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  1. Small cell gall bladder carcinoma complicated by syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) treated with mozavaptan.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tetsuo; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2013-06-11

    Small cell gall bladder carcinoma (Scc-GB) is a very rare entity. Although some cases present with endocrine manifestations, paraneoplastic hyponatraemia has been reported in only one previous case. Recently, the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) receptor antagonist mozavaptan has become available. Herein we report a case with Scc-GB complicated with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) treated with mozavaptan. A 47-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for hyponatraemia. Physical examination revealed elevated serum ADH, a gall bladder mass. She was clinically diagnosed with Scc-GB with SIADH as a paraneoplastic syndrome. Mozavaptan was used for SIADH. Serum sodium was quickly normalised after mozavaptan treatment. Two months later, metastasis to the subcutis of the abdominal wall was observed. The metastatic nodule was resected, and small cell carcinoma (Scc) was identified pathologically. Mozavaptan was effective for improvement of hyponatraemia in this patient with Scc-GB complicated with SIADH.

  2. Ectopic ADH secretion

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADH. Often, there are no symptoms from a low sodium level. When symptoms do occur, they may include ... Lab tests that can confirm and help diagnose low sodium include: Comprehensive metabolic panel (includes blood sodium) Osmolality ...

  3. Hyponatremia and the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).

    PubMed

    Peri, A; Pirozzi, N; Parenti, G; Festuccia, F; Menè, P

    2010-10-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), also recently referred to as the "syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis", is an often underdiagnosed cause of hypotonic hyponatremia, resulting for instance from ectopic release of ADH in lung cancer or as a side-effect of various drugs. In SIADH, hyponatremia results from a pure disorder of water handling by the kidney, whereas external Na+ balance is usually well regulated. Despite increased total body water, only minor changes of urine output and modest edema are usually seen. Renal function and acid-base balance are often preserved, while neurological impairment may range from subclinical to life-threatening. Hypouricemia is a distinguishing feature. The major causes and clinical variants of SIADH are reviewed, with particular emphasis on iatrogenic complications and hospital-acquired hyponatremia. Effective treatment of SIADH with water restriction, aquaretics, or hypertonic saline + loop diuretics, as opposed to worsening of hyponatremia during parenteral isotonic fluid administration, underscores the importance of an early accurate diagnosis and careful follow-up of these patients.

  4. Aripiprazole-induced syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).

    PubMed

    Bachu, Kalyan; Godkar, Darshan; Gasparyan, Anna; Sircar, Padmini; Yakoby, Mila; Niranjan, Selvanayagam

    2006-01-01

    Aripiprazole is a newer atypical antipsychotic agent used for effective treatment of schizophrenia. It significantly reduces unwanted side effects of older typical antipsychotics by targeting, with high affinity, dopamine D2/D3 and serotonin 5-HT1A/5-HT-2A receptors. Its documented mechanism of action makes it an unlikely agent to cause syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). We present the first reported case of SIADH caused by aripiprazole in a patient with history of schizophrenia without other precipitating factors to explain hyponatremia or SIADH.

  5. Urea for management of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Solà-Morales, Oriol; Riera, Maribel

    2014-11-01

    Urea has been recently proposed for the management of hyponatremia linked to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH). The objective of the study was to review the levels of evidence for treatment of hyponatremia associated with SIADH with urea. We performed a: systematic review of experimental trials and grading according to SIGN. No clinical trials were found. The 6 studies analysed had methodological limitations and were prone to biases. In conclusion, there is no evidence to support the efficacy of urea for the treatment of hyponatremia following SIADH.

  6. The Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Anti-Diuretic Hormone (SIADH) and Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Keziban Asli; Doğan, Murat; Kaba, Sultan; Akbayram, Sinan; Aslan, Oktay; Kocaman, Selami; Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Üstyol, Lokman; Demir, Nihat

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to demonstrate the frequency of the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) and associated factors during the course of brucellosis in children and adolescents. Material/Methods The study included children and adolescents aged 0–18 years old diagnosed with brucellosis between 2012 and 2014. The data were collected from patient charts. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made based on titrations >1:160 in standard Wright tube agglutination tests and/or positive culture tests. SIADH diagnosis was made based on the following criteria: euvolemic hyponatremia, serum Na+ <135 mmol/L, presence of serum hypoosmolarity (serum osmolarity <275 mOsm/L), increased urinary sodium (>25 mmol/L with normal dietary salt intake), low uric acid (<2 mg/dL), absence of kidney, thyroid or adrenal disease, and any anti-diuretic use. Results The study included 160 children and adolescents with mean age of 9.58±3.95 years (range: 2–18 years) including 70 girls (43.8%) and 90 boys (56.2%). When the patients were stratified based on SIADH, it was found that SIADH was present in 35 patients (21.9%). SIADH was associated with elevated glucose (p<0.001), ALT (p<0.05), AST (p<0.05), LDH (p<0.001), CRP (p<0.001), and MPV (p<0.001); and decreased potassium (p<0.05), chloride (p<0.001), albumin (p<0.001), total protein (p<0.05), and hemoglobin (p<0.05) levels. Conclusions Our study reports on the frequency, clinical characteristics, predisposing factors, and management of SIADH that can develop in children and adolescents diagnosed with brucellosis. PMID:27590789

  7. Copeptin as a marker for arginine-vasopressin/antidiuretic hormone secretion in the diagnosis of paraneoplastic syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, A; Dixit, K C; Szinnai, G; Werth, S C; Haagen, U; Christ-Crain, M; Morgenthaler, N; Brabant, G

    2013-12-01

    Direct measurement of arginine-vasopressin/antidiuretic hormone (AVP/ADH) concentrations is not included in the standard diagnostic procedures for paraneoplastic syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH). Here, we evaluate the potential of copeptin measurement as a surrogate marker of AVP/ADH secretion for the direct diagnosis of suspected SIADH in cancer patients. Forty-six unselected cancer patients with serum sodium concentrations permanently below 135 mmol/L were included in this study. We compared standard diagnostic criteria for SIADH to the measurement of plasma copeptin in relation to osmolality. Normative data for comparison were constructed from 24 healthy controls studied under basal conditions, experimental dehydration, and hypotonic hypervolemia as well as from 222 hospital patients with no suspicion of an altered ADH regulation. Log transformation of copeptin revealed a linear relationship to plasma osmolality in the controls (R = 0.495, p < 0.001). Compared to these normative data, copeptin levels in most cancer patients were inappropriately high for plasma osmolality and were not significantly correlated. These results, suggestive for paraneoplastic SIADH, could be confirmed by conventional diagnostic procedures for SIADH. Current strategies to diagnose SIADH are difficult to perform under outpatients conditions. Our approach allows screening from a single plasma sample for true paraneoplastic ADH oversecretion and thus rapid selection for a specific therapy with an AVP receptor antagonist.

  8. [Diagnostics and new treatment methods of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)].

    PubMed

    Trolle, Christian; Rittig, Søren; Frøkjær, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2012-04-09

    New treatment methods of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) has emerged with the oral vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist (VV2RA) tolvaptan, but its therapeutic window remains to be defined. We present the scientific data and describe treatment possibilities of SIADH while raising the questions: "Does the present evidence enable us to identify who to treat with VV2RAs?" and "is VV2RAs justified as first-line treatment?".

  9. Oncological emergencies: syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).

    PubMed

    Matwiejczuk, Sylwester; Püsküllüoğlu, Miroslawa; Zygulska, Aneta L

    2014-01-01

    Excessive secretion of vasopressin in the course of Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion is a common cause of hyponatremia in cancer patients. Clinical symptoms depend on the cause, rate of change of sodium level and their absolute values. Treatment options include fluid restrictions, intravenous administration of hypertonic sodium chloride solutions, loop diuretics and vaptans. The sodium level should not be adjusted too fast, because it may lead to irreversible brain damage. The article presents pathophysiology, diagnostics and recommendations of management of this oncological emergency.

  10. Development of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) after Onyx embolisation of a cavernous carotid fistula.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsinsue; Kalani, M Yashar S; Ducruet, Andrew F; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G

    2017-01-01

    Patients with cavernous carotid fistulas (CCFs) can present with pituitary hypoperfusion and hypopituitarism; however, there are no previous reports of pituitary or hormonal abnormalities developing after CCF embolisation in an asymptomatic patient. We describe a patient with no hormonal abnormalities who developed syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion after CCF embolisation. The patient had bilateral indirect CCFs, which were completely embolised via a transvenous approach, and was neurologically stable postoperatively and discharged. In the subsequent 2 weeks the patient was readmitted twice for acute hyponatraemia and a tonic-clonic seizure. Laboratory studies revealed severe SIADH. Clinical status and sodium levels improved after treatment. One year later the patient was weaned off all medications and remained neurologically stable. SIADH may be a delayed phenomenon after CCF embolisation. Given the proximity of embolised vessels to the pituitary's vascular supply, CCF treatment may result in flow disturbance, ischaemia and hormonal abnormalities.

  11. Development of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) after Onyx embolisation of a cavernous carotid fistula.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsinsue; Kalani, M Yashar S; Ducruet, Andrew F; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G

    2016-03-21

    Patients with cavernous carotid fistulas (CCFs) can present with pituitary hypoperfusion and hypopituitarism; however, there are no previous reports of pituitary or hormonal abnormalities developing after CCF embolisation in an asymptomatic patient. We describe a patient with no hormonal abnormalities who developed syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion after CCF embolisation. The patient had bilateral indirect CCFs, which were completely embolised via a transvenous approach, and was neurologically stable postoperatively and discharged. In the subsequent 2 weeks the patient was readmitted twice for acute hyponatraemia and a tonic-clonic seizure. Laboratory studies revealed severe SIADH. Clinical status and sodium levels improved after treatment. One year later the patient was weaned off all medications and remained neurologically stable. SIADH may be a delayed phenomenon after CCF embolisation. Given the proximity of embolised vessels to the pituitary's vascular supply, CCF treatment may result in flow disturbance, ischaemia and hormonal abnormalities.

  12. Mild Lung Tuberculosis in a Patient Suffering from Status Epilepticus Caused by the Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH).

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Mitsuo; Kuriiwa, Saki; Kojima, Ayako; Shinhuku, Kyota; Sato, Akihito; Sasaki, Ryoko; Hasegawa, Tsukasa; Ito, Akihiko; Utsumi, Hirofumi; Yanagisawa, Haruhiko; Wakui, Hiroshi; Minagawa, Shunsuke; Kojima, Jun; Numata, Takanori; Hara, Hiromichi; Araya, Jun; Kaneko, Yumi; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman was diagnosed with lung tuberculosis. On the second day of anti-tuberculosis treatment, she became unconscious and developed status epilepticus accompanied by hyponatremia. The hyponatremia was caused by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Detailed examinations revealed that the patient's status epilepticus had occurred due to hyponatremia, which was caused by lung tuberculosis-associated SIADH. Previous case reports noted that patients with tuberculosis-associated SIADH showed mild clinical manifestations. They also reported that extensive lung involvement was associated with SIADH development. We herein report a rare case of SIADH complicated with status epilepticus that was caused by tuberculosis with mild lung involvement.

  13. Mild Lung Tuberculosis in a Patient Suffering from Status Epilepticus Caused by the Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Mitsuo; Kuriiwa, Saki; Kojima, Ayako; Shinhuku, Kyota; Sato, Akihito; Sasaki, Ryoko; Hasegawa, Tsukasa; Ito, Akihiko; Utsumi, Hirofumi; Yanagisawa, Haruhiko; Wakui, Hiroshi; Minagawa, Shunsuke; Kojima, Jun; Numata, Takanori; Hara, Hiromichi; Araya, Jun; Kaneko, Yumi; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman was diagnosed with lung tuberculosis. On the second day of anti-tuberculosis treatment, she became unconscious and developed status epilepticus accompanied by hyponatremia. The hyponatremia was caused by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Detailed examinations revealed that the patient's status epilepticus had occurred due to hyponatremia, which was caused by lung tuberculosis-associated SIADH. Previous case reports noted that patients with tuberculosis-associated SIADH showed mild clinical manifestations. They also reported that extensive lung involvement was associated with SIADH development. We herein report a rare case of SIADH complicated with status epilepticus that was caused by tuberculosis with mild lung involvement. PMID:28202866

  14. Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) following carboplatin-paclitaxel administration in a patient with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, S; Nakamura, H; Miwa, K; Taniguchi, Y; Haruki, T; Takagi, Y; Yurugi, Y

    2011-09-01

    A 60-year-old female underwent right upper lobectomy of the lung and lymph node dissection under a diagnosis of cancer in the upper lobe of the right lung. Pathological examination showed stage IIIA adenocarcinoma with mediastinal lymph node metastasis. One month after the operation, adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin (CBDCA) and paclitaxel (PTX) was initiated. Four days after the chemotherapy, hyponatremia progressed, and central nervous system disorder developed. A diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) was made. She recovered after fluid intake restriction and electrolyte correction. SIADH was considered to be due to the adverse effects of anticancer drugs. In postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, attention should be paid to the serum Na level.

  15. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or hyponatraemia associated with valproic Acid: four case reports from the Netherlands and a case/non-case analysis of vigibase.

    PubMed

    Beers, Erna; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P; Bartelink, Imke H; van der Linden, Carolien M J; Jansen, Paul A F

    2010-01-01

    The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb received four cases of severe symptomatic hyponatraemia or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in association with valproic acid use, in which a causal relationship was suspected. This study describes these cases and gives support for this association from Vigibase, the adverse drug reaction (ADR) database of the WHO Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring, the Uppsala Monitoring Centre. Cases of hyponatraemia in valproic acid users are described. In a case/non-case analysis, the strength of the association between reported cases of hyponatraemia and the use of valproic acid in Vigibase was established by calculating a reporting odds ratio, adjusted for possible confounding by concomitant medication. Four females aged 57, 67, 71 and 88 years developed symptomatic hyponatraemia or SIADH after starting valproic acid. Despite concomitant medication or co-morbidity, a causal relationship was plausible. In Vigibase, valproic acid is disproportionally associated with hyponatraemia and SIADH (corrected reporting odds ratio 1.83 [95% CI 1.61, 2.08]). Based on the described cases and the reports from Vigibase, a causal relationship between valproic acid use and hyponatraemia or SIADH can be suspected. The mechanism by which valproic acid could cause hyponatraemia or SIADH has not been fully elucidated. Valproic acid use could lead to reduced sensitivity of hypothalamic osmoreceptors. It also might directly affect tubular cell function, thereby leading to SIADH. It might be expected that a combination of effects on the osmoreceptors and a lack of compensation of the salt-water unbalance by the nephrons causes SIADH in some patients using valproic acid. It could be a dose- or concentration-related adverse effect. In this report, severe symptomatic hyponatraemia and SIADH have been associated with the use of valproic acid. With this study, not only is the number of published cases

  16. The inhibitory effect of the cerebellar fastigial stimulation on ADH secretion.

    PubMed

    Hata, N; Miura, M

    1974-11-01

    1. Both cardiovascular and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) responses to some neural inputs were examined in paralysed anaesthetized cats.2. Carotid occlusion elicited cardiovascular responses and increased ADH secretion. When the electrical stimulation of discrete loci of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (fastigial pressor area) was superimposed on carotid occlusion, cardiovascular responses were further facilitated, while ADH secretion was inhibited.3. The fastigial stimulation alone elicited facilitory cardiovascular responses composed of hypertension and tachycardia, and the fastigial pressor response (FPR), but did not evoke any consistent ADH response.4. These facts indicate that cerebellar modulation of ADH secretion occurs not directly via the hypothalamo-hypophysial system but through the lower brain stem to which both carotid sinus nerves and outflows from the fastigial pressor area project.5. We conclude that the fastigial pressor area is specific for not only cardiovascular and other autonomic responses but pituitary hormonal response.

  17. Management of euvolemic hyponatremia attributed to SIADH in the hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Peri, A; Giuliani, C

    2014-03-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients. Acute and severe hyponatremia can be a life-threatening condition, but recent evidence indicates that also mild and chronic hyponatremia is associated with neurological and extra-neurological signs, such as gait disturbances, attention deficits, falls and fracture occurrence, and bone loss. The syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) is the most frequent cause of hyponatremia. Hyponatremia secondary to SIADH may result for instance from ectopic release of ADH in lung cancer, from diseases affecting the central nervous system, from pneumonia or other pneumopathies or as a side-effect of various drugs In SIADH, hyponatremia results from a pure disorder of water handling by the kidney, whereas external sodium balance is usually well regulated. Despite increased total body water, only minor changes of urine output and modest oedema are usually seen. Neurological impairment may range from subclinical to life-threatening, depending on the degree and mostly on the rate of serum sodium reduction. The management of hyponatremia secondary to SIADH is largely dependent on the symptomatology of the patient. This review briefly summarizes the main aspects related to hyponatremia and then discusses the available treatment options for the management of SIADH, including vaptans, which are vasopressin receptor antagonists targeted for the correction of euvolemic hyponatremia, such as that observed in SIADH.

  18. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in a case of olfactory neuroblastoma without anti-diuretic hormone immunoreactivity: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takafumi; Motoshita, Junichi; Sawada, Fumi; Okabe, Midori; Tamae, Akihiro; Hiramatsu, Shinsuke; Kodama, Satoru; Shiratsuchi, Hideki; Yasumatsu, Ryuji; Nakashima, Torahiko; Nakagawa, Takashi

    2016-12-20

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a relatively rare nasal or paranasal malignant tumor. This tumor is rarely accompanied by paraneoplastic syndromes such as syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Here, we report a 31-year-old female with histologically confirmed ONB who had been diagnosed with SIADH three years prior. She was treated with surgery followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. SIADH resolved immediately after surgical tumor resection. Immunohistochemically, both biopsy and resected specimens from the nasal cavity had been negative for ADH. Although extremely rare, ONB may be associated with SIADH, and the possibility of this cancer should be taken into account during the follow-up of idiopathic SIADH.

