in differentiating from secondary causes, while always taking into consideration the unique needs and limitations of the aged body.

  17. Daily Rhythms in Mobile Telephone Communication

    PubMed Central

    Aledavood, Talayeh; López, Eduardo; Roberts, Sam G. B.; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the daily rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in daily patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals’ social networks. Further, women’s calls were longer than men’s calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls were typically focused on a small number of emotionally intense relationships. These results demonstrate that individual differences in circadian rhythms are not just related to broad patterns of morningness and eveningness, but have a strong social component, in directing phone calls to specific individuals at specific times of day. PMID:26390215

  18. Daily Energy Expenditure and Its Relation to Health Care Costs in Patients Undergoing Ambulatory Electrocardiographic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    George, Jason; Abdulla, Rami Khoury; Yeow, Raymond; Aggarwal, Anshul; Boura, Judith; Wegner, James; Franklin, Barry A

    2017-02-15

    Our increasingly sedentary lifestyle is associated with a heightened risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and cardiovascular mortality. Using the recently developed heart rate index formula in 843 patients (mean ± SD age 62.3 ± 15.7 years) who underwent 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring, we estimated average and peak daily energy expenditure, expressed as metabolic equivalents (METs), and related these data to subsequent hospital encounters and health care costs. In this cohort, estimated daily average and peak METs were 1.7 ± 0.7 and 5.5 ± 2.1, respectively. Patients who achieved daily bouts of peak energy expenditure ≥5 METs had fewer hospital encounters (p = 0.006) and median health care costs that were nearly 50% lower (p <0.001) than their counterparts who attained <5 METs. In patients whose body mass index was ≥30 kg/m(2), there were significant differences in health care costs depending on whether they achieved <5 or ≥5 METs estimated by ambulatory ECG monitoring (p = 0.005). Interestingly, patients who achieved ≥5 METs had lower and no significant difference in their health care costs, regardless of their body mass index (p = 0.46). Patients with previous percutaneous coronary intervention who achieved ≥5 METs had lower health care costs (p = 0.044) and fewer hospital encounters (p = 0.004) than those who achieved <5 METs. In conclusion, average and peak daily energy expenditures estimated from ambulatory ECG monitoring may provide useful information regarding health care utilization in patients with and without previous percutaneous coronary intervention, irrespective of body habitus. Our findings are the first to link lower intensities of peak daily energy expenditure, estimated from ambulatory ECG monitoring, with increased health care utilization.

  19. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Bangkok

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajanapoom, Nitaya

    1999-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the association between PM10 and visibility, and to determine whether the variations in daily mortality were associated with fluctuations in daily PM10 and visibility levels, in Bangkok during 1992-1997. Mortality data were extracted from death certificates, provided by the Bureau of Registration Administration. PM10 data were obtained from three monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, and visibility data were obtained from two monitoring stations operated by the Department of Meteorology. PM10 was regressed on visibility using multiple regression. Inverse and significant association was found between PM10 and visibility, after controlling for relative humidity, minimum temperature, and winter indicator variable. Positive association was found between total mortality and PM10, in Poisson regression model while controlling for long-term trends, season, and variations in weather. Five-day moving average of PM10 was significantly and most strongly associated with total mortality from non-external causes; a 2.3% (95% CI = 1.3, 3.3) increase in mortality was estimated for one interquartile range (30 μg/m3) increase in PM10. When PM10 was replaced with visibility, a 1.3% (95% CI = 0.4, 2.3) increase in mortality was estimated for one interquartile range (1.5 km) decrease in visibility. Lagged effects up to three day lags prior to death with similar patterns were observed for both PM10 and visibility. The findings suggest the possibility of using visibility as a surrogate for fine particulate matter. This approach is feasible because visibility data are usually routinely recorded at airports throughout the world. On the other hand, given the large number of population living in Bangkok, the small but significant percent excess deaths attributable to airborne particle exposure is an important public health concern.

  20. Daily torpor in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) in Madagascar: energetic consequences and biological significance.

    PubMed

    Schmid, J

    2000-05-01

    Patterns and energetic consequences of spontaneous daily torpor were measured in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) under natural conditions of ambient temperature and photoperiod in a dry deciduous forest in western Madagascar. Over a period of two consecutive dry seasons, oxygen consumption (VO2) and body temperature (T b) were measured on ten individuals kept in outdoor enclosures. In all animals, spontaneous daily torpor occurred on a daily basis with torpor bouts lasting from 3.6 to 17.6 h, with a mean torpor bout duration of 9.3 h. On average, body temperatures in torpor were 17.3±4.9°C with a recorded minimum value of 7.8°C. Torpor was not restricted to the mouse lemurs' diurnal resting phase: entries occurred throughout the night and arousals mainly around midday, coinciding with the daily ambient temperature maximum. Arousal from torpor was a two-phase process with a first passive, exogenous heating where the T b of animals increased from the torpor T b minimum to a mean value of 27.1°C before the second, endogenous heat production commenced to further raise T b to normothermic values. Metabolic rate during torpor (28.6±13.2 ml O2 h(-1)) was significantly reduced by about 76% compared to resting metabolic rate (132.6±50.5 ml O2 h(-1)). On average, for all M. murinus individuals measured, hypometabolism during daily torpor reduced daily energy expenditure by about 38%. In conclusion, all these energy-conserving mechanisms of the nocturnal mouse lemurs, with passive exogenous heating during arousal from torpor, low minimum torpor T bs, and extended torpor bouts into the activity phase, comprise an important and highly adapted mechanism to minimize energetic costs in response to unfavorable environmental conditions and may play a crucial role for individual fitness.

  1. SU-E-T-784: Using MLC Log Files for Daily IMRT Delivery Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Stathakis, S; Defoor, D; Linden, P; Kirby, N; Papanikolaou, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To verify daily intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments using multi-leaf collimator (MLC) log files. Methods: The MLC log files from a NovalisTX Varian linear accelerator were used in this study. The MLC files were recorded daily for all patients undergoing IMRT or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The first record of each patient was used as reference and all records for subsequent days were compared against the reference. An in house MATLAB software code was used for the comparisons. Each MLC log file was converted to a fluence map (FM) and a gamma index (γ) analysis was used for the evaluation of each daily delivery for every patient. The tolerance for the gamma index was set to 2% dose difference and 2mm distance to agreement while points with signal of 10% or lower of the maximum value were excluded from the comparisons. Results: The γ between each of the reference FMs and the consecutive daily fraction FMs had an average value of 99.1% (ranged from 98.2 to 100.0%). The FM images were reconstructed at various resolutions in order to study the effect of the resolution on the γ and at the same time reduce the time for processing the images. We found that the comparison of images with the highest resolution (768×1024) yielded on average a lower γ (99.1%) than the ones with low resolution (192×256) (γ 99.5%). Conclusion: We developed an in-house software that allows us to monitor the quality of daily IMRT and VMAT treatment deliveries using information from the MLC log files of the linear accelerator. The information can be analyzed and evaluated as early as after the completion of each daily treatment. Such tool can be valuable to assess the effect of MLC positioning on plan quality, especially in the context of adaptive radiotherapy.

  2. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and average carbon-related exhaust emissions. 600.510-12 Section 600.510-12 Protection of Environment... Carbon-Related Exhaust Emissions § 600.510-12 Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon.... (iv) (2) Average carbon-related exhaust emissions will be calculated to the nearest one gram per...

  3. Method for quality control of laboratory tests using histograms of daily patient data.

    PubMed

    Okada, M

    1990-01-01

    A method for controlling the quality of laboratory tests is proposed. Histograms of patients' daily results which fall within reference ranges of healthy individuals are used for estimating accuracy and precision of measurements. For the determination of accuracy, three methods are evaluated; computing an average of patients' results; determining the location of the peak of the histogram; approximating the histogram by an Erland distribution and determining the peak of the distribution. For precision control, standard deviations are calculated from patient data. We applied these methods to serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST or SGOT) and total cholesterol of patients in a general hospital. Averages, peaks of approximated Erland distribution, and standard deviations were found to be useful to daily quality control in laboratories of large hospitals.

  4. Large uncertainties in observed daily precipitation extremes over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Nicholas; Behrangi, Ali; Alexander, Lisa V.

    2017-01-01

    We explore uncertainties in observed daily precipitation extremes over the terrestrial tropics and subtropics (50°S-50°N) based on five commonly used products: the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) dataset, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre-Full Data Daily (GPCC-FDD) dataset, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) multi-satellite research product (T3B42 v7), the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR), and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project's One-Degree Daily (GPCP-1DD) dataset. We use the precipitation indices R10mm and Rx1day, developed by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices, to explore the behavior of "moderate" and "extreme" extremes, respectively. In order to assess the sensitivity of extreme precipitation to different grid sizes we perform our calculations on four common spatial resolutions (0.25° × 0.25°, 1° × 1°, 2.5° × 2.5°, and 3.75° × 2.5°). The impact of the chosen "order of operation" in calculating these indices is also determined. Our results show that moderate extremes are relatively insensitive to product and resolution choice, while extreme extremes can be very sensitive. For example, at 0.25° × 0.25° quasi-global mean Rx1day values vary from 37 mm in PERSIANN-CDR to 62 mm in T3B42. We find that the interproduct spread becomes prominent at resolutions of 1° × 1° and finer, thus establishing a minimum effective resolution at which observational products agree. Without improvements in interproduct spread, these exceedingly large observational uncertainties at high spatial resolution may limit the usefulness of model evaluations. As has been found previously, resolution sensitivity can be largely eliminated by applying an order of operation where indices are calculated prior to regridding. However, this approach is not appropriate when true area averages are desired

  5. An Improved Approach for Estimating Daily Net Radiation over the Heihe River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bingfang; Liu, Shufu; Zhu, Weiwei; Yan, Nana; Xing, Qiang; Tan, Shen

    2017-01-01

    Net radiation plays an essential role in determining the thermal conditions of the Earth’s surface and is an important parameter for the study of land-surface processes and global climate change. In this paper, an improved satellite-based approach to estimate the daily net radiation is presented, in which sunshine duration were derived from the geostationary meteorological satellite (FY-2D) cloud classification product, the monthly empirical as and bs Angstrom coefficients for net shortwave radiation were calibrated by spatial fitting of the ground data from 1997 to 2006, and the daily net longwave radiation was calibrated with ground data from 2007 to 2010 over the Heihe River Basin in China. The estimated daily net radiation values were validated against ground data for 12 months in 2008 at four stations with different underlying surface types. The average coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.8489, and the averaged Nash-Sutcliffe equation (NSE) was 0.8356. The close agreement between the estimated daily net radiation and observations indicates that the proposed method is promising, especially given the comparison between the spatial distribution and the interpolation of sunshine duration. Potential applications include climate research, energy balance studies and the estimation of global evapotranspiration. PMID:28054976

  6. Method and Apparatus for Monitoring of Daily Activity in Terms of Ground Reaction Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T. (Inventor); Breit, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to record and analyze habitual daily activity in terms of the history of gait-related musculoskeletal loading is disclosed. The device consists of a pressure-sensing insole placed into the shoe or embedded in a shoe sole, which detects contact of the foot with the ground. The sensor is coupled to a portable battery-powered digital data logger clipped to the shoe or worn around the ankle or waist. During the course of normal daily activity, the system maintains a record of time-of-occurrence of all non-spurious foot-down and lift-off events. Off line, these data are filtered and converted to a history of foot-ground contact times, from which measures of cumulative musculoskeletal loading, average walking- and running-specific gait speed, total time spent walking and running, total number of walking steps and running steps, and total gait-related energy expenditure are estimated from empirical regressions of various gait parameters to the contact time reciprocal. Data are available as cumulative values or as daily averages by menu selection. The data provided by this device are useful for assessment of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health and risk factors associated with habitual patterns of daily activity.

