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Sample records for adh gene cluster

  1. Chromatin remodeling during Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 gene activation.

    PubMed

    Verdone, L; Camilloni, G; Di Mauro, E; Caserta, M

    1996-05-01

    We have analyzed at both low and high resolution the distribution of nucleosomes over the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 promoter region in its chromosomal location, both under repressing (high-glucose) conditions and during derepression. Enzymatic treatments (micrococcal nuclease and restriction endonucleases) were used to probe the in vivo chromatin structure during ADH2 gene activation. Under glucose-repressed conditions, the ADH2 promoter was bound by a precise array of nucleosomes, the principal ones positioned at the RNA initiation sites (nucleosome +1), at the TATA box (nucleosome -1), and upstream of the ADR1-binding site (UAS1) (nucleosome -2). The UAS1 sequence and the adjacent UAS2 sequence constituted a nucleosome-free region. Nucleosomes -1 and +1 were destabilized soon after depletion of glucose and had become so before the appearance of ADH2 mRNA. When the transcription rate was high, nucleosomes -2 and +2 also underwent rearrangement. When spheroplasts were prepared from cells grown in minimal medium, detection of this chromatin remodeling required the addition of a small amount of glucose. Cells lacking the ADR1 protein did not display any of these chromatin modifications upon glucose depletion. Since the UAS1 sequence to which Adr1p binds is located immediately upstream of nucleosome -1, Adr1p is presumably required for destabilization of this nucleosome and for aiding the TATA-box accessibility to the transcription machinery. PMID:8628264

  2. Transcriptional control of ADH genes in the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J.Y.; Jeffries, T.W. |

    1999-06-01

    The authors studied the expression of the genes encoding group 1 alcohol dehydrogenases (PsADH1 and PsADH2) in the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. The cells expressed PsADH1 approximately 10 times higher under oxygen-limited conditions than under fully aerobic conditions when cultivated on xylose. Transcripts of PsADH2 were not detectable under either aeration condition. The authors used a PsADH1::lacZ fusion to monitor PsADH1 expression and found that expression increased as oxygen decreased. The level of PsADH1 transcript was expressed about 10-fold in cells grown in the presence of heme under oxygen-limited conditions. Concomitantly with the induction of PsADH1, PsCYC1 expression was regressed. These results indicate that oxygen availability regulates PsADH1 expression and that regulation may be mediated by heme. The regulation of PsADH2 expression was also examined in other genetic backgrounds. Disruption of PsADH1 dramatically increased PsADH2 expression on nonfermentable carbon sources under fully aerobic conditions, indicating that the expression of PsADH2 is subject to feedback regulation under these conditions.

  3. Evolution of the adhE gene product of Escherichia coli from a functional reductase to a dehydrogenase. Genetic and biochemical studies of the mutant proteins.

    PubMed

    Membrillo-Hernandez, J; Echave, P; Cabiscol, E; Tamarit, J; Ros, J; Lin, E C

    2000-10-27

    The multifunctional AdhE protein of Escherichia coli (encoded by the adhE gene) physiologically catalyzes the sequential reduction of acetyl-CoA to acetaldehyde and then to ethanol under fermentative conditions. The NH(2)-terminal region of the AdhE protein is highly homologous to aldehyde:NAD(+) oxidoreductases, whereas the COOH-terminal region is homologous to a family of Fe(2+)-dependent ethanol:NAD(+) oxidoreductases. This fusion protein also functions as a pyruvate formate lyase deactivase. E. coli cannot grow aerobically on ethanol as the sole carbon and energy source because of inadequate rate of adhE transcription and the vulnerability of the AdhE protein to metal-catalyzed oxidation. In this study, we characterized 16 independent two-step mutants with acquired and improved aerobic growth ability on ethanol. The AdhE proteins in these mutants catalyzed the sequential oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde and to acetyl-CoA. All first stage mutants grew on ethanol with a doubling time of about 240 min. Sequence analysis of a randomly chosen mutant revealed an Ala-267 --> Thr substitution in the acetaldehyde:NAD(+) oxidoreductase domain of AdhE. All second stage mutants grew on ethanol with a doubling time of about 90 min, and all of them produced an AdhE(A267T/E568K). Purified AdhE(A267T) and AdhE(A267T/E568K) showed highly elevated acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities. It therefore appears that when AdhE catalyzes the two sequential reactions in the counter-physiological direction, acetaldehyde dehydrogenation is the rate-limiting step. Both mutant proteins were more thermosensitive than the wild-type protein, but AdhE(A267T/E568K) was more thermal stable than AdhE(A267T). Since both mutant enzymes exhibited similar kinetic properties, the second mutation probably conferred an increased growth rate on ethanol by stabilizing AdhE(A267T). PMID:10922373

  4. A human alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH6) encoding an additional class of isozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Yasunami, M; Chen, C S; Yoshida, A

    1991-01-01

    The human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) gene family consists of five known loci (ADH1-ADH5), which have been mapped close together on chromosome 4 (4q21-25). ADH isozymes encoded by these genes are grouped in three distinct classes in terms of their enzymological properties. A moderate structural similarity is observed between the members of different classes. We isolated an additional member of the ADH gene family by means of cross-hybridization with the ADH2 (class I) cDNA probe. cDNA clones corresponding to this gene were derived from PCR-amplified libraries as well. The coding sequence of a 368-amino-acid-long open reading frame was interrupted by introns into eight exons and spanned approximately 17 kilobases on the genome. The gene contains a glucocorticoid response element at the 5' region. The transcript was detected in the stomach and liver. The deduced amino acid sequence of the open reading frame showed about 60% positional identity with known human ADHs. This extent of homology is comparable to interclass similarity in the human ADH family. Thus, the newly identified gene, which is designated ADH6, governs the synthesis of an enzyme that belongs to another class of ADHs presumably with a distinct physiological role. Images PMID:1881901

  5. Effects of glucose, ethanol and acetic acid on regulation of ADH2 gene from Lachancea fermentati.

    PubMed

    Yaacob, Norhayati; Mohamad Ali, Mohd Shukuri; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini

    2016-01-01

    Background. Not all yeast alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) are repressed by glucose, as reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia stipitis ADH2 is regulated by oxygen instead of glucose, whereas Kluyveromyces marxianus ADH2 is regulated by neither glucose nor ethanol. For this reason, ADH2 regulation of yeasts may be species dependent, leading to a different type of expression and fermentation efficiency. Lachancea fermentati is a highly efficient ethanol producer, fast-growing cells and adapted to fermentation-related stresses such as ethanol and organic acid, but the metabolic information regarding the regulation of glucose and ethanol production is still lacking. Methods. Our investigation started with the stimulation of ADH2 activity from S. cerevisiae and L. fermentati by glucose and ethanol induction in a glucose-repressed medium. The study also embarked on the retrospective analysis of ADH2 genomic and protein level through direct sequencing and sites identification. Based on the sequence generated, we demonstrated ADH2 gene expression highlighting the conserved NAD(P)-binding domain in the context of glucose fermentation and ethanol production. Results. An increase of ADH2 activity was observed in starved L. fermentati (LfeADH2) and S. cerevisiae (SceADH2) in response to 2% (w/v) glucose induction. These suggest that in the presence of glucose, ADH2 activity was activated instead of being repressed. An induction of 0.5% (v/v) ethanol also increased LfeADH2 activity, promoting ethanol resistance, whereas accumulating acetic acid at a later stage of fermentation stimulated ADH2 activity and enhanced glucose consumption rates. The lack in upper stream activating sequence (UAS) and TATA elements hindered the possibility of Adr1 binding to LfeADH2. Transcription factors such as SP1 and RAP1 observed in LfeADH2 sequence have been implicated in the regulation of many genes including ADH2. In glucose fermentation, L. fermentati exhibited a bell-shaped ADH2

  6. Effects of glucose, ethanol and acetic acid on regulation of ADH2 gene from Lachancea fermentati

    PubMed Central

    Yaacob, Norhayati; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini

    2016-01-01

    Background. Not all yeast alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) are repressed by glucose, as reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia stipitis ADH2 is regulated by oxygen instead of glucose, whereas Kluyveromyces marxianus ADH2 is regulated by neither glucose nor ethanol. For this reason, ADH2 regulation of yeasts may be species dependent, leading to a different type of expression and fermentation efficiency. Lachancea fermentati is a highly efficient ethanol producer, fast-growing cells and adapted to fermentation-related stresses such as ethanol and organic acid, but the metabolic information regarding the regulation of glucose and ethanol production is still lacking. Methods. Our investigation started with the stimulation of ADH2 activity from S. cerevisiae and L. fermentati by glucose and ethanol induction in a glucose-repressed medium. The study also embarked on the retrospective analysis of ADH2 genomic and protein level through direct sequencing and sites identification. Based on the sequence generated, we demonstrated ADH2 gene expression highlighting the conserved NAD(P)-binding domain in the context of glucose fermentation and ethanol production. Results. An increase of ADH2 activity was observed in starved L. fermentati (LfeADH2) and S. cerevisiae (SceADH2) in response to 2% (w/v) glucose induction. These suggest that in the presence of glucose, ADH2 activity was activated instead of being repressed. An induction of 0.5% (v/v) ethanol also increased LfeADH2 activity, promoting ethanol resistance, whereas accumulating acetic acid at a later stage of fermentation stimulated ADH2 activity and enhanced glucose consumption rates. The lack in upper stream activating sequence (UAS) and TATA elements hindered the possibility of Adr1 binding to LfeADH2. Transcription factors such as SP1 and RAP1 observed in LfeADH2 sequence have been implicated in the regulation of many genes including ADH2. In glucose fermentation, L. fermentati exhibited a bell-shaped ADH2

  7. The Adh1 gene of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is expressed during insect colonization and required for full virulence.

    PubMed

    Callejas-Negrete, Olga Alicia; Torres-Guzmán, Juan Carlos; Padilla-Guerrero, Israel Enrique; Esquivel-Naranjo, Ulises; Padilla-Ballesteros, Maria Fernanda; García-Tapia, Adriana; Schrank, Augusto; Salazar-Solís, Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Corona, Félix; González-Hernández, Gloria Angélica

    2015-03-01

    Zymography of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae grown under various conditions revealed that micro-aerobic growth was associated with increased ADH activity. The major ADH protein, AdhIp, was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography and has an estimated molecular weight of 41kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.4. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis allowed the identification and cloning of the gene that encodes this protein, Adh1, as annotated in the M. anisopliae genome database. AdhIp is related to the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR)/zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase-like family and contains conserved ADH sequence motifs, such as the zinc-containing ADH signature, the FAD/NAD binding domain and amino acid residues that are conserved in most microbial ADHs. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that Adh1 gene expression occurs at low levels during early Plutella xylostella infection and that the Adh1 gene was primarily expressed at larval death and as mycelia emerge from the insect cuticle before conidiation. Antisense-RNA experiments indicated that NAD(+)-dependent ADH activity was diminished by 20-75% in the transformants, and the transformants that had lower ADH activity showed allyl alcohol resistance, which indicates that reduction in ADH activity also occurs in vivo. Bioassays performed using antisense adh1 transformants, which have lower ADH activity, showed that LC50 values were two to five times higher than the wild-type, indicating that AdhIp is required for full capability of the fungus to penetrate and/or colonize the insect. PMID:25534970

  8. Increased Variation in Adh Enzyme Activity in Drosophila Mutation-Accumulation Experiment Is Not Due to Transposable Elements at the Adh Structural Gene

    PubMed Central

    Aquadro, C. F.; Tachida, H.; Langley, C. H.; Harada, K.; Mukai, T.

    1990-01-01

    We present here a molecular analysis of the region surrounding the structural gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) in 47 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that have each accumulated mutations for 300 generations. While these lines show a significant increase in variation of alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity compared to control lines, we found no restriction map variation in a 13-kb region including the complete Adh structural gene and roughly 5 kb of both 5' and 3' sequences. Thus, the rapid accumulation of ADH activity variation after 28,200 allele generations does not appear to have been due to the mobilization of transposable elements into or out of the Adh structural gene region. PMID:1963870

  9. Fructophilic characteristics of Fructobacillus spp. may be due to the absence of an alcohol/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene (adhE).

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Tanaka, Naoto; Oikawa, Yo; Okada, Sanae; Dicks, Leon

    2014-04-01

    Fructophilic strains of Leuconostoc spp. have recently been reclassified to a new genus, i.e., Fructobacillus. Members of the genus are differentiated from Leuconostoc spp. by their preference for fructose on growth, requirement of an electron acceptor for glucose metabolism, and the inability to produce ethanol from the fermentation of glucose. In the present study, enzyme activities and genes involved in ethanol production were studied, since this is the key pathway for NAD(+)/NADH cycling in heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria. Fructobacillus spp. has a weak alcohol dehydrogenase activity and has no acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, whereas both enzymes are active in Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The bifunctional alcohol/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene, adhE, was described in Leuconostoc spp., but not in Fructobacillus spp. These results suggested that, due to the deficiency of the adhE gene, the normal pathway for ethanol production is absent in Fructobacillus spp. This leads to a shortage of NAD(+), and the requirement for an electron acceptor in glucose metabolism. Fructophilic characteristics, as observed for Fructobacillus spp., are thus due to the absence of the adhE gene, and a phenotype that most likely evolved as a result of regressive evolution. PMID:24352296

  10. Isolation and Identification of Genes Activating Uas2-Dependent Adh2 Expression in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Donoviel, M. S.; Young, E. T.

    1996-01-01

    Two cis-acting elements have been identified that act synergistically to regulate expression of the glucose-repressed alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) gene. UAS1 is bound by the trans-activator Adr1p. UAS2 is thought to be the binding site for an unidentified regulatory protein. A genetic selection based on a UAS2-dependent ADH2 reporter was devised to isolate genes capable of activating UAS2-dependent transcription. One set of UAS2-dependent genes contained SPT6/CRE2/SSN20. Multicopy SPT6 caused improper expression of chromosomal ADH2. A second set of UAS2-dependent clones contained a previously uncharacterized open reading frame designated MEU1 (Multicopy Enhancer of UAS2). A frame shift mutation in MEU1 abolished its ability to activate UAS2-dependent gene expression. Multicopy MEU1 expression suppressed the constitutive ADH2 expression caused by cre2-1. Disruption of MEU1 reduced endogenous ADH2 expression about twofold but had no effect on cell viability or growth. No homologues of MEU1 were identified by low-stringency Southern hybridization of yeast genomic DNA, and no significant homologues were found in the sequence data bases. A MEU1/β-gal fusion protein was not localized to a particular region of the cell. MEU1 is linked to PPR1 on chromosome XII. PMID:8807288

  11. Primary structure and functional analysis of the lysis genes of Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh.

    PubMed

    Henrich, B; Binishofer, B; Bläsi, U

    1995-02-01

    The lysis genes of the Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh were isolated by complementation of a lambda Sam mutation in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing of a 1,735-bp DNA fragment revealed two adjacent coding regions of 342 bp (hol) and 951 bp (lys) in the same reading frame which appear to belong to a common transcriptional unit. Proteins corresponding to the predicted gene products, holin (12.9 kDa) and lysin (34.7 kDa), were identified by in vitro and in vivo expression of the cloned genes. The phi adh holin is a membrane-bound protein with structural similarity to lysis proteins of other phage, known to be required for the transit of murein hydrolases through the cytoplasmic membrane. The phi adh lysin shows homology with mureinolytic enzymes encoded by the Lactobacillus bulgaricus phage mv4, the Streptococcus pneumoniae phage Cp-1, Cp-7, and Cp-9, and the Lactococcus lactis phage phi LC3. Significant homology with the N termini of known muramidases suggests that phi adh lysin acts by a similar catalytic mechanism. In E. coli, the phi adh lysin seems to be associated with the total membrane fraction, from which it can be extracted with lauryl sarcosinate. Either one of the phi adh lysis proteins provoked lysis of E. coli when expressed along with holins or lysins of phage lambda or Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29. Concomitant expression of the combined holin and lysin functions of phi adh in E. coli, however, did not result in efficient cell lysis. PMID:7836307

  12. Characterization of polymorphisms of genes ADH2, ADH3, ALDH2 and CYP2E1 and relationship to the alcoholism in a Colombian population

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identify and characterize polymorphisms of genes ADH2, ADH3, ALDH2 and CYP2E1 in a Colombian population residing in the city of Bogotá and determine its possible relationship to the alcoholism. Methods: ADH2, ADH3, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 genotypes a population of 148 individuals with non-problematic alcohol and 65 individuals with alcoholism were determined with TaqMan probes and PCR-RFLP. DNA was obtained from peripheral blood white cells. Results: Significant difference was found in family history of alcoholism and use of other psychoactive substances to compare alcoholics with controls. When allelic frequencies for each category (gender) were considered, frequency of A2 allele carriers in ADH2 was found higher in male patients than controls. In women, the relative frequency for c1 allele in CYP2E1 was lower in controls than alcoholics. The ALDH2 locus is monomorphic. No significant differences in allele distributions of the loci examined to compare two populations were observed, however when stratifying the same trend was found that these differences tended to be significant. Conclusions: This study allows us to conclude the positive association between family history of alcoholism and alcoholism suggesting that there is a favourable hereditary predisposition. Since substance dependence requires interaction of multiple genes, the combination of genotypes ADH2 * 2, CYP2E1 * 1 combined with genotype homozygous ALDH2 * 1 found in this study could be leading to the population to a potential risk to alcoholism. PMID:26848198

  13. Polymorphisms in Alcohol Metabolism Genes ADH1B and ALDH2, Alcohol Consumption and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Rennert, Gad; Cuadras, Daniel; Salazar, Ramon; Cordero, David; Saltz Rennert, Hedy; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Kopelovich, Levy; Monroe Lipkin, Steven; Bernard Gruber, Stephen; Moreno, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epidemiological risk factors for CRC included alcohol intake, which is mainly metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase; consequently, the role of genes in the alcohol metabolism pathways is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between SNPs in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes and CRC risk, and also the main effect of alcohol consumption on CRC risk in the study population. Methodology/Principal Findings SNPs from ADH1B and ALDH2 genes, included in alcohol metabolism pathway, were genotyped in 1694 CRC cases and 1851 matched controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits were also obtained. Logistic regression and association analysis were conducted. A positive association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk was observed in male participants from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (MECC) study (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.18-1.81). Moreover, the SNPs rs1229984 in ADH1B gene was found to be associated with CRC risk: under the recessive model, the OR was 1.75 for A/A genotype (95%CI = 1.21-2.52; p-value = 0.0025). A path analysis based on structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of ADH1B gene polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis and also an indirect effect mediated through alcohol consumption. Conclusions/Significance Genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolism pathways have a potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis, probably due to the differences in the ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde oxidation of these enzyme variants. PMID:24282520

  14. High diversity and no significant selection signal of human ADH1B gene in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background ADH1B is one of the most studied human genes with many polymorphic sites. One of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1229984, coding for the Arg48His substitution, have been associated with many serious diseases including alcoholism and cancers of the digestive system. The derived allele, ADH1B*48His, reaches high frequency only in East Asia and Southwest Asia, and is highly associated with agriculture. Micro-evolutionary study has defined seven haplogroups for ADH1B based on seven SNPs encompassing the gene. Three of those haplogroups, H5, H6, and H7, contain the ADH1B*48His allele. H5 occurs in Southwest Asia and the other two are found in East Asia. H7 is derived from H6 by the derived allele of rs3811801. The H7 haplotype has been shown to have undergone significant positive selection in Han Chinese, Hmong, Koreans, Japanese, Khazak, Mongols, and so on. Methods In the present study, we tested whether Tibetans also showed evidence for selection by typing 23 SNPs in the region covering the ADH1B gene in 1,175 individuals from 12 Tibetan populations representing all districts of the Tibet Autonomous Region. Multiple statistics were estimated to examine the gene diversities and positive selection signals among the Tibetans and other populations in East Asia. Results The larger Tibetan populations (Qamdo, Lhasa, Nagqu, Nyingchi, Shannan, and Shigatse) comprised mostly farmers, have around 12% of H7, and 2% of H6. The smaller populations, living on hunting or recently switched to farming, have lower H7 frequencies (Tingri 9%, Gongbo 8%, Monba and Sherpa 6%). Luoba (2%) and Deng (0%) have even lower frequencies. Long-range haplotype analyses revealed very weak signals of positive selection for H7 among Tibetans. Interestingly, the haplotype diversity of H7 is higher in Tibetans than in any other populations studied, indicating a longer diversification history for that haplogroup in Tibetans. Network analysis on the long-range haplotypes revealed

  15. A Phylogenetic Analysis of the Genus Fragaria (Strawberry) Using Intron-Containing Sequence from the ADH-1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    DiMeglio, Laura M.; Yu, Hongrun; Davis, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fragaria encompasses species at ploidy levels ranging from diploid to decaploid. The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa, and its two immediate progenitors, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, are octoploids. To elucidate the ancestries of these octoploid species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using intron-containing sequences of the nuclear ADH-1 gene from 39 germplasm accessions representing nineteen Fragaria species and one outgroup species, Dasiphora fruticosa. All trees from Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed two major clades, Clade A and Clade B. Each of the sampled octoploids contributed alleles to both major clades. All octoploid-derived alleles in Clade A clustered with alleles of diploid F. vesca, with the exception of one octoploid allele that clustered with the alleles of diploid F. mandshurica. All octoploid-derived alleles in clade B clustered with the alleles of only one diploid species, F. iinumae. When gaps encoded as binary characters were included in the Maximum Parsimony analysis, tree resolution was improved with the addition of six nodes, and the bootstrap support was generally higher, rising above the 50% threshold for an additional nine branches. These results, coupled with the congruence of the sequence data and the coded gap data, validate and encourage the employment of sequence sets containing gaps for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic conclusions, based upon sequence data from the ADH-1 gene located on F. vesca linkage group II, complement and generally agree with those obtained from analyses of protein-encoding genes GBSSI-2 and DHAR located on F. vesca linkage groups V and VII, respectively, but differ from a previous study that utilized rDNA sequences and did not detect the ancestral role of F. iinumae. PMID:25078607

  16. Differential interactions of promoter elements in stress responses of the Arabidopsis Adh gene.

    PubMed Central

    Dolferus, R; Jacobs, M; Peacock, W J; Dennis, E S

    1994-01-01

    The Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.1.1.) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. can be induced by dehydration and cold, as well as by hypoxia. A 1-kb promoter fragment (CADH: -964 to +53) is sufficient to confer the stress induction and tissue-specific developmental expression characteristics of the Adh gene to a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Deletion mapping of the 5' end and site-specific mutagenesis identified four regions of the promoter essential for expression under the three stress conditions. Some sequence elements are important for response to all three stress treatments, whereas others are stress specific. The most critical region essential for expression of the Arabidopsis Adh promoter under all three environmental stresses (region IV: -172 to -141) contains sequences homologous to the GT motif (-160 to -152) and the GC motif (-147 to -144) of the maize Adh1 anaerobic responsive element. Region III (-235 to -172) contains two regions shown by R.J. Ferl and B.H. Laughner ([1989] Plant Mol Biol 12: 357-366) to bind regulatory proteins; mutation of the G-box-1 region (5'-CCACGTGG-3', -216 to -209) does not affect expression under uninduced or hypoxic conditions, but significantly reduces induction by cold stress and, to a lesser extent, by dehydration stress. Mutation of the other G-box-like sequence (G-box-2: 5'-CCAAGTGG-3', -193 to -182) does not change hypoxic response and affects cold and dehydration stress only slightly. G-box-2 mutations also promote high levels of expression under uninduced conditions. Deletion of region I (-964 to -510) results in increased expression under uninduced and all stress conditions, suggesting that this region contains a repressor binding site. Region II (-510 to -384) contains a positive regulatory element and is necessary for high expression levels under all treatments. PMID:7972489

  17. Genetic Association and Gene-Gene Interaction Reveal Genetic Variations in ADH1B, GSTM1 and MnSOD Independently Confer Risk to Alcoholic Liver Diseases in India

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Indranil; Chatterjee, Ankita; Das, Kausik; Bhowmik, Pradip; Das, Soumyajit; Basu, Priyadarshi; Santra, Amal K.; Datta, Simanti; Dhali, Gopal Krishna; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Banerjee, Soma

    2016-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility is an important modifier of clinical outcome and natural history of progression in Alcoholic liver disease (ALD). While the significance of ethnicity in this evolution is very clear, subtle inter-individual genetic variant(s) might be important and thus we investigated those in an Indian population. Fourteen markers were genotyped within two alcohol metabolism genes [Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene clusters (ADH1B and ADH1C) and Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2)], one microsomal ethanol oxidizing enzyme cytochrome p450 (CYP2E1) and three oxidative stress response (OSR) genes (MnSOD, GSTT1 and GSTM1) among 490 Bengali individuals (322 ALD and 168 control) from Eastern and North-Eastern India and validation was performed in a new cohort of 150 Bengali patients including 100 ALD and 50 advanced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Out of 14 genetic variants, carriage of 5 genotypes (rs2066701CC in ADH1B, rs1693425TT in ADH1C, rs4880TT in MnSOD and GSTT1/GSTM1 null, p-value <0.05) were noted significantly higher among ALD patients while inter or intra group gene-gene interaction analysis revealed that addition of risk genotype of any OSR gene enhanced the possibility of ALD synergistically. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed independent association of rs2066701CC, rs4880TT and GSTM1 null genotype with ALD while lower frequencies of those genotypes in advanced NASH patients further confirmed their causal relation to ALD. Thus these findings suggest that the three variants of ADH1C, MnSOD and GSTM1 can be used to identify individuals who are at high risk to develop ALD and may be helpful in proper management of Indian alcoholics. PMID:26937962

  18. Polymorphism of Alcohol Metabolizing Gene ADH3 Predisposes to Development of Alcoholic Pancreatitis in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Divya; Negi, Tajwar S.; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam; Choudhuri, Gourdas

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim: Genetic factors regulating alcohol metabolism could predispose in developing alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP). Studies revealed that alcohol could be metabolized by both ways, oxidative and non-oxidative. The main oxidative pathway includes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and cytochrome P450 enzyme. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in these enzymes with the alcoholic pancreatitis in the north Indian population. Method: Patients with alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP; n = 72), tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP; n = 75), alcoholic controls (AC; n = 40), and healthy controls (HC; n = 100) were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from the subjects in EDTA coated vials. DNA was extracted and genotyping for ADH3, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 was done by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction—restriction fragment length polymorphism). The products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Result: The frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1 genotype was significantly higher in ACP group (59.7%) compared with TCP (38.7%), HC (42%), and AC (37.5%) and was found to be associated with increased risk of alcoholic pancreatitis. There was no statistically significant difference between the frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1, ADH3*1/*2, and ADH3*2/*2 genotypes between TCP and HC or healthy alcoholics. ALDH2 gene was monomorphic in our population, and the frequencies for CYP2E1 intron 6 Dra I polymorphism were comparable in all the four groups. Conclusion: This study shows that carriers of ADH3*1/*1 individuals consuming alcohol are at higher risk for alcoholic pancreatitis than those with other genotypes such as ADH3*1/*2 and ADH3*2/*2. PMID:26734614

  19. The Adh-related gene of Drosophila melanogaster is expressed as a functional dicistronic messenger RNA: multigenic transcription in higher organisms.

    PubMed

    Brogna, S; Ashburner, M

    1997-04-15

    Essentially all eukaryotic cellular mRNAs are monocistronic, and are usually transcribed individually. Two tandemly arranged Drosophila genes, alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) and Adh-related (Adhr), are transcribed as a dicistronic transcript. From transcripts initiated from the Adh promoter, two classes of mRNA are accumulated, one is monocistronic and encodes Adh alone, the other is dicistronic and includes the open reading frames of both Adh and Adhr. The dicistronic transcript is found in polysomes and the Adhr protein product is detected by antibody staining. We present evidence that the accumulation of the dicistronic mRNA is controlled at the level of the 3' end processing. PMID:9155028

  20. Cloning of the Arabidopsis and Rice Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase Genes: Implications for the Origin of Plant Adh Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Dolferus, R.; Osterman, J. C.; Peacock, W. J.; Dennis, E. S.

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the cloning of the genes encoding the Arabidopsis and rice class III ADH enzymes, members of the alcohol dehydrogenase or medium chain reductase/dehydrogenase superfamily of proteins with glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity (GSH-FDH). Both genes contain eight introns in exactly the same positions, and these positions are conserved in plant ethanol-active Adh genes (class P). These data provide further evidence that plant class P genes have evolved from class III genes by gene duplication and acquisition of new substrate specificities. The position of introns and similarities in the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of the different classes of ADH enzymes in plants and humans suggest that plant and animal class III enzymes diverged before they duplicated to give rise to plant and animal ethanol-active ADH enzymes. Plant class P ADH enzymes have gained substrate specificities and evolved promoters with different expression properties, in keeping with their metabolic function as part of the alcohol fermentation pathway. PMID:9215914

  1. Biosynthetic burden and plasmid burden limit expression of chromosomally integrated heterologous genes (pdc, adhB) in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; York, S.W.; Yomano, L.P.; Pineda, V.L.; Davis, F.C.; Shelton, J.C.; Ingram, L.O.

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies have shown an unexpectedly high nutrient requirement for efficient ethanol production by ethanologenic recombinants of Escherichia coli B such as LY01 which contain chromosomally integrated Zymomonas mobilis genes (pdc, adhB) encoding the ethanol pathway. The basis for this requirement has been identified as a media-dependent effect on the expression of the Z. mobilis genes rather than a nutritional limitation. Ethanol production was substantially increased without additional nutrients simply by increasing the level of pyruvate decarboxylase activity. This was accomplished by adding a multicopy plasmid containing pdc alone (but not adhB alone) to strain LY01, and by adding multicopy plasmids which express pdc and adhB from strong promoters. New strong promoters were isolated from random fragments of Z. mobilis DNA and characterized but were not used to construct integrated biocatalysts. These promoters contained regions resembling recognition sites for 3 different E. coli sigma factors: {sigma}{sup 70}, {sigma}{sup 38}, and {sigma}{sup 28}. The most effective plasmid-based promoters for fermentation were recognized by multiple sigma factors, expressed both pdc and adhB at high levels, and produced ethanol efficiently while allowing up to 80% reduction in complex nutrients as compared to LY01. The ability to utilize multiple sigma factors may be advantageous to maintain the high levels of PDC and ADH needed for efficient ethanol production throughout batch fermentation.

  2. Alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3 activates glucose alcoholic fermentation in genetically engineered Dekkera bruxellensis yeast.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Siurkus, Juozas; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Joerck-Ramberg, Dorte; Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Nerve; Blevins, James E; Sibirny, Andriy A; Piškur, Jure; Ishchuk, Olena P

    2016-04-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a non-conventional Crabtree-positive yeast with a good ethanol production capability. Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its tolerance to acidic pH and its utilization of alternative carbon sources make it a promising organism for producing biofuel. In this study, we developed an auxotrophic transformation system and an expression vector, which enabled the manipulation of D. bruxellensis, thereby improving its fermentative performance. Its gene ADH3, coding for alcohol dehydrogenase, was cloned and overexpressed under the control of the strong and constitutive promoter TEF1. Our recombinant D. bruxellensis strain displayed 1.4 and 1.7 times faster specific glucose consumption rate during aerobic and anaerobic glucose fermentations, respectively; it yielded 1.2 times and 1.5 times more ethanol than did the parental strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The overexpression of ADH3 in D. bruxellensis also reduced the inhibition of fermentation by anaerobiosis, the "Custer effect". Thus, the fermentative capacity of D. bruxellensis could be further improved by metabolic engineering. PMID:26743658

  3. Improvement of Ethanol Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by High-Efficient Disruption of the ADH2 Gene Using a Novel Recombinant TALEN Vector.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Zhang, Weimin; Liu, Taomei; Tan, Guohui; Li, Haohua; Huang, Zilei

    2016-01-01

    Bioethanol is becoming increasingly important in energy supply and economic development. However, the low yield of bioethanol and the insufficiency of high-efficient genetic manipulation approaches limit its application. In this study, a novel transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) vector containing the left and right arms of TALEN was electroporated into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain As2.4 to sequence the alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH2 and the hygromycin-resistant gene hyg. Western blot analysis using anti-FLAG monoclonal antibody proved the successful expression of TALE proteins in As2.4 strains. qPCR and sequencing demonstrated the accurate knockout of the 17 bp target gene with 80% efficiency. The TALEN vector and ADH2 PCR product were electroporated into ΔADH2 to complement the ADH2 gene (ADH2 (+) As2.4). LC-MS and GC were employed to detect ethanol yields in the native As2.4, ΔADH2 As2.4, and ADH2 (+) As2.4 strains. Results showed that ethanol production was improved by 52.4 ± 5.3% through the disruption of ADH2 in As2.4. The bioethanol yield of ADH2 (+) As2.4 was nearly the same as that of native As2.4. This study is the first to report on the disruption of a target gene in S. cerevisiae by employing Fast TALEN technology to improve bioethanol yield. This work provides a novel approach for the disruption of a target gene in S. cerevisiae with high efficiency and specificity, thereby promoting the improvement of bioethanol production in S. cerevisiae by metabolic engineering. PMID:27462304

  4. Improvement of Ethanol Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by High-Efficient Disruption of the ADH2 Gene Using a Novel Recombinant TALEN Vector

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wei; Zhang, Weimin; Liu, Taomei; Tan, Guohui; Li, Haohua; Huang, Zilei

    2016-01-01

    Bioethanol is becoming increasingly important in energy supply and economic development. However, the low yield of bioethanol and the insufficiency of high-efficient genetic manipulation approaches limit its application. In this study, a novel transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) vector containing the left and right arms of TALEN was electroporated into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain As2.4 to sequence the alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH2 and the hygromycin-resistant gene hyg. Western blot analysis using anti-FLAG monoclonal antibody proved the successful expression of TALE proteins in As2.4 strains. qPCR and sequencing demonstrated the accurate knockout of the 17 bp target gene with 80% efficiency. The TALEN vector and ADH2 PCR product were electroporated into ΔADH2 to complement the ADH2 gene (ADH2+ As2.4). LC–MS and GC were employed to detect ethanol yields in the native As2.4, ΔADH2 As2.4, and ADH2+ As2.4 strains. Results showed that ethanol production was improved by 52.4 ± 5.3% through the disruption of ADH2 in As2.4. The bioethanol yield of ADH2+ As2.4 was nearly the same as that of native As2.4. This study is the first to report on the disruption of a target gene in S. cerevisiae by employing Fast TALEN technology to improve bioethanol yield. This work provides a novel approach for the disruption of a target gene in S. cerevisiae with high efficiency and specificity, thereby promoting the improvement of bioethanol production in S. cerevisiae by metabolic engineering. PMID:27462304

  5. Exceptionally High Levels of Restriction Site Polymorphism in DNA near the Maize Adh1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Mitrick A.; Strommer, Judith N.; Freeling, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Restriction maps have been prepared for the chromosomal region near seven biochemically and genetically distinct maize alcohol dehydrogenase-1 (Adh1) alleles using a small cDNA probe for Adh1. Five restriction sites spanning about 4 kb in and near the Adh1 transcription unit appear identical in all seven alleles. Outside this conserved region, variation in restriction site position is the rule. Six of the seven alleles are distinguishable, and the alleles appear to fall into four groups. The DNA flanking the 1S-type alleles seems to share no restriction site homology with the DNA near the 1F-type alleles. Several hypotheses are put forward to explain how such high levels of polymorphism could have arisen in a species that has been domesticated for only about 10,000 years. PMID:17246173

  6. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) gene polymorphism and alcoholic liver cirrhosis risk: a meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Lei; Deng, Tao; Luo, He-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The association between alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) gene polymorphism and alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) has been analyzed in several studies, but results have been conflicting. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the associations between the ADH1C polymorphism and risk of ALC. Relevant studies were identified using PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang databases up to January 10, 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association using the fixed or random effect model. A total of 16 case-control studies, including 1375 cases and 1802 controls, were included. Overall, no significant association between the ADH1C polymorphism and ALC risk was found (dominant model: OR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.62-1.23; recessive model: OR=1.30, 95% CI: 0.84-1.99; *1/*2 vs. *1/*1: OR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.63-1.21; *2/*2 vs. *1/*1: OR=1.10, 95% CI: 0.71-1.70). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we observed a significant association in Asian descent (*1/*2 vs. *1/*1: OR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.07-2.49), while a decreased risk was found among Caucasians (dominant model: OR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.66-0.99; *1/*2 vs. *1/*1: OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.61-0.95). This meta-analysis demonstrated that the ADH1C polymorphism might increase the risk of ALC in Asians, while it may be a protective factor for ALC among Caucasians. PMID:26379912

  7. Molecular analysis of UAS(E), a cis element containing stress response elements responsible for ethanol induction of the KlADH4 gene of Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, C; Santori, F; Saliola, M; Falcone, C

    2000-01-01

    KlADH4 is a gene of Kluyveromyces lactis encoding a mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase activity, which is specifically induced by ethanol and insensitive to glucose repression. In this work, we report the molecular analysis of UAS(E), an element of the KlADH4 promoter which is essential for the induction of KlADH4 in the presence of ethanol. UAS(E) contains five stress response elements (STREs), which have been found in many genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in the response of cells to conditions of stress. Whereas KlADH4 is not responsive to stress conditions, the STREs present in UAS(E) seem to play a key role in the induction of the gene by ethanol, a situation that has not been observed in the related yeast S. cerevisiae. Gel retardation experiments showed that STREs in the KlADH4 promoter can bind factor(s) under non-inducing conditions. Moreover, we observed that the RAP1 binding site present in UAS(E) binds KlRap1p. PMID:10724480

  8. Regulation of human alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH7: importance of an AP-1 site.

    PubMed

    Kotagiri, S; Edenberg, H J

    1998-07-01

    The structure and function of the human alcohol dehydrogenase 7 (ADH7) promoter were analyzed. A promoter fragment extending to bp -232 functioned well in H4IIE-C3, CV-1, and HeLa cells, whereas the region extending further upstream to bp -799 had no significant effect on activity. We identified cis-acting elements in the proximal 232 bp and examined their effect on promoter activity. Mutation of site A, where c-Jun bound, caused a drastic decrease in the promoter activity in H4IIE-C3 and CV-1 cells, suggesting that AP-1 plays an important role in the regulation of ADH7. Mutation of site B also caused a large drop in promoter activity in both cell lines; C/EBPalpha can bind to this site, but because the site affects activity approximately equally in CV-1 cells that lack C/EBPalpha and in H4IIE-C3 cells that contain low levels, other proteins are likely to play the major roles in vivo. Mutation of site C, where C/EBP bound and c-Jun bound weakly, had different effects in the two cell lines: in H4IIE-C3 cells, the site C mutation did not significantly increase promoter activity, whereas in CV-1 cells, which lack C/EBPalpha, it led to a doubling of activity. Surprisingly, cotransfection of the wild-type promoter with C/EBPa or C/EBPbeta led to a decrease in promoter activity, which might in part explain the lack of activity of ADH7 in adult liver. PMID:9703017

  9. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YMR318C (ADH6) gene product as a broad specificity NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase: relevance in aldehyde reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Larroy, Carol; Fernández, M Rosario; González, Eva; Parés, Xavier; Biosca, Josep A

    2002-01-01

    YMR318C represents an open reading frame from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with unknown function. It possesses a conserved sequence motif, the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) signature, specific to the medium-chain zinc-containing ADHs. In the present study, the YMR318C gene product has been purified to homogeneity from overexpressing yeast cells, and found to be a homodimeric ADH, composed of 40 kDa subunits and with a pI of 5.0-5.4. The enzyme was strictly specific for NADPH and was active with a wide variety of substrates, including aliphatic (linear and branched-chain) and aromatic primary alcohols and aldehydes. Aldehydes were processed with a 50-fold higher catalytic efficiency than that for the corresponding alcohols. The highest k(cat)/K(m) values were found with pentanal>veratraldehyde > hexanal > 3-methylbutanal >cinnamaldehyde. Taking into consideration the substrate specificity and sequence characteristics of the YMR318C gene product, we have proposed this gene to be called ADH6. The disruption of ADH6 was not lethal for the yeast under laboratory conditions. Although S. cerevisiae is considered a non lignin-degrading organism, the catalytic activity of ADHVI can direct veratraldehyde and anisaldehyde, arising from the oxidation of lignocellulose by fungal lignin peroxidases, to the lignin biodegradation pathway. ADHVI is the only S. cerevisiae enzyme able to significantly reduce veratraldehyde in vivo, and its overexpression allowed yeast to grow under toxic concentrations of this aldehyde. The enzyme may also be involved in the synthesis of fusel alcohols. To our knowledge this is the first NADPH-dependent medium-chain ADH to be characterized in S. cerevisiae. PMID:11742541

  10. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) polymorphisms exacerbate bladder cancer risk associated with alcohol drinking: gene-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Masaoka, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hidemi; Soga, Norihito; Hosono, Satoyo; Oze, Isao; Watanabe, Miki; Tanaka, Hideo; Yokomizo, Akira; Hayashi, Norio; Eto, Masatoshi; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2016-06-01

    Although a range of chemical exposures (cigarette smoking and occupational exposure) are recognized risk factors for the development of bladder cancer (BCa), many epidemiological studies have demonstrated that alcohol drinking is not associated with BCa risk. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2; rs671, Glu504Lys) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B; rs1229984, His47Arg) polymorphisms impact the accumulation of acetaldehyde, resulting in an increased risk of various cancers. To date, however, no studies evaluating the association between BCa risk and alcohol drinking have considered these polymorphisms. Here, we conducted a matched case-control study to investigate whether ALDH2 and ADH1B polymorphisms influence BCa risk associated with alcohol drinking. Cases were 74 BCa patients and controls were 740 first-visit outpatients without cancer at Aichi Cancer Center Hospital between January 2001 and December 2005. Odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) and gene-environment interaction were assessed by conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounders. Results showed that ALDH2 Glu/Lys was associated with a significantly increased risk of BCa compared with Glu/Glu (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.14-3.62, P = 0.017). In contrast, ALDH2 Glu/Lys showed no increase in risk among the stratum of never drinkers compared with Glu/Glu, indicating a gene-environment interaction. ADH1B His/Arg had an OR of 1.98 (1.20-3.24, P = 0.007) compared with His/His. ADH1B Arg+ showed a similar OR and 95% CI. Individuals with ALDH2 Glu/Lys and ADH1B Arg+ had the highest risk of BCa compared with ALDH2 Glu/Glu and ADH1B His/His [OR 4.00 (1.81-8.87), P = 0.001]. PMID:26992901

  11. Cloning and Overexpression of the als, pflA, and adhB Genes in Streptococcus thermophilus and Their Effects on Metabolite Formation.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Ismail; Ozcelik, Fatma Gul; Karakas-Sen, Asuman; Ozkose, Emin; Gezginc, Yekta; Ekinci, M Sait

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is a lactic acid bacterium and used as starter culture in the dairy industry, mainly in the manufacture of yoghurt, with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. It produces lactic acid as a major fermentation end product and some carbonyl compounds through sugar metabolism. The level of metabolites could be improved using molecular biotechnology. The genes of als, encoding α-acetolactate synthase (Als), the pflA, encoding pyruvate-formate lyase activating enzyme (PflA), and the adhB which encodes alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) of S. thermophilus NCFB2393 strain were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and separately cloned into the overexpression vector pNZ276 under the control of the lacA promoter. The strains were transformed individually with the constructed plasmids. Their abilities to generate important metabolites such as pyruvate, lactate, formate, acetaldehyde, acetoin, ethanol, and 2,3-butanediol in LM17 medium were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. High level of 2,3-butanediol was obtained by overexpressing the als gene. The level of formate increased slightly by overexpressing the pflA gene. The overexpression of the adhB gene, on the other hand, resulted in a significant increase in the ethanol level. PMID:26280324

  12. Association and ancestry analysis of sequence variants in ADH and ALDH using alcohol-related phenotypes in a Native American community sample

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Qian; Gizer, Ian R.; Libiger, Ondrej; Bizon, Chris; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2015-01-01

    Higher rates of alcohol use and other drug-dependence have been observed in some Native American populations relative to other ethnic groups in the U.S. Previous studies have shown that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes may affect the risk of development of alcohol dependence, and that polymorphisms within these genes may differentially affect risk for the disorder depending on the ethnic group evaluated. We evaluated variations in the ADH and ALDH genes in a large study investigating risk factors for substance use in a Native American population. We assessed ancestry admixture and tested for associations between alcohol-related phenotypes in the genomic regions around the ADH1-7 and ALDH2 and ALDH1A1 genes. Seventy-two (72) ADH variants showed significant evidence of association with a severity level of alcohol drinking-related dependence symptoms phenotype. These significant variants spanned across the entire 7 ADH gene cluster regions. Two significant associations, one in ADH and one in ALDH2, were observed with alcohol dependence diagnosis. Seventeen (17) variants showed significant association with the largest number of alcohol drinks ingested during any 24-hour period. Variants in or near ADH7 were significantly negatively associated with alcohol-related phenotypes, suggesting a potential protective effect of this gene. In addition, our results suggested that a higher degree of Native American ancestry is associated with higher frequencies of potential risk variants and lower frequencies of potential protective variants for alcohol dependence phenotypes. PMID:25270064

  13. Efficient production of lycopene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of synthetic crt genes from a plasmid harboring the ADH2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Bahieldin, Ahmed; Gadalla, Nour O; Al-Garni, Saleh M; Almehdar, Hussein; Noor, Samah; Hassan, Sabah M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Sabir, Jamal S M; Murata, Norio

    2014-03-01

    Lycopene is an effective antioxidant proposed as a possible treatment for some cancers and other degenerative human conditions. This study aims at generation of a yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) of efficient productivity of lycopene by overexpressing synthetic genes derived from crtE, crtB and crtI genes of Erwinia uredovora. These synthetic genes were constructed in accordance with the preferred codon usage in S. cerevisiae but with no changes in amino acid sequences of the gene products. S. cerevisiae cells were transformed with these synthetic crt genes, whose expression was regulated by the ADH2 promoter, which is de-repressed upon glucose depletion. The RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses indicated that the synthetic crt genes were efficiently transcribed and translated in crt-transformed S. cerevisiae cells. The highest level of lycopene in one of the transformed lines was 3.3mglycopene/g dry cell weight, which is higher than the previously reported levels of lycopene in other microorganisms transformed with the three genes. These results suggest the excellence of using the synthetic crt genes and the ADH2 promoter in generation of recombinant S. cerevisiae that produces a high level of lycopene. The level of ergosterol was reversely correlated to that of lycopene in crt-transformed S. cerevisiae cells, suggesting that two pathways for lycopene and ergosterol syntheses compete for the use of farnesyl diphosphate. PMID:24680933

  14. Ethanol production by Escherichia coli strains co-expressing Zymomonas PDC and ADH genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Conway, Tyrrell; Alterthum, Flavio

    1991-01-01

    A novel operon and plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase activities of Zymomonas mobilis are described. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of microorganisms or eukaryotic cells and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of microorganisms or cells.

  15. Neurite outgrowth resistance to rho kinase inhibitors in PC12 Adh cell.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hua; Hou, Xiaolin; Tao, Tingrui; Lv, Xiaoman; Zhang, Luyong; Duan, Weigang

    2015-05-01

    Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor is a promising agent for neural injury disorders, which mechanism is associated with neurite outgrowth. However, neurite outgrowth resistance occurred when PC12 Adh cell was treated with ROCK inhibitors for a longer time. PC12 Adh cells were treated with ROCK inhibitor Y27632 or NGF for different durations. Neurite outgrowth resistance occurred when PC12 Adh cell exposed to Y27632 (33 µM) for 3 or more days, but not happen when exposed to nerve growth factor (NGF, 100 ng/mL). The gene expression in the PC12 Adh cells treated with Y27632 (33 µM) or NGF (100 ng/mL) for 2 or 4 days was assayed by gene microarray, and the reliability of the results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Cluster analysis proved that the gene expression profile of PC12 Adh cell treated with Y27632 for 4 days was different from that treated with Y27632 for 2 days and those treated with NGF for 2 and 4 days, respectively. Pathway analysis hinted that the neurite outgrowth resistance could be associated with up-regulation of inflammatory pathways, especially rno04610 (complement and coagulation cascades), and down-regulation of cell cycle pathways, especially rno04110. PMID:25571866

  16. Ectopic ADH secretion

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADH. Often, there are no symptoms from a low sodium level. When symptoms do occur, they may include ... Lab tests that can confirm and help diagnose low sodium include: Comprehensive metabolic panel (includes blood sodium) Osmolality ...

  17. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also known as: Vasopressin; AVP Formal name: Antidiuretic Hormone; Arginine Vasopressin Related tests: Osmolality , BUN , Creatinine , Sodium , ... should know? How is it used? The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) test is used to help detect, diagnose, ...

  18. Cofactor Specificity of the Bifunctional Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (AdhE) in Wild-Type and Mutant Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; Tian, Liang; Bomble, Yannick J.; Himmel, Michael E.; Lo, Jonathan; Hon, Shuen; Shaw, A. Joe; van Dijken, Johannes P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum are thermophilic bacteria that have been engineered to produce ethanol from the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of biomass, respectively. Although engineered strains of T. saccharolyticum produce ethanol with a yield of 90% of the theoretical maximum, engineered strains of C. thermocellum produce ethanol at lower yields (∼50% of the theoretical maximum). In the course of engineering these strains, a number of mutations have been discovered in their adhE genes, which encode both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. To understand the effects of these mutations, the adhE genes from six strains of C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, the enzymes produced were purified by affinity chromatography, and enzyme activity was measured. In wild-type strains of both organisms, NADH was the preferred cofactor for both ALDH and ADH activities. In high-ethanol-producing (ethanologen) strains of T. saccharolyticum, both ALDH and ADH activities showed increased NADPH-linked activity. Interestingly, the AdhE protein of the ethanologenic strain of C. thermocellum has acquired high NADPH-linked ADH activity while maintaining NADH-linked ALDH and ADH activities at wild-type levels. When single amino acid mutations in AdhE that caused increased NADPH-linked ADH activity were introduced into C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum, ethanol production increased in both organisms. Structural analysis of the wild-type and mutant AdhE proteins was performed to provide explanations for the cofactor specificity change on a molecular level. IMPORTANCE This work describes the characterization of the AdhE enzyme from different strains of C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum. C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum are thermophilic anaerobes that have been engineered to make high yields of ethanol and can solubilize components of

  19. The metabolic enzyme AdhE controls the virulence of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Beckham, Katherine S H; Connolly, James P R; Ritchie, Jennifer M; Wang, Dai; Gawthorne, Jayde A; Tahoun, Amin; Gally, David L; Burgess, Karl; Burchmore, Richard J; Smith, Brian O; Beatson, Scott A; Byron, Olwyn; Wolfe, Alan J; Douce, Gillian R; Roe, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Classical studies have focused on the role that individual regulators play in controlling virulence gene expression. An emerging theme, however, is that bacterial metabolism also plays a key role in this process. Our previous work identified a series of proteins that were implicated in the regulation of virulence. One of these proteins was AdhE, a bi-functional acetaldehyde-CoA dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase. Deletion of its gene (adhE) resulted in elevated levels of extracellular acetate and a stark pleiotropic phenotype: strong suppression of the Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) and overexpression of non-functional flagella. Correspondingly, the adhE mutant bound poorly to host cells and was unable to swim. Furthermore, the mutant was significantly less virulent than its parent when tested in vivo, which supports the hypothesis that attachment and motility are central to the colonization process. The molecular basis by which AdhE affects virulence gene regulation was found to be multifactorial, involving acetate-stimulated transcription of flagella expression and post-transcriptional regulation of the T3SS through Hfq. Our study reveals fascinating insights into the links between bacterial physiology, the expression of virulence genes, and the underlying molecular mechanism mechanisms by which these processes are regulated. PMID:24846743

  20. Genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 in Turkish alcoholics: lack of association with alcoholism and alcoholic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Sezgin; Tekin, Fatih; Salman, Esin; Altintoprak, Ender; Coskunol, Hakan; Akarca, Ulus Salih

    2015-01-01

    No data exists regarding the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene polymorphisms in Turkish alcoholic cirrhotics. We studied the polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes in alcoholic cirrhotics and compared the results with non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers. Overall, 237 subjects were included for the study: 156 alcoholic patients (78 cirrhotics, 78 non-cirrhotic alcoholics) and 81 healthy volunteers. Three different single-nucleotide-polymorphism genotyping methods were used. ADH1C genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The identified ADH1C genotypes were named according to the presence or absence of the enzyme restriction sites. ADH1B (Arg47Hys) genotyping was performed using the allele specific primer extension method, and ALDH2 (Glu487Lys) genotyping was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction using two allele-specific primer pairs. For ADH1B, the frequency of allele *1 in the cirrhotics, non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers was 97.4%, 94.9% and 99.4%, respectively. For ADH1C, the frequency of allele *1 in the cirrhotics, non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers was 47%, 36.3% and 45%, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the groups for ADH1B and ADH1C (p>0.05). All alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects (100%) had the allele *1 for ALDH2. The obtained results for ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH gene polymorphisms in the present study are similar to the results of Caucasian studies. ADH1B and ADH1C genetic variations are not related to the development of alcoholism or susceptibility to alcoholic cirrhosis. ALDH2 gene has no genetic variation in the Turkish population. PMID:26042511

  1. ADH IB Expression, but Not ADH III, Is Decreased in Human Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mutka, Sarah C.; Green, Lucia H.; Verderber, Evie L.; Richards, Jane P.; Looker, Doug L.; Chlipala, Elizabeth A.; Rosenthal, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous S-nitrosothiols, including S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), mediate nitric oxide (NO)-based signaling, inflammatory responses, and smooth muscle function. Reduced GSNO levels have been implicated in several respiratory diseases, and inhibition of GSNO reductase, (GSNOR) the primary enzyme that metabolizes GSNO, represents a novel approach to treating inflammatory lung diseases. Recently, an association between decreased GSNOR expression and human lung cancer risk was proposed in part based on immunohistochemical staining using a polyclonal GSNOR antibody. GSNOR is an isozyme of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family, and we demonstrate that the antibody used in those studies cross reacts substantially with other ADH proteins and may not be an appropriate reagent. We evaluated human lung cancer tissue arrays using monoclonal antibodies highly specific for human GSNOR with minimal cross reactivity to other ADH proteins. We verified the presence of GSNOR in ≥85% of specimens examined, and extensive analysis of these samples demonstrated no difference in GSNOR protein expression between cancerous and normal lung tissues. Additionally, GSNOR and other ADH mRNA levels were evaluated quantitatively in lung cancer cDNA arrays by qPCR. Consistent with our immunohistochemical findings, GSNOR mRNA levels were not changed in lung cancer tissues, however the expression levels of other ADH genes were decreased. ADH IB mRNA levels were reduced (>10-fold) in 65% of the lung cancer cDNA specimens. We conclude that the previously reported results showed an incorrect association of GSNOR and human lung cancer risk, and a decrease in ADH IB, rather than GSNOR, correlates with human lung cancer. PMID:23285246

  2. ADH IB expression, but not ADH III, is decreased in human lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mutka, Sarah C; Green, Lucia H; Verderber, Evie L; Richards, Jane P; Looker, Doug L; Chlipala, Elizabeth A; Rosenthal, Gary J

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous S-nitrosothiols, including S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), mediate nitric oxide (NO)-based signaling, inflammatory responses, and smooth muscle function. Reduced GSNO levels have been implicated in several respiratory diseases, and inhibition of GSNO reductase, (GSNOR) the primary enzyme that metabolizes GSNO, represents a novel approach to treating inflammatory lung diseases. Recently, an association between decreased GSNOR expression and human lung cancer risk was proposed in part based on immunohistochemical staining using a polyclonal GSNOR antibody. GSNOR is an isozyme of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family, and we demonstrate that the antibody used in those studies cross reacts substantially with other ADH proteins and may not be an appropriate reagent. We evaluated human lung cancer tissue arrays using monoclonal antibodies highly specific for human GSNOR with minimal cross reactivity to other ADH proteins. We verified the presence of GSNOR in ≥85% of specimens examined, and extensive analysis of these samples demonstrated no difference in GSNOR protein expression between cancerous and normal lung tissues. Additionally, GSNOR and other ADH mRNA levels were evaluated quantitatively in lung cancer cDNA arrays by qPCR. Consistent with our immunohistochemical findings, GSNOR mRNA levels were not changed in lung cancer tissues, however the expression levels of other ADH genes were decreased. ADH IB mRNA levels were reduced (>10-fold) in 65% of the lung cancer cDNA specimens. We conclude that the previously reported results showed an incorrect association of GSNOR and human lung cancer risk, and a decrease in ADH IB, rather than GSNOR, correlates with human lung cancer. PMID:23285246

  3. Conserved enhancer and silencer elements responsible for differential Adh transcription in Drosophila cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Ayer, S; Benyajati, C

    1990-01-01

    The distal promoter of Adh is differentially expressed in Drosophila tissue culture cell lines. After transfection with an exogenous Adh gene, there was a specific increase in distal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) transcripts in ADH-expressing (ADH+) cells above the levels observed in transfected ADH-nonexpressing (ADH-) cells. We used deletion mutations and a comparative transient-expression assay to identify the cis-acting elements responsible for enhanced Adh distal transcription in ADH+ cells. DNA sequences controlling high levels of distal transcription were localized to a 15-base-pair (bp) region nearly 500 bp upstream of the distal RNA start site. In addition, a 61-bp negative cis-acting element was found upstream from and adjacent to the enhancer. When this silencer element was deleted, distal transcription increased only in the ADH+ cell line. These distant upstream elements must interact with the promoter elements, the Adf-1-binding site and the TATA box, as they only influenced transcription when at least one of these two positive distal promoter elements was present. Internal deletions targeted to the Adf-1-binding site or the TATA box reduced transcription in both cell types but did not affect the transcription initiation site. Distal transcription in transfected ADH- cells appears to be controlled primarily through these promoter elements and does not involve the upstream regulatory elements. Evolutionary conservation in distantly related Drosophila species suggests the importance of these upstream elements in correct developmental and tissue-specific expression of ADH. Images PMID:1694013

  4. Persistence drives gene clustering in bacterial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Gang; Rocha, Eduardo PC; Danchin, Antoine

    2008-01-01

    Background Gene clustering plays an important role in the organization of the bacterial chromosome and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain its extent. However, the controversies raised about the validity of each of these mechanisms remind us that the cause of this gene organization remains an open question. Models proposed to explain clustering did not take into account the function of the gene products nor the likely presence or absence of a given gene in a genome. However, genomes harbor two very different categories of genes: those genes present in a majority of organisms – persistent genes – and those present in very few organisms – rare genes. Results We show that two classes of genes are significantly clustered in bacterial genomes: the highly persistent and the rare genes. The clustering of rare genes is readily explained by the selfish operon theory. Yet, genes persistently present in bacterial genomes are also clustered and we try to understand why. We propose a model accounting specifically for such clustering, and show that indispensability in a genome with frequent gene deletion and insertion leads to the transient clustering of these genes. The model describes how clusters are created via the gene flux that continuously introduces new genes while deleting others. We then test if known selective processes, such as co-transcription, physical interaction or functional neighborhood, account for the stabilization of these clusters. Conclusion We show that the strong selective pressure acting on the function of persistent genes, in a permanent state of flux of genes in bacterial genomes, maintaining their size fairly constant, that drives persistent genes clustering. A further selective stabilization process might contribute to maintaining the clustering. PMID:18179692

  5. Transcriptomic Identification of ADH1B as a Novel Candidate Gene for Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Human Adipose Tissue in Mexican Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES)

    PubMed Central

    Winnier, Deidre A.; Fourcaudot, Marcel; Norton, Luke; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A.; Hu, Shirley L.; Farook, Vidya S.; Coletta, Dawn K.; Kumar, Satish; Puppala, Sobha; Chittoor, Geetha; Dyer, Thomas D.; Arya, Rector; Carless, Melanie; Lehman, Donna M.; Curran, Joanne E.; Cromack, Douglas T.; Tripathy, Devjit; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Göring, Harald H. H.; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease that is more prevalent in ethnic groups such as Mexican Americans, and is strongly associated with the risk factors obesity and insulin resistance. The goal of this study was to perform whole genome gene expression profiling in adipose tissue to detect common patterns of gene regulation associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 308 Mexican American participants from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Basal fasting RNA was extracted from adipose tissue biopsies from a subset of 75 unrelated individuals, and gene expression data generated on the Illumina BeadArray platform. The number of gene probes with significant expression above baseline was approximately 31,000. We performed multiple regression analysis of all probes with 15 metabolic traits. Adipose tissue had 3,012 genes significantly associated with the traits of interest (false discovery rate, FDR ≤ 0.05). The significance of gene expression changes was used to select 52 genes with significant (FDR ≤ 10-4) gene expression changes across multiple traits. Gene sets/Pathways analysis identified one gene, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) that was significantly enriched (P < 10-60) as a prime candidate for involvement in multiple relevant metabolic pathways. Illumina BeadChip derived ADH1B expression data was consistent with quantitative real time PCR data. We observed significant inverse correlations with waist circumference (2.8 x 10-9), BMI (5.4 x 10-6), and fasting plasma insulin (P < 0.001). These findings are consistent with a central role for ADH1B in obesity and insulin resistance and provide evidence for a novel genetic regulatory mechanism for human metabolic diseases related to these traits. PMID:25830378

  6. Transcriptomic identification of ADH1B as a novel candidate gene for obesity and insulin resistance in human adipose tissue in Mexican Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES).

    PubMed

    Winnier, Deidre A; Fourcaudot, Marcel; Norton, Luke; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A; Hu, Shirley L; Farook, Vidya S; Coletta, Dawn K; Kumar, Satish; Puppala, Sobha; Chittoor, Geetha; Dyer, Thomas D; Arya, Rector; Carless, Melanie; Lehman, Donna M; Curran, Joanne E; Cromack, Douglas T; Tripathy, Devjit; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Göring, Harald H H; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Jenkinson, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease that is more prevalent in ethnic groups such as Mexican Americans, and is strongly associated with the risk factors obesity and insulin resistance. The goal of this study was to perform whole genome gene expression profiling in adipose tissue to detect common patterns of gene regulation associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 308 Mexican American participants from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Basal fasting RNA was extracted from adipose tissue biopsies from a subset of 75 unrelated individuals, and gene expression data generated on the Illumina BeadArray platform. The number of gene probes with significant expression above baseline was approximately 31,000. We performed multiple regression analysis of all probes with 15 metabolic traits. Adipose tissue had 3,012 genes significantly associated with the traits of interest (false discovery rate, FDR ≤ 0.05). The significance of gene expression changes was used to select 52 genes with significant (FDR ≤ 10(-4)) gene expression changes across multiple traits. Gene sets/Pathways analysis identified one gene, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) that was significantly enriched (P < 10(-60)) as a prime candidate for involvement in multiple relevant metabolic pathways. Illumina BeadChip derived ADH1B expression data was consistent with quantitative real time PCR data. We observed significant inverse correlations with waist circumference (2.8 x 10(-9)), BMI (5.4 x 10(-6)), and fasting plasma insulin (P < 0.001). These findings are consistent with a central role for ADH1B in obesity and insulin resistance and provide evidence for a novel genetic regulatory mechanism for human metabolic diseases related to these traits. PMID:25830378

  7. Bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) in chlorophyte algal mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Henze, Katrin; Martin, William; Riveros-Rosas, Hector; González-Halphen, Diego

    2003-09-01

    Protein profiles of mitochondria isolated from the heterotrophic chlorophyte Polytomella sp. grown on ethanol at pH 6.0 and pH 3.7 were analyzed by Blue Native and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Steady-state levels of oxidative phosphorylation complexes were influenced by external pH. Levels of an abundant, soluble, mitochondrial protein of 85 kDa and its corresponding mRNA increased at pH 6.0 relative to pH 3.7. N-terminal and internal sequencing of the 85 kDa mitochondrial protein together with the corresponding cDNA identified it as a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) with strong similarity to homologues from eubacteria and amitochondriate protists. A mitochondrial targeting sequence of 27 amino acids precedes the N-terminus of the mature mitochondrial protein. A gene encoding an ADHE homologue was also identified in the genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a photosynthetic relative of Polytomella. ADHE reveals a complex picture of sequence similarity among homologues. The lack of ADHE from archaebacteria indicates a eubacterial origin for the eukaryotic enzyme. Among eukaryotes, ADHE has hitherto been characteristic of anaerobes since it is essential to cytosolic energy metabolism of amitochondriate protists such as Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Its abundance and expression pattern suggest an important role for ADHE in mitochondrial metabolism of Polytomella under the conditions studied. The current data are compatible with the view that Polytomella ADHE could be involved either in ethanol production or assimilation, or both, depending upon environmental conditions. Presence of ADHE in an oxygen-respiring algal mitochondrion and co-expression at ambient oxygen levels with respiratory chain components is unexpected with respect to the view that eukaryotes acquired ADHE genes specifically as an adaptation to an anaerobic lifestyle. PMID:14756315

  8. Evolution of the Aflatoxin Gene Cluster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Why Aspergillus species produce aflatoxin remains an unsolved question. In this report, we suggest that evolution of the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene cluster has been a multistep process. More than 300 million years ago, a primordial cluster of genes allowed production of anthraquinones that may ha...

  9. Biological cluster evaluation for gene function prediction.

    PubMed

    Klie, Sebastian; Nikoloski, Zoran; Selbig, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput omics techniques render it possible to decode the function of genes by using the "guilt-by-association" principle on biologically meaningful clusters of gene expression data. However, the existing frameworks for biological evaluation of gene clusters are hindered by two bottleneck issues: (1) the choice for the number of clusters, and (2) the external measures which do not take in consideration the structure of the analyzed data and the ontology of the existing biological knowledge. Here, we address the identified bottlenecks by developing a novel framework that allows not only for biological evaluation of gene expression clusters based on existing structured knowledge, but also for prediction of putative gene functions. The proposed framework facilitates propagation of statistical significance at each of the following steps: (1) estimating the number of clusters, (2) evaluating the clusters in terms of novel external structural measures, (3) selecting an optimal clustering algorithm, and (4) predicting gene functions. The framework also includes a method for evaluation of gene clusters based on the structure of the employed ontology. Moreover, our method for obtaining a probabilistic range for the number of clusters is demonstrated valid on synthetic data and available gene expression profiles from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Finally, we propose a network-based approach for gene function prediction which relies on the clustering of optimal score and the employed ontology. Our approach effectively predicts gene function on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae data set and is also employed to obtain putative gene functions for an Arabidopsis thaliana data set. PMID:20059365

  10. Pichia stipitis genomics, transcriptomics, and gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Thomas W; Van Vleet, Jennifer R Headman

    2009-01-01

    Genome sequencing and subsequent global gene expression studies have advanced our understanding of the lignocellulose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis. These studies have provided an insight into its central carbon metabolism, and analysis of its genome has revealed numerous functional gene clusters and tandem repeats. Specialized physiological traits are often the result of several gene products acting together. When coinheritance is necessary for the overall physiological function, recombination and selection favor colocation of these genes in a cluster. These are particularly evident in strongly conserved and idiomatic traits. In some cases, the functional clusters consist of multiple gene families. Phylogenetic analyses of the members in each family show that once formed, functional clusters undergo duplication and differentiation. Genome-wide expression analysis reveals that regulatory patterns of clusters are similar after they have duplicated and that the expression profiles evolve along with functional differentiation of the clusters. Orthologous gene families appear to arise through tandem gene duplication, followed by differentiation in the regulatory and coding regions of the gene. Genome-wide expression analysis combined with cross-species comparisons of functional gene clusters should reveal many more aspects of eukaryotic physiology. PMID:19659741

  11. Delineation of Cis-Acting Sequences Required for Expression of Drosophila Mojavensis Adh-1

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, C. A.; Curtiss, S. W.; Weaver, J. A.; Sullivan, D. T.