  19. [Hyponatraemia in patients with neurosurgical disorders: SIADH or cerebral salt wasting syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Frey, Felix J

    2009-11-01

    Patients with neurosurgical disorders often present with hyponatraemia. Two mechanisms account for hyponatraemia in these patients: the Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) and Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome (CSWS). The two entities differ in their volume status. In SIADH, volume is expanded due to ADH-mediated renal water retention, but in CSWS, volume is diminished as a consequence of renal salt wasting, most likely attributable to an increased secretion of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and Artrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP). Since it is clinically difficult to distinguish between these two entities, fluid management has to be performed carefully. Salt and fluid replacement appears to be indicated in CSWS, whereas fluid restriction might be the primary approach in patients with SIADH.

  20. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH) in Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Deepshikha Nag; Dhadham, Gautamy Chitiki; Shah, Anish; Baddoura, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) is a soil transmitted intestinal roundworm that has a unique ability to multiply within the human host and reinfect the human carrier by a process of autoinfection. By this property, S. stercoralis can persist as an occult infection for many decades. In situations of immunosuppression or other permissive gastrointestinal conditions, there occurs a massive increase in parasite multiplication. The parasites penetrate through the intestinal mucosa and are carried in circulation and can cause multisystem involvement. We report a case of a 76-year-old Columbian male who presented with intractable vomiting and hyponatremia who was then diagnosed to have syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). The patient's symptoms improved after treatment with two doses of ivermectin and his serum sodium levels returned to normal. S. stercoralis infection should be suspected in patients from endemic regions who present with gastrointestinal symptoms and unexplained hyponatremia.

  1. Clinical management of SIADH

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) accounts for approximately one-third of all cases. In the diagnosis of SIADH it is important to ascertain the euvolemic state of extracellular fluid volume, both clinically and by laboratory measurements. SIADH should be treated to cure symptoms. While this is undisputed in the presence of grave or advanced symptoms, the clinical role and the indications for treatment in the presence of mild to moderate symptoms are currently unclear. Therapeutic modalities include nonspecific measures and means (fluid restriction, hypertonic saline, urea, demeclocycline), with fluid restriction and hypertonic saline commonly used. Recently vasopressin receptor antagonists, called vaptans, have been introduced as specific and direct therapy of SIADH. Although clinical experience with vaptans is limited at this time, they appear advantageous to patients because there is no need for fluid restriction and the correction of hyponatremia can be achieved comfortably and within a short time. Vaptans also appear to be beneficial for physicians and staff because of their efficiency and reliability. The side effects are thirst, polydipsia and frequency of urination. In any therapy of chronic SIADH it is important to limit the daily increase of serum sodium to less than 8–10 mmol/liter because higher correction rates have been associated with osmotic demyelination. In the case of vaptan treatment, the first 24 h are critical for prevention of an overly rapid correction of hyponatremia and the serum sodium should be measured after 0, 6, 24 and 48 h of treatment. Discontinuation of any vaptan therapy for longer than 5 or 6 days should be monitored to prevent hyponatremic relapse. It may be necessary to taper the vaptan dose or restrict fluid intake or both. PMID:23148195

  2. Urinary retention and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) secondary to impacted gravid uterus.

    PubMed

    Irani, M; Fisher, N; Mor, A; Bensinger, G

    2016-06-01

    Urinary retention is an emergency that rarely occurs during pregnancy. Previous case reports have suggested multiple risk factors that can cause the gravid uterus to become impacted in the pelvis leading to lower bladder or urethral compression with subsequent urinary retention. However, no cases of urinary obstruction in a pregnancy that was complicated with severe electrolyte imbalance have been reported. To our knowledge, we report the first case of a 31-year-old woman presenting at 8 weeks' gestation with acute urinary retention caused by a retroflexed, retroverted uterus with a 6-cm posterior uterine fibroid leading to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and severe hyponatremia requiring intensive care unit admission. The cornerstones of effective management of urinary retention should include: (i) urgent bladder catheterization; (ii) assessment of sodium levels to rule out syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and prompt treatment before neurological damage occurs; (iii) reduction of the impacted uterus; and (iv) monitoring for post-obstructive diuresis.

  3. [Current considerations in syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone/syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis].

    PubMed

    Velasco Cano, M V; Runkle de la Vega, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)/syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis is characterized by a hypotonic hyponatremia, with an insufficiently diluted urine given the plasmatic hypoosmolality, in the absence of hypovolemia (with or without a third space), hypotension, renal or heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, vomiting, or other non-osmotic stimuli of ADH secretion. The response of ADH to the infusion of hypertonic saline divides SIADH into 4 different types. In type D, there is no alteration in ADH secretion. Rather, the defect is the maintained permeability of kidney aquaporin-2 channels to water. Activating mutations of the V2 receptor have been identified. The most frequent cause of SIADH is the use of drugs that induce secretion of the hormone. Old age is per se a risk factor for its development. SIADH is underdiagnosed, and hospitalization often worsens the clinical situation, due to an iatrogenic excess in the use of oral and i.v. liquids, often hypotonic, together with a reduction in salt intake. Treatment is directed towards normalization of natremia when possible, together with the avoidance of both hyponatremic encephalopathy as well as the osmotic demyelinization syndrome. Cases of "appropriate" secretion of ADH with normovolemic hyponatremia and high mortality rates should be treated with the same urgency as SIADH--such is the case of post-surgical hyponatremia.

  4. SIADH and hyponatraemia: foreword

    PubMed Central

    O’Donoghue, Donal; Trehan, Anu

    2009-01-01

    Hyponatraemia is common, affecting about one in five of all hospitalized patients. Minor degrees of chronic hyponatraemia cause cognitive and motor impairment, and severe hyponatraemia is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a common cause of hyponatraemia and is often poorly understood and inappropriately treated. Clinical evaluation and simple biochemical assessment should guide management. The introduction of vasopressin antagonists, or vaptans, into clinical practice heralds the beginning of a new and exciting era for this important group of disorders. PMID:19881931

  5. Citalopram therapy as a risk factor for symptomatic hyponatremia caused by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH): a case report.

    PubMed

    Miehle, K; Paschke, R; Koch, C A

    2005-07-01

    We report the case of an 81-year old woman with stupor, confusion, somnolence, vomiting, and reduced food intake for 5 days. Laboratory investigations revealed low serum concentrations of sodium and potassium with a serum osmolality of 225 mOsm/kg H (2)O in the face of an inappropriately concentrated urine with an osmolality in the normal range, suggesting the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in the absence of renal insufficiency, adrenal insufficiency, and hypothyroidism. Careful drug evaluation revealed amitriptyline and citalopram as possible inciters of antidiuretic hormone secretion. Subsequently, these drugs were withdrawn. Under continuous sodium substitution and fluid restriction serum sodium normalized and the patient's symptoms resolved. She was fully alert by day 15. We conclude that hyponatremia secondary to SIADH was the cause of the patient's neurologic symptoms. Clinicians should be aware of this possible side effect of central acting agents such as amitriptyline and citalopram, drugs that are often used to treat elderly patients suffering from depression or chronic pain.

  6. Prompt efficacy of tolvaptan in treating hyponatremia of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) closely associated with rupture of a gastric artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masashi; Yamada, Hodaka; Asano, Tomoko; Aoki, Atsushi; Ikoma, Aki; Kusaka, Ikuyo; Kakei, Masafumi; Ishikawa, San-e

    2014-01-01

    A 78-year-old man with abdominal pain was diagnosed with a rupture of a gastric artery aneurysm. The serum Na level promptly decreased from 135 to 110 mmol/L within several days. Brain magnetic resonance angiography revealed severe vasoconstriction of the cerebral basilar artery and anterior cerebral artery. There was neither dehydration nor edema. The plasma arginine vasopressin level was 3.3 pg/mL, despite hypoosmolality. These findings indicated a diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) derived from severe vasoconstriction of the cerebral arteries. The administration of 7.5 mg of tolvaptan rapidly increased the serum Na level from 123 to 138 mmol/L within the first 24 hours, thereafter continuously maintaining a normal level. Treatment with tolvaptan corrected the patient's dilutional hyponatremia.

  7. Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone associated with localized herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Chiang; Shiang, Jeng-Chuan; Chen, Jiann-Tomg; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2011-02-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) associated with localized herpes zoster is rarely reported and may be under-appreciated. We describe two diabetic men with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) who developed hyponatremia (114 and 116 mmol/L) during acute illness. Both were euvolemic and had elevated urine osmolality (435 and 368 mmol/kg.H(2)O) and sodium (Na(+)) concentration (61 and 63 mmol/L) along with normal cardiac, renal, liver, and endocrine function consistent with the diagnosis of SIADH. Thorough investigation for other causes of SIADH, including detailed physical examination, laboratory studies, and computed tomography of the brain, chest, and abdomen, were negative. Despite antiviral therapy (acyclovir) for herpes zoster, ophthalmoplegia, keratitis, and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) developed. Even with fluid restriction and high salt diet, SIADH lasted for 3 to 4 months and resolved concomitantly with resolution of PHN, suggesting an association between SIADH and HZO. These two cases raise the potential for herpes zoster infection, especially HZO, to involve the regulatory pathway of ADH secretion, contributing to SIADH. The presence of PHN, which reflects greater neural damage may, at least in part, explain the prolonged ADH secretion and hyponatremia.

  8. [The use of tolvaptan in a case of severe hyponatriemia in SIADH during meningitis].

    PubMed

    Rollino, Cristiana; Balbiano, Rosanna; Caramello, Pietro; Roccatello, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Vaptans, vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists, are new drugs indicated in the treatment of Inappropriate ADH Secretion Syndrome (SIADH). We report a case of SIADH in a patient affected by AIDS. During a hospitalization for an ongoing CMV meningitis she developed a severe hyponatremia (114 mEq/L), which was initially treated with restriction of free water. When the diagnosis of SIADH was done (plasma Osmolarity 240 mOsm/kg, urinary sodium >30 mEq/24 h, normal volemia, lack of hypocorticosurrenalism and hypothyroidism), tolvaptan was given at the dose of 15 mg/day. Important fluctuations of plasma Na were observed thereafter (119-143 mEq/L). The progressive reduction of the drug (to 2 mg/die) allowed a stable correction of natremia. Unconsciousness determined the impossibility of the patient to freely access to water, thus explaining the fluctuations of natremia and the difficult management of the drug. Only a posology reduction to doses lower than those available for sale allowed a stable correction of natremia.

  9. [Cerbral salt wasting syndrome versus SIADH].

    PubMed

    Deslarzes, Tristan; Turini, Pierre; Friolet, Raymond; Meier, Pascal

    2009-11-11

    In the context of cerebral diseases the two main mechanisms responsible for non iatrogenic causes of hyponatremia are cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) and inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Distinction between these two syndromes is difficult and is based on the assessment of the patient's volume status. In case of CSW, the volume status is low and the treatment is fluid and sodium replacement. In case of SIADH the volume status is normal or slightly expanded and the treatment is fluid restriction. To avoid centropontine myelinolysis, the speed of correction should not exceed 8 to 10 mmol/L over a 24-hour period. This article will describe practical tools to differentiate CSW from SIADH and therapeutic strategies useful in daily clinical practice.

  10. Filling the Gap - Improving Awareness and Practice in Hyponatraemia and the Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH) in the Older Patient: A European Consensus View.

    PubMed

    Wehling, M; Ashton, C; Ekpo, E; Gwynn, S; Laville, M; Olsson, K; Spring, M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Causes of hyponatraemia in older patients are multivariate and in the case of SIADH may often be drug induced. Diagnostic and treatment algorithms are unclear for this important age group. Methods: The author group identified 6 broad themes for consensus and formulated 42 separate consensus statements within these 6 themes. Statements were then circulated to geriatricians, general practitioners and other doctors to test agreement at the European level. Results: 64 responses were evaluated from around Europe. Agreement was achieved in 86% of the statements following amendment and redistribution of 6 of the statements. The survey and its feedback prompted the development of 13 recommendations related to the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia including SIADH. Conclusion: The series of 13 recommendations developed here is intended to increase clarity for clinicians managing older patients with hyponatraemia and SIADH. Surprisingly, despite the lack of clear guidelines or recommendations for this age group consensus levels for the author-based statements were high among the respondents.

  11. A case of water intoxication with prolonged hyponatremia caused by excessive water drinking and secondary SIADH.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Mari; Hasegawa, Hajime; Matsuda, Akihiko; Kinoshita, Masanobu; Matsumura, Osamu; Isoda, Kazuo; Mitarai, Tetsuya

    2013-07-01

    Water intoxication is a life-threatening disorder accompanied by brain function impairment due to severe dilutional hyponatremia. We treated a 22-year-old man without psychotic illness who had been put in a detention facility. He drank 6 liters of water over a 3-hour period at the facility as a game's penalty, and he showed progressive psychiatric and neurological signs including restlessness, peculiar behavior and convulsions. On his admission, 15 h after the discontinuation of the water drinking, he was in a coma, showing intermittent convulsions and remarkable hyponatremia (120 mmol/l). Because his laboratory tests showed hypertonic urine and normal sodium excretion, the diagnosis of secondary development of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) was strongly suggested and later confirmed by the suppression of the renin-aldosterone system and the inappropriately elevated secretion of ADH. Saline infusion and an initial administration of furosemide in addition to dexamethasone as treatments for the patient's brain edema successfully improved his laboratory data and clinical signs by the 3rd hospital day, and he was returned to the facility without physical or psychiatric abnormalities on the 6th day. The secondary SIADH might have been due to the prolonged emesis, recurrent convulsions and rapid elevation of intracranial pressure.

  12. A Case of Water Intoxication with Prolonged Hyponatremia Caused by Excessive Water Drinking and Secondary SIADH

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Mari; Hasegawa, Hajime; Matsuda, Akihiko; Kinoshita, Masanobu; Matsumura, Osamu; Isoda, Kazuo; Mitarai, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    Water intoxication is a life-threatening disorder accompanied by brain function impairment due to severe dilutional hyponatremia. We treated a 22-year-old man without psychotic illness who had been put in a detention facility. He drank 6 liters of water over a 3-hour period at the facility as a game's penalty, and he showed progressive psychiatric and neurological signs including restlessness, peculiar behavior and convulsions. On his admission, 15 h after the discontinuation of the water drinking, he was in a coma, showing intermittent convulsions and remarkable hyponatremia (120 mmol/l). Because his laboratory tests showed hypertonic urine and normal sodium excretion, the diagnosis of secondary development of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) was strongly suggested and later confirmed by the suppression of the renin-aldosterone system and the inappropriately elevated secretion of ADH. Saline infusion and an initial administration of furosemide in addition to dexamethasone as treatments for the patient's brain edema successfully improved his laboratory data and clinical signs by the 3rd hospital day, and he was returned to the facility without physical or psychiatric abnormalities on the 6th day. The secondary SIADH might have been due to the prolonged emesis, recurrent convulsions and rapid elevation of intracranial pressure. PMID:24570685

  13. Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica presenting with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as an initial manifestation.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, H; Fujiki, Y; Ito, T; Kitaoka, H; Takahashi, T

    2011-09-01

    The distribution of neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-characteristic brain lesions corresponds to sites of high aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression, and the brainstem and hypothalamus lesions that express high levels of AQP4 protein are relatively characteristic of NMO. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is one of the important causes of hyponatremia and results from an abnormal production or sustained secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). SIADH has been associated with many clinical states or syndromes, and the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system regulates the feedback control system for ADH secretion. We report the case of a 63-year-old man with NMO, whose initial manifestation was hyponatremia caused by SIADH. Retrospective analysis revealed that the serum anti-AQP4 antibody was positive, and an MRI scan showed a unilateral lesion in the hypothalamus. SIADH recovered completely with regression of the hypothalamic lesion. As such, NMO should even be considered in patients who develop SIADH and have no optic nerve or spinal cord lesions but have MRI-documented hypothalamic lesions.

  14. Hyponatraemia--SIADH in lung cancer diagnostic and treatment algorithms.

    PubMed

    Grohé, Christian; Berardi, Rossanna; Burst, Volker

    2015-10-01

    Lung cancer, in particular small cell lung cancer (SCLC), is a very aggressive solid tumour with limited therapeutic options to date. The majority of patients present, at the time of diagnosis, with extensive disease patterns and reduced performance status. Hyponatraemia is a common finding in SCLC (25%) which can be assigned to a paraneoplastic syndrome termed syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) in 60% of cases. Hyponatraemia may cause significant and even dramatic neurocognitive deficits, if not treated in an effective manner. Palliative chemo- or radiotherapy is restricted to patients with good performance status and therapeutic adherence. Acute or persistent hyponatraemia may interfere with such treatment options and compromise outcome. This review integrates new diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines to improve the understanding how and when to treat hyponatraemia in thoracic oncology patients Integrating early palliative care in lung cancer patients has a significant impact on prognosis. Correcting hyponatraemia in a supportive and risk stratified fashion may help to improve both prognosis and quality of life and should be a standard in modern palliative care for patients with lung cancer.