  7. An Improved Approach for Estimating Daily Net Radiation over the Heihe River Basin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bingfang; Liu, Shufu; Zhu, Weiwei; Yan, Nana; Xing, Qiang; Tan, Shen

    2017-01-04

    Net radiation plays an essential role in determining the thermal conditions of the Earth's surface and is an important parameter for the study of land-surface processes and global climate change. In this paper, an improved satellite-based approach to estimate the daily net radiation is presented, in which sunshine duration were derived from the geostationary meteorological satellite (FY-2D) cloud classification product, the monthly empirical as and bs Angstrom coefficients for net shortwave radiation were calibrated by spatial fitting of the ground data from 1997 to 2006, and the daily net longwave radiation was calibrated with ground data from 2007 to 2010 over the Heihe River Basin in China. The estimated daily net radiation values were validated against ground data for 12 months in 2008 at four stations with different underlying surface types. The average coefficient of determination (R²) was 0.8489, and the averaged Nash-Sutcliffe equation (NSE) was 0.8356. The close agreement between the estimated daily net radiation and observations indicates that the proposed method is promising, especially given the comparison between the spatial distribution and the interpolation of sunshine duration. Potential applications include climate research, energy balance studies and the estimation of global evapotranspiration.

  8. Daily metabolic patterns of short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic, continuous-flow gas analysis system was used to determine daily metabolic patterns of individual short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes in eastern Tennessee. Average daily metabolic rates (ADMR) were lowest in the summer (0.426 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/), approximately doubled under winter conditions (0.810 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) but were the highest under fall conditions (1.110 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) possibly due to incomplete acclimatization of the shrews. The shape of the daily metabolic pattern for Blarina does not change seasonally; however, summer metabolic rates are the least variable and are lower than most values previously reported in the literature. Polynomial multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative influence of body mass, ambient temperature, and time of day on metabolic rates; only ambient temperature was significant in predicting metabolic rates of this shrew. Average daily metabolic rates of Blarina observed under summer and winter conditions further substantiate the general predictive equations of metabolic rates formulated for small mammals by French et al. (1976). Comparisons of metabolic patterns of Blarina with those of Peromyscus leucopus observed under nearly identical conditions indicate similar rates with strong seasonal influences.

  9. Influence of wind speed averaging on estimates of dimethylsulfide emission fluxes

    DOE PAGES

    Chapman, E. G.; Shaw, W. J.; Easter, R. C.; ...

    2002-12-03

    The effect of various wind-speed-averaging periods on calculated DMS emission fluxes is quantitatively assessed. Here, a global climate model and an emission flux module were run in stand-alone mode for a full year. Twenty-minute instantaneous surface wind speeds and related variables generated by the climate model were archived, and corresponding 1-hour-, 6-hour-, daily-, and monthly-averaged quantities calculated. These various time-averaged, model-derived quantities were used as inputs in the emission flux module, and DMS emissions were calculated using two expressions for the mass transfer velocity commonly used in atmospheric models. Results indicate that the time period selected for averaging wind speedsmore » can affect the magnitude of calculated DMS emission fluxes. A number of individual marine cells within the global grid show DMS emissions fluxes that are 10-60% higher when emissions are calculated using 20-minute instantaneous model time step winds rather than monthly-averaged wind speeds, and at some locations the differences exceed 200%. Many of these cells are located in the southern hemisphere where anthropogenic sulfur emissions are low and changes in oceanic DMS emissions may significantly affect calculated aerosol concentrations and aerosol radiative forcing.« less

  10. Influence of wind speed averaging on estimates of dimethylsulfide emission fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, E. G.; Shaw, W. J.; Easter, R. C.; Bian, X.; Ghan, S. J.

    2002-12-03

    The effect of various wind-speed-averaging periods on calculated DMS emission fluxes is quantitatively assessed. Here, a global climate model and an emission flux module were run in stand-alone mode for a full year. Twenty-minute instantaneous surface wind speeds and related variables generated by the climate model were archived, and corresponding 1-hour-, 6-hour-, daily-, and monthly-averaged quantities calculated. These various time-averaged, model-derived quantities were used as inputs in the emission flux module, and DMS emissions were calculated using two expressions for the mass transfer velocity commonly used in atmospheric models. Results indicate that the time period selected for averaging wind speeds can affect the magnitude of calculated DMS emission fluxes. A number of individual marine cells within the global grid show DMS emissions fluxes that are 10-60% higher when emissions are calculated using 20-minute instantaneous model time step winds rather than monthly-averaged wind speeds, and at some locations the differences exceed 200%. Many of these cells are located in the southern hemisphere where anthropogenic sulfur emissions are low and changes in oceanic DMS emissions may significantly affect calculated aerosol concentrations and aerosol radiative forcing.

  11. Appraisal-emotion relationships in daily life.

    PubMed

    Nezlek, John B; Vansteelandt, Kristof; Van Mechelen, Iven; Kuppens, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Using a daily process design, the present study examined relationships between momentary appraisals and emotional experience based on Smith and Lazarus' (1993) theory of emotions (1993). Nine times a day for 2 weeks, participants (N = 33, 23 women) recorded their momentary experience of 2 positive emotions (joy, love) and 4 negative emotions (anger, guilt, fear, sadness) and the core relational theme appraisal contents Smith and Lazarus hypothesized as corresponding to these emotions. A series of multilevel modeling analyses found that the hypothesized relationships between appraisal contents and these emotions were stronger than relationships between contents and other emotions, although appraisals were related to other emotions in many cases. Moreover, there were some individual differences in the strength of these relationships. These results suggest that there are no one-to-one relationships between appraisal contents and specific emotional experiences, and that specific emotions are associated with different appraisal contents, and that specific appraisals are associated with different emotions.

  12. Comparison of observed skeleton retention of strontium in average indian adult with the value predicted by the ICRP biokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Nair, Suma; Pradhan, A S; Jaiswal, D D; Singh, I S; Garg, S P

    2006-01-01

    The daily dietary intake of strontium and its content in skeleton, for an Indian adult population group were estimated by experimentally measuring its concentration in total cooked diet and autopsy skeleton samples using radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The data on daily dietary intake of strontium were used to compute its contents in skeleton using ICRP Publication 67 biokinetic model for strontium. The theoretically computed value of strontium (213.8 mg) compared favourably with the measured values (GM 181.2 mg) in an urban population group living in Mumbai representing an average Indian adult (Reference Indian Man).

  13. Daily Aspirin May Help Prevent Some Recurrent Miscarriages

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163515.html Daily Aspirin May Help Prevent Some Recurrent Miscarriages Approach seemed ... as simple as taking a daily low-dose aspirin could help prevent a recurrence. The intervention appears ...

  14. Warmer is healthier: effects on mortality rates of changes in average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and temperatures in 100 U.S. cities.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis A; Popken, Douglas A; Ricci, Paolo F

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that reducing particulate pollution would substantially reduce average daily mortality rates, prolonging lives, especially among the elderly (age ≥ 75). These benefits are projected by statistical models of significant positive associations between levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels and daily mortality rates. We examine the empirical correspondence between changes in average PM2.5 levels and temperatures from 1999 to 2000, and corresponding changes in average daily mortality rates, in each of 100 U.S. cities in the National Mortality and Morbidity Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) data base, which has extensive PM2.5, temperature, and mortality data for those 2 years. Increases in average daily temperatures appear to significantly reduce average daily mortality rates, as expected from previous research. Unexpectedly, reductions in PM2.5 do not appear to cause any reductions in mortality rates. PM2.5 and mortality rates are both elevated on cold winter days, creating a significant positive statistical relation between their levels, but we find no evidence that reductions in PM2.5 concentrations cause reductions in mortality rates. For all concerned, it is crucial to use causal relations, rather than statistical associations, to project the changes in human health risks due to interventions such as reductions in particulate air pollution.

  15. The effect of daily disturbance on the breeding performance of mice.

    PubMed

    Peters, Alan G; Bywater, Peter M; Festing, Michael F W

    2002-04-01

    The United Kingdom Home Office Code of Practice for the housing and care of breeding animals requires that, 'the general well-being of all animals must be checked at least once daily'. However, excessive daily disturbance of rodent breeding colonies could be counter-productive to animal welfare if it increases pre-weaning mortality. An experiment involving 100 breeding cages of BALB/c mice compared daily inspection of the mouse cages, but without disturbing the mice within the nest, with daily inspection in which every individual was studied even if this involved removing the cage lid and disturbing the nest. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in breeding performance or pre-weaning mortality, though the disturbed group produced marginally fewer offspring and had slightly higher mortality. Average weaning weight did not differ between the groups, but sexual dimorphism at weaning was significantly increased in the disturbed group. It is concluded that there are unlikely to be any welfare benefits in an inspection regimen that involves disturbance of breeding mice, provided the cage is inspected daily.

  16. Daily Job Demands and Employee Work Engagement: The Role of Daily Transformational Leadership Behavior.

    PubMed

    Breevaart, Kimberley; Bakker, Arnold B

    2017-03-30

    Using job demands-resources (JD-R) theory, the present study integrates the challenge stressor-hindrance stressor framework and leadership theory to investigate the relationship between daily transformational leadership behavior and employee work engagement. We hypothesized that daily transformational leadership behavior (a) sustains employee work engagement on days characterized by high challenge job demands, and (b) protects work engagement on days characterized by high hindrance job demands. Teachers filled out a short online questionnaire at the end of each workday during a 2-week period (N = 271 × 5.68 days = 1539). Results of latent moderated structural equation modeling showed that teachers' daily challenge demands (workload and cognitive demands) had a positive relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was high (vs. low). In addition, teachers' daily hindrance demands (role-conflict, but not family to work conflict) had a negative relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was low (vs. high). These findings show that the function of transformational leadership behavior changes from day to day, and depends on the type of job demand. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Daily Mood Ratings via Text Message as a Proxy for Clinic Based Depression Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Adrian; Schueller, Stephen; Leykin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile and automated technologies are increasingly becoming integrated into mental healthcare and assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine how automated daily mood ratings are related to the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9), a standard measure in the screening and tracking of depression symptoms. Results There was a significant relationship between daily mood scores and one-week average mood scores and PHQ-9 scores controlling for linear change in depression scores. PHQ9 scores were not related to the average of two week mood ratings. This study also constructed models using variance, maximum, and minimum values of mood ratings in the preceding week and two-week periods as predictors of PHQ-9. None of these variables significantly predicted PHQ-9 scores when controlling for daily mood ratings and the corresponding averages for each period. Limitations This study only assessed patients who were in treatment for depression therefore do not account for the relationship between text message mood ratings for those who are not depressed. The sample was also predominantly Spanish speaking and low-income making generalizability to other populations uncertain. Conclusions Our results show that automatic text message based mood ratings can be a clinically useful proxy for the PHQ9. Importantly, this approach avoids the limitations of the PHQ9 administration, which include length and a higher requirement for literacy. PMID:25679202

  18. 1 CFR 6.3 - Daily lists of parts affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Daily lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 Daily lists of parts affected. (a) Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall carry...