    1992-01-01

    The control of expression of the Adh-1 gene of Drosophila mojavensis has been analyzed by transforming ADH null Drosophila melanogaster hosts with P element constructs which contain D. mojavensis Adh-1 having deletions of different extent in the 5' and 3' ends. Adh-1 expression in the D. melanogaster hosts is qualitatively similar to expression in D. mojavensis, although expression is quantitatively lower in transformants. Deletions of the 5' end indicate that information required for normal temporal and tissue expression in larvae is contained within 70 bp of the transcription start site. However, deletion constructs to -70 are deficient in ovarian nurse cell expression, whereas the additional upstream sequences present in constructs containing deletions to -257 do support expression in the ovary. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence in the -257 to -70 region of Adh-1 of four species: D. mojavensis and Drosophila arizona, which express Adh-1 in the ovary, and Drosophila mulleri and Drosophila navojoa, which do not, has led to the identification of regions of sequence similarity that correlate with ovary expression. One of these bears a striking similarity to a conserved sequence located upstream of the three heat shock genes that have constitutive ovarian expression and may be an ovarian control element. We have identified an aberrant aspect of Adh-1 expression. In transformants which carry an Adh-1 gene without a functional upstream Adh-2 gene Adh-1 expression continues into the adult stage instead of ceasing at the onset of metamorphosis. In transformants with a functional Adh-2 gene, Adh-1 expression ceases in the third larval instar stage and aberrant expression in the adult stage does not occur. PMID:1317314

  12. Clustering of High Throughput Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Pirim, Harun; Ekşioğlu, Burak; Perkins, Andy; Yüceer, Çetin

    2012-01-01

    High throughput biological data need to be processed, analyzed, and interpreted to address problems in life sciences. Bioinformatics, computational biology, and systems biology deal with biological problems using computational methods. Clustering is one of the methods used to gain insight into biological processes, particularly at the genomics level. Clearly, clustering can be used in many areas of biological data analysis. However, this paper presents a review of the current clustering algorithms designed especially for analyzing gene expression data. It is also intended to introduce one of the main problems in bioinformatics - clustering gene expression data - to the operations research community. PMID:23144527

  13. Clustering of gene ontology terms in genomes.

    PubMed

    Tiirikka, Timo; Siermala, Markku; Vihinen, Mauno

    2014-10-25

    Although protein coding genes occupy only a small fraction of genomes in higher species, they are not randomly distributed within or between chromosomes. Clustering of genes with related function(s) and/or characteristics has been evident at several different levels. To study how common the clustering of functionally related genes is and what kind of functions the end products of these genes are involved, we collected gene ontology (GO) terms for complete genomes and developed a method to detect previously undefined gene clustering. Exhaustive analysis was performed for seven widely studied species ranging from human to Escherichia coli. To overcome problems related to varying gene lengths and densities, a novel method was developed and a fixed number of genes were analyzed irrespective of the genome span covered. Statistically very significant GO term clustering was apparent in all the investigated genomes. The analysis window, which ranged from 5 to 50 consecutive genes, revealed extensive GO term clusters for genes with widely varying functions. Here, the most interesting and significant results are discussed and the complete dataset for each analyzed species is available at the GOme database at http://bioinf.uta.fi/GOme. The results indicated that clusters of genes with related functions are very common, not only in bacteria, in which operons are frequent, but also in all the studied species irrespective of how complex they are. There are some differences between species but in all of them GO term clusters are common and of widely differing sizes. The presented method can be applied to analyze any genome or part of a genome for which descriptive features are available, and thus is not restricted to ontology terms. This method can also be applied to investigate gene and protein expression patterns. The results pave a way for further studies of mechanisms that shape genome structure and evolutionary forces related to them. PMID:24995610

  14. Ethanol-Induced Alcohol Dehydrogenase E (AdhE) Potentiates Pneumolysin in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Luong, Truc Thanh; Kim, Eun-Hye; Bak, Jong Phil; Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Choi, Sangdun; Briles, David E.; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol impairs the host immune system, rendering the host more vulnerable to infection. Therefore, alcoholics are at increased risk of acquiring serious bacterial infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including pneumonia. Nevertheless, how alcohol affects pneumococcal virulence remains unclear. Here, we showed that the S. pneumoniae type 2 D39 strain is ethanol tolerant and that alcohol upregulates alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) and potentiates pneumolysin (Ply). Hemolytic activity, colonization, and virulence of S. pneumoniae, as well as host cell myeloperoxidase activity, proinflammatory cytokine secretion, and inflammation, were significantly attenuated in adhE mutant bacteria (ΔadhE strain) compared to D39 wild-type bacteria. Therefore, AdhE might act as a pneumococcal virulence factor. Moreover, in the presence of ethanol, S. pneumoniae AdhE produced acetaldehyde and NADH, which subsequently led Rex (redox-sensing transcriptional repressor) to dissociate from the adhE promoter. An increase in AdhE level under the ethanol condition conferred an increase in Ply and H2O2 levels. Consistently, S. pneumoniae D39 caused higher cytotoxicity to RAW 264.7 cells than the ΔadhE strain under the ethanol stress condition, and ethanol-fed mice (alcoholic mice) were more susceptible to infection with the D39 wild-type bacteria than with the ΔadhE strain. Taken together, these data indicate that AdhE increases Ply under the ethanol stress condition, thus potentiating pneumococcal virulence. PMID:25312953

  15. Chicken rRNA Gene Cluster Structure

    PubMed Central

    Dyomin, Alexander G.; Koshel, Elena I.; Kiselev, Artem M.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Galkina, Svetlana A.; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Kostareva, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, whose activity results in nucleolus formation, constitute an extremely important part of genome. Despite the extensive exploration into avian genomes, no complete description of avian rRNA gene primary structure has been offered so far. We publish a complete chicken rRNA gene cluster sequence here, including 5’ETS (1836 bp), 18S rRNA gene (1823 bp), ITS1 (2530 bp), 5.8S rRNA gene (157 bp), ITS2 (733 bp), 28S rRNA gene (4441 bp) and 3’ETS (343 bp). The rRNA gene cluster sequence of 11863 bp was assembled from raw reads and deposited to GenBank under KT445934 accession number. The assembly was validated through in situ fluorescent hybridization analysis on chicken metaphase chromosomes using computed and synthesized specific probes, as well as through the reference assembly against de novo assembled rRNA gene cluster sequence using sequenced fragments of BAC-clone containing chicken NOR (nucleolus organizer region). The results have confirmed the chicken rRNA gene cluster validity. PMID:27299357

  16. Clustering gene expression data using graph separators.

    PubMed

    Kaba, Bangaly; Pinet, Nicolas; Lelandais, Gaëlle; Sigayret, Alain; Berry, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Recent work has used graphs to modelize expression data from microarray experiments, in view of partitioning the genes into clusters. In this paper, we introduce the use of a decomposition by clique separators. Our aim is to improve the classical clustering methods in two ways: first we want to allow an overlap between clusters, as this seems biologically sound, and second we want to be guided by the structure of the graph to define the number of clusters. We test this approach with a well-known yeast database (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Our results are good, as the expression profiles of the clusters we find are very coherent. Moreover, we are able to organize into another graph the clusters we find, and order them in a fashion which turns out to respect the chronological order defined by the the sporulation process. PMID:18391236

  17. Selection variability for Arg48His in alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B among Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Evsyukov, Alexey; Ivanov, Denis

    2013-08-01

    The variant His at codon 48 of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH1B) results in more efficient ethanol metabolism than with the "typical" codon 48Arg. In this study we introduced selection properties of Arg48His genotypes of ADH1B and estimated fitness in four ethnic-geographical clusters in Asia. Population genetics models were employed that derive observed gene frequencies from fitness relationships among genotypes, to infer the selection pattern of polymorphisms in an indirect manner. The data were analyzed using the model of "complete stationary distribution" by Wright that takes into account random genetic drift, pressure of migrations, mutations, and selection as influential factors of gene frequency. We found that the different population groups showed some variation in the types of selection for Arg48His. Han Chinese from eastern and southeastern China and the Japanese and Korean populations showed stabilizing selection, while the groups from Central Asian and Indochina showed divergent selection. However, all the groups demonstrated a strong positive selection for Arg48His. PMID:25019189

  18. The ADH7 Promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Vanillin-Inducible and Enables mRNA Translation Under Severe Vanillin Stress.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T M; Iwaki, Aya; Izawa, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the major phenolic aldehyde compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass and acts as a potent fermentation inhibitor to repress the growth and fermentative ability of yeast. Vanillin can be reduced to its less toxic form, vanillyl alcohol, by the yeast NADPH-dependent medium chain alcohol dehydrogenases, Adh6 and Adh7. However, there is little information available regarding the regulation of their gene expression upon severe vanillin stress, which has been shown to repress the bulk translation activity in yeast cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression patterns of the ADH6 and ADH7 genes in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin. We found that although both genes were transcriptionally upregulated by vanillin stress, they showed different protein expression patterns in response to vanillin. Expression of Adh6 was constitutive and gradually decreased under vanillin stress, whereas expression of Adh7 was inducible, and, importantly, occurred under severe vanillin stress. The null mutants of ADH6 or ADH7 genes were hypersensitive to vanillin and reduced vanillin less efficiently than the wild type, confirming the importance of Adh6 and Adh7 in vanillin detoxification. Additionally, we demonstrate that the ADH7 promoter is vanillin-inducible and enables effective protein synthesis even under severe vanillin stress, and it may be useful for the improvement of vanillin-tolerance and biofuel production efficiency via modification of yeast gene expression in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin. PMID:26696995

  19. The ADH7 Promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Vanillin-Inducible and Enables mRNA Translation Under Severe Vanillin Stress

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trinh T. M.; Iwaki, Aya; Izawa, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the major phenolic aldehyde compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass and acts as a potent fermentation inhibitor to repress the growth and fermentative ability of yeast. Vanillin can be reduced to its less toxic form, vanillyl alcohol, by the yeast NADPH-dependent medium chain alcohol dehydrogenases, Adh6 and Adh7. However, there is little information available regarding the regulation of their gene expression upon severe vanillin stress, which has been shown to repress the bulk translation activity in yeast cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression patterns of the ADH6 and ADH7 genes in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin. We found that although both genes were transcriptionally upregulated by vanillin stress, they showed different protein expression patterns in response to vanillin. Expression of Adh6 was constitutive and gradually decreased under vanillin stress, whereas expression of Adh7 was inducible, and, importantly, occurred under severe vanillin stress. The null mutants of ADH6 or ADH7 genes were hypersensitive to vanillin and reduced vanillin less efficiently than the wild type, confirming the importance of Adh6 and Adh7 in vanillin detoxification. Additionally, we demonstrate that the ADH7 promoter is vanillin-inducible and enables effective protein synthesis even under severe vanillin stress, and it may be useful for the improvement of vanillin-tolerance and biofuel production efficiency via modification of yeast gene expression in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin. PMID:26696995

  20. Clustering Genes of Common Evolutionary History

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Kevin; Suchan, Tomasz; Alvarez, Nadir; Goldman, Nick; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference can potentially result in a more accurate tree using data from multiple loci. However, if the loci are incongruent—due to events such as incomplete lineage sorting or horizontal gene transfer—it can be misleading to infer a single tree. To address this, many previous contributions have taken a mechanistic approach, by modeling specific processes. Alternatively, one can cluster loci without assuming how these incongruencies might arise. Such “process-agnostic” approaches typically infer a tree for each locus and cluster these. There are, however, many possible combinations of tree distance and clustering methods; their comparative performance in the context of tree incongruence is largely unknown. Furthermore, because standard model selection criteria such as AIC cannot be applied to problems with a variable number of topologies, the issue of inferring the optimal number of clusters is poorly understood. Here, we perform a large-scale simulation study of phylogenetic distances and clustering methods to infer loci of common evolutionary history. We observe that the best-performing combinations are distances accounting for branch lengths followed by spectral clustering or Ward’s method. We also introduce two statistical tests to infer the optimal number of clusters and show that they strongly outperform the silhouette criterion, a general-purpose heuristic. We illustrate the usefulness of the approach by 1) identifying errors in a previous phylogenetic analysis of yeast species and 2) identifying topological incongruence among newly sequenced loci of the globeflower fly genus Chiastocheta. We release treeCl, a new program to cluster genes of common evolutionary history (http://git.io/treeCl). PMID:26893301

  1. Clustering Genes of Common Evolutionary History.

    PubMed

    Gori, Kevin; Suchan, Tomasz; Alvarez, Nadir; Goldman, Nick; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Phylogenetic inference can potentially result in a more accurate tree using data from multiple loci. However, if the loci are incongruent-due to events such as incomplete lineage sorting or horizontal gene transfer-it can be misleading to infer a single tree. To address this, many previous contributions have taken a mechanistic approach, by modeling specific processes. Alternatively, one can cluster loci without assuming how these incongruencies might arise. Such "process-agnostic" approaches typically infer a tree for each locus and cluster these. There are, however, many possible combinations of tree distance and clustering methods; their comparative performance in the context of tree incongruence is largely unknown. Furthermore, because standard model selection criteria such as AIC cannot be applied to problems with a variable number of topologies, the issue of inferring the optimal number of clusters is poorly understood. Here, we perform a large-scale simulation study of phylogenetic distances and clustering methods to infer loci of common evolutionary history. We observe that the best-performing combinations are distances accounting for branch lengths followed by spectral clustering or Ward's method. We also introduce two statistical tests to infer the optimal number of clusters and show that they strongly outperform the silhouette criterion, a general-purpose heuristic. We illustrate the usefulness of the approach by 1) identifying errors in a previous phylogenetic analysis of yeast species and 2) identifying topological incongruence among newly sequenced loci of the globeflower fly genus Chiastocheta We release treeCl, a new program to cluster genes of common evolutionary history (http://git.io/treeCl). PMID:26893301

  2. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Melon (Cucumis melo L.): Bioinformatic Analysis and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yazhong; Zhang, Chong; Liu, Wei; Tang, Yufan; Qi, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), encoded by multigene family in plants, play a critical role in plant growth, development, adaptation, fruit ripening and aroma production. Thirteen ADH genes were identified in melon genome, including 12 ADHs and one formaldehyde dehydrogenease (FDH), designated CmADH1-12 and CmFDH1, in which CmADH1 and CmADH2 have been isolated in Cantaloupe. ADH genes shared a lower identity with each other at the protein level and had different intron-exon structure at nucleotide level. No typical signal peptides were found in all CmADHs, and CmADH proteins might locate in the cytoplasm. The phylogenetic tree revealed that 13 ADH genes were divided into three groups respectively, namely long-, medium-, and short-chain ADH subfamily, and CmADH1,3-11, which belongs to the medium-chain ADH subfamily, fell into six medium-chain ADH subgroups. CmADH12 may belong to the long-chain ADH subfamily, while CmFDH1 may be a Class III ADH and serve as an ancestral ADH in melon. Expression profiling revealed that CmADH1, CmADH2, CmADH10 and CmFDH1 were moderately or strongly expressed in different vegetative tissues and fruit at medium and late developmental stages, while CmADH8 and CmADH12 were highly expressed in fruit after 20 days. CmADH3 showed preferential expression in young tissues. CmADH4 only had slight expression in root. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CmADH genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones, and the response pattern of CmADH genes to ABA, IAA and ethylene were different. These CmADHs were divided into ethylene-sensitive and –insensitive groups, and the functions of CmADHs were discussed. PMID:27242871

  3. Activity of Yeast Alcohol Dehydrogenases on Benzyl Alcohols and Benzaldehydes. Characterization of ADH1 from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and Transition State Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Suresh; Park, Doo-Hong; Plapp, Bryce V.

    2009-01-01

    The substrate specificities of yeast alcohol dehydrogenases I and II from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SceADH1 and SceADH2) and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (ScbADH1) were studied. For this work, the gene for the S. carlsbergensis ADH1 was cloned, sequenced and expressed. The amino acid sequence of ScbADH1 differs at four positions as compared to SceADH1, including substitutions of two glutamine residues with glutamic acid residues, and has the same sequence as the commercial yeast enzyme, which apparently is prepared from S. carlsbergensis. The electrophoretic mobilities of ScbADH1, SceADH2 and commercial ADH are similar. The kinetics and specificities of ScbADH1 and SceADH1 acting on branched, long-chain and benzyl alcohols are very similar, but the catalytic efficiency of SceADH2 is about 10 to 100-fold higher on these substrates. A three dimensional structure of SceADH1 shows that the substrate binding pocket has Met-270, whereas SceADH2 has Leu-270, which allows larger substrates to bind. The reduction of a series of p-substituted benzaldehydes catalyzed by SceADH2 is significantly enhanced by electron-withdrawing groups, whereas the oxidation of p-substituted aromatic alcohols may be only slightly affected by the substituents. The substituent effects on catalysis generally reflect the effects on the equilibrium constant for the reaction, where electron-withdrawing substituents favor alcohol. The results are consistent with a transition state that is electronically similar to the alcohol, supporting previous results obtained with commercial yeast ADH. PMID:19022233

  4. Overexpression of the genes PDC1 and ADH1 activates glycerol conversion to ethanol in the thermotolerant yeast Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Kata, Iwona; Semkiv, Marta V; Ruchala, Justyna; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2016-08-01

    Conversion of byproduct from biodiesel production glycerol to high-value compounds is of great importance. Ethanol is considered a promising product of glycerol bioconversion. The methylotrophic thermotolerant yeast Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha is of great interest for this purpose as the glycerol byproduct contains methanol and heavy metals as contaminants, and this yeast utilizes methanol and is relatively resistant to heavy metals. Besides, O. polymorpha shows robust growth on glycerol and produces ethanol from various carbon sources. The thermotolerance of this yeast is an additional advantage, allowing increased fermentation temperature to 45-48 °C, leading to increased rate of the fermentation process and a fall in the cost of distillation. The wild-type strain of O. polymorpha produces insignificant amounts of ethanol from glycerol (0.8 g/l). Overexpression of PDC1 coding for pyruvate decarboxylase enhanced ethanol production up to 3.1 g/l, whereas simultaneous overexpression of PDC1 and ADH1 (coding for alcohol dehydrogenase) led to further increase in ethanol production from glycerol. Moreover, the increased temperature of fermentation up to 45 °C stimulated the production of ethanol from glycerol used as the only carbon source up to 5.0 g/l, which exceeds the data obtained by methylotrophic yeast strains reported so far. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27256876

  5. A genetic analysis of Adh1 regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeling, M.

    1992-01-01

    The overall goal of our research proposal is to understand the meaning of the various cis-acting sites responsible for AdH1 expression in the entire maize plant. Progress is reported in the following areas: Studies on the TATA box and analysis of revertants of the Adh1-3F1124 allele; screening for more different mutants that affect Adh1 expression differentially; studies on cis-acting sequences required for root-specific Adh1 expression; refinement of the use of the particle gun; and functional analysis of a non- glycolytic anaerobic protein.

  6. Excess polymorphism at the Adh locus in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kreitman, M E; Aguadé, M

    1986-09-01

    The evolutionary history of a region of DNA encompassing the Adh locus is studied by comparing patterns of variation in Drosophila melanogaster and its sibling species, D. simulans. An unexpectedly high level of silent polymorphism in the Adh coding region relative to the 5' and 3' flanking regions in D. melanogaster is revealed by a populational survey of restriction polymorphism using a four-cutter filter hybridization technique as well as by direct sequence comparisons. In both of these studies, a region of the Adh gene encompassing the three coding exons exhibits a frequency of polymorphism equal to that of a 4-kb 5' flanking region. In contrast, an interspecific sequence comparison shows a two-fold higher level of divergence in the 5' flanking sequence compared to the structural locus. Analysis of the patterns of variation suggest an excess of polymorphism within the D. melanogaster Adh locus, rather than lack of polymorphism in the 5' flanking region. An approach is outlined for testing neutral theory predictions about patterns of variation within and between species. This approach indicates that the observed patterns of variation are incompatible with an infinite site neutral model. PMID:3021568

  7. Characterization of the temperate bacteriophage phi adh and plasmid transduction in Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH.

    PubMed Central

    Raya, R R; Kleeman, E G; Luchansky, J B; Klaenhammer, T R

    1989-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH is lysogenic and harbors an inducible prophage, phi adh. Bacteriophage were detected in cell lysates induced by treatment with mitomycin C or UV light. Electron microscopy of lysates revealed phage particles with a hexagonal head (62 nm) and a long, noncontractile, flexible tail (398 nm) ending in at last five short fibers. Phage phi adh was classified within Bradley's B1 phage group and the Siphoviridae family. The phi adh genome is a linear double-stranded DNA molecule of 41.7 kilobase pairs with cohesive ends: a physical map of the phi adh genome was constructed. A prophage-cured derivative of strain ADH, designated NCK102, was isolated from cells that survived UV exposure. NCK102 did not exhibit mitomycin C-induced lysis, but broth cultures lysed upon addition of phage. Phage phi adh produced clear plaques on NCK102 in media containing 10 mM CaCl2 at pH values between 5.2 and 5.5. A relysogenized derivative (NCK103) of NCK102 was isolated that exhibited mitomycin C-induced lysis and superinfection immunity to phage phi adh. Hybridization experiments showed that the phi adh genome was present in the ADH and NCK103 chromosomes, but absent in NCK102. These results demonstrated classic lytic and lysogenic cycles of replication for the temperate phage phi adh induced from L. acidophilus ADH. Phage phi adh also mediates transduction of plasmid DNA. Transductants of strain ADH containing pC194, pGK12, pGB354, and pVA797 were detected at frequencies in the range of 3.6 x 10(-8) to 8.3 x 10(-10) per PFU. Rearrangements or deletions were not detected in these plasmids as a consequence of transduction. This is the first description of plasmid transduction in the genus Lactobacillus. Images PMID:2508554

  8. Haplotype-Based Study of the Association of Alcohol Metabolizing Genes with Alcohol Dependence in Four Independent Populations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jixia; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; Mulligan, Connie J.; Wang, Alex; Gray, Rebecca R.; Roy, Alec; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David; Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Ethanol is metabolized by two rate limiting reactions: alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, subsequently metabolized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). Approximately 50% of East Asians have genetic variants that significantly impair this pathway and influence alcohol dependence (AD) vulnerability. We investigated whether variation in alcohol metabolism genes might alter the AD risk in four non-East Asian populations by performing systematic haplotype association analyses in order to maximize the chances of capturing functional variation. Methods Haplotype-tagging SNPs were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate platform. Genotypes were available for 40 SNPs across the ADH genes cluster and 24 SNPs across the two ALDH genes in four diverse samples that included cases (lifetime AD) and controls (no Axis 1 disorders). The case, control sample sizes were: Finnish Caucasians: 232, 194; African Americans: 267, 422; Plains American Indians: 226, 110; Southwestern American (SW) Indians: 317, 72. Results In all four populations, as well as HapMap populations, five haplotype blocks were identified across the ADH gene cluster: (1) ADH5-ADH4; (2) ADH6-ADH1A-ADH1B; (3) ADH1C; (4) intergenic; (5) ADH7. The ALDH1A1 gene was defined by four blocks and ALDH2 by one block. No haplotype or SNP association results were significant after correction for multiple comparisons; however several results, particularly for ALDH1A1 and ADH4, replicated earlier findings. There was an ALDH1A1 block 1 and 2 (extending from intron 5 to the 3′ UTR) yin yang haplotype (haplotypes that have opposite allelic configuration) association with AD in the Finns driven by SNPs rs3764435 and rs2303317 respectively, and an ALDH1A1 block 3 (including the promoter region) yin yang haplotype association in SW Indians driven by 5 SNPs, all in allelic identity. The ADH4 SNP rs3762894 was associated with AD in Plains Indians. Conclusions The systematic evaluation of

  9. The rise of operon-like gene clusters in plants.

    PubMed

    Boycheva, Svetlana; Daviet, Laurent; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2014-07-01

    Gene clusters are common features of prokaryotic genomes also present in eukaryotes. Most clustered genes known are involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Although horizontal gene transfer is a primary source of prokaryotic gene cluster (operon) formation and has been reported to occur in eukaryotes, the predominant source of cluster formation in eukaryotes appears to arise de novo or through gene duplication followed by neo- and sub-functionalization or translocation. Here we aim to provide an overview of the current knowledge and open questions related to plant gene cluster functioning, assembly, and regulation. We also present potential research approaches and point out the benefits of a better understanding of gene clusters in plants for both fundamental and applied plant science. PMID:24582794

  10. An approach for clustering gene expression data with error information

    PubMed Central

    Tjaden, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Background Clustering of gene expression patterns is a well-studied technique for elucidating trends across large numbers of transcripts and for identifying likely co-regulated genes. Even the best clustering methods, however, are unlikely to provide meaningful results if too much of the data is unreliable. With the maturation of microarray technology, a wealth of research on statistical analysis of gene expression data has encouraged researchers to consider error and uncertainty in their microarray experiments, so that experiments are being performed increasingly with repeat spots per gene per chip and with repeat experiments. One of the challenges is to incorporate the measurement error information into downstream analyses of gene expression data, such as traditional clustering techniques. Results In this study, a clustering approach is presented which incorporates both gene expression values and error information about the expression measurements. Using repeat expression measurements, the error of each gene expression measurement in each experiment condition is estimated, and this measurement error information is incorporated directly into the clustering algorithm. The algorithm, CORE (Clustering Of Repeat Expression data), is presented and its performance is validated using statistical measures. By using error information about gene expression measurements, the clustering approach is less sensitive to noise in the underlying data and it is able to achieve more accurate clusterings. Results are described for both synthetic expression data as well as real gene expression data from Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The additional information provided by replicate gene expression measurements is a valuable asset in effective clustering. Gene expression profiles with high errors, as determined from repeat measurements, may be unreliable and may associate with different clusters, whereas gene expression profiles with low errors can be

  11. Transient Overexpression of adh8a Increases Allyl Alcohol Toxicity in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Klüver, Nils; Ortmann, Julia; Paschke, Heidrun; Renner, Patrick; Ritter, Axel P.; Scholz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Fish embryos are widely used as an alternative model to study toxicity in vertebrates. Due to their complexity, embryos are believed to more resemble an adult organism than in vitro cellular models. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the embryo's metabolic capacity. We recently identified allyl alcohol, an industrial chemical, to be several orders of magnitude less toxic to zebrafish embryo than to adult zebrafish (embryo LC50 = 478 mg/L vs. fish LC50 = 0.28 mg/L). Reports on mammals have indicated that allyl alcohol requires activation by alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh) to form the highly reactive and toxic metabolite acrolein, which shows similar toxicity in zebrafish embryos and adults. To identify if a limited metabolic capacity of embryos indeed can explain the low allyl alcohol sensitivity of zebrafish embryos, we compared the mRNA expression levels of Adh isoenzymes (adh5, adh8a, adh8b and adhfe1) during embryo development to that in adult fish. The greatest difference between embryo and adult fish was found for adh8a and adh8b expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that these genes might be required for allyl alcohol activation. Microinjection of adh8a, but not adh8b mRNA led to a significant increase of allyl alcohol toxicity in embryos similar to levels reported for adults (LC50 = 0.42 mg/L in adh8a mRNA-injected embryos). Furthermore, GC/MS analysis of adh8a-injected embryos indicated a significant decline of internal allyl alcohol concentrations from 0.23-58 ng/embryo to levels below the limit of detection (< 4.6 µg/L). Injection of neither adh8b nor gfp mRNA had an impact on internal allyl alcohol levels supporting that the increased allyl alcohol toxicity was mediated by an increase in its metabolization. These results underline the necessity to critically consider metabolic activation in the zebrafish embryo. As demonstrated here, mRNA injection is one useful approach to study the role of candidate enzymes involved in

  12. Transient overexpression of adh8a increases allyl alcohol toxicity in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; Ortmann, Julia; Paschke, Heidrun; Renner, Patrick; Ritter, Axel P; Scholz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Fish embryos are widely used as an alternative model to study toxicity in vertebrates. Due to their complexity, embryos are believed to more resemble an adult organism than in vitro cellular models. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the embryo's metabolic capacity. We recently identified allyl alcohol, an industrial chemical, to be several orders of magnitude less toxic to zebrafish embryo than to adult zebrafish (embryo LC50 = 478 mg/L vs. fish LC50 = 0.28 mg/L). Reports on mammals have indicated that allyl alcohol requires activation by alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh) to form the highly reactive and toxic metabolite acrolein, which shows similar toxicity in zebrafish embryos and adults. To identify if a limited metabolic capacity of embryos indeed can explain the low allyl alcohol sensitivity of zebrafish embryos, we compared the mRNA expression levels of Adh isoenzymes (adh5, adh8a, adh8b and adhfe1) during embryo development to that in adult fish. The greatest difference between embryo and adult fish was found for adh8a and adh8b expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that these genes might be required for allyl alcohol activation. Microinjection of adh8a, but not adh8b mRNA led to a significant increase of allyl alcohol toxicity in embryos similar to levels reported for adults (LC50 = 0.42 mg/L in adh8a mRNA-injected embryos). Furthermore, GC/MS analysis of adh8a-injected embryos indicated a significant decline of internal allyl alcohol concentrations from 0.23-58 ng/embryo to levels below the limit of detection (< 4.6 µg/L). Injection of neither adh8b nor gfp mRNA had an impact on internal allyl alcohol levels supporting that the increased allyl alcohol toxicity was mediated by an increase in its metabolization. These results underline the necessity to critically consider metabolic activation in the zebrafish embryo. As demonstrated here, mRNA injection is one useful approach to study the role of candidate enzymes involved in

  13. ADH and ALDH polymorphisms and alcohol dependence in Mexican and Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Liang, Tiebing; Gizer, Ian R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethanol is primarily metabolized in the liver by 2 rate-limiting reactions: conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and subsequent conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). ADH and ALDH exist in multiple isozymes that differ in their kinetic properties. Notably, polymorphisms within the genes that encode for these isozymes vary in their allele frequencies between ethnic groups, and thus, they have been considered as candidate genes that may differentially influence risk for the development of alcohol dependence across ethnic groups. Objectives and Methods Associations between alcohol dependence and polymorphisms in ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2, were compared in a community sample of Native Americans living on reservations (n=791) and Mexican Americans (n=391) living within the same county. Results Two Mexican Americans and no Native Americans possessed one ALDH2*2 allele. Presence of at least one ADH1B*2 allele was found in 7% of the Native Americans and 13% of the Mexican Americans, but was only associated with protection against alcohol dependence in the Mexican Americans. Presence of at least one ADH1B*3 allele was found in 4% if the Native Americans and 2% of the Mexican Americans, but was associated with protection against alcohol dependence only in the Native Americans. No associations between alcohol dependence and polymorphisms in ADH1C were found. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Polymorphisms in ADH1B are protective against alcoholism in these two populations; however, these findings do not explain the high prevalence of alcoholism in these populations. PMID:22931071

  14. Inferring the Recent Duplication History of a Gene Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Giltae; Zhang, Louxin; Vinař, Tomáš; Miller, Webb

    Much important evolutionary activity occurs in gene clusters, where a copy of a gene may be free to evolve new functions. Computational methods to extract evolutionary information from sequence data for such clusters are currently imperfect, in part because accurate sequence data are often lacking in these genomic regions, making the existing methods difficult to apply. We describe a new method for reconstructing the recent evolutionary history of gene clusters. The method’s performance is evaluated on simulated data and on actual human gene clusters.

  15. Super-paramagnetic clustering of yeast gene expression profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getz, G.; Levine, E.; Domany, E.; Zhang, M. Q.

    2000-04-01

    High-density DNA arrays, used to monitor gene expression at a genomic scale, have produced vast amounts of information which require the development of efficient computational methods to analyze them. The important first step is to extract the fundamental patterns of gene expression inherent in the data. This paper describes the application of a novel clustering algorithm, super-paramagnetic clustering (SPC) to analysis of gene expression profiles that were generated recently during a study of the yeast cell cycle. SPC was used to organize genes into biologically relevant clusters that are suggestive for their co-regulation. Some of the advantages of SPC are its robustness against noise and initialization, a clear signature of cluster formation and splitting, and an unsupervised self-organized determination of the number of clusters at each resolution. Our analysis revealed interesting correlated behavior of several groups of genes which has not been previously identified.

  16. Recommended nomenclature for the vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase gene family.

    PubMed

    Duester, G; Farrés, J; Felder, M R; Holmes, R S; Höög, J O; Parés, X; Plapp, B V; Yin, S J; Jörnvall, H

    1999-08-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family encodes enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Studies on 19 vertebrate animals have identified ADH orthologs across several species, and this has now led to questions of how best to name ADH proteins and genes. Seven distinct classes of vertebrate ADH encoded by non-orthologous genes have been defined based upon sequence homology as well as unique catalytic properties or gene expression patterns. Each class of vertebrate ADH shares <70% sequence identity with other classes of ADH in the same species. Classes may be further divided into multiple closely related isoenzymes sharing >80% sequence identity such as the case for class I ADH where humans have three class I ADH genes, horses have two, and mice have only one. Presented here is a nomenclature that uses the widely accepted vertebrate ADH class system as its basis. It follows the guidelines of human and mouse gene nomenclature committees, which recommend coordinating names across species boundaries and eliminating Roman numerals and Greek symbols. We recommend that enzyme subunits be referred to by the symbol "ADH" (alcohol dehydrogenase) followed by an Arabic number denoting the class; i.e. ADH1 for class I ADH. For genes we recommend the italicized root symbol "ADH" for human and "Adh" for mouse, followed by the appropriate Arabic number for the class; i.e. ADH1 or Adh1 for class I ADH genes. For organisms where multiple species-specific isoenzymes exist within a class, we recommend adding a capital letter after the Arabic number; i.e. ADH1A, ADH1B, and ADH1C for human alpha, beta, and gamma class I ADHs, respectively. This nomenclature will accommodate newly discovered members of the vertebrate ADH family, and will facilitate functional and evolutionary studies. PMID:10424757

  17. Prokaryotic Gene Clusters: A Rich Toolbox for Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, Michael; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria construct elaborate nanostructures, obtain nutrients and energy from diverse sources, synthesize complex molecules, and implement signal processing to react to their environment. These complex phenotypes require the coordinated action of multiple genes, which are often encoded in a contiguous region of the genome, referred to as a gene cluster. Gene clusters sometimes contain all of the genes necessary and sufficient for a particular function. As an evolutionary mechanism, gene clusters facilitate the horizontal transfer of the complete function between species. Here, we review recent work on a number of clusters whose functions are relevant to biotechnology. Engineering these clusters has been hindered by their regulatory complexity, the need to balance the expression of many genes, and a lack of tools to design and manipulate DNA at this scale. Advances in synthetic biology will enable the large-scale bottom-up engineering of the clusters to optimize their functions, wake up cryptic clusters, or to transfer them between organisms. Understanding and manipulating gene clusters will move towards an era of genome engineering, where multiple functions can be “mixed-and-matched” to create a designer organism. PMID:21154668

  18. Bioinformatics Prediction of Polyketide Synthase Gene Clusters from Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    PubMed

    Noar, Roslyn D; Daub, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, causal agent of black Sigatoka disease of banana, is a Dothideomycete fungus closely related to fungi that produce polyketides important for plant pathogenicity. We utilized the M. fijiensis genome sequence to predict PKS genes and their gene clusters and make bioinformatics predictions about the types of compounds produced by these clusters. Eight PKS gene clusters were identified in the M. fijiensis genome, placing M. fijiensis into the 23rd percentile for the number of PKS genes compared to other Dothideomycetes. Analysis of the PKS domains identified three of the PKS enzymes as non-reducing and two as highly reducing. Gene clusters contained types of genes frequently found in PKS clusters including genes encoding transporters, oxidoreductases, methyltransferases, and non-ribosomal peptide synthases. Phylogenetic analysis identified a putative PKS cluster encoding melanin biosynthesis. None of the other clusters were closely aligned with genes encoding known polyketides, however three of the PKS genes fell into clades with clusters encoding alternapyrone, fumonisin, and solanapyrone produced by Alternaria and Fusarium species. A search for homologs among available genomic sequences from 103 Dothideomycetes identified close homologs (>80% similarity) for six of the PKS sequences. One of the PKS sequences was not similar (< 60% similarity) to sequences in any of the 103 genomes, suggesting that it encodes a unique compound. Comparison of the M. fijiensis PKS sequences with those of two other banana pathogens, M. musicola and M. eumusae, showed that these two species have close homologs to five of the M. fijiensis PKS sequences, but three others were not found in either species. RT-PCR and RNA-Seq analysis showed that the melanin PKS cluster was down-regulated in infected banana as compared to growth in culture. Three other clusters, however were strongly upregulated during disease development in banana, suggesting that they may encode

  19. Bioinformatics Prediction of Polyketide Synthase Gene Clusters from Mycosphaerella fijiensis

    PubMed Central

    Noar, Roslyn D.; Daub, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, causal agent of black Sigatoka disease of banana, is a Dothideomycete fungus closely related to fungi that produce polyketides important for plant pathogenicity. We utilized the M. fijiensis genome sequence to predict PKS genes and their gene clusters and make bioinformatics predictions about the types of compounds produced by these clusters. Eight PKS gene clusters were identified in the M. fijiensis genome, placing M. fijiensis into the 23rd percentile for the number of PKS genes compared to other Dothideomycetes. Analysis of the PKS domains identified three of the PKS enzymes as non-reducing and two as highly reducing. Gene clusters contained types of genes frequently found in PKS clusters including genes encoding transporters, oxidoreductases, methyltransferases, and non-ribosomal peptide synthases. Phylogenetic analysis identified a putative PKS cluster encoding melanin biosynthesis. None of the other clusters were closely aligned with genes encoding known polyketides, however three of the PKS genes fell into clades with clusters encoding alternapyrone, fumonisin, and solanapyrone produced by Alternaria and Fusarium species. A search for homologs among available genomic sequences from 103 Dothideomycetes identified close homologs (>80% similarity) for six of the PKS sequences. One of the PKS sequences was not similar (< 60% similarity) to sequences in any of the 103 genomes, suggesting that it encodes a unique compound. Comparison of the M. fijiensis PKS sequences with those of two other banana pathogens, M. musicola and M. eumusae, showed that these two species have close homologs to five of the M. fijiensis PKS sequences, but three others were not found in either species. RT-PCR and RNA-Seq analysis showed that the melanin PKS cluster was down-regulated in infected banana as compared to growth in culture. Three other clusters, however were strongly upregulated during disease development in banana, suggesting that they may encode

  20. A Large Gene Cluster for the Clostridium cellulovorans Cellulosome

    PubMed Central

    Tamaru, Yutaka; Karita, Shuichi; Ibrahim, Atef; Chan, Helen; Doi, Roy H.

    2000-01-01

    A large gene cluster for the Clostridium cellulovorans cellulosome has been cloned and sequenced upstream and downstream of the cbpA and exgS genes (C.-C. Liu and R. H. Doi, Gene 211:39–47, 1998). Gene walking revealed that the engL gene cluster (Y. Tamaru and R. H. Doi, J. Bacteriol. 182:244–247, 2000) was located downstream of the cbpA-exgS genes. Further DNA sequencing revealed that this cluster contains the genes for the scaffolding protein CbpA, the exoglucanase ExgS, several endoglucanases of family 9, the mannanase ManA, and the hydrophobic protein HbpA containing a surface layer homology domain and a hydrophobic (or cohesin) domain. The sequence of the clustered genes is cbpA-exgS-engH-engK-hbpA-engL-manA-engM-engN and is about 22 kb in length. The engN gene did not have a complete catalytic domain, indicating that engN is a truncated gene. This large gene cluster is flanked at the 5′ end by a putative noncellulosomal operon consisting of nifV-orf1-sigX-regA and at the 3′ end by noncellulosomal genes with homology to transposase (trp) and malate permease (mle). Since gene clusters for the cellulosome are also found in C. cellulolyticum and C. josui, they seem to be typical of mesophilic clostridia, indicating that the large gene clusters may arise from a common ancestor with some evolutionary modifications. PMID:11004194

  1. Meta-Analyses of ALDH2 and ADH1B with Alcohol Dependence in Asians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczak, Susan E.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Wall, Tamara J.

    2006-01-01

    Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the magnitude of relationships between polymorphisms in 2 genes, ALDH2 and ADH1B, with alcohol dependence in Asians. For each gene, possession of 1 variant [asterisk]2 allele was protective against alcohol dependence, and possession of a 2nd [asterisk]2 allele did not offer significant additional…

  2. The Relationship between CmADHs and the Diversity of Volatile Organic Compounds of Three Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao; Jin, Yazhong; Tang, Yufan; Qi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) plays an important role in aroma volatile compounds synthesis of plants. In this paper, we tried to explore the relationship between CmADHs and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in oriental melon. Three different aroma types of melon were used as materials. The principle component analysis of three types of melon fruit was conducted. We also measured the CmADHs expression level and enzymatic activities of ADH and alcohol acyl-transferase (AAT) on different stages of fruit ripening. An incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of substrates and inhibitor (4-MP, 4-methylpyrazole) on CmADHs expression, ADH activity, and the main compounds of oriental melon. The results illustrated that ethyl acetate, hexyl acetate (E,Z)-3,6-nonadien-1-ol and 2-ethyl-2hexen-1-ol were the four principal volatile compounds of these three types of melon. AAT activity was increasing with fruit ripening, and the AAT activity in CH were the highest, whereas ADH activity peaked on 32 DAP, 2 days before maturation, and the ADH activity in CB and CG were higher than that in CH. The expression pattern of 11 CmADH genes from 24 to 36 day after pollination (DAP) was found to vary in three melon varieties. CmADH4 was only expressed in CG and the expression levels of CmADH3 and CmADH12 in CH and CB were much higher than that in CG, and they both peaked 2 days before fruit ripening. Ethanol and 4-MP decreased the reductase activity of ADH, the expression of most CmADHs and ethyl acetate or hexyl acetate contents of CB, except for 0.1 mM 4-MP, while aldehyde improved the two acetate ester contents. In addition, we found a positive correlation between the expression of CmADH3 and CmADH12 and the key volatile compound of CB. The relationship between CmADHs and VOCs synthesis of oriental melon was discussed. PMID:27445845

  3. The Relationship between CmADHs and the Diversity of Volatile Organic Compounds of Three Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao; Jin, Yazhong; Tang, Yufan; Qi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) plays an important role in aroma volatile compounds synthesis of plants. In this paper, we tried to explore the relationship between CmADHs and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in oriental melon. Three different aroma types of melon were used as materials. The principle component analysis of three types of melon fruit was conducted. We also measured the CmADHs expression level and enzymatic activities of ADH and alcohol acyl-transferase (AAT) on different stages of fruit ripening. An incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of substrates and inhibitor (4-MP, 4-methylpyrazole) on CmADHs expression, ADH activity, and the main compounds of oriental melon. The results illustrated that ethyl acetate, hexyl acetate (E,Z)-3,6-nonadien-1-ol and 2-ethyl-2hexen-1-ol were the four principal volatile compounds of these three types of melon. AAT activity was increasing with fruit ripening, and the AAT activity in CH were the highest, whereas ADH activity peaked on 32 DAP, 2 days before maturation, and the ADH activity in CB and CG were higher than that in CH. The expression pattern of 11 CmADH genes from 24 to 36 day after pollination (DAP) was found to vary in three melon varieties. CmADH4 was only expressed in CG and the expression levels of CmADH3 and CmADH12 in CH and CB were much higher than that in CG, and they both peaked 2 days before fruit ripening. Ethanol and 4-MP decreased the reductase activity of ADH, the expression of most CmADHs and ethyl acetate or hexyl acetate contents of CB, except for 0.1 mM 4-MP, while aldehyde improved the two acetate ester contents. In addition, we found a positive correlation between the expression of CmADH3 and CmADH12 and the key volatile compound of CB. The relationship between CmADHs and VOCs synthesis of oriental melon was discussed. PMID:27445845

  4. A knowledge-based clustering algorithm driven by Gene Ontology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jill; Cline, Melissa; Martin, John; Finkelstein, David; Awad, Tarif; Kulp, David; Siani-Rose, Michael A

    2004-08-01

    We have developed an algorithm for inferring the degree of similarity between genes by using the graph-based structure of Gene Ontology (GO). We applied this knowledge-based similarity metric to a clique-finding algorithm for detecting sets of related genes with biological classifications. We also combined it with an expression-based distance metric to produce a co-cluster analysis, which accentuates genes with both similar expression profiles and similar biological characteristics and identifies gene clusters that are more stable and biologically meaningful. These algorithms are demonstrated in the analysis of MPRO cell differentiation time series experiments. PMID:15468759

  5. Sesterterpene ophiobolin biosynthesis involving multiple gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Hangzhen; Yin, Ru; Liu, Yongfeng; Meng, Huiying; Zhou, Xianqiang; Zhou, Guolin; Bi, Xupeng; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Tonghan; Zhu, Weiming; Deng, Zixin; Hong, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoids are the most diverse and abundant natural products among which sesterterpenes account for less than 2%, with very few reports on their biosynthesis. Ophiobolins are tricyclic 5–8–5 ring sesterterpenes with potential pharmaceutical application. Aspergillus ustus 094102 from mangrove rizhosphere produces ophiobolin and other terpenes. We obtained five gene cluster knockout mutants, with altered ophiobolin yield using genome sequencing and in silico analysis, combined with in vivo genetic manipulation. Involvement of the five gene clusters in ophiobolin synthesis was confirmed by investigation of the five key terpene synthesis relevant enzymes in each gene cluster, either by gene deletion and complementation or in vitro verification of protein function. The results demonstrate that ophiobolin skeleton biosynthesis involves five gene clusters, which are responsible for C15, C20, C25, and C30 terpenoid biosynthesis. PMID:27273151

  6. Sesterterpene ophiobolin biosynthesis involving multiple gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hangzhen; Yin, Ru; Liu, Yongfeng; Meng, Huiying; Zhou, Xianqiang; Zhou, Guolin; Bi, Xupeng; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Tonghan; Zhu, Weiming; Deng, Zixin; Hong, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoids are the most diverse and abundant natural products among which sesterterpenes account for less than 2%, with very few reports on their biosynthesis. Ophiobolins are tricyclic 5-8-5 ring sesterterpenes with potential pharmaceutical application. Aspergillus ustus 094102 from mangrove rizhosphere produces ophiobolin and other terpenes. We obtained five gene cluster knockout mutants, with altered ophiobolin yield using genome sequencing and in silico analysis, combined with in vivo genetic manipulation. Involvement of the five gene clusters in ophiobolin synthesis was confirmed by investigation of the five key terpene synthesis relevant enzymes in each gene cluster, either by gene deletion and complementation or in vitro verification of protein function. The results demonstrate that ophiobolin skeleton biosynthesis involves five gene clusters, which are responsible for C15, C20, C25, and C30 terpenoid biosynthesis. PMID:27273151

  7. Nearest Neighbor Networks: clustering expression data based on gene neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Huttenhower, Curtis; Flamholz, Avi I; Landis, Jessica N; Sahi, Sauhard; Myers, Chad L; Olszewski, Kellen L; Hibbs, Matthew A; Siemers, Nathan O; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Coller, Hilary A

    2007-01-01

    Background The availability of microarrays measuring thousands of genes simultaneously across hundreds of biological conditions represents an opportunity to understand both individual biological pathways and the integrated workings of the cell. However, translating this amount of data into biological insight remains a daunting task. An important initial step in the analysis of microarray data is clustering of genes with similar behavior. A number of classical techniques are commonly used to perform this task, particularly hierarchical and K-means clustering, and many novel approaches have been suggested recently. While these approaches are useful, they are not without drawbacks; these methods can find clusters in purely random data, and even clusters enriched for biological functions can be skewed towards a small number of processes (e.g. ribosomes). Results We developed Nearest Neighbor Networks (NNN), a graph-based algorithm to generate clusters of genes with similar expression profiles. This method produces clusters based on overlapping cliques within an interaction network generated from mutual nearest neighborhoods. This focus on nearest neighbors rather than on absolute distance measures allows us to capture clusters with high connectivity even when they are spatially separated, and requiring mutual nearest neighbors allows genes with no sufficiently similar partners to remain unclustered. We compared the clusters generated by NNN with those generated by eight other clustering methods. NNN was particularly successful at generating functionally coherent clusters with high precision, and these clusters generally represented a much broader selection of biological processes than those recovered by other methods. Conclusion The Nearest Neighbor Networks algorithm is a valuable clustering method that effectively groups genes that are likely to be functionally related. It is particularly attractive due to its simplicity, its success in the analysis of large datasets

  8. Genomic analyses of bacterial porin-cytochrome gene clusters

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complex is responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. The identified and characterized Pcc complex of G. sulfurreducens PCA consists of a porin-like outer-membrane protein, a periplasmic 8-heme c type cytochrome (c-Cyt) and an outer-membrane 12-heme c-Cyt, and the genes encoding the Pcc proteins are clustered in the same regions of genome (i.e., the pcc gene clusters) of G. sulfurreducens PCA. A survey of additionally microbial genomes has identified the pcc gene clusters in all sequenced Geobacter spp. and other bacteriamore » from six different phyla, including Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans 2CP-1, A. dehalogenans 2CP-C, Anaeromyxobacter sp. K, Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, Denitrovibrio acetiphilus DSM 12809, Desulfurispirillum indicum S5, Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus AHT2, Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum DSM 11699, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans DSM 684, Ignavibacterium album JCM 16511, and Thermovibrio ammonificans HB-1. The numbers of genes in the pcc gene clusters vary, ranging from two to nine. Similar to the metal-reducing (Mtr) gene clusters of other Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella spp., additional genes that encode putative c-Cyts with predicted cellular localizations at the cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm and outer membrane often associate with the pcc gene clusters. This suggests that the Pcc-associated c-Cyts may be part of the pathways for extracellular electron transfer reactions. The presence of pcc gene clusters in the microorganisms that do not reduce solid-phase Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, such as D. alkaliphilus AHT2 and I. album JCM 16511, also suggests that some of the pcc gene clusters may be involved in extracellular electron transfer reactions with the substrates other than Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides.« less

  9. Genomic Gene Clustering Analysis of Pathways in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer M.; Sonnhammer, Erik L.L.

    2003-01-01

    Genomic clustering of genes in a pathway is commonly found in prokaryotes due to transcriptional operons, but these are not present in most eukaryotes. Yet, there might be clustering to a lesser extent of pathway members in eukaryotic genomes, that assist coregulation of a set of functionally cooperating genes. We analyzed five sequenced eukaryotic genomes for clustering of genes assigned to the same pathway in the KEGG database. Between 98% and 30% of the analyzed pathways in a genome were found to exhibit significantly higher clustering levels than expected by chance. In descending order by the level of clustering, the genomes studied were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Drosophila melanogaster. Surprisingly, there is not much agreement between genomes in terms of which pathways are most clustered. Only seven of 69 pathways found in all species were significantly clustered in all five of them. This species-specific pattern of pathway clustering may reflect adaptations or evolutionary events unique to a particular lineage. We note that although operons are common in C. elegans, only 58% of the pathways showed significant clustering, which is less than in human. Virtually all pathways in S. cerevisiae showed significant clustering. PMID:12695325

  10. The duplication of the Hox gene clusters in teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Prohaska, Sonja J; Stadler, Peter F

    2004-06-01

    Higher teleost fishes, including zebrafish and fugu, have duplicated their Hox genes relative to the gene inventory of other gnathostome lineages. The most widely accepted theory contends that the duplicate Hox clusters orginated synchronously during a single genome duplication event in the early history of ray-finned fishes. In this contribution we collect and re-evaluate all publicly available sequence information. In particular, we show that the short Hox gene fragments from published PCR surveys of the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus, the medaka Oryzias latipes and the goldfish Carassius auratus can be used to determine with little ambiguity not only their paralog group but also their membership in a particular cluster.Together with a survey of the genomic sequence data from the pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis we show that at least percomorpha, and possibly all eutelosts, share a system of 7 or 8 orthologous Hox gene clusters. There is little doubt about the orthology of the two teleost duplicates of the HoxA and HoxB clusters. A careful analysis of both the coding sequence of Hox genes and of conserved non-coding sequences provides additional support for the "duplication early" hypothesis that the Hox clusters in teleosts are derived from eight ancestral clusters by means of subsequent gene loss; the data remain ambiguous, however, in particular for the HoxC clusters.Assuming the "duplication early" hypothesis we use the new evidence on the Hox gene complements to determine the phylogenetic positions of gene-loss events in the wake of the cluster duplication. Surprisingly, we find that the resolution of redundancy seems to be a slow process that is still ongoing. A few suggestions on which additional sequence data would be most informative for resolving the history of the teleostean Hox genes are discussed. PMID:18202881

  11. Biologically supervised hierarchical clustering algorithms for gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Boratyn, Grzegorz M; Datta, Susmita; Datta, Somnath

    2006-01-01

    Cluster analysis has become a standard part of gene expression analysis. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised approach that offers the same flexibility as that of a hierarchical clustering. Yet it utilizes, along with the experimental gene expression data, common biological information about different genes that is being complied at various public, Web accessible databases. We argue that such an approach is inherently superior than the standard unsupervised approach of grouping genes based on expression data alone. It is shown that our biologically supervised methods produce better clustering results than the corresponding unsupervised methods as judged by the distance from the model temporal profiles. R-codes of the clustering algorithm are available from the authors upon request. PMID:17947147

  12. Alcohol Consumption Mediates the Relationship Between ADH1B and DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorder and Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Kilcoyne, Bari; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Aharonovich, Efrat; Greenstein, Eliana; Frisch, Amos; Weizman, Abraham; Spivak, Baruch; Edenberg, Howard J; Gelernter, Joel; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A single nucleotide variation in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) gene, rs1229984, produces an ADH1B enzyme with faster acetaldehyde production. This protective variant is associated with lower alcohol consumption and lower risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Based on the premise that faster ADH1B kinetics decreases alcohol consumption, we formally tested if the association between ADH1B variant rs1229984 and AUDs occurs through consumption. We also tested whether the association between rs1 229984 and each of the 11 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), AUD criteria occurs through consumption. Method: A total of 1,130 lifetime drinkers from an Israeli household sample were assessed with a structured interview and genotyped for rs1229984 (protective allele frequency = 0.28). Logistic regression evaluated the association between rs1229984 and each phenotype (AUDs, 11 individual DSM-IV criteria). For phenotypes significantly related to rs1229984, the effect through consumption was tested with logistic regression and bootstrapping. Results: ADH1B rs1229984 was significantly associated with AUDs and six criteria, with odds ratios ranging from 1.32 to 1.96. The effect through consumption was significant for these relationships, explaining 23%–74% of the total ADH1B effect. Conclusions: This is the first study to show that ADH1B rs1229984 is related to 6 of the 11 DSM-IV AUD criteria and that alcohol consumption explained a significant proportion of these associations and the association of ADH1B with AUDs. Better understanding of the relationship between ADH1B and the DSM-IV AUD criteria, including effects through consumption, will enhance our understanding of the etiologic model through which AUDs can occur. PMID:24988262

  13. SMART: unique splitting-while-merging framework for gene clustering.

    PubMed

    Fa, Rui; Roberts, David J; Nandi, Asoke K

    2014-01-01

    Successful clustering algorithms are highly dependent on parameter settings. The clustering performance degrades significantly unless parameters are properly set, and yet, it is difficult to set these parameters a priori. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a unique splitting-while-merging clustering framework, named "splitting merging awareness tactics" (SMART), which does not require any a priori knowledge of either the number of clusters or even the possible range of this number. Unlike existing self-splitting algorithms, which over-cluster the dataset to a large number of clusters and then merge some similar clusters, our framework has the ability to split and merge clusters automatically during the process and produces the the most reliable clustering results, by intrinsically integrating many clustering techniques and tasks. The SMART framework is implemented with two distinct clustering paradigms in two algorithms: competitive learning and finite mixture model. Nevertheless, within the proposed SMART framework, many other algorithms can be derived for different clustering paradigms. The minimum message length algorithm is integrated into the framework as the clustering selection criterion. The usefulness of the SMART framework and its algorithms is tested in demonstration datasets and simulated gene expression datasets. Moreover, two real microarray gene expression datasets are studied using this approach. Based on the performance of many metrics, all numerical results show that SMART is superior to compared existing self-splitting algorithms and traditional algorithms. Three main properties of the proposed SMART framework are summarized as: (1) needing no parameters dependent on the respective dataset or a priori knowledge about the datasets, (2) extendible to many different applications, (3) offering superior performance compared with counterpart algorithms. PMID:24714159

  14. Which alcohol use disorder criteria contribute to the association of ADH1B with alcohol dependence?

    PubMed

    Hart, Amy B; Lynch, Kevin G; Farrer, Lindsay; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R

    2016-07-01

    Although alcohol dependence (AD) is approximately 50% heritable, little is known about how specific genetic loci affect AD risk. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS), we identified highly significant associations between two population-specific functional variants in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) and AD in African-Americans (AAs; rs2066702) and European-Americans (EAs; rs1229984). In the current study, we determined which specific diagnostic criteria contributed to the observed associations of ADH1B SNPs with AD. Our analysis included both the DSM-IV and DSM-5 diagnostic systems. We also investigated the relationship of ADH1B variants to the maximum number of drinks consumed in a 24-hour period (MaxDrinks), a presumed intermediate phenotype of AD. We found that, although all criteria made strong individual contributions to the associations, the largest contributions came from those reflecting neuroadaptation: tolerance (rs2066702) and withdrawal (rs1229984). Overall, evidence for association with DSM-5 criteria was slightly stronger than for DSM-IV criteria. For rs2066702, results were similar for DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria. However, the most significant DSM-5 criterion associated with rs1229984 was alcohol-related social/interpersonal problems. Both ADH1B variants were associated with MaxDrinks, a measure of innate tolerance, and MaxDrinks mediated the associations between ADH1B and alcohol outcomes. We replicated the findings for rs2066702 and tolerance in an independent sample of AAs. Taken together, these results suggest that variation in ADH1B affects the adaptation to heavy drinking, highlighting population-specific differences in genetic risk for AUD. They also suggest that the revisions reflected in DSM-5 AUD may enhance the utility of that diagnosis for gene finding. PMID:25828809

  15. Identification of Nitrogen-Fixing Genes and Gene Clusters from Metagenomic Library of Acid Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Huaqun; Liang, Yili; Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is an essential function of acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities. However, most acidophiles in AMD environments are uncultured microorganisms and little is known about the diversity of nitrogen-fixing genes and structure of nif gene cluster in AMD microbial communities. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to isolate nif genes in the AMD microbial community from Dexing Copper Mine, China. Meanwhile, a metagenome microarray containing 7,776 large-insertion fosmids was constructed to screen novel nif gene clusters. Metagenomic analyses revealed that 742 sequences were identified as nif genes including structural subunit genes nifH, nifD, nifK and various additional genes. The AMD community is massively dominated by the genus Acidithiobacillus. However, the phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is much higher than previously thought in the AMD community. Furthermore, a 32.5-kb genomic sequence harboring nif, fix and associated genes was screened by metagenome microarray. Comparative genome analysis indicated that most nif genes in this cluster are most similar to those of Herbaspirillum seropedicae, but the organization of the nif gene cluster had significant differences from H. seropedicae. Sequence analysis and reverse transcription PCR also suggested that distinct transcription units of nif genes exist in this gene cluster. nifQ gene falls into the same transcription unit with fixABCX genes, which have not been reported in other diazotrophs before. All of these results indicated that more novel diazotrophs survive in the AMD community. PMID:24498417

  16. CvADH1, a member of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, is inducible by gibberellin and sucrose in developing watermelon seeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joonyul; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Jinwon; Yim, Jieun; An, Gynheung

    2003-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed formation, we selected a seed-preferential gene (CvADH1) from the ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. RNA blot analysis and in situ localization showed that CvADH1 was preferentially expressed in the nucellar tissue. The CvADH1 protein shared about 50% homology with short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase including ABA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, stem secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase in Forsythia intermedia, and 3beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase in Digitalis lanata. We investigated gene-expression levels in seeds from both normally pollinated fruits and those made parthenocarpic via N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea treatment, the latter of which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcripts of CvADH1 rapidly started to accumulate from about the pre-heart stage in normal seeds, they were not detectable in the parthenocarpic seeds. Treating the parthenogenic fruit with GA(3) strongly induced gene expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that the CvADH1 gene is induced in maternal tissues by signals made in the zygotic tissues, and that gibberellin might be one of those signals. We also observed that CvADH1 expression was induced by sucrose in the parthenocarpic seeds. Therefore, we propose that the CvADH1 gene is inducible by gibberellin, and that sucrose plays an important role in the maternal tissues of watermelon during early seed development. PMID:12552151

  17. Biosynthetic Gene Cluster for the Polyenoyltetramic Acid α-Lipomycin

    PubMed Central

    Bihlmaier, C.; Welle, E.; Hofmann, C.; Welzel, K.; Vente, A.; Breitling, E.; Müller, M.; Glaser, S.; Bechthold, A.

    2006-01-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces aureofaciens Tü117 produces the acyclic polyene antibiotic α-lipomycin. The entire biosynthetic gene cluster (lip gene cluster) was cloned and characterized. DNA sequence analysis of a 74-kb region revealed the presence of 28 complete open reading frames (ORFs), 22 of them belonging to the biosynthetic gene cluster. Central to the cluster is a polyketide synthase locus that encodes an eight-module system comprised of four multifunctional proteins. In addition, one ORF shows homology to those for nonribosomal peptide synthetases, indicating that α-lipomycin belongs to the classification of hybrid peptide-polyketide natural products. Furthermore, the lip cluster includes genes responsible for the formation and attachment of d-digitoxose as well as ORFs that resemble those for putative regulatory and export functions. We generated biosynthetic mutants by insertional gene inactivation. By analysis of culture extracts of these mutants, we could prove that, indeed, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of lipomycin had been cloned, and additionally we gained insight into an unusual biosynthesis pathway. PMID:16723573

  18. Characterization of the largest effector gene cluster of Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Brefort, Thomas; Tanaka, Shigeyuki; Neidig, Nina; Doehlemann, Gunther; Vincon, Volker; Kahmann, Regine

    2014-07-01

    In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors. Deletion of the entire cluster results in severe attenuation of virulence. Here we present the functional analysis of this genomic region. We show that a 19A deletion mutant behaves like an endophyte, i.e. is still able to colonize plants and complete the infection cycle. However, tumors, the most conspicuous symptoms of maize smut disease, are only rarely formed and fungal biomass in infected tissue is significantly reduced. The generation and analysis of strains carrying sub-deletions identified several genes significantly contributing to tumor formation after seedling infection. Another of the effectors could be linked specifically to anthocyanin induction in the infected tissue. As the individual contributions of these genes to tumor formation were small, we studied the response of maize plants to the whole cluster mutant as well as to several individual mutants by array analysis. This revealed distinct plant responses, demonstrating that the respective effectors have discrete plant targets. We propose that the analysis of plant responses to effector mutant strains that lack a strong virulence phenotype may be a general way to visualize differences in effector function. PMID:24992561

  19. Detecting sequence homology at the gene cluster level with MultiGeneBlast.

    PubMed

    Medema, Marnix H; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    The genes encoding many biomolecular systems and pathways are genomically organized in operons or gene clusters. With MultiGeneBlast, we provide a user-friendly and effective tool to perform homology searches with operons or gene clusters as basic units, instead of single genes. The contextualization offered by MultiGeneBlast allows users to get a better understanding of the function, evolutionary history, and practical applications of such genomic regions. The tool is fully equipped with applications to generate search databases from GenBank or from the user's own sequence data. Finally, an architecture search mode allows searching for gene clusters with novel configurations, by detecting genomic regions with any user-specified combination of genes. Sources, precompiled binaries, and a graphical tutorial of MultiGeneBlast are freely available from http://multigeneblast.sourceforge.net/. PMID:23412913

  20. Evaluation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 promoter for protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Michael; DaSilva, Nancy A

    2005-04-30

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 promoter (P(ADH2)) is repressed several hundred-fold in the presence of glucose; transcription is initiated once the glucose in the medium is exhausted. The promoter can thus be utilized for effective regulation of recombinant gene expression in S. cerevisiae without the addition of an inducer. To evaluate this promoter in the absence of plasmid copy number and stability variations, the P(ADH2)-lacZ cassette was integrated into the yeast chromosomes. The effects of medium composition, glucose concentration and cultivation time on promoter derepression and expression level were investigated. Maximum protein activity was obtained after 48 h of growth in complex YPD medium containing 1% glucose. The widely used S. cerevisiae GAL1 and CUP1 promoters both require the addition of an inducer [galactose and copper(II) ion, respectively] before regulated genes will be expressed. The strengths of these three different promoters were compared for cells containing one copy of an integrated lacZ gene under their control. The ADH2 promoter was superior for all induction strategies investigated. PMID:15849781

  1. Clustered Genes Involved in Cyclopiazonic Acid Production are Next to the Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), an indole-tetramic acid toxin, is produced by many species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. In addition to CPA Aspergillus flavus produces polyketide-derived carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs). AF biosynthesis genes form a gene cluster in a subtelomeric region. Isolates of A. fla...