  15. Perspectives on the management of hyponatraemia secondary to SIADH across Europe.

    PubMed

    Hoorn, Ewout J; Bouloux, Pierre-Marc; Burst, Volker

    2012-03-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the most common cause of euvolaemic hyponatraemia. However, although first described over 50 years ago, the management of hyponatraemia secondary to SIADH is not always straightforward. Some of the issues surrounding the management of hyponatraemia secondary to SIADH were explored in the European Hyponatraemia Survey completed by attendees of the European Hyponatraemia Network Academy Meeting 2011. This article describes the findings of this survey and the specific issues raised regarding the management of hyponatraemia secondary to SIADH in Europe. Some of these issues - including awareness, education, diagnosis, management and cost considerations of the condition - were common to countries across Europe.

  16. Tolvaptan use during hyperhydration in paediatric intracranial lymphoma with SIADH

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Carballar, Violeta; Elleri, Daniela; Thankamony, Ajay; Burke, G A Amos; Nicholson, James C; Dunger, David B

    2016-01-01

    Summary An 11-year-old boy developed severe syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) after diagnosis of an intracranial B-cell lymphoma. His sodium levels dropped to 118–120 mmol/L despite 70% fluid restriction. For chemotherapy, he required hyperhydration, which posed a challenge because of severe hyponatraemia. Tolvaptan is an oral, highly selective arginine vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, which has been licensed in adults for the management of SIADH and has been used in treating paediatric heart failure. Tolvaptan gradually increased sodium levels and allowed liberalisation of fluid intake and hyperhydration. Tolvaptan had profound effects on urinary output in our patient with increases up to 8 mL/kg/h and required close monitoring of fluid balance, frequent sodium measurements and adjustments to intake. After hyperhydration, tolvaptan was stopped, and the lymphoma went into remission with reversal of SIADH. We report one of the first uses of tolvaptan in a child with SIADH, and it was an effective and safe treatment to manage severe SIADH when fluid restriction was not possible or effective. However, meticulous monitoring of fluid balance and sodium levels and adjustments of fluid intake are required to prevent rapid sodium changes. Learning points: Tolvaptan can be used in paediatric patients with SIADH to allow hyperhydration during chemotherapy. Tolvaptan has profound effects on urinary output and meticulous monitoring of fluid balance and sodium 
levels is therefore warranted. Tolvaptan was well tolerated without significant side effects. PMID:27857840

  17. Thymic neuroblastoma with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Fumihiro; Amano, Hideki; Iyoda, Akira; Satoh, Yukitoshi

    2009-11-01

    We describe a rare case of thymic neuroblastoma with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). A 60-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital for further examination and treatment of anterior mediastinal tumor found at a regular health check-up. On examination there was hyponatremia, decrease in plasma osmolarity and elevation of plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) level. Thus, he underwent total thymectomy under the diagnosis of thymoma with SIADH. The tumor was located in the right lobe of the thymus and the final diagnosis was thymic neuroblastoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of thymic neuroblastoma in which production of ADH by tumor cells is demonstrated immunohistochemically. This case highlights the need to consider functional activity of thymic neuroblastoma and complete resection of the tumor is warranted for treatment.

  18. Ethanol-induced alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) potentiates pneumolysin in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Luong, Truc Thanh; Kim, Eun-Hye; Bak, Jong Phil; Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Choi, Sangdun; Briles, David E; Pyo, Suhkneung; Rhee, Dong-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol impairs the host immune system, rendering the host more vulnerable to infection. Therefore, alcoholics are at increased risk of acquiring serious bacterial infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including pneumonia. Nevertheless, how alcohol affects pneumococcal virulence remains unclear. Here, we showed that the S. pneumoniae type 2 D39 strain is ethanol tolerant and that alcohol upregulates alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) and potentiates pneumolysin (Ply). Hemolytic activity, colonization, and virulence of S. pneumoniae, as well as host cell myeloperoxidase activity, proinflammatory cytokine secretion, and inflammation, were significantly attenuated in adhE mutant bacteria (ΔadhE strain) compared to D39 wild-type bacteria. Therefore, AdhE might act as a pneumococcal virulence factor. Moreover, in the presence of ethanol, S. pneumoniae AdhE produced acetaldehyde and NADH, which subsequently led Rex (redox-sensing transcriptional repressor) to dissociate from the adhE promoter. An increase in AdhE level under the ethanol condition conferred an increase in Ply and H2O2 levels. Consistently, S. pneumoniae D39 caused higher cytotoxicity to RAW 264.7 cells than the ΔadhE strain under the ethanol stress condition, and ethanol-fed mice (alcoholic mice) were more susceptible to infection with the D39 wild-type bacteria than with the ΔadhE strain. Taken together, these data indicate that AdhE increases Ply under the ethanol stress condition, thus potentiating pneumococcal virulence.

  19. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion refractory to treatment in a newborn with alobar holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Cizmeci, M N; Kanburoglu, M K; Akelma, A Z; Donmez, A; Duymaz, S; Tatli, M M

    2013-01-01

    Alobar holoprosencephaly (AHP) is a serious malformation of the central nervous system characterized by complete failure of cleavage of the prosencephalon resulting in fusion of the cerebral hemispheres and a massive single ventricular midline fluid collection. Secretion of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome (SIADH) is a disorder of fluid-electrolyte balance caused by the inability to suppress the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) resulting in the development of hyponatremia. Coexistence of both of these entities has not been described in the literature. We report a newborn infant with AHP who had resistant SIADH refractory to treatment, to draw attention to the coexistence of these entities and to contribute to the literature with the management of this challenging condition.

  20. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and treatment with arginine vasopressin receptor antagonists (vaptans) in congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).

    PubMed

    Gassanov, Natig; Semmo, Nasser; Semmo, Mariam; Nia, Amir M; Fuhr, Uwe; Er, Fikret

    2011-04-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the major physiological regulator of renal water excretion and blood volume. The AVP pathways of V(1a)R-mediated vasoconstriction and V(2)R-induced water retention represent a potentially attractive target of therapy for edematous diseases. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests beneficial effects of AVP receptor antagonists by increasing free water excretion and serum sodium levels. This review provides an update on the therapeutic implication of newly developed AVP receptor antagonists in respective disorders, such as chronic heart failure, liver cirrhosis and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

  1. Hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH): therapeutic decision-making in real-life cases

    PubMed Central

    Laville, Maurice; Burst, Volker; Peri, Alessandro; Verbalis, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being the most common electrolyte disturbance encountered in clinical practice, the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia (defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/L) remains far from optimal. This is extremely troubling because not only is hyponatremia associated with increased morbidity, length of hospital stay and hospital resource use, but it has also been shown to be associated with increased mortality. The reasons for this poor management may partly lie in the heterogeneous nature of the disorder; hyponatremia presents with a variety of possible etiologies, differing symptomology and fluid volume status, thereby making its diagnosis potentially complex. In addition, a general lack of awareness of the clinical impact of the disorder, a fear of adverse outcomes through overcorrection of sodium levels, and a lack of effective targeted treatments until recent years, may all have contributed to a reticence to actively treat cases of hyponatremia. There is therefore a clear unmet need to further educate physicians on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of this important condition. Through the use of a variety of real-world cases of patients with hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone—a condition that accounts for approximately one-third of all cases of hyponatremia—this supplement aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the challenges faced in diagnosing and managing hyponatremia. These cases will also help to illustrate how some of the limitations of traditional therapies may be overcome with the use of vasopressin receptor antagonists. PMID:26069838

  2. Hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH): therapeutic decision-making in real-life cases.

    PubMed

    Laville, Maurice; Burst, Volker; Peri, Alessandro; Verbalis, Joseph G

    2013-11-01

    Despite being the most common electrolyte disturbance encountered in clinical practice, the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia (defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/L) remains far from optimal. This is extremely troubling because not only is hyponatremia associated with increased morbidity, length of hospital stay and hospital resource use, but it has also been shown to be associated with increased mortality. The reasons for this poor management may partly lie in the heterogeneous nature of the disorder; hyponatremia presents with a variety of possible etiologies, differing symptomology and fluid volume status, thereby making its diagnosis potentially complex. In addition, a general lack of awareness of the clinical impact of the disorder, a fear of adverse outcomes through overcorrection of sodium levels, and a lack of effective targeted treatments until recent years, may all have contributed to a reticence to actively treat cases of hyponatremia. There is therefore a clear unmet need to further educate physicians on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of this important condition. Through the use of a variety of real-world cases of patients with hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone-a condition that accounts for approximately one-third of all cases of hyponatremia-this supplement aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the challenges faced in diagnosing and managing hyponatremia. These cases will also help to illustrate how some of the limitations of traditional therapies may be overcome with the use of vasopressin receptor antagonists.

  3. Considerations regarding the management of hyponatraemia secondary to SIADH.

    PubMed

    Peri, Alessandro; Combe, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Treatment of hyponatraemia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) should be guided by the symptomatology of the patient, which can be used as a surrogate for the duration of the hyponatraemia. However, in patients with acute symptomatic hyponatraemia (developing in <48 hours), the need to actively treat hyponatraemia is more imperative due to the potential risks associated with leaving hyponatraemia untreated (including the potential for development of serious neurological manifestations, such as seizures and brain stem herniation). In patients with hyponatraemia care needs to be taken not to exceed the recommended rates of correction, as this increases the risk of osmotic demyelination syndrome. This article will discuss the potential impact of prompt intervention in the treatment of hyponatraemia, particularly secondary to SIADH, and the need to weigh the benefits of treatment against the potential risks associated with overly rapid correction.

  4. Inappropriate Vasopressin Secretion (SIADH) in Burned Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    after postburn day (PBD) 4 in the morning following all-night recumbency. In the 25 samples (17 patients) with hyponatremia , AVP was elevated, 1.6 to...failure or sepsis, selected also for hyponatremia and urinary Na -- 20 mEq/L, were considered separately. BUN . of 11.7 _t 1.8 mg/di and plasma glucose of...in dilutional hyponatremia . This syndrome occurs in the absence of D gross physiologic perturbations such as volume depletion or adrenal

  5. CSWS Versus SIADH as the Probable Causes of Hyponatremia in Children With Acute CNS Disorders

    PubMed Central

    SORKHI, Hadi; SALEHI OMRAN, Mohammad Reza; BARARI SAVADKOOHI, Rahim; BAGHDADI, Farkhondeh; NAKHJAVANI, Naeemeh; BIJANI, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective There is a major problem about the incidence, diagnosis, and differentiation of cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) in patients with acute central nervous system (CNS) disorders. According to rare reports of these cases, this study was performed in children with acute CNS disorders for diagnosis of CSWS versus SIADH. Materials & Methods This prospective study was done on children with acute CNS disorders. The definition of CSWS was hyponatremia (serum sodium ≤130 mEq/L), urine volume output ≥3 ml/kg/hr, urine specific gravity ≥1020 and urinary sodium concentration ≥100 mEq/L. Also, patients with hyponatremia (serum sodium ≤130 mEq/L), urine output < 3 ml/kg/hr, urine specific gravity ≥1020, and urinary sodium concentration >20 mEq/L were considered to have SIADH. Results Out of 102 patients with acute CNS disorders, 62 (60.8%) children were male with mean age of 60.47±42.39 months. Among nine children with hyponatremia (serum sodium ≥130 mEq/L), 4 children had CSWS and 3 patients had SIADH. In 2 cases, the cause of hyponatremia was not determined. The mean day of hyponatremia after admission was 5.11±3.31 days. It was 5.25±2.75 and 5.66±7.23 days in children with CSWS and SIADH, respectively. Also, the urine sodium (mEq/L) was 190.5±73.3 and 58.7±43.8 in patients with CSWS and SIADH, respectively. Conclusion According to the results of this study, the incidence of CSWS was more than SIADH in children with acute CNS disorders. So, more attention is needed to differentiate CSWS versus SIADH in order to their different management. PMID:24665304

  6. A case and a series of published cases of esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) in which long-standing paraneoplastic SIADH had preceded ENB diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, Uri; Leider-Trejo, Leonor; Marshak, Gideon; Gabbay, Merav; Fliss, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare tumor of the olfactory mucosa. We treated a 50-year-old man with an ENB in the right ethmoid sinus who had been diagnosed 16 years earlier with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) of unknown cause. When the ENB was surgically removed, the patient's osmoregulation returned to normal-that is, his SIADH resolved completely, which suggested that the SIADH was paraneoplastic in nature. These events prompted us to review the literature to determine if there is an association between our patient's ENB and his SIADH in general and between long-standing SIADH that precedes ENB in particular. Based on our review and an extrapolation of data, we have estimated that 1,300 cases of ENB have occurred since it was first described in 1924. Of these cases, SIADH was reported in 26 cases, including ours, which represents an estimated prevalence of 2% (although we believe this is actually an underestimation of the true prevalence). Of the 26 cases, SIADH had already been present in 14 patients (54%) prior to their diagnosis of EBN for a median duration of 3.5 years. We recommend that patients with newly diagnosed EBN be evaluated for SIADH. In those who are SIADH-positive, a resolution of SIADH should be expected once the ENB has been removed. If this does not occur, one should suspect that the ENB was not completely removed. If SIADH resolves but later recurs during follow-up, then a relapse should be suspected. In long-standing SIADH of unknown etiology, nasal sinus imaging should be considered.

  7. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... stored in the posterior pituitary gland at the base of the brain. ADH helps regulate water balance ... of ADH (vasopressin). Several blood and urine osmolality measurements are performed at timed intervals before and after ...

  8. Urea for treatment of acute SIADH in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hyponatremia occurring as a result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a common complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The efficacy and safety of urea as treatment for SIADH-induced hyponatremia has not been reported in this population. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of all patients admitted to our department for nontraumatic SAH between January 2003 and December 2008 (n = 368). All patients with SIADH-induced hyponatremia (plasma sodium < 135 mEq/L, urine sodium > 20 mEq/L, and osmolality > 200 mOsm/kg; absence of overt dehydration or hypovolemia; no peripheral edema or renal failure; no history of adrenal or thyroid disease) routinely received urea per os when hyponatremia was associated with clinical deterioration or remained less than 130 mEq/L despite saline solution administration. Results Forty-two patients developed SIADH and were treated with urea. Urea was started after a median of 7 (IQR, 5–10) days and given orally at doses of 15–30 g tid or qid for a median of 5 (IQR, 3–7) days. The median plasma sodium increase over the first day of treatment was 3 (IQR, 1–6) mEq/L. Hyponatremia was corrected in all patients, with median times to Na+ >130 and >135 mEq/L of 1 (IQR, 1–2) and 3 (IQR, 2–4) days, respectively. Urea was well tolerated, and no adverse effects were reported. Conclusions Oral urea is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for SIADH-induced hyponatremia in SAH patients. PMID:22647340

  9. Severe hyponatremia caused by syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone developed as initial manifestation of human herpesvirus-6-associated acute limbic encephalitis after unrelated bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, T; Takeuchi, M; Kawajiri, C; Abe, D; Nagao, Y; Yamazaki, A; Sugita, Y; Tsukamoto, S; Sakai, S; Takeda, Y; Ohwada, C; Sakaida, E; Shimizu, N; Yokote, K; Iseki, T; Nakaseko, C

    2013-04-01

    Severe hyponatremia is a critical electrolyte abnormality in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) recipients and >50% of cases of severe hyponatremia are caused by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Here, we present a patient with rapidly progressive severe hyponatremia as an initial sign and symptom of human herpesvirus-6-associated post-transplantation acute limbic encephalitis (HHV-6 PALE) after allo-SCT. A 45-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukemia received unrelated bone marrow transplantation from a one locus-mismatched donor at the DR locus. On day 21, she developed a generalized seizure and loss of consciousness with severe hyponatremia, elevated serum antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and decreased serum osmolality. A high titer of HHV-6 DNA was detected in cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment with foscarnet sodium and hypertonic saline was started with improvement of neurological condition within several days. Although an elevated serum ADH, low serum osmolality, and high urinary osmolality persisted for 2 months, she had no other recurrent symptoms of encephalitis. Our experience suggests that hyponatremia accompanied by SIADH should be recognized as a prodromal or concomitant manifestation of HHV-6 PALE, and close monitoring of serum sodium levels in high-risk patients for HHV-6 PALE is necessary for immediate diagnosis and treatment initiation.

  10. [Case of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder associated with central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis preceded by syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Waka; Matsui, Naoko; Fujita, Koji; Izumi, Yuishin; Nishida, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Kaji, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman complained of general malaise. She presented with hyponatremia and plasma osmotic pressure was lower than urinary osmotic pressure. In addition, serum antidiuretic hormone level was higher than the measurement sensitivity. She was diagnosed with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). She fell into a coma despite correction of serum sodium level. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed high signal intensities in the cerebral cortex, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, and pons in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Spinal MRI revealed a longitudinally extending lesion in the cervical cord. Serum sample was positive for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody, supporting the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) combined with central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis. In patients with NMOSD, the immune reaction can gradually cause destructive changes of the hypothalamus and lead to unstable ADH secretion in the absence of immunomodulatory treatment.