  19. 1 CFR 6.1 - Index to daily issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Index to daily issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to daily issues. Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....

  20. 1 CFR 6.3 - Daily lists of parts affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Daily lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 Daily lists of parts affected. (a) Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall carry...

  1. 1 CFR 6.1 - Index to daily issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Index to daily issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to daily issues. Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....

  2. 20 CFR 330.3 - Daily rate of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily rate of compensation. 330.3 Section 330.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.3 Daily rate of compensation. (a) Definition....

  3. 20 CFR 330.2 - Computation of daily benefit rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of daily benefit rate. 330.2 Section 330.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.2 Computation of daily benefit rate. (a)...

  4. Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily…

  5. Cost averaging techniques for robust control of flexible structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.; Crawley, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on cost averaging techniques for robust control of flexible structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: modeling of parameterized systems; average cost analysis; reduction of parameterized systems; and static and dynamic controller synthesis.

  6. Patient and hospital characteristics associated with average length of stay.

    PubMed

    Shi, L

    1996-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between patient, hospital characteristics, and hospital average length of stay controlling for major disease categories. A constellation of patient and physician factors were found to be significantly associated with average hospital length of stay.

  7. BOREAS AES Five-Day Averaged Surface Meteorological and Upper Air Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) provided BOREAS with hourly and daily surface meteorological data from 23 of the AES meteorological stations located across Canada and upper air data from 1 station at The Pas, Manitoba. Due to copyright restrictions on the full resolution surface meteorological data, this data set contains 5-day average values for the surface parameters. The upper air data are provided in their full resolution form. The 5-day averaging was performed in order to create a data set that could be publicly distributed at no cost. Temporally, the surface meteorological data cover the period of January 1975 to December 1996 and the upper air data cover the period of January 1961 to November 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  8. Load along the tibial shaft during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    D'Angeli, V; Belvedere, C; Ortolani, M; Giannini, S; Leardini, A

    2014-03-21

    External load at the tibia during activities of daily living provides baseline measures for the improvement of the design of the bone-implant interface for relevant internal and external prostheses. A motion analysis system was used together with an established protocol with skin markers to estimate three-dimensional forces and moments acting on ten equidistant points along the tibial shaft. Twenty young and able-bodied volunteers were analysed while performing three repetitions of the following tasks: level walking at three different speeds, in a straight-line and with sudden changes of direction to the right and to the left, stair ascending and descending, squatting, rising from a chair and sitting down. Moment and force patterns were normalised to the percentage of body weight per height and body weight, respectively, and then averaged over all subjects for each point, about the three tibial anatomical axes, and for each task. Load patterns were found to be consistent over subjects, but different among the anatomical axes, tasks and points. Generally, moments were higher in the medio/lateral axis and influenced by walking speed. In all five walking tasks and in ascending stairs with alternating feet, the more proximal the point was the smaller the mean moment was. For the remaining tasks the opposite trend was observed. The overall largest value was observed in the medio/lateral direction at the ankle centre in level walking at high speed (9.1% body weight * height on average), nearly three times larger than that of the anterior/posterior axis (2.9) during level walking with a sidestep turn. The present results should be of value also for in-vitro mechanical tests and finite element models.

  9. Synthesis of Averaged Circuit Models for Switched Power Converters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    November 1989 LIDS-P-1930 Synthesis of Averaged Circuit Models for Switched Power Converters * Seth R. Sanders George C. Verghese Abstract Averaged... circuit models for switching power converters are useful for purposes of analysis and obtaining engineering intuition into the operation of these...switched circuits . This paper develops averaged circuit models for switching converters using an in-place averaging method. The method proceeds in a

  10. The Incremental Validity of Average State Self-Reports Over Global Self-Reports of Personality.

    PubMed

    Finnigan, Katherine M; Vazire, Simine

    2017-03-09

    Personality traits are most often assessed using global self-reports of one's general patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior. However, recent theories have challenged the idea that global self-reports are the best way to assess traits. Whole Trait Theory postulates that repeated measures of a person's self-reported personality states (i.e., the average of many state self-reports) can be an alternative and potentially superior way of measuring a person's trait level (Fleeson & Jayawickreme, 2015). Our goal is to examine the validity of average state self-reports of personality for measuring between-person differences in what people are typically like. In order to validate average states as a measure of personality, we examine whether they are incrementally valid in predicting informant reports above and beyond global self-reports. In 2 samples, we find that average state self-reports tend to correlate with informant reports, although this relationship is weaker than the relationship between global self-reports and informant reports. Further, using structural equation modeling, we find that average state self-reports do not significantly predict informant reports independently of global self-reports. Our results suggest that average state self-reports may not contain information about between-person differences in personality traits beyond what is captured by global self-reports, and that average state self-reports may contain more self-bias than is commonly believed. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on daily manifestations of personality and the accuracy of self-reports. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Genetic correlation between growth and female and male contributions to fertility in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Piles, M; Tusell, L

    2012-08-01

    A Bayesian bivariate Linear-Threshold Animal Model was implemented to determine the genetic correlation between fertility (F), defined as success or failure to conceive, and average daily gain (ADG) in a rabbit line selected for ADG. A total of 27 234 records of F from 7895 females and 1293 males, and 114 135 records of ADG were used for the analysis. The pedigree included 114 485 animals. The model used for ADG included the systematic effects of year-season, parity order and number of kids born alive, the animal additive effect, the maternal and paternal permanent environmental effects, the common litter permanent environmental effect and the residual. The model for the liability of F included the systematic effects of year-season and physiological status of the female, the female and male additive genetic effects, the female and male permanent environmental effects and the residual, which was divided into a permanent environmental effect related to the common litter effect for ADG, and an independent term. The estimated heritabilities were 0.15 for ADG and 0.07 and 0.04 for the female and male contributions to F, respectively. Male and female contributions to F had a positive genetic correlation (0.34). The genetic correlation between ADG and the female component of F was low to moderate and negative (-0.31), whereas it was null for the male contribution to F. Thus, it is expected that only the female contribution to reproductive performance may be impaired by selection for ADG in rabbit lines.

  12. 76 FR 57081 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... of Prisons Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates in Fiscal Year 2010 was $28,284. The average annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community Corrections...

  13. 76 FR 6161 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... No: 2011-2363] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates in Fiscal Year 2009 was $25,251. The average annual cost to confine an...

  14. 78 FR 16711 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... of Prisons Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates in Fiscal Year 2011 was $28,893.40. The average annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community...

  15. 7 CFR 760.640 - National average market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National average market price. 760.640 Section 760.640....640 National average market price. (a) The Deputy Administrator will establish the National Average Market Price (NAMP) using the best sources available, as determined by the Deputy Administrator,...

  16. 7 CFR 760.640 - National average market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National average market price. 760.640 Section 760.640....640 National average market price. (a) The Deputy Administrator will establish the National Average Market Price (NAMP) using the best sources available, as determined by the Deputy Administrator,...

  17. Averaging and Globalising Quotients of Informetric and Scientometric Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of impact factors for "Journal Citation Reports" subject categories focuses on the difference between an average of quotients and a global average, obtained as a quotient of averages. Applications in the context of informetrics and scientometrics are given, including journal prices and subject discipline influence scores.…

  18. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Average midrib length. 51.577 Section 51.577... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib... attachment at the base to the first node....

  19. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average midrib length. 51.577 Section 51.577... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib... attachment at the base to the first node....

  20. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average moisture content. 51.2561 Section 51.2561... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement of the grades, except...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Average moisture content. 51.2561 Section 51.2561 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Average moisture content. 51.2561 Section 51.2561... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement of the grades, except...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Average moisture content. 51.2561 Section 51.2561 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Average moisture content determination. 51.2548 Section 51.2548 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. (a) Determining average...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Average moisture content. 51.2561 Section 51.2561... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement of the grades, except...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Average moisture content determination. 51.2548 Section 51.2548 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. (a) Determining average...

  7. 40 CFR 1042.710 - Averaging emission credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Averaging emission credits. 1042.710..., Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1042.710 Averaging emission credits. (a) Averaging is the exchange of emission credits among your engine families. (b) You may certify one or more engine families...

  8. Perturbation resilience and superiorization methodology of averaged mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongjin; Xu, Hong-Kun

    2017-04-01

    We first prove the bounded perturbation resilience for the successive fixed point algorithm of averaged mappings, which extends the string-averaging projection and block-iterative projection methods. We then apply the superiorization methodology to a constrained convex minimization problem where the constraint set is the intersection of fixed point sets of a finite family of averaged mappings.

  9. Sample Size Bias in Judgments of Perceptual Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Paul C.; Kimura, Nicole M.; Smith, Andrew R.; Marshall, Lindsay D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people exhibit a sample size bias when judging the average of a set of stimuli on a single dimension. The more stimuli there are in the set, the greater people judge the average to be. This effect has been demonstrated reliably for judgments of the average likelihood that groups of people will experience negative,…

  10. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  11. The Influence of Time Spent in Outdoor Play on Daily and Aerobic Step Count in Costa Rican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morera Castro, Maria del Rocio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of time spent in outdoor play (i.e., on weekday and weekend days) on daily (i.e., average step count) and aerobic step count (i.e., average moderate to vigorous physical activity [MVPA] during the weekdays and weekend days) in fifth grade Costa Rican children. It was hypothesized that: (a)…

  12. Climate change uncertainty for daily minimum and maximum temperatures: a model inter-comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D; Bonfils, C; Duffy, P

    2006-11-09

    Several impacts of climate change may depend more on changes in mean daily minimum (T{sub min}) or maximum (T{sub max}) temperatures than daily averages. To evaluate uncertainties in these variables, we compared projections of T{sub min} and T{sub max} changes by 2046-2065 for 12 climate models under an A2 emission scenario. Average modeled changes in T{sub max} were slightly lower in most locations than T{sub min}, consistent with historical trends exhibiting a reduction in diurnal temperature ranges. However, while average changes in T{sub min} and T{sub max} were similar, the inter-model variability of T{sub min} and T{sub max} projections exhibited substantial differences. For example, inter-model standard deviations of June-August T{sub max} changes were more than 50% greater than for T{sub min} throughout much of North America, Europe, and Asia. Model differences in cloud changes, which exert relatively greater influence on T{sub max} during summer and T{sub min} during winter, were identified as the main source of uncertainty disparities. These results highlight the importance of considering separately projections for T{sub max} and T{sub min} when assessing climate change impacts, even in cases where average projected changes are similar. In addition, impacts that are most sensitive to summertime T{sub min} or wintertime T{sub max} may be more predictable than suggested by analyses using only projections of daily average temperatures.

  13. [Education about dementia and forgetfulness in daily and weekly press].

    PubMed

    Commissaris, C J; Jolles, J

    1994-08-01

    In the period March 1990-March 1991 the attention for dementia increased in the Dutch printing press in comparison with the period 1987-1990. Despite this increase, the average number of articles on dementia in daily and weekly news magazines is less than one article per two months. This is extremely little for such an enormous medical and social problem. Furthermore, there is a relative decrease in the number of articles on general aspects of dementia. As expected, the number of articles on research in the field of dementia has increased considerably. In contrast with our hypothesis, it appears that in the printing press there is still hardly attention to memory and normal forgetfulness. In future education programs more explicit information should be given not only about dementia (symptoms, progress, consequences, etc), but also about memory complaints and normal forgetfulness. The printing press could make an important contribution towards achieving these goals. An important condition for this is a better cooperation with experts on the subject.