  2. The role of aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) in ethanol production from glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Baek-Rock; Hong, Won-Kyung; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Joe, Min-ho; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho

    2013-02-01

    Transcriptome analysis of a K. pneumoniae GEM167 mutant strain derived by irradiation with gamma rays, which exhibited high-level production of ethanol from glycerol, showed that the mutant expressed AdhE at a high level. Ethanol production decreased significantly, from 8.8 to 0.5 g l(-1), when an adhE-deficient derivative of that strain was grown on glycerol. Bacterial growth was also reduced under such conditions, showing that AdhE plays a critical role in maintenance of redox balance by catalyzing ethanol production. Overexpression of AdhE enhanced ethanol production, from pure or crude glycerol, to a maximal level of 31.9 g l(-1) under fed-batch fermentation conditions; this is the highest level of ethanol production from glycerol reported to date. PMID:23296976

  3. Genomic analyses of bacterial porin-cytochrome gene clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complex is responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. The identified and characterized Pcc complex of G. sulfurreducens PCA consists of a porin-like outer-membrane protein, a periplasmic 8-heme c type cytochrome (c-Cyt) and an outer-membrane 12-heme c-Cyt, and the genes encoding the Pcc proteins are clustered in the same regions of genome (i.e., the pcc gene clusters) of G. sulfurreducens PCA. A survey of additionally microbial genomes has identified the pcc gene clusters in all sequenced Geobacter spp. and other bacteria from six different phyla, including Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans 2CP-1, A. dehalogenans 2CP-C, Anaeromyxobacter sp. K, Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, Denitrovibrio acetiphilus DSM 12809, Desulfurispirillum indicum S5, Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus AHT2, Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum DSM 11699, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans DSM 684, Ignavibacterium album JCM 16511, and Thermovibrio ammonificans HB-1. The numbers of genes in the pcc gene clusters vary, ranging from two to nine. Similar to the metal-reducing (Mtr) gene clusters of other Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella spp., additional genes that encode putative c-Cyts with predicted cellular localizations at the cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm and outer membrane often associate with the pcc gene clusters. This suggests that the Pcc-associated c-Cyts may be part of the pathways for extracellular electron transfer reactions. The presence of pcc gene clusters in the microorganisms that do not reduce solid-phase Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, such as D. alkaliphilus AHT2 and I. album JCM 16511, also suggests that some of the pcc gene clusters may be involved in extracellular

  4. Phage cluster relationships identified through single gene analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic comparison of bacteriophages requires whole genome approaches such as dotplot analysis, genome pairwise maps, and gene content analysis. Currently mycobacteriophages, a highly studied phage group, are categorized into related clusters based on the comparative analysis of whole genome sequences. With the recent explosion of phage isolation, a simple method for phage cluster prediction would facilitate analysis of crude or complex samples without whole genome isolation and sequencing. The hypothesis of this study was that mycobacteriophage-cluster prediction is possible using comparison of a single, ubiquitous, semi-conserved gene. Tape Measure Protein (TMP) was selected to test the hypothesis because it is typically the longest gene in mycobacteriophage genomes and because regions within the TMP gene are conserved. Results A single gene, TMP, identified the known Mycobacteriophage clusters and subclusters using a Gepard dotplot comparison or a phylogenetic tree constructed from global alignment and maximum likelihood comparisons. Gepard analysis of 247 mycobacteriophage TMP sequences appropriately recovered 98.8% of the subcluster assignments that were made by whole-genome comparison. Subcluster-specific primers within TMP allow for PCR determination of the mycobacteriophage subcluster from DNA samples. Using the single-gene comparison approach for siphovirus coliphages, phage groupings by TMP comparison reflected relationships observed in a whole genome dotplot comparison and confirm the potential utility of this approach to another widely studied group of phages. Conclusions TMP sequence comparison and PCR results support the hypothesis that a single gene can be used for distinguishing phage cluster and subcluster assignments. TMP single-gene analysis can quickly and accurately aid in mycobacteriophage classification. PMID:23777341

  5. Identification of the Scopularide Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Scopulariopsis brevicaulis.

    PubMed

    Lukassen, Mie Bech; Saei, Wagma; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Tamminen, Anu; Kumar, Abhishek; Kempken, Frank; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2015-07-01

    Scopularide A is a promising potent anticancer lipopeptide isolated from a marine derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain. The compound consists of a reduced carbon chain (3-hydroxy-methyldecanoyl) attached to five amino acids (glycine, l-valine, d-leucine, l-alanine, and l-phenylalanine). Using the newly sequenced S. brevicaulis genome we were able to identify the putative biosynthetic gene cluster using genetic information from the structurally related emericellamide A from Aspergillus nidulans and W493-B from Fusarium pseudograminearum. The scopularide A gene cluster includes a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS1), a polyketide synthase (PKS2), a CoA ligase, an acyltransferase, and a transcription factor. Homologous recombination was low in S. brevicaulis so the local transcription factor was integrated randomly under a constitutive promoter, which led to a three to four-fold increase in scopularide A production. This indirectly verifies the identity of the proposed biosynthetic gene cluster. PMID:26184239

  6. Identification of the Scopularide Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Scopulariopsis brevicaulis

    PubMed Central

    Lukassen, Mie Bech; Saei, Wagma; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Tamminen, Anu; Kumar, Abhishek; Kempken, Frank; Wiebe, Marilyn G.; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2015-01-01

    Scopularide A is a promising potent anticancer lipopeptide isolated from a marine derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain. The compound consists of a reduced carbon chain (3-hydroxy-methyldecanoyl) attached to five amino acids (glycine, l-valine, d-leucine, l-alanine, and l-phenylalanine). Using the newly sequenced S. brevicaulis genome we were able to identify the putative biosynthetic gene cluster using genetic information from the structurally related emericellamide A from Aspergillus nidulans and W493-B from Fusarium pseudograminearum. The scopularide A gene cluster includes a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS1), a polyketide synthase (PKS2), a CoA ligase, an acyltransferase, and a transcription factor. Homologous recombination was low in S. brevicaulis so the local transcription factor was integrated randomly under a constitutive promoter, which led to a three to four-fold increase in scopularide A production. This indirectly verifies the identity of the proposed biosynthetic gene cluster. PMID:26184239

  7. Genomic architecture and inheritance of human ribosomal RNA gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Stults, Dawn M.; Killen, Michael W.; Pierce, Heather H.; Pierce, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The finishing of the Human Genome Project largely completed the detailing of human euchromatic sequences; however, the most highly repetitive regions of the genome still could not be assembled. The 12 gene clusters producing the structural RNA components of the ribosome are critically important for cellular viability, yet fall into this unassembled region of the Human Genome Project. To determine the extent of human variation in ribosomal RNA gene content (rDNA) and patterns of rDNA cluster inheritance, we have determined the physical lengths of the rDNA clusters in peripheral blood white cells of healthy human volunteers. The cluster lengths exhibit striking variability between and within human individuals, ranging from 50 kb to >6 Mb, manifest essentially complete heterozygosity, and provide each person with their own unique rDNA electrophoretic karyotype. Analysis of these rDNA fingerprints in multigenerational human families demonstrates that the rDNA clusters are subject to meiotic rearrangement at a frequency >10% per cluster, per meiosis. With this high intrinsic recombinational instability, the rDNA clusters may serve as a unique paradigm of potential human genomic plasticity. PMID:18025267

  8. The Fusarium graminearum Genome Reveals More Secondary Metabolite Gene Clusters and Hints of Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Philip; Münsterkötter, Martin; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Schmeitzl, Clemens; Varga, Elisabeth; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Güldener, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes are of major interest due to the pharmacological properties of their products (like mycotoxins and antibiotics). The genome of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum codes for a large number of candidate enzymes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. However, the chemical nature of most enzymatic products of proteins encoded by putative secondary metabolism biosynthetic genes is largely unknown. Based on our analysis we present 67 gene clusters with significant enrichment of predicted secondary metabolism related enzymatic functions. 20 gene clusters with unknown metabolites exhibit strong gene expression correlation in planta and presumably play a role in virulence. Furthermore, the identification of conserved and over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites serves as additional evidence for cluster co-regulation. Orthologous cluster search provided insight into the evolution of secondary metabolism clusters. Some clusters are characteristic for the Fusarium phylum while others show evidence of horizontal gene transfer as orthologs can be found in representatives of the Botrytis or Cochliobolus lineage. The presented candidate clusters provide valuable targets for experimental examination. PMID:25333987

  9. Quantitative Methylation Analysis of the PCDHB Gene Cluster.

    PubMed

    Banelli, Barbara; Romani, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Long Range Epigenetic Silencing (LRES) is a repressed chromatin state of large chromosomal regions caused by DNA hypermethylation and histone modifications and is commonly observed in cancer. At 5q31 a LRES region of 800 kb includes three multi-gene clusters (PCDHA@, PCDHB@, and PCDHG@, respectively). Multiple experimental evidences have led to consider the PCDHB cluster as a DNA methylation marker of aggressiveness in neuroblastoma, second most common solid tumor in childhood. Because of its potential involvement not only in neuroblastoma but also in other malignancies, an easy and fast assay to screen the DNA methylation content of the PCDHB cluster might be useful for the precise stratification of the patients into risk groups and hence for choosing the most appropriate therapeutic protocol. Accordingly, we have developed a simple and cost-effective Pyrosequencing(®) assay to evaluate the methylation level of 17 genes in the protocadherin B cluster (PCDHB@). The rationale behind this Pyrosequencing assay can in principle be applied to analyze the DNA methylation level of any gene cluster with high homologies for screening purposes. PMID:26103900

  10. A Resampling Based Clustering Algorithm for Replicated Gene Expression Data.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Li, Chun; Hu, Jie; Fan, Xiaodan

    2015-01-01

    In gene expression data analysis, clustering is a fruitful exploratory technique to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism by identifying groups of co-expressed genes. To reduce the noise, usually multiple experimental replicates are performed. An integrative analysis of the full replicate data, instead of reducing the data to the mean profile, carries the promise of yielding more precise and robust clusters. In this paper, we propose a novel resampling based clustering algorithm for genes with replicated expression measurements. Assuming those replicates are exchangeable, we formulate the problem in the bootstrap framework, and aim to infer the consensus clustering based on the bootstrap samples of replicates. In our approach, we adopt the mixed effect model to accommodate the heterogeneous variances and implement a quasi-MCMC algorithm to conduct statistical inference. Experiments demonstrate that by taking advantage of the full replicate data, our algorithm produces more reliable clusters and has robust performance in diverse scenarios, especially when the data is subject to multiple sources of variance. PMID:26671802

  11. Discovery of the lomaiviticin biosynthetic gene cluster in Salinispora pacifica

    PubMed Central

    Janso, Jeffrey E.; Haltli, Brad A.; Eustáquio, Alessandra S.; Kulowski, Kerry; Waldman, Abraham J.; Zha, Li; Nakamura, Hitomi; Bernan, Valerie S.; He, Haiyin; Carter, Guy T.; Koehn, Frank E.; Balskus, Emily P.

    2014-01-01

    The lomaiviticins are a family of cytotoxic marine natural products that have captured the attention of both synthetic and biological chemists due to their intricate molecular scaffolds and potent biological activities. Here we describe the identification of the gene cluster responsible for lomaiviticin biosynthesis in Salinispora pacifica strains DPJ-0016 and DPJ-0019 using a combination of molecular approaches and genome sequencing. The link between the lom gene cluster and lomaiviticin production was confirmed using bacterial genetics, and subsequent analysis and annotation of this cluster revealed the biosynthetic basis for the core polyketide scaffold. Additionally, we have used comparative genomics to identify candidate enzymes for several unusual tailoring events, including diazo formation and oxidative dimerization. These findings will allow further elucidation of the biosynthetic logic of lomaiviticin assembly and provide useful molecular tools for application in biocatalysis and synthetic biology. PMID:25045187

  12. Cloning and Heterologous Expression of the Grecocycline Biosynthetic Gene Cluster.

    PubMed

    Bilyk, Oksana; Sekurova, Olga N; Zotchev, Sergey B; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast is a rapid and inexpensive method for cloning and assembly of large DNA fragments, which relies on natural homologous recombination. Two vectors, based on p15a and F-factor replicons that can be maintained in yeast, E. coli and streptomycetes have been constructed. These vectors have been successfully employed for assembly of the grecocycline biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. Acta 1362. Fragments of the cluster were obtained by PCR and transformed together with the "capture" vector into the yeast cells, yielding a construct carrying the entire gene cluster. The obtained construct was heterologously expressed in S. albus J1074, yielding several grecocycline congeners. Grecocyclines have unique structural moieties such as a dissacharide side chain, an additional amino sugar at the C-5 position and a thiol group. Enzymes from this pathway may be used for the derivatization of known active angucyclines in order to improve their desired biological properties. PMID:27410036

  13. Duplications of hox gene clusters and the emergence of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Soshnikova, Natalia; Dewaele, Romain; Janvier, Philippe; Krumlauf, Robb; Duboule, Denis

    2013-06-15

    The vertebrate body plan is characterized by an increased complexity relative to that of all other chordates and large-scale gene amplifications have been associated with key morphological innovations leading to their remarkable evolutionary success. Here, we use compound full Hox clusters deletions to investigate how Hox genes duplications may have contributed to the emergence of vertebrate-specific innovations. We show that the combined deletion of HoxA and HoxB leads to an atavistic heart phenotype, suggesting that the ancestral HoxA/B cluster was co-opted to help in diversifying the complex organ in vertebrates. Other phenotypic effects observed seem to illustrate the resurgence of ancestral (plesiomorphic) features. This indicates that the duplications of Hox clusters were associated with the recruitment or formation of novel cis-regulatory controls, which were key to the evolution of many vertebrate features and hence to the evolutionary radiation of this group. PMID:23501471

  14. Cloning and Heterologous Expression of the Grecocycline Biosynthetic Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Bilyk, Oksana; Sekurova, Olga N.; Zotchev, Sergey B.; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast is a rapid and inexpensive method for cloning and assembly of large DNA fragments, which relies on natural homologous recombination. Two vectors, based on p15a and F-factor replicons that can be maintained in yeast, E. coli and streptomycetes have been constructed. These vectors have been successfully employed for assembly of the grecocycline biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. Acta 1362. Fragments of the cluster were obtained by PCR and transformed together with the “capture” vector into the yeast cells, yielding a construct carrying the entire gene cluster. The obtained construct was heterologously expressed in S. albus J1074, yielding several grecocycline congeners. Grecocyclines have unique structural moieties such as a dissacharide side chain, an additional amino sugar at the C-5 position and a thiol group. Enzymes from this pathway may be used for the derivatization of known active angucyclines in order to improve their desired biological properties. PMID:27410036

  15. Identification and analysis of the resorcinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Ooya, Koichi; Ogasawara, Yasushi; Noike, Motoyoshi; Dairi, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Resorcinomycin (1) is composed of a nonproteinogenic amino acid, (S)-2-(3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylphenyl)-2-guanidinoacetic acid (2), and glycine. A biosynthetic gene cluster was identified in a genome database of Streptoverticillium roseoverticillatum by searching for orthologs of the genes responsible for biosynthesis of pheganomycin (3), which possesses a (2)-derivative at its N-terminus. The cluster contained a gene encoding an ATP-grasp-ligase (res5), which was suggested to catalyze the peptide bond formation between 2 and glycine. A res5-deletion mutant lost 1 productivity but accumulated 2 in the culture broth. However, recombinant RES5 did not show catalytic activity to form 1 with 2 and glycine as substrates. Moreover, heterologous expression of the cluster resulted in accumulation of only 2 and no production of 1 was observed. These results suggested that a peptide with glycine at its N-terminus may be used as a nucleophile and then maturated by a peptidase encoded by a gene outside of the cluster. PMID:26034896

  16. Locus Adh of Drosophila melanogaster under selection for delayed senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Khaustova, N.D.

    1995-05-01

    Dynamics of the Adh activity and frequencies of alleles Adh{sup F} and Adh{sup S} were analyzed under selection for delayed senescence. The experiments were performed on Drosophila melanogaster. Lines Adh{sup S}cn and Adh{sup F}vg and experimental populations cn` and vg`, selected for an increased duration of reproductive period (late oviposition) were used. Analysis of fertility, longevity, viability and resistance to starvation showed that selection for late oviposition resulted in delayed senescence of flies of the experimental populations. Genetic structure of population vg` changed considerably with regard to the Adh locus. This was confirmed by parameters of activity, thermostability, and electrophoretic mobility of the enzyme isolated from flies after 30 generations of selection. Analysis of frequencies of the Adh alleles showed that in both selected populations, which initially had different genetic composition, accumulated allele Adh{sup S}, which encodes the isozyme that is less active but more resistant to inactivation. Genetic mechanism of delayed senescence in Drosophila is assumed to involve selection at vitally important enzyme loci, including Adh. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Retention of genes in a secondary metabolite gene cluster that has degenerated in multiple lineages of the Ascomycota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters encode proteins involved in SM biosynthesis, protection against SMs, and regulation of cluster gene transcription. RNA-Seq analysis of Fusarium langsethiae (class Sordariomycetes) revealed a cluster of six genes that were highly expressed during growth...

  18. Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements in vertebrate HOX gene clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, Simona; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Axel

    2003-12-31

    Due to their high degree of conservation, comparisons of DNA sequences among evolutionarily distantly-related genomes permit to identify functional regions in noncoding DNA. Hox genes are optimal candidate sequences for comparative genome analyses, because they are extremely conserved in vertebrates and occur in clusters. We aligned (Pipmaker) the nucleotide sequences of HoxA clusters of tilapia, pufferfish, striped bass, zebrafish, horn shark, human and mouse (over 500 million years of evolutionary distance). We identified several highly conserved intergenic sequences, likely to be important in gene regulation. Only a few of these putative regulatory elements have been previously described as being involved in the regulation of Hox genes, while several others are new elements that might have regulatory functions. The majority of these newly identified putative regulatory elements contain short fragments that are almost completely conserved and are identical to known binding sites for regulatory proteins (Transfac). The conserved intergenic regions located between the most rostrally expressed genes in the developing embryo are longer and better retained through evolution. We document that presumed regulatory sequences are retained differentially in either A or A clusters resulting from a genome duplication in the fish lineage. This observation supports both the hypothesis that the conserved elements are involved in gene regulation and the Duplication-Deletion-Complementation model.

  19. Evolution of chemical diversity by coordinated gene swaps in type II polyketide gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Hillenmeyer, Maureen E.; Vandova, Gergana A.; Berlew, Erin E.; Charkoudian, Louise K.

    2015-01-01

    Natural product biosynthetic pathways generate molecules of enormous structural complexity and exquisitely tuned biological activities. Studies of natural products have led to the discovery of many pharmaceutical agents, particularly antibiotics. Attempts to harness the catalytic prowess of biosynthetic enzyme systems, for both compound discovery and engineering, have been limited by a poor understanding of the evolution of the underlying gene clusters. We developed an approach to study the evolution of biosynthetic genes on a cluster-wide scale, integrating pairwise gene coevolution information with large-scale phylogenetic analysis. We used this method to infer the evolution of type II polyketide gene clusters, tracing the path of evolution from the single ancestor to those gene clusters surviving today. We identified 10 key gene types in these clusters, most of which were swapped in from existing cellular processes and subsequently specialized. The ancestral type II polyketide gene cluster likely comprised a core set of five genes, a roster that expanded and contracted throughout evolution. A key C24 ancestor diversified into major classes of longer and shorter chain length systems, from which a C20 ancestor gave rise to the majority of characterized type II polyketide antibiotics. Our findings reveal that (i) type II polyketide structure is predictable from its gene roster, (ii) only certain gene combinations are compatible, and (iii) gene swaps were likely a key to evolution of chemical diversity. The lessons learned about how natural selection drives polyketide chemical innovation can be applied to the rational design and guided discovery of chemicals with desired structures and properties. PMID:26499248

  20. Cluster of genes controlling proline degradation in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Ratzkin, B; Roth, J

    1978-01-01

    A cluster of genes essential for degradation of proline to glutamate (put) is located between the pyrC and pyrD loci at min 22 of the Salmonella chromosome. A series of 25 deletion mutants of this region have been isolated and used to construct a fine-structure map of the put genes. The map includes mutations affecting the proline degradative activities, proline oxidase and pyrroline-5-carboxylic dehydrogenase. Also included are mutations affecting the major proline permease and a regulatory mutation that affects both enzyme and permease production. The two enzymatic activities appear to be encoded by a single gene (putA). The regulatory mutation maps between the putA gene and the proline permease gene (putP). PMID:342507

  1. Calcilytic Ameliorates Abnormalities of Mutant Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) Knock-In Mice Mimicking Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia (ADH).

    PubMed

    Dong, Bingzi; Endo, Itsuro; Ohnishi, Yukiyo; Kondo, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Amizuka, Norio; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Abe, Masahiro; Fukumoto, Seiji; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-11-01

    Activating mutations of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) cause autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH). ADH patients develop hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypercalciuria, similar to the clinical features of hypoparathyroidism. The current treatment of ADH is similar to the other forms of hypoparathyroidism, using active vitamin D3 or parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, these treatments aggravate hypercalciuria and renal calcification. Thus, new therapeutic strategies for ADH are needed. Calcilytics are allosteric antagonists of CaSR, and may be effective for the treatment of ADH caused by activating mutations of CaSR. In order to examine the effect of calcilytic JTT-305/MK-5442 on CaSR harboring activating mutations in the extracellular and transmembrane domains in vitro, we first transfected a mutated CaSR gene into HEK cells. JTT-305/MK-5442 suppressed the hypersensitivity to extracellular Ca(2+) of HEK cells transfected with the CaSR gene with activating mutations in the extracellular and transmembrane domains. We then selected two activating mutations locating in the extracellular (C129S) and transmembrane (A843E) domains, and generated two strains of CaSR knock-in mice to build an ADH mouse model. Both mutant mice mimicked almost all the clinical features of human ADH. JTT-305/MK-5442 treatment in vivo increased urinary cAMP excretion, improved serum and urinary calcium and phosphate levels by stimulating endogenous PTH secretion, and prevented renal calcification. In contrast, PTH(1-34) treatment normalized serum calcium and phosphate but could not reduce hypercalciuria or renal calcification. CaSR knock-in mice exhibited low bone turnover due to the deficiency of PTH, and JTT-305/MK-5442 as well as PTH(1-34) increased bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in these mice. These results demonstrate that calcilytics can reverse almost all the phenotypes of ADH including hypercalciuria and renal calcification, and suggest that calcilytics can become a

  2. Identification of genes and gene clusters involved in mycotoxin synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research methods to identify and characterize genes involved in mycotoxin biosynthetic pathways have evolved considerably over the years. Before whole genome sequences were available (e.g. pre-genomics), work focused primarily on chemistry, biosynthetic mutant strains and molecular analysis of sing...

  3. Transcription mediated insulation and interference direct gene cluster expression switches

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tania; Brown, David; Murray, Struan C; Haenni, Simon; Halstead, James M; O'Connor, Leigh; Shipkovenska, Gergana; Steinmetz, Lars M; Mellor, Jane

    2014-01-01

    In yeast, many tandemly arranged genes show peak expression in different phases of the metabolic cycle (YMC) or in different carbon sources, indicative of regulation by a bi-modal switch, but it is not clear how these switches are controlled. Using native elongating transcript analysis (NET-seq), we show that transcription itself is a component of bi-modal switches, facilitating reciprocal expression in gene clusters. HMS2, encoding a growth-regulated transcription factor, switches between sense- or antisense-dominant states that also coordinate up- and down-regulation of transcription at neighbouring genes. Engineering HMS2 reveals alternative mono-, di- or tri-cistronic and antisense transcription units (TUs), using different promoter and terminator combinations, that underlie state-switching. Promoters or terminators are excluded from functional TUs by read-through transcriptional interference, while antisense TUs insulate downstream genes from interference. We propose that the balance of transcriptional insulation and interference at gene clusters facilitates gene expression switches during intracellular and extracellular environmental change. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03635.001 PMID:25407679

  4. Effects of endogenous antidiuretic hormone (ADH) on macrophage phagocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Repollet, E.; Opava-Stitzer, S.; Tiffany, S.; Schwartz, A.

    1983-07-01

    Although several studies have indicated that antidiuretic hormone (ADH) enhances the phagocytic function of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) in shock syndromes, it remains unknown what influence ADH exerts upon the individual phagocytic components of this system. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of endogenous ADH on the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage cells. As a phagocytic stimuli, fluorescent methacrylate microbeads were injected intraperitoneally into Brattleboro (ADH deficient) and normal Long Evans rats in the presence and absence of exogenous ADH. Peritoneal cells were harvested 19-22 hr after the administration of the microbeads and the percent phagocytosis was determined in macrophage cells using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS II). Our results indicate that the percentage of peritoneal macrophages ingesting the fluorescent methacrylate microbeads was significantly reduced in the absence of ADH (Brattleboro rats: 5.4 +/- 0.6% versus Long Evans rats: 16.8 +/- 2.3%; p less than 0.001). In addition, our data demonstrate that exogenous administration of ADH significantly enhanced macrophage phagocytosis in Brattleboro (14.7 +/- 2.2%) and normal Long Evans (49.6 +/- 4.5%) rats. These data suggest, for the first time, that endogenous ADH might play a modulatory role in the phagocytic activity of a specific component of the RES, namely, the macrophage cell.

  5. Reconstructing Histories of Complex Gene Clusters on a Phylogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinař, Tomáš; Brejová, Broňa; Song, Giltae; Siepel, Adam

    Clusters of genes that have evolved by repeated segmental duplication present difficult challenges throughout genomic analysis, from sequence assembly to functional analysis. These clusters are one of the major sources of evolutionary innovation, and they are linked to multiple diseases, including HIV and a variety of cancers. Understanding their evolutionary histories is a key to the application of comparative genomics methods in these regions of the genome. We propose a probabilistic model of gene cluster evolution on a phylogeny, and an MCMC algorithm for reconstruction of duplication histories from genomic sequences in multiple species. Several projects are underway to obtain high quality BAC-based assemblies of duplicated clusters in multiple species, and we anticipate use of our methods in their analysis. Supplementary materials are located at http://compbio.fmph.uniba.sk/suppl/09recombcg/

  6. Human metallothionein genes are clustered on chromosome 16.

    PubMed Central

    Karin, M; Eddy, R L; Henry, W M; Haley, L L; Byers, M G; Shows, T B

    1984-01-01

    The metallothioneins are a family of heavy-metal binding proteins of low molecular weight. They function in the regulation of trace metal metabolism and in the protection against toxic heavy metal ions. In man, the metallothioneins are encoded by at least 10-12 genes separated into two groups, MT-I and MT-II. To understand the genomic organization of these genes and their involvement in hereditary disorders of trace metal metabolism, we have determined their chromosomal location. Using human-mouse cell hybrids and hybridization probes derived from cloned and functional human MT1 and MT2 genes, we show that the functional human genes are clustered on human chromosome 16. Analysis of RNA from somatic cell hybrids indicated that hybrids that contained human chromosome 16 expressed both human MT1 and MT2 mRNA, and this expression is regulated by both heavy metal ions and glucocorticoid hormones. Images PMID:6089206

  7. Bi-clustering of Gene Expression Data Using Conditional Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olomola, Afolabi; Dua, Sumeet

    The inherent sparseness of gene expression data and the rare exhibition of similar expression patterns across a wide range of conditions make traditional clustering techniques unsuitable for gene expression analysis. Biclustering methods currently used to identify correlated gene patterns based on a subset of conditions do not effectively mine constant, coherent, or overlapping biclusters, partially because they perform poorly in the presence of noise. In this paper, we present a new methodology (BiEntropy) that combines information entropy and graph theory techniques to identify co-expressed gene patterns that are relevant to a subset of the sample. Our goal is to discover different types of biclusters in the presence of noise and to demonstrate the superiority of our method over existing methods in terms of discovering functionally enriched biclusters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method using both synthetic and real data.

  8. Surveying phylogenetic footprints in large gene clusters: applications to Hox cluster duplications.

    PubMed

    Prohaska, Sonja J; Fried, Claudia; Flamm, Christoph; Wagner, Günter P; Stadler, Peter F

    2004-05-01

    Evolutionarily conserved non-coding genomic sequences represent a potentially rich source for the discovery of gene regulatory regions. Since these elements are subject to stabilizing selection they evolve much more slowly than adjacent non-functional DNA. These so-called phylogenetic footprints can be detected by comparison of the sequences surrounding orthologous genes in different species. Therefore the loss of phylogenetic footprints as well as the acquisition of conserved non-coding sequences in some lineages, but not in others, can provide evidence for the evolutionary modification of cis-regulatory elements. We introduce here a statistical model of footprint evolution that allows us to estimate the loss of sequence conservation that can be attributed to gene loss and other structural reasons. This approach to studying the pattern of cis-regulatory element evolution, however, requires the comparison of relatively long sequences from many species. We have therefore developed an efficient software tool for the identification of corresponding footprints in long sequences from multiple species. We apply this novel method to the published sequences of HoxA clusters of shark, human, and the duplicated zebrafish and Takifugu clusters as well as the published HoxB cluster sequences. We find that there is a massive loss of sequence conservation in the intergenic region of the HoxA clusters, consistent with the finding in [Chiu et al., PNAS 99 (2002) 5492]. The loss of conservation after cluster duplication is more extensive than expected from structural reasons. This suggests that binding site turnover and/or adaptive modification may also contribute to the loss of sequence conservation. PMID:15062796

  9. Molecular genetics of the human MHC complement gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Yu, C Y

    1998-01-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complement gene cluster (MCGC) is a highly variable region that is characterized by polymorphisms, variations in gene size and gene number, and associations with diseases. Deficiencies in complement C2 are either due to abolition of C2 protein synthesis by mini-deletions that caused frameshift mutations, or blocked secretion of the C2 protein by single amino acid substitutions. One, two or three C4 genes may be present in a human MCGC haplotype and these genes may code for C4A, C4B, or both. Deficiencies of C4A or C4B proteins are attributed to the expression of identical C4 isotypes or allotypes from the C4 loci, the absence or deletion of a C4 gene, 2-bp insertion at exon 29 or 1-bp deletion at exon 20 that caused frameshift mutations. The C4 genes are either 21 or 14.6 kb in size due to the presence of endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(C4) in the intron 9 of long C4 genes. A deletion or duplication of a C4 gene is always accompanied by its neighboring genes, RP at the 5' region, and CYP21 and TNX at the 3' region. These four genes form a genetic unit termed the RCCX module. In an RCCX bimodular structure, the pseudogene CYP21A, and partially duplicated gene segments TNXA and RP2 are present between the two C4 loci. The RCCX modular variations in gene number and gene size contributed to unequal crossovers and exchanges of polymorphic sequences/mutations, resulting in the homogenization of C4 polymorphisms and acquisitions of deleterious mutations in RP1, C4A, C4B, CYP21B and TNXB genes. RD, SKI2W, DOM3Z and RP1 are the four novel genes found between Bf and C4. RD and Ski2w proteins may be related to RNA splicing, RNA turnover and regulation of translation. The functions of Dom3z and RP1 are being investigated. The complete genomic DNA sequence between C2 and TNX is now available. This should facilitate a complete documentation of polymorphisms, mutations and disease associations for the MCGC. PMID:10072631

  10. Two zebrafish alcohol dehydrogenases share common ancestry with mammalian class I, II, IV, and V alcohol dehydrogenase genes but have distinct functional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Mark J; Hahn, Mark E; Tanguay, Robert L

    2004-09-10

    Ethanol is teratogenic to many vertebrates. We are utilizing zebrafish as a model system to determine whether there is an association between ethanol metabolism and ethanol-mediated developmental toxicity. Here we report the isolation and characterization of two cDNAs encoding zebrafish alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). Phylogenetic analysis of these zebrafish ADHs indicates that they share a common ancestor with mammalian class I, II, IV, and V ADHs. The genes encoding these zebrafish ADHs have been named Adh8a and Adh8b by the nomenclature committee. Both genes were genetically mapped to chromosome 13. The 1450-bp Adh8a is 82, 73, 72, and 72% similar at the amino acid level to the Baltic cod ADH8 (previously named ADH1), the human ADH1B2, the mouse ADH1, and the rat ADH1, respectively. Also, the 1484-bp Adh8b is 77, 68, 67, and 66% similar at the amino acid level to the Baltic cod ADH8, the human ADH1B2, the mouse ADH1, and the rat ADH1, respectively. ADH8A and ADH8B share 86% amino acid similarity. To characterize the functional properties of ADH8A and ADH8B, recombinant proteins were purified from SF-9 insect cells. Kinetic studies demonstrate that ADH8A metabolizes ethanol, with a V(max) of 13.4 nmol/min/mg protein, whereas ADH8B does not metabolize ethanol. The ADH8A K(m) for ethanol as a substrate is 0.7 mm. 4-Methyl pyrazole, a classical competitive inhibitor of class I ADH, failed to inhibit ADH8A. ADH8B has the capacity to efficiently biotransform longer chain primary alcohols (>/=5 carbons) and S-hydroxymethlyglutathione, whereas ADH8A does not efficiently metabolize these substrates. Finally, mRNA expression studies indicate that both ADH8A and ADH8B mRNA are expressed during early development and in the adult brain, fin, gill, heart, kidney, muscle, and liver. Together these results indicate that class I-like ADH is conserved in zebrafish, albeit with mixed functional properties. PMID:15231826

  11. Cluster analysis of gene expression data based on self-splitting and merging competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuanhu; Liew, Alan Wee-Chung; Yan, Hong; Yang, Mengsu

    2004-03-01

    Cluster analysis of gene expression data from a cDNA microarray is useful for identifying biologically relevant groups of genes. However, finding the natural clusters in the data and estimating the correct number of clusters are still two largely unsolved problems. In this paper, we propose a new clustering framework that is able to address both these problems. By using the one-prototype-take-one-cluster (OPTOC) competitive learning paradigm, the proposed algorithm can find natural clusters in the input data, and the clustering solution is not sensitive to initialization. In order to estimate the number of distinct clusters in the data, we propose a cluster splitting and merging strategy. We have applied the new algorithm to simulated gene expression data for which the correct distribution of genes over clusters is known a priori. The results show that the proposed algorithm can find natural clusters and give the correct number of clusters. The algorithm has also been tested on real gene expression changes during yeast cell cycle, for which the fundamental patterns of gene expression and assignment of genes to clusters are well understood from numerous previous studies. Comparative studies with several clustering algorithms illustrate the effectiveness of our method. PMID:15055797

  12. Genetic organization of the Salmonella typhimurium ilv gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Blazey, D L; Burns, R O

    1979-01-01

    A number of Salmonella typhimurium ilv::Tn10 insertion strains were used to analyze the Salmonella ilv gene cluster. Tn10 generated ilv deletion mutants were employed in mapping experiments to conclusively define the gene order as ilvG-E-D-A-C. Examination of ilv enzyme levels confirms that the direction of transcription of ilvGEDA is from ilvG to ilvA. The major control locus, designated ilvO, is located before ilvG forming an ilvOGEDA transcriptional unit that is multivalently repressed by isoleucine, valine and leucine. Two internal promoters, one before ilvE and anonother before ilvD, are identified and are shown to provide repressed levels of the ilvE, D and A gene products. Possible regulation of transcription from these promoters in response to isoleucine limitation is discussed in terms of attenuation. PMID:395408

  13. Hox cluster polarity in early transcriptional availability: a high order regulatory level of clustered Hox genes in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Roelen, Bernard A J; de Graaff, Wim; Forlani, Sylvie; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2002-11-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying the 3' to 5' polarity of induction of mouse Hox genes is still elusive. While relief from a cluster-encompassing repression was shown to lead to all Hoxd genes being expressed like the 3'most of them, Hoxd1 (Kondo and Duboule, 1999), the molecular basis of initial activation of this 3'most gene, is not understood yet. We show that, already before primitive streak formation, prior to initial expression of the first Hox gene, a dramatic transcriptional stimulation of the 3'most genes, Hoxb1 and Hoxb2, is observed upon a short pulse of exogenous retinoic acid (RA), whereas it is not in the case for more 5', cluster-internal, RA-responsive Hoxb genes. In contrast, the RA-responding Hoxb1lacZ transgene that faithfully mimics the endogenous gene (Marshall et al., 1994) did not exhibit the sensitivity of Hoxb1 to precocious activation. We conclude that polarity in initial activation of Hoxb genes reflects a greater availability of 3'Hox genes for transcription, suggesting a pre-existing (susceptibility to) opening of the chromatin structure at the 3' extremity of the cluster. We discuss the data in the context of prevailing models involving differential chromatin opening in the directionality of clustered Hox gene transcription, and regarding the importance of the cluster context for correct timing of initial Hox gene expression.Interestingly, Cdx1 manifested the same early transcriptional availability as Hoxb1. PMID:12385756

  14. Discovery of a widely distributed toxin biosynthetic gene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shaun W.; Mitchell, Douglas A.; Markley, Andrew L.; Hensler, Mary E.; Gonzalez, David; Wohlrab, Aaron; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Nizet, Victor; Dixon, Jack E.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteriocins represent a large family of ribosomally produced peptide antibiotics. Here we describe the discovery of a widely conserved biosynthetic gene cluster for the synthesis of thiazole and oxazole heterocycles on ribosomally produced peptides. These clusters encode a toxin precursor and all necessary proteins for toxin maturation and export. Using the toxin precursor peptide and heterocycle-forming synthetase proteins from the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, we demonstrate the in vitro reconstitution of streptolysin S activity. We provide evidence that the synthetase enzymes, as predicted from our bioinformatics analysis, introduce heterocycles onto precursor peptides, thereby providing molecular insight into the chemical structure of streptolysin S. Furthermore, our studies reveal that the synthetase exhibits relaxed substrate specificity and modifies toxin precursors from both related and distant species. Given our findings, it is likely that the discovery of similar peptidic toxins will rapidly expand to existing and emerging genomes. PMID:18375757

  15. Molecular Characterization of Neurally Expressing Genes in the Para Sodium Channel Gene Cluster of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hong, C. S.; Ganetzky, B.

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. PMID:8849894

  16. Cloning and characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster for kutznerides

    PubMed Central

    Fujimori, Danica Galonić; Hrvatin, Siniša; Neumann, Christopher S.; Strieker, Matthias; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2007-01-01

    Kutznerides, actinomycete-derived cyclic depsipetides, consist of six nonproteinogenic residues, including a highly oxygenated tricyclic hexahydropyrroloindole, a chlorinated piperazic acid, 2-(1-methylcyclopropyl)-glycine, a β-branched-hydroxy acid, and 3-hydroxy glutamic acid, for which biosynthetic logic has not been elucidated. Herein we describe the biosynthetic gene cluster for the kutzneride family, identified by degenerate primer PCR for halogenating enzymes postulated to be involved in biosyntheses of these unusual monomers. The 56-kb gene cluster encodes a series of six nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) modules distributed over three proteins and a variety of tailoring enzymes, including both mononuclear nonheme iron and two flavin-dependent halogenases, and an array of oxygen transfer catalysts. The sequence and organization of NRPS genes support incorporation of the unusual monomer units into the densely functionalized scaffold of kutznerides. Our work provides insight into the formation of this intriguing class of compounds and provides a foundation for elucidating the timing and mechanisms of their biosynthesis. PMID:17940045

  17. Functional clustering of time series gene expression data by Granger causality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A common approach for time series gene expression data analysis includes the clustering of genes with similar expression patterns throughout time. Clustered gene expression profiles point to the joint contribution of groups of genes to a particular cellular process. However, since genes belong to intricate networks, other features, besides comparable expression patterns, should provide additional information for the identification of functionally similar genes. Results In this study we perform gene clustering through the identification of Granger causality between and within sets of time series gene expression data. Granger causality is based on the idea that the cause of an event cannot come after its consequence. Conclusions This kind of analysis can be used as a complementary approach for functional clustering, wherein genes would be clustered not solely based on their expression similarity but on their topological proximity built according to the intensity of Granger causality among them. PMID:23107425

  18. Evolutionary formation of gene clusters by reorganization: the meleagrin/roquefortine paradigm in different fungi.

    PubMed

    Martín, Juan F; Liras, Paloma

    2016-02-01

    The biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in fungi is catalyzed by enzymes encoded by genes linked in clusters that are frequently co-regulated at the transcriptional level. Formation of gene clusters may take place by de novo assembly of genes recruited from other cellular functions, but also novel gene clusters are formed by reorganization of progenitor clusters and are distributed by horizontal gene transfer. This article reviews (i) the published information on the roquefortine/meleagrin/neoxaline gene clusters of Penicillium chrysogenum (Penicillium rubens) and the short roquefortine cluster of Penicillium roqueforti, and (ii) the correlation of the genes present in those clusters with the enzymes and metabolites derived from these pathways. The P. chrysogenum roq/mel cluster consists of seven genes and includes a gene (roqT) encoding a 12-TMS transporter protein of the MFS family. Interestingly, the orthologous P. roquefortine gene cluster has only four genes and the roqT gene is present as a residual pseudogene that encodes only small peptides. Two of the genes present in the central region of the P. chrysogenum roq/mel cluster have been lost during the evolutionary formation of the short cluster and the order of the structural genes in the cluster has been rearranged. The two lost genes encode a N1 atom hydroxylase (nox) and a roquefortine scaffold-reorganizing oxygenase (sro). As a consequence P. roqueforti has lost the ability to convert the roquefortine-type carbon skeleton to the glandicoline/meleagrin-type scaffold and is unable to produce glandicoline B, meleagrin and neoxaline. The loss of this genetic information is not recent and occurred probably millions of years ago when a progenitor Penicillium strain got adapted to life in a few rich habitats such as cheese, fermented cereal grains or silage. P. roqueforti may be considered as a "domesticated" variant of a progenitor common to contemporary P. chrysogenum and related Penicillia. PMID:26668029

  19. Toward Awakening Cryptic Secondary Metabolite Gene Clusters in Filamentous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Fang Yun; Sanchez, James F.; Wang, Clay C.C.; Keller, Nancy P.

    2013-01-01

    Mining for novel natural compounds is of eminent importance owing to the continuous need for new pharmaceuticals. Filamentous fungi are historically known to harbor the genetic capacity for an arsenal of natural compounds, both beneficial and detrimental to humans. The majority of these metabolites are still cryptic or silent under standard laboratory culture conditions. Mining for these cryptic natural products can be an excellent source for identifying new compound classes. Capitalizing on the current knowledge on how secondary metabolite gene clusters are regulated has allowed the research community to unlock many hidden fungal treasures, as described in this chapter. PMID:23084945

  20. Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Bacteriocin Gene Clusters in Rumen Microbial Genomes.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Analice C; Bento, Cláudia B P; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; Queiroz, Marisa V; Mantovani, Hilário C

    2015-10-01

    Some species of ruminal bacteria are known to produce antimicrobial peptides, but the screening procedures have mostly been based on in vitro assays using standardized methods. Recent sequencing efforts have made available the genome sequences of hundreds of ruminal microorganisms. In this work, we performed genome mining of the complete and partial genome sequences of 224 ruminal bacteria and 5 ruminal archaea to determine the distribution and diversity of bacteriocin gene clusters. A total of 46 bacteriocin gene clusters were identified in 33 strains of ruminal bacteria. Twenty gene clusters were related to lanthipeptide biosynthesis, while 11 gene clusters were associated with sactipeptide production, 7 gene clusters were associated with class II bacteriocin production, and 8 gene clusters were associated with class III bacteriocin production. The frequency of strains whose genomes encode putative antimicrobial peptide precursors was 14.4%. Clusters related to the production of sactipeptides were identified for the first time among ruminal bacteria. BLAST analysis indicated that the majority of the gene clusters (88%) encoding putative lanthipeptides contained all the essential genes required for lanthipeptide biosynthesis. Most strains of Streptococcus (66.6%) harbored complete lanthipeptide gene clusters, in addition to an open reading frame encoding a putative class II bacteriocin. Albusin B-like proteins were found in 100% of the Ruminococcus albus strains screened in this study. The in silico analysis provided evidence of novel biosynthetic gene clusters in bacterial species not previously related to bacteriocin production, suggesting that the rumen microbiota represents an underexplored source of antimicrobial peptides. PMID:26253660

  1. Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Bacteriocin Gene Clusters in Rumen Microbial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Analice C.; Bento, Cláudia B. P.; Ruiz, Jeronimo C.; Queiroz, Marisa V.

    2015-01-01

    Some species of ruminal bacteria are known to produce antimicrobial peptides, but the screening procedures have mostly been based on in vitro assays using standardized methods. Recent sequencing efforts have made available the genome sequences of hundreds of ruminal microorganisms. In this work, we performed genome mining of the complete and partial genome sequences of 224 ruminal bacteria and 5 ruminal archaea to determine the distribution and diversity of bacteriocin gene clusters. A total of 46 bacteriocin gene clusters were identified in 33 strains of ruminal bacteria. Twenty gene clusters were related to lanthipeptide biosynthesis, while 11 gene clusters were associated with sactipeptide production, 7 gene clusters were associated with class II bacteriocin production, and 8 gene clusters were associated with class III bacteriocin production. The frequency of strains whose genomes encode putative antimicrobial peptide precursors was 14.4%. Clusters related to the production of sactipeptides were identified for the first time among ruminal bacteria. BLAST analysis indicated that the majority of the gene clusters (88%) encoding putative lanthipeptides contained all the essential genes required for lanthipeptide biosynthesis. Most strains of Streptococcus (66.6%) harbored complete lanthipeptide gene clusters, in addition to an open reading frame encoding a putative class II bacteriocin. Albusin B-like proteins were found in 100% of the Ruminococcus albus strains screened in this study. The in silico analysis provided evidence of novel biosynthetic gene clusters in bacterial species not previously related to bacteriocin production, suggesting that the rumen microbiota represents an underexplored source of antimicrobial peptides. PMID:26253660

  2. Improvement of tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hot-compressed water-treated cellulose by expression of ADH1.

    PubMed

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Horie, Kenta; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Hot-compressed water treatment of cellulose and hemicellulose for subsequent bioethanol production is a novel, economically feasible, and nonhazardous method for recovering sugars. However, the hot-compressed water-treated cellulose and hemicellulose inhibit subsequent ethanol fermentation by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To overcome this problem, we engineered a yeast strain with improved tolerance to hot-compressed water-treated cellulose. We first determined that glycolaldehyde has a greater inhibitory effect than 5-HMF and furfural and a combinational effect with them. On the basis of the hypothesis that the reduction of glycolaldehyde to ethylene glycol should detoxify glycolaldehyde, we developed a strain overexpressing the alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH1. The ADH1-overexpressing strain exhibits an improved fermentation profile in a glycolaldehyde-containing medium. The conversion ratio of glycolaldehyde to ethylene glycol is 30 ± 1.9% when the control strain is used; this ratio increases to 77 ± 3.6% in the case of the ADH1-overexpressing strain. A glycolaldehyde treatment and the overexpression of ADH1 cause changes in the fermentation products so as to balance the metabolic carbon flux and the redox status. Finally, the ADH1-overexpressing strain shows a statistically significantly improved fermentation profile in a hot-compressed water-treated cellulose-containing medium. The conversion ratio of glycolaldehyde to ethylene glycol is 33 ± 0.85% when the control strain is used but increases to 72 ± 1.7% in the case of the ADH1-overexpressing strain. These results show that the reduction of glycolaldehyde to ethylene glycol is a promising strategy to decrease the toxicity of hot-compressed water-treated cellulose. This is the first report on the improvement of yeast tolerance to hot-compressed water-treated cellulose and glycolaldehyde. PMID:22311646

  3. Gene prioritization and clustering by multi-view text mining

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Text mining has become a useful tool for biologists trying to understand the genetics of diseases. In particular, it can help identify the most interesting candidate genes for a disease for further experimental analysis. Many text mining approaches have been introduced, but the effect of disease-gene identification varies in different text mining models. Thus, the idea of incorporating more text mining models may be beneficial to obtain more refined and accurate knowledge. However, how to effectively combine these models still remains a challenging question in machine learning. In particular, it is a non-trivial issue to guarantee that the integrated model performs better than the best individual model. Results We present a multi-view approach to retrieve biomedical knowledge using different controlled vocabularies. These controlled vocabularies are selected on the basis of nine well-known bio-ontologies and are applied to index the vast amounts of gene-based free-text information available in the MEDLINE repository. The text mining result specified by a vocabulary is considered as a view and the obtained multiple views are integrated by multi-source learning algorithms. We investigate the effect of integration in two fundamental computational disease gene identification tasks: gene prioritization and gene clustering. The performance of the proposed approach is systematically evaluated and compared on real benchmark data sets. In both tasks, the multi-view approach demonstrates significantly better performance than other comparing methods. Conclusions In practical research, the relevance of specific vocabulary pertaining to the task is usually unknown. In such case, multi-view text mining is a superior and promising strategy for text-based disease gene identification. PMID:20074336

  4. Arrangement of the Clostridium baratii F7 Toxin Gene Cluster with Identification of a σ Factor That Recognizes the Botulinum Toxin Gene Cluster Promoters

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, Nir; Barash, Jason R.; Burke, Julianne N.; Hill, Karen K.; Detter, John C.; Arnon, Stephen S.

    2014-05-22

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most poisonous substances known and its eight toxin types (A to H) are distinguished by the inability of polyclonal antibodies that neutralize one toxin type to neutralize any of the other seven toxin types. Infant botulism, an intestinal toxemia orphan disease, is the most common form of human botulism in the United States. It results from swallowed spores of Clostridium botulinum (or rarely, neurotoxigenic Clostridium butyricum or Clostridium baratii) that germinate and temporarily colonize the lumen of the large intestine, where, as vegetative cells, they produce botulinum toxin. Botulinum neurotoxin is encoded by the bont gene that is part of a toxin gene cluster that includes several accessory genes. In this paper, we sequenced for the first time the complete botulinum neurotoxin gene cluster of nonproteolytic C. baratii type F7. Like the type E and the nonproteolytic type F6 botulinum toxin gene clusters, the C. baratii type F7 had an orfX toxin gene cluster that lacked the regulatory botR gene which is found in proteolytic C. botulinum strains and codes for an alternative σ factor. In the absence of botR, we identified a putative alternative regulatory gene located upstream of the C. baratii type F7 toxin gene cluster. This putative regulatory gene codes for a predicted σ factor that contains DNA-binding-domain homologues to the DNA-binding domains both of BotR and of other members of the TcdR-related group 5 of the σ70 family that are involved in the regulation of toxin gene expression in clostridia. We showed that this TcdR-related protein in association with RNA polymerase core enzyme specifically binds to the C. baratii type F7 botulinum toxin gene cluster promoters. Finally, this TcdR-related protein may therefore be involved in regulating the expression of the genes of the botulinum toxin gene cluster in neurotoxigenic C. baratii.

  5. Arrangement of the Clostridium baratii F7 Toxin Gene Cluster with Identification of a σ Factor That Recognizes the Botulinum Toxin Gene Cluster Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Dover, Nir; Barash, Jason R.; Burke, Julianne N.; Hill, Karen K.; Detter, John C.; Arnon, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most poisonous substances known and its eight toxin types (A to H) are distinguished by the inability of polyclonal antibodies that neutralize one toxin type to neutralize any of the other seven toxin types. Infant botulism, an intestinal toxemia orphan disease, is the most common form of human botulism in the United States. It results from swallowed spores of Clostridium botulinum (or rarely, neurotoxigenic Clostridium butyricum or Clostridium baratii) that germinate and temporarily colonize the lumen of the large intestine, where, as vegetative cells, they produce botulinum toxin. Botulinum neurotoxin is encoded by the bont gene that is part of a toxin gene cluster that includes several accessory genes. We sequenced for the first time the complete botulinum neurotoxin gene cluster of nonproteolytic C. baratii type F7. Like the type E and the nonproteolytic type F6 botulinum toxin gene clusters, the C. baratii type F7 had an orfX toxin gene cluster that lacked the regulatory botR gene which is found in proteolytic C. botulinum strains and codes for an alternative σ factor. In the absence of botR, we identified a putative alternative regulatory gene located upstream of the C. baratii type F7 toxin gene cluster. This putative regulatory gene codes for a predicted σ factor that contains DNA-binding-domain homologues to the DNA-binding domains both of BotR and of other members of the TcdR-related group 5 of the σ70 family that are involved in the regulation of toxin gene expression in clostridia. We showed that this TcdR-related protein in association with RNA polymerase core enzyme specifically binds to the C. baratii type F7 botulinum toxin gene cluster promoters. This TcdR-related protein may therefore be involved in regulating the expression of the genes of the botulinum toxin gene cluster in neurotoxigenic C. baratii. PMID:24853378

  6. A Single Gene Cluster for Chalcomycins and Aldgamycins: Genetic Basis for Bifurcation of Their Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Long; Dai, Ping; Gao, Hao; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Chen, Guo-Dong; Hong, Kui; Hu, Dan; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Aldgamycins are 16-membered macrolide antibiotics with a rare branched-chain sugar d-aldgarose or decarboxylated d-aldgarose at C-5. In our efforts to clone the gene cluster for aldgamycins from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. HK-2006-1 capable of producing both aldgamycins and chalcomycins, we found that both are biosynthesized from a single gene cluster. Whole-genome sequencing combined with gene disruption established the entire gene cluster of aldgamycins: nine new genes are incorporated with the previously identified chalcomycin gene cluster. Functional analysis of these genes revealed that almDI/almDII, (encoding α/β subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase) triggers the biosynthesis of aldgamycins, whereas almCI (encoding an oxidoreductase) initiates chalcomycins biosynthesis. This is the first report that aldgamycins and chalcomycins are derived from a single gene cluster and of the genetic basis for bifurcation in their biosynthesis. PMID:27191535

  7. Adh enhances Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity by binding to OR5M11 and activating p38 which induces apoptosis of PAMs and IL-8 release

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Chuntong; Zhang, Hu; Che, Yanyi; Sun, Changjiang; Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Richard, Paul Langford; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin (TAA) family play a crucial role in the adhesion of Gram-negative pathogens to host cells, but the immunopathogenesis of TAAs remains unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that Adh from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is required for full bacterial pathogenicity. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against respiratory infections. This study compared the interactions between porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae (5b WT) or an Adh-deletion strain (5b ΔAdh) via gene microarray, immunoprecipitation and other technologies. We found that Adh was shown to interact with the PAMs membrane protein OR5M11, an olfactory receptor, resulting in the high-level secretion of IL-8 by activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Subsequently, PAMs apoptosis via the activation of the Fax and Bax signaling pathways was observed, followed by activation of caspases 8, 9, and 3. The immunological pathogenic roles of Adh were also confirmed in both murine and piglets infectious models in vivo. These results identify a novel immunological strategy for TAAs to boost the pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae. Together, these datas reveal the high versatility of the Adh protein as a virulence factor and provide novel insight into the immunological pathogenic role of TAAs. PMID:27046446

  8. Parallel evolutionary events in the haptoglobin gene clusters of rhesus monkey and human

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, L.M.; Maeda, N.

    1994-08-01

    Parallel occurrences of evolutionary events in the haptoglobin gene clusters of rhesus monkeys and humans were studied. We found six different haplotypes among 11 individuals from two rhesus monkey families. The six haplotypes include two types of haptoglobin gene clusters: one type with a single gene and the other with two genes. DNA sequence analysis indicates that the one-gene and the two-gene clusters were both formed by unequal homologous crossovers between two genes of an ancestral three-gene cluster, near exon 5, the longest exon of the gene. This exon is also the location where a separate unequal homologous crossover occured in the human lineage, forming the human two-gene haptoglobin gene cluster from an ancestral three-gene cluster. The occurrence of independent homologous unequal crossovers in rhesus monkey and in human within the same region of DNA suggests that the evolutionary history of the haptoglobin gene cluster in primates is the consequence of frequent homologous pairings facilitated by the longest and most conserved exon of the gene. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Deletion analysis of the avermectin biosynthetic genes of Streptomyces avermitilis by gene cluster displacement.

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, T; Gewain, K M; MacNeil, D J

    1993-01-01

    Streptomyces avermitilis produces a group of glycosylated, methylated macrocyclic lactones, the avermectins, which have potent anthelmintic activity. A homologous recombination strategy termed gene cluster displacement was used to construct Neor deletion strains with defined endpoints and to clone the corresponding complementary DNA encoding functions for avermectin biosynthesis (avr). Thirty-five unique deletions of 0.5 to > 100 kb over a continuous 150-kb region were introduced into S. avermitilis. Analysis of the avermectin phenotypes of the deletion-containing strains defined the extent and ends of the 95-kb avr gene cluster, identified a regulatory region, and mapped several avr functions. A 60-kb region in the central portion determines the synthesis of the macrolide ring. A 13-kb region at one end of the cluster is responsible for synthesis and attachment of oleandrose disaccharide. A 10-kb region at the other end has functions for positive regulation and C-5 O methylation. Physical analysis of the deletions and of in vivo-cloned fragments refined a 130-kb physical map of the avr gene cluster region. Images PMID:8478321

  10. A metabolic gene cluster in Lotus japonicus discloses novel enzyme functions and products in triterpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Krokida, Afrodite; Delis, Costas; Geisler, Katrin; Garagounis, Constantine; Tsikou, Daniela; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M; Katsarou, Dimitra; Field, Ben; Osbourn, Anne E; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2013-11-01

    Genes for triterpene biosynthetic pathways exist as metabolic gene clusters in oat and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. We characterized the presence of an analogous gene cluster in the model legume Lotus japonicus. In the genomic regions flanking the oxidosqualene cyclase AMY2 gene, genes for two different classes of cytochrome P450 and a gene predicted to encode a reductase were identified. Functional characterization of the cluster genes was pursued by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The gene expression pattern was studied under different developmental and environmental conditions. The physiological role of the gene cluster in nodulation and plant development was studied in knockdown experiments. A novel triterpene structure, dihydrolupeol, was produced by AMY2. A new plant cytochrome P450, CYP71D353, which catalyses the formation of 20-hydroxybetulinic acid in a sequential three-step oxidation of 20-hydroxylupeol was characterized. The genes within the cluster are highly co-expressed during root and nodule development, in hormone-treated plants and under various environmental stresses. A transcriptional gene silencing mechanism that appears to be involved in the regulation of the cluster genes was also revealed. A tightly co-regulated cluster of functionally related genes is involved in legume triterpene biosynthesis, with a possible role in plant development. PMID:23909862

  11. Time-series clustering of gene expression in irradiated and bystander fibroblasts: an application of FBPA clustering

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The radiation bystander effect is an important component of the overall biological response of tissues and organisms to ionizing radiation, but the signaling mechanisms between irradiated and non-irradiated bystander cells are not fully understood. In this study, we measured a time-series of gene expression after α-particle irradiation and applied the Feature Based Partitioning around medoids Algorithm (FBPA), a new clustering method suitable for sparse time series, to identify signaling modules that act in concert in the response to direct irradiation and bystander signaling. We compared our results with those of an alternate clustering method, Short Time series Expression Miner (STEM). Results While computational evaluations of both clustering results were similar, FBPA provided more biological insight. After irradiation, gene clusters were enriched for signal transduction, cell cycle/cell death and inflammation/immunity processes; but only FBPA separated clusters by function. In bystanders, gene clusters were enriched for cell communication/motility, signal transduction and inflammation processes; but biological functions did not separate as clearly with either clustering method as they did in irradiated samples. Network analysis confirmed p53 and NF-κB transcription factor-regulated gene clusters in irradiated and bystander cells and suggested novel regulators, such as KDM5B/JARID1B (lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5B) and HDACs (histone deacetylases), which could epigenetically coordinate gene expression after irradiation. Conclusions In this study, we have shown that a new time series clustering method, FBPA, can provide new leads to the mechanisms regulating the dynamic cellular response to radiation. The findings implicate epigenetic control of gene expression in addition to transcription factor networks. PMID:21205307

  12. Deletion and Gene Expression Analyses Define the Paxilline Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Penicillium paxilli

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Barry; Young, Carolyn A.; Saikia, Sanjay; McMillan, Lisa K.; Monahan, Brendon J.; Koulman, Albert; Astin, Jonathan; Eaton, Carla J.; Bryant, Andrea; Wrenn, Ruth E.; Finch, Sarah C.; Tapper, Brian A.; Parker, Emily J.; Jameson, Geoffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    The indole-diterpene paxilline is an abundant secondary metabolite synthesized by Penicillium paxilli. In total, 21 genes have been identified at the PAX locus of which six have been previously confirmed to have a functional role in paxilline biosynthesis. A combination of bioinformatics, gene expression and targeted gene replacement analyses were used to define the boundaries of the PAX gene cluster. Targeted gene replacement identified seven genes, paxG, paxA, paxM, paxB, paxC, paxP and paxQ that were all required for paxilline production, with one additional gene, paxD, required for regular prenylation of the indole ring post paxilline synthesis. The two putative transcription factors, PP104 and PP105, were not co-regulated with the pax genes and based on targeted gene replacement, including the double knockout, did not have a role in paxilline production. The relationship of indole dimethylallyl transferases involved in prenylation of indole-diterpenes such as paxilline or lolitrem B, can be found as two disparate clades, not supported by prenylation type (e.g., regular or reverse). This paper provides insight into the P. paxilli indole-diterpene locus and reviews the recent advances identified in paxilline biosynthesis. PMID:23949005

  13. Use of Semisupervised Clustering and Feature-Selection Techniques for Identification of Co-expressed Genes.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sriparna; Alok, Abhay Kumar; Ekbal, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Studying the patterns hidden in gene-expression data helps to understand the functionality of genes. In general, clustering techniques are widely used for the identification of natural partitionings from the gene expression data. In order to put constraints on dimensionality, feature selection is the key issue because not all features are important from clustering point of view. Moreover some limited amount of supervised information can help to fine tune the obtained clustering solution. In this paper, the problem of simultaneous feature selection and semisupervised clustering is formulated as a multiobjective optimization (MOO) task. A modern simulated annealing-based MOO technique namely AMOSA is utilized as the background optimization methodology. Here, features and cluster centers are represented in the form of a string and the assignment of genes to different clusters is done using a point symmetry-based distance. Six optimization criteria based on several internal and external cluster validity indices are utilized. In order to generate the supervised information, a popular clustering technique, Fuzzy C-mean, is utilized. Appropriate subset of features, proper number of clusters and the proper partitioning are determined using the search capability of AMOSA. The effectiveness of this proposed semisupervised clustering technique, Semi-FeaClustMOO, is demonstrated on five publicly available benchmark gene-expression datasets. Comparison results with the existing techniques for gene-expression data clustering again reveal the superiority of the proposed technique. Statistical and biological significance tests have also been carried out. PMID:26208367

  14. Comparative Analysis of Cluster Validity Indices in Identifying Some Possible Genes Mediating Certain Cancers.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anupam; Dhara, Bibhas Chandra; De, Rajat K

    2013-04-01

    In this article, we compare the performance of 19 cluster validity indices, in identifying some possible genes mediating certain cancers, based on gene expression data. For the purpose of this comparison, we have developed a method. The proposed method involves cluster generation, selection of the best k-value or c-values, cluster identification, identifying the altered gene cluster, scoring an altered gene cluster and determining the best k-value or c-value exploring through biological repositories. The effectiveness of the method has been demonstrated on three gene expression data sets dealing with human lung cancer, colon cancer, and leukemia. Here, we have used three clustering algorithms, i.e., k-means, PAM and fuzzy c-means. We have used biochemical pathways related to these cancers and p-value statistics for validating the study. PMID:27481591

  15. A Special Local Clustering Algorithm for Identifying the Genes Associated With Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Chao-Yang; Hu, Wei; Hu, Ben-Qiong; Shi, Ying; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Rogers, Jack T.

    2010-01-01

    Clustering is the grouping of similar objects into a class. Local clustering feature refers to the phenomenon whereby one group of data is separated from another, and the data from these different groups are clustered locally. A compact class is defined as one cluster in which all similar elements cluster tightly within the cluster. Herein, the essence of the local clustering feature, revealed by mathematical manipulation, results in a novel clustering algorithm termed as the special local clustering (SLC) algorithm that was used to process gene microarray data related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). SLC algorithm was able to group together genes with similar expression patterns and identify significantly varied gene expression values as isolated points. If a gene belongs to a compact class in control data and appears as an isolated point in incipient, moderate and/or severe AD gene microarray data, this gene is possibly associated with AD. Application of a clustering algorithm in disease-associated gene identification such as in AD is rarely reported. PMID:20089478

  16. Elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) provides insights into the evolution of Hox gene clusters in gnathostomes.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Vydianathan; Lam, Kevin; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tay, Alice; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2009-09-22

    We have sequenced and analyzed Hox gene clusters from elephant shark, a holocephalian cartilaginous fish. Elephant shark possesses 4 Hox clusters with 45 Hox genes that include orthologs for a higher number of ancient gnathostome Hox genes than the 4 clusters in tetrapods and the supernumerary clusters in teleost fishes. Phylogenetic analysis of elephant shark Hox genes from 7 paralogous groups that contain all of the 4 members indicated an ((AB)(CD)) topology for the order of Hox cluster duplication, providing support for the 2R hypothesis (i.e., 2 rounds of whole-genome duplication during the early evolution of vertebrates). Comparisons of noncoding sequences of the elephant shark and human Hox clusters have identified a large number of conserved noncoding elements (CNEs), which represent putative cis-regulatory elements that may be involved in the regulation of Hox genes. Interestingly, in fugu more than 50% of these ancient CNEs have diverged beyond recognition in the duplicated (HoxA, HoxB, and HoxD) as well as the singleton (HoxC) Hox clusters. Furthermore, the b-paralogs of the duplicated fugu Hox clusters are virtually devoid of unique ancient CNEs. In contrast to fugu Hox clusters, elephant shark and human Hox clusters have lost fewer ancient CNEs. If these ancient CNEs are indeed enhancers directing tissue-specific expression of Hox genes, divergence of their sequences in vertebrate lineages might have led to altered expression patterns and presumably the functions of their associated Hox genes. PMID:19805301

  17. An Ergot Alkaloid Biosynthesis Gene and Clustered Hypothetical Genes from Aspergillus fumigatus†

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Christine M.; Panaccione, Daniel G.

    2005-01-01

    The ergot alkaloids are a family of indole-derived mycotoxins with a variety of significant biological activities. Aspergillus fumigatus, a common airborne fungus and opportunistic human pathogen, and several fungi in the relatively distant taxon Clavicipitaceae (clavicipitaceous fungi) produce different sets of ergot alkaloids. The ergot alkaloids of these divergent fungi share a four-member ergoline ring but differ in the number, type, and position of the side chains. Several genes required for ergot alkaloid production are known in the clavicipitaceous fungi, and these genes are clustered in the genome of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. We investigated whether the ergot alkaloids of A. fumigatus have a common biosynthetic and genetic origin with those of the clavicipitaceous fungi. A homolog of dmaW, the gene controlling the determinant step in the ergot alkaloid pathway of clavicipitaceous fungi, was identified in the A. fumigatus genome. Knockout of dmaW eliminated all known ergot alkaloids from A. fumigatus, and complementation of the mutation restored ergot alkaloid production. Clustered with dmaW in the A. fumigatus genome are sequences corresponding to five genes previously proposed to encode steps in the ergot alkaloid pathway of C. purpurea, as well as additional sequences whose deduced protein products are consistent with their involvement in the ergot alkaloid pathway. The corresponding genes have similarities in their nucleotide sequences, but the orientations and positions within the cluster of several of these genes differ. The data indicate that the ergot alkaloid biosynthetic capabilities in A. fumigatus and the clavicipitaceous fungi had a common origin. PMID:15933009

  18. High presence/absence gene variability in defense-related gene clusters of Cucumis melo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Changes in the copy number of DNA sequences are one of the main mechanisms generating genome variability in eukaryotes. These changes are often related to phenotypic effects such as genetic disorders or novel pathogen resistance. The increasing availability of genome sequences through the application of next-generation massive sequencing technologies has allowed the study of genomic polymorphisms at both the interspecific and intraspecific levels, thus helping to understand how species adapt to changing environments through genome variability. Results Data on gene presence/absence variation (PAV) in melon was obtained by resequencing a cultivated accession and an old-relative melon variety, and using previously obtained resequencing data from three other melon cultivars, among them DHL92, on which the current draft melon genome sequence is based. A total of 1,697 PAV events were detected, involving 4.4% of the predicted melon gene complement. In all, an average 1.5% of genes were absent from each analyzed cultivar as compared to the DHL92 reference genome. The most populated functional category among the 304 PAV genes of known function was that of stress response proteins (30% of all classified PAVs). Our results suggest that genes from multi-copy families are five times more likely to be affected by PAV than singleton genes. Also, the chance of genes present in the genome in tandem arrays being affected by PAV is double that of isolated genes, with PAV genes tending to be in longer clusters. The highest concentration of PAV events detected in the melon genome was found in a 1.1 Mb region of linkage group V, which also shows the highest density of melon stress-response genes. In particular, this region contains the longest continuous gene-containing PAV sequence so far identified in melon. Conclusions The first genome-wide report of PAV variation among several melon cultivars is presented here. Multi-copy and clustered genes, especially those with

  19. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Nocardithiocin Gene Cluster in Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kanae; Komaki, Hisayuki; Gonoi, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Nocardithiocin is a thiopeptide compound isolated from the opportunistic pathogen Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis. It shows a strong activity against acid-fast bacteria and is also active against rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we report the identification of the nocardithiocin gene cluster in N. pseudobrasiliensis IFM 0761 based on conserved thiopeptide biosynthesis gene sequence and the whole genome sequence. The predicted gene cluster was confirmed by gene disruption and complementation. As expected, strains containing the disrupted gene did not produce nocardithiocin while gene complementation restored nocardithiocin production in these strains. The predicted cluster was further analyzed using RNA-seq which showed that the nocardithiocin gene cluster contains 12 genes within a 15.2-kb region. This finding will promote the improvement of nocardithiocin productivity and its derivatives production. PMID:26588225

  20. Translating biosynthetic gene clusters into fungal armor and weaponry

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Nancy P

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are renowned for the production of a diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) where the genetic material required for synthesis of a SM is typically arrayed in a biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC). These natural products are valued for their bioactive properties stemming from their functions in fungal biology, key among those protection from abiotic and biotic stress and establishment of a secure niche. The producing fungus must not only avoid self-harm from endogenous SMs but also deliver specific SMs at the right time to the right tissue requiring biochemical aid. This review highlights functions of BGCs beyond the enzymatic assembly of SMs, considering the timing and location of SM production and other proteins in the clusters that control SM activity. Specifically, self-protection is provided by both BGC-encoded mechanisms and non-BGC subcellular containment of toxic SM precursors; delivery and timing is orchestrated through cellular trafficking patterns and stress- and developmental-responsive transcriptional programs. PMID:26284674

  1. An exploration of the sequence of a 2.9-Mb region of the genome of Drosophila melanogaster: the Adh region.

    PubMed Central

    Ashburner, M; Misra, S; Roote, J; Lewis, S E; Blazej, R; Davis, T; Doyle, C; Galle, R; George, R; Harris, N; Hartzell, G; Harvey, D; Hong, L; Houston, K; Hoskins, R; Johnson, G; Martin, C; Moshrefi, A; Palazzolo, M; Reese, M G; Spradling, A; Tsang, G; Wan, K; Whitelaw, K; Celniker, S

    1999-01-01

    A contiguous sequence of nearly 3 Mb from the genome of Drosophila melanogaster has been sequenced from a series of overlapping P1 and BAC clones. This region covers 69 chromosome polytene bands on chromosome arm 2L, including the genetically well-characterized "Adh region." A computational analysis of the sequence predicts 218 protein-coding genes, 11 tRNAs, and 17 transposable element sequences. At least 38 of the protein-coding genes are arranged in clusters of from 2 to 6 closely related genes, suggesting extensive tandem duplication. The gene density is one protein-coding gene every 13 kb; the transposable element density is one element every 171 kb. Of 73 genes in this region identified by genetic analysis, 49 have been located on the sequence; P-element insertions have been mapped to 43 genes. Ninety-five (44%) of the known and predicted genes match a Drosophila EST, and 144 (66%) have clear similarities to proteins in other organisms. Genes known to have mutant phenotypes are more likely to be represented in cDNA libraries, and far more likely to have products similar to proteins of other organisms, than are genes with no known mutant phenotype. Over 650 chromosome aberration breakpoints map to this chromosome region, and their nonrandom distribution on the genetic map reflects variation in gene spacing on the DNA. This is the first large-scale analysis of the genome of D. melanogaster at the sequence level. In addition to the direct results obtained, this analysis has allowed us to develop and test methods that will be needed to interpret the complete sequence of the genome of this species.Before beginning a Hunt, it is wise to ask someone what you are looking for before you begin looking for it. Milne 1926 PMID:10471707

  2. DoBISCUIT: a database of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Natsuko; Sasagawa, Machi; Yamamoto, Mika; Komaki, Hisayuki; Yoshida, Yumi; Yamazaki, Shuji; Fujita, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces DoBISCUIT (Database of BIoSynthesis clusters CUrated and InTegrated, http://www.bio.nite.go.jp/pks/), a literature-based, manually curated database of gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Bacterial secondary metabolites often show pharmacologically important activities and can serve as lead compounds and/or candidates for drug development. Biosynthesis of each secondary metabolite is catalyzed by a number of enzymes, usually encoded by a gene cluster. Although many scientific papers describe such gene clusters, the gene information is not always described in a comprehensive manner and the related information is rarely integrated. DoBISCUIT integrates the latest literature information and provides standardized gene/module/domain descriptions related to the gene clusters. PMID:23185043

  3. Challenges in microarray class discovery: a comprehensive examination of normalization, gene selection and clustering

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cluster analysis, and in particular hierarchical clustering, is widely used to extract information from gene expression data. The aim is to discover new classes, or sub-classes, of either individuals or genes. Performing a cluster analysis commonly involve decisions on how to; handle missing values, standardize the data and select genes. In addition, pre-processing, involving various types of filtration and normalization procedures, can have an effect on the ability to discover biologically relevant classes. Here we consider cluster analysis in a broad sense and perform a comprehensive evaluation that covers several aspects of cluster analyses, including normalization. Result We evaluated 2780 cluster analysis methods on seven publicly available 2-channel microarray data sets with common reference designs. Each cluster analysis method differed in data normalization (5 normalizations were considered), missing value imputation (2), standardization of data (2), gene selection (19) or clustering method (11). The cluster analyses are evaluated using known classes, such as cancer types, and the adjusted Rand index. The performances of the different analyses vary between the data sets and it is difficult to give general recommendations. However, normalization, gene selection and clustering method are all variables that have a significant impact on the performance. In particular, gene selection is important and it is generally necessary to include a relatively large number of genes in order to get good performance. Selecting genes with high standard deviation or using principal component analysis are shown to be the preferred gene selection methods. Hierarchical clustering using Ward's method, k-means clustering and Mclust are the clustering methods considered in this paper that achieves the highest adjusted Rand. Normalization can have a significant positive impact on the ability to cluster individuals, and there are indications that background correction is

  4. A tripartite clustering analysis on microRNA, gene and disease model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chengcheng; Liu, Ying

    2012-02-01

    Alteration of gene expression in response to regulatory molecules or mutations could lead to different diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered to be involved in regulation of gene expression and a wide variety of diseases. In a tripartite biological network of human miRNAs, their predicted target genes and the diseases caused by altered expressions of these genes, valuable knowledge about the pathogenicity of miRNAs, involved genes and related disease classes can be revealed by co-clustering miRNAs, target genes and diseases simultaneously. Tripartite co-clustering can lead to more informative results than traditional co-clustering with only two kinds of members and pass the hidden relational information along the relation chain by considering multi-type members. Here we report a spectral co-clustering algorithm for k-partite graph to find clusters with heterogeneous members. We use the method to explore the potential relationships among miRNAs, genes and diseases. The clusters obtained from the algorithm have significantly higher density than randomly selected clusters, which means members in the same cluster are more likely to have common connections. Results also show that miRNAs in the same family based on the hairpin sequences tend to belong to the same cluster. We also validate the clustering results by checking the correlation of enriched gene functions and disease classes in the same cluster. Finally, widely studied miR-17-92 and its paralogs are analyzed as a case study to reveal that genes and diseases co-clustered with the miRNAs are in accordance with current research findings. PMID:22809308

  5. A Cluster of Cuticle Protein Genes of Drosophila Melanogaster at 65a: Sequence, Structure and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Charles, J. P.; Chihara, C.; Nejad, S.; Riddiford, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    A 36-kb genomic DNA segment of the Drosophila melanogaster genome containing 12 clustered cuticle genes has been mapped and partially sequenced. The cluster maps at 65A 5-6 on the left arm of the third chromosome, in agreement with the previously determined location of a putative cluster encompassing the genes for the third instar larval cuticle proteins LCP5, LCP6 and LCP8. This cluster is the largest cuticle gene cluster discovered to date and shows a number of surprising features that explain in part the genetic complexity of the LCP5, LCP6 and LCP8 loci. The genes encoding LCP5 and LCP8 are multiple copy genes and the presence of extensive similarity in their coding regions gives the first evidence for gene conversion in cuticle genes. In addition, five genes in the cluster are intronless. Four of these five have arisen by retroposition. The other genes in the cluster have a single intron located at an unusual location for insect cuticle genes. PMID:9383064

  6. Functional gene clustering via gene annotation sentences, MeSH and GO keywords from biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Jeyakumar; Ganapathy, Jawahar

    2007-01-01

    Gene function annotation remains a key challenge in modern biology. This is especially true for high-throughput techniques such as gene expression experiments. Vital information about genes is available electronically from biomedical literature in the form of full texts and abstracts. In addition, various publicly available databases (such as GenBank, Gene Ontology and Entrez) provide access to gene-related information at different levels of biological organization, granularity and data format. This information is being used to assess and interpret the results from high-throughput experiments. To improve keyword extraction for annotational clustering and other types of analyses, we have developed a novel text mining approach, which is based on keywords identified at the level of gene annotation sentences (in particular sentences characterizing biological function) instead of entire abstracts. Further, to improve the expressiveness and usefulness of gene annotation terms, we investigated the combination of sentence-level keywords with terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Gene Ontology (GO) resources. We find that sentence-level keywords combined with MeSH terms outperforms the typical ‘baseline’ set-up (term frequencies at the level of abstracts) by a significant margin, whereas the addition of GO terms improves matters only marginally. We validated our approach on the basis of a manually annotated corpus of 200 abstracts generated on the basis of 2 cancer categories and 10 genes per category. We applied the method in the context of three sets of differentially expressed genes obtained from pediatric brain tumor samples. This analysis suggests novel interpretations of discovered gene expression patterns. PMID:18305827

  7. Base J represses genes at the end of polycistronic gene clusters in Leishmania major by promoting RNAP II termination.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, David L; Hofmeister, Brigitte T; Cliffe, Laura; Siegel, T Nicolai; Anderson, Britta A; Beverley, Stephen M; Schmitz, Robert J; Sabatini, Robert

    2016-08-01

    The genomes of kinetoplastids are organized into polycistronic gene clusters that are flanked by the modified DNA base J. Previous work has established a role of base J in promoting RNA polymerase II termination in Leishmania spp. where the loss of J leads to termination defects and transcription into adjacent gene clusters. It remains unclear whether these termination defects affect gene expression and whether read through transcription is detrimental to cell growth, thus explaining the essential nature of J. We now demonstrate that reduction of base J at specific sites within polycistronic gene clusters in L. major leads to read through transcription and increased expression of downstream genes in the cluster. Interestingly, subsequent transcription into the opposing polycistronic gene cluster does not lead to downregulation of sense mRNAs. These findings indicate a conserved role for J regulating transcription termination and expression of genes within polycistronic gene clusters in trypanosomatids. In contrast to the expectations often attributed to opposing transcription, the essential nature of J in Leishmania spp. is related to its role in gene repression rather than preventing transcriptional interference resulting from read through and dual strand transcription. PMID:27125778

  8. Paerucumarin, a new metabolite produced by the pvc gene cluster from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Clarke-Pearson, Michael F; Brady, Sean F

    2008-10-01

    The pvc gene cluster from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been linked to the biosynthesis of both the pyoverdine chromophore and pseudoverdine. Our reinvestigation of the role this gene cluster plays in P. aeruginosa secondary metabolite biosynthesis shows that its major product is actually paerucumarin, a novel isonitrile functionalized cumarin. PMID:18689486

  9. Paerucumarin, a New Metabolite Produced by the pvc Gene Cluster from Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Clarke-Pearson, Michael F.; Brady, Sean F.