  11. The metabolic enzyme AdhE controls the virulence of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Beckham, Katherine S H; Connolly, James P R; Ritchie, Jennifer M; Wang, Dai; Gawthorne, Jayde A; Tahoun, Amin; Gally, David L; Burgess, Karl; Burchmore, Richard J; Smith, Brian O; Beatson, Scott A; Byron, Olwyn; Wolfe, Alan J; Douce, Gillian R; Roe, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Classical studies have focused on the role that individual regulators play in controlling virulence gene expression. An emerging theme, however, is that bacterial metabolism also plays a key role in this process. Our previous work identified a series of proteins that were implicated in the regulation of virulence. One of these proteins was AdhE, a bi-functional acetaldehyde-CoA dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase. Deletion of its gene (adhE) resulted in elevated levels of extracellular acetate and a stark pleiotropic phenotype: strong suppression of the Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) and overexpression of non-functional flagella. Correspondingly, the adhE mutant bound poorly to host cells and was unable to swim. Furthermore, the mutant was significantly less virulent than its parent when tested in vivo, which supports the hypothesis that attachment and motility are central to the colonization process. The molecular basis by which AdhE affects virulence gene regulation was found to be multifactorial, involving acetate-stimulated transcription of flagella expression and post-transcriptional regulation of the T3SS through Hfq. Our study reveals fascinating insights into the links between bacterial physiology, the expression of virulence genes, and the underlying molecular mechanism mechanisms by which these processes are regulated. PMID:24846743

  12. Aquaporin-4 antibody positive neuromyelitis optica with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    You, Xiao-Fan; Qin, Wei; Hu, Wen-Li

    2011-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has been reported to be associated with endocrinopathies, such as amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and diabetes mellitus. However, its association with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is extremely rare. We herein report an adult case of NMO with SIADH in a female Chinese patient. The patient was aquaporin-4 antibody positive, and her hypothalamic dysfunction may have been related to the development of SIADH.

  13. Relapsing inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in an anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positive paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Kravljanac, Ruzica; Martinović, Vanja; Dujmović, Irena; Djurić, Milena; Kuzmanović, Miloš; Weinshenker, Brian G; Drulović, Jelena

    2014-09-01

    Paediatric patients with the syndrome of an inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), as a manifestation of inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system, have been rarely described until now, in only a few cases of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). We present a case of relapsing SIADH associated with NMOSD, in an anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positive 14-year-old girl, who is, to our best knowledge, the first reported paediatric patient with relapsing SIADH and NMOSD. Additionally, our case further supports the notion that paediatric encephalomyelitis associated with SIADH should suggest the diagnosis of NMOSD.

  14. Abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as clinical presentation of acute intermittent porphyria.

    PubMed

    Valle Feijóo, M L; Bermúdez Sanjurjo, J R; González Vázquez, L; Rey Martínez, M; de la Fuente Aguado, J

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare condition characterized by abdominal pain and a wide range of nonspecific symptoms. We report the case of a woman with abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) as clinical presentation of AIP. The diagnosis was achieved through the etiologic study of the SIADH.

  15. [Hyponatraemia associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone hypersecretion (SIADH) - options for treatment].

    PubMed

    Rudnay, M; Hrabčáková, P; Lazúrová, I

    2012-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte imbalance in outpatients and hospital inpatients and the syndrom of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is one of the common causes of euvolemic hyponatremia. Recent studies showed significantly higher mortality and morbidity of hyponatriemic patients compared to normonatriemic controls. Moreover the morbidity and mortality of hyponatremic patients significantly increases in nontreated in comparison to those with the therapy. Clinical consequences of hyponatremia in SIADH could be devided according to stage of the disorder. The cerebral oedema with its symptoms (letargy, weakness, nausea, coma) is the most dangerous clinical feature. Clinical symptoms of hyponatremia also depend on how rapid the change of natremia is. Therefore the early diagnosis of disturbance and treatment are necessary. Not only acute but also chronic hyponatriemia must be treated. In the correction the restriction of water intake, loop diuretics (together with hypertonic solution of NaCl), demeclocyclin, urea and litium can be used. The blockers of vasopresin receptors - vaptans are perspective in treatment of patients with hyponatremia.

  16. Differentiating SIADH from Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting: Failure of the Volume Approach and Need for a New Approach to Hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Maesaka, John K; Imbriano, Louis; Mattana, Joseph; Gallagher, Dympna; Bade, Naveen; Sharif, Sairah

    2014-12-08

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality. Its diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are in a state of flux. It is evident that hyponatremic patients are symptomatic with a potential for serious consequences at sodium levels that were once considered trivial. The recommendation to treat virtually all hyponatremics exposes the need to resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma of deciding whether to water restrict a patient with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or administer salt and water to a renal salt waster. In this review, we briefly discuss the pathophysiology of SIADH and renal salt wasting (RSW), and the difficulty in differentiating SIADH from RSW, and review the origin of the perceived rarity of RSW, as well as the value of determining fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) in differentiating both syndromes, the high prevalence of RSW which highlights the inadequacy of the volume approach to hyponatremia, the importance of changing cerebral salt wasting to RSW, and the proposal to eliminate reset osmostat as a subtype of SIADH, and finally propose a new algorithm to replace the outmoded volume approach by highlighting FEurate. This algorithm eliminates the need to assess the volume status with less reliance on determining urine sodium concentration, plasma renin, aldosterone and atrial/brain natriuretic peptide or the BUN to creatinine ratio.

  17. Differentiating SIADH from Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting: Failure of the Volume Approach and Need for a New Approach to Hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Maesaka, John K.; Imbriano, Louis; Mattana, Joseph; Gallagher, Dympna; Bade, Naveen; Sharif, Sairah

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality. Its diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are in a state of flux. It is evident that hyponatremic patients are symptomatic with a potential for serious consequences at sodium levels that were once considered trivial. The recommendation to treat virtually all hyponatremics exposes the need to resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma of deciding whether to water restrict a patient with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or administer salt and water to a renal salt waster. In this review, we briefly discuss the pathophysiology of SIADH and renal salt wasting (RSW), and the difficulty in differentiating SIADH from RSW, and review the origin of the perceived rarity of RSW, as well as the value of determining fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) in differentiating both syndromes, the high prevalence of RSW which highlights the inadequacy of the volume approach to hyponatremia, the importance of changing cerebral salt wasting to RSW, and the proposal to eliminate reset osmostat as a subtype of SIADH, and finally propose a new algorithm to replace the outmoded volume approach by highlighting FEurate. This algorithm eliminates the need to assess the volume status with less reliance on determining urine sodium concentration, plasma renin, aldosterone and atrial/brain natriuretic peptide or the BUN to creatinine ratio. PMID:26237607

  18. Cerebral salt wasting versus SIADH: what difference?

    PubMed

    Sterns, Richard H; Silver, Stephen M

    2008-02-01

    The term cerebral salt wasting (CSW) was introduced before the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion was described in 1957. Subsequently, CSW virtually vanished, only to reappear a quarter century later in the neurosurgical literature. A valid diagnosis of CSW requires evidence of inappropriate urinary salt losses and reduced "effective arterial blood volume." With no gold standard, the reported measures of volume depletion do not stand scrutiny. We cannot tell the difference between CSW and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Furthermore, the distinction does not make a difference; regardless of volume status, hyponatremia complicating intracranial disease should be treated with hypertonic saline.

  19. [Sweetness dysgeusia in a case of SIADH caused by lung carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Abe, Tatsuya; Tamura, Naotoshi; Shimazu, Kunio

    2006-06-01

    A 56-year-old woman, with dysgeusia in which nearly all food was felt as sweet, was admitted to our hospital seeking for treatment. Serum sodium concentration was 113 mmol/L, but serum creatinine, zinc, urea nitrogen, and potassium, as well as blood glucose, were all within normal ranges. Dysgeusia disappeared when serum sodium level was normalized, but recurred when hyponatremia relapsed. She was diagnosed as having large cell lung carcinoma. We considered that the cause of hyponatremia was inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) due to lung carcinoma. Miraculin is one of taste-modifying substances which fits the sweet receptor site and induces a strong sweet taste. We considered that taste-modifying substances same as miraclin are involved in the pathophysiology of this disease.

  20. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Following Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Kosei; Yagi, Takahito; Shinoura, Susumu; Umeda, Yuzo; Yoshida, Ryuichi; Nobuoka, Daisuke; Watanabe, Nobuyuki; Kuise, Takashi; Fuji, Tomokazu; Araki, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2017-02-01

    Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is an extremely rare cause of hyponatremia post-liver transplantation. A 15-year-old Japanese girl with recurrent cholangitis after Kasai surgery for biliary atresia underwent successful living donor liver transplantation. Peritonitis due to gastrointestinal perforation occurred. Hyponatremia gradually developed but improved after hypertonic sodium treatment. One month later, severe hyponatremia rapidly recurred. We considered the hyponatremia's cause as SIADH. We suspected that tacrolimus was the disease's cause, so we used cyclosporine instead, plus hypertonic sodium plus water intake restriction, which improved the hyponatremia. Symptomatic hyponatremia manifested by SIADH is a rare, serious complication post-liver transplantation.

  1. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion: Revisiting a classical endocrine disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Binu P.; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Pavithran, Praveen V.

    2011-01-01

    Hyponatremia occurs in about 30% of hospitalized patients and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a common cause of hyponatremia. SIADH should be differentiated from other causes of hyponatremia like diuretic therapy, hypothyroidism and hypocortisolism. Where possible, all attempts should be made to identify and rectify the cause of SIADH. The main problem in SIADH is fluid excess, and hyponatremia is dilutional in nature. Fluid restriction is the main stay in the treatment of SIADH; however, cerebral salt wasting should be excluded in the clinical setting of brain surgeries, subarachnoid hemorrhage, etc. Fluid restriction in cerebral salt wasting can be hazardous. Sodium correction in chronic hyponatremia (onset >48 hours) should be done slowly to avoid deleterious effects in brain. PMID:22029026

  2. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Kucukardali, Yasar; Solmazgul, Emrullah; Terekeci, Hakan; Oncul, Oral; Turhan, Vedat

    2008-01-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion is a common consequence of neurologic and pulmonary infections as well as drug intake and many other clinical situations. This report describes SIADH that developed in an elderly woman with single dermatomal herpes varicella zoster ophthalmicus without evidence of varicella zoster encephalitis or dissemination. A 76-year-old woman was admitted to our department for evaluation of left facial pain, confusion and disorientation. Further investigation revealed hyponatremia 112 mEq/L, low serum osmolality, high urine osmolality, normal renal function, normal adrenal and thyroid hormones, and high plasma vasopressin 40 pg/mL. These results indicate that the hyponatremia in this case was due to SIADH and that SIADH was caused by an increased release of vasopressin probably because of the antiviral drug (acyclovir) or infection of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in a single dermatome.

  3. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix presenting with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Young; Yun, Hye Jung; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Hae Nam; Kim, Chan Joo

    2013-11-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is rare. It is estimated that 10% of patients with small-cell lung cancer have syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and hyponatremia has been reported to be significantly associated with a poor prognosis. A proportion of small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix exhibit neuroendocrine characteristics as revealed by immunohistochemistry, However, cases presenting typical symptoms due to SIADH are extremely rare. This report of the SIADH of the uterine cervix is a rare case in the small cell carcinoma of the cervix presenting with tumor-associated paraneoplastic syndrome.

  4. The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, S E; Forman, D; Berger, J; Gold, B D

    1985-05-01

    The maxillofacial trauma patient whose neurologic status undergoes a rapid and serious deterioration may have a severe hyponatremia secondary to the inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Other causes of hyponatremia must be ruled out, especially posttraumatic cerebral salt wasting, which necessitates a different mode of therapy. A case of SIADH is reported, and the work-up and differential diagnosis of posttraumatic hyponatremia are discussed.

  5. A distinct type of alcohol dehydrogenase, adh4+, complements ethanol fermentation in an adh1-deficient strain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masao; Tohda, Hideki; Kumagai, Hiromichi; Giga-Hama, Yuko

    2004-03-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, only one alcohol dehydrogenase gene, adh1(+), has been identified. To elucidate the influence of adh1(+) on ethanol fermentation, we constructed the adh1 null strain (delta adh1). The delta adh1 cells still produced ethanol and grew fermentatively as the wild-type cells. Both DNA microarray and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that this ethanol production is caused by the enhanced expression of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH4-like gene product (SPAC5H10.06C named adh4(+)). Since the strain lacking both adh1 and adh4 genes (delta adh1 delta adh4) showed non-fermentative retarded growth, only these two ADHs produce ethanol for fermentative growth. This is the first observation that a S. cerevisiae ADH4-like alcohol dehydrogenase functions in yeast ethanol fermentation.

  6. A genetic analysis of Adh1 regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeling, M.

    1992-01-01

    The overall goal of our research proposal is to understand the meaning of the various cis-acting sites responsible for AdH1 expression in the entire maize plant. Progress is reported in the following areas: Studies on the TATA box and analysis of revertants of the Adh1-3F1124 allele; screening for more different mutants that affect Adh1 expression differentially; studies on cis-acting sequences required for root-specific Adh1 expression; refinement of the use of the particle gun; and functional analysis of a non- glycolytic anaerobic protein.

  7. Lack of efficacy of phenytoin in the syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion of neurological origin.

    PubMed Central

    Decaux, G.; Przedborski, S.; Soupart, A.

    1989-01-01

    Phenytoin has been proposed in the management of patients with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH) of neurological origin who fail to respond to water restriction. We have conducted a prospective study in order to evaluate the role of phenytoin in the management of seven consecutive patients with SIADH of neurological origin which could not be controlled by limited water intake. Only one patient was successfully treated with chronic phenytoin regimen. This patient, like one previously reported, had suffered a basal skull fracture. It seems likely that in the majority of cases of SIADH of neurological origin phenytoin is ineffective on a long-term basis. PMID:2602236

  8. ADH5 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ADH5 is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. This protein forms a homodimer. ADH5 is ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but exhibits high activity for oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and for oxidation of S-hydroxymethyl-glutathione, a spontaneous adduct between formaldehyde and glutathione. There are several non-transcribed pseuodogenes related to this gene.

  9. Characterization of the temperate bacteriophage phi adh and plasmid transduction in Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH.

    PubMed

    Raya, R R; Kleeman, E G; Luchansky, J B; Klaenhammer, T R

    1989-09-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH is lysogenic and harbors an inducible prophage, phi adh. Bacteriophage were detected in cell lysates induced by treatment with mitomycin C or UV light. Electron microscopy of lysates revealed phage particles with a hexagonal head (62 nm) and a long, noncontractile, flexible tail (398 nm) ending in at last five short fibers. Phage phi adh was classified within Bradley's B1 phage group and the Siphoviridae family. The phi adh genome is a linear double-stranded DNA molecule of 41.7 kilobase pairs with cohesive ends: a physical map of the phi adh genome was constructed. A prophage-cured derivative of strain ADH, designated NCK102, was isolated from cells that survived UV exposure. NCK102 did not exhibit mitomycin C-induced lysis, but broth cultures lysed upon addition of phage. Phage phi adh produced clear plaques on NCK102 in media containing 10 mM CaCl2 at pH values between 5.2 and 5.5. A relysogenized derivative (NCK103) of NCK102 was isolated that exhibited mitomycin C-induced lysis and superinfection immunity to phage phi adh. Hybridization experiments showed that the phi adh genome was present in the ADH and NCK103 chromosomes, but absent in NCK102. These results demonstrated classic lytic and lysogenic cycles of replication for the temperate phage phi adh induced from L. acidophilus ADH. Phage phi adh also mediates transduction of plasmid DNA. Transductants of strain ADH containing pC194, pGK12, pGB354, and pVA797 were detected at frequencies in the range of 3.6 x 10(-8) to 8.3 x 10(-10) per PFU. Rearrangements or deletions were not detected in these plasmids as a consequence of transduction. This is the first description of plasmid transduction in the genus Lactobacillus.

  10. Replication Study of ESCC Susceptibility Genetic Polymorphisms Locating in the ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 Cluster Identified by GWAS

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoling; Pan, Wenting; Ge, Yunxia; Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Chao; Gao, Jia; Yang, Ming; Mao, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    China was one of the countries with highest esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) incidence and mortality worldwide. Alcohol drinking has been identified as a major environmental risk-factor related to ESCC. The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family are major enzymes involved in the alcohol-metabolizing pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and ADH1C. Interestingly, ADH1B and ADH1C genes locate tandemly with ADH7 in a genomic segment as a gene cluster, and are all polymorphic. Several ESCC susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster have been identified previously through a genome-wide association study (GWAS). In the study, we examined the association between five ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster SNPs (rs1042026, rs17033, rs1614972, rs1789903 and rs17028973) and risk of developing ESCC. Genotypes were determined in two independent case-control sets from two regions of China. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Our data demonstrated that these ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster SNPs confer susceptibility to ESCC in these two case-control sets, which were consistent to results of the previous GWAS. PMID:24722735

  11. Replication study of ESCC susceptibility genetic polymorphisms locating in the ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster identified by GWAS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiwen; Wei, Jinyu; Xu, Xiaoling; Pan, Wenting; Ge, Yunxia; Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Chao; Gao, Jia; Yang, Ming; Mao, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    China was one of the countries with highest esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) incidence and mortality worldwide. Alcohol drinking has been identified as a major environmental risk-factor related to ESCC. The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family are major enzymes involved in the alcohol-metabolizing pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and ADH1C. Interestingly, ADH1B and ADH1C genes locate tandemly with ADH7 in a genomic segment as a gene cluster, and are all polymorphic. Several ESCC susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster have been identified previously through a genome-wide association study (GWAS). In the study, we examined the association between five ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster SNPs (rs1042026, rs17033, rs1614972, rs1789903 and rs17028973) and risk of developing ESCC. Genotypes were determined in two independent case-control sets from two regions of China. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Our data demonstrated that these ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster SNPs confer susceptibility to ESCC in these two case-control sets, which were consistent to results of the previous GWAS.