  14. Daily quality assurance software for a satellite radiometer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keegstra, P. B.; Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Aymon, J.; Backus, C.; Deamici, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Jackson, P. D.; Kogut, A.; Lineweaver, C.

    1992-01-01

    Six Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) on COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer) measure the large-angular-scale isotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 31.5, 53, and 90 GHz. Quality assurance software analyzes the daily telemetry from the spacecraft to ensure that the instrument is operating correctly and that the data are not corrupted. Quality assurance for DMR poses challenging requirements. The data are differential, so a single bad point can affect a large region of the sky, yet the CMB isotropy requires lengthy integration times (greater than 1 year) to limit potential CMB anisotropies. Celestial sources (with the exception of the moon) are not, in general, visible in the raw differential data. A 'quicklook' software system was developed that, in addition to basic plotting and limit-checking, implements a collection of data tests as well as long-term trending. Some of the key capabilities include the following: (1) stability analysis showing how well the data RMS averages down with increased data; (2) a Fourier analysis and autocorrelation routine to plot the power spectrum and confirm the presence of the 3 mK 'cosmic' dipole signal; (3) binning of the data against basic spacecraft quantities such as orbit angle; (4) long-term trending; and (5) dipole fits to confirm the spacecraft attitude azimuth angle.

  15. Robust Morphological Averages in Three Dimensions for Anatomical Atlas Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, Jorge; Bloch, Isabelle; Schmitt, Francis

    2004-09-01

    We present original methods for obtaining robust, anatomical shape-based averages of features of the human head anatomy from a normal population. Our goals are computerized atlas construction with representative anatomical features and morphopometry for specific populations. A method for true-morphological averaging is proposed, consisting of a suitable blend of shape-related information for N objects to obtain a progressive average. It is made robust by penalizing, in a morphological sense, the contributions of features less similar to the current average. Morphological error and similarity, as well as penalization, are based on the same paradigm as the morphological averaging.

  16. Estimating missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevakaran, A.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy of reconstructing missing daily temperature extremes in the Jaffna climatological station, situated in the northern part of the dry zone of Sri Lanka, is presented. The adopted method utilizes standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperature values at four neighbouring stations, Mannar, Anuradhapura, Puttalam and Trincomalee to estimate the standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperatures at the target station, Jaffna. The daily maximum and minimum temperatures from 1966 to 1980 (15 years) were used to test the validity of the method. The accuracy of the estimation is higher for daily maximum temperature compared to daily minimum temperature. About 95% of the estimated daily maximum temperatures are within ±1.5 °C of the observed values. For daily minimum temperature, the percentage is about 92. By calculating the standard deviation of the difference in estimated and observed values, we have shown that the error in estimating the daily maximum and minimum temperatures is ±0.7 and ±0.9 °C, respectively. To obtain the best accuracy when estimating the missing daily temperature extremes, it is important to include Mannar which is the nearest station to the target station, Jaffna. We conclude from the analysis that the method can be applied successfully to reconstruct the missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna where no data is available due to frequent disruptions caused by civil unrests and hostilities in the region during the period, 1984 to 2000.

  17. Daily phosphorus variation in a mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Lorin K.; Reuter, John E.; Goldman, Charles R.

    1999-12-01

    Monthly diel monitoring studies for phosphorus content were conducted (1995-1996 period) for multiple stations on Incline Creek, a mountain stream in the Lake Tahoe basin (California-Nevada). Large discharge and particulate P (PP) concentration fluctuations occurred during June in the early evening as snowmelt from higher elevations arrived at the lower stream reaches. June diel dissolved organic P (DOP) concentrations steadily increased, while soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations remained constant. June diel PP concentrations associated with sand-sized particles (PPsand: >63 μm) exhibited a clockwise hysteresis, indicating possible sediment source depletion on a daily timescale. June diel PP associated with silt- and clay-sized particles (PPSC: >0.45 μm and <63 μm) exhibited counterclockwise hysteresis behavior, suggesting a potential groundwater contribution to PPSC. PPSC comprised the majority of PP concentration, except during high-discharge events when PPsand concentration was dominant. Areal PP loading, specifically PPsand, appears to originate primarily from the lower eastern branch of Incline Creek during the spring snowmelt season. Possible sources include a ski resort/parking lot and a golf course. DOP and SRP areal loads were greatest from the undeveloped upper subwatershed, suggesting that natural factors such as slope are influencing loading of small-sized P fractions.

  18. Daily prickly pear consumption improves platelet function.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, R; Budinsky, A; Efthimiou, Y; Stomatopoulos, J; Oguogho, A; Sinzinger, H

    2003-07-01

    Prickly pear is traditionally used by Pima Indians as a dietary nutrient against diabetes mellitus. We examined the effect of daily consumption of 250 g in 8 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with mild familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia on various parameters of platelet function. Beside its action on lipids and lipoproteins, prickly pear consumption significantly reduced the platelet proteins (platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin), ADP-induced platelet aggregation and improved platelet sensitivity (against PGI2 and PGE1) in volunteers as well as in patients. Also plasma 11-DH-TXB2 and the WU-test showed a significant improvement in both patients and volunteers. In contrast, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and the number of circulating endothelial cells showed a significant response in patients only. No influence of prickly pear ingestion on peripheral platelet count was monitored. The dietary run-in period did not influence any of the parameters of haemostasis examined. No sex difference was seen. Prickly pear may induce at least part of its beneficial actions on the cardiovascular system via decreasing platelet activity and thereby improving haemostatic balance.

  19. Daily tonometric curves after cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sacca, S; Marletta, A; Pascotto, A; Barabino, S; Rolando, M; Giannetti, R; Calabria, G

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate daily tonometric curves after cataract surgery in patients with cataract only and in patients with cataract and glaucoma.
METHODS—108 patients scheduled for cataract surgery were randomly allocated to two groups: 57 patients with cataract only (normal) and 51 with cataract and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). All patients underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) (manual technique with long wound), phacoemulsification (automated technique with short wound), or nucleus capture (manual technique with short wound). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured by Goldmann tonometry in all patients every 2 hours for 12 hours before the operation and at 1 and 6 months postoperatively.
RESULTS—79 patients completed the 6 month examination. ECCE resulted in greater reductions in IOP than the other procedures (ECCE: 27% and 36% in normal patients and those with POAG, respectively; nucleus capture: 20% and 31%, respectively; phacoemulsification: 19% and 22%, respectively). The fluctuations in IOP before and after surgery were not statistically significant.
CONCLUSION—Cataract surgery in normal patients reduces IOP but does not eliminate fluctuations which are directly proportional to the IOP value and result partly from circadian rhythms. This important finding might influence our approach to treatment of patients with glaucoma.

 PMID:11133707

  20. When Daily Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) daily series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.

  1. Kiwifruit: our daily prescription for health.

    PubMed

    Stonehouse, Welma; Gammon, Cheryl S; Beck, Kathryn L; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R; Kruger, Rozanne

    2013-06-01

    Kiwifruit are unequalled, compared with other commonly consumed fruit, for their nutrient density, health benefits, and consumer appeal. Research into their health benefits has focussed on the cultivars Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward' (green kiwifruit) and Actinidia chinensis 'Hort 16A', ZESPRI(®) (gold kiwifruit). Compared with other commonly consumed fruit, both green and gold kiwifruit are exceptionally high in vitamins C, E, K, folate, carotenoids, potassium, fibre, and phytochemicals acting in synergy to achieve multiple health benefits. Kiwifruit, as part of a healthy diet, may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decrease triglycerides, platelet aggregation, and elevated blood pressure. Consuming gold kiwifruit with iron-rich meals improves poor iron status, and green kiwifruit aids digestion and laxation. As a rich source of antioxidants, they may protect the body from endogenous oxidative damage. Kiwifruit may support immune function and reduce the incidence and severity of cold or flu-like illness in at-risk groups such as older adults and children. However, kiwifruit are allergenic, and although symptoms in most susceptible individuals are mild, severe reactions have been reported. While many research gaps remain, kiwifruit with their multiple health benefits have the potential to become part of our "daily prescription for health."

  2. Daily intake of selenium and concentrations in blood of residents of Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M; Al-Othman, Zeid A; El-Desoky, Gaber E; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M; Habila, Mohamed A; Giesy, John P

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of selenium (Se) in food from local markets of Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were measured and daily intake calculated based on information from a questionnaire of foods eaten by healthy Saudis. The daily intake of Se was then compared to concentrations of Se in blood serum. Primary sources of Se in the diet of Saudis were as follows: meat and meat products (31%), egg (20.4%), cereals and cereal products (16%), legumes (8.7%), fruits (6.8%), milk and dairy products (2.0%), beverages (2%), sweets (1.8%), pickles (0.2%), and oil (0.02%). Daily intake of Se, estimated to be 93 μg Se/person/day, was slightly greater than that calculated from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) food balance sheet for KSA, which was approximately 90 μg Se/person/day. The daily intake of Se by Saudis in Riyadh was greater than that of Australians or Dutch but less that of Canadians and Americans. There was a statistically significant correlation (R = +0.38, P < 0.05) between daily intake of Se and concentrations of Se in blood serum of Saudis in Riyadh. The mean concentration of Se in serum was 1.0 × 10(2) ± 30.5 μg Se/l. Taken together, the results suggest that the average Se intake and Se serum concentrations are within the known limits and recommendations, making it unlikely that Saudis are on average at risk of deficiency or toxicity.

  3. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND DAILY AMBULATION IN CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, AND YOUNG ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Parker, Donald E.; Krishnan, Sowmya; Chalmers, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Purposes To compare daily ambulatory measures in children, adolescents, and young adults with and without metabolic syndrome, and to assess which metabolic syndrome components, demographic measures, and body composition measures are associated with daily ambulatory measures. Methods Two-hundred fifty subjects between the ages of 10 and 30 years were assessed on metabolic syndrome components, demographic and clinical measures, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory strides, durations, and cadences during seven consecutive days. Forty-five of the 250 subjects had metabolic syndrome, as defined by the International Diabetes Federation. Results Subjects with metabolic syndrome ambulated at a slower daily average cadence than those without metabolic syndrome (13.6 ± 2.2 strides/min vs. 14.9 ± 3.2 strides/min; p=0.012), and they had slower cadences for continuous durations of 60 minutes (p=0.006), 30 minutes (p=0.005), 20 minutes (p=0.003), 5 minutes (p=0.002), and 1 minute (p=0.001). However, the total amount of time spent ambulating each day was not different (p=0.077). After adjustment for metabolic syndrome status, average cadence is linearly associated with body fat percentage (p<0.001) and fat mass (p<0.01). Group difference in average cadence was no longer significant after adjusting for body fat percentage (p=0.683) and fat mass (p=0.973). Conclusion Children, adolescents, and young adults with metabolic syndrome ambulate more slowly and take fewer strides throughout the day than those without metabolic syndrome, even though the total amount of time spent ambulating is not different. Furthermore, the detrimental influence of metabolic syndrome on ambulatory cadence is primarily a function of body fatness. PMID:22811038

  4. Development of the Contentment with Life Assessment Scale (CLAS): Using Daily Life Experiences to Verify Levels of Self-Reported Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavallee, Loraine F.; Hatch, P. Maurine; Michalos, Alex C.; McKinley, Tara