    2008-01-01

    The pvc gene cluster from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been linked to the biosynthesis of both the pyoverdine chromophore and pseudoverdine. Our reinvestigation of the role this gene cluster plays in P. aeruginosa secondary metabolite biosynthesis shows that its major product is actually paerucumarin, a novel isonitrile functionalized cumarin. PMID:18689486

  10. Conservation of Hox gene clusters in the self-fertilizing fish Kryptolebias marmoratus (Cyprinodontiformes; Rivulidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, B-M; Lee, B-Y; Lee, J-H; Rhee, J-S; Lee, J-S

    2016-03-01

    In this study, whole Hox gene clusters in the self-fertilizing mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus (Cyprinodontiformes; Rivulidae), a unique hermaphroditic vertebrate in which both sex organs are functional at the same time, were identified from whole genome and transcriptome sequences. The aim was to increase the understanding of the evolutionary status of conservation of this Hox gene cluster across fish species. PMID:26822496

  11. A hypothesis to explain how laeA specifically regulates certain secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosynthesis of mycotoxins involves transcriptional co-regulation of sets of clustered genes. We hypothesize that specific control of transcription of genes in these clusters by LaeA, a global regulator of secondary metabolite production and development in aspergilli and other filamentous fungi, re...

  12. A phylogenomic gene cluster resource: The phylogeneticallyinferred groups (PhlGs) database

    SciTech Connect

    Dehal, Paramvir S.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-08-25

    We present here the PhIGs database, a phylogenomic resource for sequenced genomes. Although many methods exist for clustering gene families, very few attempt to create truly orthologous clusters sharing descent from a single ancestral gene across a range of evolutionary depths. Although these non-phylogenetic gene family clusters have been used broadly for gene annotation, errors are known to be introduced by the artifactual association of slowly evolving paralogs and lack of annotation for those more rapidly evolving. A full phylogenetic framework is necessary for accurate inference of function and for many studies that address pattern and mechanism of the evolution of the genome. The automated generation of evolutionary gene clusters, creation of gene trees, determination of orthology and paralogy relationships, and the correlation of this information with gene annotations, expression information, and genomic context is an important resource to the scientific community.

  13. Identification and analysis of a highly conserved chemotaxis gene cluster in Shewanella species.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Romine, Margaret F.; Ward, M.

    2007-08-01

    A conserved cluster of chemotaxis genes was identified from the genome sequences of fifteen Shewanella species. An in-frame deletion of the cheA-3 gene, which is located in this cluster, was created in S. oneidensis MR-1 and the gene shown to be essential for chemotactic responses to anaerobic electron acceptors. The CheA-3 protein showed strong similarity to Vibrio cholerae CheA-2 and P. aeruginosa CheA-1, two proteins that are also essential for chemotaxis. The genes encoding these proteins were shown to be located in chemotaxis gene clusters closely related to the cheA-3-containing cluster in Shewanella species. The results of this study suggest that a combination of gene neighborhood and homology analyses may be used to predict which cheA genes are essential for chemotaxis in groups of closely related microorganisms.

  14. The tryptophanase gene cluster of Haemophilus influenzae type b: evidence for horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Martin, K; Morlin, G; Smith, A; Nordyke, A; Eisenstark, A; Golomb, M

    1998-01-01

    Among strains of Haemophilus influenzae, the ability to catabolize tryptophan (as detected by indole production) varies and is correlated with pathogenicity. Tryptophan catabolism is widespread (70 to 75%) among harmless respiratory isolates but is nearly universal (94 to 100%) among strains causing serious disease, including meningitis. As a first step in investigating the relationship between tryptophan catabolism and virulence, we have identified genes in pathogenic H. influenzae which are homologous to the tryptophanase (tna) operon of Escherichia coli. The tna genes are located on a 3.1-kb fragment between nlpD and mutS in the H. influenzae type b (Eagan) genome, are flanked by 43-bp direct repeats of an uptake signal sequence downstream from nlpD, and appear to have been inserted as a mobile unit within this sequence. The organization of this insertion is reminiscent of pathogenicity islands. The tna cluster is found at the same map location in all indole-positive strains of H. influenzae surveyed and is absent from reference type d and e genomes. In contrast to H. influenzae, most other Haemophilus species lack tna genes. Phylogenetic comparisons suggest that the tna cluster was acquired by intergeneric lateral transfer, either by H. influenzae or a recent ancestor, and that E. coli may have acquired its tnaA gene from a related source. Genomes of virulent H. influenzae resemble those of pathogenic enterics in having an island of laterally transferred DNA next to mutS. PMID:9422600

  15. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Diterpene Gene Cluster in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Bromann, Kirsi; Toivari, Mervi; Viljanen, Kaarina; Vuoristo, Anu; Ruohonen, Laura; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina

    2012-01-01

    Fungal secondary metabolites are a rich source of medically useful compounds due to their pharmaceutical and toxic properties. Sequencing of fungal genomes has revealed numerous secondary metabolite gene clusters, yet products of many of these biosynthetic pathways are unknown since the expression of the clustered genes usually remains silent in normal laboratory conditions. Therefore, to discover new metabolites, it is important to find ways to induce the expression of genes in these otherwise silent biosynthetic clusters. We discovered a novel secondary metabolite in Aspergillus nidulans by predicting a biosynthetic gene cluster with genomic mining. A Zn(II)2Cys6–type transcription factor, PbcR, was identified, and its role as a pathway-specific activator for the predicted gene cluster was demonstrated. Overexpression of pbcR upregulated the transcription of seven genes in the identified cluster and led to the production of a diterpene compound, which was characterized with GC/MS as ent-pimara-8(14),15-diene. A change in morphology was also observed in the strains overexpressing pbcR. The activation of a cryptic gene cluster by overexpression of its putative Zn(II)2Cys6–type transcription factor led to discovery of a novel secondary metabolite in Aspergillus nidulans. Quantitative real-time PCR and DNA array analysis allowed us to predict the borders of the biosynthetic gene cluster. Furthermore, we identified a novel fungal pimaradiene cyclase gene as well as genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and a geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) synthase. None of these genes have been previously implicated in the biosynthesis of terpenes in Aspergillus nidulans. These results identify the first Aspergillus nidulans diterpene gene cluster and suggest a biosynthetic pathway for ent-pimara-8(14),15-diene. PMID:22506079

  16. A modified recombineering protocol for the genetic manipulation of gene clusters in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Cairns, Timothy; Lopez, Jordi F; Zonja, Bozo; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Bowyer, Paul; Bignell, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Genomic analyses of fungal genome structure have revealed the presence of physically-linked groups of genes, termed gene clusters, where collective functionality of encoded gene products serves a common biosynthetic purpose. In multiple fungal pathogens of humans and plants gene clusters have been shown to encode pathways for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites including metabolites required for pathogenicity. In the major mould pathogen of humans Aspergillus fumigatus, multiple clusters of co-ordinately upregulated genes were identified as having heightened transcript abundances, relative to laboratory cultured equivalents, during the early stages of murine infection. The aim of this study was to develop and optimise a methodology for manipulation of gene cluster architecture, thereby providing the means to assess their relevance to fungal pathogenicity. To this end we adapted a recombineering methodology which exploits lambda phage-mediated recombination of DNA in bacteria, for the generation of gene cluster deletion cassettes. By exploiting a pre-existing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of A. fumigatus genomic clones we were able to implement single or multiple intra-cluster gene replacement events at both subtelomeric and telomere distal chromosomal locations, in both wild type and highly recombinogenic A. fumigatus isolates. We then applied the methodology to address the boundaries of a gene cluster producing a nematocidal secondary metabolite, pseurotin A, and to address the role of this secondary metabolite in insect and mammalian responses to A. fumigatus challenge. PMID:25372385

  17. An effective fuzzy kernel clustering analysis approach for gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Xu, Jiucheng; Yin, Jiaojiao

    2015-01-01

    Fuzzy clustering is an important tool for analyzing microarray data. A major problem in applying fuzzy clustering method to microarray gene expression data is the choice of parameters with cluster number and centers. This paper proposes a new approach to fuzzy kernel clustering analysis (FKCA) that identifies desired cluster number and obtains more steady results for gene expression data. First of all, to optimize characteristic differences and estimate optimal cluster number, Gaussian kernel function is introduced to improve spectrum analysis method (SAM). By combining subtractive clustering with max-min distance mean, maximum distance method (MDM) is proposed to determine cluster centers. Then, the corresponding steps of improved SAM (ISAM) and MDM are given respectively, whose superiority and stability are illustrated through performing experimental comparisons on gene expression data. Finally, by introducing ISAM and MDM into FKCA, an effective improved FKCA algorithm is proposed. Experimental results from public gene expression data and UCI database show that the proposed algorithms are feasible for cluster analysis, and the clustering accuracy is higher than the other related clustering algorithms. PMID:26405958

  18. Genes for iron-sulphur cluster assembly are targets of abiotic stress in rice, Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xuejiao; Qin, Lu; Liu, Peiwei; Wang, Meihuan; Ye, Hong

    2014-03-01

    Iron-sulphur (Fe-S) cluster assembly occurs in chloroplasts, mitochondria and cytosol, involving dozens of genes in higher plants. In this study, we have identified 41 putative Fe-S cluster assembly genes in rice (Oryza sativa) genome, and the expression of all genes was verified. To investigate the role of Fe-S cluster assembly as a metabolic pathway, we applied abiotic stresses to rice seedlings and analysed Fe-S cluster assembly gene expression by qRT-PCR. Our data showed that genes for Fe-S cluster assembly in chloroplasts of leaves are particularly sensitive to heavy metal treatments, and that Fe-S cluster assembly genes in roots were up-regulated in response to iron toxicity, oxidative stress and some heavy metal assault. The effect of each stress treatment on the Fe-S cluster assembly machinery demonstrated an unexpected tissue or organelle specificity, suggesting that the physiological relevance of the Fe-S cluster assembly is more complex than thought. Furthermore, our results may reveal potential candidate genes for molecular breeding of rice. PMID:24028141

  19. A recently transferred cluster of bacterial genes in Trichomonas vaginalis - lateral gene transfer and the fate of acquired genes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) has recently gained recognition as an important contributor to some eukaryote proteomes, but the mechanisms of acquisition and fixation in eukaryotic genomes are still uncertain. A previously defined norm for LGTs in microbial eukaryotes states that the majority are genes involved in metabolism, the LGTs are typically localized one by one, surrounded by vertically inherited genes on the chromosome, and phylogenetics shows that a broad collection of bacterial lineages have contributed to the transferome. Results A unique 34 kbp long fragment with 27 clustered genes (TvLF) of prokaryote origin was identified in the sequenced genome of the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Using a PCR based approach we confirmed the presence of the orthologous fragment in four additional T. vaginalis strains. Detailed sequence analyses unambiguously suggest that TvLF is the result of one single, recent LGT event. The proposed donor is a close relative to the firmicute bacterium Peptoniphilus harei. High nucleotide sequence similarity between T. vaginalis strains, as well as to P. harei, and the absence of homologs in other Trichomonas species, suggests that the transfer event took place after the radiation of the genus Trichomonas. Some genes have undergone pseudogenization and degradation, indicating that they may not be retained in the future. Functional annotations reveal that genes involved in informational processes are particularly prone to degradation. Conclusions We conclude that, although the majority of eukaryote LGTs are single gene occurrences, they may be acquired in clusters of several genes that are subsequently cleansed of evolutionarily less advantageous genes. PMID:24898731

  20. A network-assisted co-clustering algorithm to discover cancer subtypes based on gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer subtype information is critically important for understanding tumor heterogeneity. Existing methods to identify cancer subtypes have primarily focused on utilizing generic clustering algorithms (such as hierarchical clustering) to identify subtypes based on gene expression data. The network-level interaction among genes, which is key to understanding the molecular perturbations in cancer, has been rarely considered during the clustering process. The motivation of our work is to develop a method that effectively incorporates molecular interaction networks into the clustering process to improve cancer subtype identification. Results We have developed a new clustering algorithm for cancer subtype identification, called “network-assisted co-clustering for the identification of cancer subtypes” (NCIS). NCIS combines gene network information to simultaneously group samples and genes into biologically meaningful clusters. Prior to clustering, we assign weights to genes based on their impact in the network. Then a new weighted co-clustering algorithm based on a semi-nonnegative matrix tri-factorization is applied. We evaluated the effectiveness of NCIS on simulated datasets as well as large-scale Breast Cancer and Glioblastoma Multiforme patient samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. NCIS was shown to better separate the patient samples into clinically distinct subtypes and achieve higher accuracy on the simulated datasets to tolerate noise, as compared to consensus hierarchical clustering. Conclusions The weighted co-clustering approach in NCIS provides a unique solution to incorporate gene network information into the clustering process. Our tool will be useful to comprehensively identify cancer subtypes that would otherwise be obscured by cancer heterogeneity, using high-throughput and high-dimensional gene expression data. PMID:24491042

  1. Arrangement of the Clostridium baratii F7 Toxin Gene Cluster with Identification of a σ Factor That Recognizes the Botulinum Toxin Gene Cluster Promoters

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dover, Nir; Barash, Jason R.; Burke, Julianne N.; Hill, Karen K.; Detter, John C.; Arnon, Stephen S.

    2014-05-22

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most poisonous substances known and its eight toxin types (A to H) are distinguished by the inability of polyclonal antibodies that neutralize one toxin type to neutralize any of the other seven toxin types. Infant botulism, an intestinal toxemia orphan disease, is the most common form of human botulism in the United States. It results from swallowed spores of Clostridium botulinum (or rarely, neurotoxigenic Clostridium butyricum or Clostridium baratii) that germinate and temporarily colonize the lumen of the large intestine, where, as vegetative cells, they produce botulinum toxin. Botulinum neurotoxin is encoded by the bontmore » gene that is part of a toxin gene cluster that includes several accessory genes. In this paper, we sequenced for the first time the complete botulinum neurotoxin gene cluster of nonproteolytic C. baratii type F7. Like the type E and the nonproteolytic type F6 botulinum toxin gene clusters, the C. baratii type F7 had an orfX toxin gene cluster that lacked the regulatory botR gene which is found in proteolytic C. botulinum strains and codes for an alternative σ factor. In the absence of botR, we identified a putative alternative regulatory gene located upstream of the C. baratii type F7 toxin gene cluster. This putative regulatory gene codes for a predicted σ factor that contains DNA-binding-domain homologues to the DNA-binding domains both of BotR and of other members of the TcdR-related group 5 of the σ70 family that are involved in the regulation of toxin gene expression in clostridia. We showed that this TcdR-related protein in association with RNA polymerase core enzyme specifically binds to the C. baratii type F7 botulinum toxin gene cluster promoters. Finally, this TcdR-related protein may therefore be involved in regulating the expression of the genes of the botulinum toxin gene cluster in neurotoxigenic C. baratii.« less

  2. A Putative Gene Cluster from a Lyngbya wollei Bloom that Encodes Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mihali, Troco K.; Carmichael, Wayne W.; Neilan, Brett A.

    2011-01-01

    Saxitoxin and its analogs cause the paralytic shellfish-poisoning syndrome, adversely affecting human health and coastal shellfish industries worldwide. Here we report the isolation, sequencing, annotation, and predicted pathway of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei. The gene cluster spans 36 kb and encodes enzymes for the biosynthesis and export of the toxins. The Lyngbya wollei saxitoxin gene cluster differs from previously identified saxitoxin clusters as it contains genes that are unique to this cluster, whereby the carbamoyltransferase is truncated and replaced by an acyltransferase, explaining the unique toxin profile presented by Lyngbya wollei. These findings will enable the creation of toxin probes, for water monitoring purposes, as well as proof-of-concept for the combinatorial biosynthesis of these natural occurring alkaloids for the production of novel, biologically active compounds. PMID:21347365

  3. High-throughput platform for the discovery of elicitors of silent bacterial gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, bacterial genome sequences have revealed an immense reservoir of biosynthetic gene clusters, sets of contiguous genes that have the potential to produce drugs or drug-like molecules. However, the majority of these gene clusters appear to be inactive for unknown reasons prompting terms such as “cryptic” or “silent” to describe them. Because natural products have been a major source of therapeutic molecules, methods that rationally activate these silent clusters would have a profound impact on drug discovery. Herein, a new strategy is outlined for awakening silent gene clusters using small molecule elicitors. In this method, a genetic reporter construct affords a facile read-out for activation of the silent cluster of interest, while high-throughput screening of small molecule libraries provides potential inducers. This approach was applied to two cryptic gene clusters in the pathogenic model Burkholderia thailandensis. The results not only demonstrate a prominent activation of these two clusters, but also reveal that the majority of elicitors are themselves antibiotics, most in common clinical use. Antibiotics, which kill B. thailandensis at high concentrations, act as inducers of secondary metabolism at low concentrations. One of these antibiotics, trimethoprim, served as a global activator of secondary metabolism by inducing at least five biosynthetic pathways. Further application of this strategy promises to uncover the regulatory networks that activate silent gene clusters while at the same time providing access to the vast array of cryptic molecules found in bacteria. PMID:24808135

  4. Identification of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions within the fibrinogen gene cluster for fibrinogen levels in three ethnically diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Jeff, Janina M; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Crawford, Dana C

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma fibrinogen are associated with clot formation in the absence of inflammation or injury and is a biomarker for arterial clotting, the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen levels are heritable with >50% attributed to genetic factors, however little is known about possible genetic modifiers that might explain the missing heritability. The fibrinogen gene cluster is comprised of three genes (FGA, FGB, and FGG) that make up the fibrinogen polypeptide essential for fibrinogen production in the blood. Given the known interaction with these genes, we tested 25 variants in the fibrinogen gene cluster for gene x gene and gene x environment interactions in 620 non-Hispanic blacks, 1,385 non-Hispanic whites, and 664 Mexican Americans from a cross-sectional dataset enriched with environmental data, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Using a multiplicative approach, we added cross product terms (gene x gene or gene x environment) to a linear regression model and declared significance at p < 0.05. We identified 19 unique gene x gene and 13 unique gene x environment interactions that impact fibrinogen levels in at least one population at p < 0.05. Over 90% of the gene x gene interactions identified include a variant in the rate-limiting gene, FGB that is essential for the formation of the fibrinogen polypeptide. We also detected gene x environment interactions with fibrinogen variants and sex, smoking, and body mass index. These findings highlight the potential for the discovery of genetic modifiers for complex phenotypes in multiple populations and give a better understanding of the interaction between genes and/or the environment for fibrinogen levels. The need for more powerful and robust methods to identify genetic modifiers is still warranted. PMID:25592583

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF GENE-GENE AND GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS WITHIN THE FIBRINOGEN GENE CLUSTER FOR FIBRINOGEN LEVELS IN THREE ETHNICALLY DIVERSE POPULATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Jeff, Janina M.; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Crawford, Dana C.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma fibrinogen are associated with clot formation in the absence of inflammation or injury and is a biomarker for arterial clotting, the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen levels are heritable with >50% attributed to genetic factors, however little is known about possible genetic modifiers that might explain the missing heritability. The fibrinogen gene cluster is comprised of three genes (FGA, FGB, and FGG) that make up the fibrinogen polypeptide essential for fibrinogen production in the blood. Given the known interaction with these genes, we tested 25 variants in the fibrinogen gene cluster for gene × gene and gene × environment interactions in 620 non-Hispanic blacks, 1,385 non-Hispanic whites, and 664 Mexican Americans from a cross-sectional dataset enriched with environmental data, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Using a multiplicative approach, we added cross product terms (gene × gene or gene × environment) to a linear regression model and declared significance at p < 0.05. We identified 19 unique gene × gene and 13 unique gene × environment interactions that impact fibrinogen levels in at least one population at p <0.05. Over 90% of the gene × gene interactions identified include a variant in the rate-limiting gene, FGB that is essential for the formation of the fibrinogen polypeptide. We also detected gene × environment interactions with fibrinogen variants and sex, smoking, and body mass index. These findings highlight the potential for the discovery of genetic modifiers for complex phenotypes in multiple populations and give a better understanding of the interaction between genes and/or the environment for fibrinogen levels. The need for more powerful and robust methods to identify genetic modifiers is still warranted. PMID:25592583

  6. Assembly of iron-sulfur clusters. Identification of an iscSUA-hscBA-fdx gene cluster from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Zheng, L; Cash, V L; Flint, D H; Dean, D R

    1998-05-22

    An enzyme having the same L-cysteine desulfurization activity previously described for the NifS protein was purified from a strain of Azotobacter vinelandii deleted for the nifS gene. This protein was designated IscS to indicate its proposed role in iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Like NifS, IscS is a pyridoxal-phosphate containing homodimer. Information gained from microsequencing of oligopeptides obtained by tryptic digestion of purified IscS was used to design a strategy for isolation and DNA sequence analysis of a 7,886-base pair A. vinelandii genomic segment that includes the iscS gene. The iscS gene is contained within a gene cluster that includes homologs to nifU and another gene contained within the major nif cluster of A. vinelandii previously designated orf6. These genes have been designated iscU and iscA, respectively. Information available from complete genome sequences of Escherichia coli and Hemophilus influenzae reveals that they also encode iscSUA gene clusters. A wide conservation of iscSUA genes in nature and evidence that NifU and NifS participate in the mobilization of iron and sulfur for nitrogenase-specific iron-sulfur cluster formation suggest that the products of the iscSUA genes could play a general role in the formation or repair of iron-sulfur clusters. The proposal that IscS is involved in mobilization of sulfur for iron-sulfur cluster formation in A. vinelandii is supported by the presence of a cysE-like homolog in another gene cluster located immediately upstream from the one containing the iscSUA genes. O-Acetylserine synthase is the product of the cysE gene, and it catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cysteine biosynthesis. A similar cysE-like gene is also located within the nif gene cluster of A. vinelandii. The likely role of such cysE-like gene products is to increase the cysteine pool needed for iron-sulfur cluster formation. Another feature of the iscSUA gene cluster region from A. vinelandii is that E. coli genes previously

  7. Birth of Four Chimeric Plastid Gene Clusters in Japanese Umbrella Pine

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Yao; Wu, Chung-Shien; Chaw, Shu-Miaw

    2016-01-01

    Many genes in the plastid genomes (plastomes) of plants are organized as gene clusters, in which genes are co-transcribed, resembling bacterial operons. These plastid operons are highly conserved, even among conifers, whose plastomes are highly rearranged relative to other seed plants. We have determined the complete plastome sequence of Sciadopitys verticillata (Japanese umbrella pine), the sole member of Sciadopityaceae. The Sciadopitys plastome is characterized by extensive inversions, pseudogenization of four tRNA genes after tandem duplications, and a unique pair of 370-bp inverted repeats involved in the formation of isomeric plastomes. We showed that plastomic inversions in Sciadopitys have led to shuffling of the remote conserved operons, resulting in the birth of four chimeric gene clusters. Our data also demonstrated that the relocated genes can be co-transcribed in these chimeric gene clusters. The plastome of Sciadopitys advances our current understanding of how the conifer plastomes have evolved toward increased diversity and complexity. PMID:27269365

  8. Improved efficiency in amplification of Escherichia coli o-antigen gene clusters using genome-wide sequence comparison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In many bacteria including E. coli, genes encoding O-antigens are clustered in the chromosome, with a 39-bp JUMPstart sequence and gnd gene located upstream and downstream of the cluster, respectively. For determining the DNA sequence of the E. coli O-antigen gene cluster, one set of P...

  9. Performance Assessment of Kernel Density Clustering for Gene Expression Profile Data

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Beiyan; Chen, Yiping P.; Smith, Oscar H.

    2003-01-01

    Kernel density smoothing techniques have been used in classification or supervised learning of gene expression profile (GEP) data, but their applications to clustering or unsupervised learning of those data have not been explored and assessed. Here we report a kernel density clustering method for analysing GEP data and compare its performance with the three most widely-used clustering methods: hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and multivariate mixture model-based clustering. Using several methods to measure agreement, between-cluster isolation, and withincluster coherence, such as the Adjusted Rand Index, the Pseudo F test, the r2 test, and the profile plot, we have assessed the effectiveness of kernel density clustering for recovering clusters, and its robustness against noise on clustering both simulated and real GEP data. Our results show that the kernel density clustering method has excellent performance in recovering clusters from simulated data and in grouping large real expression profile data sets into compact and well-isolated clusters, and that it is the most robust clustering method for analysing noisy expression profile data compared to the other three methods assessed. PMID:18629292

  10. The clustering of functionally related genes contributes to CNV-mediated disease

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Tallulah; Honti, Frantisek; Pfundt, Rolph; de Leeuw, Nicole; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke; de Vries, Bert; Webber, Caleb

    2015-01-01

    Clusters of functionally related genes can be disrupted by a single copy number variant (CNV). We demonstrate that the simultaneous disruption of multiple functionally related genes is a frequent and significant characteristic of de novo CNVs in patients with developmental disorders (P = 1 × 10−3). Using three different functional networks, we identified unexpectedly large numbers of functionally related genes within de novo CNVs from two large independent cohorts of individuals with developmental disorders. The presence of multiple functionally related genes was a significant predictor of a CNV's pathogenicity when compared to CNVs from apparently healthy individuals and a better predictor than the presence of known disease or haploinsufficient genes for larger CNVs. The functionally related genes found in the de novo CNVs belonged to 70% of all clusters of functionally related genes found across the genome. De novo CNVs were more likely to affect functional clusters and affect them to a greater extent than benign CNVs (P = 6 × 10−4). Furthermore, such clusters of functionally related genes are phenotypically informative: Different patients possessing CNVs that affect the same cluster of functionally related genes exhibit more similar phenotypes than expected (P < 0.05). The spanning of multiple functionally similar genes by single CNVs contributes substantially to how these variants exert their pathogenic effects. PMID:25887030

  11. Isolation and Characterization of the Gibberellin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Sphaceloma manihoticola▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bömke, Christiane; Rojas, Maria Cecilia; Gong, Fan; Hedden, Peter; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are tetracyclic diterpenoid phytohormones that were first identified as secondary metabolites of the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi (teleomorph, Gibberella fujikuroi). GAs were also found in the cassava pathogen Sphaceloma manihoticola, but the spectrum of GAs differed from that in F. fujikuroi. In contrast to F. fujikuroi, the GA biosynthetic pathway has not been studied in detail in S. manihoticola, and none of the GA biosynthetic genes have been cloned from the species. Here, we present the identification of the GA biosynthetic gene cluster from S. manihoticola consisting of five genes encoding a bifunctional ent-copalyl/ent-kaurene synthase (CPS/KS), a pathway-specific geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGS2), and three cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. The functions of all of the genes were analyzed either by a gene replacement approach or by complementing the corresponding F. fujikuroi mutants. The cluster organization and gene functions are similar to those in F. fujikuroi. However, the two border genes in the Fusarium cluster encoding the GA4 desaturase (DES) and the 13-hydroxylase (P450-3) are absent in the S. manihoticola GA gene cluster, consistent with the spectrum of GAs produced by this fungus. The close similarity between the two GA gene clusters, the identical gene functions, and the conserved intron positions suggest a common evolutionary origin despite the distant relatedness of the two fungi. PMID:18567680

  12. An Effective Tri-Clustering Algorithm Combining Expression Data with Gene Regulation Information

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ao; Tuck, David

    2009-01-01

    Motivation Bi-clustering algorithms aim to identify sets of genes sharing similar expression patterns across a subset of conditions. However direct interpretation or prediction of gene regulatory mechanisms may be difficult as only gene expression data is used. Information about gene regulators may also be available, most commonly about which transcription factors may bind to the promoter region and thus control the expression level of a gene. Thus a method to integrate gene expression and gene regulation information is desirable for clustering and analyzing. Methods By incorporating gene regulatory information with gene expression data, we define regulated expression values (REV) as indicators of how a gene is regulated by a specific factor. Existing bi-clustering methods are extended to a three dimensional data space by developing a heuristic TRI-Clustering algorithm. An additional approach named Automatic Boundary Searching algorithm (ABS) is introduced to automatically determine the boundary threshold. Results Results based on incorporating ChIP-chip data representing transcription factor-gene interactions show that the algorithms are efficient and robust for detecting tri-clusters. Detailed analysis of the tri-cluster extracted from yeast sporulation REV data shows genes in this cluster exhibited significant differences during the middle and late stages. The implicated regulatory network was then reconstructed for further study of defined regulatory mechanisms. Topological and statistical analysis of this network demonstrated evidence of significant changes of TF activities during the different stages of yeast sporulation, and suggests this approach might be a general way to study regulatory networks undergoing transformations. PMID:19838334

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Aspergillus flavus Reveals veA-Dependent Regulation of Secondary Metabolite Gene Clusters, Including the Novel Aflavarin Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Cary, J. W.; Han, Z.; Yin, Y.; Lohmar, J. M.; Shantappa, S.; Harris-Coward, P. Y.; Mack, B.; Ehrlich, K. C.; Wei, Q.; Arroyo-Manzanares, N.; Uka, V.; Vanhaecke, L.; Bhatnagar, D.; Yu, J.; Nierman, W. C.; Johns, M. A.; Sorensen, D.; Shen, H.; De Saeger, S.; Diana Di Mavungu, J.

    2015-01-01

    The global regulatory veA gene governs development and secondary metabolism in numerous fungal species, including Aspergillus flavus. This is especially relevant since A. flavus infects crops of agricultural importance worldwide, contaminating them with potent mycotoxins. The most well-known are aflatoxins, which are cytotoxic and carcinogenic polyketide compounds. The production of aflatoxins and the expression of genes implicated in the production of these mycotoxins are veA dependent. The genes responsible for the synthesis of aflatoxins are clustered, a signature common for genes involved in fungal secondary metabolism. Studies of the A. flavus genome revealed many gene clusters possibly connected to the synthesis of secondary metabolites. Many of these metabolites are still unknown, or the association between a known metabolite and a particular gene cluster has not yet been established. In the present transcriptome study, we show that veA is necessary for the expression of a large number of genes. Twenty-eight out of the predicted 56 secondary metabolite gene clusters include at least one gene that is differentially expressed depending on presence or absence of veA. One of the clusters under the influence of veA is cluster 39. The absence of veA results in a downregulation of the five genes found within this cluster. Interestingly, our results indicate that the cluster is expressed mainly in sclerotia. Chemical analysis of sclerotial extracts revealed that cluster 39 is responsible for the production of aflavarin. PMID:26209694

  14. CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF THE CATA AND CATBC GENE CLUSTERS FROM PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA PAO

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 9.9-kilobase (kb) BAMIII estriction endonuclease fragment encoding the catA and catBC gene clusters was selected from a gene bank of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1c chromosome. he catA, catB, and catC genes encode enzymes that catalyze consecutive reactions in the catechol bra...

  15. Leveraging long sequencing reads to investigate R-gene clustering and variation in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-pathogen interactions are of prime importance to modern agriculture. Plants utilize various types of resistance genes to mitigate pathogen damage. Identification of the specific gene responsible for a specific resistance can be difficult due to duplication and clustering within R-gene families....

  16. Characterization of a plasmid-encoded urease gene cluster found in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, S E; Collins, C M

    1993-03-01

    Plasmid-encoded urease gene clusters found in uropathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli, Providencia stuartii, and Salmonella cubana demonstrated DNA homology, similar positions of restriction endonuclease cleavage sites, and manners of urease expression and therefore represent the same locus. DNA sequence analysis indicated that the plasmid-encoded urease genes are closely related to the Proteus mirabilis urease genes. PMID:8449894

  17. Cloning and Heterologous Expression of the Thioviridamide Biosynthesis Gene Cluster from Streptomyces olivoviridis

    PubMed Central

    Izawa, Masumi; Kawasaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Thioviridamide is a unique peptide antibiotic containing five thioamide bonds from Streptomyces olivoviridis. Draft genome sequencing revealed a gene (the tvaA gene) encoding the thioviridamide precursor peptide. The thioviridamide biosynthesis gene cluster was identified by heterologous production of thioviridamide in Streptomyces lividans. PMID:23995943

  18. A rough set based rational clustering framework for determining correlated genes.

    PubMed

    Jeyaswamidoss, Jeba Emilyn; Thangaraj, Kesavan; Ramar, Kadarkarai; Chitra, Muthusamy

    2016-06-01

    Cluster analysis plays a foremost role in identifying groups of genes that show similar behavior under a set of experimental conditions. Several clustering algorithms have been proposed for identifying gene behaviors and to understand their significance. The principal aim of this work is to develop an intelligent rough clustering technique, which will efficiently remove the irrelevant dimensions in a high-dimensional space and obtain appropriate meaningful clusters. This paper proposes a novel biclustering technique that is based on rough set theory. The proposed algorithm uses correlation coefficient as a similarity measure to simultaneously cluster both the rows and columns of a gene expression data matrix and mean squared residue to generate the initial biclusters. Furthermore, the biclusters are refined to form the lower and upper boundaries by determining the membership of the genes in the clusters using mean squared residue. The algorithm is illustrated with yeast gene expression data and the experiment proves the effectiveness of the method. The main advantage is that it overcomes the problem of selection of initial clusters and also the restriction of one object belonging to only one cluster by allowing overlapping of biclusters. PMID:27352972

  19. Hox gene clusters of early vertebrates: do they serve as reliable markers for genome evolution?

    PubMed

    Kuraku, Shigehiro

    2011-06-01

    Hox genes, responsible for regional specification along the anteroposterior axis in embryogenesis, are found as clusters in most eumetazoan genomes sequenced to date. Invertebrates possess a single Hox gene cluster with some exceptions of secondary cluster breakages, while osteichthyans (bony vertebrates) have multiple Hox clusters. In tetrapods, four Hox clusters, derived from the so-called two-round whole genome duplications (2R-WGDs), are observed. Overall, the number of Hox gene clusters has been regarded as a reliable marker of ploidy levels in animal genomes. In fact, this scheme also fits the situations in teleost fishes that experienced an additional WGD. In this review, I focus on cyclostomes and cartilaginous fishes as lineages that would fill the gap between invertebrates and osteichthyans. A recent study highlighted a possible loss of the HoxC cluster in the galeomorph shark lineage, while other aspects of cartilaginous fish Hox clusters usually mark their conserved nature. In contrast, existing resources suggest that the cyclostomes exhibit a different mode of Hox cluster organization. For this group of species, whose genomes could have differently responded to the 2R-WGDs from jawed vertebrates, therefore the number of Hox clusters may not serve as a good indicator of their ploidy level. PMID:21802046

  20. Horizontal Transfer of a Nitrate Assimilation Gene Cluster and Ecological Transitions in Fungi: A Phylogenetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Slot, Jason C.; Hibbett, David S.

    2007-01-01

    High affinity nitrate assimilation genes in fungi occur in a cluster (fHANT-AC) that can be coordinately regulated. The clustered genes include nrt2, which codes for a high affinity nitrate transporter; euknr, which codes for nitrate reductase; and NAD(P)H-nir, which codes for nitrite reductase. Homologs of genes in the fHANT-AC occur in other eukaryotes and prokaryotes, but they have only been found clustered in the oomycete Phytophthora (heterokonts). We performed independent and concatenated phylogenetic analyses of homologs of all three genes in the fHANT-AC. Phylogenetic analyses limited to fungal sequences suggest that the fHANT-AC has been transferred horizontally from a basidiomycete (mushrooms and smuts) to an ancestor of the ascomycetous mold Trichoderma reesei. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences from diverse eukaryotes and eubacteria, and cluster structure, are consistent with a hypothesis that the fHANT-AC was assembled in a lineage leading to the oomycetes and was subsequently transferred to the Dikarya (Ascomycota+Basidiomycota), which is a derived fungal clade that includes the vast majority of terrestrial fungi. We propose that the acquisition of high affinity nitrate assimilation contributed to the success of Dikarya on land by allowing exploitation of nitrate in aerobic soils, and the subsequent transfer of a complete assimilation cluster improved the fitness of T. reesei in a new niche. Horizontal transmission of this cluster of functionally integrated genes supports the “selfish operon” hypothesis for maintenance of gene clusters. PMID:17971860

  1. Influence of microarrays experiments missing values on the stability of gene groups by hierarchical clustering

    PubMed Central

    de Brevern, Alexandre G; Hazout, Serge; Malpertuy, Alain

    2004-01-01

    Background Microarray technologies produced large amount of data. The hierarchical clustering is commonly used to identify clusters of co-expressed genes. However, microarray datasets often contain missing values (MVs) representing a major drawback for the use of the clustering methods. Usually the MVs are not treated, or replaced by zero or estimated by the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) approach. The topic of the paper is to study the stability of gene clusters, defined by various hierarchical clustering algorithms, of microarrays experiments including or not MVs. Results In this study, we show that the MVs have important effects on the stability of the gene clusters. Moreover, the magnitude of the gene misallocations is depending on the aggregation algorithm. The most appropriate aggregation methods (e.g. complete-linkage and Ward) are highly sensitive to MVs, and surprisingly, for a very tiny proportion of MVs (e.g. 1%). In most of the case, the MVs must be replaced by expected values. The MVs replacement by the kNN approach clearly improves the identification of co-expressed gene clusters. Nevertheless, we observe that kNN approach is less suitable for the extreme values of gene expression. Conclusion The presence of MVs (even at a low rate) is a major factor of gene cluster instability. In addition, the impact depends on the hierarchical clustering algorithm used. Some methods should be used carefully. Nevertheless, the kNN approach constitutes one efficient method for restoring the missing expression gene values, with a low error level. Our study highlights the need of statistical treatments in microarray data to avoid misinterpretation. PMID:15324460

  2. Epigenetic regulation of the RHOX homeobox gene cluster and its association with human male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Marcy E.; Bleiziffer, Andreas; Tüttelmann, Frank; Gromoll, Jörg; Wilkinson, Miles F.

    2014-01-01

    The X-linked RHOX cluster encodes a set of homeobox genes that are selectively expressed in the reproductive tract. Members of the RHOX cluster regulate target genes important for spermatogenesis promote male fertility in mice. Studies show that demethylating agents strongly upregulate the expression of mouse Rhox genes, suggesting that they are regulated by DNA methylation. However, whether this extends to human RHOX genes, whether DNA methylation directly regulates RHOX gene transcription and how this relates to human male infertility are unknown. To address these issues, we first defined the promoter regions of human RHOX genes and performed gain- and loss-of-function experiments to determine whether human RHOX gene transcription is regulated by DNA methylation. Our results indicated that DNA methylation is necessary and sufficient to silence human RHOX gene expression. To determine whether RHOX cluster methylation associates with male infertility, we evaluated the methylation status of RHOX genes in sperm from a large cohort of infertility patients. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong association between RHOX gene cluster hypermethylation and three independent types of semen abnormalities. Hypermethylation was restricted specifically to the RHOX cluster; we did not observe it in genes immediately adjacent to it on the X chromosome. Our results strongly suggest that human RHOX homeobox genes are under an epigenetic control mechanism that is aberrantly regulated in infertility patients. We propose that hypermethylation of the RHOX gene cluster serves as a marker for idiopathic infertility and that it is a candidate to exert a causal role in male infertility. PMID:23943794

  3. A cross-species bi-clustering approach to identifying conserved co-regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiangwen; Jiang, Zongliang; Tian, Xiuchun; Bi, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: A growing number of studies have explored the process of pre-implantation embryonic development of multiple mammalian species. However, the conservation and variation among different species in their developmental programming are poorly defined due to the lack of effective computational methods for detecting co-regularized genes that are conserved across species. The most sophisticated method to date for identifying conserved co-regulated genes is a two-step approach. This approach first identifies gene clusters for each species by a cluster analysis of gene expression data, and subsequently computes the overlaps of clusters identified from different species to reveal common subgroups. This approach is ineffective to deal with the noise in the expression data introduced by the complicated procedures in quantifying gene expression. Furthermore, due to the sequential nature of the approach, the gene clusters identified in the first step may have little overlap among different species in the second step, thus difficult to detect conserved co-regulated genes. Results: We propose a cross-species bi-clustering approach which first denoises the gene expression data of each species into a data matrix. The rows of the data matrices of different species represent the same set of genes that are characterized by their expression patterns over the developmental stages of each species as columns. A novel bi-clustering method is then developed to cluster genes into subgroups by a joint sparse rank-one factorization of all the data matrices. This method decomposes a data matrix into a product of a column vector and a row vector where the column vector is a consistent indicator across the matrices (species) to identify the same gene cluster and the row vector specifies for each species the developmental stages that the clustered genes co-regulate. Efficient optimization algorithm has been developed with convergence analysis. This approach was first validated on

  4. Picocyanobacteria containing a novel pigment gene cluster dominate the brackish water Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, John; Celepli, Narin; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L; Yooseph, Shibu; Bergman, Bigitta; Ekman, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Photoautotrophic picocyanobacteria harvest light via phycobilisomes (PBS) consisting of the pigments phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE), encoded by genes in conserved gene clusters. The presence and arrangement of these gene clusters give picocyanobacteria characteristic light absorption properties and allow the colonization of specific ecological niches. To date, a full understanding of the evolution and distribution of the PBS gene cluster in picocyanobacteria has been hampered by the scarcity of genome sequences from fresh- and brackish water-adapted strains. To remediate this, we analysed genomes assembled from metagenomic samples collected along a natural salinity gradient, and over the course of a growth season, in the Baltic Sea. We found that while PBS gene clusters in picocyanobacteria sampled in marine habitats were highly similar to known references, brackish-adapted genotypes harboured a novel type not seen in previously sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the novel gene cluster belonged to a clade of uncultivated picocyanobacteria that dominate the brackish Baltic Sea throughout the summer season, but are uncommon in other examined aquatic ecosystems. Further, our data suggest that the PE genes were lost in the ancestor of PC-containing coastal picocyanobacteria and that multiple horizontal gene transfer events have re-introduced PE genes into brackish-adapted strains, including the novel clade discovered here. PMID:24621524

  5. Mapping the chromosome 16 cadherin gene cluster to a minimal deleted region in ductal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, I J; Aubele, M; Hartmann, E; Braungart, E; Werner, M; Höfler, H; Atkinson, M J

    2001-04-01

    The cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules has been implicated in tumor metastasis and progression. Eight family members have been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 16. Using radiation hybrid mapping, we have located six of these genes within a cluster at 16q21-q22.1. In invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast frequent LOH and accompanying mutation affect the CDH1 gene, which is a member of this chromosome 16 gene cluster. CDH1 LOH also occurs in invasive ductal carcinoma, but in the absence of gene mutation. The proximity of other cadherin genes to 16q22.1 suggests that they may be affected by LOH in invasive ductal carcinomas. Using the mapping data, microsatellite markers were selected which span regions of chromosome 16 containing the cadherin genes. In breast cancer tissues, a high rate of allelic loss was found over the gene cluster region, with CDH1 being the most frequently lost marker. In invasive ductal carcinoma a minimal deleted region was identified within part of the chromosome 16 cadherin gene cluster. This provides strong evidence for the existence of a second 16q22 suppressor gene locus within the cadherin cluster. PMID:11343777

  6. Picocyanobacteria containing a novel pigment gene cluster dominate the brackish water Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Larsson, John; Celepli, Narin; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L; Yooseph, Shibu; Bergman, Bigitta; Ekman, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Photoautotrophic picocyanobacteria harvest light via phycobilisomes (PBS) consisting of the pigments phycocyanin (PC) and phycoerythrin (PE), encoded by genes in conserved gene clusters. The presence and arrangement of these gene clusters give picocyanobacteria characteristic light absorption properties and allow the colonization of specific ecological niches. To date, a full understanding of the evolution and distribution of the PBS gene cluster in picocyanobacteria has been hampered by the scarcity of genome sequences from fresh- and brackish water-adapted strains. To remediate this, we analysed genomes assembled from metagenomic samples collected along a natural salinity gradient, and over the course of a growth season, in the Baltic Sea. We found that while PBS gene clusters in picocyanobacteria sampled in marine habitats were highly similar to known references, brackish-adapted genotypes harboured a novel type not seen in previously sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the novel gene cluster belonged to a clade of uncultivated picocyanobacteria that dominate the brackish Baltic Sea throughout the summer season, but are uncommon in other examined aquatic ecosystems. Further, our data suggest that the PE genes were lost in the ancestor of PC-containing coastal picocyanobacteria and that multiple horizontal gene transfer events have re-introduced PE genes into brackish-adapted strains, including the novel clade discovered here. PMID:24621524

  7. Sequence analysis of a cluster of twenty-one tRNA genes in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Green, C J; Vold, B S

    1983-01-01

    The DNA sequence of a cluster of twenty-one tRNA genes distal to a rRNA gene set in B. subtilis was determined. None of the tRNA genes are repeated in the sequence. The only classes of tRNAs that are not represented are those for cysteine, glutamine, tryptophan, and tyrosine. Three of the tRNA genes in this cluster do not have the 3'-CCA sequence encoded in the gene. There is no RNA polymerase terminator sequence in the region between the 5S gene and the first tRNA gene or within the tRNA gene cluster. A terminator sequence was found directly after the last tRNA gene. This rRNA and tRNA gene cluster probably represents one transcriptional unit. However, there may be an RNA polymerase promoter site within this sequence, which raises some interesting questions concerning the regulation of transcription for these tRNA genes. PMID:6310512

  8. The nonribosomal peptide and polyketide synthetic gene clusters in two strains of entomopathogenic fungi in Cordyceps.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Jing; Vogel, Heiko; Yao, Yi-Jian; Ping, Liyan

    2012-11-01

    Species of Cordyceps Fr. are entomopathogenic fungi that parasitize the larvae or pupae of lepidopteran insects. The secondary metabolites, nonribosomal peptides and polyketides are well-known mediators of pathogenesis. The biosynthetic gene clusters of these compounds in two fungal strains (1630 and DSM 1153) formerly known as Cordyceps militaris were screened using polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers. Two nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes, one polyketide synthetase gene and one hybrid gene cluster were identified, and certain characteristics of the structures of their potential products were predicted. All four genes were actively expressed under laboratory conditions but at markedly different levels. The gene clusters from the two fungal strains were structurally and functionally unrelated, suggesting different evolutionary origins and physiological functions. Phylogenetic and biochemical analyses confirmed that the two fungal strains are not conspecific as currently assigned. PMID:22889355

  9. Identification of a 12-gene fusaric acid biosynthetic gene cluster in Fusarium species through comparative and functional genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fungi, genes involved in biosynthesis of a secondary metabolite (SM) are often located adjacent to one another in the genome and are coordinately regulated. These SM biosynthetic gene clusters typically encode enzymes, one or more transcription factors, and a transport protein. Fusaric acid is a ...

  10. Variability in mycotoxin biosynthetic genes and gene clusters in Fusarium and its implications for mycotoxin contamination of crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium metabolites fumonisins and trichothecenes are among the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety worldwide. As with other fungal secondary metabolites, mycotoxin biosynthetic genes are often located adjacent to one another in gene clusters. Thus, fumonisin biosynthetic gen...

  11. The Biosynthetic Gene Cluster of Zorbamycin, a Member of the Bleomycin Family of Antitumor Antibiotics, from Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC 21892

    PubMed Central

    Galm, Ute; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Wang, Liyan; George, Nicholas P.; Oh, Tae-Jin; Yi, Fan; Tao, Meifeng; Coughlin, Jane M.; Shen, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The biosynthetic gene cluster for the glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotic zorbamycin (ZBM) was cloned by screening a cosmid library of Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC 21892. Sequence analysis revealed 40 ORFs belonging to the ZBM biosynthetic gene cluster. However, only 23 and 22 ORFs showed striking similarities to the biosynthetic gene clusters for the bleomycins (BLMs) and tallysomycins (TLMs), respectively; the remaining ORFs do not show significant homology to ORFs from the related BLM and TLM clusters. The ZBM gene cluster consists of 16 nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes encoding eight complete NRPS modules, three incomplete didomain NRPS modules, and eight freestanding single NRPS domains or associated enzymes, a polyketide synthase (PKS) gene encoding one PKS module, six sugar biosynthesis genes, as well as genes encoding other biosynthesis and resistance proteins. A genetic system using Escherichia coli-Streptomyces flavoviridis intergeneric conjugation was developed to enable ZBM gene cluster boundary determinations and biosynthetic pathway manipulations. PMID:19081934

  12. Classification of Arabidopsis thaliana gene sequences: clustering of coding sequences into two groups according to codon usage improves gene prediction.

    PubMed

    Mathé, C; Peresetsky, A; Déhais, P; Van Montagu, M; Rouzé, P

    1999-02-01

    While genomic sequences are accumulating, finding the location of the genes remains a major issue that can be solved only for about a half of them by homology searches. Prediction methods are thus required, but unfortunately are not fully satisfying. Most prediction methods implicitly assume a unique model for genes. This is an oversimplification as demonstrated by the possibility to group coding sequences into several classes in Escherichia coli and other genomes. As no classification existed for Arabidopsis thaliana, we classified genes according to the statistical features of their coding sequences. A clustering algorithm using a codon usage model was developed and applied to coding sequences from A. thaliana, E. coli, and a mixture of both. By using it, Arabidopsis sequences were clustered into two classes. The CU1 and CU2 classes differed essentially by the choice of pyrimidine bases at the codon silent sites: CU2 genes often use C whereas CU1 genes prefer T. This classification discriminated the Arabidopsis genes according to their expressiveness, highly expressed genes being clustered in CU2 and genes expected to have a lower expression, such as the regulatory genes, in CU1. The algorithm separated the sequences of the Escherichia-Arabidopsis mixed data set into five classes according to the species, except for one class. This mixed class contained 89 % Arabidopsis genes from CU1 and 11 % E. coli genes, mostly horizontally transferred. Interestingly, most genes encoding organelle-targeted proteins, except the photosynthetic and photoassimilatory ones, were clustered in CU1. By tailoring the GeneMark CDS prediction algorithm to the observed coding sequence classes, its quality of prediction was greatly improved. Similar improvement can be expected with other prediction systems. PMID:9925779

  13. Characterization of the fumonisin B2 biosynthetic gene cluster in Aspergillus niger and A. awamori.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus niger and A. awamori strains isolated from grapes cultivated in Mediterranean basin were examined for fumonisin B2 (FB2) production and presence/absence of sequences within the fumonisin biosynthetic gene (fum) cluster. Presence of 13 regions in the fum cluster was evaluated by PCR assay...

  14. Clusters of antibiotic resistance genes enriched together stay together in swine agriculture

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Johnson, Timothy A.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Wang, Qiong; Cole, James R.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Looft, Torey; Zhu, Yong -Guan; Tiedje, James M.

    2016-04-12

    Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide health risk, but the influence of animal agriculture on the genetic context and enrichment of individual antibiotic resistance alleles remains unclear. Using quantitative PCR followed by amplicon sequencing, we quantified and sequenced 44 genes related to antibiotic resistance, mobile genetic elements, and bacterial phylogeny in microbiomes from U.S. laboratory swine and from swine farms from three Chinese regions. We identified highly abundant resistance clusters: groups of resistance and mobile genetic element alleles that cooccur. For example, the abundance of genes conferring resistance to six classes of antibiotics together with class 1 integrase and the abundancemore » of IS6100-type transposons in three Chinese regions are directly correlated. These resistance cluster genes likely colocalize in microbial genomes in the farms. Resistance cluster alleles were dramatically enriched (up to 1 to 10% as abundant as 16S rRNA) and indicate that multidrug-resistant bacteria are likely the norm rather than an exception in these communities. This enrichment largely occurred independently of phylogenetic composition; thus, resistance clusters are likely present in many bacterial taxa. Furthermore, resistance clusters contain resistance genes that confer resistance to antibiotics independently of their particular use on the farms. Selection for these clusters is likely due to the use of only a subset of the broad range of chemicals to which the clusters confer resistance. The scale of animal agriculture and its wastes, the enrichment and horizontal gene transfer potential of the clusters, and the vicinity of large human populations suggest that managing this resistance reservoir is important for minimizing human risk.Agricultural antibiotic use results in clusters of cooccurring resistance genes that together confer resistance to multiple antibiotics. The use of a single antibiotic could select for an entire suite of resistance

  15. Regulated Expression of Three Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes in Barley Aleurone Layers 1

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Andrew D.; Jacobsen, John V.; Zwar, John A.

    1984-01-01

    Three genes specify alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1.; ADH) enzymes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Adh 1, Adh 2, and Adh 3). Their polypeptide products (ADH 1, ADH 2, ADH 3) dimerize to give a total of six ADH isozymes which can be resolved by native gel electrophoresis and stained for enzyme activity. Under fully aerobic conditions, aleurone layers of cv Himalaya had a high titer of a single isozyme, the homodimer containing ADH 1 monomers. This isozyme was accumulated by the aleurone tissue during the later part of seed development, and survived seed drying and rehydration. The five other possible ADH isozymes were induced by O2 deficit. The staining of these five isozymes on electrophoretic gels increased progressively in intensity as O2 levels were reduced below 5%, and were most intense at 0% O2. In vivo35S labeling and specific immunoprecipitation of ADH peptides, followed by isoelectric focusing of the ADH peptides in the presence of 8 molar urea (urea-IEF) demonstrated the following. (a) Aleurone layers incubated in air synthesized ADH 1 and a trace of ADH 2; immature layers from developing seeds behaved similarly. (b) At 5% O2, synthesis of ADH 2 increased and ADH 3 appeared. (c) At 2% and 0% O2, the synthesis of all three ADH peptides increased markedly. Cell-free translation of RNA isolated from aleurone layers, followed by immunoprecipitation and urea-IEF of in vitro synthesized ADH peptides, showed that levels of mRNA for all three ADH peptides rose sharply during 1 day of O2 deprivation. Northern hybridizations with a maize Adh 2 cDNA clone established that the clone hybridized with barley mRNA comparable in size to maize Adh 2 mRNA, and that the level of this barley mRNA increased 15- to 20-fold after 1 day at 5% or 2% O2, and about 100-fold after 1 day at 0% O2. We conclude that in aleurone layers, expression of the three barley Adh genes is maximal in the absence of O2, that regulation of mRNA level is likely to be a major controlling factor, and

  16. Integrating Data Clustering and Visualization for the Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data

    SciTech Connect

    Data Analysis and Visualization and the Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis CA 95616, USA,; nternational Research Training Group ``Visualization of Large and Unstructured Data Sets,'' University of Kaiserslautern, Germany; Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Genomics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720, USA; Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720, USA,; Computer Science Division,University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA,; Computer Science Department, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA,; All authors are with the Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther H.; Huang, Min-Yu; Bethel, E. Wes; Biggin, Mark D.; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Hendriks, Cris L. Luengo; Keranen, Soile V. E.; Eisen, Michael B.; Knowles, David W.; Malik, Jitendra; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd

    2008-05-12

    The recent development of methods for extracting precise measurements of spatial gene expression patterns from three-dimensional (3D) image data opens the way for new analyses of the complex gene regulatory networks controlling animal development. We present an integrated visualization and analysis framework that supports user-guided data clustering to aid exploration of these new complex datasets. The interplay of data visualization and clustering-based data classification leads to improved visualization and enables a more detailed analysis than previously possible. We discuss (i) integration of data clustering and visualization into one framework; (ii) application of data clustering to 3D gene expression data; (iii) evaluation of the number of clusters k in the context of 3D gene expression clustering; and (iv) improvement of overall analysis quality via dedicated post-processing of clustering results based on visualization. We discuss the use of this framework to objectively define spatial pattern boundaries and temporal profiles of genes and to analyze how mRNA patterns are controlled by their regulatory transcription factors.

  17. A Stationary Wavelet Entropy-Based Clustering Approach Accurately Predicts Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nha; Vo, An; Choi, Inchan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studying epigenetic landscapes is important to understand the condition for gene regulation. Clustering is a useful approach to study epigenetic landscapes by grouping genes based on their epigenetic conditions. However, classical clustering approaches that often use a representative value of the signals in a fixed-sized window do not fully use the information written in the epigenetic landscapes. Clustering approaches to maximize the information of the epigenetic signals are necessary for better understanding gene regulatory environments. For effective clustering of multidimensional epigenetic signals, we developed a method called Dewer, which uses the entropy of stationary wavelet of epigenetic signals inside enriched regions for gene clustering. Interestingly, the gene expression levels were highly correlated with the entropy levels of epigenetic signals. Dewer separates genes better than a window-based approach in the assessment using gene expression and achieved a correlation coefficient above 0.9 without using any training procedure. Our results show that the changes of the epigenetic signals are useful to study gene regulation. PMID:25383910

  18. Molecular Cloning and Physical Mapping of the Daptomycin Gene Cluster from Streptomyces roseosporus

    PubMed Central

    Mchenney, Margaret A.; Hosted, Thomas J.; Dehoff, Bradley S.; Rosteck, Paul R.; Baltz, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    The daptomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces roseosporus was analyzed by Tn5099 mutagenesis, molecular cloning, partial DNA sequencing, and insertional mutagenesis with cloned segments of DNA. The daptomycin biosynthetic gene cluster spans at least 50 kb and is located about 400 to 500 kb from one end of the ∼7,100-kb linear chromosome. We identified two peptide synthetase coding regions interrupted by a 10- to 20-kb region that may encode other functions in lipopeptide biosynthesis. PMID:9422604

  19. Regulation of transcription of cell division genes in the Escherichia coli dcw cluster.

    PubMed

    Vicente, M; Gomez, M J; Ayala, J A

    1998-04-01

    The Escherichia coli dcw cluster contains cell division genes, such as the phylogenetically ubiquitous ftsZ, and genes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis. Transcription in the cluster proceeds in the same direction as the progress of the replication fork along the chromosome. Regulation is exerted at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The absence of transcriptional termination signals may, in principle, allow extension of the transcripts initiated at the up-stream promoter (mraZ1p) even to the furthest down-stream gene (envA). Complementation tests suggest that they extend into ftsW in the central part of the cluster. In addition, the cluster contains other promoters individually regulated by cis- and trans-acting signals. Dissociation of the expression of the ftsZ gene, located after ftsQ and A near the 3' end of the cluster, from its natural regulatory signals leads to an alteration in the physiology of cell division. The complexities observed in the regulation of gene expression in the cluster may then have an important biological role. Among them, LexA-binding SOS boxes have been found at the 5' end of the cluster, preceding promoters which direct the expression of ftsI (coding for PBP3, the penicillin-binding protein involved in septum formation). A gearbox promoter, ftsQ1p, forms part of the signals regulating the transcription of ftsQ, A and Z. It is an inversely growth-dependent mechanism driven by RNA polymerase containing sigma s, the factor involved in the expression of stationary phase-specific genes. Although the dcw cluster is conserved to a different extent in a variety of bacteria, the regulation of gene expression, the presence or absence of individual genes, and even the essentiality of some of them, show variations in the phylogenetic scale which may reflect adaptation to specific life cycles. PMID:9614967

  20. Unusual Gene Order and Organization of the Sea Urchin HoxCluster

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Paul M.; Lucas, Susan; Cameron, R. Andrew; Rowen,Lee; Nesbitt, Ryan; Bloom, Scott; Rast, Jonathan P.; Berney, Kevin; Arenas-Mena, Cesar; Martinez, Pedro; Davidson, Eric H.; Peterson, KevinJ.; Hood, Leroy

    2005-05-10

    The highly consistent gene order and axial colinear expression patterns found in vertebrate hox gene clusters are less well conserved across the rest of bilaterians. We report the first deuterostome instance of an intact hox cluster with a unique gene order where the paralog groups are not expressed in a sequential manner. The finished sequence from BAC clones from the genome of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, reveals a gene order wherein the anterior genes (Hox1, Hox2 and Hox3) lie nearest the posterior genes in the cluster such that the most 3' gene is Hox5. (The gene order is : 5'-Hox1,2, 3, 11/13c, 11/13b, '11/13a, 9/10, 8, 7, 6, 5 - 3)'. The finished sequence result is corroborated by restriction mapping evidence and BAC-end scaffold analyses. Comparisons with a putative ancestral deuterostome Hox gene cluster suggest that the rearrangements leading to the sea urchin gene order were many and complex.

  1. Unusual Gene Order and Organization of the Sea Urchin Hox Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R A; Rowen, L; Nesbitt, R; Bloom, S; Rast, J P; Berney, K; Arenas-Mena, C; Martinez, P; Lucas, S; Richardson, P M; Davidson, E H; Peterson, K J; Hood, L

    2005-10-11

    The highly consistent gene order and axial colinear expression patterns found in vertebrate hox gene clusters are less well conserved across the rest of bilaterians. We report the first deuterostome instance of an intact hox cluster with a unique gene order where the paralog groups are not expressed in a sequential manner. The finished sequence from BAC clones from the genome of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, reveals a gene order wherein the anterior genes (Hox1, Hox2 and Hox3) lie nearest the posterior genes in the cluster such that the most 3 gene is Hox5. (The gene order is : 5-Hox1, 2, 3, 11/13c, 11/13b, 11/13a, 9/10, 8, 7, 6, 5 - 3). The finished sequence result is corroborated by restriction mapping evidence and BAC-end scaffold analyses. Comparisons with a putative ancestral deuterostome Hox gene cluster suggest that the rearrangements leading to the sea urchin gene order were many and complex.