  12. Amiodarone Induced Hyponatremia Masquerading as Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion by Anaplastic Carcinoma of Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Pinaki; Kumar, Santosh; Kakkar, Nandita; Bhansali, Anil; Rotondo, Fabio; Kovacs, Kalman

    2014-01-01

    Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is one of the most common causes of hyponatremia. The usual causes are malignancies, central nervous system, pulmonary disorders, and drugs. Amiodarone is a broad spectrum antiarrhythmic agent widely used in the management of arrhythmias. The different side effects include thyroid dysfunction, visual disturbances, pulmonary infiltrates, ataxia, cardiac conduction abnormalities, drug interactions, corneal microdeposits, skin rashes, and gastrointestinal disturbances. SIADH is a rare but lethal side effect of amiodarone. We describe a 62-year-old male who was suffering from advanced prostatic malignancy, taking amiodarone for underlying heart disease. He developed SIADH which was initially thought to be paraneoplastic in etiology, but later histopathology refuted that. This case emphasizes the importance of detailed drug history and the role of immunohistochemistry in establishing the diagnosis and management of hyponatremia due to SIADH. PMID:24818037

  13. Cloning and functional analysis of adhS gene encoding quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase subunit III from Acetobacter pasteurianus SKU1108.

    PubMed

    Masud, Uraiwan; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Theeragool, Gunjana

    2010-03-31

    The adhS gene which encodes the smallest subunit, subunit III, of quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH) from Acetobacter pasteurianus SKU1108 has been cloned and characterized. The role of this subunit on the function of PQQ-ADH was investigated by construction of adhS gene disruptant and mutants. The adhS gene disruptant completely lost its PQQ-ADH activity and acetate-producing ability but retained acetic acid toleration. In contrast, this disruptant grew well, even better than the wild type, in the ethanol containing medium even though its PQQ-ADH activity and ethanol oxidizing ability was completely lost, while NAD(+)-dependent ADH (NAD(+)-ADH) was induced. Heme staining and immunoblot analysis of both membrane and soluble fractions with anti-ADH subunit III suggested that ethanol did not affect the adhS gene expression but induced PQQ-ADH activity. Over-expressed adhS did not enhance acetic acid production in both the wild type and the adhS disruptant. In addition, deletion analysis of upstream region of adhS gene suggested that its tentative promoter(s) might be located at around 118-268 bp upstream from an initiation codon. Random mutagenesis of adhS gene revealed that complete loss of PQQ-ADH activity and ethanol oxidizing ability were observed in the mutants' lack of the 140 and 73 amino acid residues at the C-terminal, whereas the lack of 22 amino acid residues at the C-terminal affected neither the PQQ-ADH activity nor ethanol oxidizing ability. In addition, some amino acid substitutions such as Leu18Gln, Ala26Val, Val36Ile, Val54Ile, Gly55Asp, Val70Ala and Val107Ala did not show any affect on PQQ-ADH activity and ethanol oxidizing ability. Interestingly, alteration of Thr104Lys led to a complete loss of ethanol oxidizing ability. However, point mutation at the possible promoter region also exhibited low PQQ-ADH activity and ethanol oxidizing ability. This result suggests that 104Thr might be involved in molecular coupling with subunit I in order

  14. Quetiapine-Induced Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone.

    PubMed

    Koufakis, Theocharis

    2016-01-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) can be induced by various conditions, including malignant neoplasms, infections, central nervous system disorders, and numerous drugs. We here report a case of a 65-year-old female patient, treated with quetiapine for schizophrenia, who presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and was finally diagnosed with quetiapine-induced SIADH. Quetiapine-associated hyponatremia is extremely uncommon and only a few, relevant reports can be found in the literature. This case underlines the fact that patients on antipsychotic medication and more specifically on quetiapine should be closely monitored and routinely tested for electrolyte disorders.

  15. Evidence that chronicity of hyponatremia contributes to the high urate clearance observed in the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Decaux, G; Prospert, F; Soupart, A; Musch, W

    2000-10-01

    The high fractional excretion (FE) of uric acid observed in hyponatremia associated with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is commonly attributed to the volume-expanded state, although volume expansion in normonatremic volunteers is unable to increase urate clearance to a degree similar to that in SIADH. The goal of the present study is to analyze whether hyponatremia by itself could influence the FE of uric acid, as well as the effects of intravascular volume and glomerular filtration rate on FE of uric acid in SIADH. This study examines the effects of a 2-L infusion of isotonic saline over 24 hours on FE of uric acid in 9 normonatremic volunteers and 17 hyponatremic patients with SIADH. We also studied the FE of uric acid in 6 patients with SIADH with only mild water retention and the urate and creatinine clearances in 18 hyponatremic patients with SIADH before and after normalization of serum sodium levels by water restriction. When infusing 2 L of isotonic saline over 24 hours in healthy subjects, there was a decrease in plasma protein concentration of 8%, suggesting a similar degree of volume expansion than in patients with SIADH. The FE of uric acid did not increase to the same extent (9% +/- 1.5% versus 17% +/- 1.5%; P: < 0.01). Conversely, in 6 hyponatremic patients with mild water retention (1 L), the FE of uric acid was still high despite indirect signs of only a small increase in plasma volume. The mainstay of these observations is that chronicity of hyponatremia by itself could affect urate excretion. We also observed that in the patients with SIADH, high FE of uric acid inversely correlated with glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.66; P: < 0.01) only during the hyponatremic state. These data suggest that hyponatremia by itself, combined with mild volume expansion and glomerular filtration rate, has a role in the high FE of uric acid in the SIADH.

  16. Functional relevance of human adh polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, C J; Fukunaga, T; Sarkola, T; Chen, W J; Chen, C C; Ju, J M; Cheng, A T; Yamamoto, H; Kohlenberg-Müller, K; Kimura, M; Murayama, M; Matsushita, S; Kashima, H; Higuchi, S; Carr, L; Viljoen, D; Brooke, L; Stewart, T; Foroud, T; Su, J; Li, T K; Whitfield, J B

    2001-05-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chairs were C. J. Peter Eriksson and Tatsushige Fukunaga. The presentations were (1) 4-Methylpyrazole as a tool in the investigation of the role of ADH in the actions of alcohol in humans, by Taisto Sarkola and C. J. Peter Eriksson; (2) ADH2 polymorphism and flushing in Asian populations, by Wei J. Chen, C. C. Chen, J. M. Ju, and Andrew T. A. Cheng; (3) Role of ADH3 genotypes in the acute effects of alcohol in a Finnish population, by Hidetaka Yamamoto, Kathrin Kohlenberg-Müller, and C. J. Peter Eriksson; (4) Clinical characteristics and disease course of alcoholics with different ADH2 genotypes, by Mitsuru Kimura, Masanobu Murayama, Sachio Matsushita, Haruo Kashima, and Susumu Higuchi; (5) ADH2 polymorphism, alcohol drinking, and birth defects, by Lucinda Carr, D. Viljoen, L. Brooke, T. Stewart, T. Foroud, J. Su, and Ting-Kai Li; and (6) ADH genotypes and alcohol use in Europeans, by John B. Whitfield.

  17. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion following irinotecan-cisplatin administration as a treatment for recurrent ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Do Youn; Han, Gwan Hee; Ulak, Roshani; Ki, Kyung Do; Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Seon Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) has various causes including central nervous system disorders, pulmonary and endocrine diseases, paraneoplastic syndromes, and use of certain drugs. SIADH induced by chemotherapy with irinotecan-cisplatin is not a common complication. Here, we review a case of SIADH after treatment with irinotecan-cisplatin. A 45-year-old woman received adjuvant chemotherapy (paclitaxel-carboplatin) for ovarian clear cell carcinoma, but the cancer recurred within 9 months of chemotherapy. Subsequently, a second line of combination chemotherapy containing irinotecan-cisplatin was initiated. However, 5 days after chemotherapy administration, her general condition began to deteriorate; her hematological tests revealed hyponatremia. Therefore, it is imperative to consider the possibility of SIADH in patients being treated with irinotecan-cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Proper monitoring of serum sodium levels and assessment of clinical symptoms should be performed in such patients for early diagnosis and prompt management.

  18. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion following irinotecan-cisplatin administration as a treatment for recurrent ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Do Youn; Han, Gwan Hee; Ulak, Roshani; Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Seon Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) has various causes including central nervous system disorders, pulmonary and endocrine diseases, paraneoplastic syndromes, and use of certain drugs. SIADH induced by chemotherapy with irinotecan-cisplatin is not a common complication. Here, we review a case of SIADH after treatment with irinotecan-cisplatin. A 45-year-old woman received adjuvant chemotherapy (paclitaxel-carboplatin) for ovarian clear cell carcinoma, but the cancer recurred within 9 months of chemotherapy. Subsequently, a second line of combination chemotherapy containing irinotecan-cisplatin was initiated. However, 5 days after chemotherapy administration, her general condition began to deteriorate; her hematological tests revealed hyponatremia. Therefore, it is imperative to consider the possibility of SIADH in patients being treated with irinotecan-cisplatin–based chemotherapy. Proper monitoring of serum sodium levels and assessment of clinical symptoms should be performed in such patients for early diagnosis and prompt management. PMID:28217682

  19. Dual paraneoplastic syndromes: small cell lung carcinoma-related oncogenic osteomalacia, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tantisattamo, Ekamol; Ng, Roland C K

    2011-07-01

    Acquired isolated renal phosphate wasting associated with a tumor, known as oncogenic osteomalacia or tumor-induced osteomalacia, is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused by overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23. Oncogenic osteomalacia is usually associated with benign mesenchymal tumors. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), on the other hand, is a common paraneoplastic syndrome caused by small cell carcinoma (SCC). Concomitant oncogenic osteomalacia and SIADH associated with SCC is very rare with only 4 other cases reported in the literature. The authors report a case of small cell lung cancer (SCLC)-related renal wasting hypophosphatemia and concurrent SIADH, and review the literature reporting 9 other cases of SCC associated with oncogenic osteomalacia. Almost half of reported cases of renal phosphate wasting associated with SCC concomitantly presented with SIADH. These cases had initial serum phosphorus level lower and survival periods shorter than those without SIADH. This rare combination of a dual paraneoplastic syndrome and low serum phosphorus may be a poor prognostic sign. In addition, both renal phosphate wasting and SIADH usually occur in a short period of time before identification of SCC. Therefore, renal wasting hypophosphatemia with concomitant SIADH/hyponatremia should prompt a search for SCC rather than a benign mesenchymal tumor.

  20. Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor administration.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tomoaki; Horibata, Yoko; Morimoto, Yasuko; Tateno, Shigeru; Kawasoe, Yasutaka; Niwa, Koichiro

    2013-06-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI's) are an important medication in the treatment of congestive heart failure. However, ACEIs may cause harmful side effects, such as the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), which is a rare but important side effect. We describe here a case of SIADH associated with ACEI administration in a 6-year-old boy with restrictive cardiomyopathy. After recovery from acute exacerbation of congestive heart failure by tolvaptan administration, an ACEI (cilazapril) was started to decrease the production of angiotensin II, which upregulates serum antidiuretic hormone secretion. The patient's heart failure symptoms worsened, including accumulation of right pleural effusion and ascites, after the initiation of ACEI administration. Cessation of ACEI administration dramatically improved his symptoms. Because it is difficult to distinguish SIADH associated with ACEI from worsening congestive heart failure, the possibility of fluid retention due to ACEI administration should always be considered when this agent is administered to patients with heart failure.

  1. Adh1 and Adh1/4 knockout mice as possible rodent models for presymptomatic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Anvret, Anna; Ran, Caroline; Westerlund, Marie; Gellhaar, Sandra; Lindqvist, Eva; Pernold, Karin; Lundströmer, Karin; Duester, Gregg; Felder, Michael R; Galter, Dagmar; Belin, Andrea Carmine

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) catalyze the reversible metabolism of many types of alcohols and aldehydes to prevent the possible toxic accumulation of these compounds. ADHs are of interest in Parkinson's disease (PD) since these compounds can be harmful to dopamine (DA) neurons. Genetic variants in ADH1C and ADH4 have been found to associate with PD and lack of Adh4 gene activity in a mouse model has recently been reported to induce changes in the DA system. Adh1 knockout (Adh1-/-) and Adh1/4 double knockout (Adh1/4-/-) mice were investigated for possible changes in DA system related activity, biochemical parameters and olfactory function compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Locomotor activity was tested at ∼7 (adult) and >15 months of age to mimic the late onset of PD. Adh1-/- and Adh1/4-/- mice displayed a significantly higher spontaneous locomotor activity than WT littermates. Both apomorphine and d-amphetamine increased total distance activity in Adh1-/- mice at both age intervals and in Adh1/4-/- mice at 7 months of age compared to WT mice. No significant changes were found regarding olfactory function, however biochemical data showed decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/DA ratios in the olfactory bulb and decreased homovanillic acid (HVA)/DA ratios in the olfactory bulb, frontal cortex and striatum of Adh1/4-/- mice compared to WT mice. Our results suggest that lack of Adh1 alone or Adh1 and Adh4 together lead to changes in DA system related behavior, and that these knockout mice might be possible rodent models to study presymptomatic PD.

  2. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Young; Shin, Jae Il

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatremia (sodium levels of <135 mEq/L) is one of the most common electrolyte imbalances in clinical practice, especially in patients with neurologic diseases. Hyponatremia can cause cerebral edema and brain herniation; therefore, prompt diagnosis and proper treatment is important in preventing morbidity and mortality. Among various causes of hyponatremia, diagnosing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome (C/RSW) is difficult due to many similarities. SIADH is caused by excess of renal water reabsorption through inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and fluid restriction is the treatment of choice. On the other hand, C/RSW is caused by natriuresis, which is followed by volume depletion and negative sodium balance and replacement of water and sodium is the mainstay of treatment. Determinating volume status in hyponatremic patients is the key point in differential between SIADH and C/RSW. However, in most situations, differential diagnosis of these two diseases is difficult because they overlap in many clinical and laboratory aspects, especially to assess differences in volume status of these patients. Although distinction between the SIADH and C/RSW is difficult, improvement of hypouricemia and an increased fractional excretion of uric acid after the correction of hyponatremia in SIADH, not in C/RSW, may be one of the helpful points in discriminating the two diseases. In this review, we compare these two diseases regarding the pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapeutic point of view.

  3. Rare ADH Variant Constellations are Specific for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lingjun; Zhang, Heping; Malison, Robert T.; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Fei; Lu, Lingeng; Lu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoping; Krystal, John H.; Zhang, Fengyu; Deng, Hong-Wen; Luo, Xingguang

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Some of the well-known functional alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene variants (e.g. ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3 and ADH1C*2) that significantly affect the risk of alcohol dependence are rare variants in most populations. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the associations between rare ADH variants [minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.05] and alcohol dependence, with several other neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders as reference. Methods: A total of 49,358 subjects in 22 independent cohorts with 11 different neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders were analyzed, including 3 cohorts with alcohol dependence. The entire ADH gene cluster (ADH7–ADH1C–ADH1B–ADH1A–ADH6–ADH4–ADH5 at Chr4) was imputed in all samples using the same reference panels that included whole-genome sequencing data. We stringently cleaned the phenotype and genotype data to obtain a total of 870 single nucleotide polymorphisms with 0< MAF <0.05 for association analysis. Results: We found that a rare variant constellation across the entire ADH gene cluster was significantly associated with alcohol dependence in European-Americans (Fp1: simulated global P = 0.045), European-Australians (Fp5: global P = 0.027; collapsing: P = 0.038) and African-Americans (Fp5: global P = 0.050; collapsing: P = 0.038), but not with any other neuropsychiatric disease. Association signals in this region came principally from ADH6, ADH7, ADH1B and ADH1C. In particular, a rare ADH6 variant constellation showed a replicable association with alcohol dependence across these three independent cohorts. No individual rare variants were statistically significantly associated with any disease examined after group- and region-wide correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: We conclude that rare ADH variants are specific for alcohol dependence. The ADH gene cluster may harbor a causal variant(s) for alcohol dependence. PMID:23019235

  4. Hemodynamic and ADH responses to central blood volume shifts in cardiac-denervated humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Thompson, C. A.; Benjamin, B. A.; Keil, L. C.; Savin, W. M.; Gordon, E. P.; Haskell, W. L.; Schroeder, J. S.; Sandler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured during body position changes designed to induce blood volume shifts in ten cardiac transplant recipients to assess the contribution of cardiac and vascular volume receptors in the control of ADH secretion. Each subject underwent 15 min of a control period in the seated posture, then assumed a lying posture for 30 min at 6 deg head down tilt (HDT) followed by 20 min of seated recovery. Venous blood samples and cardiac dimensions (echocardiography) were taken at 0 and 15 min before HDT, 5, 15, and 30 min of HDT, and 5, 15, and 30 min of seated recovery. Blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity (PRA), and ADH. Resting plasma volume (PV) was measured by Evans blue dye and percent changes in PV during posture changes were calculated from changes in hematocrit. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded every 2 min. Results indicate that cardiac volume receptors are not the only mechanism for the control of ADH release during acute blood volume shifts in man.

  5. Long-Term Vaptan Treatment of Idiopathic SIADH in an Octogenarian

    PubMed Central

    Büttner, Stefan; Bachmann, Jürgen; Geiger, Helmut; Obermüller, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common and by far underestimated electrolyte disorder in clinical practice. Especially in elderly patients, treatment of symptomatic hyponatremia is challenging. Herein we describe the case of an octogenarian with recurrent symptomatic hyponatremia due to idiopathic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone release (SIADH). Fluid restriction was insufficient to prevent repeated episodes of hyponatremia complicated by falls and coma. After introduction of a low-dose therapy with tolvaptan, serum sodium levels as well as the clinical condition were stable under vaptan therapy, without any relapse for more than six years now. This case demonstrates that long-term tolvaptan treatment for hyponatremia caused by SIADH is safe and well tolerated, even in the elderly. PMID:28282848

  6. [Severe hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone].