    2007-01-01

    On average, Anglo-Americans report that they are satisfied with their lives, but their global evaluations tend to deviate from their daily experiences (e.g., Oishi [2002, "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin" 28(10), 1398-1406]). We explored the hypothesis that the average life satisfaction of Anglo-Americans is better characterized as…

  5. Once weekly is superior to daily iron supplementation on height gain but not on hematological improvement among schoolchildren in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sungthong, Rassamee; Mo-Suwan, Ladda; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F

    2002-03-01

    Intermittent iron supplementation has been suggested as a replacement for daily iron supplements for reducing anemia in developing countries. The effects of once weekly and daily iron supplementation on hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), prevalence of anemia, weight and height are compared in this study. Primary schoolchildren (n = 397) from two selected schools in the Hat Yai rural area, southern Thailand, were recruited in 1999. All children received Albendazole and then randomly received ferrous sulfate (300 mg/tablet) either daily or weekly, or a placebo for 16 wk. The average increase in Hb was not significantly different between the daily (mean +/- SD; 6.5 +/- 6.0 g/L) and weekly (5.7 +/- 6.3 g/L) groups. However, the average increase in SF was greater (P < 0.01) in the daily (mean +/- SD; 39.8 +/- 30.3 microg/L) than the weekly (13.4 +/- 17.3 microg/L) group. All cases of iron deficiency anemia were abolished in both daily and weekly groups, whereas no reduction in prevalence occurred in the placebo group. Height gain was greater in children who received weekly (mean +/- SD; 2.6 +/- 0.9 cm) than in those who received daily iron (mean +/- SD; 2.3 +/- 0.8 cm), (P < 0.01). Weight gain, weight-for-age and height-for-age were not significantly different among the intervention groups. It is concluded that a weekly iron dose is more effective than a daily dose in height gain but not in hematological improvement over 16 wk of supplementation.

  6. Comparing flow duration curve and rainfall-runoff modelling for predicting daily runoff in ungauged catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Vaze, Jai; Chiew, Francis H. S.; Li, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Predicting daily runoff time series in ungauged catchments is both important and challenging. For the last few decades, the rainfall-runoff (RR) modelling approach has been the method of choice. There have been very few studies reported in literature which attempt to use flow duration curve (FDC) to predict daily runoff time series. This study comprehensively compares the two approaches using an extensive dataset (228 catchments) for a large region of south-eastern Australia and provides guidelines for choosing the suitable method. For each approach we used the nearest neighbour method and two weightings - a 5-donor simple mathematical average (SA) and a 5-donor inverse-distance weighting (5-IDW) - to predict daily runoff time series. The results show that 5-IDW was noticeably better than a single donor to predict daily runoff time series, especially for the FDC approach. The RR modelling approach calibrated against daily runoff outperformed the FDC approach for predicting high flows. The FDC approach was better at predicting medium to low flows in traditional calibration against the Nash-Sutcliffe-Efficiency or Root Mean Square Error, but when calibrated against a low flow objective function, both the FDC and rainfall-runoff models performed equally well in simulating the low flows. These results indicate that both methods can be further improved to simulate daily hydrographs describing the range of flow metrics in ungauged catchments. Further studies should be carried out for improving the accuracy of predicted FDC in ungauged catchments, including improving the FDC model structure and parameter fitting.

  7. Comparison of daily and weekly precipitation sampling efficiencies using automatic collectors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Linthurst, R.A.; Ellson, J.E.; Vozzo, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation samples were collected for approximately 90 daily and 50 weekly sampling periods at Finley Farm, near Raleigh, North Carolina from August 1981 through October 1982. Ten wet-deposition samplers (AEROCHEM METRICS MODEL 301) were used; 4 samplers were operated for daily sampling, and 6 samplers were operated for weekly-sampling periods. This design was used to determine if: (1) collection efficiences of precipitation are affected by small distances between the Universal (Belfort) precipitation gage and collector; (2) measurable evaporation loss occurs and (3) pH and specific conductance of precipitation vary significantly within small distances. Average collection efficiencies were 97% for weekly sampling periods compared with the rain gage. Collection efficiencies were examined by seasons and precipitation volume. Neither factor significantly affected collection efficiency. No evaporation loss was found by comparing daily sampling to weekly sampling at the collection site, which was classified as a subtropical climate. Correlation coefficients for pH and specific conductance of daily samples and weekly samples ranged from 0.83 to 0.99.Precipitation samples were collected for approximately 90 daily and 50 weekly sampling periods at Finley farm, near Raleigh, North Carolina from August 1981 through October 1982. Ten wet-deposition samplers were used; 4 samplers were operated for daily sampling, and 6 samplers were operated for weekly-sampling periods. This design was used to determine if: (1) collection efficiencies of precipitation are affected by small distances between the University (Belfort) precipitation gage and collector; (2) measurable evaporation loss occurs and (3) pH and specific conductance of precipitation vary significantly within small distances.

  8. Adaptive face coding and discrimination around the average face.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Maloney, Laurence T; Turner, Jenny; Ewing, Louise

    2007-03-01

    Adaptation paradigms highlight the dynamic nature of face coding and suggest that identity is coded relative to an average face that is tuned by experience. In low-level vision, adaptive coding can enhance sensitivity to differences around the adapted level. We investigated whether sensitivity to differences around the average face is similarly enhanced. Converging evidence from three paradigms showed no enhancement. Discrimination of small interocular spacing differences was not better for faces close to the average (Study 1). Nor was perceived similarity reduced for face pairs close to (spanning) the average (Study 2). On the contrary, these pairs were judged most similar. Maximum likelihood perceptual difference scaling (Studies 3 and 4) confirmed that sensitivity to differences was reduced, not enhanced, around the average. We conclude that adaptive face coding does not enhance discrimination around the average face.

  9. TIME INVARIANT MULTI ELECTRODE AVERAGING FOR BIOMEDICAL SIGNALS.

    PubMed

    Orellana, R Martinez; Erem, B; Brooks, D H

    2013-12-31

    One of the biggest challenges in averaging ECG or EEG signals is to overcome temporal misalignments and distortions, due to uncertain timing or complex non-stationary dynamics. Standard methods average individual leads over a collection of epochs on a time-sample by time-sample basis, even when multi-electrode signals are available. Here we propose a method that averages multi electrode recordings simultaneously by using spatial patterns and without relying on time or frequency.

  10. Conditionally-averaged structures in wall-bounded turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guezennec, Yann G.; Piomelli, Ugo; Kim, John

    1987-01-01

    The quadrant-splitting and the wall-shear detection techniques were used to obtain ensemble-averaged wall layer structures. The two techniques give similar results for Q4 events, but the wall-shear method leads to smearing of Q2 events. Events were found to maintain their identity for very long times. The ensemble-averaged structures scale with outer variables. Turbulence producing events were associated with one dominant vortical structure rather than a pair of counter-rotating structures. An asymmetry-preserving averaging scheme was devised that allowed a picture of the average structure which more closely resembles the instantaneous one, to be obtained.

  11. Light-cone averaging in cosmology: formalism and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, M.; Marozzi, G.; Nugier, F.; Veneziano, G.

    2011-07-01

    We present a general gauge invariant formalism for defining cosmological averages that are relevant for observations based on light-like signals. Such averages involve either null hypersurfaces corresponding to a family of past light-cones or compact surfaces given by their intersection with timelike hypersurfaces. Generalized Buchert-Ehlers commutation rules for derivatives of these light-cone averages are given. After introducing some adapted ``geodesic light-cone'' coordinates, we give explicit expressions for averaging the redshift to luminosity-distance relation and the so-called ``redshift drift'' in a generic inhomogeneous Universe.

  12. Light-cone averaging in cosmology: formalism and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperini, M.; Marozzi, G.; Veneziano, G.; Nugier, F. E-mail: giovanni.marozzi@college-de-france.fr E-mail: gabriele.veneziano@cern.ch

    2011-07-01

    We present a general gauge invariant formalism for defining cosmological averages that are relevant for observations based on light-like signals. Such averages involve either null hypersurfaces corresponding to a family of past light-cones or compact surfaces given by their intersection with timelike hypersurfaces. Generalized Buchert-Ehlers commutation rules for derivatives of these light-cone averages are given. After introducing some adapted ''geodesic light-cone'' coordinates, we give explicit expressions for averaging the redshift to luminosity-distance relation and the so-called ''redshift drift'' in a generic inhomogeneous Universe.

  13. Daily Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment with Gas Gaps Varying with Time

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki; Binh Pham

    2012-06-01

    A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps varying from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact – graphite holder gas gaps were linearly changed from the original fabrication dimensions, to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented.

  14. Continuous daily assessment of multiple sclerosis disability using remote step count monitoring.

    PubMed

    Block, V J; Lizée, A; Crabtree-Hartman, E; Bevan, C J; Graves, J S; Bove, R; Green, A J; Nourbakhsh, B; Tremblay, M; Gourraud, P-A; Ng, M Y; Pletcher, M J; Olgin, J E; Marcus, G M; Allen, D D; Cree, B A C; Gelfand, J M

    2017-02-01

    Disability measures in multiple sclerosis (MS) rely heavily on ambulatory function, and current metrics fail to capture potentially important variability in walking behavior. We sought to determine whether remote step count monitoring using a consumer-friendly accelerometer (Fitbit Flex) can enhance MS disability assessment. 99 adults with relapsing or progressive MS able to walk ≥2-min were prospectively recruited. At 4 weeks, study retention was 97% and median Fitbit use was 97% of days. Substudy validation resulted in high interclass correlations between Fitbit, ActiGraph and manual step count tally during a 2-minute walk test, and between Fitbit and ActiGraph (ICC = 0.76) during 7-day home monitoring. Over 4 weeks of continuous monitoring, daily steps were lower in progressive versus relapsing MS (mean difference 2546 steps, p < 0.01). Lower average daily step count was associated with greater disability on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) (p < 0.001). Within each EDSS category, substantial variability in step count was apparent (i.e., EDSS = 6.0 range 1097-7152). Step count demonstrated moderate-strong correlations with other walking measures. Lower average daily step count is associated with greater MS disability and captures important variability in real-world walking activity otherwise masked by standard disability scales, including the EDSS. These results support remote step count monitoring as an exploratory outcome in MS trials.

  15. Daily thermal predictions of the AGR-1 experiment with gas gaps varying with time

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, G.; Sterbentz, J.; Maki, J.; Pham, B.

    2012-07-01

    A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps changed from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact - graphite holder gas gaps were modeled with a linear change from the original fabrication gap dimensions to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation with the commercial finite element heat transfer code ABAQUS. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented. (authors)

  16. Sequential estimation of surface water mass changes from daily satellite gravimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G. L.; Frappart, F.; Gratton, S.; Vasseur, X.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a recursive Kalman filtering approach to map regional spatio-temporal variations of terrestrial water mass over large continental areas, such as South America. Instead of correcting hydrology model outputs by the GRACE observations using a Kalman filter estimation strategy, regional 2-by-2 degree water mass solutions are constructed by integration of daily potential differences deduced from GRACE K-band range rate (KBRR) measurements. Recovery of regional water mass anomaly averages obtained by accumulation of information of daily noise-free simulated GRACE data shows that convergence is relatively fast and yields accurate solutions. In the case of cumulating real GRACE KBRR data contaminated by observational noise, the sequential method of step-by-step integration provides estimates of water mass variation for the period 2004-2011 by considering a set of suitable a priori error uncertainty parameters to stabilize the inversion. Spatial and temporal averages of the Kalman filter solutions over river basin surfaces are consistent with the ones computed using global monthly/10-day GRACE solutions from official providers CSR, GFZ and JPL. They are also highly correlated to in situ records of river discharges (70-95 %), especially for the Obidos station where the total outflow of the Amazon River is measured. The sparse daily coverage of the GRACE satellite tracks limits the time resolution of the regional Kalman filter solutions, and thus the detection of short-term hydrological events.