  2. Fine genetic mapping localizes cucumber scab resistance gene Ccu into an R gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Kang, Houxiang; Weng, Yiqun; Yang, Yuhong; Zhang, Zhonghua; Zhang, Shengping; Mao, Zhenchuan; Cheng, Guohua; Gu, Xingfang; Huang, Sanwen; Xie, Bingyan

    2011-03-01

    Scab, caused by Cladosporium cucumerinum, is an important disease of cucumber, Cucumis sativus. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of the single dominant scab resistance gene, Ccu, with 148 F(9) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and 1,944 F(2) plants derived from the resistant cucumber inbred line 9110Gt and the susceptible line 9930, whose draft genome sequence is now available. A framework linkage map was first constructed with simple sequence repeat markers placing Ccu into the terminal 670 kb region of cucumber Chromosome 2. The 9110Gt genome was sequenced at 5× genome coverage with the Solexa next-generation sequencing technology. Sequence analysis of the assembled 9110Gt contigs and the Ccu region of the 9930 genome identified three insertion/deletion (Indel) markers, Indel01, Indel02, and Indel03 that were closely linked with the Ccu locus. On the high-resolution map developed with the F(2) population, the two closest flanking markers, Indel01 and Indel02, were 0.14 and 0.15 cM away from the target gene Ccu, respectively, and the physical distance between the two markers was approximately 140 kb. Detailed annotation of the 180 kb region harboring the Ccu locus identified a cluster of six resistance gene analogs (RGAs) that belong to the nucleotide binding site (NBS) type R genes. Four RGAs were in the region delimited by markers Indel01 and Indel02, and thus were possible candidates of Ccu. Comparative DNA analysis of this cucumber Ccu gene region with a melon (C. melo) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone revealed a high degree of micro-synteny and conservation of the RGA tandem repeats in this region. PMID:21104067

  3. Evidence that a secondary metabolic biosynthetic gene cluster has grown by gene relocation during evolution of the filamentous fungus Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Robert H; McCormick, Susan P; Alexander, Nancy J; Desjardins, Anne E

    2009-12-01

    Trichothecenes are terpene-derived secondary metabolites produced by multiple genera of filamentous fungi, including many plant pathogenic species of Fusarium. These metabolites are of interest because they are toxic to animals and plants and can contribute to pathogenesis of Fusarium on some crop species. Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides have trichothecene biosynthetic genes (TRI) at three loci: a 12-gene TRI cluster and two smaller TRI loci that consist of one or two genes. Here, comparisons of additional Fusarium species have provided evidence that TRI loci have a complex evolutionary history that has included loss, non-functionalization and rearrangement of genes as well as trans-species polymorphism. The results also indicate that the TRI cluster has expanded in some species by relocation of two genes into it from the smaller loci. Thus, evolutionary forces have driven consolidation of TRI genes into fewer loci in some fusaria but have maintained three distinct TRI loci in others. PMID:19843228

  4. Endogenous Methanol Regulates Mammalian Gene Activity

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Shindyapina, Anastasia V.; Silachev, Denis N.; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V.; Kiryanov, Gleb I.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis. PMID:24587296

  5. Characterization of two acetyltransferase genes in the pyripyropene biosynthetic gene cluster from Penicillium coprobium

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jie; Furutani, Ayako; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Oyama, Kazuhiko; Mitomi, Masaaki; Anzai, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Pyripyropenes potently and selectively inhibit acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT-2). Among multiple isomers of pyripyropene (A to R), pyripyropene A (PyA) has insecticidal properties in addition to its growth inhibition properties against human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Based on the predicted biosynthetic gene cluster of pyripyropene A, two genes (ppb8 and ppb9) encoding two acetyltransferases (ATs) were separately isolated and introduced into the model fungus Aspergillus oryzae, using the protoplast–polyethylene glycol method. The bioconversion of certain predicted intermediates in the transformants revealed the manner by which acetylation occurred in the biosynthetic pathway by the products expressed by these two genes (AT-1 and AT-2). The acetylated products detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the extracts from AT-1 and AT-2 transformant clones were not present in the extract from the transformant clone with an empty vector. The HLPC charts of each bioconversion study exhibited high peaks at 12, 10.5 and 9 min, respectively. Further ultraviolet absorption and mass spectrometry analyses identified the products as PyE, PyO and PyA, respectively. AT-1 acetylated the C-1 of deacetyl-pyripyropene E (deAc-PyE), while AT-2 played an active role in acetylating the C-11 of 11-deAc-PyO and C-7 of deAc-PyA at two different steps of the biosynthetic pathway. PMID:26019565

  6. The gene cluster of aureocyclicin 4185: the first cyclic bacteriocin of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Potter, Amina; Ceotto, Hilana; Coelho, Marcus Lívio Varella; Guimarães, Allan J; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2014-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus 4185 was previously shown to produce at least two bacteriocins. One of them is encoded by pRJ101. To detect the bacteriocin-encoding gene cluster, an ~9160 kb region of pRJ101 was sequenced. In silico analyses identified 10 genes (aclX, aclB, aclI, aclT, aclC, aclD, aclA, aclF, aclG and aclH) that might be involved in the production of a novel cyclic bacteriocin named aureocyclicin 4185. The organization of these genes was quite similar to that of the gene cluster responsible for carnocyclin A production and immunity. Four putative proteins encoded by these genes (AclT, AclC, AclD and AclA) also exhibited similarity to proteins encoded by cyclic bacteriocin gene clusters. Mutants derived from insertion of Tn917-lac into aclC, aclF, aclH and aclX were affected in bacteriocin production and growth. AclX is a 205 aa putative protein not encoded by the gene clusters of other cyclic bacteriocins. AclX exhibits 50 % similarity to a permease and has five putative membrane-spanning domains. Transcription analyses suggested that aclX is part of the aureocyclicin 4185 gene cluster, encoding a protein required for bacteriocin production. The aclA gene is the structural gene of aureocyclicin 4185, which shows 65 % similarity to garvicin ML. AclA is proposed to be cleaved off, generating a mature peptide with a predicted Mr of 5607 Da (60 aa). By homology modelling, AclA presents four α-helices, like carnocyclin A. AclA could not be found at detectable levels in the culture supernatant of a strain carrying only pRJ101. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cyclic bacteriocin gene cluster in the genus Staphylococcus. PMID:24574434

  7. Nanoscale spatial organization of the HoxD gene cluster in distinct transcriptional states.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Pierre J; Benke, Alexander; Joye, Elisabeth; Nguyen Huynh, Thi Hanh; Manley, Suliana; Duboule, Denis

    2015-11-10

    Chromatin condensation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Recently, it was shown that the transcriptional activation of Hoxd genes during vertebrate digit development involves modifications in 3D interactions within and around the HoxD gene cluster. This reorganization follows a global transition from one set of regulatory contacts to another, between two topologically associating domains (TADs) located on either side of the HoxD locus. Here, we use 3D DNA FISH to assess the spatial organization of chromatin at and around the HoxD gene cluster and report that although the two TADs are tightly associated, they appear as spatially distinct units. We measured the relative position of genes within the cluster and found that they segregate over long distances, suggesting that a physical elongation of the HoxD cluster can occur. We analyzed this possibility by super-resolution imaging (STORM) and found that tissues with distinct transcriptional activity exhibit differing degrees of elongation. We also observed that the morphological change of the HoxD cluster in developing digits is associated with its position at the boundary between the two TADs. Such variations in the fine-scale architecture of the gene cluster suggest causal links among its spatial configuration, transcriptional activation, and the flanking chromatin context. PMID:26504220

  8. Isolation and characterization of the gene cluster for biosynthesis of the thiopeptide antibiotic TP-1161.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Kerstin; Degnes, Kristin F; Zotchev, Sergey B

    2010-11-01

    Recently, we isolated a new thiopeptide antibiotic, TP-1161, from the fermentation broth of a marine actinomycete typed as a member of the genus Nocardiopsis. Here we report the identification, isolation, and analysis of the TP-1161 biosynthetic gene cluster from this species. The gene cluster was identified by mining a draft genome sequence using the predicted structural peptide sequence of TP-1161. Functional assignment of a ∼16-kb genomic region revealed 13 open reading frames proposed to constitute the TP-1161 biosynthetic locus. While the typical core set of thiopeptide modification enzymes contains one cyclodehydratase/dehydrogenase pair, paralogous genes predicted to encode additional cyclodehydratases and dehydrogenases were identified. Although attempts at heterologous expression of the TP-1161 gene cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor failed, its identity was confirmed through the targeted gene inactivation in the original host. PMID:20851988

  9. Chromosomal clustering and GATA transcriptional regulation of intestine-expressed genes in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Florencia; Liu, Yueyi; Kim, Yoona A; Chen, Pei-Jiun; Kim, Stuart K

    2006-01-01

    We used mRNA tagging to identify genes expressed in the intestine of C. elegans. Animals expressing an epitope-tagged protein that binds the poly-A tail of mRNAs (FLAG::PAB-1) from an intestine-specific promoter (ges-1) were used to immunoprecipitate FLAG::PAB-1/mRNA complexes from the intestine. A total of 1938 intestine-expressed genes (P<0.001) were identified using DNA microarrays. First, we compared the intestine-expressed genes with those expressed in the muscle and germline, and identified 510 genes enriched in all three tissues and 624 intestine-, 230 muscle- and 1135 germ line-enriched genes. Second, we showed that the 1938 intestine-expressed genes were physically clustered on the chromosomes, suggesting that the order of genes in the genome is influenced by the effect of chromatin domains on gene expression. Furthermore, the commonly expressed genes showed more chromosomal clustering than the tissue-enriched genes, suggesting that chromatin domains may influence housekeeping genes more than tissue-specific genes. Third, in order to gain further insight into the regulation of intestinal gene expression, we searched for regulatory motifs. This analysis found that the promoters of the intestine genes were enriched for the GATA transcription factor consensus binding sequence. We experimentally verified these results by showing that the GATA motif is required in cis and that GATA transcription factors are required in trans for expression of these intestinal genes. PMID:16354718

  10. The Fumagillin Gene Cluster, an Example of Hundreds of Genes under veA Control in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Sourabh; Lind, Abigail L.; Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Tang, Yi; Rokas, Antonis; Calvo, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the causative agent of invasive aspergillosis, leading to infection-related mortality in immunocompromised patients. We previously showed that the conserved and unique-to-fungi veA gene affects different cell processes such as morphological development, gliotoxin biosynthesis and protease activity, suggesting a global regulatory effect on the genome of this medically relevant fungus. In this study, RNA sequencing analysis revealed that veA controls the expression of hundreds of genes in A. fumigatus, including those comprising more than a dozen known secondary metabolite gene clusters. Chemical analysis confirmed that veA controls the synthesis of other secondary metabolites in this organism in addition to gliotoxin. Among the secondary metabolite gene clusters regulated by veA is the elusive but recently identified gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of fumagillin, a meroterpenoid known for its anti-angiogenic activity by binding to human methionine aminopeptidase 2. The fumagillin gene cluster contains a veA-dependent regulatory gene, fumR (Afu8g00420), encoding a putative C6 type transcription factor. Deletion of fumR results in silencing of the gene cluster and elimination of fumagillin biosynthesis. We found expression of fumR to also be dependent on laeA, a gene encoding another component of the fungal velvet complex. The results in this study argue that veA is a global regulator of secondary metabolism in A. fumigatus, and that veA may be a conduit via which chemical development is coupled to morphological development and other cellular processes. PMID:24116213

  11. Identification of a 12-gene Fusaric Acid Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Fusarium Species Through Comparative and Functional Genomics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daren W; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Lee-Han; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Lee, Soohyung; Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho; Busman, Mark; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Proctor, Robert H; Lee, Theresa

    2015-03-01

    In fungi, genes involved in biosynthesis of a secondary metabolite (SM) are often located adjacent to one another in the genome and are coordinately regulated. These SM biosynthetic gene clusters typically encode enzymes, one or more transcription factors, and a transport protein. Fusaric acid is a polyketide-derived SM produced by multiple species of the fungal genus Fusarium. This SM is of concern because it is toxic to animals and, therefore, is considered a mycotoxin and may contribute to plant pathogenesis. Preliminary descriptions of the fusaric acid (FA) biosynthetic gene (FUB) cluster have been reported in two Fusarium species, the maize pathogen F. verticillioides and the rice pathogen F. fujikuroi. The cluster consisted of five genes and did not include a transcription factor or transporter gene. Here, analysis of the FUB region in F. verticillioides, F. fujikuroi, and F. oxysporum, a plant pathogen with multiple hosts, indicates the FUB cluster consists of at least 12 genes (FUB1 to FUB12). Deletion analysis confirmed that nine FUB genes, including two Zn(II)2Cys6 transcription factor genes, are required for production of wild-type levels of FA. Comparisons of FUB cluster homologs across multiple Fusarium isolates and species revealed insertion of non-FUB genes at one or two locations in some homologs. Although the ability to produce FA contributed to the phytotoxicity of F. oxysporum culture extracts, lack of production did not affect virulence of F. oxysporum on cactus or F. verticillioides on maize seedlings. These findings provide new insights into the genetic and biochemical processes required for FA production. PMID:25372119

  12. Two Horizontally Transferred Xenobiotic Resistance Gene Clusters Associated with Detoxification of Benzoxazolinones by Fusarium Species

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Anthony E.; Davis, C. Britton; Gao, Minglu; Gold, Scott E.; Mitchell, Trevor R.; Proctor, Robert H.; Stewart, Jane E.; Snook, Maurice E.

    2016-01-01

    Microbes encounter a broad spectrum of antimicrobial compounds in their environments and often possess metabolic strategies to detoxify such xenobiotics. We have previously shown that Fusarium verticillioides, a fungal pathogen of maize known for its production of fumonisin mycotoxins, possesses two unlinked loci, FDB1 and FDB2, necessary for detoxification of antimicrobial compounds produced by maize, including the γ-lactam 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA). In support of these earlier studies, microarray analysis of F. verticillioides exposed to BOA identified the induction of multiple genes at FDB1 and FDB2, indicating the loci consist of gene clusters. One of the FDB1 cluster genes encoded a protein having domain homology to the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) superfamily. Deletion of this gene (MBL1) rendered F. verticillioides incapable of metabolizing BOA and thus unable to grow on BOA-amended media. Deletion of other FDB1 cluster genes, in particular AMD1 and DLH1, did not affect BOA degradation. Phylogenetic analyses and topology testing of the FDB1 and FDB2 cluster genes suggested two horizontal transfer events among fungi, one being transfer of FDB1 from Fusarium to Colletotrichum, and the second being transfer of the FDB2 cluster from Fusarium to Aspergillus. Together, the results suggest that plant-derived xenobiotics have exerted evolutionary pressure on these fungi, leading to horizontal transfer of genes that enhance fitness or virulence. PMID:26808652

  13. Two Horizontally Transferred Xenobiotic Resistance Gene Clusters Associated with Detoxification of Benzoxazolinones by Fusarium Species.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Anthony E; Davis, C Britton; Gao, Minglu; Gold, Scott E; Mitchell, Trevor R; Proctor, Robert H; Stewart, Jane E; Snook, Maurice E

    2016-01-01

    Microbes encounter a broad spectrum of antimicrobial compounds in their environments and often possess metabolic strategies to detoxify such xenobiotics. We have previously shown that Fusarium verticillioides, a fungal pathogen of maize known for its production of fumonisin mycotoxins, possesses two unlinked loci, FDB1 and FDB2, necessary for detoxification of antimicrobial compounds produced by maize, including the γ-lactam 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA). In support of these earlier studies, microarray analysis of F. verticillioides exposed to BOA identified the induction of multiple genes at FDB1 and FDB2, indicating the loci consist of gene clusters. One of the FDB1 cluster genes encoded a protein having domain homology to the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) superfamily. Deletion of this gene (MBL1) rendered F. verticillioides incapable of metabolizing BOA and thus unable to grow on BOA-amended media. Deletion of other FDB1 cluster genes, in particular AMD1 and DLH1, did not affect BOA degradation. Phylogenetic analyses and topology testing of the FDB1 and FDB2 cluster genes suggested two horizontal transfer events among fungi, one being transfer of FDB1 from Fusarium to Colletotrichum, and the second being transfer of the FDB2 cluster from Fusarium to Aspergillus. Together, the results suggest that plant-derived xenobiotics have exerted evolutionary pressure on these fungi, leading to horizontal transfer of genes that enhance fitness or virulence. PMID:26808652

  14. The Genome of Tolypocladium inflatum: Evolution, Organization, and Expression of the Cyclosporin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Bushley, Kathryn E.; Raja, Rajani; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Cumbie, Jason S.; Nonogaki, Mariko; Boyd, Alexander E.; Owensby, C. Alisha; Knaus, Brian J.; Elser, Justin; Miller, Daniel; Di, Yanming; McPhail, Kerry L.; Spatafora, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Tolypocladium inflatum, a pathogen of beetle larvae, is best known as the producer of the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin. The draft genome of T. inflatum strain NRRL 8044 (ATCC 34921), the isolate from which cyclosporin was first isolated, is presented along with comparative analyses of the biosynthesis of cyclosporin and other secondary metabolites in T. inflatum and related taxa. Phylogenomic analyses reveal previously undetected and complex patterns of homology between the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) that encodes for cyclosporin synthetase (simA) and those of other secondary metabolites with activities against insects (e.g., beauvericin, destruxins, etc.), and demonstrate the roles of module duplication and gene fusion in diversification of NRPSs. The secondary metabolite gene cluster responsible for cyclosporin biosynthesis is described. In addition to genes necessary for cyclosporin biosynthesis, it harbors a gene for a cyclophilin, which is a member of a family of immunophilins known to bind cyclosporin. Comparative analyses support a lineage specific origin of the cyclosporin gene cluster rather than horizontal gene transfer from bacteria or other fungi. RNA-Seq transcriptome analyses in a cyclosporin-inducing medium delineate the boundaries of the cyclosporin cluster and reveal high levels of expression of the gene cluster cyclophilin. In medium containing insect hemolymph, weaker but significant upregulation of several genes within the cyclosporin cluster, including the highly expressed cyclophilin gene, was observed. T. inflatum also represents the first reference draft genome of Ophiocordycipitaceae, a third family of insect pathogenic fungi within the fungal order Hypocreales, and supports parallel and qualitatively distinct radiations of insect pathogens. The T. inflatum genome provides additional insight into the evolution and biosynthesis of cyclosporin and lays a foundation for further investigations of the role

  15. Shared Gene Structures and Clusters of Mutually Exclusive Spliced Exons within the Metazoan Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kollmar, Martin; Hatje, Klas

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular animals possess two to three different types of muscle tissues. Striated muscles have considerable ultrastructural similarity and contain a core set of proteins including the muscle myosin heavy chain (Mhc) protein. The ATPase activity of this myosin motor protein largely dictates muscle performance at the molecular level. Two different solutions to adjusting myosin properties to different muscle subtypes have been identified so far: Vertebrates and nematodes contain many independent differentially expressed Mhc genes while arthropods have single Mhc genes with clusters of mutually exclusive spliced exons (MXEs). The availability of hundreds of metazoan genomes now allowed us to study whether the ancient bilateria already contained MXEs, how MXE complexity subsequently evolved, and whether additional scenarios to control contractile properties in different muscles could be proposed, By reconstructing the Mhc genes from 116 metazoans we showed that all intron positions within the motor domain coding regions are conserved in all bilateria analysed. The last common ancestor of the bilateria already contained a cluster of MXEs coding for part of the loop-2 actin-binding sequence. Subsequently the protostomes and later the arthropods gained many further clusters while MXEs got completely lost independently in several branches (vertebrates and nematodes) and species (for example the annelid Helobdella robusta and the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Several bilateria have been found to encode multiple Mhc genes that might all or in part contain clusters of MXEs. Notable examples are a cluster of six tandemly arrayed Mhc genes, of which two contain MXEs, in the owl limpet Lottia gigantea and four Mhc genes with three encoding MXEs in the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis. Our analysis showed that similar solutions to provide different myosin isoforms (multiple genes or clusters of MXEs or both) have independently been developed several times

  16. CASSIS and SMIPS: promoter-based prediction of secondary metabolite gene clusters in eukaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Thomas; Shelest, Vladimir; Nath, Neetika; Shelest, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Secondary metabolites (SM) are structurally diverse natural products of high pharmaceutical importance. Genes involved in their biosynthesis are often organized in clusters, i.e., are co-localized and co-expressed. In silico cluster prediction in eukaryotic genomes remains problematic mainly due to the high variability of the clusters’ content and lack of other distinguishing sequence features. Results: We present Cluster Assignment by Islands of Sites (CASSIS), a method for SM cluster prediction in eukaryotic genomes, and Secondary Metabolites by InterProScan (SMIPS), a tool for genome-wide detection of SM key enzymes (‘anchor’ genes): polyketide synthases, non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and dimethylallyl tryptophan synthases. Unlike other tools based on protein similarity, CASSIS exploits the idea of co-regulation of the cluster genes, which assumes the existence of common regulatory patterns in the cluster promoters. The method searches for ‘islands’ of enriched cluster-specific motifs in the vicinity of anchor genes. It was validated in a series of cross-validation experiments and showed high sensitivity and specificity. Availability and implementation: CASSIS and SMIPS are freely available at https://sbi.hki-jena.de/cassis. Contact: thomas.wolf@leibniz-hki.de or ekaterina.shelest@leibniz-hki.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26656005

  17. Clustering of time-course gene expression profiles using normal mixture models with autoregressive random effects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Time-course gene expression data such as yeast cell cycle data may be periodically expressed. To cluster such data, currently used Fourier series approximations of periodic gene expressions have been found not to be sufficiently adequate to model the complexity of the time-course data, partly due to their ignoring the dependence between the expression measurements over time and the correlation among gene expression profiles. We further investigate the advantages and limitations of available models in the literature and propose a new mixture model with autoregressive random effects of the first order for the clustering of time-course gene-expression profiles. Some simulations and real examples are given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed models. Results We illustrate the applicability of our new model using synthetic and real time-course datasets. We show that our model outperforms existing models to provide more reliable and robust clustering of time-course data. Our model provides superior results when genetic profiles are correlated. It also gives comparable results when the correlation between the gene profiles is weak. In the applications to real time-course data, relevant clusters of coregulated genes are obtained, which are supported by gene-function annotation databases. Conclusions Our new model under our extension of the EMMIX-WIRE procedure is more reliable and robust for clustering time-course data because it adopts a random effects model that allows for the correlation among observations at different time points. It postulates gene-specific random effects with an autocorrelation variance structure that models coregulation within the clusters. The developed R package is flexible in its specification of the random effects through user-input parameters that enables improved modelling and consequent clustering of time-course data. PMID:23151154

  18. Parsing a multifunctional biosynthetic gene cluster from rice: Biochemical characterization of CYP71Z6 & 7.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yisheng; Hillwig, Matthew L; Wang, Qiang; Peters, Reuben J

    2011-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) contains a biosynthetic gene cluster associated with production of at least two groups of diterpenoid phytoalexins, the antifungal phytocassanes and antibacterial oryzalides. While cytochromes P450 (CYP) from this cluster are known to be involved in phytocassane production, such mono-oxygenase activity relevant to oryzalide biosynthesis was unknown. Here we report biochemical characterization demonstrating that CYP71Z6 from this cluster acts as an ent-isokaurene C2-hydroxylase that is presumably involved in the biosynthesis of oryzalides. Our results further suggest that the closely related and co-clustered CYP71Z7 likely acts as a C2-hydroxylase involved in a latter step of phytocassane biosynthesis. Thus, CYP71Z6 & 7 appear to have evolved distinct roles in rice diterpenoid metabolism, offering insight into plant biosynthetic gene cluster evolution. PMID:21985968

  19. Parsing a multifunctional biosynthetic gene cluster from rice: Biochemical characterization of CYP71Z6 & 7

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yisheng; Hillwig, Matthew L.; Wang, Qiang; Peters, Reuben J.

    2011-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) contains a biosynthetic gene cluster associated with production of at least two groups of diterpenoid phytoalexins, the antifungal phytocassanes and antibacterial oryzalides. While cytochromes P450 (CYP) from this cluster are known to be involved in phytocassane production, such mono-oxygenase activity relevant to oryzalide biosynthesis was unknown. Here we report biochemical characterization demonstrating that CYP71Z6 from this cluster acts as an ent-isokaurene C2-hydroxylase that is presumably involved in the biosynthesis of oryzalides. Our results further suggest that the closely related and co-clustered CYP71Z7 likely acts as a C2-hydroxylase involved in a latter step of phytocassane biosynthesis. Thus, CYP71Z6 & 7 appear to have evolved distinct roles in rice diterpenoid metabolism, offering insight into plant biosynthetic gene cluster evolution. PMID:21985968

  20. ADH-PGE2 interactions in cortical collecting tubule. II. inhibition of Ca and P reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Holt, W F; Lechene, C

    1981-10-01

    In the absence of ADH, microperfused cortical collecting tubules of rabbits reabsorb calcium and phosphorus. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (200 microunits/ml Pitressin or synthetic arginine vasopressin) inhibits the reabsorption and may promote the secretion of calcium and phosphorus. At 5 min after incubation with ADH, there was a transitory increase in the potential difference and the reabsorption of sodium. The fluxes of calcium and phosphorus, however, showed no significant change from the control values. At 30-50 min after treatment with ADH, the reabsorption of calcium and phosphorus was inhibited and in some tubules calcium and phosphorus were secreted. The removal of vasopressin from the bath or the addition of 10(-5) M meclofenamate in vitro prevented ADH from inhibiting the reabsorption of calcium and phosphorus. Treatment of tubules with 10(-5) M prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) subsequent to incubation in a medium containing ADH and meclofenamate inhibited the reabsorption or even promoted the secretin of calcium and phosphorus, as did the prolonged incubation with ADH alone. We conclude that cortical collecting tubules reabsorb calcium and phosphorus in the absence of vasopressin and that ADH inhibits calcium and phosphorus reabsorption. Endogenous synthesis of PGE2 may mediate the inhibitory action of ADH, since meclofenamate (an inhibitor of the synthesis of prostaglandins) opposes and exogenous PGE2 mimics ADH. PMID:6947697

  1. Responses of reindeer to water loading, water restriction and ADH.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, M; Eriksson, L

    1977-07-01

    Two female reindeer were hydrated by administration of (10% of b.wt.) water into the rumen. The diuretic response was very fast and strong but the urea and electrolyte excretion were little affected. Dehydration was carried out by not giving the reindeer water for 48 h. This water deprivation caused a loss of up to 20% of their body weight. The urine osmolality did not exceed 840 mosm/kg H2O, although the plasma osmolality rose from 300 to 346 and 368 mosm/kg H2O respectively. The plasma and urine urea concentrations were elevated during dehydration, while the urine urea excretion did not increase. Urine sodium concentration did not increase. When the urine flow rate, after two days of water deprivation, decreased to half of the original, the urine Na+ concentrations, instead of increasing, went down to half of the original. So did the potassium excretion. When ADH was injected intravenously into hydrated animals a dose of 30 mU of ADH was needed to induce antidiuresis or increased excretion of potassium. The resistance to ADH and the low relative thickness of the medulla confirm the limited capacity of reindeer kidney to concentrate urine or to excrete a solute load. On the other hand, reindeer is able rapidly to excrete surplus water without affecting the electrolyte or nitrogen balance. PMID:920204

  2. Insights into secondary metabolism from a global analysis of prokaryotic biosynthetic gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Cimermancic, Peter; Medema, Marnix H.; Claesen, Jan; Kurita, Kenji; Wieland Brown, Laura C.; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Pati, Amrita; Godfrey, Paul A.; Koehrsen, Michael; Clardy, Jon; Birren, Bruce W.; Takano, Eriko; Sali, Andrej; Linington, Roger G.; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Although biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) have been discovered for hundreds of bacterial metabolites, our knowledge of their diversity remains limited. Here, we used a novel algorithm to systematically identify BGCs in the extensive extant microbial sequencing data. Network analysis of the predicted BGCs revealed large gene cluster families, the vast majority uncharacterized. We experimentally characterized the most prominent family, consisting of two subfamilies of hundreds of BGCs distributed throughout the Proteobacteria; their products are aryl polyenes, lipids with an aryl head group conjugated to a polyene tail. We identified a distant relationship to a third subfamily of aryl polyene BGCs, and together the three subfamilies represent the largest known family of biosynthetic gene clusters, with more than 1,000 members. Although these clusters are widely divergent in sequence, their small molecule products are remarkably conserved, indicating for the first time the important roles these compounds play in Gram-negative cell biology. PMID:25036635

  3. Mass distributed clustering: a new algorithm for repeated measurements in gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Shinya; Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Kanno, Jun

    2005-01-01

    The availability of whole-genome sequence data and high-throughput techniques such as DNA microarray enable researchers to monitor the alteration of gene expression by a certain organ or tissue in a comprehensive manner. The quantity of gene expression data can be greater than 30,000 genes per one measurement, making data clustering methods for analysis essential. Biologists usually design experimental protocols so that statistical significance can be evaluated; often, they conduct experiments in triplicate to generate a mean and standard deviation. Existing clustering methods usually use these mean or median values, rather than the original data, and take significance into account by omitting data showing large standard deviations, which eliminates potentially useful information. We propose a clustering method that uses each of the triplicate data sets as a probability distribution function instead of pooling data points into a median or mean. This method permits truly unsupervised clustering of the data from DNA microarrays. PMID:16901101

  4. Genomics-driven discovery of the pneumocandin biosynthetic gene cluster in the fungus Glarea lozoyensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The antifungal therapy caspofungin is a semi-synthetic derivative of pneumocandin B0, a lipohexapeptide produced by the fungus Glarea lozoyensis, and was the first member of the echinocandin class approved for human therapy. The nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-polyketide synthases (PKS) gene cluster responsible for pneumocandin biosynthesis from G. lozoyensis has not been elucidated to date. In this study, we report the elucidation of the pneumocandin biosynthetic gene cluster by whole genome sequencing of the G. lozoyensis wild-type strain ATCC 20868. Results The pneumocandin biosynthetic gene cluster contains a NRPS (GLNRPS4) and a PKS (GLPKS4) arranged in tandem, two cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, seven other modifying enzymes, and genes for L-homotyrosine biosynthesis, a component of the peptide core. Thus, the pneumocandin biosynthetic gene cluster is significantly more autonomous and organized than that of the recently characterized echinocandin B gene cluster. Disruption mutants of GLNRPS4 and GLPKS4 no longer produced the pneumocandins (A0 and B0), and the Δglnrps4 and Δglpks4 mutants lost antifungal activity against the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. In addition to pneumocandins, the G. lozoyensis genome encodes a rich repertoire of natural product-encoding genes including 24 PKSs, six NRPSs, five PKS-NRPS hybrids, two dimethylallyl tryptophan synthases, and 14 terpene synthases. Conclusions Characterization of the gene cluster provides a blueprint for engineering new pneumocandin derivatives with improved pharmacological properties. Whole genome estimation of the secondary metabolite-encoding genes from G. lozoyensis provides yet another example of the huge potential for drug discovery from natural products from the fungal kingdom. PMID:23688303

  5. A novel gene cluster in Fusarium graminearum expressed under mycotoxin induction conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified a cluster of eight genes (gene loci fg08077 - fg08084) in Fusarium graminearum that is concomitantly up-regulated (Northern and qPCR analysis) under growth conditions that promote mycotoxin production. Proteomics experiments (iTRAQ analysis) have confirmed the up-regulation of pr...

  6. A T7 RNA polymerase-based toolkit for the concerted expression of clustered genes.

    PubMed

    Arvani, Solmaz; Markert, Annette; Loeschcke, Anita; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Drepper, Thomas

    2012-06-15

    Bacterial genes whose enzymes are either assembled into complex multi-domain proteins or form biosynthetic pathways are frequently organized within large chromosomal clusters. The functional expression of clustered genes, however, remains challenging since it generally requires an expression system that facilitates the coordinated transcription of numerous genes irrespective of their natural promoters and terminators. Here, we report on the development of a novel expression system that is particularly suitable for the homologous expression of multiple genes organized in a contiguous cluster. The new expression toolkit consists of an Ω interposon cassette carrying a T7 RNA polymerase specific promoter which is designed for promoter tagging of clustered genes and a small set of broad-host-range plasmids providing the respective polymerase in different bacteria. The uptake hydrogenase gene locus of the photosynthetic non-sulfur purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus which consists of 16 genes was used as an example to demonstrate functional expression only by T7 RNA polymerase but not by bacterial RNA polymerase. Our findings clearly indicate that due to its unique properties T7 RNA polymerase can be applied for overexpression of large and complex bacterial gene regions. PMID:22285639

  7. Variation in the fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster in fumonisin-producing and nonproducing black aspergilli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to produce fumonisin mycotoxins varies among members of the black aspergilli. Previously, analyses of selected genes in the fumonisin biosynthetic gene (fum) cluster in black aspergilli from California grapes indicated that fumonisin-nonproducing isolates of Aspergillus welwitschiae lack...

  8. Identification of the Herboxidiene Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Lei; Zi, Jiachen; Zeng, Jia

    2012-01-01

    The 53-kb biosynthetic gene cluster for the novel anticholesterol natural product herboxidiene was identified in Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982 by genome sequencing and gene inactivation. In addition to herboxidiene, a biosynthetic intermediate, 18-deoxy-herboxidiene, was also isolated from the fermentation broth of S. chromofuscus ATCC 49982 as a minor metabolite. PMID:22247174

  9. Degeneration of aflatoxin gene clusters in Aspergillus flavus from Africa and North America.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bishwo N; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Cotty, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Aspergillus flavus is the most common causal agent of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed. However, aflatoxin-producing potential varies widely among A. flavus genotypes with many producing no aflatoxins. Some non-aflatoxigenic genotypes are used as biocontrol agents to prevent contamination. Aflatoxin biosynthesis genes are tightly clustered in a highly conserved order. Gene deletions and presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in aflatoxin biosynthesis genes are often associated with A. flavus inability to produce aflatoxins. In order to identify mechanisms of non-aflatoxigenicity in non-aflatoxigenic genotypes of value in aflatoxin biocontrol, complete cluster sequences of 35 A. flavus genotypes from Africa and North America were analyzed. Inability of some genotypes to produce aflatoxin resulted from deletion of biosynthesis genes. In other genotypes, non-aflatoxigenicity originated from SNP formation. The process of degeneration differed across the gene cluster; genes involved in early biosynthesis stages were more likely to be deleted while genes involved in later stages displayed high frequencies of SNPs. Comparative analyses of aflatoxin gene clusters provides insight into the diversity of mechanisms of non-aflatoxigenicity in A. flavus genotypes used as biological control agents. The sequences provide resources for both diagnosis of non-aflatoxigenicity and monitoring of biocontrol genotypes during biopesticide manufacture and in the environment. PMID:27576895

  10. Cloning and identification of the lobophorin biosynthetic gene cluster from marine Streptomyces olivaceus strain FXJ7.023.

    PubMed

    Yue, Changwu; Niu, Jing; Liu, Ning; Lü, Yuhong; Liu, Minghao; Li, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    A full length about 105 kb gene cluster containing 35 open reading frames involved in the biosynthesis of lobophorins was cloned and sequenced from a fosmid genomic library of Streptomyces olivaceus strain FXJ7.023. The cluster was identified by genome wide annotation and analysis of secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters by anti SMASH and knockout of loading module-contained region of polyketide skeleton synthesis gene (the starter of lobS1). Gene cluster comparative analysis suggested that the cluster encoded the complete genes for lobophorin polyketide assembly, modification, substrate catalysis, regulation, transportation and resistance, and shows great identity to the newest reported lobophorin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 01127, but with a significant gene rearrangement in the PKS modules. PMID:27005505

  11. Organization of a large gene cluster encoding ribosomal proteins in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 6301: comparison of gene clusters among cyanobacteria, eubacteria and chloroplast genomes.

    PubMed

    Sugita, M; Sugishita, H; Fujishiro, T; Tsuboi, M; Sugita, C; Endo, T; Sugiura, M

    1997-08-11

    The structure of a large gene cluster containing 22 ribosomal protein (r-protein) genes of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC6301 is presented. Based on DNA and protein sequence analyses, genes encoding r-proteins L3, L4, L23, L2, S19, L22, S3, L16, L29, S17, L14, L24, L5, S8, L6, L18, S5, L15, L36, S13, S11, L17, SecY, adenylate kinase (AK) and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase were identified. The gene order is similar to that of the E. coli S10, spc and alpha operons. Unlike the corresponding E. coli operons, the genes for r-proteins S4, S10, S14 and L30 are not present in this cluster. The organization of Synechococcus r-protein genes also resembles that of chloroplast (cp) r-protein genes of red and brown algal species. This strongly supports the endosymbiotic theory that the cp genome evolved from an ancient photosynthetic bacterium. PMID:9300823

  12. The Interleukin 1 Gene Cluster Contains a Major Susceptibility Locus for Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Timms, Andrew E.; Crane, Alison M.; Sims, Anne-Marie; Cordell, Heather J.; Bradbury, Linda A.; Abbott, Aaron; Coyne, Mark R. E.; Beynon, Owen; Herzberg, Ibi; Duff, Gordon W.; Calin, Andrei; Cardon, Lon R.; Wordsworth, B. Paul; Brown, Matthew A.

    2004-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common and highly heritable inflammatory arthropathy. Although the gene HLA-B27 is almost essential for the inheritance of the condition, it alone is not sufficient to explain the pattern of familial recurrence of the disease. We have previously demonstrated suggestive linkage of AS to chromosome 2q13, a region containing the interleukin 1 (IL-1) family gene cluster, which includes several strong candidates for involvement in the disease. In the current study, we describe strong association and transmission of IL-1 family gene cluster single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes with AS. PMID:15309690

  13. A putative greigite-type magnetosome gene cluster from the candidate phylum Latescibacteria.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Pan, Yongxin

    2015-04-01

    The intracellular biomineralization of magnetite and/or greigite magnetosomes in magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) is strictly controlled by a group of conserved genes, termed magnetosome genes, which are organized as clusters (or islands) in MTB genomes. So far, all reported MTB are affiliated within the Proteobacteria phylum, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3. Here, we report the discovery of a putative magnetosome gene cluster structure from the draft genome of an uncultivated bacterium belonging to the candidate phylum Latescibacteria (formerly candidate division WS3) recently recovered by Rinke and colleagues, which contains 10 genes with homology to magnetosome mam genes of magnetotactic Proteobacteria and Nitrospirae. Moreover, these genes are phylogenetically closely related to greigite-type magnetosome genes that were only found from the Deltaproteobacteria MTB before, suggesting that the greigite genes may originate earlier than previously imagined. These findings indicate that some members of Latescibacteria may be capable of forming greigite magnetosomes, and thus may play previously unrecognized roles in environmental iron and sulfur cycles. The conserved genomic structure of magnetosome gene cluster in Latescibacteria phylum supports the hypothesis of horizontal transfer of these genes among distantly related bacterial groups in nature. PMID:25382584

  14. Co-clustering phenome–genome for phenotype classification and disease gene discovery

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, TaeHyun; Atluri, Gowtham; Xie, MaoQiang; Dey, Sanjoy; Hong, Changjin; Kumar, Vipin; Kuang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the categorization of human diseases is critical for reliably identifying disease causal genes. Recently, genome-wide studies of abnormal chromosomal locations related to diseases have mapped >2000 phenotype–gene relations, which provide valuable information for classifying diseases and identifying candidate genes as drug targets. In this article, a regularized non-negative matrix tri-factorization (R-NMTF) algorithm is introduced to co-cluster phenotypes and genes, and simultaneously detect associations between the detected phenotype clusters and gene clusters. The R-NMTF algorithm factorizes the phenotype–gene association matrix under the prior knowledge from phenotype similarity network and protein–protein interaction network, supervised by the label information from known disease classes and biological pathways. In the experiments on disease phenotype–gene associations in OMIM and KEGG disease pathways, R-NMTF significantly improved the classification of disease phenotypes and disease pathway genes compared with support vector machines and Label Propagation in cross-validation on the annotated phenotypes and genes. The newly predicted phenotypes in each disease class are highly consistent with human phenotype ontology annotations. The roles of the new member genes in the disease pathways are examined and validated in the protein–protein interaction subnetworks. Extensive literature review also confirmed many new members of the disease classes and pathways as well as the predicted associations between disease phenotype classes and pathways. PMID:22735708

  15. Human histone gene organization: Nonregular arrangement within a large cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Albig, W.; Meergans, K.; Doenecke, D.

    1997-03-01

    We have previously located the genes of the five human main type H1 genes and the gene encoding the testicular subtype H1t to the region 21.1 to 22.2 on the short arm of chromosome 6. To investigate the organization of the histone genes in this region, we isolated two YACs from a human YAC library by PCR screening with primers specific for histone H1.1. This screen revealed two YAC clones. YAC Y23 (corresponding to ICRFy901D1223) contains an insert of about 480 kb, whereas the smaller YAC 4A (corresponding to ICRFy900C104) spans about 340 kb and is completely covered by YAC Y23. We have subcloned the YAC inserts in cosmids, determined the linear orientation of the cosmids by cosmid walking, and constructed a restriction map of the entire region by mapping the individual cosmids using partial digests and hybridization with labeled oligonucleotides complementary to the cos site of the vector. Hybridization analysis, subcloning, restriction mapping, and sequencing revealed that most of the previously isolated phage and cosmid clones containing histone genes are part of this YAC including the clones containing the four human main type H1 histone genes H1.1 to H1.4, the H1t gene, and core histone genes. Thirty-five histone genes map within 260 kb of the YAC Y23 insert. All newly identified histone genes were sequenced, and the sequences were deposited with the EMBL nucleotide sequence database. The histone H1.5 gene is not part of this region, and we therefore conclude that the H1.5 gene and the associated core histone genes form a separate subcluster within this chromosomal region. 53 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Identification and manipulation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster from Clitopilus passeckerianus for increased rapid antibiotic production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Andy M.; Alberti, Fabrizio; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; de Mattos-Shipley, Kate; Hartley, Amanda J.; Hayes, Patrick; Griffin, Alison; Lazarus, Colin M.; Cox, Russell J.; Willis, Christine L.; O’Dwyer, Karen; Spence, David W.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-synthetic derivatives of the tricyclic diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin from the basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus are important in combatting bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human applications, with novel mode of action and lack of cross-resistance, representing a class with great potential. Basidiomycete fungi, being dikaryotic, are not generally amenable to strain improvement. We report identification of the seven-gene pleuromutilin gene cluster and verify that using various targeted approaches aimed at increasing antibiotic production in C. passeckerianus, no improvement in yield was achieved. The seven-gene pleuromutilin cluster was reconstructed within Aspergillus oryzae giving production of pleuromutilin in an ascomycete, with a significant increase (2106%) in production. This is the first gene cluster from a basidiomycete to be successfully expressed in an ascomycete, and paves the way for the exploitation of a metabolically rich but traditionally overlooked group of fungi.

  17. Structure and gene cluster of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O137.

    PubMed

    Perepelov, Andrei V; Guo, Xi; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Li, Yayue; Shashkov, Alexander S; Liu, Bin; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-03-01

    The O-polysaccharide (O-antigen) was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O137 and studied by sugar analysis and NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the branched tetrasaccharide repeating unit was established: Formula: see text] Both structure and gene cluster of the E. coli O137 polysaccharide are related to those of the E. coli K40 polysaccharide (Amor et al., 1999), which lacks the side-chain glucosylation but contains serine that is amide-linked to GlcA. Functions of genes in the O137-antigen gene cluster were assigned by a comparison with those in K40 and sequences in the available databases. Particularly, predicted glycosyltransferases encoded in the gene cluster were assigned to the formation of three glycosidic linkages in the O-polysaccharide repeating unit. PMID:26845703

  18. Microbisporicin gene cluster reveals unusual features of lantibiotic biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Foulston, Lucy C.; Bibb, Mervyn J.

    2010-01-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized, posttranslationally modified peptide antibiotics. The biosynthetic gene cluster for microbisporicin, a potent lantibiotic produced by the actinomycete Microbispora corallina containing chlorinated tryptophan and dihydroxyproline residues, was identified by genome scanning and isolated from an M. corallina cosmid library. Heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 confirmed that all of the genes required for microbisporicin biosynthesis were present in the cluster. Deletion, in M. corallina, of the gene (mibA) predicted to encode the prepropeptide abolished microbisporicin production. Further deletion analysis revealed insights into the biosynthesis of this unusual and potentially clinically useful lantibiotic, shedding light on mechanisms of regulation and self-resistance. In particular, we report an example of the involvement of a tryptophan halogenase in the modification of a ribosomally synthesized peptide and the pathway-specific regulation of an antibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster by an extracytoplasmic function σ factor–anti-σ factor complex. PMID:20628010

  19. Identification and manipulation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster from Clitopilus passeckerianus for increased rapid antibiotic production

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Andy M.; Alberti, Fabrizio; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; de Mattos-Shipley, Kate; Hartley, Amanda J.; Hayes, Patrick; Griffin, Alison; Lazarus, Colin M.; Cox, Russell J.; Willis, Christine L.; O’Dwyer, Karen; Spence, David W.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Semi-synthetic derivatives of the tricyclic diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin from the basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus are important in combatting bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human applications, with novel mode of action and lack of cross-resistance, representing a class with great potential. Basidiomycete fungi, being dikaryotic, are not generally amenable to strain improvement. We report identification of the seven-gene pleuromutilin gene cluster and verify that using various targeted approaches aimed at increasing antibiotic production in C. passeckerianus, no improvement in yield was achieved. The seven-gene pleuromutilin cluster was reconstructed within Aspergillus oryzae giving production of pleuromutilin in an ascomycete, with a significant increase (2106%) in production. This is the first gene cluster from a basidiomycete to be successfully expressed in an ascomycete, and paves the way for the exploitation of a metabolically rich but traditionally overlooked group of fungi. PMID:27143514

  20. Localization and mapping of CO/sub 2/ fixation genes within two gene clusters in Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.L.; Tabita, F.R.

    1988-05-01

    Two fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase structural genes (fbpA and fbpB) have been identified within two unlinked gene clusters that were previously shown to contain the Rhodobacter sphaeroides sequences that code form I and form II ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase and phosphoribulokinase. The fbpA and fbpB genes were localized to a region immediately upstream from the corresponding prkA and prkB sequences and were found to be transcribed in the same direction as the phosphoribulokinase and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase genes based on inducible expression of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase activity directed by the lac promoter. A recombinant plasmid was constructed that contained the tandem fbpA and prkA genes inserted downstream from the lac promoter in plasmid pUC18. Both gene products were expressed in Escherichia coli upon induction of transcription with isopropyl ..beta..-D-thiogalactoside, demonstrating that the two genes can be cotranscribed. A Zymomonas mobilis glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene (gap) hybridized to a DNA sequence located approximately 1 kilobase upstream from the form II ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase gene. Although no corresponding gap sequence was found within the form I gene cluster, an additional region of homology was detected immediately upstream from the sequences that encode the form I and form II ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenases.

  1. Cloning and characterization of a Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 gene cluster encoding toluene-4-monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Kwangmu Yen; Karl, M.R.; Blatt, L.M.; Simon, M.J.; Winter, R.B.; Fausset, P.R.; Lu, H.S.; Harcourt, A.A.; Chen, K.K. )

    1991-09-01

    Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 metabolizes toluene as a carbon source by a previously unknown pathway. The initial step of the pathway is hydroxylation of toluene to form p-cresol by a multicomponent toluene-4-monooxygenase (T4MO) system. The authors have cloned and characterized a gene cluster from KR 1 that determines the T4MO activity. To clone the T4MO genes, KR1 DNA libraries were constructed in Escherichia coli HB 101 by using a broad-host-range vector and transferred to a KR1 mutant able to grow on p-cresol but no on toluene. An insert consisting of two SacI fragments of identical size was shown to complement the mutant for growth on toluene. One of the SacI fragments, when cloned into the E. coli vector pUC19, was found to direct the synthesis of indigo dye. The indigo-forming property was correlated with the presence of T4MO activity. The T4MO genes were mapped to a 3.6-kb region, and the direction of transcription was determined. DNA sequencing and N-terminal amino acid determination identified a five-gene cluster, tmoABCDE, within this region. Expression of this cluster carrying a single mutation in each gene demonstrated that each of the five genes is essential for T4MO activity. Other evidence presented indicated that none of the tmo genes was involved in the regulation of the tmo gene cluster, in the control of substrate transport of the T4MO system, or in major processing of the products of the tmo genes. It was tentatively concluded that the tmoABCDE genes encode structural polypeptides of the T4MO enzyme system. One of the tmo genes was tentatively identified as a ferredoxin gene.

  2. Quantitative analysis of RNA produced by slow and fast alleles of Adh in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, C C; Stam, L F

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) locus (Adh) of Drosophila melanogaster in polymorphic on a world-wide basis for two allozymes, Fast and Slow. This study was undertaken to determine whether the well-established difference in ADH protein concentration between the allozymes is due to a difference in mRNA levels. RNA gel blot hybridization and an RNase protection assay were used to quantify ADH mRNA levels. Each method used an Adh null mutant as an internal standard. Several Slow and Fast allele pairs of different geographic origins were analyzed. The results provide strong evidence that the ADH protein concentration difference is not accounted for by RNA level. Images PMID:2455893

  3. Clusters of Antibiotic Resistance Genes Enriched Together Stay Together in Swine Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Timothy A.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Wang, Qiong; Cole, James R.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Looft, Torey; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide health risk, but the influence of animal agriculture on the genetic context and enrichment of individual antibiotic resistance alleles remains unclear. Using quantitative PCR followed by amplicon sequencing, we quantified and sequenced 44 genes related to antibiotic resistance, mobile genetic elements, and bacterial phylogeny in microbiomes from U.S. laboratory swine and from swine farms from three Chinese regions. We identified highly abundant resistance clusters: groups of resistance and mobile genetic element alleles that cooccur. For example, the abundance of genes conferring resistance to six classes of antibiotics together with class 1 integrase and the abundance of IS6100-type transposons in three Chinese regions are directly correlated. These resistance cluster genes likely colocalize in microbial genomes in the farms. Resistance cluster alleles were dramatically enriched (up to 1 to 10% as abundant as 16S rRNA) and indicate that multidrug-resistant bacteria are likely the norm rather than an exception in these communities. This enrichment largely occurred independently of phylogenetic composition; thus, resistance clusters are likely present in many bacterial taxa. Furthermore, resistance clusters contain resistance genes that confer resistance to antibiotics independently of their particular use on the farms. Selection for these clusters is likely due to the use of only a subset of the broad range of chemicals to which the clusters confer resistance. The scale of animal agriculture and its wastes, the enrichment and horizontal gene transfer potential of the clusters, and the vicinity of large human populations suggest that managing this resistance reservoir is important for minimizing human risk. PMID:27073098

  4. The Genetic and Molecular Organization of the Dopa Decarboxylase Gene Cluster of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Stathakis, D. G.; Pentz, E. S.; Freeman, M. E.; Kullman, J.; Hankins, G. R.; Pearlson, N. J.; Wright, TRF.

    1995-01-01

    We report the complete molecular organization of the Dopa decarboxylase gene cluster. Mutagenesis screens recovered 77 new Df(2L)TW130 recessive lethal mutations. These new alleles combined with 263 previously isolated mutations in the cluster to define 18 essential genes. In addition, seven new deficiencies were isolated and characterized. Deficiency mapping, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and P-element-mediated germline transformation experiments determined the gene order for all 18 loci. Genomic and cDNA restriction endonuclease mapping, Northern blot analysis and DNA sequencing provided information on exact gene location, mRNA size and transcriptional direction for most of these loci. In addition, this analysis identified two transcription units that had not previously been identified by extensive mutagenesis screening. Most of the loci are contained within two dense subclusters. We discuss the effectiveness of mutagens and strategies used in our screens, the variable mutability of loci within the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, the cytological and molecular organization of the Ddc gene cluster, the validity of the one band-one gene hypothesis and a possible purpose for the clustering of genes in the Ddc region. PMID:8647399

  5. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: identification of a gene cluster coding for bundle-forming pilus morphogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sohel, I; Puente, J L; Ramer, S W; Bieber, D; Wu, C Y; Schoolnik, G K

    1996-01-01

    Sequence flanking the bfpA locus on the enteroadherent factor plasmid of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strain B171-8 (O111:NM) was obtained to identify genes that might be required for bundle-forming pilus (BFP) biosynthesis. Deletion experiments led to the identification of a contiguous cluster of at least 12 open reading frames, including bfpA, that could direct the synthesis of a morphologically normal BFP filament. Within the bfp gene cluster, we identified open reading frames that share homology with other type IV pilus accessory genes and with genes required for transformation competence and protein secretion. Immediately upstream of the bfp gene cluster, we identified a potential replication origin including genes that are predicted to encode proteins homologous with replicase and resolvase. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of DNA from six additional EPEC serotypes showed that the organization of the bfp gene cluster and its juxtaposition with a potential plasmid origin of replication are highly conserved features of the EPEC biotype. PMID:8626330

  6. An effective hybrid approach of gene selection and classification for microarray data based on clustering and particle swarm optimization.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Yang, Shanxiu; Guan, Jian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid approach based on clustering and Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) is proposed to perform gene selection and classification for microarray data. In the new method, firstly, genes are partitioned into a predetermined number of clusters by K-means method. Since the genes in each cluster have much redundancy, Max-Relevance Min-Redundancy (mRMR) strategy is used to reduce redundancy of the clustered genes. Then, PSO is used to perform further gene selection from the remaining clustered genes. Because of its better generalisation performance with much faster convergence rate than other learning algorithms for neural networks, Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is chosen to evaluate candidate gene subsets selected by PSO and perform samples classification in this study. The proposed method selects less redundant genes as well as increases prediction accuracy and its efficiency and effectiveness are verified by extensive comparisons with other classical methods on three open microarray data. PMID:26547970

  7. Epigenetic Characterization of the Growth Hormone Gene Identifies SmcHD1 as a Regulator of Autosomal Gene Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Massah, Shabnam; Hollebakken, Robert; Labrecque, Mark P.; Kolybaba, Addie M.; Beischlag, Timothy V.; Prefontaine, Gratien G.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory elements for the mouse growth hormone (GH) gene are located distally in a putative locus control region (LCR) in addition to key elements in the promoter proximal region. The role of promoter DNA methylation for GH gene regulation is not well understood. Pit-1 is a POU transcription factor required for normal pituitary development and obligatory for GH gene expression. In mammals, Pit-1 mutations eliminate GH production resulting in a dwarf phenotype. In this study, dwarf mice illustrated that Pit-1 function was obligatory for GH promoter hypomethylation. By monitoring promoter methylation levels during developmental GH expression we found that the GH promoter became hypomethylated coincident with gene expression. We identified a promoter differentially methylated region (DMR) that was used to characterize a methylation-dependent DNA binding activity. Upon DNA affinity purification using the DMR and nuclear extracts, we identified structural maintenance of chromosomes hinge domain containing -1 (SmcHD1). To better understand the role of SmcHD1 in genome-wide gene expression, we performed microarray analysis and compared changes in gene expression upon reduced levels of SmcHD1 in human cells. Knock-down of SmcHD1 in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells revealed a disproportionate number of up-regulated genes were located on the X-chromosome, but also suggested regulation of genes on non-sex chromosomes. Among those, we identified several genes located in the protocadherin β cluster. In addition, we found that imprinted genes in the H19/Igf2 cluster associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes (BWS & SRS) were dysregulated. For the first time using human cells, we showed that SmcHD1 is an important regulator of imprinted and clustered genes. PMID:24818964

  8. Epigenetic characterization of the growth hormone gene identifies SmcHD1 as a regulator of autosomal gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Massah, Shabnam; Hollebakken, Robert; Labrecque, Mark P; Kolybaba, Addie M; Beischlag, Timothy V; Prefontaine, Gratien G

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory elements for the mouse growth hormone (GH) gene are located distally in a putative locus control region (LCR) in addition to key elements in the promoter proximal region. The role of promoter DNA methylation for GH gene regulation is not well understood. Pit-1 is a POU transcription factor required for normal pituitary development and obligatory for GH gene expression. In mammals, Pit-1 mutations eliminate GH production resulting in a dwarf phenotype. In this study, dwarf mice illustrated that Pit-1 function was obligatory for GH promoter hypomethylation. By monitoring promoter methylation levels during developmental GH expression we found that the GH promoter became hypomethylated coincident with gene expression. We identified a promoter differentially methylated region (DMR) that was used to characterize a methylation-dependent DNA binding activity. Upon DNA affinity purification using the DMR and nuclear extracts, we identified structural maintenance of chromosomes hinge domain containing -1 (SmcHD1). To better understand the role of SmcHD1 in genome-wide gene expression, we performed microarray analysis and compared changes in gene expression upon reduced levels of SmcHD1 in human cells. Knock-down of SmcHD1 in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells revealed a disproportionate number of up-regulated genes were located on the X-chromosome, but also suggested regulation of genes on non-sex chromosomes. Among those, we identified several genes located in the protocadherin β cluster. In addition, we found that imprinted genes in the H19/Igf2 cluster associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes (BWS & SRS) were dysregulated. For the first time using human cells, we showed that SmcHD1 is an important regulator of imprinted and clustered genes. PMID:24818964

  9. Variation in the Trichothecene Mycotoxin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are produced by some plant pathogenic species of the fungus Fusarium and can contribute to its virulence on some plants. In Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides trichothecene biosynthetic enzymes are encoded at three loci: the single-gene TRI101 locus; the two-gene ...

  10. Bacterial Biosynthetic Gene Clusters Encoding the Anti-cancer Haterumalide Class of Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Matilla, Miguel A.; Stöckmann, Henning; Leeper, Finian J.; Salmond, George P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Haterumalides are halogenated macrolides with strong antitumor properties, making them attractive targets for chemical synthesis. Unfortunately, current synthetic routes to these molecules are inefficient. The potent haterumalide, oocydin A, was previously identified from two plant-associated bacteria through its high bioactivity against plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes. In this study, we describe oocydin A (ooc) biosynthetic gene clusters identified by genome sequencing, comparative genomics, and chemical analysis in four plant-associated enterobacteria of the Serratia and Dickeya genera. Disruption of the ooc gene cluster abolished oocydin A production and bioactivity against fungi and oomycetes. The ooc gene clusters span between 77 and 80 kb and encode five multimodular polyketide synthase (PKS) proteins, a hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase cassette and three flavin-dependent tailoring enzymes. The presence of two free-standing acyltransferase proteins classifies the oocydin A gene cluster within the growing family of trans-AT PKSs. The amino acid sequences and organization of the PKS domains are consistent with the chemical predictions and functional peculiarities associated with trans-acyltransferase PKS. Based on extensive in silico analysis of the gene cluster, we propose a biosynthetic model for the production of oocydin A and, by extension, for other members of the haterumalide family of halogenated macrolides exhibiting anti-cancer, anti-fungal, and other interesting biological properties. PMID:23012376

  11. Functional Gene Networks: R/Bioc package to generate and analyse gene networks derived from functional enrichment and clustering

    PubMed Central

    Aibar, Sara; Fontanillo, Celia; Droste, Conrad; De Las Rivas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Functional Gene Networks (FGNet) is an R/Bioconductor package that generates gene networks derived from the results of functional enrichment analysis (FEA) and annotation clustering. The sets of genes enriched with specific biological terms (obtained from a FEA platform) are transformed into a network by establishing links between genes based on common functional annotations and common clusters. The network provides a new view of FEA results revealing gene modules with similar functions and genes that are related to multiple functions. In addition to building the functional network, FGNet analyses the similarity between the groups of genes and provides a distance heatmap and a bipartite network of functionally overlapping genes. The application includes an interface to directly perform FEA queries using different external tools: DAVID, GeneTerm Linker, TopGO or GAGE; and a graphical interface to facilitate the use. Availability and implementation: FGNet is available in Bioconductor, including a tutorial. URL: http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/FGNet.html Contact: jrivas@usal.es Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25600944

  12. In vivo roles of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), catalase and the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) in deermice

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, T.; Alderman, J.; Lieber, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    The relative importance of ADH and MEOS for ethanol oxidation in the liver has yet to be elucidated. The discovery of a strain of deermice genetically lacking ADH (ADH-) which can consume ethanol at greater than 50% of the rates seen in deermice having ADH (ADH+) suggested a significant role for non-ADH pathways in vivo. To quantitate contributions of the various pathways, the authors examined first the ethanol oxidation rates with or without 4-methylpyrazole in isolated deermice hepatocytes. 4-Methylpyrazole significantly reduced the ethanol oxidation in both ADH+ and ADH- hepatocytes. The reduction seen in ADH- cells can be applied to correct for the effect of 4-methylpyrazole on non-ADH pathways of ADH+ deermouse hepatocytes. After correction, non-ADH pathways were found to contribute 28% of ethanol metabolism at 10 mM and 52% at 50 mM. When using a different approach namely measurement of the isotope effect, MEOS was calculated to account for 35% at low and about 70% at high blood ethanol concentrations. Thus, they found that two different complementary approaches yielded similar results, namely that non-ADH pathways play a significant role in ethanol oxidation even in the presence of ADH.

  13. The Eucalyptus grandis NBS-LRR Gene Family: Physical Clustering and Expression Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Nanette; Tobias, Peri A.; Naidoo, Sanushka; Külheim, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is a commercially important hardwood species and is known to be susceptible to a number of pests and pathogens. Determining mechanisms of defense is therefore a research priority. The published genome for E. grandis has aided the identification of one important class of resistance (R) genes that incorporate nucleotide binding sites and leucine-rich repeat domains (NBS-LRR). Using an iterative search process we identified NBS-LRR gene models within the E. grandis genome. We characterized the gene models and identified their genomic arrangement. The gene expression patterns were examined in E. grandis clones, challenged with a fungal pathogen (Chrysoporthe austroafricana) and insect pest (Leptocybe invasa). One thousand two hundred and fifteen putative NBS-LRR coding sequences were located which aligned into two large classes, Toll or interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) and coiled-coil (CC) based on NB-ARC domains. NBS-LRR gene-rich regions were identified with 76% organized in clusters of three or more genes. A further 272 putative incomplete resistance genes were also identified. We determined that E. grandis has a higher ratio of TIR to CC classed genes compared to other woody plant species as well as a smaller percentage of single NBS-LRR genes. Transcriptome profiles indicated expression hotspots, within physical clusters, including expression of many incomplete genes. The clustering of putative NBS-LRR genes correlates with differential expression responses in resistant and susceptible plants indicating functional relevance for the physical arrangement of this gene family. This analysis of the repertoire and expression of E. grandis putative NBS-LRR genes provides an important resource for the identification of novel and functional R-genes; a key objective for strategies to enhance resilience. PMID:26793216

  14. vanI: a novel D-Ala-D-Lac vancomycin resistance gene cluster found in Desulfitobacterium hafniense.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Thomas; Levisson, Mark; de Vos, Willem M; Smidt, Hauke

    2014-09-01

    The glycopeptide vancomycin was until recently considered a drug of last resort against Gram-positive bacteria. Increasing numbers of bacteria, however, are found to carry genes that confer resistance to this antibiotic. So far, 10 different vancomycin resistance clusters have been described. A chromosomal vancomycin resistance gene cluster was previously described for the anaerobic Desulfitobacterium hafniense Y51. We demonstrate that this gene cluster, characterized by its d-Ala-d-Lac ligase-encoding vanI gene, is present in all strains of D. hafniense, D. chlororespirans and some strains of Desulfosporosinus spp. This gene cluster was not found in vancomycin-sensitive Desulfitobacterium or Desulfosporosinus spp., and we show that this antibiotic resistance can be exploited as an intrinsic selection marker for Desulfitobacterium hafniense and D. chlororespirans. The gene cluster containing vanI is phylogenetically only distantly related with those described from soil and gut bacteria, but clusters instead with vancomycin resistance genes found within the phylum Actinobacteria that include several vancomycin-producing bacteria. It lacks a vanH homologue, encoding a D-lactate dehydrogenase, previously thought to always be present within vancomycin resistance gene clusters. The location of vanH outside the resistance gene cluster likely hinders horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the vancomycin resistance cluster in D. hafniense should be regarded a novel one that we here designated vanI after its unique d-Ala-d-Lac ligase. PMID:25042042

  15. Sequencing and mapping hemoglobin gene clusters in the australian model dasyurid marsupial sminthopsis macroura

    SciTech Connect

    De Leo, A.A.; Wheeler, D.; Lefevre, C.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Hope, R.; Kuliwaba, J.; Nicholas, K.R.; Westermanc, M.; Graves, J.A.M.

    2004-07-26

    Comparing globin genes and their flanking sequences across many species has allowed globin gene evolution to be reconstructed in great detail. Marsupial globin sequences have proved to be of exceptional significance. A previous finding of a beta-like omega gene in the alpha cluster in the tammar wallaby suggested that the alpha and beta cluster evolved via genome duplication and loss rather than tandem duplication. To confirm and extend this important finding we isolated and sequenced BACs containing the alpha and beta loci from the distantly related Australian marsupial Sminthopsis macroura. We report that the alpha gene lies in the same BAC as the beta-like omega gene, implying that the alpha-omega juxtaposition is likely to be conserved in all marsupials. The LUC7L gene was found 3' of the S. macroura alpha locus, a gene order shared with humans but not mouse, chicken or fugu. Sequencing a BAC contig that contained the S. macroura beta globin and epsilon globin loci showed that the globin cluster is flanked by olfactory genes, demonstrating a gene arrangement conserved for over 180 MY. Analysis of the region 5' to the S. macroura epsilon globin gene revealed a region similar to the eutherian LCR, containing sequences and potential transcription factor binding sites with homology to eutherian hypersensitive sites 1 to 5. FISH mapping of BACs containing S. macroura alpha and beta globin genes located the beta globin cluster on chromosome 3q and the alpha locus close to the centromere on 1q, resolving contradictory map locations obtained by previous radioactive in situ hybridization.

  16. Regulation of Three Nitrogenase Gene Clusters in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Teresa; Pratte, Brenda S.

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 fixes nitrogen under aerobic conditions in specialized cells called heterocysts that form in response to an environmental deficiency in combined nitrogen. Nitrogen fixation is mediated by the enzyme nitrogenase, which is very sensitive to oxygen. Heterocysts are microxic cells that allow nitrogenase to function in a filament comprised primarily of vegetative cells that produce oxygen by photosynthesis. A. variabilis is unique among well-characterized cyanobacteria in that it has three nitrogenase gene clusters that encode different nitrogenases, which function under different environmental conditions. The nif1 genes encode a Mo-nitrogenase that functions only in heterocysts, even in filaments grown anaerobically. The nif2 genes encode a different Mo-nitrogenase that functions in vegetative cells, but only in filaments grown under anoxic conditions. An alternative V-nitrogenase is encoded by vnf genes that are expressed only in heterocysts in an environment that is deficient in Mo. Thus, these three nitrogenases are expressed differentially in response to environmental conditions. The entire nif1 gene cluster, comprising at least 15 genes, is primarily under the control of the promoter for the first gene, nifB1. Transcriptional control of many of the downstream nif1 genes occurs by a combination of weak promoters within the coding regions of some downstream genes and by RNA processing, which is associated with increased transcript stability. The vnf genes show a similar pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of expression suggesting that the complex pattern of regulation of the nif1 cluster is conserved in other cyanobacterial nitrogenase gene clusters. PMID:25513762

  17. Regulation of Three Nitrogenase Gene Clusters in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Teresa; Pratte, Brenda S

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 fixes nitrogen under aerobic conditions in specialized cells called heterocysts that form in response to an environmental deficiency in combined nitrogen. Nitrogen fixation is mediated by the enzyme nitrogenase, which is very sensitive to oxygen. Heterocysts are microxic cells that allow nitrogenase to function in a filament comprised primarily of vegetative cells that produce oxygen by photosynthesis. A. variabilis is unique among well-characterized cyanobacteria in that it has three nitrogenase gene clusters that encode different nitrogenases, which function under different environmental conditions. The nif1 genes encode a Mo-nitrogenase that functions only in heterocysts, even in filaments grown anaerobically. The nif2 genes encode a different Mo-nitrogenase that functions in vegetative cells, but only in filaments grown under anoxic conditions. An alternative V-nitrogenase is encoded by vnf genes that are expressed only in heterocysts in an environment that is deficient in Mo. Thus, these three nitrogenases are expressed differentially in response to environmental conditions. The entire nif1 gene cluster, comprising at least 15 genes, is primarily under the control of the promoter for the first gene, nifB1. Transcriptional control of many of the downstream nif1 genes occurs by a combination of weak promoters within the coding regions of some downstream genes and by RNA processing, which is associated with increased transcript stability. The vnf genes show a similar pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of expression suggesting that the complex pattern of regulation of the nif1 cluster is conserved in other cyanobacterial nitrogenase gene clusters. PMID:25513762

  18. A genetic analysis of Adh1 regulation. Progress report, June 1991--February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Freeling, M.

    1992-03-01

    The overall goal of our research proposal is to understand the meaning of the various cis-acting sites responsible for AdH1 expression in the entire maize plant. Progress is reported in the following areas: Studies on the TATA box and analysis of revertants of the Adh1-3F1124 allele; screening for more different mutants that affect Adh1 expression differentially; studies on cis-acting sequences required for root-specific Adh1 expression; refinement of the use of the particle gun; and functional analysis of a non- glycolytic anaerobic protein.