    PubMed

    Foppiani, Luca; Raggi, Francesca; Tagliabue, Milena; Benso, Andrea; Brandolin, Irene; Lo Pinto, Giuliano

    2013-03-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a common and multifactorial cause of hyponatremia that is often overlooked. The common pathophysiological mechanism is the increased production and/or action of antidiuretic hormone within the kidney, resulting in hypotonic hyponatremia. Inadequate correction of hyponatremia may have fatal neurological consequences leading to central pontine myelinolysis. We report the case of a patient with a history of recent head trauma, who came to our observation for acute-onset mental confusion secondary to severe hyponatremia due to SIADH of combined etiology.

  7. Acute intermittent porphyria with SIADH and fluctuating dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Nabin, A; Thapa, L J; Paudel, R; Rana, P V S

    2012-01-01

    Three cases of acute intermittent porphyria are reported. While in first case severe pain in abdomen with intermittent exacerbation was the only presentation, the second patient presented as accelerated hypertension and acute abdominal crises in whom the clinical course was characterized by development of deep coma due to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone before she made complete recovery. The third patient, initially manifested as acute encephalitic syndrome. After initial improvement, she developed features of acute intermittent porphyria i.e. acute abdomen, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and rapidly progressing acute motor neuropathy leading to respiratory and bulbar paralysis. In addition, she developed severe and fluctuating dysautonomia leading to cardiac arrest and fatal termination. The importance of early diagnosis, recognition of autonomic disturbances, prompt treatment and counseling for avoidance of precipitating factors is stressed.

  8. ADH single nucleotide polymorphism associations with alcohol metabolism in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Birley, Andrew J.; James, Michael R.; Dickson, Peter A.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Whitfield, John B.

    2009-01-01

    We have previously found that variation in alcohol metabolism in Europeans is linked to the chromosome 4q region containing the ADH gene family. We have now typed 103 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across this region to test for allelic associations with variation in blood and breath alcohol concentrations after an alcohol challenge. In vivo alcohol metabolism was modelled with three parameters that identified the absorption and rise of alcohol concentration following ingestion, and the rate of elimination. Alleles of ADH7 SNPs were associated with the early stages of alcohol metabolism, with additional effects in the ADH1A, ADH1B and ADH4 regions. Rate of elimination was associated with SNPs in the intragenic region between ADH7 and ADH1C, and across ADH1C and ADH1B. SNPs affecting alcohol metabolism did not correspond to those reported to affect alcohol dependence or alcohol-related disease. The combined SNP associations with early- and late-stage metabolism only account for approximately 20% of the total genetic variance linked to the ADH region, and most of the variance for in vivo alcohol metabolism linked to this region is yet to be explained. PMID:19193628

  9. [The treament of hyponatremia secundary to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion].

    PubMed

    Runkle, Isabelle; Villabona, Carles; Navarro, Andrés; Pose, Antonio; Formiga, Francesc; Tejedor, Alberto; Poch, Esteban

    2013-12-07

    The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the most frequent cause of hyponatremia in a hospital setting. However, detailed protocols and algorithms for its management are lacking. Our objective was to develop 2 consensus algorithms for the therapy of hyponatremia due to SIADH in hospitalized patients. A multidisciplinary group made up of 2 endocrinologists, 2 nephrologists, 2 internists, and one hospital pharmacist held meetings over the period of a year. The group worked under the auspices of the European Hyponatremia Network and the corresponding Spanish medical societies. Therapeutic proposals were based on widely-accepted recommendations, expert opinion and consensus guidelines, as well as on the authors' personal experience. Two algorithms were developed. Algorithm 1 addresses acute correction of hyponatremia posing as a medical emergency, and is applicable to both severe euvolemic and hypovolemic hyponatremia. The mainstay of this algorithm is the iv use of 3% hypertonic saline solution. Specific infusion rates are proposed, as are steps to avoid or reverse overcorrection of serum sodium levels. Algorithm 2 is directed to the therapy of SIADH-induced mild or moderate, non-acute hyponatremia. It addresses when and how to use fluid restriction, solute, furosemide, and tolvaptan to achieve eunatremia in patients with SIADH. Two complementary strategies were elaborated to treat SIADH-induced hyponatremia in an attempt to increase awareness of its importance, simplify its therapy, and improve prognosis.

  10. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in patients with aquaporin-4 antibody.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shuxiang; Long, Youming; Yang, Ning; He, Yihua; Shan, Fulan; Fan, Yongxiang; Yin, Jianrui; Gao, Qingchun; Cong, Gao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the frequency of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in patients with positive aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies and evaluate the relationship between SIADH and hypothalamic lesions in patients with NMO and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). AQP4 antibodies were tested by an indirect immunofluorescence assay employing HEK-293 cells transfected with recombinant human AQP4. Clinical data of patients were analyzed retrospectively. In total, 192 patients with AQP4 antibodies were certified, of which 41 patients (21.4 %) were included in the present study. Six patients (14.6 %, 6/41) met the criteria of SIADH, of which hyponatremia was mild in one patient, and severe in five. Five patients experienced confusion or decreased consciousness. Four patients were diagnosed with NMO and two were diagnosed with recurrent optic neuritis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed 11 of 41 patients (26.8 %) had hypothalamic lesions. All patients with SIADH had hypothalamic abnormalities. Hyponatremia resolved in all patients after intravenous methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. SIADH is not rare in patients with NMO/NMOSD, especially in patients with lesions close to the hypothalamus.

  11. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion associated with seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Shin Ju; Ihm, Chun Gyoo; Lee, Tae Won; Kim, Jin Sug; Kim, Da Rae; Park, Eun Ji; Jung, Su Woong; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Jeong, Kyung Hwan

    2017-01-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a potential cause of hyponatremia of the central nervous system (CNS). Although SIADH has been reported to be associated with many other central nervous disorders, its association with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMO spectrum disorders are rare. NMO is a demyelinating disorder characterized by optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is the target antigen for a NMO autoantibody, is the predominant CNS water channel. However, some NMO patients show seronegative AQP4 antibody results. The spectrum of NMO has been changed, and new findings about the disease have been reported. Here, we report a case of seronegative NMO spectrum disorder associated with SIADH. PMID:28393003

  12. Tolvaptan for the treatment of hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Gargani, Luna; Schmidt, Philip H; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2011-12-01

    Hyponatremia is prevalent in hospitalized patients and predicts a poor prognosis. The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is perceived as one of the most frequent causes of hyponatremia. Traditionally, chronic hyponatremia has been treated with fluid restriction and demeclocycline. However, these treatment options have been unsatisfactory due to problems with treatment compliance and/or safety concerns. In recent years, several vasopressin-receptor antagonists, the vaptans, were introduced into clinical practice. One of these vaptans - tolvaptan - is an oral vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist that induces free water excretion without increasing sodium excretion. Few studies have assessed the role of vaptans in treating hyponatremia in a population with only SIADH. Current data shows that vaptans may safely correct mild or moderate hyponatremia in patients with SIADH. However, further clinical trials are needed to determine the optimal dosing, proper monitoring and adequate precautions for the use of vaptans in this patient population.

  13. Rapid deterioration of primary fourth ventricular outlet obstruction resulting in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Akiko; Kumano, Koichi; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Fujisawa, Yuko; Akai, Takuya

    2014-08-01

    Fourth ventricular outlet obstruction (FVOO) is a rare cause of obstructive hydrocephalus. Although FVOO accompanied by malformative syndrome and secondary causes of obstruction are common, there are few reports of primary FVOO (PFVOO). The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a rare presenting feature of hydrocephalus. A 1-year, 8-month-old boy with a normal head circumference developed SIADH accompanied by rapid deterioration of symptoms of intracranial hypertension. PFVOO was diagnosed because magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enlarged ventricular system with a barely visible membranous obstacle at the foramen of Magendie. All symptoms were resolved by endoscopic third ventriculostomy. PFVOO should be considered as a rare form of congenital obstructive hydrocephalus, especially in patients with tetraventricular hydrocephalus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of an infant with SIADH, resulting from acute deterioration of non-tumoral raised pressure hydrocephalus.

  14. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion concurrent with liver disease in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hee; Park, Hee-Myung

    2012-05-01

    A 5-year-old female Chihuahua was presented for acute collapse. Laboratory examinations showed markedly elevated levels of hepatobiliary enzymes. Empiric antibiotic therapy for bacterial infection of the liver was ineffective. The clinical signs worsened with the development of hyponatremia with hypoosmolality and elevated urine sodium levels. The dog was suspected of having acute cholangiohepatitis associated with an immune-mediated disease. Subsequently, it was diagnosed with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) on the basis of the specific disease criteria. Further tests showed normal function of the adrenal and thyroid glands, and MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis did not show any intracranial diseases. Immunosuppressive therapy and water restriction resolved the clinical signs and improved the SIADH in this dog. This case indicates that SIADH can occur concurrently with suspected immune-mediated liver disease in dogs.

  15. Locus Adh of Drosophila melanogaster under selection for delayed senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Khaustova, N.D.

    1995-05-01

    Dynamics of the Adh activity and frequencies of alleles Adh{sup F} and Adh{sup S} were analyzed under selection for delayed senescence. The experiments were performed on Drosophila melanogaster. Lines Adh{sup S}cn and Adh{sup F}vg and experimental populations cn` and vg`, selected for an increased duration of reproductive period (late oviposition) were used. Analysis of fertility, longevity, viability and resistance to starvation showed that selection for late oviposition resulted in delayed senescence of flies of the experimental populations. Genetic structure of population vg` changed considerably with regard to the Adh locus. This was confirmed by parameters of activity, thermostability, and electrophoretic mobility of the enzyme isolated from flies after 30 generations of selection. Analysis of frequencies of the Adh alleles showed that in both selected populations, which initially had different genetic composition, accumulated allele Adh{sup S}, which encodes the isozyme that is less active but more resistant to inactivation. Genetic mechanism of delayed senescence in Drosophila is assumed to involve selection at vitally important enzyme loci, including Adh. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. Opossum alcohol dehydrogenases: Sequences, structures, phylogeny and evolution: evidence for the tandem location of ADH genes on opossum chromosome 5.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Roger S

    2009-03-16

    BLAT (BLAST-Like Alignment Tool) analyses and interrogations of the recently published opossum genome were undertaken using previously reported rat ADH amino acid sequences. Evidence is presented for six opossum ADH genes localized on chromosome 5 and organized in a comparable ADH gene cluster to that reported for human and rat ADH genes. The predicted amino acid sequences and secondary structures for the opossum ADH subunits and the intron-exon boundaries for opossum ADH genes showed a high degree of similarity with other mammalian ADHs, and four opossum ADH classes were identified, namely ADH1, ADH3, ADH6 and ADH4 (for which three genes were observed: ADH4A, ADH4B and ADH4C). Previous biochemical analyses of opossum ADHs have reported the tissue distribution and properties for these enzymes: ADH1, the major liver enzyme; ADH3, widely distributed in opossum tissues with similar kinetic properties to mammalian class 3 ADHs; and ADH4, for which several forms were localized in extrahepatic tissues, especially in the digestive system and in the eye. These ADHs are likely to perform similar functions to those reported for other mammalian ADHs in the metabolism of ingested and endogenous alcohols and aldehydes. Phylogenetic analyses examined opossum, human, rat, chicken and cod ADHs, and supported the proposed designation of opossum ADHs as class I (ADH1), class III (ADH3), class IV (ADH4A, ADH4B and ADH4C) and class VI (ADH6). Percentage substitution rates were examined for ADHs during vertebrate evolution which indicated that ADH3 is evolving at a much slower rate to that of the other ADH classes.

  17. Adh enhances Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity by binding to OR5M11 and activating p38 which induces apoptosis of PAMs and IL-8 release.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Chuntong; Zhang, Hu; Che, Yanyi; Sun, Changjiang; Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Richard, Paul Langford; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-04-05

    Members of the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin (TAA) family play a crucial role in the adhesion of Gram-negative pathogens to host cells, but the immunopathogenesis of TAAs remains unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that Adh from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is required for full bacterial pathogenicity. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against respiratory infections. This study compared the interactions between porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae (5b WT) or an Adh-deletion strain (5b ΔAdh) via gene microarray, immunoprecipitation and other technologies. We found that Adh was shown to interact with the PAMs membrane protein OR5M11, an olfactory receptor, resulting in the high-level secretion of IL-8 by activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Subsequently, PAMs apoptosis via the activation of the Fax and Bax signaling pathways was observed, followed by activation of caspases 8, 9, and 3. The immunological pathogenic roles of Adh were also confirmed in both murine and piglets infectious models in vivo. These results identify a novel immunological strategy for TAAs to boost the pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae. Together, these datas reveal the high versatility of the Adh protein as a virulence factor and provide novel insight into the immunological pathogenic role of TAAs.

  18. Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone Caused by Carboplatin After Switching from Cisplatin in a Metastatic Urethral Cancer Patient.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Yosuke; Naiki, Taku; Kondo, Masahiro; Iida, Keitaro; Kondo, Yuki; Tasaki, Yoshihiko; Kataoka, Tomoya; Hotta, Asami; Yasui, Takahiro; Kimura, Kazunori

    2017-05-01

    There is no established chemotherapy regimen in metastatic primary urethral cancer (mPUC). The efficacy of a cisplatin (CDDP)-based regimen has been reported, however, when the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) occurs, the chemotherapy regimen should be changed to another platinum compound. In this report, we describe a 66-year-old woman who was diagnosed as mPUC with, CDDP-induced SIADH. After switching her to CBDCA and careful managing her sodium balance, three courses of the chemotherapy regimen were completed.

  19. Effects of endogenous antidiuretic hormone (ADH) on macrophage phagocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Repollet, E.; Opava-Stitzer, S.; Tiffany, S.; Schwartz, A.

    1983-07-01

    Although several studies have indicated that antidiuretic hormone (ADH) enhances the phagocytic function of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) in shock syndromes, it remains unknown what influence ADH exerts upon the individual phagocytic components of this system. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of endogenous ADH on the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage cells. As a phagocytic stimuli, fluorescent methacrylate microbeads were injected intraperitoneally into Brattleboro (ADH deficient) and normal Long Evans rats in the presence and absence of exogenous ADH. Peritoneal cells were harvested 19-22 hr after the administration of the microbeads and the percent phagocytosis was determined in macrophage cells using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS II). Our results indicate that the percentage of peritoneal macrophages ingesting the fluorescent methacrylate microbeads was significantly reduced in the absence of ADH (Brattleboro rats: 5.4 +/- 0.6% versus Long Evans rats: 16.8 +/- 2.3%; p less than 0.001). In addition, our data demonstrate that exogenous administration of ADH significantly enhanced macrophage phagocytosis in Brattleboro (14.7 +/- 2.2%) and normal Long Evans (49.6 +/- 4.5%) rats. These data suggest, for the first time, that endogenous ADH might play a modulatory role in the phagocytic activity of a specific component of the RES, namely, the macrophage cell.

  20. [Effects of H2-blockers on alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity].

    PubMed

    Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2008-12-01

    First-pass metabolism (FPM) of alcohol is demonstrated by lower blood alcohol concentrations after oral than intravenous administration of the same dose. FPM occurs predominantly in the stomach and has been attributed to class IV of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzyme localizated in the gastric mucosa. A number of factors that influence on gastric ADH activity and thereby modulate FPM have been identified. These include age, sex, ethnicity, concentrations and amounts of alcohol consumed and drugs. Several H2-receptor antagonists, including cimetidine and ranitidine, inhibit gastric ADH activity and reduce FPM, resulting in higher blood alcohol concentrations after H2-blockers administration.

  1. Ethanol-Induced ADH Activity in Zebrafish: Differential Concentration-Dependent Effects on High- Versus Low-Affinity ADH Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Facciol, Amanda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish express enzymes that metabolize ethanol in a manner comparable to that of mammals, including humans. We previously demonstrated that acute ethanol exposure increases alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in an inverted U-shaped dose-dependent manner. It was hypothesized that the biphasic dose-response was due to the increased activity of a high-affinity ADH isoform following exposure to low concentrations of ethanol and increased activity of a low-affinity ADH isoform following exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol. To test this hypothesis, we exposed zebrafish to different concentrations of ethanol (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0% v/v) for 30 min and measured the total ADH activity in the zebrafish liver. However, we also repeated this enzyme activity assay using a low concentration of the substrate (ethanol) to determine the activity of high-affinity ADH isoforms. We found that total ADH activity in response to ethanol induces an inverted U-shaped dose-response similar to our previous study. Using a lower substrate level in our enzyme assay targeting high-affinity isozymes, we found a similar dose-response. However, the difference in activity between the high and low substrate assays (high substrate activity - low substrate activity), which provide an index of activity for low-affinity ADH isoforms, revealed no significant effect of ethanol exposure. Our results suggest that the inverted U-shaped dose-response for total ADH activity in response to ethanol is driven primarily by high-affinity isoforms of ADH.

  2. Genetic Variation in the Expression of ADH in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, G.; Laurie-Ahlberg, C. C.; Adams, D. A.; Wilton, A. N.