  17. Effects of daily meteorology on the interpretation of space-based remote sensing of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughner, Joshua L.; Zare, Azimeh; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2016-12-01

    Retrievals of tropospheric NO2 columns from UV-visible observations of reflected sunlight require a priori vertical profiles to account for the variation in sensitivity of the observations to NO2 at different altitudes. These profiles vary in space and time but are usually approximated using models that do not resolve the full details of this variation. Currently, no operational retrieval simulates these a priori profiles at both high spatial and high temporal resolution. Here we examine the additional benefits of daily variations in a priori profiles for retrievals already simulating a priori NO2 profiles at sufficiently high spatial resolution to identify variations of NO2 within urban plumes. We show the effects of introducing daily variation into a priori profiles can be as large as 40 % and 3 × 1015 molec. cm-2 for an individual day and lead to corrections as large as -13 % for a monthly average in a case study of Atlanta, GA, USA. Additionally, we show that NOx emissions estimated from space-based remote sensing using daily, high-spatial-resolution a priori profiles are ˜ 100 % greater than those of a retrieval using spatially coarse a priori profiles, and 26-40 % less than those of a retrieval using monthly averaged high-spatial-resolution profiles.

  18. Daily Interpersonal and Affective Dynamics in Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    In this naturalistic study we adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between-and within-person differences in dynamic processes of daily affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed daily diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings of interpersonal problems and measures of daily stress were used as predictors of daily shifts in interpersonal behavior and affect in multilevel models. Results indicate that ~40%–50% of the variance in interpersonal behavior and affect is due to daily fluctuations, which are modestly related to dispositional measures of interpersonal problems but strongly related to daily stress. The findings support conceptions of personality disorders as a dynamic form of psychopathology involving the individuals interacting with and regulating in response to the contextual features of their environment. PMID:26200849

  19. Daily stressors, war experiences, and mental health in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth E; Omidian, Patricia; Rasmussen, Andrew; Yaqubi, Aziz; Daudzai, Haqmal

    2008-12-01

    Working in Afghanistan's capital city of Kabul, the authors assessed the relative contribution of daily stressors and war-related experiences of violence and loss to levels of depression, PTSD, impaired functioning, and a culturally specific measure of general psychological distress. For women, daily stressors were a better predictor than war experiences of all mental health outcomes except for PTSD; for men, daily stressors were a better predictor of depression and functional impairment, while war experiences and daily stressors were similarly predictive of general distress. For men, daily stressors moderated the relationship between war experiences and PTSD, which was significant only under conditions of low daily stress. The study's implications for research and intervention in conflict and post-conflict settings are considered.

  20. Torpor in the Patagonian opossum ( Lestodelphys halli): implications for the evolution of daily torpor and hibernation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiser, Fritz; Martin, Gabriel M.

    2013-10-01

    Hibernation and daily torpor are two distinct forms of torpor, and although they are related, it is not known how and in which sequence they evolved. As the pattern of torpor expressed by the oldest marsupial order the opossums (Didelphimorphia) may provide insights into the evolution of torpor, we aimed to provide the first quantitative data on the thermal biology and torpor expression of the rare Patagonian opossum ( Lestodelphys halli). It is the opossum with the southernmost distribution, has a propensity of autumnal fattening, and therefore, is likely to hibernate. We captured two male Lestodelphys, which while in captivity displayed strong daily fluctuations of body temperatures (Tb) measured with implanted miniature data loggers even when they remained normothermic. In autumn and early winter, torpor was expressed occasionally when food was available, but cold exposure and food withdrawal increased torpor use. The mean Tb throughout the study was 32.2 ± 1.4 °C, the minimum Tb measured in torpid Lestodelphys was 7.7 °C, average torpor bout duration was 10.3 h, and the maximum torpor bout duration was 42.5 h. Thus, the pattern of torpor expressed by Lestodelphys was intermediate between that of daily heterotherms and hibernators suggesting that it may represent an ancestral opportunistic torpor pattern from which the derived patterns of daily torpor and seasonal hibernation diverged.

  1. Daily Physical Activity Is Associated with Subcortical Brain Volume and Cognition in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Alosco, Michael L; Brickman, Adam M; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Sweet, Lawrence H; Josephson, Richard; Griffith, Erica Y; Narkhede, Atul; Hughes, Joel; Gunstad, John

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive impairment in heart failure (HF) is believed to in part stem from structural brain alterations, including shrinkage of subcortical regions. Fortunately, neurocognitive dysfunction in HF can be mitigated by physical activity (PA), though mechanisms for this phenomenon are unclear. PA is protective against age-related cognitive decline that may involve improved structural integrity to brain regions sensitive to aging (e.g., subcortical structures). Yet, no study has examined the benefits of PA on the brain in HF and we sought to do so and clarify related cognitive implications. Fifty older adults with HF completed a neuropsychological battery and wore an accelerometer for 7 days. All participants underwent brain MRI. This study targeted subcortical brain volume given subcortical alterations are often observed in HF and the sensitivity of PA to subcortical structures in other patient populations. Participants averaged 4348.49 (SD=2092.08) steps per day and greater daily steps predicted better attention/executive function, episodic memory, and language abilities, p's<.05. Medical and demographically adjusted regression analyses revealed higher daily steps per day predicted greater subcortical volume, with specific effects for the thalamus and ventral diencephalon, p's<.05. Greater subcortical volume was associated with better attention/executive function, p<.05. Higher daily PA was associated with increased subcortical brain volume and better cognition in older adults with HF. Longitudinal work is needed to clarify whether daily PA can attenuate brain atrophy in HF to reduce accelerated cognitive decline in this population.

  2. Torpor in the Patagonian opossum (Lestodelphys halli): implications for the evolution of daily torpor and hibernation.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Fritz; Martin, Gabriel M

    2013-10-01

    Hibernation and daily torpor are two distinct forms of torpor, and although they are related, it is not known how and in which sequence they evolved. As the pattern of torpor expressed by the oldest marsupial order the opossums (Didelphimorphia) may provide insights into the evolution of torpor, we aimed to provide the first quantitative data on the thermal biology and torpor expression of the rare Patagonian opossum (Lestodelphys halli). It is the opossum with the southernmost distribution, has a propensity of autumnal fattening, and therefore, is likely to hibernate. We captured two male Lestodelphys, which while in captivity displayed strong daily fluctuations of body temperatures (Tb) measured with implanted miniature data loggers even when they remained normothermic. In autumn and early winter, torpor was expressed occasionally when food was available, but cold exposure and food withdrawal increased torpor use. The mean Tb throughout the study was 32.2 ± 1.4 °C, the minimum Tb measured in torpid Lestodelphys was 7.7 °C, average torpor bout duration was 10.3 h, and the maximum torpor bout duration was 42.5 h. Thus, the pattern of torpor expressed by Lestodelphys was intermediate between that of daily heterotherms and hibernators suggesting that it may represent an ancestral opportunistic torpor pattern from which the derived patterns of daily torpor and seasonal hibernation diverged.

  3. Estimation of instantaneous peak flow from simulated maximum daily flow using the HBV model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jie; Haberlandt, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Instantaneous peak flow (IPF) data are the foundation of the design of hydraulic structures and flood frequency analysis. However, the long discharge records published by hydrological agencies contain usually only average daily flows which are of little value for design in small catchments. In former research, statistical analysis using observed peak and daily flow data was carried out to explore the link between instantaneous peak flow (IPF) and maximum daily flow (MDF) where the multiple regression model is proved to have the best performance. The objective of this study is to further investigate the acceptability of the multiple regression model for post-processing simulated daily flows from hydrological modeling. The model based flood frequency analysis allows to consider change in the condition of the catchments and in climate for design. Here, the HBV model is calibrated on peak flow distributions and flow duration curves using two approaches. In a two -step approach the simulated MDF are corrected with a priory established regressions. In a one-step procedure the regression coefficients are calibrated together with the parameters of the model. For the analysis data from 18 mesoscale catchments in the Aller-Leine river basin in Northern Germany are used. The results show that: (1) the multiple regression model is capable to predict the peak flows with the simulated MDF data; (2) the calibrated hydrological model reproduces well the magnitude and frequency distribution of peak flows; (3) the one-step procedure outperforms the two-step procedure regarding the estimation of peak flows.

  4. Preliminary Retrospective Analysis of Daily Tomotherapy Output Constancy Checks Using Statistical Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Menghi, Enrico; Marcocci, Francesco; Bianchini, David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the results from a Helical TomoTherapy Hi-Art treatment system relating to quality controls based on daily static and dynamic output checks using statistical process control methods. Individual value X-charts, exponentially weighted moving average charts, and process capability and acceptability indices were used to monitor the treatment system performance. Daily output values measured from January 2014 to January 2015 were considered. The results obtained showed that, although the process was in control, there was an out-of-control situation in the principal maintenance intervention for the treatment system. In particular, process capability indices showed a decreasing percentage of points in control which was, however, acceptable according to AAPM TG148 guidelines. Our findings underline the importance of restricting the acceptable range of daily output checks and suggest a future line of investigation for a detailed process control of daily output checks for the Helical TomoTherapy Hi-Art treatment system. PMID:26848962

  5. Recent high mountain rockfalls and warm daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. K.; Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    temperatures in the 7 days prior to failure, (between 6 - 9°C above average), and in three of these cases, temperatures exceeded even the 99th percentile. A further 3 events occurring in this region during the longer term heatwave of 2003 similarly were also preceded by extreme daily maximum temperatures. This relationship holds for other failures analysed in the northern, and eastern regions of the central Alps. Most interestingly, the weekly temperature anomaly, and the proportion of 'extreme' days, generally decreases as the analyses are extended from 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks out from each failure. In other words, there is a notable warming, and conditions become increasingly extreme in the lead-up to slope failure. In addition to extreme summer temperatures, our analyses points towards a possible role of unusually warm autumn and spring days influencing slope stability. A linkage between short term periods of extremely warm temperatures and rock failure may be reasonably facilitated through melt water operating within rock discontinues, processes that have recently been measured in high-mountain rock faces, and are considered to be particularly important in spring/early summer melt periods. It is not clear whether slope failures during warm autumn periods can be linked to the same processes. Rockfalls in the winter months remain rare, however, the 27 December 2011 rock avalanche at Piz Cengalo, Val Bregaglia, Switzerland (ca 2-3million m3), occurred following the warmest year on record, potentially reinforcing the role of longer term warming destabilising bedrock with permafrost at depth.

  6. 78 FR 49770 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... of Prisons Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates in Fiscal... annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community Corrections Center for Fiscal Year 2012 was $27,003...

  7. Hadley circulations for zonally averaged heating centered off the equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindzen, Richard S.; Hou, Arthur Y.