  19. Breaking the Silence: Protein Stabilization Uncovers Silenced Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in the Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Gerke, Jennifer; Bayram, Özgür; Feussner, Kirstin; Landesfeind, Manuel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Feussner, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    The genomes of filamentous fungi comprise numerous putative gene clusters coding for the biosynthesis of chemically and structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), which are rarely expressed under laboratory conditions. Previous approaches to activate these genes were based primarily on artificially targeting the cellular protein synthesis apparatus. Here, we applied an alternative approach of genetically impairing the protein degradation apparatus of the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans by deleting the conserved eukaryotic csnE/CSN5 deneddylase subunit of the COP9 signalosome. This defect in protein degradation results in the activation of a previously silenced gene cluster comprising a polyketide synthase gene producing the antibiotic 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methyl-6-(2-oxopropyl)benzaldehyde (DHMBA). The csnE/CSN5 gene is highly conserved in fungi, and therefore, the deletion is a feasible approach for the identification of new SMs. PMID:23001671

  20. The Joint Effects of ADH1B Variants and Childhood Adversity on Alcohol-Related Phenotypes in African-American and European-American Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Wang, Zuoheng; Xu, Ke; Kranzler, Henry R.; Gelernter, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background The ADH1B gene has consistently been implicated in problem drinking, but rarely incorporated into gene by environment investigations of alcohol phenotypes. This study examined the joint effects of variation in ADH1B and childhood adversity – a well-documented risk factor for alcohol problems and moderator of genetic liability to psychiatric outcomes – on maximum drinks consumed in a 24-hour period (maxdrinks) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. Methods Data were drawn from 2,617 African-American (AA) and 1,436 European-American (EA) participants (42% female) in a multisite genetic study of substance dependence. We tested the most significant ADH1B SNPs for alcohol dependence from a genomewide association study with this sample, ADH1B-rs1229984 (Arg48His) and ADH1B-rs2066702 (Arg370Cys), in EA and AA subsamples, respectively. Results Ordinal regression analyses conducted separately by sex and population revealed significant main effects for childhood adversity both for alcohol phenotypes in AA women and men and for maxdrinks in EA women. A significant rs1229984 by childhood adversity interaction was observed for AUD symptoms in EA men. Unexposed His-allele carriers reported a mean of 3.6 AUD criteria, but adversity-exposed His-allele carriers endorsed approximately the same number (6.3) as those without the protective allele (6.3 and 7.0 for adversity-exposed and adversity-unexposed groups, respectively). Conclusions Results suggest that under conditions of childhood adversity, the His allele does not exert its protective effects in EA men (OR=0.57, CI:0.32–1.01; p=0.056). Findings highlight the robust risk effect conferred by childhood adversity and the importance of considering population and sex in genetically informative investigations of its association with alcohol outcomes. PMID:25410943

  1. Cloning and characterization of the goadsporin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0584.

    PubMed

    Onaka, Hiroyasu; Nakaho, Mizuho; Hayashi, Keiko; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Furumai, Tamotsu

    2005-12-01

    The biosynthetic gene cluster of goadsporin, a polypeptide antibiotic containing thiazole and oxazole rings, was cloned from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0584. The cluster contains a structural gene, godA, and nine god (goadsporin) genes involved in post-translational modification, immunity and transcriptional regulation. Although the gene organization is similar to typical bacteriocin biosynthetic gene clusters, each goadsporin biosynthetic gene shows low homology to these genes. Goadsporin biosynthesis is initiated by the translation of godA, and the subsequent cyclization, dehydration and acetylation are probably catalysed by godD, godE, godF, godG and godH gene products. godI shows high similarity to the 54 kDa subunit of the signal recognition particle and plays an important role in goadsporin immunity. Furthermore, four goadsporin analogues were produced by site-directed mutagenesis of godA, suggesting that this biosynthesis machinery is used for the heterocyclization of peptides. PMID:16339937

  2. A remarkably stable TipE gene cluster: evolution of insect Para sodium channel auxiliary subunits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background First identified in fruit flies with temperature-sensitive paralysis phenotypes, the Drosophila melanogaster TipE locus encodes four voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channel auxiliary subunits. This cluster of TipE-like genes on chromosome 3L, and a fifth family member on chromosome 3R, are important for the optional expression and functionality of the Para NaV channel but appear quite distinct from auxiliary subunits in vertebrates. Here, we exploited available arthropod genomic resources to trace the origin of TipE-like genes by mapping their evolutionary histories and examining their genomic architectures. Results We identified a remarkably conserved synteny block of TipE-like orthologues with well-maintained local gene arrangements from 21 insect species. Homologues in the water flea, Daphnia pulex, suggest an ancestral pancrustacean repertoire of four TipE-like genes; a subsequent gene duplication may have generated functional redundancy allowing gene losses in the silk moth and mosquitoes. Intronic nesting of the insect TipE gene cluster probably occurred following the divergence from crustaceans, but in the flour beetle and silk moth genomes the clusters apparently escaped from nesting. Across Pancrustacea, TipE gene family members have experienced intronic nesting, escape from nesting, retrotransposition, translocation, and gene loss events while generally maintaining their local gene neighbourhoods. D. melanogaster TipE-like genes exhibit coordinated spatial and temporal regulation of expression distinct from their host gene but well-correlated with their regulatory target, the Para NaV channel, suggesting that functional constraints may preserve the TipE gene cluster. We identified homology between TipE-like NaV channel regulators and vertebrate Slo-beta auxiliary subunits of big-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels, which suggests that ion channel regulatory partners have evolved distinct lineage-specific characteristics

  3. Steroid degradation gene cluster of Comamonas testosteroni consisting of 18 putative genes from meta-cleavage enzyme gene tesB to regulator gene tesR.

    PubMed

    Horinouchi, Masae; Kurita, Tomokazu; Yamamoto, Takako; Hatori, Emi; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2004-11-12

    Steroid degradation genes of Comamonas testosteroni TA441 are encoded in at least two gene clusters: one containing the meta-cleavage enzyme gene tesB and ORF1, 2, 3; and another consisting of ORF18, 17, tesI, H, A2, and tesA1, D, E, F, G (tesA2 to ORF18 and tesA1 to tesG are encoded in opposite directions). Analysis of transposon mutants with low steroid degradation revealed 13 ORFs and a gene (ORF4, 5, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, and tesR) involved in steroid degradation in the downstream region of ORF3. TesR, which is almost identical to that of TeiR, a positive regulator of Delta1-dehydrogenase (corresponds to TesH in TA441) and 3alpha-dehydrogenase (currently not identified in TA441), in C. testosteroni ATCC11996 (Pruneda-Paz, 2004), was shown to be necessary for induction of the steroid degradation gene clusters identified in TA441, tesB to tesR, tesA1 to tesG, and tesA2 to ORF18. At least some of the ORFs from ORF3 to ORF33 were suggested to be involved in 9,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid degradation. PMID:15474469

  4. Isolation and characterization of meridamycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. NRRL 30748.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Haltli, Bradley; Summers, Mia; Feng, Xidong; Hucul, John

    2006-08-01

    Meridamycin is a non-immunosuppressive, FKBP12-binding natural macrolide with potential therapeutic applications in a variety of medical conditions. To set the stage for structural modification of meridamycin by genetic engineering, we have cloned and completely sequenced approximately 117 kb of DNA encompassing the meridamycin biosynthetic gene cluster from the producing strain, Streptomyces sp. NRRL 30748. Clustered in the center of the cloned DNA stretch are six genes responsible for the construction of the core structure of meridamycin, including merP encoding a non-ribosomal peptide synthase for pipecolate-incorporation, four PKS genes (merA-D) together encoding 1 loading module and 14 extension modules, and merE encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. A number of genes with potential pathway-specific regulatory or resistance functions have also been identified. The absence of the gene encoding lysine cyclodeaminase in the sequenced gene cluster and the rest of the genome of NRRL 30748 indicated the synthesis of pipecolate in this strain is not through the common lysine cyclodeamination route previously described for rapamycin and FK506/FK520 biosynthesis. An efficient conjugation method has been developed for Streptomyces sp. NRRL 30748 to facilitate the genetic manipulation of meridamycin biosynthetic gene cluster. Disruption of merP resulted in the complete abolition of meridamycin production, proving the identity of the gene cluster. A novel meridamycin analogue, C36-keto-meridamycin, has been successfully generated through deletion of a DNA fragment encoding KR1 domain of MerA from the chromosomal DNA. PMID:16806745

  5. Physical and genetic map of the major nif gene cluster from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M R; Brigle, K E; Bennett, L T; Setterquist, R A; Wilson, M S; Cash, V L; Beynon, J; Newton, W E; Dean, D R

    1989-02-01

    Determination of a 28,793-base-pair DNA sequence of a region from the Azotobacter vinelandii genome that includes and flanks the nitrogenase structural gene region was completed. This information was used to revise the previously proposed organization of the major nif cluster. The major nif cluster from A. vinelandii encodes 15 nif-specific genes whose products bear significant structural identity to the corresponding nif-specific gene products from Klebsiella pneumoniae. These genes include nifH, nifD, nifK, nifT, nifY, nifE, nifN, nifX, nifU, nifS, nifV, nifW, nifZ, nifM, and nifF. Although there are significant spatial differences, the identified A. vinelandii nif-specific genes have the same sequential arrangement as the corresponding nif-specific genes from K. pneumoniae. Twelve other potential genes whose expression could be subject to nif-specific regulation were also found interspersed among the identified nif-specific genes. These potential genes do not encode products that are structurally related to the identified nif-specific gene products. Eleven potential nif-specific promoters were identified within the major nif cluster, and nine of these are preceded by an appropriate upstream activator sequence. A + T-rich regions were identified between 8 of the 11 proposed nif promoter sequences and their upstream activator sequences. Site-directed deletion-and-insertion mutagenesis was used to establish a genetic map of the major nif cluster. PMID:2644218

  6. Physical and genetic map of the major nif gene cluster from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, M R; Brigle, K E; Bennett, L T; Setterquist, R A; Wilson, M S; Cash, V L; Beynon, J; Newton, W E; Dean, D R

    1989-01-01

    Determination of a 28,793-base-pair DNA sequence of a region from the Azotobacter vinelandii genome that includes and flanks the nitrogenase structural gene region was completed. This information was used to revise the previously proposed organization of the major nif cluster. The major nif cluster from A. vinelandii encodes 15 nif-specific genes whose products bear significant structural identity to the corresponding nif-specific gene products from Klebsiella pneumoniae. These genes include nifH, nifD, nifK, nifT, nifY, nifE, nifN, nifX, nifU, nifS, nifV, nifW, nifZ, nifM, and nifF. Although there are significant spatial differences, the identified A. vinelandii nif-specific genes have the same sequential arrangement as the corresponding nif-specific genes from K. pneumoniae. Twelve other potential genes whose expression could be subject to nif-specific regulation were also found interspersed among the identified nif-specific genes. These potential genes do not encode products that are structurally related to the identified nif-specific gene products. Eleven potential nif-specific promoters were identified within the major nif cluster, and nine of these are preceded by an appropriate upstream activator sequence. A + T-rich regions were identified between 8 of the 11 proposed nif promoter sequences and their upstream activator sequences. Site-directed deletion-and-insertion mutagenesis was used to establish a genetic map of the major nif cluster. PMID:2644218

  7. K-Boost: a scalable algorithm for high-quality clustering of microarray gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Filippo; Leoncini, Mauro; Montangero, Manuela; Pellegrini, Marco; Renda, M Elena

    2009-06-01

    Microarray technology for profiling gene expression levels is a popular tool in modern biological research. Applications range from tissue classification to the detection of metabolic networks, from drug discovery to time-critical personalized medicine. Given the increase in size and complexity of the data sets produced, their analysis is becoming problematic in terms of time/quality trade-offs. Clustering genes with similar expression profiles is a key initial step for subsequent manipulations and the increasing volumes of data to be analyzed requires methods that are at the same time efficient (completing an analysis in minutes rather than hours) and effective (identifying significant clusters with high biological correlations). In this paper, we propose K-Boost, a clustering algorithm based on a combination of the furthest-point-first (FPF) heuristic for solving the metric k-center problem, a stability-based method for determining the number of clusters, and a k-means-like cluster refinement. K-Boost runs in O (|N| x k) time, where N is the input matrix and k is the number of proposed clusters. Experiments show that this low complexity is usually coupled with a very good quality of the computed clusterings, which we measure using both internal and external criteria. Supporting data can be found as online Supplementary Material at www.liebertonline.com. PMID:19522668

  8. Comprehensive annotation of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes and gene clusters of Aspergillus nidulans, A. fumigatus, A. niger and A. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary metabolite production, a hallmark of filamentous fungi, is an expanding area of research for the Aspergilli. These compounds are potent chemicals, ranging from deadly toxins to therapeutic antibiotics to potential anti-cancer drugs. The genome sequences for multiple Aspergilli have been determined, and provide a wealth of predictive information about secondary metabolite production. Sequence analysis and gene overexpression strategies have enabled the discovery of novel secondary metabolites and the genes involved in their biosynthesis. The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD) provides a central repository for gene annotation and protein information for Aspergillus species. These annotations include Gene Ontology (GO) terms, phenotype data, gene names and descriptions and they are crucial for interpreting both small- and large-scale data and for aiding in the design of new experiments that further Aspergillus research. Results We have manually curated Biological Process GO annotations for all genes in AspGD with recorded functions in secondary metabolite production, adding new GO terms that specifically describe each secondary metabolite. We then leveraged these new annotations to predict roles in secondary metabolism for genes lacking experimental characterization. As a starting point for manually annotating Aspergillus secondary metabolite gene clusters, we used antiSMASH (antibiotics and Secondary Metabolite Analysis SHell) and SMURF (Secondary Metabolite Unknown Regions Finder) algorithms to identify potential clusters in A. nidulans, A. fumigatus, A. niger and A. oryzae, which we subsequently refined through manual curation. Conclusions This set of 266 manually curated secondary metabolite gene clusters will facilitate the investigation of novel Aspergillus secondary metabolites. PMID:23617571

  9. Delineation of metabolic gene clusters in plant genomes by chromatin signatures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nan; Nützmann, Hans-Wilhelm; MacDonald, James T; Moore, Ben; Field, Ben; Berriri, Souha; Trick, Martin; Rosser, Susan J; Kumar, S Vinod; Freemont, Paul S; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-03-18

    Plants are a tremendous source of diverse chemicals, including many natural product-derived drugs. It has recently become apparent that the genes for the biosynthesis of numerous different types of plant natural products are organized as metabolic gene clusters, thereby unveiling a highly unusual form of plant genome architecture and offering novel avenues for discovery and exploitation of plant specialized metabolism. Here we show that these clustered pathways are characterized by distinct chromatin signatures of histone 3 lysine trimethylation (H3K27me3) and histone 2 variant H2A.Z, associated with cluster repression and activation, respectively, and represent discrete windows of co-regulation in the genome. We further demonstrate that knowledge of these chromatin signatures along with chromatin mutants can be used to mine genomes for cluster discovery. The roles of H3K27me3 and H2A.Z in repression and activation of single genes in plants are well known. However, our discovery of highly localized operon-like co-regulated regions of chromatin modification is unprecedented in plants. Our findings raise intriguing parallels with groups of physically linked multi-gene complexes in animals and with clustered pathways for specialized metabolism in filamentous fungi. PMID:26895889

  10. Delineation of metabolic gene clusters in plant genomes by chromatin signatures

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Nan; Nützmann, Hans-Wilhelm; MacDonald, James T.; Moore, Ben; Field, Ben; Berriri, Souha; Trick, Martin; Rosser, Susan J.; Kumar, S. Vinod; Freemont, Paul S.; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Plants are a tremendous source of diverse chemicals, including many natural product-derived drugs. It has recently become apparent that the genes for the biosynthesis of numerous different types of plant natural products are organized as metabolic gene clusters, thereby unveiling a highly unusual form of plant genome architecture and offering novel avenues for discovery and exploitation of plant specialized metabolism. Here we show that these clustered pathways are characterized by distinct chromatin signatures of histone 3 lysine trimethylation (H3K27me3) and histone 2 variant H2A.Z, associated with cluster repression and activation, respectively, and represent discrete windows of co-regulation in the genome. We further demonstrate that knowledge of these chromatin signatures along with chromatin mutants can be used to mine genomes for cluster discovery. The roles of H3K27me3 and H2A.Z in repression and activation of single genes in plants are well known. However, our discovery of highly localized operon-like co-regulated regions of chromatin modification is unprecedented in plants. Our findings raise intriguing parallels with groups of physically linked multi-gene complexes in animals and with clustered pathways for specialized metabolism in filamentous fungi. PMID:26895889

  11. Mapping of the {alpha}{sub 4} subunit gene (GABRA4) to human chromosome 4 defines an {alpha}{sub 2}-{alpha}{sub 4}-{beta}{sub 1}-{gamma}{sub 1} gene cluster: Further evidence that modern GABA{sub a} receptor gene clusters are derived from an ancestral cluster

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, P.J.; Farb, D.H.; Russek, S.J.

    1995-04-10

    We demonstrated previously that an {alpha}{sub 1}-{beta}{sub 2}-{gamma}{sub 2} gene cluster of the {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA{sub A}) receptor is located on human chromosome 5q34-q35 and that an ancestral {alpha}-{beta}-{gamma} gene cluster probably spawned clusters on chromosomes 4, 5, and 15. Here, we report that the {alpha}{sub 4} gene (GABRA4) maps to human chromosome 4p14-q12, defining a cluster comprising the {alpha}{sub 2}, {alpha}{sub 4}, {beta}{sub 1}, and {gamma}{sub 1} genes. The existence of an {alpha}{sub 2}-{alpha}{sub 4}-{beta}{sub 1}-{gamma}{sub 2} cluster on chromosome 4 and an {alpha}{sub 1}-{alpha}{sub 6}-{beta}{sub 2}-{gamma}{sub 2} cluster on chromosome 5 provides further evidence that the number of ancestral GABA{sub A} receptor subunit genes has been expanded by duplication within an ancestral gene cluster. Moreover, if duplication of the {alpha} gene occurred before duplication of the ancestral gene cluster, then a heretofore undiscovered subtype of a subunit should be located on human chromosome 15q11-q13 within an {alpha}{sub 5}-{alpha}{sub x}-{beta}{sub 3}-{gamma}{sub 3} gene cluster at the locus for Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Organization of the human keratin type II gene cluster at 12q13

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, S.J.; LeBlanc-Straceski, J.; Krauter, K.

    1994-12-01

    Keratin proteins constitute intermediate filaments and are the major differentiation products of mammalian epithelial cells. The epithelial keratins are classified into two groups, type I and type II, and one member of each group is expressed in a given epithelial cell differentiation stage. Mutations in type I and type II keratin genes have now been implicated in three different human genetic disorders, epidermolysis bullosa simplex, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, and epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma. Members of the type I keratins are mapped to human chromosome 17, and the type II keratin genes are mapped to chromosome 12. To understand the organization of the type II keratin genes on chromosome 12, we isolated several yeast artificial chromosomes carrying these keratin genes and examined them in detail. We show that eight already known type II keratin genes are located in a cluster at 12q13, and their relative organization reflects their evolutionary relationship. We also determined that a type I keratin gene, KRT8, is located next to its partner, KRT18, in this cluster. Careful examination of the cluster also revealed that there may be a number of additional keratin genes at this locus that have not been described previously. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. DNase I hypersensitive sites within the inducible qa gene cluster of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Baum, J A; Giles, N H

    1986-01-01

    DNase I hypersensitive regions were mapped within the 17.3-kilobase qa (quinic acid) gene cluster of Neurospora crassa. The 5'-flanking regions of the five qa structural genes and the two qa regulatory genes each contain DNase I hypersensitive sites under noninducing conditions and generally exhibit increases in DNase I cleavage upon induction of transcription with quinic acid. The two large intergenic regions of the qa gene cluster appear to be similarly organized with respect to the positions of constitutive and inducible DNase I hypersensitive sites. Inducible hypersensitive sites on the 5' side of one qa gene, qa-x, appear to be differentially regulated. Employing these and previously published data, we have identified a conserved sequence element that may mediate the activator function of the qa-1F regulatory gene. Variants of the 16-base-pair consensus sequence are consistently found within DNase I-protected regions adjacent to inducible DNase I hypersensitive sites within the gene cluster. Images PMID:2944110

  14. Identification of certain cancer-mediating genes using Gaussian fuzzy cluster validity index.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anupam; De, Rajat K

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we have used an index, called Gaussian fuzzy index (GFI), recently developed by the authors, based on the notion of fuzzy set theory, for validating the clusters obtained by a clustering algorithm applied on cancer gene expression data. GFI is then used for the identification of genes that have altered quite significantly from normal state to carcinogenic state with respect to their mRNA expression patterns. The effectiveness of the methodology has been demonstrated on three gene expression cancer datasets dealing with human lung, colon and leukemia. The performance of GFI is compared with 19 exiting cluster validity indices. The results are appropriately validated biologically and statistically. In this context, we have used biochemical pathways, p-value statistics of GO attributes, t-test and zscore for the validation of the results. It has been reported that GFI is capable of identifying high-quality enriched clusters of genes, and thereby is able to select more cancer-mediating genes. PMID:26564976

  15. Isolation of Hox cluster genes from insects reveals an accelerated sequence evolution rate.

    PubMed

    Hadrys, Heike; Simon, Sabrina; Kaune, Barbara; Schmitt, Oliver; Schöner, Anja; Jakob, Wolfgang; Schierwater, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Among gene families it is the Hox genes and among metazoan animals it is the insects (Hexapoda) that have attracted particular attention for studying the evolution of development. Surprisingly though, no Hox genes have been isolated from 26 out of 35 insect orders yet, and the existing sequences derive mainly from only two orders (61% from Hymenoptera and 22% from Diptera). We have designed insect specific primers and isolated 37 new partial homeobox sequences of Hox cluster genes (lab, pb, Hox3, ftz, Antp, Scr, abd-a, Abd-B, Dfd, and Ubx) from six insect orders, which are crucial to insect phylogenetics. These new gene sequences provide a first step towards comparative Hox gene studies in insects. Furthermore, comparative distance analyses of homeobox sequences reveal a correlation between gene divergence rate and species radiation success with insects showing the highest rate of homeobox sequence evolution. PMID:22685537

  16. microRNAs in the Same Clusters Evolve to Coordinately Regulate Functionally Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yirong; Luo, Junjie; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed small noncoding RNAs. The genomic locations of animal miRNAs are significantly clustered in discrete loci. We found duplication and de novo formation were important mechanisms to create miRNA clusters and the clustered miRNAs tend to be evolutionarily conserved. We proposed a “functional co-adaptation” model to explain how clustering helps newly emerged miRNAs survive and develop functions. We presented evidence that abundance of miRNAs in the same clusters were highly correlated and those miRNAs exerted cooperative repressive effects on target genes in human tissues. By transfecting miRNAs into human and fly cells and extensively profiling the transcriptome alteration with deep-sequencing, we further demonstrated the functional co-adaptation between new and old miRNAs in the miR-17–92 cluster. Our population genomic analysis suggest that positive Darwinian selection might be the driving force underlying the formation and evolution of miRNA clustering. Our model provided novel insights into mechanisms and evolutionary significance of miRNA clustering. PMID:27189568

  17. microRNAs in the Same Clusters Evolve to Coordinately Regulate Functionally Related Genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yirong; Luo, Junjie; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Jian

    2016-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed small noncoding RNAs. The genomic locations of animal miRNAs are significantly clustered in discrete loci. We found duplication and de novo formation were important mechanisms to create miRNA clusters and the clustered miRNAs tend to be evolutionarily conserved. We proposed a "functional co-adaptation" model to explain how clustering helps newly emerged miRNAs survive and develop functions. We presented evidence that abundance of miRNAs in the same clusters were highly correlated and those miRNAs exerted cooperative repressive effects on target genes in human tissues. By transfecting miRNAs into human and fly cells and extensively profiling the transcriptome alteration with deep-sequencing, we further demonstrated the functional co-adaptation between new and old miRNAs in the miR-17-92 cluster. Our population genomic analysis suggest that positive Darwinian selection might be the driving force underlying the formation and evolution of miRNA clustering. Our model provided novel insights into mechanisms and evolutionary significance of miRNA clustering. PMID:27189568

  18. IL-1 gene cluster is not linked to aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Scapoli, C; Borzani, I; Guarnelli, M E; Mamolini, E; Annunziata, M; Guida, L; Trombelli, L

    2010-05-01

    The interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene family has been associated with susceptibility to periodontal diseases, including aggressive periodontitis (AgP); however, the results are still conflicting. The present study investigated the association between IL-1 genes and AgP using 70 markers spanning the 1.1-Mb region, where the IL-1 gene family maps, and exploring both the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the haplotype structure in a case-control study including 95 patients and 121 control individuals. No association between AgP and IL1A, IL1B, and IL1RN genes was found in either single-point or haplotype analyses. Also, the LD map of the region 2q13-14 under the Malécot model for multiple markers showed no causal association between AgP and polymorphisms within the region (p = 0.207). In conclusion, our findings failed to support the existence of a causative variant for generalized AgP within the 2q13-14 region in an Italian Caucasian population. PMID:20335539

  19. Hybrid coexpression link similarity graph clustering for mining biological modules from multiple gene expression datasets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in genomic technologies have enabled the accumulation of vast amount of genomic data, including gene expression data for multiple species under various biological and environmental conditions. Integration of these gene expression datasets is a promising strategy to alleviate the challenges of protein functional annotation and biological module discovery based on a single gene expression data, which suffers from spurious coexpression. Results We propose a joint mining algorithm that constructs a weighted hybrid similarity graph whose nodes are the coexpression links. The weight of an edge between two coexpression links in this hybrid graph is a linear combination of the topological similarities and co-appearance similarities of the corresponding two coexpression links. Clustering the weighted hybrid similarity graph yields recurrent coexpression link clusters (modules). Experimental results on Human gene expression datasets show that the reported modules are functionally homogeneous as evident by their enrichment with biological process GO terms and KEGG pathways. PMID:25221624

  20. Diversity and depth-specific distribution of SAR11 cluster rRNA genes from marine planktonic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Field, K.G.; Gordon, D.; Wright, T.

    1997-01-01

    Small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene clusters are phylogenetically related sets of SSU rRNA genes, commonly encountered in genes amplified from natural populations. Genetic variability in gene clusters could result form artifacts (polymerase error or PCR chimera formation), microevolution (variation among rrn copies within strains), or macroevolution (genetic divergence correlated with long-term evolutionary divergence). To better understand gene clusters, this study assessed genetic diversity and distribution of a single environmental SSU rDNA gene cluster, the SAR11 cluster. SAR11 cluster genes, from an uncultured group of the {alpha} subclass of the class Proteobacteria, have been recovered from coastal and midoceanic waters of the North Atlantic and Pacific. We cloned and bidirectionally sequenced 23 new SAR11 cluster 16S rRNA genes, from 80 and 250 m im the Sargasso Sea and from surface coastal waters of the Atlantic and Pacific, and analyzed them with previously published sequences. Two SAR11 genes were obviously PCR chimeras, but the biological (nonchimeric) origins of most subgroups within the cluster were confirmed by independent recovery from separate gene libraries. Using group-specific oligonucleotide probes, we analyzed depth profiles of nucleic acids, targeting both amplified rDNAs and bulk RNAs. Two subgroups within the SAR11 cluster showed different highly depth-specific distributions. We conclude that some of the genetic diversity within the SAR11 gene cluster represents macroevolutionary divergence correlated with niche specialization. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility for marine microbial ecology of oligonucleotide probes based on gene sequences amplified from natural populations and show that a detailed knowledge of sequence variability may be needed to effectively design these probes. 48 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Teaching Gene Technology in an Outreach Lab: Students' Assigned Cognitive Load Clusters and the Clusters' Relationships to Learner Characteristics, Laboratory Variables, and Cognitive Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharfenberg, Franz-Josef; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    This study classified students into different cognitive load (CL) groups by means of cluster analysis based on their experienced CL in a gene technology outreach lab which has instructionally been designed with regard to CL theory. The relationships of the identified student CL clusters to learner characteristics, laboratory variables, and…

  2. The Magea gene cluster regulates male germ cell apoptosis without affecting the fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Siyuan; Xian, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Li, Chaojun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While apoptosis is essential for male germ cell development, improper activation of apoptosis in the testis can affect spermatogenesis and cause reproduction defects. Members of the MAGE-A (melanoma antigen family A) gene family are frequently clustered in mammalian genomes and are exclusively expressed in the testes of normal animals but abnormally activated in a wide variety of cancers. We investigated the potential roles of these genes in spermatogenesis by generating a mouse model with a 210-kb genomic deletion encompassing six members of the Magea gene cluster (Magea1, Magea2, Magea3, Magea5, Magea6 and Magea8). Male mice carrying the deletion displayed smaller testes from 2 months old with a marked increase in apoptotic germ cells in the first wave of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we found that Magea genes prevented stress-induced spermatogenic apoptosis after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment during the adult stage. Mechanistically, deletion of the Magea gene cluster resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptotic germ cells, predominantly spermatocytes, with activation of p53 and induction of Bax in the testes. These observations demonstrate that the Magea genes are crucial in maintaining normal testicular size and protecting germ cells from excessive apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:27226137

  3. Duplication of partial spinosyn biosynthetic gene cluster in Saccharopolyspora spinosa enhances spinosyn production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Xia, Liqiu; Ding, Xuezhi; Luo, Yushuang; Huang, Fan; Jiang, Yuanwei

    2011-12-01

    Spinosyns, the secondary metabolites produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa, are the active ingredients in a family of insect control agents. Most of the S. spinosa genes involved in spinosyn biosynthesis are found in a contiguous c. 74-kb cluster. To increase the spinosyn production through overexpression of their biosynthetic genes, part of its gene cluster (c. 18 kb) participating in the conversion of the cyclized polyketide to spinosyn was obtained by direct cloning via Red/ET recombination rather than by constructing and screening the genomic library. The resultant plasmid pUCAmT-spn was introduced into S. spinosa CCTCC M206084 from Escherichia coli S17-1 by conjugal transfer. The subsequent single-crossover homologous recombination caused a duplication of the partial gene cluster. Integration of this plasmid enhanced production of spinosyns with a total of 388 (± 25.0) mg L(-1) for spinosyns A and D in the exconjugant S. spinosa trans1 compared with 100 (± 7.7) mg L(-1) in the parental strain. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analysis of three selected genes (spnH, spnI, and spnK) confirmed the positive effect of the overexpression of these genes on the spinosyn production. This study provides a simple avenue for enhancing spinosyn production. The strategies could also be used to improve the yield of other secondary metabolites. PMID:22092858

  4. The Magea gene cluster regulates male germ cell apoptosis without affecting the fertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Siyuan; Xian, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Li, Chaojun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While apoptosis is essential for male germ cell development, improper activation of apoptosis in the testis can affect spermatogenesis and cause reproduction defects. Members of the MAGE-A (melanoma antigen family A) gene family are frequently clustered in mammalian genomes and are exclusively expressed in the testes of normal animals but abnormally activated in a wide variety of cancers. We investigated the potential roles of these genes in spermatogenesis by generating a mouse model with a 210-kb genomic deletion encompassing six members of the Magea gene cluster (Magea1, Magea2, Magea3, Magea5, Magea6 and Magea8). Male mice carrying the deletion displayed smaller testes from 2 months old with a marked increase in apoptotic germ cells in the first wave of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we found that Magea genes prevented stress-induced spermatogenic apoptosis after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment during the adult stage. Mechanistically, deletion of the Magea gene cluster resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptotic germ cells, predominantly spermatocytes, with activation of p53 and induction of Bax in the testes. These observations demonstrate that the Magea genes are crucial in maintaining normal testicular size and protecting germ cells from excessive apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:27226137

  5. Regulation of alkyl-dihydrothiazole-carboxylates (ATCs) by iron and the pyochelin gene cluster in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Saghatelian, Alan

    2009-08-21

    Using the pyochelin (pch) gene cluster as an example, we demonstrate the utility of untargeted metabolomics in the discovery and characterization of secondary metabolites regulated by biosynthetic gene clusters. Comparison of the extracellular metabolomes of pch gene cluster mutants to the wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain PA 14) identified 198 ions regulated by the pch genes. In addition to known metabolites, we characterized the structure of a pair of novel metabolites regulated by the pch gene cluster as 2-alkyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole-4-carboxylates (ATCs), using a combination of mass spectrometry, chemical synthesis, and stable isotope labeling. Subsequent assays revealed that ATCs bind iron and are regulated by iron levels in the media in a similar fashion as other metabolites associated with the pch gene cluster. Further genetic complementation and overexpression analyses of the pch genes revealed ATC production to be dependent on the pchE gene in the pch gene cluster. Overall, these studies highlight the ability of untargeted metabolomics to reveal regulatory connections between gene clusters and secondary metabolites, including novel metabolites. PMID:19621937

  6. Organization of the qa Gene Cluster in NEUROSPORA CRASSA: Direction of Transcription of the qa-3 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Strøman, Per; Reinert, William; Case, Mary E.; Giles, Norman H.

    1979-01-01

    In Neurospora crassa, the enzyme quinate (shikimate) dehydrogenase catalyzes the first reaction in the inducible quinic acid catabolic pathway and is encoded in the qa-3 gene of the qa cluster. In this cluster, the order of genes has been established as qa-1 qa-3 qa-4 qa-2. Amino-terminal sequences have been determined for purified quinate dehydrogenase from wild type and from UV-induced revertants in two different qa-3 mutants. These two mutants (M16 and M45) map at opposite ends of the qa-3 locus. In addition, mapping data (Case et al. 1978) indicate that the end of the qa-3 gene specified by M45 is closer to the adjacent qa-1 gene than is the end specified by the M16 mutant site. In one of the revertants (R45 from qa-3 mutant M45), the aminoterminal sequence for the first ten amino acids is identical to that of wild type. The other revertant (R1 from qa-3 mutant M16) differs from wild type at the amino-terminal end by a single altered residue at position three in the sequence. The observed change involves the substitution of an isoleucine in M16-R1 for a proline in wild type. This substitution requires a two-nucleotide change in the corresponding wild-type codon.——The combined genetic and biochemical data indicate that the qa-3 mutants M16 and M45 carry amino acid substitutions near the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the quinate dehydrogenase enzyme, respectively. On this basis we conclude that transcription of the qa-3 gene proceeds from the end specified by the M16 mutant site in the direction of the qa-1 gene. It appears probable that transcription is initiated from a promoter site within the qa cluster, possibly immediately adjacent to the qa-3 gene. PMID:159203

  7. Cloning of a Vibrio cholerae vibriobactin gene cluster: identification of genes required for early steps in siderophore biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Wyckoff, E E; Stoebner, J A; Reed, K E; Payne, S M

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae secretes the catechol siderophore vibriobactin in response to iron limitation. Vibriobactin is structurally similar to enterobactin, the siderophore produced by Escherichia coli, and both organisms produce 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) as an intermediate in siderophore biosynthesis. To isolate and characterize V. cholerae genes involved in vibriobactin biosynthesis, we constructed a genomic cosmid bank of V. cholerae DNA and isolated clones that complemented mutations in E. coli enterobactin biosynthesis genes. V. cholerae homologs of entA, entB, entC, entD, and entE were identified on overlapping cosmid clones. Our data indicate that the vibriobactin genes are clustered, like the E. coli enterobactin genes, but the organization of the genes within these clusters is different. In this paper, we present the organization and sequences of genes involved in the synthesis and activation of DHBA. In addition, a V. cholerae strain with a chromosomal mutation in vibA was constructed by marker exchange. This strain was unable to produce vibriobactin or DHBA, confirming that in V. cholerae VibA catalyzes an early step in vibriobactin biosynthesis. PMID:9371453

  8. TreeParser-Aided Klee Diagrams Display Taxonomic Clusters in DNA Barcode and Nuclear Gene Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckle, Mark Y.; Coffran, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Indicator vector analysis of a nucleotide sequence alignment generates a compact heat map, called a Klee diagram, with potential insight into clustering patterns in evolution. However, so far this approach has examined only mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) DNA barcode sequences. To further explore, we developed TreeParser, a freely-available web-based program that sorts a sequence alignment according to a phylogenetic tree generated from the dataset. We applied TreeParser to nuclear gene and COI barcode alignments from birds and butterflies. Distinct blocks in the resulting Klee diagrams corresponded to species and higher-level taxonomic divisions in both groups, and this enabled graphic comparison of phylogenetic information in nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Our results demonstrate TreeParser-aided Klee diagrams objectively display taxonomic clusters in nucleotide sequence alignments. This approach may help establish taxonomy in poorly studied groups and investigate higher-level clustering which appears widespread but not well understood. PMID:24022383

  9. Characterization of the Tunicamycin Gene Cluster Unveiling Unique Steps Involved in its Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tunicamycin, a potent reversible translocase I inhibitor, is produced by several Actinomycetes species. The tunicamycin structure is highly unusual, and contains an 11-carbon dialdose sugar and an aß-1,1-glycosidic linkage. Here we report the identification of a gene cluster essential for tunicamy...

  10. Expanded Natural Product Diversity Revealed by Analysis of Lanthipeptide-Like Gene Clusters in Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Doroghazi, James R.; Zhao, Xiling; Walker, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    Lanthionine-containing peptides (lanthipeptides) are a rapidly growing family of polycyclic peptide natural products belonging to the large class of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs). Lanthipeptides are widely distributed in taxonomically distant species, and their currently known biosynthetic systems and biological activities are diverse. Building on the recent natural product gene cluster family (GCF) project, we report here large-scale analysis of lanthipeptide-like biosynthetic gene clusters from Actinobacteria. Our analysis suggests that lanthipeptide biosynthetic pathways, and by extrapolation the natural products themselves, are much more diverse than currently appreciated and contain many different posttranslational modifications. Furthermore, lanthionine synthetases are much more diverse in sequence and domain topology than currently characterized systems, and they are used by the biosynthetic machineries for natural products other than lanthipeptides. The gene cluster families described here significantly expand the chemical diversity and biosynthetic repertoire of lanthionine-related natural products. Biosynthesis of these novel natural products likely involves unusual and unprecedented biochemistries, as illustrated by several examples discussed in this study. In addition, class IV lanthipeptide gene clusters are shown not to be silent, setting the stage to investigate their biological activities. PMID:25888176

  11. Identification and functional analysis of brassicicene C biosynthetic gene cluster in Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Minami, Atsushi; Tajima, Naoto; Higuchi, Yusuke; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Sassa, Takeshi; Kato, Nobuo; Dairi, Tohru

    2009-02-01

    The biosynthetic gene cluster of brassicicene C was identified in Alternaria brassicicola strain ATCC 96836 from genome database search. In vivo and in vitro study clearly revealed the function of Orf8 and Orf6 as a fusicoccadiene synthase and methyltransferase, respectively. The understanding toward the biosynthetic pathway promises construction of this type of diterpene compounds with genetic engineering. PMID:19097780

  12. Histone and ribosomal RNA repetitive gene clusters linked in tandem array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histones are the major protein component of chromatin structure. The histone family is made up of a quintet of proteins, four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) and the linker histones (H1). Spacers are found between the coding regions. Among insects this quintet of genes is usually clustered and ...

  13. Bifunctional Gene Cluster lnqBCDEF Mediates Bacteriocin Production and Immunity with Differential Genetic Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Iwatani, Shun; Horikiri, Yuko; Zendo, Takeshi; Nakayama, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive gene disruption of lacticin Q biosynthetic cluster lnqQBCDEF was carried out. The results demonstrated the necessity of the complete set of lnqQBCDEF for lacticin Q production, whereas immunity was flexible, with LnqEF (ABC transporter) being essential for and LnqBCD partially contributing to immunity. PMID:23335763

  14. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotype frequencies in Khalkhs and Buryats of Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Koji; Tokimasa, Kozue; Takeuchi, Yukiko; Gereksaikhan, Tudevdagva; Tanabe, Yuichi; Omoto, Keiichi; Imanishi, Tadashi; Harihara, Shinji; Hao, Luping; Jing, Feng

    2006-12-01

    Beta-globin gene cluster haplotype frequencies of 169 Khalkhs and 145 Buryats were estimated, and their characteristics were compared with those of Evenkis, Oroqens, Koreans, Japanese, and three Colombian Amerindian groups. The present study suggests that Colombian Amerindians diverged first from Asian populations and then Buryats diverged from other Asian populations. PMID:17564253

  15. Birth, death and horizontal transfer of the fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster during the evolutionary diversification of Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fungi, genes required for synthesis of secondary metabolites are often clustered. The FUM gene cluster is required for synthesis of a family of toxic secondary metabolites, fumonisins, produced by species of Fusarium in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFSC). Fumonisins are a health and ...

  16. The impact of polyploidy on the evolution of a complex NB-LRR resistance gene cluster in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative genomics approach was used to investigate the evolution of a complex NB-LRR gene cluster found in soybean (Glycine max), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and other legumes. In soybean, the cluster is associated with several disease resistance (R) genes of known function including Rpg1...

  17. Evidence for birth-and-death evolution and horizontal transfer of the fumonisin mycotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fungi, genes required for synthesis of secondary metabolites are often clustered. The FUM gene cluster is required for synthesis of fumonisins, a family of toxic secondary metabolites produced predominantly by species in the Fusarium (Gibberella) fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). Fumonisins are a...

  18. Clustering of two genes putatively involved in cyanate detoxification evolved recently and independently in multiple fungal lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi that have the enzymes cyanase and carbonic anhydrase show a limited capacity to detoxify cyanate, a fungicide employed by both plants and humans. Here, we describe a novel two-gene cluster that comprises duplicated cyanase and carbonic anhydrase copies, which we name the CCA gene cluster, trac...

  19. Identification and Analysis of the Paulomycin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster and Titer Improvement of the Paulomycins in Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jine; Xie, Zhoujie; Wang, Min; Ai, Guomin; Chen, Yihua

    2015-01-01

    The paulomycins are a group of glycosylated compounds featuring a unique paulic acid moiety. To locate their biosynthetic gene clusters, the genomes of two paulomycin producers, Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115 and Streptomyces sp. YN86, were sequenced. The paulomycin biosynthetic gene clusters were defined by comparative analyses of the two genomes together with the genome of the third paulomycin producer Streptomyces albus J1074. Subsequently, the identity of the paulomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was confirmed by inactivation of two genes involved in biosynthesis of the paulomycose branched chain (pau11) and the ring A moiety (pau18) in Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115. After determining the gene cluster boundaries, a convergent biosynthetic model was proposed for paulomycin based on the deduced functions of the pau genes. Finally, a paulomycin high-producing strain was constructed by expressing an activator-encoding gene (pau13) in S. paulus, setting the stage for future investigations. PMID:25822496

  20. Identification and analysis of the paulomycin biosynthetic gene cluster and titer improvement of the paulomycins in Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115.

    PubMed

    Li, Jine; Xie, Zhoujie; Wang, Min; Ai, Guomin; Chen, Yihua

    2015-01-01

    The paulomycins are a group of glycosylated compounds featuring a unique paulic acid moiety. To locate their biosynthetic gene clusters, the genomes of two paulomycin producers, Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115 and Streptomyces sp. YN86, were sequenced. The paulomycin biosynthetic gene clusters were defined by comparative analyses of the two genomes together with the genome of the third paulomycin producer Streptomyces albus J1074. Subsequently, the identity of the paulomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was confirmed by inactivation of two genes involved in biosynthesis of the paulomycose branched chain (pau11) and the ring A moiety (pau18) in Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115. After determining the gene cluster boundaries, a convergent biosynthetic model was proposed for paulomycin based on the deduced functions of the pau genes. Finally, a paulomycin high-producing strain was constructed by expressing an activator-encoding gene (pau13) in S. paulus, setting the stage for future investigations. PMID:25822496

  1. Clusters of genes encoding fructan biosynthesizing enzymes in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Mather, Diane E; Schreiber, Andreas W; Toubia, John; Baumann, Ute; Shoaei, Zahra; Stein, Nils; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stangoulis, James C R; Edwards, James; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Fleury, Delphine

    2012-10-01

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates with health benefits and possible roles in plant adaptation. Fructan biosynthetic genes were isolated using comparative genomics and physical mapping followed by BAC sequencing in barley. Genes encoding sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) were clustered together with multiple copies of vacuolar invertase genes and a transposable element on two barley BAC. Intron-exon structures of the genes were similar. Phylogenetic analysis of the fructosyltransferases and invertases in the Poaceae showed that the fructan biosynthetic genes may have evolved from vacuolar invertases. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed using leaf RNA extracted from three wheat cultivars grown under different conditions. The 1-SST, 1-FFT and 6-SFT genes had correlated expression patterns in our wheat experiment and in existing barley transcriptome database. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed and successfully mapped to a major QTL region affecting wheat grain fructan accumulation in two independent wheat populations. The alleles controlling high- and low- fructan in parental lines were also found to be associated in fructan production in a diverse set of 128 wheat lines. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the mapping and sequencing of a fructan biosynthetic gene cluster and in particular, the isolation of a novel 1-FFT gene from barley. PMID:22864927

  2. From the Flavobacterium genus to the phylum Bacteroidetes: genomic analysis of dnd gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Paul; Lunazzi, Aurélie; Fujiwara-Nagata, Erina; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Bernardet, Jean-François; Touchon, Marie; Duchaud, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Phosphorothioate modification of DNA and the corresponding DNA degradation (Dnd) phenotype that occurs during gel electrophoresis are caused by dnd genes. Although widely distributed among Bacteria and Archaea, dnd genes have been found in only very few, taxonomically unrelated, bacterial species so far. Here, we report the presence of dnd genes and their associated Dnd phenotype in two Flavobacterium species. Comparison with dnd gene clusters previously described led us to report a noncanonical genetic organization and to identify a gene likely encoding a hybrid DndE protein. Hence, we showed that dnd genes are also present in members of the family Flavobacteriaceae, a bacterial group occurring in a variety of habitats with an interesting diversity of lifestyle. Two main types of genomic organization of dnd loci were uncovered probably denoting their spreading in the phylum Bacteroidetes via distinct genetic transfer events. PMID:23965156

  3. Cloning and Analysis of the Planosporicin Lantibiotic Biosynthetic Gene Cluster of Planomonospora alba

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Emma J.; Hesketh, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens has renewed focus on natural products with antimicrobial properties. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics that are posttranslationally modified to introduce (methyl)lanthionine bridges. Actinomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce a large variety of antibiotics, many with clinical applications, but are known to make only a few lantibiotics. One such compound is planosporicin produced by Planomonospora alba, which inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in Gram-positive pathogens. Planosporicin is a type AI lantibiotic structurally similar to those which bind lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. The gene cluster responsible for planosporicin biosynthesis was identified by genome mining and subsequently isolated from a P. alba cosmid library. A minimal cluster of 15 genes sufficient for planosporicin production was defined by heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727, while deletion of the gene encoding the precursor peptide from P. alba, which abolished planosporicin production, was also used to confirm the identity of the gene cluster. Deletion of genes encoding likely biosynthetic enzymes identified through bioinformatic analysis revealed that they, too, are essential for planosporicin production in the native host. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the planosporicin gene cluster is transcribed in three operons. Expression of one of these, pspEF, which encodes an ABC transporter, in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) conferred some degree of planosporicin resistance on the heterologous host. The inability to delete these genes from P. alba suggests that they play an essential role in immunity in the natural producer. PMID:23475977

  4. Identification of the phd gene cluster responsible for phenylpropanoid utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Vogt, Michael; Kappelmann, Jannick; Krumbach, Karin; Noack, Stephan; Bott, Michael; Marienhagen, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Phenylpropanoids as abundant, lignin-derived compounds represent sustainable feedstocks for biotechnological production processes. We found that the biotechnologically important soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to grow on phenylpropanoids such as p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid as sole carbon and energy sources. Global gene expression analyses identified a gene cluster (cg0340-cg0341 and cg0344-cg0347), which showed increased transcription levels in response to phenylpropanoids. The gene cg0340 (designated phdT) encodes for a putative transporter protein, whereas cg0341 and cg0344-cg0347 (phdA-E) encode enzymes involved in the β-oxidation of phenylpropanoids. The phd gene cluster is transcriptionally controlled by a MarR-type repressor encoded by cg0343 (phdR). Cultivation experiments conducted with C. glutamicum strains carrying single-gene deletions showed that loss of phdA, phdB, phdC, or phdE abolished growth of C. glutamicum with all phenylpropanoid substrates tested. The deletion of phdD (encoding for putative acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) additionally abolished growth with the α,β-saturated phenylpropanoid 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid. However, the observed growth defect of all constructed single-gene deletion strains could be abolished through plasmid-borne expression of the respective genes. These results and the intracellular accumulation of pathway intermediates determined via LC-ESI-MS/MS in single-gene deletion mutants showed that the phd gene cluster encodes for a CoA-dependent, β-oxidative deacetylation pathway, which is essential for the utilization of phenylpropanoids in C. glutamicum. PMID:26610800

  5. Molecular cloning of the Escherichia coli B L-fucose-D-arabinose gene cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Elsinghorst, E A; Mortlock, R P

    1994-01-01

    To metabolize the uncommon pentose D-arabinose, enteric bacteria often recruit the enzymes of the L-fucose pathway by a regulatory mutation. However, Escherichia coli B can grow on D-arabinose without the requirement of a mutation, using some of the L-fucose enzymes and a D-ribulokinase that is distinct from the L-fuculokinase of the L-fucose pathway. To study this naturally occurring D-arabinose pathway, we cloned and partially characterized the E. coli B L-fucose-D-arabinose gene cluster and compared it with the L-fucose gene cluster of E. coli K-12. The order of the fucA, -P, -I, and -K genes was the same in the two E. coli strains. However, the E. coli B gene cluster contained a 5.2-kb segment located between the fucA and fucP genes that was not present in E. coli K-12. This segment carried the darK gene, which encodes the D-ribulokinase needed for growth on D-arabinose by E. coli B. The darK gene was not homologous with any of the L-fucose genes or with chromosomal DNA from other D-arabinose-utilizing bacteria. D-Ribulokinase and L-fuculokinase were purified to apparent homogeneity and partially characterized. The molecular weights, substrate specificities, and kinetic parameters of these two enzymes were very dissimilar, which together with DNA hybridization analysis, suggested that these enzymes are not related. D-Arabinose metabolism by E. coli B appears to be the result of acquisitive evolution, but the source of the darK gene has not been determined. Images PMID:7961494

  6. Characterisation of the paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis gene clusters in Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C and Aphanizomenon sp. NH-5

    PubMed Central

    Mihali, Troco K; Kellmann, Ralf; Neilan, Brett A

    2009-01-01

    Background Saxitoxin and its analogues collectively known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are neurotoxic alkaloids and are the cause of the syndrome named paralytic shellfish poisoning. PSTs are produced by a unique biosynthetic pathway, which involves reactions that are rare in microbial metabolic pathways. Nevertheless, distantly related organisms such as dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria appear to produce these toxins using the same pathway. Hypothesised explanations for such an unusual phylogenetic distribution of this shared uncommon metabolic pathway, include a polyphyletic origin, an involvement of symbiotic bacteria, and horizontal gene transfer. Results We describe the identification, annotation and bioinformatic characterisation of the putative paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis clusters in an Australian isolate of Anabaena circinalis and an American isolate of Aphanizomenon sp., both members of the Nostocales. These putative PST gene clusters span approximately 28 kb and contain genes coding for the biosynthesis and export of the toxin. A putative insertion/excision site in the Australian Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C was identified, and the organization and evolution of the gene clusters are discussed. A biosynthetic pathway leading to the formation of saxitoxin and its analogues in these organisms is proposed. Conclusion The PST biosynthesis gene cluster presents a mosaic structure, whereby genes have apparently transposed in segments of varying size, resulting in different gene arrangements in all three sxt clusters sequenced so far. The gene cluster organizational structure and sequence similarity seems to reflect the phylogeny of the producer organisms, indicating that the gene clusters have an ancient origin, or that their lateral transfer was also an ancient event. The knowledge we gain from the characterisation of the PST biosynthesis gene clusters, including the identity and sequence of the genes involved in the biosynthesis, may

  7. Organization of the Escherichia coli K-12 gene cluster responsible for production of the extracellular polysaccharide colanic acid.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, G; Andrianopoulos, K; Hobbs, M; Reeves, P R

    1996-08-01

    Colanic acid (CA) is an extracellular polysaccharide produced by most Escherichia coli strains as well as by other species of the family Enterobacteriaceae. We have determined the sequence of a 23-kb segment of the E. coli K-12 chromosome which includes the cluster of genes necessary for production of CA. The CA cluster comprises 19 genes. Two other sequenced genes (orf1.3 and galF), which are situated between the CA cluster and the O-antigen cluster, were shown to be unnecessary for CA production. The CA cluster includes genes for synthesis of GDP-L-fucose, one of the precursors of CA, and the gene for one of the enzymes in this pathway (GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase) was identified by biochemical assay. Six of the inferred proteins show sequence similarity to glycosyl transferases, and two others have sequence similarity to acetyl transferases. Another gene (wzx) is predicted to encode a protein with multiple transmembrane segments and may function in export of the CA repeat unit from the cytoplasm into the periplasm in a process analogous to O-unit export. The first three genes of the cluster are predicted to encode an outer membrane lipoprotein, a phosphatase, and an inner membrane protein with an ATP-binding domain. Since homologs of these genes are found in other extracellular polysaccharide gene clusters, they may have a common function, such as export of polysaccharide from the cell. PMID:8759852

  8. Classification and Clustering on Microarray Data for Gene Functional Prediction Using R.

    PubMed

    López-Kleine, Liliana; Kleine, Liliana López; Montaño, Rosa; Torres-Avilés, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression data (microarrays and RNA-sequencing data) as well as other kinds of genomic data can be extracted from publicly available genomic data. Here, we explain how to apply multivariate cluster and classification methods on gene expression data. These methods have become very popular and are implemented in freely available software in order to predict the participation of gene products in a specific functional category of interest. Taking into account the availability of data and of these methods, every biological study should apply them in order to obtain knowledge on the organism studied and functional category of interest. A special emphasis is made on the nonlinear kernel classification methods. PMID:25762300

  9. The Amylase gene cluster on the evolving sex chromosomes of Drosophila miranda.

    PubMed

    Steinemann, S; Steinemann, M

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of chromosomal homology, the Amylase gene cluster in Drosophila miranda must be located on the secondary sex chromosome pair, neo-X (X2) and neo-Y, but is autosomally inherited in all other Drosophila species. Genetic evidence indicates no active amylase on the neo-Y chromosome and the X2-chromosomal locus already shows dosage compensation. Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that the Amy gene cluster has been lost already from the evolving neo-Y chromosome. This finding shows that a relatively new neo-Y chromosome can start to lose genes and hence gradually lose homology with the neo-X. The X2-chromosomal Amy1 is intact and Amy2 contains a complete coding sequence, but has a deletion in the 3'-flanking region. Amy3 is structurally eroded and hampered by missing regulatory motifs. Functional analysis of the X2-chromosomal Amy1 and Amy2 regions from D. miranda in transgenic D. melanogaster flies reveals ectopic AMY1 expression. AMY1 shows the same electrophoretic mobility as the single amylase band in D. miranda, while ectopic AMY2 expression is characterized by a different mobility. Therefore, only the Amy1 gene of the resident Amy cluster remains functional and hence Amy1 is the dosage compensated gene. PMID:9872956

  10. GIP2, a Putative Transcription Factor That Regulates the Aurofusarin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Gibberella zeae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Eun; Jin, Jianming; Kim, Hun; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Yin-Won

    2006-01-01

    Gibberella zeae (anamorph: Fusarium graminearum) is an important pathogen of maize, wheat, and rice. Colonies of G. zeae produce yellow-to-tan mycelia with the white-to-carmine red margins. In this study, we focused on nine putative open reading frames (ORFs) closely linked to PKS12 and GIP1, which are required for aurofusarin biosynthesis in G. zeae. Among them is an ORF designated GIP2 (for Gibberella zeae pigment gene 2), which encodes a putative protein of 398 amino acids that carries a Zn(II)2Cys6 binuclear cluster DNA-binding domain commonly found in transcription factors of yeasts and filamentous fungi. Targeted gene deletion and complementation analyses confirmed that GIP2 is required for aurofusarin biosynthesis. Expression of GIP2 in carrot medium correlated with aurofusarin production by G. zeae and was restricted to vegetative mycelia. Inactivation of the 10 contiguous genes in the ΔGIP2 strain delineates an aurofusarin biosynthetic gene cluster. Overexpression of GIP2 in both the ΔGIP2 and the wild-type strains increases aurofusarin production and reduces mycelial growth. Thus, GIP2 is a putative positive regulator of the aurofusarin biosynthetic gene cluster, and aurofusarin production is negatively correlated with vegetative growth by G. zeae. PMID:16461721

  11. Direct cloning and refactoring of a silent lipopeptide biosynthetic gene cluster yields the antibiotic taromycin A.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Kazuya; Reynolds, Kirk A; Kersten, Roland D; Ryan, Katherine S; Gonzalez, David J; Nizet, Victor; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Moore, Bradley S

    2014-02-01

    Recent developments in next-generation sequencing technologies have brought recognition of microbial genomes as a rich resource for novel natural product discovery. However, owing to the scarcity of efficient procedures to connect genes to molecules, only a small fraction of secondary metabolomes have been investigated to date. Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning takes advantage of the natural in vivo homologous recombination of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to directly capture large genomic loci. Here we report a TAR-based genetic platform that allows us to directly clone, refactor, and heterologously express a silent biosynthetic pathway to yield a new antibiotic. With this method, which involves regulatory gene remodeling, we successfully expressed a 67-kb nonribosomal peptide synthetase biosynthetic gene cluster from the marine actinomycete Saccharomonospora sp. CNQ-490 and produced the dichlorinated lipopeptide antibiotic taromycin A in the model expression host Streptomyces coelicolor. The taromycin gene cluster (tar) is highly similar to the clinically approved antibiotic daptomycin from Streptomyces roseosporus, but has notable structural differences in three amino acid residues and the lipid side chain. With the activation of the tar gene cluster and production of taromycin A, this study highlights a unique "plug-and-play" approach to efficiently gaining access to orphan pathways that may open avenues for novel natural product discoveries and drug development. PMID:24449899

  12. Modularity of Plant Metabolic Gene Clusters: A Trio of Linked Genes That Are Collectively Required for Acylation of Triterpenes in Oat[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, Sam T.; Louveau, Thomas; Melton, Rachel; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Hill, Lionel; Tsurushima, Tetsu; Honkanen, Suvi; Rosser, Susan J.; Lomonossoff, George P.; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Operon-like gene clusters are an emerging phenomenon in the field of plant natural products. The genes encoding some of the best-characterized plant secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways are scattered across plant genomes. However, an increasing number of gene clusters encoding the synthesis of diverse natural products have recently been reported in plant genomes. These clusters have arisen through the neo-functionalization and relocation of existing genes within the genome, and not by horizontal gene transfer from microbes. The reasons for clustering are not yet clear, although this form of gene organization is likely to facilitate co-inheritance and co-regulation. Oats (Avena spp) synthesize antimicrobial triterpenoids (avenacins) that provide protection against disease. The synthesis of these compounds is encoded by a gene cluster. Here we show that a module of three adjacent genes within the wider biosynthetic gene cluster is required for avenacin acylation. Through the characterization of these genes and their encoded proteins we present a model of the subcellular organization of triterpenoid biosynthesis. PMID:23532069

  13. Modularity of plant metabolic gene clusters: a trio of linked genes that are collectively required for acylation of triterpenes in oat.

    PubMed

    Mugford, Sam T; Louveau, Thomas; Melton, Rachel; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Hill, Lionel; Tsurushima, Tetsu; Honkanen, Suvi; Rosser, Susan J; Lomonossoff, George P; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Operon-like gene clusters are an emerging phenomenon in the field of plant natural products. The genes encoding some of the best-characterized plant secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways are scattered across plant genomes. However, an increasing number of gene clusters encoding the synthesis of diverse natural products have recently been reported in plant genomes. These clusters have arisen through the neo-functionalization and relocation of existing genes within the genome, and not by horizontal gene transfer from microbes. The reasons for clustering are not yet clear, although this form of gene organization is likely to facilitate co-inheritance and co-regulation. Oats (Avena spp) synthesize antimicrobial triterpenoids (avenacins) that provide protection against disease. The synthesis of these compounds is encoded by a gene cluster. Here we show that a module of three adjacent genes within the wider biosynthetic gene cluster is required for avenacin acylation. Through the characterization of these genes and their encoded proteins we present a model of the subcellular organization of triterpenoid biosynthesis. PMID:23532069

  14. The organization and transcription of the galactose gene cluster of Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, T D; Dickson, R C

    1988-01-01

    The yeast Kluyveromyces lactis grows on galactose by inducing the Leloir pathway enzymes-kinase, epimerase, and transferase. To investigate the molecular mechanism for regulating expression of this metabolic pathway we isolated GAL1, GAL7, GAL10, which code for kinase, transferase, and epimerase, respectively, and characterized their size, organization, and transcriptional regulation. Our results indicate that induction of the Leloir pathway in K. lactis occurs at the level of transcription and that the organization and regulation of the GAL gene cluster in K. lactis is closely related to the homologous gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Likewise, the Upstream Activator Sequences that regulate induction of the GAL genes are similar in base sequence, number and relative location in the two yeasts. Images PMID:3047676

  15. Next-generation sequencing approach for connecting secondary metabolites to biosynthetic gene clusters in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Cacho, Ralph A.; Tang, Yi; Chooi, Yit-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Genomics has revolutionized the research on fungal secondary metabolite (SM) biosynthesis. To elucidate the molecular and enzymatic mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of a specific SM compound, the important first step is often to find the genes that responsible for its synthesis. The accessibility to fungal genome sequences allows the bypass of the cumbersome traditional library construction and screening approach. The advance in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have further improved the speed and reduced the cost of microbial genome sequencing in the past few years, which has accelerated the research in this field. Here, we will present an example work flow for identifying the gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of SMs of interest using an NGS approach. We will also review the different strategies that can be employed to pinpoint the targeted gene clusters rapidly by giving several examples stemming from our work. PMID:25642215

  16. An improved Pearson's correlation proximity-based hierarchical clustering for mining biological association between genes.

    PubMed

    Booma, P M; Prabhakaran, S; Dhanalakshmi, R

    2014-01-01

    Microarray gene expression datasets has concerned great awareness among molecular biologist, statisticians, and computer scientists. Data mining that extracts the hidden and usual information from datasets fails to identify the most significant biological associations between genes. A search made with heuristic for standard biological process measures only the gene expression level, threshold, and response time. Heuristic search identifies and mines the best biological solution, but the association process was not efficiently addressed. To monitor higher rate of expression levels between genes, a hierarchical clustering model was proposed, where the biological association between genes is measured simultaneously using proximity measure of improved Pearson's correlation (PCPHC). Additionally, the Seed Augment algorithm adopts average linkage methods on rows and columns in order to expand a seed PCPHC model into a maximal global PCPHC (GL-PCPHC) model and to identify association between the clusters. Moreover, a GL-PCPHC applies pattern growing method to mine the PCPHC patterns. Compared to existing gene expression analysis, the PCPHC model achieves better performance. Experimental evaluations are conducted for GL-PCPHC model with standard benchmark gene expression datasets extracted from UCI repository and GenBank database in terms of execution time, size of pattern, significance level, biological association efficiency, and pattern quality. PMID:25136661

  17. Genetic Characterization of the Klebsiella pneumoniae waa Gene Cluster, Involved in Core Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Regué, Miguel; Climent, Núria; Abitiu, Nihal; Coderch, Núria; Merino, Susana; Izquierdo, Luis; Altarriba, Maria; Tomás, Juan M.

    2001-01-01

    A recombinant cosmid containing genes involved in Klebsiella pneumoniae C3 core lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis was identified by its ability to confer bacteriocin 28b resistance to Escherichia coli K-12. The recombinant cosmid contains 12 genes, the whole waa gene cluster, flanked by kbl and coaD genes, as was found in E. coli K-12. PCR amplification analysis showed that this cluster is conserved in representative K. pneumoniae strains. Partial nucleotide sequence determination showed that the same genes and gene order are found in K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae, for which the core chemical structure is known. Complementation analysis of known waa mutants from E. coli K-12 and/or Salmonella enterica led to the identification of genes involved in biosynthesis of the inner core backbone that are shared by these three members of the Enterobacteriaceae. K. pneumoniae orf10 mutants showed a two-log-fold reduction in a mice virulence assay and a strong decrease in capsule amount. Analysis of a constructed K. pneumoniae waaE deletion mutant suggests that the WaaE protein is involved in the transfer of the branch β-d-Glc to the O-4 position of l-glycero-d-manno-heptose I, a feature shared by K. pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Yersinia enterocolitica. PMID:11371519

  18. A Telomeric Cluster of Antimony Resistance Genes on Chromosome 34 of Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Tejera Nevado, Paloma; Bifeld, Eugenia; Höhn, Katharina; Clos, Joachim

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying the drug resistance of Leishmania spp. are manifold and not completely identified. Apart from the highly conserved multidrug resistance gene family known from higher eukaryotes, Leishmania spp. also possess genus-specific resistance marker genes. One of them, ARM58, was first identified in Leishmania braziliensis using a functional cloning approach, and its domain structure was characterized in L. infantum Here we report that L. infantum ARM58 is part of a gene cluster at the telomeric end of chromosome 34 also comprising the neighboring genes ARM56 and HSP23. We show that overexpression of all three genes can confer antimony resistance to intracellular amastigotes. Upon overexpression in L. donovani, ARM58 and ARM56 are secreted via exosomes, suggesting a scavenger/secretion mechanism of action. Using a combination of functional cloning and next-generation sequencing, we found that the gene cluster was selected only under antimonyl tartrate challenge and weakly under Cu(2+) challenge but not under sodium arsenite, Cd(2+), or miltefosine challenge. The selective advantage is less pronounced in intracellular amastigotes treated with the sodium stibogluconate, possibly due to the known macrophage-stimulatory activity of this drug, against which these resistance markers may not be active. Our data point to the specificity of these three genes for antimony resistance. PMID:27324767

  19. Discovery of five conserved β-defensin gene clusters using a computational search strategy

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, Brian C.; Mitros, Joseph P.; Bartlett, Jennifer A.; Walters, Jesse D.; Jia, Hong Peng; Welsh, Michael J.; Casavant, Thomas L.; McCray, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    The innate immune system includes antimicrobial peptides that protect multicellular organisms from a diverse spectrum of microorganisms. β-Defensins comprise one important family of mammalian antimicrobial peptides. The annotation of the human genome fails to reveal the expected diversity, and a recent query of the draft sequence with the blast search engine found only one new β-defensin gene (DEFB3). To define better the β-defensin gene family, we adopted a genomics approach that uses hmmer, a computational search tool based on hidden Markov models, in combination with blast. This strategy identified 28 new human and 43 new mouse β-defensin genes in five syntenic chromosomal regions. Within each syntenic cluster, the gene sequences and organization were similar, suggesting each cluster pair arose from a common ancestor and was retained because of conserved functions. Preliminary analysis indicates that at least 26 of the predicted genes are transcribed. These results demonstrate the value of a genomewide search strategy to identify genes with conserved structural motifs. Discovery of these genes represents a new starting point for exploring the role of β-defensins in innate immunity. PMID:11854508

  20. Sequencing and Analysis of the Biosynthetic Gene Cluster of the Lipopeptide Antibiotic Friulimicin in Actinoplanes friuliensis▿

    PubMed Central

    Müller, C.; Nolden, S.; Gebhardt, P.; Heinzelmann, E.; Lange, C.; Puk, O.; Welzel, K.; Wohlleben, W.; Schwartz, D.

    2007-01-01

    Actinoplanes friuliensis produces the lipopeptide antibiotic friulimicin, which is a cyclic peptide with one exocyclic amino acid linked to a branched-chain fatty acid acyl residue. The structural relationship to daptomycin and the excellent antibacterial performance of friulimicin make the antibiotic an attractive drug candidate. The complete friulimicin biosynthetic gene cluster of 24 open reading frames from A. friuliensis was sequenced and analyzed. In addition to genes for regulation, self-resistance, and transport, the cluster contains genes encoding peptide synthetases, proteins involved in the synthesis and linkage of the fatty acid component of the antibiotic, and proteins involved in the synthesis of the nonproteinogenic amino acids pipecolinic acid, methylaspartic acid, and 2,3-diaminobutyric acid. By using heterologous gene expression in Escherichia coli, we provide biochemical evidence for the stereoselective synthesis of l-pipecolinic acid by the deduced protein of the lysine cyclodeaminase gene pip. Furthermore, we show the involvement of the dabA and dabB genes in the biosynthesis of 2,3-diaminobutyric acid by gene inactivation and subsequent feeding experiments. PMID:17220414

  1. Dynamic and Physical Clustering of Gene Expression during Epidermal Barrier Formation in Differentiating Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Copley, Richard; Taylor, Martin S.; Hayden, Patrick J.; Stolper, Gina; Mott, Richard; Hein, Jotun; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Cookson, William O. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian epidermis is a continually renewing structure that provides the interface between the organism and an innately hostile environment. The keratinocyte is its principal cell. Keratinocyte proteins form a physical epithelial barrier, protect against microbial damage, and prepare immune responses to danger. Epithelial immunity is disordered in many common diseases and disordered epithelial differentiation underlies many cancers. In order to identify the genes that mediate epithelial development we used a tissue model of the skin derived from primary human keratinocytes. We measured global gene expression in triplicate at five times over the ten days that the keratinocytes took to fully differentiate. We identified 1282 gene transcripts that significantly changed during differentiation (false discovery rate <0.01%). We robustly grouped these transcripts by K-means clustering into modules with distinct temporal expression patterns, shared regulatory motifs, and biological functions. We found a striking cluster of late expressed genes that form the structural and innate immune defences of the epithelial barrier. Gene Ontology analyses showed that undifferentiated keratinocytes were characterised by genes for motility and the adaptive immune response. We systematically identified calcium-binding genes, which may operate with the epidermal calcium gradient to control keratinocyte division during skin repair. The results provide multiple novel insights into keratinocyte biology, in particular providing a comprehensive list of known and previously unrecognised major components of the epidermal barrier. The findings provide a reference for subsequent understanding of how the barrier functions in health and disease. PMID:19888454

  2. Comprehensive curation and analysis of fungal biosynthetic gene clusters of published natural products.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong Fuga; Tsai, Kathleen J S; Harvey, Colin J B; Li, James Jian; Ary, Beatrice E; Berlew, Erin E; Boehman, Brenna L; Findley, David M; Friant, Alexandra G; Gardner, Christopher A; Gould, Michael P; Ha, Jae H; Lilley, Brenna K; McKinstry, Emily L; Nawal, Saadia; Parry, Robert C; Rothchild, Kristina W; Silbert, Samantha D; Tentilucci, Michael D; Thurston, Alana M; Wai, Rebecca B; Yoon, Yongjin; Aiyar, Raeka S; Medema, Marnix H; Hillenmeyer, Maureen E; Charkoudian, Louise K

    2016-04-01

    Microorganisms produce a wide range of natural products (NPs) with clinically and agriculturally relevant biological activities. In bacteria and fungi, genes encoding successive steps in a biosynthetic pathway tend to be clustered on the chromosome as biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). Historically, "activity-guided" approaches to NP discovery have focused on bioactivity screening of NPs produced by culturable microbes. In contrast, recent "genome mining" approaches first identify candidate BGCs, express these biosynthetic genes using synthetic biology methods, and finally test for the production of NPs. Fungal genome mining efforts and the exploration of novel sequence and NP space are limited, however, by the lack of a comprehensive catalog of BGCs encoding experimentally-validated products. In this study, we generated a comprehensive reference set of fungal NPs whose biosynthetic gene clusters are described in the published literature. To generate this dataset, we first identified NCBI records that included both a peer-reviewed article and an associated nucleotide record. We filtered these records by text and homology criteria to identify putative NP-related articles and BGCs. Next, we manually curated the resulting articles, chemical structures, and protein sequences. The resulting catalog contains 197 unique NP compounds covering several major classes of fungal NPs, including polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenoids, and alkaloids. The distribution of articles published per compound shows a bias toward the study of certain popular compounds, such as the aflatoxins. Phylogenetic analysis of biosynthetic genes suggests that much chemical and enzymatic diversity remains to be discovered in fungi. Our catalog was incorporated into the recently launched Minimum Information about Biosynthetic Gene cluster (MIBiG) repository to create the largest known set of fungal BGCs and associated NPs, a resource that we anticipate will guide future genome mining and

  3. Structure, function, and regulation of the aldouronate utilization gene cluster from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2.