    1982-01-01

    Several chromosomes derived from natural populations have been identified that affect the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Second chromosomes, which also carry the structural gene Adh, show a great deal of polymorphism of genetic elements that determine how much enzyme protein accumulates. The level of enzyme was measured in third instar larvae, 6-to-8-day-old males and in larval fat bodies and alimentary canals. In general, activities in the different organs and stages are highly correlated with one another. One line was found, however, in which the ADH level in the fat body is more than twice the level one would expect on the basis of the activity in alimentary canal. We have also found evidence of third-chromosome elements that affect the level of ADH. PMID:6816669

  3. High-Dose Risperidone Induced Latent Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion With Seizure Presentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yen-Feng; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Liang, Chih-Sung

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with schizophrenia treated with high-dose risperidone, who developed syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) with the only early symptom of tonic-clonic seizures. A 40-year-old woman with schizophrenia was treated with risperidone 2 mg/d. After the dosage was titrated to 6 mg/d, she experienced generalized seizure attacks. Laboratory screening revealed that the serum sodium level was 106 mmol/L, the urine sodium concentration was 41.2 mmol/L, and the urine osmolality was 371 mOsm/kg H2O. A diagnosis of SIADH was made, and risperidone was stopped. After infusion of hypertonic saline, the serum sodium returned to normal levels, and seizures did not recur. In this patient, SIADH advanced in a latent manner because the first and only symptom of SIADH was seizure attack. High-dose risperidone treatment is the most probable cause, and the mechanisms may be related to risperidone's high affinity for the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A and dopamine 2 receptors. Patients with schizophrenia can display atypical features of medical illnesses. Routine physical and laboratory examinations may prevent silent disease progression.

  4. Sequence variation of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) paralogs in cactophilic Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Matzkin, Luciano M; Eanes, Walter F

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the population genetics of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) in cactophilic Drosophila. Drosophila mojavensis and D. arizonae utilize cactus hosts, and each host contains a characteristic mixture of alcohol compounds. In these Drosophila species there are two functional Adh loci, an adult form (Adh-2) and a larval and ovarian form (Adh-1). Overall, the greater level of variation segregating in D. arizonae than in D. mojavensis suggests a larger population size for D. arizonae. There are markedly different patterns of variation between the paralogs across both species. A 16-bp intron haplotype segregates in both species at Adh-2, apparently the product of an ancient gene conversion event between the paralogs, which suggests that there is selection for the maintenance of the intron structure possibly for the maintenance of pre-mRNA structure. We observe a pattern of variation consistent with adaptive protein evolution in the D. mojavensis lineage at Adh-1, suggesting that the cactus host shift that occurred in the divergence of D. mojavensis from D. arizonae had an effect on the evolution of the larval expressed paralog. Contrary to previous work we estimate a recent time for both the divergence of D. mojavensis and D. arizonae (2.4 +/- 0.7 MY) and the age of the gene duplication (3.95 +/- 0.45 MY). PMID:12586706

  5. Diagnostic Value of Urine Sodium Concentration in Hyponatremia Due to Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Versus Hypovolemia

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Background We are often left with the differential diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) versus hypovolemic hyponatremia. It is difficult to tell who will respond to isotonic saline infusion and who will not, if the urine sodium value is not completely suppressed (>10 mEq/L). Aim To examine the diagnostic accuracy of the urine sodium value. Design A retrospective observation. Methods The diagnostic accuracy of the urine sodium value was compared to that of a complete work-up and hospital course, including a response to saline infusion in patients with a final diagnosis of SIADH or hypovolemic hyponatremia. We also examined the diagnostic value of urine sodium-to-BUN ratio which should improve separation between SIADH and hypovolemia since the urine sodium and BUN move in opposite directions in these two conditions. Results The urine sodium value of 50 mEq/L was the most accurate in separating SIADH from hypovolemic hyponatremia: sensitivity 0.89, specificity 0.69, and accuracy 0.82. The diagnostic utility for SIADH versus hypovolemia, as quantified by the areas under the ROC curves, was not statistically different between urine sodium alone (0.89, 95% CI 0.77–0.96) and urine sodium-to-BUN ratio (0.93, 95% CI 0.83–0.98); p-value 0.33. Conclusions When the underlying cause is inconclusive between SIADH and hypovolemia, and when only basic laboratory results are available at the time of initial evaluation, the urine sodium alone will be adequate to guide initial fluid management. In contrast to traditional teaching, elevated urine sodium levels up to 50 mEq/L demonstrated clinically meaningful responses to isotonic saline infusion. PMID:21218377

  6. [Hyponatremia in syndrome of inappropiate antidiuretic hormone secretion--cases report].

    PubMed

    Cabaj-Wiater, Iwona; Jakubowska, Iwona

    2008-09-01

    Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH) is a rare disease characterized by hyponatremia and hyperosmolality of urine. There are well known causes of this syndrome, such as neoplasmatic processes, different disorder of central nervous system, lung diseases and side effects various drugs. In differential diagnosis of this syndrome we ought to consider renal failure, adrenocortical deficiency (Addison's disease), hypothyroidism, different forms of hyponatremia as well as pseudohyponatremia.

  7. Isolation and DNA sequence of ADH3, a nuclear gene encoding the mitochondrial isozyme of alcohol dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Young, E T; Pilgrim, D

    1985-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear gene, ADH3, that encodes the mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme ADH III was cloned by virtue of its nucleotide homology to ADH1 and ADH2. Both chromosomal and plasmid-encoded ADH III isozymes were repressed by glucose and migrated heterogeneously on nondenaturing gels. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated 73 and 74% identity for ADH3 with ADH1 and ADH2, respectively. The amino acid identity between the predicted ADH III polypeptide and ADH I and ADH II was 79 and 80%, respectively. The open reading frame encoding ADH III has a highly basic 27-amino-acid amino-terminal extension relative to ADH I and ADH II. The nucleotide sequence of the presumed leader peptide has a high degree of identity with the untranslated leader regions of ADH1 and ADH2 mRNAs. A strain containing a null allele of ADH3 did not have a detectably altered phenotype. The cloned gene integrated at the ADH3 locus, indicating that this is the structural gene for ADH III. Images PMID:2943982

  8. Genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 in Turkish alcoholics: lack of association with alcoholism and alcoholic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Vatansever, Sezgin; Tekin, Fatih; Salman, Esin; Altintoprak, Ender; Coskunol, Hakan; Akarca, Ulus Salih

    2015-05-17

    No data exists regarding the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene polymorphisms in Turkish alcoholic cirrhotics. We studied the polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes in alcoholic cirrhotics and compared the results with non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers. Overall, 237 subjects were included for the study: 156 alcoholic patients (78 cirrhotics, 78 non-cirrhotic alcoholics) and 81 healthy volunteers. Three different single-nucleotide-polymorphism genotyping methods were used. ADH1C genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The identified ADH1C genotypes were named according to the presence or absence of the enzyme restriction sites. ADH1B (Arg47Hys) genotyping was performed using the allele specific primer extension method, and ALDH2 (Glu487Lys) genotyping was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction using two allele-specific primer pairs. For ADH1B, the frequency of allele *1 in the cirrhotics, non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers was 97.4%, 94.9% and 99.4%, respectively. For ADH1C, the frequency of allele *1 in the cirrhotics, non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers was 47%, 36.3% and 45%, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the groups for ADH1B and ADH1C (p>0.05). All alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects (100%) had the allele *1 for ALDH2. The obtained results for ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH gene polymorphisms in the present study are similar to the results of Caucasian studies. ADH1B and ADH1C genetic variations are not related to the development of alcoholism or susceptibility to alcoholic cirrhosis. ALDH2 gene has no genetic variation in the Turkish population.

  9. Crystal structure of the vertebrate NADP(H)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH8).

    PubMed

    Rosell, Albert; Valencia, Eva; Parés, Xavier; Fita, Ignacio; Farrés, Jaume; Ochoa, Wendy F

    2003-06-27

    The amphibian enzyme ADH8, previously named class IV-like, is the only known vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with specificity towards NADP(H). The three-dimensional structures of ADH8 and of the binary complex ADH8-NADP(+) have been now determined and refined to resolutions of 2.2A and 1.8A, respectively. The coenzyme and substrate specificity of ADH8, that has 50-65% sequence identity with vertebrate NAD(H)-dependent ADHs, suggest a role in aldehyde reduction probably as a retinal reductase. The large volume of the substrate-binding pocket can explain both the high catalytic efficiency of ADH8 with retinoids and the high K(m) value for ethanol. Preference of NADP(H) appears to be achieved by the presence in ADH8 of the triad Gly223-Thr224-His225 and the recruitment of conserved Lys228, which define a binding pocket for the terminal phosphate group of the cofactor. NADP(H) binds to ADH8 in an extended conformation that superimposes well with the NAD(H) molecules found in NAD(H)-dependent ADH complexes. No additional reshaping of the dinucleotide-binding site is observed which explains why NAD(H) can also be used as a cofactor by ADH8. The structural features support the classification of ADH8 as an independent ADH class.

  10. Recombinant industrial brewing yeast strains with ADH2 interruption using self-cloning GSH1+CUP1 cassette.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Yue; Wang, Jin-Jing; Liu, Xi-Feng; He, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Bo-Run

    2009-06-01

    A self-cloning module for gene knock-out and knock-in in industrial brewing yeast strain was constructed that contains copper resistance and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene cassette, flanked by alcohol dehydrogenase II gene (ADH2) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The module was used to obtain recombined strains RY1 and RY2 by targeting the ADH2 locus of host Y1. RY1 and RY2 were genetically stable. PCR and enzyme activity analysis of RY1 and RY2 cells showed that one copy of ADH2 was deleted by GSH1+CUP1 insertion, and an additional copy of wild type was still present. The fermentation ability of the recombinants was not changed after genetic modification, and a high level of glutathione (GSH) was secreted, resulting from GSH1 overexpression, which codes for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. A pilot-scale brewing test for RY1 and RY2 indicated that acetaldehyde content in fermenting liquor decreased by 21-22%, GSH content increased by 20-22% compared with the host, the antioxidizability of the recombinants was improved, and the sensorial evaluation was also better than that of the host. No heterologous DNA was harbored in the recombinants; therefore, they could be applied in the beer industry in terms of their biosafety.

  11. [Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatremia is a commonly encountered electrolyte abnormality in clinical practice and in some groups of patients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the pathophysiology of this disturbance is complex, its understanding is vital to the disorder's evaluation and treatment. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the commonest form of euvolemic hyponatremia and is the clinical and biochemical manifestation of a wide range of disease processes, mostly associated with malignancy, pulmonary, or neurologic disorders, and of pharmacotherapy. Symptoms vary depending on the severity of hyponatremia and, if occur, can range from weakness, mild headache, muscle cramps, nausea, and vomiting to convulsions, coma, and death. Identifying the underlying disorder remains an integral part of the diagnostic evaluation of patients. The most frequently used treatment options include water restriction, oral intake of salt, hypertonic saline and vaptans, being nonpeptide vasopressin antagonists interfering with the antidiuretic effect of the hormone. The aim of our paper is to present a practical diagnostic approach and management of SIADH, with a particular emphasis on the results of recent studies.

  12. Genetic variants in or near ADH1B and ADH1C affect susceptibility to alcohol dependence in a British and Irish population.

    PubMed

    Way, Michael; McQuillin, Andrew; Saini, Jit; Ruparelia, Kush; Lydall, Gregory J; Guerrini, Irene; Ball, David; Smith, Iain; Quadri, Giorgia; Thomson, Allan D; Kasiakogia-Worlley, Katherine; Cherian, Raquin; Gunwardena, Priyanthi; Rao, Harish; Kottalgi, Girija; Patel, Shamir; Hillman, Audrey; Douglas, Ewen; Qureshi, Sherhzad Y; Reynolds, Gerry; Jauhar, Sameer; O'Kane, Aideen; Dedman, Alex; Sharp, Sally; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Dar, Karim; Curtis, David; Morgan, Marsha Y; Gurling, Hugh M D

    2015-05-01

    Certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes confer a significant protective effect against alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS) in East Asian populations. Recently, attention has focused on the role of these SNPs in determining ADS risk in European populations. To further elucidate these associations, SNPs of interest in ADH1B, ADH1C and the ADH1B/1C intergenic region were genotyped in a British and Irish population (ADS cases n = 1076: controls n = 1027) to assess their relative contribution to ADS risk. A highly significant, protective association was observed between the minor allele of rs1229984 in ADH1B and ADS risk [allelic P = 8.4 × 10(-6) , odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, 95 percent confidence interval, 0.14, 0.49]. Significant associations were also observed between ADS risk and the ADH1B/1C intergenic variant, rs1789891 [allelic P = 7.2 × 10(-5) , OR = 1.4 (1.2, 1.6)] and three non-synonymous SNPs rs698, rs1693482 and rs283413 in ADH1C. However, these associations were not completely independent; thus, while the ADH1B rs1229984 minor allele association was independent of those of the intergenic variant rs1789891 and the three ADH1C variants, the three ADH1C variants were not individually independent. In conclusion, the rare ADH1B rs1229984 mutation provides significant protection against ADS in this British and Irish population; other variants in the ADH gene cluster also alter ADS risk, although the strong linkage disequilibrium between SNPs at this location precluded clear identification of the variant(s) driving the associations.

  13. Molecular Characterization and Transcriptional Analysis of adhE2, the Gene Encoding the NADH-Dependent Aldehyde/Alcohol Dehydrogenase Responsible for Butanol Production in Alcohologenic Cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Lisa; Meynial-Salles, Isabelle; Girbal, Laurence; Yang, Xinghong; Croux, Christian; Soucaille, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    The adhE2 gene of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, coding for an aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AADH), was characterized from molecular and biochemical points of view. The 2,577-bp adhE2 codes for a 94.4-kDa protein. adhE2 is expressed, as a monocistronic operon, in alcohologenic cultures and not in solventogenic cultures. Primer extension analysis identified two transcriptional start sites 160 and 215 bp upstream of the adhE2 start codon. The expression of adhE2 from a plasmid in the DG1 mutant of C. acetobutylicum, a mutant cured of the pSOL1 megaplasmid, restored butanol production and provided elevated activities of NADH-dependent butyraldehyde and butanol dehydrogenases. The recombinant AdhE2 protein expressed in E. coli as a Strep-tag fusion protein and purified to homogeneity also demonstrated NADH-dependent butyraldehyde and butanol dehydrogenase activities. This is the second AADH identified in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824, and to our knowledge this is the first example of a bacterium with two AADHs. It is noteworthy that the two corresponding genes, adhE and adhE2, are carried by the pSOL1 megaplasmid of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. PMID:11790753

  14. Modeling Parkinson's disease genetics: altered function of the dopamine system in Adh4 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Belin, Andrea Carmine; Westerlund, Marie; Anvret, Anna; Lindqvist, Eva; Pernold, Karin; Ogren, Sven Ove; Duester, Gregg; Galter, Dagmar

    2011-03-01

    Class IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH4) efficiently reduces aldehydes produced during lipid peroxidation, and may thus serve to protect from toxic effects of aldehydes e.g. on neurons. We hypothesized that ADH4 dysfunction may increase risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) and previously reported association of an ADH4 allele with PD. We found that a promoter polymorphism in this allele induced a 25-30% reduction of transcriptional activity. Based on these findings, we have now investigated whether Adh4 homo- (Adh4-/-) or heterozygous (Adh4+/-) knockout mice display any dopamine system-related changes in behavior, biochemical parameters or olfaction compared to wild-type mice. The spontaneous locomotor activity was found to be similar in the three groups, whereas administration of d-amphetamine or apomorphine induced a significant increase in horizontal activity in the Adh4-/- mice compared to wild-type mice. We measured levels of monoamines and their metabolites in striatum, frontal cortex and substantia nigra and found increased levels of dopamine and DOPAC in substantia nigra of Adh4-/- mice. Investigation of olfactory function revealed a reduced sense of smell in Adh4-/- mice accompanied by alterations in dopamine metabolite levels in the olfactory bulb. Taken together, our results suggest that lack of Adh4 gene activity induces changes in the function of the dopamine system, findings which are compatible with a role of loss-of-function mutations in ADH4 as possible risk factors for PD.

  15. Risk factors for human herpesvirus 6 reactivation and its relationship with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Toriumi, Naohisa; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Yoshida, Makoto; Iguchi, Akihiro; Sarashina, Takeo; Okubo, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sano, Hirozumi; Ogata, Masao; Azuma, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    There have been several reports on the reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) after stem cell transplantation (SCT) in adults, which sometimes induces severe illness. Few reports exist on pediatric patients; therefore, we retrospectively examined HHV6 reactivation after SCT in children. We reviewed 80 patients with a median age of 6 years. We analyzed HHV6 DNA serum samples from the patients before SCT and at 20 and 40 days after SCT using polymerase chain reaction. We also analyzed the relationship between HHV6 reactivation and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). At 20 days after SCT, 35.0% of serum samples were positive for HHV6 DNA. The median viral load was 3.1×10 copies/mL serum. Multivariate analysis showed cord blood transplantation as the only risk factor for HHV6 reactivation. HHV6 reactivation occurs in 59.4% of 32 patients who underwent cord blood transplantation and in 18.8% of 48 patients who underwent SCT from other sources. Among the 14 patients with SIADH, 78.6% experienced HHV6 reactivation. Among the 66 patients without SIADH, only 25.8% had HHV6 reactivation. This result was statistically significant (P<0.001). This analysis revealed that HHV6 reactivation occurs in many children. In addition, HHV6 reactivation plus SIADH should prompt evaluation for central nervous system disease.

  16. [Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone associated with resection of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Seki, Kouji; Segawa, Masataka; Kusajima, Yoshinori; Saito, Katsuhiko

    2010-02-01

    Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) shows various symptoms based on hyponatremia and brings catastrophic outcome occasionally. A 75-years-old man was found to have an abnormal shadow of the right lung on chest X-ray. Bronchoscopic examination showed that the abnormal shadow was aterectasis caused by the squamous cell carcinoma of middle lobe bronchus, and middle and lower lobectomy of the right lung was performed. On the postoperative day 2, suddenly the serum sodium concentration decreased to 116 mEq/l and serum osmolarity also decreased to 246 mOsm/l. Inspite of hyponatremia, the urine sodium level elevated to 73 mEq/l. So the urine osmolarity elevated to 752 mOsm/l, too. In addition to these data, edema and dehydration were absent, and both renal and adrenal function were normal. So we diagnosed that this abnormal conditions-hyponatremia with corresponding serum hypoosmolality and an inappropriately high urinary osmolality due to continued sodium excretion was induced by SIADH. Fluid restriction and antibiotics therapy for pneumonia resulted in an appropriate rise in the serum sodium level to 138 mEq/l on the postoperative day 21. To avoid catastrophic outcome in the cases of hyponatremia after surgery, it is important to remember that hyponatremia may be induced by SIADH.