    1988-01-01

    Consistent with observations, it is found that moving peak heating even 2 deg off the equator leads to profound asymmetries in the Hadley circulation, with the winter cell amplifying greatly and the summer cell becoming negligible. It is found that the annually averaged Hadley circulation is much larger than the circulation forced by the annually averaged heating.

  8. 40 CFR 63.652 - Emissions averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emissions average. This must include any Group 1 emission points to which the reference control technology.... (c) The following emission points can be used to generate emissions averaging credits if control was... agrees has a higher nominal efficiency than the reference control technology. Information on the...

  9. 40 CFR 63.652 - Emissions averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emissions average. This must include any Group 1 emission points to which the reference control technology.... (c) The following emission points can be used to generate emissions averaging credits if control was... agrees has a higher nominal efficiency than the reference control technology. Information on the...

  10. A Simple Geometrical Derivation of the Spatial Averaging Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1985-01-01

    The connection between single phase transport phenomena and multiphase transport phenomena is easily accomplished by means of the spatial averaging theorem. Although different routes to the theorem have been used, this paper provides a route to the averaging theorem that can be used in undergraduate classes. (JN)

  11. Interpreting Bivariate Regression Coefficients: Going beyond the Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Statistics, econometrics, investment analysis, and data analysis classes often review the calculation of several types of averages, including the arithmetic mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean, and various weighted averages. This note shows how each of these can be computed using a basic regression framework. By recognizing when a regression model…

  12. 40 CFR 63.503 - Emissions averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.503 Emissions averaging... emissions averages. (2) Compliance with the provisions of this section may be based on either organic HAP or... (a)(3)(ii) of this section. (i) The organic HAP used as the calibration gas for Method 25A, 40...

  13. 7 CFR 701.117 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.117 Section 701.117 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Conservation Program § 701.117 Average adjusted gross income limitation. To be eligible for payments...

  14. Analytic computation of average energy of neutrons inducing fission

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Alexander Rich

    2016-08-12

    The objective of this report is to describe how I analytically computed the average energy of neutrons that induce fission in the bare BeRP ball. The motivation of this report is to resolve a discrepancy between the average energy computed via the FMULT and F4/FM cards in MCNP6 by comparison to the analytic results.

  15. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Average midrib length. 51.577 Section 51.577... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average... measured from the point of attachment at the base to the first node....

  16. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Average midrib length. 51.577 Section 51.577... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average... measured from the point of attachment at the base to the first node....

  17. Delineating the Average Rate of Change in Longitudinal Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    The average rate of change is a concept that has been misunderstood in the literature. This article attempts to clarify the concept and show unequivocally the mathematical definition and meaning of the average rate of change in longitudinal models. The slope from the straight-line change model has at times been interpreted as if it were always the…

  18. 7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Average moisture content determination. 51.2548 Section 51.2548 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average moisture content determination. 51.2548 Section 51.2548 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Average moisture content determination. 51.2548 Section 51.2548 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement...

  1. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bid amounts for each prescription drug plan (not including fallbacks) and for each MA-PD plan...(h) of the Act. (b) Calculation of weighted average. (1) The national average monthly bid amount is a....258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part D...

  2. 75 FR 78157 - Farmer and Fisherman Income Averaging

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... computing income tax liability. The regulations reflect changes made by the American Jobs Creation Act of...) relating to the averaging of farm and fishing income in computing tax liability. A notice of proposed... to compute current year (election year) income tax liability under section 1 by averaging, over...

  3. LANDSAT-4 horizon scanner full orbit data averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, J. P.; Bilanow, S.

    1983-01-01

    Averages taken over full orbit data spans of the pitch and roll residual measurement errors of the two conical Earth sensors operating on the LANDSAT 4 spacecraft are described. The variability of these full orbit averages over representative data throughtout the year is analyzed to demonstrate the long term stability of the sensor measurements. The data analyzed consist of 23 segments of sensor measurements made at 2 to 4 week intervals. Each segment is roughly 24 hours in length. The variation of full orbit average as a function of orbit within a day as a function of day of year is examined. The dependence on day of year is based on association the start date of each segment with the mean full orbit average for the segment. The peak-to-peak and standard deviation values of the averages for each data segment are computed and their variation with day of year are also examined.

  4. Time domain averaging based on fractional delay filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wentao; Lin, Jing; Han, Shaobo; Ding, Xianghui

    2009-07-01

    For rotary machinery, periodic components in signals are always extracted to investigate the condition of each rotating part. Time domain averaging technique is a traditional method used to extract those periodic components. Originally, a phase reference signal is required to ensure all the averaged segments are with the same initial phase. In some cases, however, there is no phase reference; we have to establish some efficient algorithms to synchronize the segments before averaging. There are some algorithms available explaining how to perform time domain averaging without using phase reference signal. However, those algorithms cannot eliminate the phase error completely. Under this background, a new time domain averaging algorithm that has no phase error theoretically is proposed. The performance is improved by incorporating the fractional delay filter. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is validated by some simulations.

  5. Average cross-responses in correlated financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Schäfer, Rudi; Guhr, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    There are non-vanishing price responses across different stocks in correlated financial markets, reflecting non-Markovian features. We further study this issue by performing different averages, which identify active and passive cross-responses. The two average cross-responses show different characteristic dependences on the time lag. The passive cross-response exhibits a shorter response period with sizeable volatilities, while the corresponding period for the active cross-response is longer. The average cross-responses for a given stock are evaluated either with respect to the whole market or to different sectors. Using the response strength, the influences of individual stocks are identified and discussed. Moreover, the various cross-responses as well as the average cross-responses are compared with the self-responses. In contrast to the short-memory trade sign cross-correlations for each pair of stocks, the sign cross-correlations averaged over different pairs of stocks show long memory.

  6. Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations ...

  7. 17 CFR 240.3a55-1 - Method for determining market capitalization and dollar value of average daily trading volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 240.12b-2. (4) Foreign financial regulatory authority has the same meaning as in Section 3(a)(52) of... that has been reported to a foreign financial regulatory authority in the jurisdiction where...

  8. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Average Daily Minimum Temperature, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  9. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Average Daily Maximum Temperature, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2008). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  10. Relationships between inflammation- and immunity-related transcript abundance in the rumen and jejunum of beef steers with divergent average daily gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bovine rumen papillae are in contact with a wide array of microorganisms and the metabolites they produce, which may activate an inflammatory and/or immune response. Cytokines, chemokines, and their receptor genes were tested for differential expression in the rumen and jejunum of beef steers w...

  11. 17 CFR 240.3a55-1 - Method for determining market capitalization and dollar value of average daily trading volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... be identified from the universe of all NMS securities as defined in § 242.600 of this chapter that... identified from the universe of all NMS securities as defined in § 242.600 of this chapter that are...

  12. 17 CFR 240.3a55-1 - Method for determining market capitalization and dollar value of average daily trading volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... be identified from the universe of all NMS securities as defined in § 242.600 of this chapter that... identified from the universe of all NMS securities as defined in § 242.600 of this chapter that are...

  13. 17 CFR 240.3a55-1 - Method for determining market capitalization and dollar value of average daily trading volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... be identified from the universe of all NMS securities as defined in § 242.600 of this chapter that... identified from the universe of all NMS securities as defined in § 242.600 of this chapter that are...

  14. 17 CFR 240.3a55-1 - Method for determining market capitalization and dollar value of average daily trading volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... be identified from the universe of all NMS securities as defined in § 242.600 of this chapter that... identified from the universe of all NMS securities as defined in § 242.600 of this chapter that are...

  15. Statistical models for estimating daily streamflow in Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, D.J.; Salehi, Habib

    1992-01-01

    Statistical models for estimating daily streamflow were analyzed for 25 pairs of streamflow-gaging stations in Michigan. Stations were paired by randomly choosing a station operated in 1989 at which 10 or more years of continuous flow data had been collected and at which flow is virtually unregulated; a nearby station was chosen where flow characteristics are similar. Streamflow data from the 25 randomly selected stations were used as the response variables; streamflow data at the nearby stations were used to generate a set of explanatory variables. Ordinary-least squares regression (OLSR) equations, autoregressive integrated moving-average (ARIMA) equations, and transfer function-noise (TFN) equations were developed to estimate the log transform of flow for the 25 randomly selected stations. The precision of each type of equation was evaluated on the basis of the standard deviation of the estimation errors. OLSR equations produce one set of estimation errors; ARIMA and TFN models each produce l sets of estimation errors corresponding to the forecast lead. The lead-l forecast is the estimate of flow l days ahead of the most recent streamflow used as a response variable in the estimation. In this analysis, the standard deviation of lead l ARIMA and TFN forecast errors were generally lower than the standard deviation of OLSR errors for l < 2 days and l < 9 days, respectively. Composite estimates were computed as a weighted average of forecasts based on TFN equations and backcasts (forecasts of the reverse-ordered series) based on ARIMA equations. The standard deviation of composite errors varied throughout the length of the estimation interval and generally was at maximum near the center of the interval. For comparison with OLSR errors, the mean standard deviation of composite errors were computed for intervals of length 1 to 40 days. The mean standard deviation of length-l composite errors were generally less than the standard deviation of the OLSR errors for l < 32

  16. The Association between Dust Storms and Daily Non ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background:The impact of dust storms on human health has been studied in the context of Asian,Saharan, Arabian, and Australian storms,but there has been no recent population-level epidemiological research on the dust storms in North America . The relevance of dust storms to public health is likely to increase as extreme weather events are predicted to become more frequent with anticipated changes in climate through the 21st century.Objectives: We examined the association between dust storms and county-level non-accidental mortality in the United States from 1993 through 2005.Methods:Dust storm incidence data, including date and approximate location. are taken from the U.S. National Weather Service storm database. County-level mortality data for the years 1993-2005 were acquired from the National Center for Health Statistics. Distributed lag conditionallogistic regression models under a time-stratified case-crossover design were used to study the relationship between dust storms and daily mortality counts over the whole United States and in Arizona and California specifically. End points included total non-accidental mortality and three mortality subgroups (cardiovascular, respiratory, and other non-acc idental).Results: We estimated that for the United States as a whole, total non-accidental mortality increased by 7.4% (95% Cl: 1.6, 13.5; p = 0.011) and 6.7% (95% Cl: 1.1,12.6; p = 0.018) at 2- and 3-day lags, respectively, and by an average of 2.7% (95% Cl: 0.4,

  17. Activity of daily living for Morquio A syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Eriko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimada, Tsutomu; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Mackenzie, William G; Theroux, Mary C; Pizarro, Christian; Xie, Li; Miller, Freeman; Rahman, Tariq; Kecskemethy, Heidi H; Nagao, Kyoko; Morlet, Thierry; Shaffer, Thomas H; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Akemi; Shintaku, Haruo; Orii, Kenji E; Orii, Koji O; Mason, Robert W; Montaño, Adriana M; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of daily living (ADL) and surgical interventions in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA). The factor(s) that affect ADL are age, clinical phenotypes, surgical interventions, therapeutic effect, and body mass index. The ADL questionnaire comprises three domains: "Movement," "Movement with cognition," and "Cognition." Each domain has four subcategories rated on a 5-point scale based on the level of assistance. The questionnaire was collected from 145 healthy controls and 82 patients with MPS IVA. The patient cohort consisted of 63 severe and 17 attenuated phenotypes (2 were undefined); 4 patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 33 patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for more than a year, and 45 untreated patients. MPS IVA patients show a decline in ADL scores after 10years of age. Patients with a severe phenotype have a lower ADL score than healthy control subjects, and lower scores than patients with an attenuated phenotype in domains of "Movement" and "Movement with cognition." Patients, who underwent HSCT and were followed up for over 10years, had higher ADL scores and fewer surgical interventions than untreated patients. ADL scores for ERT patients (2.5years follow-up on average) were similar with the-age-matched controls below 10years of age, but declined in older patients. Surgical frequency was higher for severe phenotypic patients than attenuated ones. Surgical frequency for patients treated with ERT was not decreased compared to untreated patients. In conclusion, we have shown the utility of the proposed ADL questionnaire and frequency of surgical interventions in patients with MPS IVA to evaluate the clinical severity and therapeutic efficacy compared with age-matched controls.