    PubMed

    Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Preston, James F

    2007-12-01

    Direct bacterial conversion of the hemicellulose fraction of hardwoods and crop residues to biobased products depends upon extracellular depolymerization of methylglucuronoxylan (MeGAX(n)), followed by assimilation and intracellular conversion of aldouronates and xylooligosaccharides to fermentable xylose. Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium, secretes a multimodular cell-associated GH10 endoxylanase (XynA1) that catalyzes depolymerization of MeGAX(n) and rapidly assimilates the principal products, beta-1,4-xylobiose, beta-1,4-xylotriose, and MeGAX(3), the aldotetrauronate 4-O-methylglucuronosyl-alpha-1,2-xylotriose. Genomic libraries derived from this bacterium have now allowed cloning and sequencing of a unique aldouronate utilization gene cluster comprised of genes encoding signal transduction regulatory proteins, ABC transporter proteins, and the enzymes AguA (GH67 alpha-glucuronidase), XynA2 (GH10 endoxylanase), and XynB (GH43 beta-xylosidase/alpha-arabinofuranosidase). Expression of these genes, as well as xynA1 encoding the secreted GH10 endoxylanase, is induced by growth on MeGAX(n) and repressed by glucose. Sequences in the yesN, lplA, and xynA2 genes within the cluster and in the distal xynA1 gene show significant similarity to catabolite responsive element (cre) defined in Bacillus subtilis for recognition of the catabolite control protein (CcpA) and consequential repression of catabolic regulons. The aldouronate utilization gene cluster in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 operates as a regulon, coregulated with the expression of xynA1, conferring the ability for efficient assimilation and catabolism of the aldouronate product generated by a multimodular cell surface-anchored GH10 endoxylanase. This cluster offers a desirable metabolic potential for bacterial conversion of hemicellulose fractions of hardwood and crop residues to biobased products. PMID:17921311

  4. A Novel Method Incorporating Gene Ontology Information for Unsupervised Clustering and Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shireesh; Zhang, Linxia; Jin, Rong; Chan, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Background Among the primary goals of microarray analysis is the identification of genes that could distinguish between different phenotypes (feature selection). Previous studies indicate that incorporating prior information of the genes' function could help identify physiologically relevant features. However, current methods that incorporate prior functional information do not provide a relative estimate of the effect of different genes on the biological processes of interest. Results Here, we present a method that integrates gene ontology (GO) information and expression data using Bayesian regression mixture models to perform unsupervised clustering of the samples and identify physiologically relevant discriminating features. As a model application, the method was applied to identify the genes that play a role in the cytotoxic responses of human hepatoblastoma cell line (HepG2) to saturated fatty acid (SFA) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, as compared to the non-toxic response to the unsaturated FFAs (UFA) and TNF-α. Incorporation of prior knowledge led to a better discrimination of the toxic phenotypes from the others. The model identified roles of lysosomal ATPases and adenylate cyclase (AC9) in the toxicity of palmitate. To validate the role of AC in palmitate-treated cells, we measured the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP). The cAMP levels were found to be significantly reduced by palmitate treatment and not by the other FFAs, in accordance with the model selection of AC9. Conclusions A framework is presented that incorporates prior ontology information, which helped to (a) perform unsupervised clustering of the phenotypes, and (b) identify the genes relevant to each cluster of phenotypes. We demonstrate the proposed framework by applying it to identify physiologically-relevant feature genes that conferred differential toxicity to saturated vs. unsaturated FFAs. The framework can be applied to other problems to efficiently integrate ontology

  5. Characterization of a novel phenazine antibiotic gene cluster in Erwinia herbicola Eh1087.

    PubMed

    Giddens, Stephen R; Feng, Yunjiang; Mahanty, H Khris

    2002-08-01

    Erwinia herbicola strain Eh1087 produces the broad-spectrum phenazine antibiotic D-alanylgriseoluteic acid (AGA). In this report, a cluster of 16 ehp (Erwinia herbicola phenazine) plasmid genes required for the production of AGA by Eh1087 is described. The extent of the gene cluster was revealed by the isolation of 82 different Eh1087 AGA- mutants, all found to possess single mini-Tn5lacZ2 insertions within a 14 kbp DNA region. Additional transposon insertions that did not affect antibiotic production by Eh1087 were created to define the boundaries of the gene cluster. The size and location of genes between these boundaries were derived from a combination of DNA sequence analyses, minicell protein analyses and the correlation between mutation position and the production of coloured AGA intermediates by many ehp mutants. Precursor-feeding and complementation experiments resulted in 15 ehp genes being assigned to one of four functional groups according to their role in the synthesis of AGA. Group 1 is required for the synthesis of the phenazine nucleus in the form of antibiotic precursor one (AP1, phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylic acid). Group 2 is responsible for conversion of AP1 to AP2, which is subsequently modified to AP3 (griseoluteic acid) and exported by the group 3 gene products. Group 4 catalyses the addition of D-alanine to AP3 to create AGA, independently of groups 1, 2 and 3. A gene that is divergently transcribed from the 15 AGA synthesis ehp genes confers resistance to AGA. PMID:12139622

  6. Biased clustered substitutions in the human genome: The footprints of male-driven biased gene conversion

    PubMed Central

    Dreszer, Timothy R.; Wall, Gregory D.; Haussler, David; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2007-01-01

    We examined fixed substitutions in the human lineage since divergence from the common ancestor with the chimpanzee, and determined what fraction are AT to GC (weak-to-strong). Substitutions that are densely clustered on the chromosomes show a remarkable excess of weak-to-strong “biased” substitutions. These unexpected biased clustered substitutions (UBCS) are common near the telomeres of all autosomes but not the sex chromosomes. Regions of extreme bias are enriched for genes. Human and chimp orthologous regions show a striking similarity in the shape and magnitude of their respective UBCS maps, suggesting a relatively stable force leads to clustered bias. The strong and stable signal near telomeres may have participated in the evolution of isochores. One exception to the UBCS pattern found in all autosomes is chromosome 2, which shows a UBCS peak midchromosome, mapping to the fusion site of two ancestral chromosomes. This provides evidence that the fusion occurred as recently as 740,000 years ago and no more than ∼3 million years ago. No biased clustering was found in SNPs, suggesting that clusters of biased substitutions are selected from mutations. UBCS is strongly correlated with male (and not female) recombination rates, which explains the lack of UBCS signal on chromosome X. These observations support the hypothesis that biased gene conversion (BGC), specifically in the male germline, played a significant role in the evolution of the human genome. PMID:17785536

  7. mutation3D: Cancer Gene Prediction Through Atomic Clustering of Coding Variants in the Structural Proteome.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michael J; Lapcevic, Ryan; Romero, Alfonso E; Yoon, Mark; Das, Jishnu; Beltrán, Juan Felipe; Mort, Matthew; Stenson, Peter D; Cooper, David N; Paccanaro, Alberto; Yu, Haiyuan

    2016-05-01

    A new algorithm and Web server, mutation3D (http://mutation3d.org), proposes driver genes in cancer by identifying clusters of amino acid substitutions within tertiary protein structures. We demonstrate the feasibility of using a 3D clustering approach to implicate proteins in cancer based on explorations of single proteins using the mutation3D Web interface. On a large scale, we show that clustering with mutation3D is able to separate functional from nonfunctional mutations by analyzing a combination of 8,869 known inherited disease mutations and 2,004 SNPs overlaid together upon the same sets of crystal structures and homology models. Further, we present a systematic analysis of whole-genome and whole-exome cancer datasets to demonstrate that mutation3D identifies many known cancer genes as well as previously underexplored target genes. The mutation3D Web interface allows users to analyze their own mutation data in a variety of popular formats and provides seamless access to explore mutation clusters derived from over 975,000 somatic mutations reported by 6,811 cancer sequencing studies. The mutation3D Web interface is freely available with all major browsers supported. PMID:26841357

  8. COPD subtypes identified by network-based clustering of blood gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yale; Glass, Kimberly; Liu, Yang-Yu; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James D; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Bowler, Russ; Dy, Jennifer; Cho, Michael; Castaldi, Peter

    2016-03-01

    One of the most common smoking-related diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), results from a dysregulated, multi-tissue inflammatory response to cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that systemic inflammatory signals in genome-wide blood gene expression can identify clinically important COPD-related disease subtypes, and we leveraged pre-existing gene interaction networks to guide unsupervised clustering of blood microarray expression data. Using network-informed non-negative matrix factorization, we analyzed genome-wide blood gene expression from 229 former smokers in the ECLIPSE Study, and we identified novel, clinically relevant molecular subtypes of COPD. These network-informed clusters were more stable and more strongly associated with measures of lung structure and function than clusters derived from a network-naïve approach, and they were associated with subtype-specific enrichment for inflammatory and protein catabolic pathways. These clusters were successfully reproduced in an independent sample of 135 smokers from the COPDGene Study. PMID:26773458

  9. Epigenomic reorganization of the clustered Hox genes in embryonic stem cells induced by retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Vasundhra; Gudas, Lorraine J; Brenet, Fabienne; Funk, Patricia; Viale, Agnes; Scandura, Joseph M

    2011-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) regulates clustered Hox gene expression during embryogenesis and is required to establish the anterior-posterior body plan. Using mutant embryonic stem cell lines deficient in the RA receptor γ (RARγ) or Hoxa1 3'-RA-responsive element, we studied the kinetics of transcriptional and epigenomic patterning responses to RA. RARγ is essential for RA-induced Hox transcriptional activation, and deletion of its binding site in the Hoxa1 enhancer attenuates transcriptional and epigenomic activation of both Hoxa and Hoxb gene clusters. The kinetics of epigenomic reorganization demonstrate that complete erasure of the polycomb repressive mark H3K27me3 is not necessary to initiate Hox transcription. RARγ is not required to establish the bivalent character of Hox clusters, but RA/RARγ signaling is necessary to erase H3K27me3 from activated Hox genes during embryonic stem cell differentiation. Highly coordinated, long range epigenetic Hox cluster reorganization is closely linked to transcriptional activation and is triggered by RARγ located at the Hoxa1 3'-RA-responsive element. PMID:21087926

  10. Multifactorial induction of an orphan PKS-NRPS gene cluster in Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Gressler, Markus; Zaehle, Christoph; Scherlach, Kirstin; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

    2011-02-25

    Mining the genome of the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus terreus revealed the presence of an orphan polyketide-nonribosomal-peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) gene cluster. Induced expression of the transcriptional activator gene adjacent to the PKS-NRPS gene was not sufficient for the activation of the silent pathway. Monitoring gene expression, metabolic profiling, and using a lacZ reporter strain allowed for the systematic investigation of physiological conditions that eventually led to the discovery of isoflavipucine and dihydroisoflavipucine. Phytotoxin formation is only activated in the presence of certain amino acids, stimulated at alkaline pH, but strictly repressed in the presence of glucose. Global carbon catabolite repression by CreA cannot be abolished by positive-acting factors such as PacC and overrides the pathway activator. Gene inactivation and stable isotope labeling experiments unveiled the molecular basis for flavipucine/fruit rot toxin biosynthesis. PMID:21236704

  11. Expression in fibroblasts and in live animals of Entamoeba histolytica polypeptides EhCP112 and EhADH112.

    PubMed

    Madriz, Xochil; Martínez, Máximo B; Rodríguez, Mario A; Sierra, Gustavo; Martínez-López, Carolina; Riverón, Ana M; Flores, Leopoldo; Orozco, Esther

    2004-05-01

    EhCPADH is an immunogenic, heterodimeric protein that is formed by EhCP112 (cysteine protease) and EhADH112 (adhesin), polypeptides involved in Entamoeba histolytica's cytopathic effect, target-cell adherence and phagocytosis. The EhCPADH complex is located in the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic vacuoles. Here, the independent expression of EhCP112 and EhADH112 in fibroblasts and hamsters was analysed. Also investigated was the immunological response in animals independently inoculated with plasmid pcDNA-Ehcp112, which carries the complete cysteine protease-encoding gene, or with plasmid pcDNA-Ehadh112, which carries the C terminus of the adhesin-encoding gene, or with a mixture of both. Both proteins were expressed in the plasma membranes of the transfected fibroblasts. EhCP112 was toxic for the mammalian cells. Proteins were also independently expressed in hamsters after inoculation with the plasmids. Their expression was indirectly evaluated by the presence of antibodies in the inoculated animals. Remarkably, co-immunization of the animals with the two DNA plasmids resulted in an earlier and higher anti-E. histolytica IgG induction than immunization with separate plasmids. In contrast, the cellular immune response was not noticeably improved by the plasmid mixture. Interestingly, protection against liver abscesses was detected only in animals that received the plasmid mixture and no protection was observed in hamsters independently inoculated with plasmid pcDNA-Ehcp112 or pcDNA-Ehadh112. PMID:15133088

  12. Mineral exploration, Mahd adh Dhahab District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worl, Ronald G.

    1978-01-01

    Mahd adh Dhahab is the largest of numerous ancient gold mines scattered through the Precambrian shield of Saudi Arabia and the only one with recent production. During the period 1939-54, 765,768 fine ounces of gold and 1,002,029 ounces of silver were produced from the mines by the Saudi Arabian Mining Syndicate. Ore minerals at Mahd adh Dhahab include free gold and silver, tellurides, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite in and associated with a system of north-trending quartz veins and quartz veinlet stockworks. Pyrite is a common sulfide gangue mineral. Country rocks are a north dipping sequence of pyroclastic and transported pyroclastic rocks of the Hulayfah Group that are locally highly silicified and potassium-feldspathized. The prime target for this exploration program was a north-trending zone of quartz veins and breccias, faults, alteration, and metalization approximately 400 m wide and 1000 m long. The ancient and recent mine workings are located in the northern part of this zone. Although the quartz veins and alteration cut all lithologies, the major metalization is confined to the intersection of veins and agglomerate. Ten holes were diamond drilled to explore geochemical, geological, and geophysical targets in the area. A significant new zone of metalization was discovered 700 m south of the ancient and recent mine workings and within the same major zone of quartz veins, alteration, and faults. Metalization in this southern mineralized zone is at the intersection of the quartz veins and a distinctive and highly altered agglomerate. The total zone of vein and agglomerate intercept is potentially metalized and comprises a block of ground 40 m thick and 400 m wide along the strike of the agglomerate and projected downdip 250 m. Tonnage of this block is 17.2 million tons. The explored zone, approximately 25 percent of the potentially metalized rock, has a potential resource of 1.1 million tons containing 27 g/t gold and 73 g/t silver.

  13. MeSH key terms for validation and annotation of gene expression clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Rechtsteiner, A.; Rocha, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    Integration of different sources of information is a great challenge for the analysis of gene expression data, and for the field of Functional Genomics in general. As the availability of numerical data from high-throughput methods increases, so does the need for technologies that assist in the validation and evaluation of the biological significance of results extracted from these data. In mRNA assaying with microarrays, for example, numerical analysis often attempts to identify clusters of co-expressed genes. The important task to find the biological significance of the results and validate them has so far mostly fallen to the biological expert who had to perform this task manually. One of the most promising avenues to develop automated and integrative technology for such tasks lies in the application of modern Information Retrieval (IR) and Knowledge Management (KM) algorithms to databases with biomedical publications and data. Examples of databases available for the field are bibliographic databases c ntaining scientific publications (e.g. MEDLINE/PUBMED), databases containing sequence data (e.g. GenBank) and databases of semantic annotations (e.g. the Gene Ontology Consortium and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)). We present here an approach that uses the MeSH terms and their concept hierarchies to validate and obtain functional information for gene expression clusters. The controlled and hierarchical MeSH vocabulary is used by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to index all the articles cited in MEDLINE. Such indexing with a controlled vocabulary eliminates some of the ambiguity due to polysemy (terms that have multiple meanings) and synonymy (multiple terms have similar meaning) that would be encountered if terms would be extracted directly from the articles due to differing article contexts or author preferences and background. Further, the hierarchical organization of the MeSH terms can illustrate the conceptuallfunctional relationships of genes

  14. Versatile Cosmid Vectors for the Isolation, Expression, and Rescue of Gene Sequences: Studies with the Human α -globin Gene Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Yun-Fai; Kan, Yuet Wai

    1983-09-01

    We have developed a series of cosmids that can be used as vectors for genomic recombinant DNA library preparations, as expression vectors in mammalian cells for both transient and stable transformations, and as shuttle vectors between bacteria and mammalian cells. These cosmids were constructed by inserting one of the SV2-derived selectable gene markers-SV2-gpt, SV2-DHFR, and SV2-neo-in cosmid pJB8. High efficiency of genomic cloning was obtained with these cosmids and the size of the inserts was 30-42 kilobases. We isolated recombinant cosmids containing the human α -globin gene cluster from these genomic libraries. The simian virus 40 DNA in these selectable gene markers provides the origin of replication and enhancer sequences necessary for replication in permissive cells such as COS 7 cells and thereby allows transient expression of α -globin genes in these cells. These cosmids and their recombinants could also be stably transformed into mammalian cells by using the respective selection systems. Both of the adult α -globin genes were more actively expressed than the embryonic zeta -globin genes in these transformed cell lines. Because of the presence of the cohesive ends of the Charon 4A phage in the cosmids, the transforming DNA sequences could readily be rescued from these stably transformed cells into bacteria by in vitro packaging of total cellular DNA. Thus, these cosmid vectors are potentially useful for direct isolation of structural genes.

  15. Identification and Engineering of the Cytochalasin Gene Cluster from Aspergillus clavatus NRRL 1

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Kangjian; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Tang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Cytochalasins are a group of fungal secondary metabolites with diverse structures and bioactivities, including cytochalasin E produced by Aspergillus clavatus, which is a potent anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the cytochalasin gene cluster from A. clavatus NRRL 1. As a producer of cytochalasin E and K, the genome of A. clavatus was analyzed and the ~30 kb ccs gene cluster was identified based on the presence of a polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetases (PKS-NRPS) and a putative Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO). Deletion of the central PKS-NRPS gene, ccsA, abolished the production of cytochalasin E and K, confirming the association between the natural products and the gene cluster. Based on bioinformatic analysis, a putative biosynthetic pathway is proposed. Furthermore, overexpression of the pathway specific regulator ccsR elevated the titer of cytochalasin E from 25 mg/L to 175 mg/L. Our results not only shed light on the biosynthesis of cytochalasins, but also provided genetic tools for increasing and engineering the production. PMID:21983160

  16. Identification of novel mureidomycin analogues via rational activation of a cryptic gene cluster in Streptomyces roseosporus NRRL 15998

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lingjuan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jihui; Liu, Hao; Hong, Bin; Tan, Huarong; Niu, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are urgently needed to tackle the growing threat of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. An important source of new antimicrobials is the large repertoire of cryptic gene clusters embedded in microbial genomes. Genome mining revealed a napsamycin/mureidomycin biosynthetic gene cluster in the chromosome of Streptomyces roseosporus NRRL 15998. The cryptic gene cluster was activated by constitutive expression of a foreign activator gene ssaA from sansanmycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. strain SS. Expression of the gene cluster was verified by RT-PCR analysis of key biosynthetic genes. The activated metabolites demonstrated potent inhibitory activity against the highly refractory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and characterization of the metabolites led to the discovery of eight acetylated mureidomycin analogues. To our surprise, constitutive expression of the native activator gene SSGG_02995, a ssaA homologue in S. roseosporus NRRL 15998, has no beneficial effect on mureidomycin stimulation. This study provides a new way to activate cryptic gene cluster for the acquisition of novel antibiotics and will accelerate the exploitation of prodigious natural products in Streptomyces. PMID:26370924

  17. A Large Gene Cluster Encoding Several Magnetosome Proteins Is Conserved in Different Species of Magnetotactic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Grünberg, Karen; Wawer, Cathrin; Tebo, Bradley M.; Schüler, Dirk

    2001-01-01

    In magnetotactic bacteria, a number of specific proteins are associated with the magnetosome membrane (MM) and may have a crucial role in magnetite biomineralization. We have cloned and sequenced the genes of several of these polypeptides in the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense that could be assigned to two different genomic regions. Except for mamA, none of these genes have been previously reported to be related to magnetosome formation. Homologous genes were found in the genome sequences of M. magnetotacticum and magnetic coccus strain MC-1. The MM proteins identified display homology to tetratricopeptide repeat proteins (MamA), cation diffusion facilitators (MamB), and HtrA-like serine proteases (MamE) or bear no similarity to known proteins (MamC and MamD). A major gene cluster containing several magnetosome genes (including mamA and mamB) was found to be conserved in all three of the strains investigated. The mamAB cluster also contains additional genes that have no known homologs in any nonmagnetic organism, suggesting a specific role in magnetosome formation. PMID:11571158

  18. Spatial expression of Hox cluster genes in the ontogeny of a sea urchin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenas-Mena, C.; Cameron, A. R.; Davidson, E. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Hox cluster of the sea urchin Strongylocentrous purpuratus contains ten genes in a 500 kb span of the genome. Only two of these genes are expressed during embryogenesis, while all of eight genes tested are expressed during development of the adult body plan in the larval stage. We report the spatial expression during larval development of the five 'posterior' genes of the cluster: SpHox7, SpHox8, SpHox9/10, SpHox11/13a and SpHox11/13b. The five genes exhibit a dynamic, largely mesodermal program of expression. Only SpHox7 displays extensive expression within the pentameral rudiment itself. A spatially sequential and colinear arrangement of expression domains is found in the somatocoels, the paired posterior mesodermal structures that will become the adult perivisceral coeloms. No such sequential expression pattern is observed in endodermal, epidermal or neural tissues of either the larva or the presumptive juvenile sea urchin. The spatial expression patterns of the Hox genes illuminate the evolutionary process by which the pentameral echinoderm body plan emerged from a bilateral ancestor.

  19. Conserved gene clusters in bacterial genomes provide further support for the primacy of RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siefert, J. L.; Martin, K. A.; Abdi, F.; Widger, W. R.; Fox, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    Five complete bacterial genome sequences have been released to the scientific community. These include four (eu)Bacteria, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma genitalium, M. pneumoniae, and Synechocystis PCC 6803, as well as one Archaeon, Methanococcus jannaschii. Features of organization shared by these genomes are likely to have arisen very early in the history of the bacteria and thus can be expected to provide further insight into the nature of early ancestors. Results of a genome comparison of these five organisms confirm earlier observations that gene order is remarkably unpreserved. There are, nevertheless, at least 16 clusters of two or more genes whose order remains the same among the four (eu)Bacteria and these are presumed to reflect conserved elements of coordinated gene expression that require gene proximity. Eight of these gene orders are essentially conserved in the Archaea as well. Many of these clusters are known to be regulated by RNA-level mechanisms in Escherichia coli, which supports the earlier suggestion that this type of regulation of gene expression may have arisen very early. We conclude that although the last common ancestor may have had a DNA genome, it likely was preceded by progenotes with an RNA genome.

  20. Analysis of Pseudomonas putida alkane-degradation gene clusters and flanking insertion sequences: evolution and regulation of the alk genes.

    PubMed

    van Beilen, J B; Panke, S; Lucchini, S; Franchini, A G; Röthlisberger, M; Witholt, B

    2001-06-01

    The Pseudomonas putida GPo1 (commonly known as Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo1) alkBFGHJKL and alkST gene clusters, which encode proteins involved in the conversion of n-alkanes to fatty acids, are located end to end on the OCT plasmid, separated by 9.7 kb of DNA. This DNA segment encodes, amongst others, a methyl-accepting transducer protein (AlkN) that may be involved in chemotaxis to alkanes. In P. putida P1, the alkBFGHJKL and alkST gene clusters are flanked by almost identical copies of the insertion sequence ISPpu4, constituting a class 1 transposon. Other insertion sequences flank and interrupt the alk genes in both strains. Apart from the coding regions of the GPo1 and P1 alk genes (80-92% sequence identity), only the alkB and alkS promoter regions are conserved. Competition experiments suggest that highly conserved inverted repeats in the alkB and alkS promoter regions bind ALKS: PMID:11390693

  1. Cluster Analysis of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Canine Leukocytes Identifies Activation State

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Julie-Anne; Mortlock, Sally-Anne; Taylor, Rosanne M.; Williamson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system undergo activation and subsequent proliferation in the normal course of an immune response. Infrequently, the molecular and cellular events that underlie the mechanisms of proliferation are dysregulated and may lead to oncogenesis, leading to tumor formation. The most common forms of immunological cancers are lymphomas, which in dogs account for 8%–20% of all cancers, affecting up to 1.2% of the dog population. Key genes involved in negatively regulating proliferation of lymphocytes include a group classified as tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). These genes are also known to be associated with progression of lymphoma in humans, mice, and dogs and are potential candidates for pathological grading and diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to analyze TSG profiles in stimulated leukocytes from dogs to identify genes that discriminate an activated phenotype. A total of 554 TSGs and three gene set collections were analyzed from microarray data. Cluster analysis of three subsets of genes discriminated between stimulated and unstimulated cells. These included 20 most upregulated and downregulated TSGs, TSG in hallmark gene sets significantly enriched in active cells, and a selection of candidate TSGs, p15 (CDKN2B), p18 (CDKN2C), p19 (CDKN1A), p21 (CDKN2A), p27 (CDKN1B), and p53 (TP53) in the third set. Analysis of two subsets suggested that these genes or a subset of these genes may be used as a specialized PCR set for additional analysis. PMID:27478369

  2. A highly divergent gene cluster in honey bees encodes a novel silk family

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Tara D.; Campbell, Peter M.; Weisman, Sarah; Trueman, Holly E.; Sriskantha, Alagacone; Wanjura, Wolfgang J.; Haritos, Victoria S.

    2006-01-01

    The pupal cocoon of the domesticated silk moth Bombyx mori is the best known and most extensively studied insect silk. It is not widely known that Apis mellifera larvae also produce silk. We have used a combination of genomic and proteomic techniques to identify four honey bee fiber genes (AmelFibroin1–4) and two silk-associated genes (AmelSA1 and 2). The four fiber genes are small, comprise a single exon each, and are clustered on a short genomic region where the open reading frames are GC-rich amid low GC intergenic regions. The genes encode similar proteins that are highly helical and predicted to form unusually tight coiled coils. Despite the similarity in size, structure, and composition of the encoded proteins, the genes have low primary sequence identity. We propose that the four fiber genes have arisen from gene duplication events but have subsequently diverged significantly. The silk-associated genes encode proteins likely to act as a glue (AmelSA1) and involved in silk processing (AmelSA2). Although the silks of honey bees and silkmoths both originate in larval labial glands, the silk proteins are completely different in their primary, secondary, and tertiary structures as well as the genomic arrangement of the genes encoding them. This implies independent evolutionary origins for these functionally related proteins. PMID:17065612

  3. Onto-CC: a web server for identifying Gene Ontology conceptual clusters

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Zaliz, R.; del Val, C.; Cobb, J. P.; Zwir, I.

    2008-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) vocabulary has been extensively explored to analyze the functions of coexpressed genes. However, despite its extended use in Biology and Medical Sciences, there are still high levels of uncertainty about which ontology (i.e. Molecular Process, Cellular Component or Molecular Function) should be used, and at which level of specificity. Moreover, the GO database can contain incomplete information resulting from human annotations, or highly influenced by the available knowledge about a specific branch in an ontology. In spite of these drawbacks, there is a trend to ignore these problems and even use GO terms to conduct searches of gene expression profiles (i.e. expression + GO) instead of more cautious approaches that just consider them as an independent source of validation (i.e. expression versus GO). Consequently, propagating the uncertainty and producing biased analysis of the required gene grouping hypotheses. We proposed a web tool, Onto-CC, as an automatic method specially suited for independent explanation/validation of gene grouping hypotheses (e.g. coexpressed genes) based on GO clusters (i.e. expression versus GO). Onto-CC approach reduces the uncertainty of the queries by identifying optimal conceptual clusters that combine terms from different ontologies simultaneously, as well as terms defined at different levels of specificity in the GO hierarchy. To do so, we implemented the EMO-CC methodology to find clusters in structural databases [GO Directed acyclic Graph (DAG) tree], inspired on Conceptual Clustering algorithms. This approach allows the management of optimal cluster sets as potential parallel hypotheses, guided by multiobjective/multimodal optimization techniques. Therefore, we can generate alternative and, still, optimal explanations of queries that can provide new insights for a given problem. Onto-CC has been successfully used to test different medical and biological hypotheses including the explanation and prediction of

  4. Onto-CC: a web server for identifying Gene Ontology conceptual clusters.

    PubMed

    Romero-Zaliz, R; Del Val, C; Cobb, J P; Zwir, I

    2008-07-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) vocabulary has been extensively explored to analyze the functions of coexpressed genes. However, despite its extended use in Biology and Medical Sciences, there are still high levels of uncertainty about which ontology (i.e. Molecular Process, Cellular Component or Molecular Function) should be used, and at which level of specificity. Moreover, the GO database can contain incomplete information resulting from human annotations, or highly influenced by the available knowledge about a specific branch in an ontology. In spite of these drawbacks, there is a trend to ignore these problems and even use GO terms to conduct searches of gene expression profiles (i.e. expression + GO) instead of more cautious approaches that just consider them as an independent source of validation (i.e. expression versus GO). Consequently, propagating the uncertainty and producing biased analysis of the required gene grouping hypotheses. We proposed a web tool, Onto-CC, as an automatic method specially suited for independent explanation/validation of gene grouping hypotheses (e.g. coexpressed genes) based on GO clusters (i.e. expression versus GO). Onto-CC approach reduces the uncertainty of the queries by identifying optimal conceptual clusters that combine terms from different ontologies simultaneously, as well as terms defined at different levels of specificity in the GO hierarchy. To do so, we implemented the EMO-CC methodology to find clusters in structural databases [GO Directed acyclic Graph (DAG) tree], inspired on Conceptual Clustering algorithms. This approach allows the management of optimal cluster sets as potential parallel hypotheses, guided by multiobjective/multimodal optimization techniques. Therefore, we can generate alternative and, still, optimal explanations of queries that can provide new insights for a given problem. Onto-CC has been successfully used to test different medical and biological hypotheses including the explanation and prediction of

  5. Identification and expression of an uncharacterized Ly-6 gene cluster in zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Guo, Quanyang; Ji, Dongrui; Wang, Man; Zhang, Shicui; Li, Hongyan

    2015-09-01

    The Ly-6/uPAR/CD59/neurotoxin superfamily (Ly-6SF) identified in most metazoan has been shown to play important roles in different biological processes including immunity, cellular adhesion, and cell signaling. Members of this superfamily contain one or more conserved domains known as Ly-6/uPAR (LU) domain, which harbors 8 or 10 conserved cysteine residues forming 4-5 disulfide bonds. In this study, we reported the identification of a novel zebrafish Ly-6 gene cluster on chromosome 21, which consists of seven genes ly21.1, ly21.2, ly21.3, ly21.4, ly21.5, ly21.6, and ly21.7 and their spatiotemporal expression pattern during development. All the seven genes possess features typical of the Ly-6/neurotoxin superfamily, and phylogenetic analysis shows that these genes form a single cluster branching form other members of Ly-6 family, suggesting that the seven genes evolved by an event of intra-chromosome gene duplication. However, deduced Ly21.1-7 proteins share little homology with Ly-6 family proteins from other species, no orthologs are identified in vertebrates, including teleosts, hinting that ly21.1-7 genes are evolutionarily a novel addition to zebrafish. Expression analyses show that maternal mRNAs of ly21.1-7 genes are detected during early developmental stages, but later in development, they exhibit tissue-specific expression. Except for ly21.2 which is expressed in the skin ionocytes, all the remaining six genes are mainly expressed in the developing brain. PMID:26113395

  6. Comparison of expression of secondary metabolite biosynthesis cluster genes in Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Kenneth C; Mack, Brian M

    2014-06-01

    Fifty six secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted to be in the Aspergillus flavus genome. In spite of this, the biosyntheses of only seven metabolites, including the aflatoxins, kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid and aflatrem, have been assigned to a particular gene cluster. We used RNA-seq to compare expression of secondary metabolite genes in gene clusters for the closely related fungi A. parasiticus, A. oryzae, and A. flavus S and L sclerotial morphotypes. The data help to refine the identification of probable functional gene clusters within these species. Our results suggest that A. flavus, a prevalent contaminant of maize, cottonseed, peanuts and tree nuts, is capable of producing metabolites which, besides aflatoxin, could be an underappreciated contributor to its toxicity. PMID:24960201

  7. Phthalate catabolic gene cluster is linked to the angular dioxygenase gene in Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63.

    PubMed

    Habe, H; Miyakoshi, M; Chung, J; Kasuga, K; Yoshida, T; Nojiri, H; Omori, T

    2003-03-01

    Phthalate is a metabolic intermediate of the pathway of fluorene (FN) degradation via angular dioxygenation. A gene cluster responsible for the conversion of phthalate to protocatechuate was cloned from the dibenzofuran (DF)- and FN-degrading bacterium Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63 and sequenced. The genes encoding seven catabolic enzymes, oxygenase large subunit of phthalate 3,4-dioxygenase (phtA1), oxygenase small subunit of phthalate 3,4-dioxygenase (phtA2), cis-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrophthalate dehydrogenase (phtB), [3Fe-4S] or [4Fe-4S] type of ferredoxin (phtA3), ferredoxin reductase (phtA4), 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate decarboxylase (phtC) and putative regulatory protein (phtR), were found in the upstream region of the angular dioxygenase gene (dbfA1A2), encoded in this order. Escherichia coli carrying phtA1A2BA3A4 genes converted phthalate to 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate, and the 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate decarboxylase activity by E. coli cells carrying phtC was finally detected with the introduction of a Shine-Dalgarno sequence in the upstream region of its initiation codon. Homology analysis on the upstream region of the pht gene cluster revealed that there was an insertion sequence (IS) (ISTesp2; ORF14 and its flanking region), part of which was almost 100% identical to the orf1 and its flanking region adjacent to the extradiol dioxygenase gene ( bphC1) involved in the DF degradation of Terrabacter sp. strain DPO360 [Schmid et al. (1997) J Bacteriol 179:53-62]. This suggests that ISTesp2 plays a role in the metabolism of aromatic compounds in Terrabacter sp. strains DBF63 and DPO360. PMID:12658514

  8. Hierarchical Clustering of Breast Cancer Methylomes Revealed Differentially Methylated and Expressed Breast Cancer Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Hsuan; Chen, Dow-Tien; Chang, Yi-Feng; Lee, Yu-Ling; Su, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Ching; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Ng, Swee-Chuan; Chen, Hsiao-Tan; Lee, Mei-Chen; Chen, Hong-Wei; Suen, Shih-Hui; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Tze-Tze; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung; Hsu, Ming-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation of normal cells often involves epigenetic alterations, including histone modification and DNA methylation. We conducted whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylomes of normal breast, fibroadenoma, invasive ductal carcinomas and MCF7. The emergence, disappearance, expansion and contraction of kilobase-sized hypomethylated regions (HMRs) and the hypomethylation of the megabase-sized partially methylated domains (PMDs) are the major forms of methylation changes observed in breast tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering of HMR revealed tumor-specific hypermethylated clusters and differential methylated enhancers specific to normal or breast cancer cell lines. Joint analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation data of normal breast and breast cancer cells identified differentially methylated and expressed genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancers in cancer-specific HMR clusters. Furthermore, aberrant patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) was found in breast cancer cell lines as well as breast tumor samples in the TCGA BRCA (breast invasive carcinoma) dataset. They were characterized with differentially hypermethylated XIST promoter, reduced expression of XIST, and over-expression of hypomethylated X-linked genes. High expressions of these genes were significantly associated with lower survival rates in breast cancer patients. Comprehensive analysis of the normal and breast tumor methylomes suggests selective targeting of DNA methylation changes during breast cancer progression. The weak causal relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression observed in this study is evident of more complex role of DNA methylation in the regulation of gene expression in human epigenetics that deserves further investigation. PMID:25706888

  9. Structure and gene cluster of the O-antigen of Enterobacter cloacae G3421.

    PubMed

    Perepelov, Andrei V; Filatov, Andrei V; Wang, Min; Shashkov, Alexander S; Wang, Lei; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-06-01

    The O-polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Enterobacter cloacae G3421 and studied by sugar analysis along with 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. In addition, partial solvolysis with anhydrous trifluoroacetic acid was applied, which cleaved selectively the α-l-rhamnopyranosidic linkages. The following structure of the branched hexasaccharide repeating unit was established. The O-polysaccharide studied shares the β-l-Rhap-(1→4)-α-l-Rhap-(1→2)-α-l-Rhap trisaccharide fragment with the O-polysaccharide of Shigella boydii type 18. The O-antigen gene cluster of E. cloacae G3421 was sequenced. Functions of genes in the cluster, including those for glycosyltransferases, were tentatively assigned by a comparison with sequences in the available databases and found to be consistent with the O-polysaccharide structure. PMID:27131290

  10. Isolation of the eclosion gene cluster and the developmental expression of the Gld gene in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Cavener, D; Corbett, G; Cox, D; Whetten, R

    1986-01-01

    During the development of Drosophila melanogaster the expression of glucose dehydrogenase (GLD) changes from non sex-limited to male limited. We have isolated the Gld gene and three other functionally related genes in the eclosion gene cluster by the method of chromosome walking. The Gld gene has been identified by two deletions and a translocation which genetically define the gene. A 2.8-kb RNA has been identified as the putative GLD mRNA. The temporal and spatial expression of this RNA is correlated with the expression of the GLD enzyme and levels of the steroid hormone ecdysterone. Using single-strand antisense probes we have detected three RNA species. However these three transcripts are not derived from the Gld locus. One of these RNAs is weakly detected by the multiple cloning site of the pSP65 vector. The level of detection of this latter RNA is greatly increased by the insertion of a specific Gld gene fragment in the pSP65 vector. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:3024970

  11. Involvement of transposon-like elements in penicillin gene cluster regulation.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Mona; Palmer, Jonathan M; El-Naggar, Wael A; El-Sokkary, M A; Habib, El-Sayed E; Keller, Nancy P

    2010-05-01

    Subtelomeric secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters are frequently surrounded by DNA repeats and transposon-like elements. The Aspergillus nidulans penicillin cluster, 30kb from the telomere of chromosome VI, is bordered by such elements. Deletions of penicillin telomere proximal and distal border regions resulted in decreased penicillin production. A 3.7kb distal region called PbIa, consisting of the putative transposable element DNA-2, was examined further where its replacement by a pyrG marker presented a similar phenotype as loss of the global SM regulator LaeA, resulting in a decrease in penicillin gene expression and product formation. In contrast, placement of the pyrG marker on either side of PbIa had no effect on penicillin synthesis. A requirement for PbIa in penicillin production was also apparent in a histone deacetylase mutant, DeltahdaA, enhanced for penicillin production. Trans-complementation of the PbIa element near and within the terrequinone A cluster on chromosome V did not restore penicillin biosynthesis or increase production of terrequinone A. Taken together, this data provides evidence for transposon involvement in SM cluster regulation. PMID:20219692

  12. Influence of ADH1B polymorphism on alcohol use and its subjective effects in a Jewish population.

    PubMed

    Carr, Lucinda G; Foroud, Tatiana; Stewart, Trent; Castelluccio, Peter; Edenberg, Howard J; Li, Ting-Kai

    2002-10-01

    Class I alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) are the principal enzymes responsible for ethanol metabolism in humans. Genetic polymorphism at the ADH1B locus (old nomenclature ADH2) results in isozymes with quite different catalytic properties. The frequency of the ADH1B*2 allele varies among ethnic groups. ADH1B*2 is most often observed in Asian populations, and has been shown to be protective against alcoholism. The Jewish population has a higher frequency of the ADH1B*2 allele and lower rates of alcohol-related problems as compared to other Caucasian populations. Thus, it would be of interest to determine whether the ADH1B*2 allele is associated with alcohol consumption and its subjective effects in this group. Four groups of Jewish subjects (male and female college-age samples, and male and female general samples) were recruited from the same region of the United States. All subjects completed a questionnaire to delineate alcohol consumption and its subjective consequences. Genotype at the ADH1B locus was determined for each participant. ADH1B*2 allele frequencies were similar for the Jewish college-age and general population samples. Men in both the college-age and general population in the ADH1B*2 group reported more unpleasant reactions following alcohol consumption than men in the ADH1B*1 group. Men in the general population in the ADH1B*2 group drank alcohol less frequently than men who were homozygous ADH1B*1; there was a similar trend among the women. The ADH1B polymorphism is associated with unpleasant reactions after alcohol consumption, and frequency of alcohol consumption in these Jewish samples. PMID:12244546

  13. Structure and gene cluster of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O133.

    PubMed

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Qiangzheng; Guo, Xi; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Perepelov, Andrei V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-07-22

    The O-specific polysaccharide (O-antigen) of Escherichia coli O133 was obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of E. coli O133. The structure of the hexasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including a two-dimensional (1)H-(1)H ROESY experiment: Functions of genes in the O-antigen gene cluster were putatively identified by comparison with sequences in the available databases and, particularly, an encoded predicted multifunctional glycosyltransferase was assigned to three α-l-rhamnosidic linkages. PMID:27203746

  14. Localization of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) to a gene cluster on chromosome 17q

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, T.B.; Saenz, M.; O'Connell, P.; Leach, R.J. )

    1994-02-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been regionally localized to a gene cluster on human chromosome 17q. Genetic mapping through CEPH reference families demonstrated that GIP was tightly linked to NME1 and PPY and fully linked to HOXB6 and NGFR. High-resolution radiation hybrid mapping resolved the gene order as cen-PPY-HOXB6-NGFR-GIP-NME1-tel. GIP maps distal to NGFR with an estimated distance of 250 kb. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 fig.

  15. Identification of the antiphagocytic trypacidin gene cluster in the human-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Mattern, Derek J; Schoeler, Hanno; Weber, Jakob; Novohradská, Silvia; Kraibooj, Kaswara; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Hillmann, Falk; Valiante, Vito; Figge, Marc Thilo; Brakhage, Axel A

    2015-12-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus produces numerous different natural products. The genetic basis for the biosynthesis of a number of known metabolites has remained unknown. The gene cluster encoding for the biosynthesis of the conidia-bound metabolite trypacidin is of particular interest because of its antiprotozoal activity and possible role in the infection process. Here, we show that the genes encoding the biosynthesis enzymes of trypacidin reside within an orphan gene cluster in A. fumigatus. Genome mining identified tynC as an uncharacterized polyketide synthase with high similarity to known enzymes, whose products are structurally related to trypacidin including endocrocin and fumicycline. Gene deletion of tynC resulted in the complete absence of trypacidin production, which was fully restored when the mutant strain was complemented with the wild-type gene. When confronted with macrophages, the tynC deletion mutant conidia were more frequently phagocytosed than those of the parental wild-type strain. This was also found for phagocytic amoebae of the species Dictyostelium discoideum, which showed increased phagocytosis of ΔtynC conidia. Both macrophages and amoebae were also sensitive to trypacidin. Therefore, our results suggest that the conidium-bound trypacidin could have a protective function against phagocytes both in the environment and during the infection process. PMID:26278536

  16. Heterologous expression of Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 cephamycin C gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Burgo, Y; Álvarez-Álvarez, R; Pérez-Redondo, R; Liras, P

    2014-09-30

    The Streptomyces clavuligerus cephamycin C gene cluster has been subcloned in a SuperCos-derived cosmid and introduced in Streptomyces flavogriseus ATCC 33331, Streptomyces coelicolor M1146 and Streptomyces albus J1074. The exconjugant strains were supplemented with an additional copy of the S. clavuligerus cephamycin regulatory activator gene, ccaRC, expressed from the constitutive Pfur promoter. Only S. flavogriseus-derived exconjugants produced a compound active against Escherichia coli ESS22-31 that was characterized by HPLC-MS as cephamycin C. The presence of an additional ccaR copy resulted in about 40-fold increase in cephamycin C production. Optimal heterologous cephamycin C production was in the order of 9% in relation to that of S. clavuligerus ATCC 27064. RT-qPCR studies indicated that ccaRC expression in S. flavogriseus::[SCos-CF] was 7% of that in S. clavuligerus and increased to 47% when supplemented with a copy of Pfur-ccaR. The effect on cephamycin biosynthesis gene expression was thus improved but not in an uniform manner for every gene. In heterologous strains, integration of the cephamycin cluster results in a ccaR-independent increased resistance to penicillin, cephalosporin and cefoxitin, what corresponds well to the strong expression of the pcbR and pbpA genes in S. flavogriseus-derived strains. PMID:24975573

  17. Co-regulation of the nitrogen-assimilatory gene cluster in Clostridium saccharobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Stutz, Helen E; Quixley, Keith W M; McMaster, Lynn D; Reid, Sharon J

    2007-09-01

    Nitrogen assimilation is important during solvent production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum NCP262, as acetone and butanol yields are significantly affected by the nitrogen source supplied. Growth of this bacterium was dependent on the concentration of organic nitrogen supplied and the expression of the assimilatory enzymes, glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT), was shown to be induced in nitrogen-limiting conditions. The regions flanking the gene encoding GS, glnA, were isolated from C. saccharobutylicum genomic DNA, and DNA sequencing revealed that the structural genes encoding the GS (glnA) and GOGAT (gltA and gltB) enzymes were clustered together with the nitR gene in the order glnA-nitR-gltAB. RNA analysis showed that the glnA-nitR and the gltAB genes were co-transcribed on 2.3 and 6.2 kb RNA transcripts respectively, and that all four genes were induced under the same nitrogen-limiting conditions. Complementation of an Escherichia coli gltD mutant, lacking a GOGAT small subunit, was achieved only when both the C. saccharobutylicum gltA and gltB genes were expressed together under anaerobic conditions. This is believed to be the first functional analysis of a gene cluster encoding the key enzymes of nitrogen assimilation, GS and GOGAT. A similar gene arrangement is seen in Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052, and based on the common regulatory features of the promoter regions upstream of the glnA operons in both species, we suggest a model for their co-ordinated regulation by an antitermination mechanism as well as antisense RNA. PMID:17768251

  18. The complete coenzyme B12 biosynthesis gene cluster of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098.

    PubMed

    Santos, Filipe; Vera, Jose L; van der Heijden, René; Valdez, Graciela; de Vos, Willem M; Sesma, Fernando; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    The coenzyme B(12) production pathway in Lactobacillus reuteri has been deduced using a combination of genetic, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches. The coenzyme B(12) gene cluster of Lb. reuteri CRL1098 has the unique feature of clustering together the cbi, cob and hem genes. It consists of 29 ORFs encoding the complete enzymic machinery necessary for de novo biosynthesis. Transcriptional analysis showed it to be expressed as two tandem transcripts of approximately 22 and 4 kb, carrying cobD, cbiABCDETFGHJ, cobA/hemD, cbiKLMNQOP, sirA, hemACBL, and cobUSC, hemD, cobT, respectively. Both transcripts appear to be similarly regulated, and under the conditions assayed are induced in the late-exponential growth phase. Evidence for a regulatory mechanism of negative feedback inhibition by vitamin B(12) itself was observed. Comparative genomics analysis of the coding sequences showed them to be most similar to those coding for the anaerobic coenzyme B(12) pathways previously characterized in a few representatives of the genera Listeria and Salmonella. This contrasts with the trusted species phylogeny and suggests horizontal gene transfer of the B(12) biosynthesis genes. G+C content and codon adaptation index analysis is suggestive that the postulated transfer of these genes was not a recent event. Additional comparative genomics and transcriptional analysis of the sequences acquired during this study suggests a functional link between coenzyme B(12) biosynthesis and reuterin production, which might be implicated in Lb. reuteri's success in colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. This information on gene organization, gene transcription and gene acquisition is relevant for the development of (fermented) foods and probiotics enriched in B(12). PMID:18174128

  19. Chromatin boundary elements organize genomic architecture and developmental gene regulation in Drosophila Hox clusters

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhibo; Li, Mo; Roy, Sharmila; Liu, Kevin J; Romine, Matthew L; Lane, Derrick C; Patel, Sapna K; Cai, Haini N

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the eukaryotic genome is critical for its proper function. Evidence suggests that extensive chromatin loops form the building blocks of the genomic architecture, separating genes and gene clusters into distinct functional domains. These loops are anchored in part by a special type of DNA elements called chromatin boundary elements (CBEs). CBEs were originally found to insulate neighboring genes by blocking influences of transcriptional enhancers or the spread of silent chromatin. However, recent results show that chromatin loops can also play a positive role in gene regulation by looping out intervening DNA and “delivering” remote enhancers to gene promoters. In addition, studies from human and model organisms indicate that the configuration of chromatin loops, many of which are tethered by CBEs, is dynamically regulated during cell differentiation. In particular, a recent work by Li et al has shown that the SF1 boundary, located in the Drosophila Hox cluster, regulates local genes by tethering different subsets of chromatin loops: One subset enclose a neighboring gene ftz, limiting its access by the surrounding Scr enhancers and restrict the spread of repressive histones during early embryogenesis; and the other loops subdivide the Scr regulatory region into independent domains of enhancer accessibility. The enhancer-blocking activity of these CBE elements varies greatly in strength and tissue distribution. Further, tandem pairing of SF1 and SF2 facilitate the bypass of distal enhancers in transgenic flies, providing a mechanism for endogenous enhancers to circumvent genomic interruptions resulting from chromosomal rearrangement. This study demonstrates how a network of chromatin boundaries, centrally organized by SF1, can remodel the 3D genome to facilitate gene regulation during development. PMID:27621770

  20. Chromatin boundary elements organize genomic architecture and developmental gene regulation in Drosophila Hox clusters.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhibo; Li, Mo; Roy, Sharmila; Liu, Kevin J; Romine, Matthew L; Lane, Derrick C; Patel, Sapna K; Cai, Haini N

    2016-08-26

    The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the eukaryotic genome is critical for its proper function. Evidence suggests that extensive chromatin loops form the building blocks of the genomic architecture, separating genes and gene clusters into distinct functional domains. These loops are anchored in part by a special type of DNA elements called chromatin boundary elements (CBEs). CBEs were originally found to insulate neighboring genes by blocking influences of transcriptional enhancers or the spread of silent chromatin. However, recent results show that chromatin loops can also play a positive role in gene regulation by looping out intervening DNA and "delivering" remote enhancers to gene promoters. In addition, studies from human and model organisms indicate that the configuration of chromatin loops, many of which are tethered by CBEs, is dynamically regulated during cell differentiation. In particular, a recent work by Li et al has shown that the SF1 boundary, located in the Drosophila Hox cluster, regulates local genes by tethering different subsets of chromatin loops: One subset enclose a neighboring gene ftz, limiting its access by the surrounding Scr enhancers and restrict the spread of repressive histones during early embryogenesis; and the other loops subdivide the Scr regulatory region into independent domains of enhancer accessibility. The enhancer-blocking activity of these CBE elements varies greatly in strength and tissue distribution. Further, tandem pairing of SF1 and SF2 facilitate the bypass of distal enhancers in transgenic flies, providing a mechanism for endogenous enhancers to circumvent genomic interruptions resulting from chromosomal rearrangement. This study demonstrates how a network of chromatin boundaries, centrally organized by SF1, can remodel the 3D genome to facilitate gene regulation during development. PMID:27621770

  1. Production of bioactive diterpenoids in the euphorbiaceae depends on evolutionarily conserved gene clusters.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew J; Brown, Geoffrey D; Gilday, Alison D; Larson, Tony R; Graham, Ian A

    2014-08-01

    The Euphorbiaceae produce a diverse range of diterpenoids, many of which have pharmacological activities. These diterpenoids include ingenol mebutate, which is licensed for the treatment of a precancerous skin condition (actinic keratosis), and phorbol derivatives such as resiniferatoxin and prostratin, which are undergoing investigation for the treatment of severe pain and HIV, respectively. Despite the interest in these diterpenoids, their biosynthesis is poorly understood at present, with the only characterized step being the conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate into casbene. Here, we report a physical cluster of diterpenoid biosynthetic genes from castor (Ricinus communis), including casbene synthases and cytochrome P450s from the CYP726A subfamily. CYP726A14, CYP726A17, and CYP726A18 were able to catalyze 5-oxidation of casbene, a conserved oxidation step in the biosynthesis of this family of medicinally important diterpenoids. CYP726A16 catalyzed 7,8-epoxidation of 5-keto-casbene and CYP726A15 catalyzed 5-oxidation of neocembrene. Evidence of similar gene clustering was also found in two other Euphorbiaceae, including Euphorbia peplus, the source organism of ingenol mebutate. These results demonstrate conservation of gene clusters at the higher taxonomic level of the plant family and that this phenomenon could prove useful in further elucidating diterpenoid biosynthetic pathways. PMID:25172144

  2. A Granular Self-Organizing Map for Clustering and Gene Selection in Microarray Data.

    PubMed

    Ray, Shubhra Sankar; Ganivada, Avatharam; Pal, Sankar K

    2016-09-01

    A new granular self-organizing map (GSOM) is developed by integrating the concept of a fuzzy rough set with the SOM. While training the GSOM, the weights of a winning neuron and the neighborhood neurons are updated through a modified learning procedure. The neighborhood is newly defined using the fuzzy rough sets. The clusters (granules) evolved by the GSOM are presented to a decision table as its decision classes. Based on the decision table, a method of gene selection is developed. The effectiveness of the GSOM is shown in both clustering samples and developing an unsupervised fuzzy rough feature selection (UFRFS) method for gene selection in microarray data. While the superior results of the GSOM, as compared with the related clustering methods, are provided in terms of β -index, DB-index, Dunn-index, and fuzzy rough entropy, the genes selected by the UFRFS are not only better in terms of classification accuracy and a feature evaluation index, but also statistically more significant than the related unsupervised methods. The C-codes of the GSOM and UFRFS are available online at http://avatharamg.webs.com/software-code. PMID:26285222

  3. Patterning in time and space: HoxB cluster gene expression in the developing chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Analuce; Marcelino, Hugo M; Gonçalves, Lisa; Palmeirim, Isabel; Andrade, Raquel P

    2015-01-01

    The developing embryo is a paradigmatic model to study molecular mechanisms of time control in Biology. Hox genes are key players in the specification of tissue identity during embryo development and their expression is under strict temporal regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying timely Hox activation in the early embryo remain unknown. This is hindered by the lack of a rigorous temporal framework of sequential Hox expression within a single cluster. Herein, a thorough characterization of HoxB cluster gene expression was performed over time and space in the early chick embryo. Clear temporal collinearity of HoxB cluster gene expression activation was observed. Spatial collinearity of HoxB expression was evidenced in different stages of development and in multiple tissues. Using embryo explant cultures we showed that HoxB2 is cyclically expressed in the rostral presomitic mesoderm with the same periodicity as somite formation, suggesting a link between timely tissue specification and somite formation. We foresee that the molecular framework herein provided will facilitate experimental approaches aimed at identifying the regulatory mechanisms underlying Hox expression in Time and Space. PMID:25602523

  4. Interplay between pathway-specific and global regulation of the fumonisin gene cluster in the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Rösler, Sarah M; Sieber, Christian M K; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2016-07-01

    The rice pathogenic fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is known to produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Besides the gibberellins, causing the bakanae effect in infected rice seedlings, the fungus produces several mycotoxins and pigments. Among the 47 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters identified in the genome of F. fujikuroi, the fumonisin gene cluster (FUM) shows very high homology to the FUM cluster of the main fumonisin producer Fusarium verticillioides, a pathogen of maize. Despite the high level of cluster gene conservation, total fumonisin FB1 and FB2 levels (FBx) produced by F. fujikuroi were only 1-10 % compared to F. verticillioides under inducing conditions. Nitrogen repression was found to be relevant for wild-type strains of both species. However, addition of germinated maize kernels activated the FBx production only in F. verticillioides, reflecting the different host specificity of both wild-type strains. Over-expression of the pathway-specific transcription factor Fum21 in F. fujikuroi strongly activated the FUM cluster genes leading to 1000-fold elevated FBx levels. To gain further insights into the nitrogen metabolite repression of FBx biosynthesis, we studied the impact of the global nitrogen regulators AreA and AreB and demonstrated that both GATA-type transcription factors are essential for full activation of the FUM gene cluster. Loss of one of them obstructs the pathway-specific transcription factor Fum21 to fully activate expression of FUM cluster genes. PMID:26966024

  5. DNA-histone interactions are sufficient to position a single nucleosome juxtaposing Drosophila Adh adult enhancer and distal promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, J R; Benyajati, C

    1993-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh) of Drosophila melanogaster is transcribed from two tandem promoters in distinct developmental and tissue-specific patterns. Both promoters are regulated by separate upstream enhancer regions. In its wild-type context the adult enhancer specifically stimulates only the distal promoter, approximately 400 bp downstream, and not the proximal promoter, which is approximately 700 bp further downstream. Genomic footprinting and micrococcal nuclease analyses have revealed a specifically positioned nucleosome between the distal promoter and adult enhancer. In vitro reconstitution of this nucleosome demonstrated that DNA-core histone interactions alone are sufficient to position the nucleosome. Based on this observation and sequence periodicities in the underlying DNA, the mechanism of positioning appears to involve specific DNA structural features (ie flexibility or curvature). We have observed this nucleosome positioned early during development, before tissue differentiation, and before non-histone protein-DNA interactions are established at the distal promoter or adult enhancer. This nucleosome positioning element in the Adh regulatory region could be involved in establishing a specific tertiary nucleoprotein structure that facilitates specific cis-element accessibility and/or distal promoter-adult enhancer interactions. Images PMID:8451195

  6. Effect of floral cluster pruning on anthocyanin levels and anthocyanain-related gene expression in 'Houman' grape.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Yan-Shuai; Jia, Yue; Wang, Ji-Yuan; Yuan, Yue; Yu, Yang; Tao, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    Lateral floral clusters were removed from the main axis of the floral clusters of 'Houman' grape plants, leaving only 3-5-cm-long region of flowers at the end of the central axis. The floral clusters were pruned at 7 days prior to flowering. The effect of the pruning on fruit quality was assessed by determining the composition and levels of anthocyanins in the fruit and anthocyanin-related gene expression. Results indicated that floral cluster pruning significantly improved the quality of the fruit by increasing berry size, fruit weight and the total content of soluble solids. Floral cluster pruning also decreased the level of titratable acidity. Sixteen different anthocyanins were detected in fruit of the pruned clusters, while only 15 were detected in fruit from unpruned clusters. The level of anthocyanins was also significantly higher in fruit of the pruned clusters than in the unpruned clusters. Anthocyanin-related gene expression was also significantly upregulated to a higher level in fruit from pruned floral clusters as compared with unpruned clusters. The upregulation was closely associated with increases in anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:27555920

  7. Effect of floral cluster pruning on anthocyanin levels and anthocyanain-related gene expression in ‘Houman’ grape

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Yan-shuai; Jia, Yue; Wang, Ji-yuan; Yuan, Yue; Yu, Yang; Tao, Jian-min

    2016-01-01

    Lateral floral clusters were removed from the main axis of the floral clusters of ‘Houman’ grape plants, leaving only 3–5-cm-long region of flowers at the end of the central axis. The floral clusters were pruned at 7 days prior to flowering. The effect of the pruning on fruit quality was assessed by determining the composition and levels of anthocyanins in the fruit and anthocyanin-related gene expression. Results indicated that floral cluster pruning significantly improved the quality of the fruit by increasing berry size, fruit weight and the total content of soluble solids. Floral cluster pruning also decreased the level of titratable acidity. Sixteen different anthocyanins were detected in fruit of the pruned clusters, while only 15 were detected in fruit from unpruned clusters. The level of anthocyanins was also significantly higher in fruit of the pruned clusters than in the unpruned clusters. Anthocyanin-related gene expression was also significantly upregulated to a higher level in fruit from pruned floral clusters as compared with unpruned clusters. The upregulation was closely associated with increases in anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:27555920

  8. Forest soil metagenome gene cluster involved in antifungal activity expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eu Jin; Lim, He Kyoung; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Choi, Gyung Ja; Park, Eun Jin; Lee, Myung Hwan; Chung, Young Ryun; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2008-02-01

    Using two forest soils, we previously constructed two fosmid libraries containing 113,700 members in total. The libraries were screened to select active antifungal clones using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a target fungus. One clone from the Yuseong pine tree rhizosphere soil library, pEAF66, showed S. cerevisiae growth inhibition. Despite an intensive effort, active chemicals were not isolated. DNA sequence analysis and transposon mutagenesis of pEAF66 revealed 39 open reading frames (ORFs) and indicated that eight ORFs, probably in one transcriptional unit, might be directly involved in the expression of antifungal activity in Escherichia coli. The deduced amino acid sequences of eight ORFs were similar to those of the core genes encoding type II family polyketide synthases, such as the acyl carrier protein (ACP), ACP synthases, aminotransferase, and ACP reductase. The gene cluster involved in antifungal activity was similar in organization to the putative antibiotic production locus of Pseudomonas putida KT2440, although we could not select a similar active clone from the KT2440 genomic DNA library in E. coli. ORFs encoding ATP binding cassette transporters and membrane proteins were located at both ends of the antifungal gene cluster. Upstream ORFs encoding an IclR family response regulator and a LysR family response regulator were involved in the positive regulation of antifungal gene expression. Our results suggested the metagenomic approach as an alternative to search for novel antifungal antibiotics from unculturable soil bacteria. This is the first report of an antifungal gene cluster obtained from a soil metagenome using S. cerevisiae as a target fungus. PMID:18065615

  9. The Lineage-Specific Evolution of Aquaporin Gene Clusters Facilitated Tetrapod Terrestrial Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Roderick Nigel; Chauvigné, François; Hlidberg, Jón Baldur; Cutler, Christopher P.; Cerdà, Joan

    2014-01-01

    A major physiological barrier for aquatic organisms adapting to terrestrial life is dessication in the aerial environment. This barrier was nevertheless overcome by the Devonian ancestors of extant Tetrapoda, but the origin of specific molecular mechanisms that solved this water problem remains largely unknown. Here we show that an ancient aquaporin gene cluster evolved specifically in the sarcopterygian lineage, and subsequently diverged into paralogous forms of AQP2, -5, or -6 to mediate water conservation in extant Tetrapoda. To determine the origin of these apomorphic genomic traits, we combined aquaporin sequencing from jawless and jawed vertebrates with broad taxon assembly of >2,000 transcripts amongst 131 deuterostome genomes and developed a model based upon Bayesian inference that traces their convergent roots to stem subfamilies in basal Metazoa and Prokaryota. This approach uncovered an unexpected diversity of aquaporins in every lineage investigated, and revealed that the vertebrate superfamily consists of 17 classes of aquaporins (Aqp0 - Aqp16). The oldest orthologs associated with water conservation in modern Tetrapoda are traced to a cluster of three aqp2-like genes in Actinistia that likely arose >500 Ma through duplication of an aqp0-like gene present in a jawless ancestor. In sea lamprey, we show that aqp0 first arose in a protocluster comprised of a novel aqp14 paralog and a fused aqp01 gene. To corroborate these findings, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of five syntenic nuclear receptor subfamilies, which, together with observations of extensive genome rearrangements, support the coincident loss of ancestral aqp2-like orthologs in Actinopterygii. We thus conclude that the divergence of sarcopterygian-specific aquaporin gene clusters was permissive for the evolution of water conservation mechanisms that facilitated tetrapod terrestrial adaptation. PMID:25426855

  10. A cluster of genes for the biosynthesis of spinosyns, novel macrolide insect control agents produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

    PubMed

    Waldron, C; Madduri, K; Crawford, K; Merlo, D J; Treadway, P; Broughton, M C; Baltz, R H

    2000-12-01

    Spinosyns A and D are the active ingredients in a family of insect control agents produced by fermentation of Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Spinosyns are 21-carbon tetracyclic lactones to which are attached two deoxysugars. Most of the genes involved in spinosyn biosynthesis are clustered in an 74 kb region of the S. spinosa genome. This region has been characterized by DNA sequence analysis and by targeted gene disruptions. The spinosyn biosynthetic gene cluster contains five large genes encoding a type I polyketide synthase, and 14 genes involved in modification of the macrolactone, or in the synthesis, modification and attachment of the deoxysugars. Four genes required for rhamnose biosynthesis (two of which are also required for forosamine biosynthesis) are not present in the cluster. A pathway for the biosynthesis of spinosyns is proposed. PMID:11386361

  11. Overproduction of Ristomycin A by Activation of a Silent Gene Cluster in Amycolatopsis japonicum MG417-CF17

    PubMed Central

    Spohn, Marius; Kirchner, Norbert; Kulik, Andreas; Jochim, Angelika; Wolf, Felix; Muenzer, Patrick; Borst, Oliver; Gross, Harald; Wohlleben, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria within the last decades is one reason for the urgent need for new antibacterial agents. A strategy to discover new anti-infective compounds is the evaluation of the genetic capacity of secondary metabolite producers and the activation of cryptic gene clusters (genome mining). One genus known for its potential to synthesize medically important products is Amycolatopsis. However, Amycolatopsis japonicum does not produce an antibiotic under standard laboratory conditions. In contrast to most Amycolatopsis strains, A. japonicum is genetically tractable with different methods. In order to activate a possible silent glycopeptide cluster, we introduced a gene encoding the transcriptional activator of balhimycin biosynthesis, the bbr gene from Amycolatopsis balhimycina (bbrAba), into A. japonicum. This resulted in the production of an antibiotically active compound. Following whole-genome sequencing of A. japonicum, 29 cryptic gene clusters were identified by genome mining. One of these gene clusters is a putative glycopeptide biosynthesis gene cluster. Using bioinformatic tools, ristomycin (syn. ristocetin), a type III glycopeptide, which has antibacterial activity and which is used for the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease and Bernard-Soulier syndrome, was deduced as a possible product of the gene cluster. Chemical analyses by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed the in silico prediction that the recombinant A. japonicum/pRM4-bbrAba synthesizes ristomycin A. PMID:25114137

  12. Clustering of Two Genes Putatively Involved in Cyanate Detoxification Evolved Recently and Independently in Multiple Fungal Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, M. Holly; McGary, Kriston L.; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Slot, Jason C.; Geiser, David M.; Sink, Stacy; O’Donnell, Kerry; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Fungi that have the enzymes cyanase and carbonic anhydrase show a limited capacity to detoxify cyanate, a fungicide employed by both plants and humans. Here, we describe a novel two-gene cluster that comprises duplicated cyanase and carbonic anhydrase copies, which we name the CCA gene cluster, trace its evolution across Ascomycetes, and examine the evolutionary dynamics of its spread among lineages of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (hereafter referred to as the FOSC), a cosmopolitan clade of purportedly clonal vascular wilt plant pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal cyanase and carbonic anhydrase genes reveals that the CCA gene cluster arose independently at least twice and is now present in three lineages, namely Cochliobolus lunatus, Oidiodendron maius, and the FOSC. Genome-wide surveys within the FOSC indicate that the CCA gene cluster varies in copy number across isolates, is always located on accessory chromosomes, and is absent in FOSC’s closest relatives. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the CCA gene cluster in 163 FOSC strains from a wide variety of hosts suggests a recent history of rampant transfers between isolates. We hypothesize that the independent formation of the CCA gene cluster in different fungal lineages and its spread across FOSC strains may be associated with resistance to plant-produced cyanates or to use of cyanate fungicides in agriculture. PMID:25663439

  13. Characterization of the alginate biosynthetic gene cluster in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

    PubMed Central

    Peñaloza-Vázquez, A; Kidambi, S P; Chakrabarty, A M; Bender, C L

    1997-01-01

    Alginate, a copolymer of D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid, is produced by a variety of pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas syringae. Alginate biosynthesis has been most extensively studied in P. aeruginosa, and a number of structural and regulatory genes from this species have been cloned and characterized. In the present study, an alginate-defective (Alg-) mutant of P. syringae pv. syringae FF5 was shown to contain a Tn5 insertion in algL, a gene encoding alginate lyase. A cosmid clone designated pSK2 restored alginate production to the algL mutant and was shown to contain homologs of algD, alg8, alg44, algG, algX (alg60), algL, algF, and algA. The order and arrangement of the structural gene cluster were virtually identical to those previously described for P. aeruginosa. Complementation analyses, however, indicated that the structural gene clusters in P. aeruginosa and P. syringae were not functionally interchangeable when expressed from their native promoters. A region upstream of the algD gene in P. syringae pv. syringae was shown to activate the transcription of a promoterless glucuronidase (uidA) gene and indicated that transcription initiated upstream of algD as described for P. aeruginosa. Transcription of the algD promoter from P. syringae FF5 was significantly higher at 32 degrees C than at 18 or 26 degrees C and was stimulated when copper sulfate or sodium chloride was added to the medium. Alginate gene expression was also stimulated by the addition of the nonionic solute sorbitol, indicating that osmolarity is a signal for algD expression in P. syringae FF5. PMID:9226254

  14. Gene expression patterns in primary neuronal clusters of the Drosophila embryonic brain

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Simon G.; Reichert, Heinrich; Hartenstein, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The brain of Drosophila is formed by approximately 100 lineages, each lineage being derived from a stem cell-like neuroblast that segregates from the procephalic neurectoderm of the early embryo. A neuroblast map has been established in great detail for the early embryo, and a suite of molecular markers has been defined for all neuroblasts included in this map (Urbach and Technau, 2003a). However, the expression of these markers was not followed into later embryonic or larval stages, mainly due to the fact that anatomical landmarks to which expression patterns could be related had not been defined. Such markers, in the form of stereotyped clusters of neurons whose axons project along cohesive bundles (“primary axon bundles” or “PABs”) are now available (Younossi-Hartenstein et al., 2006). In the present study we have mapped the expression of molecular markers in relationship to primary neuronal clusters and their PABs. The markers we analyzed include many of the genes involved in patterning of the brain along the anteroposterior axis (cephalic gap genes, segment polarity genes) and dorso-ventral axis (columnar patterning genes), as well as genes expressed in the dorsal protocerebrum and visual system (early eye genes). Our analysis represents an important step along the way to identify neuronal lineages of the mature brain with genes expressed in the early embryo in discrete neuroblasts. Furthermore, the analysis helped us to reconstruct the morphogenetic movements that transform the two-dimensional neuroblast layer of the early embryo into the three-dimensional larval brain and provides the basis for deeper understanding of how the embryonic brain develops. PMID:17300994

  15. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Mycophenolic Acid Gene Cluster of Penicillium roqueforti.