  18. Activity of daily living for Morquio A syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Eriko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimada, Tsutomu; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Mackenzie, William G.; Theroux, Mary C.; Pizarro, Christian; Xie, Li; Miller, Freeman; Rahman, Tariq; Kecskemethy, Heidi H.; Nagao, Kyoko; Morlet, Thierry; Shaffer, Thomas H.; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Akemi; Shintaku, Haruo; Orii, Kenji E.; Orii, Koji O.; Mason, Robert W.; Montaño, Adriana M.; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of daily living (ADL) and surgical interventions in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA). The factor(s) that affect ADL are age, clinical phenotypes, surgical interventions, therapeutic effect, and body mass index. The ADL questionnaire comprises three domains: “Movement,” “Movement with cognition,” and “Cognition.” Each domain has four subcategories rated on a 5-point scale based on the level of assistance. The questionnaire was collected from 145 healthy controls and 82 patients with MPS IVA. The patient cohort consisted of 63 severe and 17 attenuated phenotypes (2 were undefined); 4 patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 33 patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for more than a year, and 45 untreated patients. MPS IVA patients show a decline in ADL scores after 10 years of age. Patients with a severe phenotype have a lower ADL score than healthy control subjects, and lower scores than patients with an attenuated phenotype in domains of “Movement” and “Movement with cognition.” Patients, who underwent HSCT and were followed up for over 10 years, had higher ADL scores and fewer surgical interventions than untreated patients. ADL scores for ERT patients (2.5 years follow-up on average) were similar with the-age-matched controls below 10 years of age, but declined in older patients. Surgical frequency was higher for severe phenotypic patients than attenuated ones. Surgical frequency for patients treated with ERT was not decreased compared to untreated patients. In conclusion, we have shown the utility of the proposed ADL questionnaire and frequency of surgical interventions in patients with MPS IVA to evaluate the clinical severity and therapeutic efficacy compared with age-matched controls. PMID:27161890

  19. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1995-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by, almost 50% and 35%, respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to (1) missing data, (2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, (3) lack of filtering, and (4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C, or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  20. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by almost 50% and 35%. respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to 1) missing data, 2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, 3) lack of filtering, and 4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C. or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  1. A new method to estimate average hourly global solar radiation on the horizontal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Pramod K.; Soupir, Michelle L.

    2012-10-01

    A new model, Global Solar Radiation on Horizontal Surface (GSRHS), was developed to estimate the average hourly global solar radiation on the horizontal surfaces (Gh). The GSRHS model uses the transmission function (Tf,ij), which was developed to control hourly global solar radiation, for predicting solar radiation. The inputs of the model were: hour of day, day (Julian) of year, optimized parameter values, solar constant (H0), latitude, and longitude of the location of interest. The parameter values used in the model were optimized at a location (Albuquerque, NM), and these values were applied into the model for predicting average hourly global solar radiations at four different locations (Austin, TX; El Paso, TX; Desert Rock, NV; Seattle, WA) of the United States. The model performance was assessed using correlation coefficient (r), Mean Absolute Bias Error (MABE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and coefficient of determinations (R2). The sensitivities of parameter to prediction were estimated. Results show that the model performed very well. The correlation coefficients (r) range from 0.96 to 0.99, while coefficients of determination (R2) range from 0.92 to 0.98. For daily and monthly prediction, error percentages (i.e. MABE and RMSE) were less than 20%. The approach we proposed here can be potentially useful for predicting average hourly global solar radiation on the horizontal surface for different locations, with the use of readily available data (i.e. latitude and longitude of the location) as inputs.

  2. Sample size bias in retrospective estimates of average duration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew R; Rule, Shanon; Price, Paul C

    2017-03-25

    People often estimate the average duration of several events (e.g., on average, how long does it take to drive from one's home to his or her office). While there is a great deal of research investigating estimates of duration for a single event, few studies have examined estimates when people must average across numerous stimuli or events. The current studies were designed to fill this gap by examining how people's estimates of average duration were influenced by the number of stimuli being averaged (i.e., the sample size). Based on research investigating the sample size bias, we predicted that participants' judgments of average duration would increase as the sample size increased. Across four studies, we demonstrated a sample size bias for estimates of average duration with different judgment types (numeric estimates and comparisons), study designs (between and within-subjects), and paradigms (observing images and performing tasks). The results are consistent with the more general notion that psychological representations of magnitudes in one dimension (e.g., quantity) can influence representations of magnitudes in another dimension (e.g., duration).

  3. Programmable noise bandwidth reduction by means of digital averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Predetection noise bandwidth reduction is effected by a pre-averager capable of digitally averaging the samples of an input data signal over two or more symbols, the averaging interval being defined by the input sampling rate divided by the output sampling rate. As the averaged sample is clocked to a suitable detector at a much slower rate than the input signal sampling rate the noise bandwidth at the input to the detector is reduced, the input to the detector having an improved signal to noise ratio as a result of the averaging process, and the rate at which such subsequent processing must operate is correspondingly reduced. The pre-averager forms a data filter having an output sampling rate of one sample per symbol of received data. More specifically, selected ones of a plurality of samples accumulated over two or more symbol intervals are output in response to clock signals at a rate of one sample per symbol interval. The pre-averager includes circuitry for weighting digitized signal samples using stored finite impulse response (FIR) filter coefficients. A method according to the present invention is also disclosed.

  4. Inversion of the circular averages transform using the Funk transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evren Yarman, Can; Yazıcı, Birsen

    2011-06-01

    The integral of a function defined on the half-plane along the semi-circles centered on the boundary of the half-plane is known as the circular averages transform. Circular averages transform arises in many tomographic image reconstruction problems. In particular, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) when the transmitting and receiving antennas are colocated, the received signal is modeled as the integral of the ground reflectivity function of the illuminated scene over the intersection of spheres centered at the antenna location and the surface topography. When the surface topography is flat the received signal becomes the circular averages transform of the ground reflectivity function. Thus, SAR image formation requires inversion of the circular averages transform. Apart from SAR, circular averages transform also arises in thermo-acoustic tomography and sonar inverse problems. In this paper, we present a new inversion method for the circular averages transform using the Funk transform. For a function defined on the unit sphere, its Funk transform is given by the integrals of the function along the great circles. We used hyperbolic geometry to establish a diffeomorphism between the circular averages transform, hyperbolic x-ray and Funk transforms. The method is exact and numerically efficient when fast Fourier transforms over the sphere are used. We present numerical simulations to demonstrate the performance of the inversion method. Dedicated to Dennis Healy, a friend of Applied Mathematics and Engineering.

  5. Structuring Collaboration in Mixed-Ability Groups to Promote Verbal Interaction, Learning, and Motivation of Average-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; Jong, Ton de

    2007-01-01

    Average-ability students often do not take full advantage of learning in mixed-ability groups because they hardly engage in the group interaction. This study examined whether structuring collaboration by group roles and ground rules for helping behavior might help overcome this participatory inequality. In a plant biology course, heterogeneously…

  6. It's not just average faces that are attractive: computer-manipulated averageness makes birds, fish, and automobiles attractive.

    PubMed

    Halberstadt, Jamin; Rhodes, Gillian

    2003-03-01

    Average faces are attractive. We sought to distinguish whether this preference is an adaptation for finding high-quality mates (the direct selection account) or whether it reflects more general information-processing mechanisms. In three experiments, we examined the attractiveness of birds, fish, and automobiles whose averageness had been manipulated using digital image manipulation techniques common in research on facial attractiveness. Both manipulated averageness and rated averageness were strongly associated with attractiveness in all three stimulus categories. In addition, for birds and fish, but not for automobiles, the correlation between subjective averageness and attractiveness remained significant when the effect of subjective familiarity was partialled out. The results suggest that at least two mechanisms contribute to the attractiveness of average exemplars. One is a general preference for familiar stimuli, which contributes to the appeal of averageness in all three categories. The other is a preference for averageness per se, which was found for birds and fish, but not for automobiles, and may reflect a preference for features signaling genetic quality in living organisms, including conspecifics.

  7. Daily Experience Research: Methods and Applications in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkl, Judith E.; Baldwin, Cheryl K.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the major approaches used by social scientists to measure daily experiences, including interval-contingent, signal- contingent, and event-contingent methods. Examples of how these methods have been used in therapeutic recreation and leisure research are provided. The unique challenges and issues of measuring the daily experiences of…

  8. What Impact Does Developmental Coordination Disorder Have on Daily Routines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand how age and motor difficulties impact on daily routines, this qualitative investigation used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine the daily routines of younger (5 to 7 years of age) and older children (8 to 9 years of age) with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder…

  9. Long daily movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2009-01-01

    Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a daily round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long daily movements by Wolves rearing pups.

  10. 40 CFR 75.45 - Daily quality assurance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Daily quality assurance criteria. 75... (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 Daily quality assurance... that such tests are unnecessary for providing quality-assured data....

  11. 40 CFR 75.45 - Daily quality assurance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Daily quality assurance criteria. 75... (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 Daily quality assurance... that such tests are unnecessary for providing quality-assured data....

  12. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  13. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  14. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  15. 19 CFR 159.35 - Certified daily rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.35 Certified daily rate... the conversion of foreign currency whenever a proclaimed rate or certified quarterly rate is not... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified daily rate. 159.35 Section...

  16. 19 CFR 159.35 - Certified daily rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.35 Certified daily rate... the conversion of foreign currency whenever a proclaimed rate or certified quarterly rate is not... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified daily rate. 159.35 Section...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6622-1 - Interest compounded daily.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by dividing such rate of interest by 365 (366 in a leap year) and compounding such daily interest... following example. Example. Individual A files a tax return for calendar year 1981 on April 15, 1982... percent per year compounded daily 37.96 Total due, March 1, 1983 1,462.62...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6622-1 - Interest compounded daily.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by dividing such rate of interest by 365 (366 in a leap year) and compounding such daily interest... following example. Example. Individual A files a tax return for calendar year 1981 on April 15, 1982... percent per year compounded daily 37.96 Total due, March 1, 1983 1,462.62...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6622-1 - Interest compounded daily.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... by dividing such rate of interest by 365 (366 in a leap year) and compounding such daily interest... following example. Example. Individual A files a tax return for calendar year 1981 on April 15, 1982... percent per year compounded daily 37.96 Total due, March 1, 1983 1,462.62...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6622-1 - Interest compounded daily.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by dividing such rate of interest by 365 (366 in a leap year) and compounding such daily interest... following example. Example. Individual A files a tax return for calendar year 1981 on April 15, 1982... percent per year compounded daily 37.96 Total due, March 1, 1983 1,462.62...