    PubMed

    Del-Cid, Abdiel; Gil-Durán, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Rojas-Aedo, Juan F; García-Rico, Ramón O; Levicán, Gloria; Chávez, Renato

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium roqueforti is widely known as the ripening agent of blue-veined cheeses. Additionally, this fungus is able to produce several secondary metabolites, including the meroterpenoid compound mycophenolic acid (MPA). Cheeses ripened with P. roqueforti are usually contaminated with MPA. On the other hand, MPA is a commercially valuable immunosuppressant. However, to date the molecular basis of the production of MPA by P. roqueforti is still unknown. Using a bioinformatic approach, we have identified a genomic region of approximately 24.4 kbp containing a seven-gene cluster that may be involved in the MPA biosynthesis in P. roqueforti. Gene silencing of each of these seven genes (named mpaA, mpaB, mpaC, mpaDE, mpaF, mpaG and mpaH) resulted in dramatic reductions in MPA production, confirming that all of these genes are involved in the biosynthesis of the compound. Interestingly, the mpaF gene, originally described in P. brevicompactum as a MPA self-resistance gene, also exerts the same function in P. roqueforti, suggesting that this gene has a dual function in MPA metabolism. The knowledge of the biosynthetic pathway of MPA in P. roqueforti will be important for the future control of MPA contamination in cheeses and the improvement of MPA production for commercial purposes. PMID:26751579

  16. Cloning, sequencing, and functional analysis of the biosynthetic gene cluster of macrolactam antibiotic vicenistatin in Streptomyces halstedii.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Katayama, Kinya; Minami, Atsushi; Otsuka, Miyuki; Eguchi, Tadashi; Kakinuma, Katsumi

    2004-01-01

    Vicenistatin, an antitumor antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces halstedii, is a unique 20-membered macrocyclic lactam with a novel aminosugar vicenisamine. The vicenistatin biosynthetic gene cluster (vin) spanning approximately 64 kbp was cloned and sequenced. The cluster contains putative genes for the aglycon biosynthesis including four modular polyketide synthases (PKSs), glutamate mutase, acyl CoA-ligase, and AMP-ligase. Also found in the cluster are genes of NDP-hexose 4,6-dehydratase and aminotransferase for vicenisamine biosynthesis. For the functional confirmation of the cluster, a putative glycosyltransferase gene product, VinC, was heterologously expressed, and the vicenisamine transfer reaction to the aglycon was chemically proved. A unique feature of the vicenistatin PKS is that the loading module contains only an acyl carrier protein domain, in contrast to other known PKS-loading modules containing certain activation domains. Activation of the starter acyl group by separate polypeptides is postulated as well. PMID:15112997

  17. Molecular Networking and Pattern-Based Genome Mining Improves discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters and their products from Salinispora species

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Katherine R.; Crüsemann, Max; Lechner, Anna; Sarkar, Anindita; Li, Jie; Ziemert, Nadine; Wang, Mingxun; Bandeira, Nuno; Moore, Bradley S.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Jensen, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genome sequencing has revealed that bacteria contain many more biosynthetic gene clusters than predicted based on the number of secondary metabolites discovered to date. While this biosynthetic reservoir has fostered interest in new tools for natural product discovery, there remains a gap between gene cluster detection and compound discovery. Here we apply molecular networking and the new concept of pattern-based genome mining to 35 Salinispora strains including 30 for which draft genome sequences were either available or obtained for this study. The results provide a method to simultaneously compare large numbers of complex microbial extracts, which facilitated the identification of media components, known compounds and their derivatives, and new compounds that could be prioritized for structure elucidation. These efforts revealed considerable metabolite diversity and led to several molecular family-gene cluster pairings, of which the quinomycin-type depsipeptide retimycin A was characterized and linked to gene cluster NRPS40 using pattern-based bioinformatic approaches. PMID:25865308

  18. An alginate-like exopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene cluster involved in biofilm aerial structure formation by Pseudomonas alkylphenolia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung; Lim, Eun Jin; Kim, Keun Soo; Huang, Shir-Ly; Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2014-05-01

    Pseudomonas alkylphenolia is known to form different types of multicellular structures depending on the environmental stimuli. Aerial structures formed during vapor p-cresol utilization are unique. Transposon mutants that showed a smooth colony phenotype failed to form a differentiated biofilm, including aerial structures and pellicles, and showed deficient surface spreading motility. The transposon insertion sites were located to a gene cluster designated epm (extracellular polymer matrix), which comprises 11 ORFs in the same transcriptional orientation. The putative proteins encoded by the genes in the epm cluster showed amino acid sequence homology to those found in the alginate biosynthesis gene clusters, e.g., in Pseudomonas aeruginosa at similarity levels of 32.3-86.4 %. This overall resemblance indicated that the epm gene cluster encodes proteins that mediate the synthesis of an exopolysaccharide composed of uronic acid(s) similar to alginate. Our preliminary results suggested that the epm-derived polymer is a substituted polymannuronic acid. Gene clusters homologous to the epm gene cluster are found in the genomes of a few species of the genera Pseudomonas, Alcanivorax, and Marinobacter. A mutational analysis showed that the epmJ and epmG genes encoding putative exopolysaccharide-modifying enzymes are required to form multicellular structures. An analysis of the activity of the promoter P epmD using a transcriptional fusion to the green fluorescence protein gene showed that the epm genes are strongly expressed at the tips of the specialized aerial structures. Our results suggested that the epm gene cluster is involved in the formation of a scaffold polysaccharide that is required to form multicellular structures in P. alkylphenolia. PMID:24493568

  19. Analysis of FOXF1 and the FOX gene cluster in patients with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Agochukwu, Nneamaka B; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E; Keaton, Amelia A; Warren-Mora, Nicole; Raam, Manu S; Kamat, Aparna; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Solomon, Benjamin D

    2011-01-01

    VACTERL association, a relatively common condition with an incidence of approximately 1 in 20,000 -35,000 births, is a non-random association of birth defects that includes vertebral defects (V), anal atresia (A), cardiac defects (C), tracheo-esophageal fistula (TE), renal anomalies (R) and limb malformations (L). Although the etiology is unknown in the majority of patients, there is evidence that it is causally heterogeneous. Several studies have shown evidence for inheritance in VACTERL, implying a role for genetic loci. Recently, patients with component features of VACTERL and a lethal developmental pulmonary disorder, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV), were found to harbor deletions or mutations affecting FOXF1 and the FOX gene cluster on chromosome 16q24. We investigated this gene through direct sequencing and high-density SNP microarray in 12 patients with VACTERL association but without ACD/MPV. Our mutational analysis of FOXF1 showed normal sequences and no genomic imbalances affecting the FOX gene cluster on chromosome 16q24 in the studied patients. Possible explanations for these results include the etiologic and clinical heterogeneity of VACTERL association, the possibility that mutations affecting this gene may occur only in more severely affected individuals, and insufficient study sample size. PMID:21315191

  20. Gene prediction with Glimmer for metagenomic sequences augmented by classification and clustering

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, David R.; Liu, Bo; Delcher, Arthur L.; Pop, Mihai; Salzberg, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental shotgun sequencing (or metagenomics) is widely used to survey the communities of microbial organisms that live in many diverse ecosystems, such as the human body. Finding the protein-coding genes within the sequences is an important step for assessing the functional capacity of a metagenome. In this work, we developed a metagenomics gene prediction system Glimmer-MG that achieves significantly greater accuracy than previous systems via novel approaches to a number of important prediction subtasks. First, we introduce the use of phylogenetic classifications of the sequences to model parameterization. We also cluster the sequences, grouping together those that likely originated from the same organism. Analogous to iterative schemes that are useful for whole genomes, we retrain our models within each cluster on the initial gene predictions before making final predictions. Finally, we model both insertion/deletion and substitution sequencing errors using a different approach than previous software, allowing Glimmer-MG to change coding frame or pass through stop codons by predicting an error. In a comparison among multiple gene finding methods, Glimmer-MG makes the most sensitive and precise predictions on simulated and real metagenomes for all read lengths and error rates tested. PMID:22102569

  1. Analysis of FOXF1 and the FOX gene cluster in patients with VACTERL association

    PubMed Central

    Agochukwu, Nneamaka B.; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E.; Keaton, Amelia A.; Warren-Mora, Nicole; Raam, Manu S.; Kamat, Aparna; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Solomon, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    VACTERL association, a relatively common condition with an incidence of approximately 1 in 20,000 – 35,000 births, is a non-random association of birth defects that includes vertebral defects (V), anal atresia (A), cardiac defects (C), tracheo-esophageal fistula (TE), renal anomalies (R) and limb malformations (L). Although the etiology is unknown in the majority of patients, there is evidence that it is causally heterogeneous. Several studies have shown evidence for inheritance in VACTERL, implying a role for genetic loci. Recently, patients with component features of VACTERL and a lethal developmental pulmonary disorder, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV), were found to harbor deletions or mutations affecting FOXF1 and the FOX gene cluster on chromosome 16q24. We investigated this gene through direct sequencing and high-density SNP microarray in 12 patients with VACTERL association but without ACD/MPV. Our mutational analysis of FOXF1 showed normal sequences and no genomic imbalances affecting the FOX gene cluster on chromosome 16q24 in the studied patients. Possible explanations for these results include the etiologic and clinical heterogeneity of VACTERL association, the possibility that mutations affecting this gene may occur only in more severely affected individuals, and insufficient study sample size. PMID:21315191

  2. Biclustering for the comprehensive search of correlated gene expression patterns using clustered seed expansion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a functional analysis of gene expression data, biclustering method can give crucial information by showing correlated gene expression patterns under a subset of conditions. However, conventional biclustering algorithms still have some limitations to show comprehensive and stable outputs. Results We propose a novel biclustering approach called “BIclustering by Correlated and Large number of Individual Clustered seeds (BICLIC)” to find comprehensive sets of correlated expression patterns in biclusters using clustered seeds and their expansion with correlation of gene expression. BICLIC outperformed competing biclustering algorithms by completely recovering implanted biclusters in simulated datasets with various types of correlated patterns: shifting, scaling, and shifting-scaling. Furthermore, in a real yeast microarray dataset and a lung cancer microarray dataset, BICLIC found more comprehensive sets of biclusters that are significantly enriched to more diverse sets of biological terms than those of other competing biclustering algorithms. Conclusions BICLIC provides significant benefits in finding comprehensive sets of correlated patterns and their functional implications from a gene expression dataset. PMID:23496895

  3. The Human Paraoxonase Gene Cluster As a Target in the Treatment of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    She, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Hou-Zao; Yan, Yunfei; Li, Hongliang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The paraoxonase (PON) gene cluster contains three adjacent gene members, PON1, PON2, and PON3. Originating from the same fungus lactonase precursor, all of the three PON genes share high sequence identity and a similar β propeller protein structure. PON1 and PON3 are primarily expressed in the liver and secreted into the serum upon expression, whereas PON2 is ubiquitously expressed and remains inside the cell. Each PON member has high catalytic activity toward corresponding artificial organophosphate, and all exhibit activities to lactones. Therefore, all three members of the family are regarded as lactonases. Under physiological conditions, they act to degrade metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids and homocysteine (Hcy) thiolactone, among other compounds. By detoxifying both oxidized low-density lipoprotein and Hcy thiolactone, PONs protect against atherosclerosis and coronary artery diseases, as has been illustrated by many types of in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence. Clinical observations focusing on gene polymorphisms also indicate that PON1, PON2, and PON3 are protective against coronary artery disease. Many other conditions, such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and aging, have been shown to relate to PONs. The abundance and/or activity of PONs can be regulated by lipoproteins and their metabolites, biological macromolecules, pharmacological treatments, dietary factors, and lifestyle. In conclusion, both previous results and ongoing studies provide evidence, making the PON cluster a prospective target for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 597–632. PMID:21867409

  4. Characterization of the ars Gene Cluster from Extremely Arsenic-Resistant Microbacterium sp. Strain A33▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Achour-Rokbani, Asma; Cordi, Audrey; Poupin, Pascal; Bauda, Pascale; Billard, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The arsenic resistance gene cluster of Microbacterium sp. A33 contains a novel pair of genes (arsTX) encoding a thioredoxin system that are cotranscribed with an unusual arsRC2 fusion gene, ACR3, and arsC1 in an operon divergent from arsC3. The whole ars gene cluster is required to complement an Escherichia coli ars mutant. ArsRC2 negatively regulates the expression of the pentacistronic operon. ArsC1 and ArsC3 are related to thioredoxin-dependent arsenate reductases; however, ArsC3 lacks the two distal catalytic cysteine residues of this class of enzymes. PMID:19966021

  5. [Changes in antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in liver cirrhosis with resistant ascites].

    PubMed

    Marenco, G; Giudici Cipriani, A; Folco, U; Colombo, P; Menardo, G; Cattana, A; Barbetti, V; Rembado, R

    1989-09-01

    The pathogenetic role of ADH in determining hyponatremia in patients with liver cirrhosis is still much debated. Osmotic stimuli are not able to inhibit secretion of ADH in refractory ascites and under such conditions the reduction in effective plasma volume has been put forward as the main cause. Twenty patients with liver cirrhosis and refractory ascites were studied before and during extraction-concentration-reinfusion (ECR) of ascitic fluid by means of Rhodiascit. ADH, renin, aldosterone, blood and urine osmolarity, plasma and urinary concentration of sodium, potassium, chlorine, and the clearance of free water were evaluated. All patients presented high renin values (15.4 +/- 11.7 ng/ml), aldosterone (341 +/- 172 ng/ml), ADH (6.3 +/- 5.2 pg/ml). During ECR, a significant drop was observed in renin (p less than 0.001), aldosterone (p less than 0.001) urinary osmolarity (p less than 0.001) and an equality significant increase in diuresis (p less than 0.001), natriuria (p less than 0.005), kaliuria (p less than 0.001) while ADH presented an irregular course: in 11 cases it remained unchanged, in 3 it fell and in 6 it presented a constant increase. To conclude, data suggest that the diminished filtrate reaching the distal tubule constitutes the greatest cause of the inability to dilute urine in many patients with cirrhosis and that ADH is a permissive rather than a primary factor. PMID:2682381

  6. Effect of ADH on rubidium transport in isolated perfused rat cortical collecting tubules

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, J.A.; Troutman, S.L.

    1986-06-01

    Unidirectional fluxes of 86Rb+ were measured as an indicator of potassium transport in isolated rat cortical collecting tubules perfused and bathed at 38 degrees C with isotonic solutions in which Rb+ replaced K+. Under control conditions the lumen-to-bath flux (Jl----b) was significantly less than the bath-to-lumen flux (Jb----l), indicating net Rb+ secretion. Net secretion increased approximately 180% after addition of 100 microU/ml of arginine vasopressin (ADH) to the bathing solution, due to a rapid and reversible increase in Jb----l from 4.6 +/- 0.8 to 9.0 +/- 1.9 pmol X min-1 X mm-1 with no significant change in Jl----b. The ADH effect was completely inhibited by 2 mM luminal Ba2+. The average transepithelial voltage (Ve) was not significantly different from zero in the control period but became lumen negative (-5 to -10 mV) after ADH. With 10(-5) M amiloride in the lumen Ve was lumen positive (+2 to +4 mV) and was unaltered by ADH or Ba2+, yet ADH produced a significant but attentuated increase in Jb----l with no change in Jl----b. The results indicate that ADH augments net K+ secretion either by an increase in the Ba2+-sensitive conductance of the apical membrane or by an increase in the electrochemical potential driving force for net Rb+ secretion through this pathway.

  7. Gene clusters for beta-lactam antibiotics and control of their expression: why have clusters evolved, and from where did they originate?

    PubMed

    Liras, Paloma; Martín, Juan F

    2006-03-01

    While beta-lactam compounds were discovered in filamentous fungi, actinomycetes and gram-negative bacteria are also known to produce different types of beta-lactams. All beta-lactam compounds contain a four-membered beta-lactam ring. The structure of their second ring allows these compounds to be classified into penicillins, cephalosporins, clavams, carbapenens or monobactams. Most beta-lactams inhibits bacterial cell wall biosynthesis but others behave as beta-lactamase inhibitors (e.g., clavulanic acid) and even as antifungal agents (e.g., some clavams). Due to the nature of the second ring in beta-lactam molecules, the precursors and biosynthetic pathways of clavams, carbapenems and monobactams differ from those of penicillins and cephalosporins. These last two groups, including cephamycins and cephabacins, are formed from three precursor amino acids that are linked into the alpha-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine tripeptide. The first two steps of their biosynthetic pathways are common. The intermediates of these pathways, the characteristics of the enzymes involved, the lack of introns in the genes and bioinformatic analysis suggest that all of them should have evolved from an ancestral gene cluster of bacterial origin, which was surely transferred horizontally in the soil from producer to non-producer microorganisms. The receptor strains acquired fragments of the original bacterial cluster and occasionally inserted new genes into the clusters, which once modified, acquired new functions and gave rise to the final compounds that we know. When the order of genes in the Streptomyces genome is analyzed, the antibiotic gene clusters are highlighted as gene islands in the genome. Nonetheless, the assemblage of the ancestral beta-lactam gene cluster remains a matter of speculation. PMID:16636985

  8. Genes determining pathogenicity to pea are clustered on a supernumerary chromosome in the fungal plant pathogen Nectria haematococca.

    PubMed

    Han, Y; Liu, X; Benny, U; Kistler, H C; VanEtten, H D

    2001-02-01

    Three genes that contribute to the ability of the fungus Nectria haematococca to cause disease on pea plants have been identified. These pea pathogenicity (PEP) genes are within 25 kb of each other and are located on a supernumerary chromosome. Altogether, the PEP gene cluster contains six transcriptional units that are expressed during infection of pea tissue. The biochemical function of only one of the genes is known with certainty. This gene, PDA1, encodes a specific cytochrome P450 that confers resistance to pisatin, an antibiotic produced by pea plants. The three new PEP genes, in addition to PDA1, can independently increase the ability of the fungus to cause lesions on pea when added to an isolate lacking the supernumerary chromosome. Based on predicted amino acid sequences, functions for two of these three genes are hypothesized. The deduced amino acid sequence of another transcribed portion of the PEP cluster, as well as four other open reading frames in the cluster, have a high degree of similarity to known fungal transposases. Several of the features of the PEP cluster -- a cluster of pathogenicity genes, the presence of transposable elements, and differences in codon usage and GC content from other portions of the genome -- are shared by pathogenicity islands in pathogenic bacteria of plants and animals. PMID:11208022

  9. A Hybrid NRPS-PKS Gene Cluster Related to the Bleomycin Family of Antitumor Antibiotics in Alteromonas macleodii Strains

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Kimes, Nikole E.; López-Pérez, Mario; Ausó, Eva; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Ghai, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous marine bacteria are known to produce antibiotics via hybrid NRPS-PKS gene clusters, none have been previously described in an Alteromonas species. In this study, we describe in detail a novel hybrid NRPS-PKS cluster identified in the plasmid of the Alteromonasmacleodii strain AltDE1 and analyze its relatedness to other similar gene clusters in a sequence-based characterization. This is a mobile cluster, flanked by transposase-like genes, that has even been found inserted into the chromosome of some Alteromonasmacleodii strains. The cluster contains separate genes for NRPS and PKS activity. The sole PKS gene appears to carry a novel acyltransferase domain, quite divergent from those currently characterized. The predicted specificities of the adenylation domains of the NRPS genes suggest that the final compound has a backbone very similar to bleomycin related compounds. However, the lack of genes involved in sugar biosynthesis indicates that the final product is not a glycopeptide. Even in the absence of these genes, the presence of the cluster appears to confer complete or partial resistance to phleomycin, which may be attributed to a bleomycin-resistance-like protein identified within the cluster. This also suggests that the compound still shares significant structural similarity to bleomycin. Moreover, transcriptomic evidence indicates that the NRPS-PKS cluster is expressed. Such sequence-based approaches will be crucial to fully explore and analyze the diversity and potential of secondary metabolite production, especially from increasingly important sources like marine microbes. PMID:24069455

  10. Identification of the Lomofungin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster and Associated Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenase Gene in Streptomyces lomondensis S015

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunxiao; Sheng, Chaolan; Wang, Wei; Hu, Hongbo; Peng, Huasong; Zhang, Xuehong

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces lomondensis S015 synthesizes the broad-spectrum phenazine antibiotic lomofungin. Whole genome sequencing of this strain revealed a genomic locus consisting of 23 open reading frames that includes the core phenazine biosynthesis gene cluster lphzGFEDCB. lomo10, encoding a putative flavin-dependent monooxygenase, was also identified in this locus. Inactivation of lomo10 by in-frame partial deletion resulted in the biosynthesis of a new phenazine metabolite, 1-carbomethoxy-6-formyl-4,9-dihydroxy-phenazine, along with the absence of lomofungin. This result suggests that lomo10 is responsible for the hydroxylation of lomofungin at its C-7 position. This is the first description of a phenazine hydroxylation gene in Streptomyces, and the results of this study lay the foundation for further investigation of phenazine metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomyces. PMID:26305803

  11. The glucuronic acid utilization gene cluster from Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6.

    PubMed

    Shulami, S; Gat, O; Sonenshein, A L; Shoham, Y

    1999-06-01

    A lambda-EMBL3 genomic library of Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6 was screened for hemicellulolytic activities, and five independent clones exhibiting beta-xylosidase activity were isolated. The clones overlap each other and together represent a 23.5-kb chromosomal segment. The segment contains a cluster of xylan utilization genes, which are organized in at least three transcriptional units. These include the gene for the extracellular xylanase, xylanase T-6; part of an operon coding for an intracellular xylanase and a beta-xylosidase; and a putative 15.5-kb-long transcriptional unit, consisting of 12 genes involved in the utilization of alpha-D-glucuronic acid (GlcUA). The first four genes in the potential GlcUA operon (orf1, -2, -3, and -4) code for a putative sugar transport system with characteristic components of the binding-protein-dependent transport systems. The most likely natural substrate for this transport system is aldotetraouronic acid [2-O-alpha-(4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucuronosyl)-xylotriose] (MeGlcUAXyl3). The following two genes code for an intracellular alpha-glucuronidase (aguA) and a beta-xylosidase (xynB). Five more genes (kdgK, kdgA, uxaC, uxuA, and uxuB) encode proteins that are homologous to enzymes involved in galacturonate and glucuronate catabolism. The gene cluster also includes a potential regulatory gene, uxuR, the product of which resembles repressors of the GntR family. The apparent transcriptional start point of the cluster was determined by primer extension analysis and is located 349 bp from the initial ATG codon. The potential operator site is a perfect 12-bp inverted repeat located downstream from the promoter between nucleotides +170 and +181. Gel retardation assays indicated that UxuR binds specifically to this sequence and that this binding is efficiently prevented in vitro by MeGlcUAXyl3, the most likely molecular inducer. PMID:10368143

  12. Three alcohol dehydrogenase genes and one acetyl-CoA synthetase gene are responsible for ethanol utilization in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Gatter, Michael; Ottlik, Stephanie; Kövesi, Zsolt; Bauer, Benjamin; Matthäus, Falk; Barth, Gerold

    2016-10-01

    The non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is able to utilize a wide range of different substrates like glucose, glycerol, ethanol, acetate, proteins and various hydrophobic molecules. Although most metabolic pathways for the utilization of these substrates have been clarified by now, it was not clear whether ethanol is oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenases or by an alternative oxidation system inside the cell. In order to detect the genes that are required for ethanol utilization in Y. lipolytica, eight alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes and one alcohol oxidase gene (FAO1) have been identified and respective deletion strains were tested for their ability to metabolize ethanol. As a result of this, we found that the availability of ADH1, ADH2 or ADH3 is required for ethanol utilization in Y. lipolytica. A strain with deletions in all three genes is lacking the ability to utilize ethanol as sole carbon source. Although Adh2p showed by far the highest enzyme activity in an in vitro assay, the availability of any of the three genes was sufficient to enable a decent growth. In addition to ADH1, ADH2 and ADH3, an acetyl-CoA synthetase encoding gene (ACS1) was found to be essential for ethanol utilization. As Y. lipolytica is a non-fermenting yeast, it is neither able to grow under anaerobic conditions nor to produce ethanol. To investigate whether Y. lipolytica may produce ethanol, the key genes of alcoholic fermentation in S. cerevisiae, ScADH1 and ScPDC1, were overexpressed in an ADH and an ACS1 deletion strain. However, instead of producing ethanol, the respective strains regained the ability to use ethanol as single carbon source and were still not able to grow under anaerobic conditions. PMID:27486067

  13. Gene clusters for ribosomal proteins in the mitochondrial genome of a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, M; Oda, K; Yamato, K; Ohta, E; Nakamura, Y; Nozato, N; Akashi, K; Ohyama, K

    1992-01-01

    We detected 16 genes for ribosomal proteins in the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA from a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. The genes formed two major clusters, rps12-rps7 and rps10-rpl2-rps19-rps3-rpl16-rpl5- rps14-rps8- rpl6-rps13-rps11-rps1, very similar in organization to Escherichia coli ribosomal protein operons (str and S10-spc-alpha operons, respectively). In contrast, rps2 and rps4 genes were located separately in the liverwort mitochondrial genome (the latter was part of the alpha operon in E. coli). Furthermore, several ribosomal proteins encoded by the liverwort mitochondrial genome differed substantially in size from their counterparts in E. coli and liverwort chloroplast. PMID:1620617

  14. Karyotypic diversification in Mytilus mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) inferred from chromosomal mapping of rRNA and histone gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mussels of the genus Mytilus present morphologically similar karyotypes that are presumably conserved. The absence of chromosome painting probes in bivalves makes difficult verifying this hypothesis. In this context, we comparatively mapped ribosomal RNA and histone gene families on the chromosomes of Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. trossulus and M. californianus by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Major rRNA, core and linker histone gene clusters mapped to different chromosome pairs in the four taxa. In contrast, minor rRNA gene clusters showed a different behavior. In all Mytilus two of the 5S rDNA clusters mapped to the same chromosome pair and one of them showed overlapping signals with those corresponding to one of the histone H1 gene clusters. The overlapping signals on mitotic chromosomes became a pattern of alternate 5S rRNA and linker histone gene signals on extended chromatin fibers. Additionally, M. trossulus showed minor and major rDNA clusters on the same chromosome pair. Conclusion The results obtained suggest that at least some of the chromosomes bearing these sequences are orthologous and that chromosomal mapping of rRNA and histone gene clusters could be a good tool to help deciphering some of the many unsolved questions in the systematic classification of Mytilidae. PMID:25023072

  15. Loci of Mycobacterium avium ser2 gene cluster and their functions.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, J A; McNeil, M R; Belisle, J T; Jacobs, W R; Brennan, P J

    1994-01-01

    The highly antigenic glycopeptidolipids present on the surface of members of the Mycobacterium avium complex serve to distinguish these bacteria from all others and to define the various serovars that compose this complex. Previously, the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the disaccharide hapten [2,3-di-O-methyl-alpha-L-fucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranose] of serovar 2 of the M. avium complex were isolated, localized to a contiguous 22- to 27-kb fragment of the M. avium genome, and designated the ser2 gene cluster (J. T. Belisle, L. Pascopella, J. M. Inamine, P. J. Brennan, and W. R. Jacobs, Jr., J. Bacteriol. 173:6991-6997, 1991). In the present study, transposon saturation mutagenesis was used to map the specific genetic loci within the ser2 gene cluster required for expression of this disaccharide. Four essential loci, termed ser2A, -B, -C, and -D, constituting a total of 5.7 kb within the ser2 gene cluster, were defined. The ser2B and ser2D loci encode the methyltransferases required to methylate the fucose at the 3 and 2 positions, respectively. The rhamnosyltransferase was encoded by ser2A, whereas either ser2C or ser2D encoded the fucosyltransferase. The ser2C and ser2D loci are also apparently involved in the de novo synthesis of fucose. Isolation of the truncated versions of the hapten induced by the transposon insertions provides genetic evidence that the glycopeptidolipids of M. avium serovar 2 are synthesized by an initial transfer of the rhamnose unit to the peptide core followed by fucose and finally O methylation of the fucosyl unit. PMID:8050992

  16. Loci of Mycobacterium avium ser2 gene cluster and their functions.

    PubMed

    Mills, J A; McNeil, M R; Belisle, J T; Jacobs, W R; Brennan, P J

    1994-08-01

    The highly antigenic glycopeptidolipids present on the surface of members of the Mycobacterium avium complex serve to distinguish these bacteria from all others and to define the various serovars that compose this complex. Previously, the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the disaccharide hapten [2,3-di-O-methyl-alpha-L-fucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranose] of serovar 2 of the M. avium complex were isolated, localized to a contiguous 22- to 27-kb fragment of the M. avium genome, and designated the ser2 gene cluster (J. T. Belisle, L. Pascopella, J. M. Inamine, P. J. Brennan, and W. R. Jacobs, Jr., J. Bacteriol. 173:6991-6997, 1991). In the present study, transposon saturation mutagenesis was used to map the specific genetic loci within the ser2 gene cluster required for expression of this disaccharide. Four essential loci, termed ser2A, -B, -C, and -D, constituting a total of 5.7 kb within the ser2 gene cluster, were defined. The ser2B and ser2D loci encode the methyltransferases required to methylate the fucose at the 3 and 2 positions, respectively. The rhamnosyltransferase was encoded by ser2A, whereas either ser2C or ser2D encoded the fucosyltransferase. The ser2C and ser2D loci are also apparently involved in the de novo synthesis of fucose. Isolation of the truncated versions of the hapten induced by the transposon insertions provides genetic evidence that the glycopeptidolipids of M. avium serovar 2 are synthesized by an initial transfer of the rhamnose unit to the peptide core followed by fucose and finally O methylation of the fucosyl unit. PMID:8050992

  17. Transcriptional Regulation of the Gene Cluster Encoding Allantoinase and Guanine Deaminase in Klebsiella pneumoniae▿

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Karla; Badia, Josefa; Giménez, Rosa; Aguilar, Juan; Baldoma, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Purines can be used as the sole source of nitrogen by several strains of K. pneumoniae under aerobic conditions. The genes responsible for the assimilation of purine nitrogens are distributed in three separated clusters in the K. pneumoniae genome. Here, we characterize the cluster encompassing genes KPN_01787 to KPN_01791, which is involved in the conversion of allantoin into allantoate and in the deamination of guanine to xanthine. These genes are organized in three transcriptional units, hpxSAB, hpxC, and guaD. Gene hpxS encodes a regulatory protein of the GntR family that mediates regulation of this system by growth on allantoin. Proteins encoded by hpxB and guaD display allantoinase and guanine deaminase activity, respectively. In this cluster, hpxSAB is the most tightly regulated unit. This operon was activated by growth on allantoin as a nitrogen source; however, addition of allantoin to nitrogen excess cultures did not result in hpxSAB induction. Neither guaD nor hpxC was induced by allantoin. Expression of guaD is mainly regulated by nitrogen availability through the action of NtrC. Full induction of hpxSAB by allantoin requires both HpxS and NAC. HpxS may have a dual role, acting as a repressor in the absence of allantoin and as an activator in its presence. HpxS binds to tandem sites, S1 and S2, overlapping the −10 and −35 sequences of the hpxSAB promoter, respectively. The NAC binding site is located between S1 and S2 and partially overlaps S2. In the presence of allantoin, interplay between NAC and HpxS is proposed. PMID:21357483

  18. The major resistance gene cluster in lettuce is highly duplicated and spans several megabases.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, B C; Chin, D B; Shen, K A; Sivaramakrishnan, S; Lavelle, D O; Zhang, Z; Michelmore, R W

    1998-01-01

    At least 10 Dm genes conferring resistance to the oomycete downy mildew fungus Bremia lactucae map to the major resistance cluster in lettuce. We investigated the structure of this cluster in the lettuce cultivar Diana, which contains Dm3. A deletion breakpoint map of the chromosomal region flanking Dm3 was saturated with a variety of molecular markers. Several of these markers are components of a family of resistance gene candidates (RGC2) that encode a nucleotide binding site and a leucine-rich repeat region. These motifs are characteristic of plant disease resistance genes. Bacterial artificial chromosome clones were identified by using duplicated restriction fragment length polymorphism markers from the region, including the nucleotide binding site-encoding region of RGC2. Twenty-two distinct members of the RGC2 family were characterized from the bacterial artificial chromosomes; at least two additional family members exist. The RGC2 family is highly divergent; the nucleotide identity was as low as 53% between the most distantly related copies. These RGC2 genes span at least 3.5 Mb. Eighteen members were mapped on the deletion breakpoint map. A comparison between the phylogenetic and physical relationships of these sequences demonstrated that closely related copies are physically separated from one another and indicated that complex rearrangements have shaped this region. Analysis of low-copy genomic sequences detected no genes, including RGC2, in the Dm3 region, other than sequences related to retrotransposons and transposable elements. The related but divergent family of RGC2 genes may act as a resource for the generation of new resistance phenotypes through infrequent recombination or unequal crossing over. PMID:9811791

  19. Evolution of Hox gene clusters in gnathostomes: insights from a survey of a shark (Scyliorhinus canicula) transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Oulion, Silvan; Debiais-Thibaud, Mélanie; d'Aubenton-Carafa, Yves; Thermes, Claude; Da Silva, Corinne; Bernard-Samain, Sylvie; Gavory, Frédéric; Wincker, Patrick; Mazan, Sylvie; Casane, Didier

    2010-12-01

    It is now well established that there were four Hox gene clusters in the genome of the last common ancestor of extant gnathostomes. To better understand the evolution of the organization and expression of these genomic regions, we have studied the Hox gene clusters of a shark (Scyliorhinus canicula). We sequenced 225,580 expressed sequence tags from several embryonic cDNA libraries. Blast searches identified corresponding transcripts to almost all the HoxA, HoxB, and HoxD cluster genes. No HoxC transcript was identified, suggesting that this cluster is absent or highly degenerate. Using Hox gene sequences as probes, we selected and sequenced seven clones from a bacterial artificial chromosome library covering the complete region of the three gene clusters. Mapping of cDNAs to these genomic sequences showed extensive alternative splicing and untranslated exon sharing between neighboring Hox genes. Homologous noncoding exons could not be identified in transcripts from other species using sequence similarity. However, by comparing conserved noncoding sequences upstream of these exons in different species, we were able to identify homology between some exons. Some alternative splicing variants are probably very ancient and were already coded for by the ancestral Hox gene cluster. We also identified several transcripts that do not code for Hox proteins, are probably not translated, and all but one are in the reverse orientation to the Hox genes. This survey of the transcriptome of the Hox gene clusters of a shark shows that the high complexity observed in mammals is a gnathostome ancestral feature. PMID:20616144

  20. Regulation of a novel Acidithiobacillus caldus gene cluster involved in metabolism of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Rzhepishevska, Olena I; Valdés, Jorge; Marcinkeviciene, Liucija; Gallardo, Camelia Algora; Meskys, Rolandas; Bonnefoy, Violaine; Holmes, David S; Dopson, Mark

    2007-11-01

    Acidithiobacillus caldus has been proposed to play a role in the oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs) produced in industrial biomining of sulfidic minerals. Here, we describe the regulation of a new cluster containing the gene encoding tetrathionate hydrolase (tetH), a key enzyme in the RISC metabolism of this bacterium. The cluster contains five cotranscribed genes, ISac1, rsrR, rsrS, tetH, and doxD, coding for a transposase, a two-component response regulator (RsrR and RsrS), tetrathionate hydrolase, and DoxD, respectively. As shown by quantitative PCR, rsrR, tetH, and doxD are upregulated to different degrees in the presence of tetrathionate. Western blot analysis also indicates upregulation of TetH in the presence of tetrathionate, thiosulfate, and pyrite. The tetH cluster is predicted to have two promoters, both of which are functional in Escherichia coli and one of which was mapped by primer extension. A pyrrolo-quinoline quinone binding domain in TetH was predicted by bioinformatic analysis, and the presence of an o-quinone moiety was experimentally verified, suggesting a mechanism for tetrathionate oxidation. PMID:17873067

  1. Regulation of a Novel Acidithiobacillus caldus Gene Cluster Involved in Metabolism of Reduced Inorganic Sulfur Compounds▿

    PubMed Central

    Rzhepishevska, Olena I.; Valdés, Jorge; Marcinkeviciene, Liucija; Gallardo, Camelia Algora; Meskys, Rolandas; Bonnefoy, Violaine; Holmes, David S.; Dopson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus caldus has been proposed to play a role in the oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs) produced in industrial biomining of sulfidic minerals. Here, we describe the regulation of a new cluster containing the gene encoding tetrathionate hydrolase (tetH), a key enzyme in the RISC metabolism of this bacterium. The cluster contains five cotranscribed genes, ISac1, rsrR, rsrS, tetH, and doxD, coding for a transposase, a two-component response regulator (RsrR and RsrS), tetrathionate hydrolase, and DoxD, respectively. As shown by quantitative PCR, rsrR, tetH, and doxD are upregulated to different degrees in the presence of tetrathionate. Western blot analysis also indicates upregulation of TetH in the presence of tetrathionate, thiosulfate, and pyrite. The tetH cluster is predicted to have two promoters, both of which are functional in Escherichia coli and one of which was mapped by primer extension. A pyrrolo-quinoline quinone binding domain in TetH was predicted by bioinformatic analysis, and the presence of an o-quinone moiety was experimentally verified, suggesting a mechanism for tetrathionate oxidation. PMID:17873067

  2. Paxillin-dependent regulation of IGF2 and H19 gene cluster expression.

    PubMed

    Marášek, Pavel; Dzijak, Rastislav; Studenyak, Irina; Fišerová, Jindřiška; Uličná, Lívia; Novák, Petr; Hozák, Pavel

    2015-08-15

    Paxillin (PXN) is a focal adhesion protein that has been implicated in signal transduction from the extracellular matrix. Recently, it has been shown to shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. When inside the nucleus, paxillin promotes cell proliferation. Here, we introduce paxillin as a transcriptional regulator of IGF2 and H19 genes. It does not affect the allelic expression of the two genes; rather, it regulates long-range chromosomal interactions between the IGF2 or H19 promoter and a shared distal enhancer on an active allele. Specifically, paxillin stimulates the interaction between the enhancer and the IGF2 promoter, thus activating IGF2 gene transcription, whereas it restrains the interaction between the enhancer and the H19 promoter, downregulating the H19 gene. We found that paxillin interacts with cohesin and the mediator complex, which have been shown to mediate long-range chromosomal looping. We propose that these interactions occur at the IGF2 and H19 gene cluster and are involved in the formation of loops between the IGF2 and H19 promoters and the enhancer, and thus the expression of the corresponding genes. These observations contribute to a mechanistic explanation of the role of paxillin in proliferation and fetal development. PMID:26116569

  3. A synthetic luxCDABE gene cluster optimized for expression in high-GC bacteria.

    PubMed

    Craney, Arryn; Hohenauer, Tobias; Xu, Ye; Navani, Naveen Kumar; Li, Yingfu; Nodwell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The luxCDABE operon of the bioluminescent bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens has proven to be a superb transcriptional reporter. It encodes a luciferase (LuxA and LuxB) and the enzymes that produce its substrate (LuxC, LuxD and LuxE) so cells that express the cluster emit the 490-nm light spontaneously. The sequence of these genes is AT-rich (>69%) and for this and other reasons, they are not expressed efficiently in high-GC bacteria like Streptomyces coelicolor. We therefore constructed a synthetic luxCDABE operon encoding the P. luminescens Lux proteins optimized for expression in high-GC bacteria. We tested the genes using transcriptional fusions to S. coelicolor promoters having well-established expression profiles during this organism's life cycle. The hrdB gene encodes a housekeeping sigma factor; while ramC is important for the formation of the spore-forming cells called aerial hyphae and whiE is required for the production of a grey, spore-associated pigment that is deposited in the walls of developing spores. Using these fusions we demonstrated that our synthetic lux genes are functional in S. coelicolor and that they accurately report complex developmental gene expression patterns. We suggest that this lux operon and our procedure for generating synthetic high-GC genes will be widely useful for research on high-GC bacteria. PMID:17337439

  4. Characterization and expression of the arginine biosynthesis gene cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, A; de la Fuente, A; Pérez-Redondo, R; Martín, J F; Liras, P

    2000-10-01

    A cluster of genes argCJBDRGH containing most of the arginine biosynthesis genes has been found in Streptomyces clavuligerus after sequencing a 8.3 kb DNA region containing overlapping sequences of two DNA fragments known to contain arginine biosynthesis genes. Subcloning, complementation of E. coli arginine auxotrophic strains and enzymatic assays confirmed the identity of each gene. S1 nuclease mapping studies and Northern hybridization analysis revealed the formation of two large transcripts corresponding to argCJBDR and argGH. The amount of each of these mRNAs is 10 to 44 times higher in a S. clavuligerus argR-disrupted mutant than in the wild type confirming the existence of an ArgR-mediated control of arginine biosynthesis gene expression. A low level constitutive monocistronic transcript of argR was observed in S. clavuligerus cells. Most of the argGH transcript initiating at an adenine 29 nt upstream of the argG initiation codon appears to stop at a termination stem and loop structure present downstream of the argG gene. PMID:11075930

  5. eMBI: Boosting Gene Expression-based Clustering for Cancer Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Wang, Zhenjia; Ashby, Cody; Zhou, Chuan; Li, Guojun; Zhang, Shuzhong; Huang, Xiuzhen

    2014-01-01

    Identifying clinically relevant subtypes of a cancer using gene expression data is a challenging and important problem in medicine, and is a necessary premise to provide specific and efficient treatments for patients of different subtypes. Matrix factorization provides a solution by finding checker-board patterns in the matrices of gene expression data. In the context of gene expression profiles of cancer patients, these checkerboard patterns correspond to genes that are up- or down-regulated in patients with particular cancer subtypes. Recently, a new matrix factorization framework for biclustering called Maximum Block Improvement (MBI) is proposed; however, it still suffers several problems when applied to cancer gene expression data analysis. In this study, we developed many effective strategies to improve MBI and designed a new program called enhanced MBI (eMBI), which is more effective and efficient to identify cancer subtypes. Our tests on several gene expression profiling datasets of cancer patients consistently indicate that eMBI achieves significant improvements in comparison with MBI, in terms of cancer subtype prediction accuracy, robustness, and running time. In addition, the performance of eMBI is much better than another widely used matrix factorization method called nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and the method of hierarchical clustering, which is often the first choice of clinical analysts in practice. PMID:25374455

  6. Pathogen corruption and site-directed recombination at a plant disease resistance gene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Ervin D.; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pc locus of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) determines dominant sensitivity to a host-selective toxin produced by the fungal pathogen Periconia circinata. The Pc region was cloned by a map-based approach and found to contain three tandemly repeated genes with the structures of nucleotide binding site–leucine-rich repeat (NBS–LRR) disease resistance genes. Thirteen independent Pc-to-pc mutations were analyzed, and each was found to remove all or part of the central gene of the threesome. Hence, this central gene is Pc. Most Pc-to-pc mutations were associated with unequal recombination. Eight recombination events were localized to different sites in a 560-bp region within the ∼3.7-kb NBS–LRR genes. Because any unequal recombination located within the flanking NBS–LRR genes would have removed Pc, the clustering of cross-over events within a 560-bp segment indicates that a site-directed recombination process exists that specifically targets unequal events to generate LRR diversity in NBS–LRR loci. PMID:18719093

  7. Cloning and Characterization of a Gene Cluster for Hatomarubigin Biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp. Strain 2238-SVT4 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Takashi; Hirashima, Reiko; Maruta, Tomoka; Sato, Haruka; Maeda, Ayumi; Yamada, Yuki; Takeda, Maho; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. strain 2238-SVT4 produces hatomarubigins A, B, C, and D, which belong to the angucycline family. Among them, hatomarubigin D has a unique dimeric structure with a methylene linkage. PCR using aromatase and cyclase gene-specific primers identified the hrb gene cluster for angucycline biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp. 2238-SVT4. The cluster consisted of 30 open reading frames, including those for the minimal polyketide synthase, ketoreductase, aromatase, cyclase, O-methyltransferase, oxidoreductase, and oxygenase genes. Expression of a part of the gene cluster containing hrbR1 to hrbX in Streptomyces lividans TK23 resulted in the production of hatomarubigins A, B, and C. Hatomarubigin D was obtained from the conversion of hatomarubigin C by a purified enzyme encoded by hrbY, among the remaining genes. PMID:20453135

  8. The engL Gene Cluster of Clostridium cellulovorans Contains a Gene for Cellulosomal ManA

    PubMed Central

    Tamaru, Yutaka; Doi, Roy H.

    2000-01-01

    A five-gene cluster around the gene in Clostridium cellulovorans that encodes endoglucanase EngL, which is involved in plant cell wall degradation, has been cloned and sequenced. As a result, a mannanase gene, manA, has been found downstream of engL. The manA gene consists of an open reading frame with 1,275 nucleotides encoding a protein with 425 amino acids and a molecular weight of 47,156. ManA has a signal peptide followed by a duplicated sequence (DS, or dockerin) at its N terminus and a catalytic domain which belongs to family 5 of the glycosyl hydrolases and shows high sequence similarity with fungal mannanases, such as Agaricus bisporus Cel4 (17.3% identity), Aspergillus aculeatus Man1 (23.7% identity), and Trichoderma reesei Man1 (22.7% identity). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses of the purified recombinant ManA (rManA) indicated that the N-terminal region of the rManA contained a DS and was truncated in Escherichia coli cells. Furthermore, Western blot analysis indicated that ManA is one of the cellulosomal subunits. ManA production is repressed by cellobiose. PMID:10613891

  9. Human HOXB cluster and the nerve growth factor receptor gene: Comparison with an orthologous chromosomal domain in mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, K.L.; Bradshaw, M.S.; Ruddle, F.H.

    1995-11-01

    The structural organization and nucleotide sequence similarity of mammalian Antennapedia-class homeobox genes support the view that the four homeobox clusters (HOXA, B,C, and D on human chromosomes 7, 17, 12 and 2, respectively) arose through a combination of gene duplication and divergence to form a cluster, followed by several cluster duplications. The duplication events that gave rise to the four clusters appear to have involved chromosomal domains extending well beyond the borders of the clusters in either direction. This evidence arises from the observation that many genes closely linked to the homeobox clusters on different chromosomes show sequence similarity. Here, we present a continuation of physical mapping studies to determine the extent and organization of the duplicated regions surrounding the four homeobox clusters in human. Southern blots prepared from pulsed-field gels of human DNA were probed with cloned segments of human HOXB genes and the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) gene on chromosome 17q21-q22. Restriction enzyme analysis revealed the close physical linkage of these genes within 100 kb. Two yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), 220 and 380 kb in size, were isolated using oligonucleotide primers specific for NGFR. Both YACs contained the entire HOXB cluster. Restriction mapping of the clones indicated that the distance separating these loci could not be greater than 50 kb. This result confirms and extends previous information on the proximity of these genes as determined by genetic linkage analysis and closely parallels the orthologous loci in the mouse. 48 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A bacteriocin gene cluster able to enhance plasmid maintenance in Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lactococcus lactis is widely used as a dairy starter and has been extensively studied. Based on the acquired knowledge on its physiology and metabolism, new applications have been envisaged and there is an increasing interest of using L. lactis as a cell factory. Plasmids constitute the main toolbox for L. lactis genetic engineering and most rely on antibiotic resistant markers for plasmid selection and maintenance. In this work, we have assessed the ability of the bacteriocin Lactococcin 972 (Lcn972) gene cluster to behave as a food-grade post-segregational killing system to stabilize recombinant plasmids in L. lactis in the absence of antibiotics. Lcn972 is a non-lantibiotic bacteriocin encoded by the 11-kbp plasmid pBL1 with a potent antimicrobial activity against Lactococcus. Results Attempts to clone the full lcn972 operon with its own promoter (P972), the structural gene lcn972 and the immunity genes orf2-orf3 in the unstable plasmid pIL252 failed and only plasmids with a mutated promoter were recovered. Alternatively, cloning under other constitutive promoters was approached and achieved, but bacteriocin production levels were lower than those provided by pBL1. Segregational stability studies revealed that the recombinant plasmids that yielded high bacteriocin titers were maintained for at least 200 generations without antibiotic selection. In the case of expression vectors such as pTRL1, the Lcn972 gene cluster also contributed to plasmid maintenance without compromising the production of the fluorescent mCherry protein. Furthermore, unstable Lcn972 recombinant plasmids became integrated into the chromosome through the activity of insertion sequences, supporting the notion that Lcn972 does apply a strong selective pressure against susceptible cells. Despite of it, the Lcn972 gene cluster was not enough to avoid the use of antibiotics to select plasmid-bearing cells right after transformation. Conclusions Inserting the Lcn972 cluster into

  11. Fine Genetic Mapping Localizes Cucumber Scab Resistance Gene Ccu into an R Gene Cluster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The scab caused by Cladosporium cucumerinum, is an important disease of cucumber, Cucumis sativus. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of the single dominant scab resistance gene, Ccu, with 148 F9 recombination inbreeding lines (RILs) and 1,944 F2 plants derived from the resistant cucum...

  12. antiSMASH 3.0-a comprehensive resource for the genome mining of biosynthetic gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tilmann; Blin, Kai; Duddela, Srikanth; Krug, Daniel; Kim, Hyun Uk; Bruccoleri, Robert; Lee, Sang Yup; Fischbach, Michael A; Müller, Rolf; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko; Medema, Marnix H

    2015-07-01

    Microbial secondary metabolism constitutes a rich source of antibiotics, chemotherapeutics, insecticides and other high-value chemicals. Genome mining of gene clusters that encode the biosynthetic pathways for these metabolites has become a key methodology for novel compound discovery. In 2011, we introduced antiSMASH, a web server and stand-alone tool for the automatic genomic identification and analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters, available at http://antismash.secondarymetabolites.org. Here, we present version 3.0 of antiSMASH, which has undergone major improvements. A full integration of the recently published ClusterFinder algorithm now allows using this probabilistic algorithm to detect putative gene clusters of unknown types. Also, a new dereplication variant of the ClusterBlast module now identifies similarities of identified clusters to any of 1172 clusters with known end products. At the enzyme level, active sites of key biosynthetic enzymes are now pinpointed through a curated pattern-matching procedure and Enzyme Commission numbers are assigned to functionally classify all enzyme-coding genes. Additionally, chemical structure prediction has been improved by incorporating polyketide reduction states. Finally, in order for users to be able to organize and analyze multiple antiSMASH outputs in a private setting, a new XML output module allows offline editing of antiSMASH annotations within the Geneious software. PMID:25948579

  13. antiSMASH 3.0—a comprehensive resource for the genome mining of biosynthetic gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Tilmann; Blin, Kai; Duddela, Srikanth; Krug, Daniel; Kim, Hyun Uk; Bruccoleri, Robert; Lee, Sang Yup; Fischbach, Michael A.; Müller, Rolf; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko; Medema, Marnix H.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial secondary metabolism constitutes a rich source of antibiotics, chemotherapeutics, insecticides and other high-value chemicals. Genome mining of gene clusters that encode the biosynthetic pathways for these metabolites has become a key methodology for novel compound discovery. In 2011, we introduced antiSMASH, a web server and stand-alone tool for the automatic genomic identification and analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters, available at http://antismash.secondarymetabolites.org. Here, we present version 3.0 of antiSMASH, which has undergone major improvements. A full integration of the recently published ClusterFinder algorithm now allows using this probabilistic algorithm to detect putative gene clusters of unknown types. Also, a new dereplication variant of the ClusterBlast module now identifies similarities of identified clusters to any of 1172 clusters with known end products. At the enzyme level, active sites of key biosynthetic enzymes are now pinpointed through a curated pattern-matching procedure and Enzyme Commission numbers are assigned to functionally classify all enzyme-coding genes. Additionally, chemical structure prediction has been improved by incorporating polyketide reduction states. Finally, in order for users to be able to organize and analyze multiple antiSMASH outputs in a private setting, a new XML output module allows offline editing of antiSMASH annotations within the Geneious software. PMID:25948579

  14. Genetic engineering and heterologous expression of the disorazol biosynthetic gene cluster via Red/ET recombineering.

    PubMed

    Tu, Qiang; Herrmann, Jennifer; Hu, Shengbiao; Raju, Ritesh; Bian, Xiaoying; Zhang, Youming; Müller, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Disorazol, a macrocyclic polykitide produced by the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce12 and it is reported to have potential cytotoxic activity towards several cancer cell lines, including multi-drug resistant cells. The disorazol biosynthetic gene cluster (dis) from Sorangium cellulosum (So ce12) was identified by transposon mutagenesis and cloned in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. The 58-kb dis core gene cluster was reconstituted from BACs via Red/ET recombineering and expressed in Myxococcus xanthus DK1622. For the first time ever, a myxobacterial trans-AT polyketide synthase has been expressed heterologously in this study. Expression in M. xanthus allowed us to optimize the yield of several biosynthetic products using promoter engineering. The insertion of an artificial synthetic promoter upstream of the disD gene encoding a discrete acyl transferase (AT), together with an oxidoreductase (Or), resulted in 7-fold increase in disorazol production. The successful reconstitution and expression of the genetic sequences encoding for these promising cytotoxic compounds will allow combinatorial biosynthesis to generate novel disorazol derivatives for further bioactivity evaluation. PMID:26875499

  15. Genetic engineering and heterologous expression of the disorazol biosynthetic gene cluster via Red/ET recombineering

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Qiang; Herrmann, Jennifer; Hu, Shengbiao; Raju, Ritesh; Bian, Xiaoying; Zhang, Youming; Müller, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Disorazol, a macrocyclic polykitide produced by the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce12 and it is reported to have potential cytotoxic activity towards several cancer cell lines, including multi-drug resistant cells. The disorazol biosynthetic gene cluster (dis) from Sorangium cellulosum (So ce12) was identified by transposon mutagenesis and cloned in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. The 58-kb dis core gene cluster was reconstituted from BACs via Red/ET recombineering and expressed in Myxococcus xanthus DK1622. For the first time ever, a myxobacterial trans-AT polyketide synthase has been expressed heterologously in this study. Expression in M. xanthus allowed us to optimize the yield of several biosynthetic products using promoter engineering. The insertion of an artificial synthetic promoter upstream of the disD gene encoding a discrete acyl transferase (AT), together with an oxidoreductase (Or), resulted in 7-fold increase in disorazol production. The successful reconstitution and expression of the genetic sequences encoding for these promising cytotoxic compounds will allow combinatorial biosynthesis to generate novel disorazol derivatives for further bioactivity evaluation. PMID:26875499

  16. Identification and characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster of polyoxypeptin A, a potent apoptosis inducer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyoxypeptin A was isolated from a culture broth of Streptomyces sp. MK498-98 F14, which has a potent apoptosis-inducing activity towards human pancreatic carcinoma AsPC-1 cells. Structurally, polyoxypeptin A is composed of a C15 acyl side chain and a nineteen-membered cyclodepsipeptide core that consists of six unusual nonproteinogenic amino acid residues (N-hydroxyvaline, 3-hydroxy-3-methylproline, 5-hydroxypiperazic acid, N-hydroxyalanine, piperazic acid, and 3-hydroxyleucine) at high oxidation states. Results A gene cluster containing 37 open reading frames (ORFs) has been sequenced and analyzed for the biosynthesis of polyoxypeptin A. We constructed 12 specific gene inactivation mutants, most of which abolished the production of polyoxypeptin A and only ΔplyM mutant accumulated a dehydroxylated analogue polyoxypeptin B. Based on bioinformatics analysis and genetic data, we proposed the biosynthetic pathway of polyoxypeptin A and biosynthetic models of six unusual amino acid building blocks and a PKS extender unit. Conclusions The identified gene cluster and proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of polyoxypeptin A will pave a way to understand the biosynthetic mechanism of the azinothricin family natural products and provide opportunities to apply combinatorial biosynthesis strategy to create more useful compounds. PMID:24506891

  17. Identifying driving gene clusters in complex diseases through critical transition theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanyk, Nathaniel; Wang, Xujing; Hessner, Martin; Gao, Shouguo; Chen, Ye; Jia, Shuang

    A novel approach of looking at the human body using critical transition theory has yielded positive results: clusters of genes that act in tandem to drive complex disease progression. This cluster of genes can be thought of as the first part of a large genetic force that pushes the body from a curable, but sick, point to an incurable diseased point through a catastrophic bifurcation. The data analyzed is time course microarray blood assay data of 7 high risk individuals for Type 1 Diabetes who progressed into a clinical onset, with an additional larger study requested to be presented at the conference. The normalized data is 25,000 genes strong, which were narrowed down based on statistical metrics, and finally a machine learning algorithm using critical transition metrics found the driving network. This approach was created to be repeatable across multiple complex diseases with only progression time course data needed so that it would be applicable to identifying when an individual is at risk of developing a complex disease. Thusly, preventative measures can be enacted, and in the longer term, offers a possible solution to prevent all Type 1 Diabetes.

  18. Annotation of the Modular Polyketide Synthase and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Gene Clusters in the Genome of Streptomyces tsukubaensis NRRL18488

    PubMed Central

    Blažič, Marko; Starcevic, Antonio; Lisfi, Mohamed; Baranasic, Damir; Goranovič, Dušan; Fujs, Štefan; Kuščer, Enej; Kosec, Gregor; Petković, Hrvoje; Cullum, John; Hranueli, Daslav

    2012-01-01

    The high G+C content and large genome size make the sequencing and assembly of Streptomyces genomes more difficult than for other bacteria. Many pharmaceutically important natural products are synthesized by modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). The analysis of such gene clusters is difficult if the genome sequence is not of the highest quality, because clusters can be distributed over several contigs, and sequencing errors can introduce apparent frameshifts into the large PKS and NRPS proteins. An additional problem is that the modular nature of the clusters results in the presence of imperfect repeats, which may cause assembly errors. The genome sequence of Streptomyces tsukubaensis NRRL18488 was scanned for potential PKS and NRPS modular clusters. A phylogenetic approach was used to identify multiple contigs belonging to the same cluster. Four PKS clusters and six NRPS clusters were identified. Contigs containing cluster sequences were analyzed in detail by using the ClustScan program, which suggested the order and orientation of the contigs. The sequencing of the appropriate PCR products confirmed the ordering and allowed the correction of apparent frameshifts resulting from sequencing errors. The product chemistry of such correctly assembled clusters could also be predicted. The analysis of one PKS cluster showed that it should produce a bafilomycin-like compound, and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to show that the cluster was transcribed. PMID:22983969

  19. Genomic organization and differential signature of positive selection in the alpha and beta globin gene clusters in two cetacean species.

    PubMed

    Nery, Mariana F; Arroyo, José Ignacio; Opazo, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    The hemoglobin of jawed vertebrates is a heterotetramer protein that contains two α- and two β-chains, which are encoded by members of α- and β-globin gene families. Given the hemoglobin role in mediating an adaptive response to chronic hypoxia, it is likely that this molecule may have experienced a selective pressure during the evolution of cetaceans, which have to deal with hypoxia tolerance during prolonged diving. This selective pressure could have generated a complex history of gene turnover in these clusters and/or changes in protein structure themselves. Accordingly, we aimed to characterize the genomic organization of α- and β-globin gene clusters in two cetacean species and to detect a possible role of positive selection on them using a phylogenetic framework. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogeny reconstructions revealed that both cetacean species had retained a similar complement of putatively functional genes. For the α-globin gene cluster, the killer whale presents a complement of genes composed of HBZ, HBK, and two functional copies of HBA and HBQ genes, whereas the dolphin possesses HBZ, HBK, HBA and HBQ genes, and one HBA pseudogene. For the β-globin gene cluster, both species retained a complement of four genes, two early expressed genes-HBE and HBH-and two adult expressed genes-HBD and HBB. Our natural selection analysis detected two positively selected sites in the HBB gene (56 and 62) and four in HBA (15, 21, 49, 120). Interestingly, only the genes that are expressed during the adulthood showed the signature of positive selection. PMID:24259315

  20. DNA SEQUENCING, ANALYSIS, AND IDENTIFICATION OF SEROGROUP-SPECIFIC GENES IN THE ESCHERICHIA COLI O28AC AND O118 O ANTIGEN GENE CLUSTERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The DNA sequence of the O antigen gene clusters of Escherichia coli serogroups O28ac and O118 was determined, and 7 and 13 ORFs were identified, respectively, encoding genes required for O antigen sugar biosynthesis, transfer, and processing. Analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that the wzx (O ...

  1. Red Carotenoid Coloration in the Zebra Finch Is Controlled by a Cytochrome P450 Gene Cluster.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Nicholas I; Stapley, Jessica; Bennison, Clair; Tucker, Rachel; Twyman, Hanlu; Kim, Kang-Wook; Burke, Terry; Birkhead, Tim R; Andersson, Staffan; Slate, Jon

    2016-06-01

    Bright-red colors in vertebrates are commonly involved in sexual, social, and interspecific signaling [1-8] and are largely produced by ketocarotenoid pigments. In land birds, ketocarotenoids such as astaxanthin are usually metabolically derived via ketolation of dietary yellow carotenoids [9, 10]. However, the molecular basis of this gene-environment mechanism has remained obscure. Here we use the yellowbeak mutation in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) to investigate the genetic basis of red coloration. Wild-type ketocarotenoids were absent in the beak and tarsus of yellowbeak birds. The yellowbeak mutation mapped to chromosome 8, close to a cluster of cytochrome P450 loci (CYP2J2-like) that are candidates for carotenoid ketolases. The wild-type zebra finch genome was found to have three intact genes in this cluster: CYP2J19A, CYP2J19B, and CYP2J40. In yellowbeak, there are multiple mutations: loss of a complete CYP2J19 gene, a modified remaining CYP2J19 gene (CYP2J19(yb)), and a non-synonymous SNP in CYP2J40. In wild-type birds, CYP2J19 loci are expressed in ketocarotenoid-containing tissues: CYP2J19A only in the retina and CYP2J19B in the beak and tarsus and to a variable extent in the retina. In contrast, expression of CYP2J19(yb) is barely detectable in the beak of yellowbeak birds. CYP2J40 has broad tissue expression and shows no differences between wild-type and yellowbeak. Our results indicate that CYP2J19 genes are strong candidates for the carotenoid ketolase and imply that ketolation occurs in the integument in zebra finches. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes include key detoxification enzymes, our results raise the intriguing possibility that red coloration may be an honest signal of detoxification ability. PMID:27212402

  2. Genetic and functional characterization of the gene cluster specifying expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pili.

    PubMed Central

    Koga, T; Ishimoto, K; Lory, S

    1993-01-01

    The genetic organization of the gene cluster containing pilA, the structural gene for type IV pilin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as the accessory genes pilB, pilC, and pilD, has been studied. DNA sequences capable of initiating transcription when fused to a promoterless lacZ gene have been identified in the pilA-pilB and pilB-pilC intergenic regions. Unlike pilA, which requires rpoN (encoding the sigma 54 subunit of RNA polymerase) and products of two regulatory genes, pilS and pilR, expression of pilB, pilC, or pilD did not depend on any of these transcriptional regulators. Moreover, transcription of pilA from the tac promoter in an rpoN mutant background resulted in piliated bacteria, suggesting that the RpoN-based regulatory network is specific for pilA and does not control expression of any other genes necessary for formation of pili. Insertion of the omega fragment containing strong transcriptional terminators into pilB, pilC, and pilD failed to have a polar effect on expression of downstream genes, as determined by the ability of each cloned gene to complement, in trans, the corresponding insertionally inactivated chromosomal copy. Insertions into pilC, however, resulted in decreased synthesis of PilD as determined by quantitation of PilD enzymatic activity in processing prepilin in vitro and by immunoassay. This finding suggests that PilD may require PilC for its optimal stability or correct membrane localization. Images PMID:7681046

  3. Dissection of Two Complex Clusters of Resistance Genes in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    PubMed

    Christopoulou, Marilena; McHale, Leah K; Kozik, Alex; Reyes-Chin Wo, Sebastian; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Michelmore, Richard W

    2015-07-01

    Of the over 50 phenotypic resistance genes mapped in lettuce, 25 colocalize to three major resistance clusters (MRC) on chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. Similarly, the majority of candidate resistance genes encoding nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) proteins genetically colocalize with phenotypic resistance loci. MRC1 and MRC4 span over 66 and 63 Mb containing 84 and 21 NLR-encoding genes, respectively, as well as 765 and 627 genes that are not related to NLR genes. Forward and reverse genetic approaches were applied to dissect MRC1 and MRC4. Transgenic lines exhibiting silencing were selected using silencing of β-glucuronidase as a reporter. Silencing of two of five NLR-encoding gene families resulted in abrogation of nine of 14 tested resistance phenotypes mapping to these two regions. At MRC1, members of the coiled coil-NLR-encoding RGC1 gene family were implicated in host and nonhost resistance through requirement for Dm5/8- and Dm45-mediated resistance to downy mildew caused by Bremia lactucae as well as the hypersensitive response to effectors AvrB, AvrRpm1, and AvrRpt2 of the nonpathogen Pseudomonas syringae. At MRC4, RGC12 family members, which encode toll interleukin receptor-NLR proteins, were implicated in Dm4-, Dm7-, Dm11-, and Dm44-mediated resistance to B. lactucae. Lesions were identified in the sequence of a candidate gene within dm7 loss-of-resistance mutant lines, confirming that RGC12G confers Dm7. PMID:25650829

  4. Genetic Analysis of the Serratia marcescens N28b O4 Antigen Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Saigí, Francesc; Climent, Núria; Piqué, Núria; Sanchez, Cesar; Merino, Susana; Rubirés, Xavier; Aguilar, Alici