  17. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion: a story of duloxetine-induced hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Amoako, Adae Opoku; Brown, Carina; Riley, Timothy

    2015-04-24

    Hyponatraemia is the most commonly encountered electrolyte abnormality in clinical practice. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) accounts for nearly 60% of all hyponatraemias. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are well known to have side effects of SIADH. There have been few reported cases of serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) causing SIADH-induced hyponatraemia. Duloxetine is one type of SNRI used to treat several conditions, including depression and diabetic neuropathy. We present a case of a 76-year-old woman with a history of fibromyalgia who had recently been prescribed duloxetine for her condition. On admission to the hospital, her sodium decreased to a low of 118 mmol/L. Evaluation for other causes of hyponatraemia yielded negative results. Duloxetine was discontinued and after 3 days the patient's sodium increased to 130 mmol/L. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the importance of having suspicion for rare but real side effects of medications such as duloxetine.

  18. Genetic and Cytogenetic Analysis of the ADH Region in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Janis; Mandel, Howard C.; Krauss, Marc; Sofer, William

    1977-01-01

    Eighteen Adh-negative mutations were selected with 1-pentyn-3-ol after feeding of formaldehyde. Twelve of the 18 were shown by cytological and genetic analysis to be deletions. Cytological examination of the deletions allowed us to localize the Adh gene to a region including bands 35B3–5 on the left arm of chromosome 2. The deletions were also used to order known visible loci located near Adh.—The vital loci near Adh were also investigated. A total of 109 lethal mutations were generated with EMS and 33 of these, localized within a region defined by the overlap of two of the deletions, were found to belong to 13 complementation groups. If one includes three other loci known to belong there (el, Adh and Sco), a total of 16 complementation groups have been identified in the region close to Adh. PMID:408228

  19. A genetic analysis of Adh1 regulation. Progress report, June 1991--February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Freeling, M.

    1992-03-01

    The overall goal of our research proposal is to understand the meaning of the various cis-acting sites responsible for AdH1 expression in the entire maize plant. Progress is reported in the following areas: Studies on the TATA box and analysis of revertants of the Adh1-3F1124 allele; screening for more different mutants that affect Adh1 expression differentially; studies on cis-acting sequences required for root-specific Adh1 expression; refinement of the use of the particle gun; and functional analysis of a non- glycolytic anaerobic protein.

  20. ADH and ALDH polymorphisms among Alaska Natives entering treatment for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Segal, B

    1999-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) involved in alcohol metabolism are polymorphic. Different alleles encode subunits of the enzymes that are related to differences in alcohol metabolism with different ethnic groups. This study examined the allele frequencies at the ADH1, ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 loci in Alaska Natives entering treatment for alcoholism to determine if allele frequencies at these loci differ among five distinct Alaska Native groups: Yupik and Inupiat Eskimos, Athabascan, Tlingit and Aleut. It was found that all persons were homozygous for the ADH1*1, ADH2*1 and ALDH2*1 alleles. Variations, however, were found for the allele distribution of the ADH3 genotype. Comparison with a general population sample found no differences in allele distributions for ADHs and ALDH2*1, but differences were found when comparisons were made with four Asian Groups. The study's findings suggest that the Alaska Natives are not protected from the risk of alcoholism in the same way that Asians who possess the ALDH2*2 genotype are considered to have a negative risk factor. Nor, does there appear to be any generalized differences between Alaska Native alcoholics and members of the general population with respect to the ALDH and ADH polymorphisms studied herein.

  1. Effects of glucose, ethanol and acetic acid on regulation of ADH2 gene from Lachancea fermentati

    PubMed Central

    Yaacob, Norhayati; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini

    2016-01-01

    Background. Not all yeast alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) are repressed by glucose, as reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia stipitis ADH2 is regulated by oxygen instead of glucose, whereas Kluyveromyces marxianus ADH2 is regulated by neither glucose nor ethanol. For this reason, ADH2 regulation of yeasts may be species dependent, leading to a different type of expression and fermentation efficiency. Lachancea fermentati is a highly efficient ethanol producer, fast-growing cells and adapted to fermentation-related stresses such as ethanol and organic acid, but the metabolic information regarding the regulation of glucose and ethanol production is still lacking. Methods. Our investigation started with the stimulation of ADH2 activity from S. cerevisiae and L. fermentati by glucose and ethanol induction in a glucose-repressed medium. The study also embarked on the retrospective analysis of ADH2 genomic and protein level through direct sequencing and sites identification. Based on the sequence generated, we demonstrated ADH2 gene expression highlighting the conserved NAD(P)-binding domain in the context of glucose fermentation and ethanol production. Results. An increase of ADH2 activity was observed in starved L. fermentati (LfeADH2) and S. cerevisiae (SceADH2) in response to 2% (w/v) glucose induction. These suggest that in the presence of glucose, ADH2 activity was activated instead of being repressed. An induction of 0.5% (v/v) ethanol also increased LfeADH2 activity, promoting ethanol resistance, whereas accumulating acetic acid at a later stage of fermentation stimulated ADH2 activity and enhanced glucose consumption rates. The lack in upper stream activating sequence (UAS) and TATA elements hindered the possibility of Adr1 binding to LfeADH2. Transcription factors such as SP1 and RAP1 observed in LfeADH2 sequence have been implicated in the regulation of many genes including ADH2. In glucose fermentation, L. fermentati exhibited a bell-shaped ADH2

  2. Phototherapy-mediated syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone in an in utero selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-exposed newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Vanhaesebrouck, Piet; De Bock, Freia; Zecic, Alexandra; De Praeter, Claudine; Smets, Koenraad; De Coen, Kris; Goossens, Linde

    2005-05-01

    Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have gained wide acceptance in the off-label treatment of mental disorders in pregnant women, there seems to be an increased risk for serotonergic adverse effects in newborn infants who are exposed to SSRIs during late pregnancy. Hyponatremia as a result of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a relatively common serious side effect of the use of SSRIs in (mostly elderly) adults. Severe hyponatremia as a result of an SIADH is proposed here as part of a neonatal serotonin toxicity syndrome in a newborn infant who was exposed prenatally to an SSRI. The definite reversal to normal serum sodium levels after fluid restriction, the lack of any alternative cause for the SIADH, and the positive temporal relation with a high score on a widely used adverse drug reaction probability scale offer solid support for the hypothesis of a causal relationship between the SIADH and the prenatal sertraline exposure in our neonate. Moreover, accumulative data on the acute enhancement of serotonergic transmission by intense illumination led us to hypothesize that phototherapy used to treat hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant could have been the ultimate environmental trigger for this proposed new cause of iatrogenic neonatal SIADH. The speculative role of phototherapy as a physical trigger for this drug-related adverse event should be confirmed in other cases by thorough study of the serotonin metabolism, assay of SSRI levels in cord blood, and serial measurement of plasma levels in exposed neonates. As phototherapy is used frequently in jaundiced neonates and an apparently increasing number of infants are born to mothers who take SSRIs, serotonin toxicity in neonates deserves increased attention.

  3. Metabolite Profiling of adh1 Mutant Response to Cold Stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuan; Liu, Lijun; Wei, Yunzhu; Li, Gaopeng; Yue, Xiule; An, Lizhe

    2017-01-01

    As a result of global warming, vegetation suffers from repeated freeze-thaw cycles caused by more frequent short-term low temperatures induced by hail, snow, or night frost. Therefore, short-term freezing stress of plants should be investigated particularly in light of the current climatic conditions. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) plays a central role in the metabolism of alcohols and aldehydes and it is a key enzyme in anaerobic fermentation. ADH1 responds to plant growth and environmental stress; however, the function of ADH1 in the response to short-term freezing stress remains unknown. Using real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR, the expression level of ADH1 was analyzed at low temperature (4°C). The lethal temperature was calculated based on the electrolyte leakage tests for both ADH1 deletion mutants (adh1) and wild type (WT) plants. To further investigate the relationship between ADH1 and cold tolerance in plants, low-Mr polar metabolite analyses of Arabidopsis adh1 and WT were performed at cold temperatures using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This investigation focused on freezing treatments (cold acclimation group: −6°C for 2 h with prior 4°C for 7 d, cold shock group: −6°C for 2 h without cold acclimation) and recovery (23°C for 24 h) with respect to seedling growth at optimum temperature. The experimental results revealed a significant increase in ADH1 expression during low temperature treatment (4°C) and at a higher lethal temperature in adh1 compared to that in the WT. Retention time indices and specific mass fragments were used to monitor 263 variables and annotate 78 identified metabolites. From these analyses, differences in the degree of metabolite accumulation between adh1 and WT were detected, including soluble sugars (e.g., sucrose) and amino acids (e.g., asparagine). In addition, the correlation-based network analysis highlighted some metabolites, e.g., melibiose, fumaric acid, succinic acid, glycolic acid, and xylose, which

  4. Metabolite Profiling of adh1 Mutant Response to Cold Stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuan; Liu, Lijun; Wei, Yunzhu; Li, Gaopeng; Yue, Xiule; An, Lizhe

    2016-01-01

    As a result of global warming, vegetation suffers from repeated freeze-thaw cycles caused by more frequent short-term low temperatures induced by hail, snow, or night frost. Therefore, short-term freezing stress of plants should be investigated particularly in light of the current climatic conditions. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) plays a central role in the metabolism of alcohols and aldehydes and it is a key enzyme in anaerobic fermentation. ADH1 responds to plant growth and environmental stress; however, the function of ADH1 in the response to short-term freezing stress remains unknown. Using real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR, the expression level of ADH1 was analyzed at low temperature (4°C). The lethal temperature was calculated based on the electrolyte leakage tests for both ADH1 deletion mutants (adh1) and wild type (WT) plants. To further investigate the relationship between ADH1 and cold tolerance in plants, low-Mr polar metabolite analyses of Arabidopsis adh1 and WT were performed at cold temperatures using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This investigation focused on freezing treatments (cold acclimation group: -6°C for 2 h with prior 4°C for 7 d, cold shock group: -6°C for 2 h without cold acclimation) and recovery (23°C for 24 h) with respect to seedling growth at optimum temperature. The experimental results revealed a significant increase in ADH1 expression during low temperature treatment (4°C) and at a higher lethal temperature in adh1 compared to that in the WT. Retention time indices and specific mass fragments were used to monitor 263 variables and annotate 78 identified metabolites. From these analyses, differences in the degree of metabolite accumulation between adh1 and WT were detected, including soluble sugars (e.g., sucrose) and amino acids (e.g., asparagine). In addition, the correlation-based network analysis highlighted some metabolites, e.g., melibiose, fumaric acid, succinic acid, glycolic acid, and xylose, which

  5. Increased Variation in Adh Enzyme Activity in Drosophila Mutation-Accumulation Experiment Is Not Due to Transposable Elements at the Adh Structural Gene

    PubMed Central

    Aquadro, C. F.; Tachida, H.; Langley, C. H.; Harada, K.; Mukai, T.

    1990-01-01

    We present here a molecular analysis of the region surrounding the structural gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) in 47 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that have each accumulated mutations for 300 generations. While these lines show a significant increase in variation of alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity compared to control lines, we found no restriction map variation in a 13-kb region including the complete Adh structural gene and roughly 5 kb of both 5' and 3' sequences. Thus, the rapid accumulation of ADH activity variation after 28,200 allele generations does not appear to have been due to the mobilization of transposable elements into or out of the Adh structural gene region. PMID:1963870

  6. Ethanol tolerance and membrane fatty acid adaptation in adh multiple and null mutants of Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Heipieper, H J; Isken, S; Saliola, M

    2000-11-01

    The effects of ethanol and 1-octanol on growth and fatty acid composition of different strains of Kluyveromyces lactis containing a mutation in the four different alcohol dehydrogenase (KlADH) genes were investigated. In the presence of ethanol and 1-octanol K. lactis reduced the fluidity of its lipids by decreasing the unsaturation index (UI) of its membrane fatty acids. In this way, a direct correlation between nonlethal ethanol concentrations and the decrease in the UI could be observed. At concentrations which totally inhibited cell growth no reaction occurred. These adaptive modifications of the fatty acid pattern of K. lactis to ethanol contrasted with those reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Whereas these two yeasts increased the fluidity of their membrane lipids in the presence of ethanol, K. lactis reduced the fluidity (UI) of its lipids. Among the different isogenic adh negative strains tested, the strain containing no ADH (adh0) and that containing only KlADH1 were the most alcohol-sensitive. The strain with only KlADH2 showed nearly the same tolerance as reference strain CBS 2359/152 containing all four ADH genes. This suggests that the KlADH2 product could play an important role in the adaptation/detoxification reactions of K. lactis to high ethanol concentrations.

  7. Structure, Expression, Chromosomal Location and Product of the Gene Encoding Adh2 in Petunia

    PubMed Central

    Gregerson, R. G.; Cameron, L.; McLean, M.; Dennis, P.; Strommer, J.

    1993-01-01

    In most higher plants the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase comprise a small gene family, usually with two members. The Adh1 gene of Petunia has been cloned and analyzed, but a second identifiable gene was not recovered from any of three genomic libraries. We have therefore employed the polymerase chain reaction to obtain the major portion of a second Adh gene. From sequence, mapping and northern data we conclude this gene encodes ADH2, the major anaerobically inducible Adh gene of Petunia. The availability of both Adh1 and Adh2 from Petunia has permitted us to compare their structures and patterns of expression to those of the well-studied Adh genes of maize, of which one is highly expressed developmentally, while both are induced in response to hypoxia. Despite their evolutionary distance, evidenced by deduced amino acid sequence as well as taxonomic classification, the pairs of genes are regulated in strikingly similar ways in maize and Petunia. Our findings suggest a significant biological basis for the regulatory strategy employed by these distant species for differential expression of multiple Adh genes. PMID:8096485

  8. Combined small cell carcinoma of the sinonasal tract associated with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kayakabe, Mikiko; Takahashi, Katsumasa; Okamiya, Tomofumi; Segawa, Atsuki; Oyama, Tetsunari; Chikamatsu, Kazuaki

    2014-04-01

    Combined small cell carcinoma (SmCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) is a rare malignant neoplasm in the head and neck. This study presents the first reported case of combined SmCC and SqCC originating from the sinonasal tract accompanied by syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). An 80-year-old female presented with a four-week history of right nasal discharge, nasal obstruction and left neck swelling. Imaging studies revealed a tumorous lesion in the maxillary sinus encroaching upon the right nasal cavity and left cervical lymph node (LN) swelling. An incisional biopsy carried out from the right maxillary sinus and LNs resulted in a diagnosis of combined SmCC with SqCC, staged as T4aN2cM0. Clinical examination revealed a sustained increase of antidiuretic hormone, hyponatremia with urinary sodium increase, and serum hypo-osmosis, resulting in SIADH. Water restriction to <1,000 ml/day was effective in improving sodium and osmotic imbalance. Curative treatment for the tumor was not prescribed due to the poor condition of the patient. Palliative treatment was administered and the patient succumbed to cachexia five months after histological diagnosis. The presence of SIADH may have marked implications for the treatment and prognosis of this disease.

  9. Combined small cell carcinoma of the sinonasal tract associated with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone: A case report

    PubMed Central

    KAYAKABE, MIKIKO; TAKAHASHI, KATSUMASA; OKAMIYA, TOMOFUMI; SEGAWA, ATSUKI; OYAMA, TETSUNARI; CHIKAMATSU, KAZUAKI

    2014-01-01

    Combined small cell carcinoma (SmCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) is a rare malignant neoplasm in the head and neck. This study presents the first reported case of combined SmCC and SqCC originating from the sinonasal tract accompanied by syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). An 80-year-old female presented with a four-week history of right nasal discharge, nasal obstruction and left neck swelling. Imaging studies revealed a tumorous lesion in the maxillary sinus encroaching upon the right nasal cavity and left cervical lymph node (LN) swelling. An incisional biopsy carried out from the right maxillary sinus and LNs resulted in a diagnosis of combined SmCC with SqCC, staged as T4aN2cM0. Clinical examination revealed a sustained increase of antidiuretic hormone, hyponatremia with urinary sodium increase, and serum hypo-osmosis, resulting in SIADH. Water restriction to <1,000 ml/day was effective in improving sodium and osmotic imbalance. Curative treatment for the tumor was not prescribed due to the poor condition of the patient. Palliative treatment was administered and the patient succumbed to cachexia five months after histological diagnosis. The presence of SIADH may have marked implications for the treatment and prognosis of this disease. PMID:24944702

  10. [Hormonal dysnatremia].

    PubMed

    Karaca, P; Desailloud, R

    2013-10-01

    Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms. Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of ADH production: it is a euvolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia. The most frequent etiology is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH), a diagnostic of exclusion which is made after eliminating corticotropin deficiency and hypothyroidism. In case of brain injury the differential diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has to be discussed, because its treatment is perfusion of isotonic saline whereas in SIADH, the treatment consists in administration of hypertonic saline if hyponatremia is acute and/or severe. If not, fluid restriction demeclocycline or vaptans (antagonists of V2 receptors) can be used in some European countries. Four types of SIADH exist; 10 % of cases represent not SIADH but SIAD (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis) due to a constitutive activation of vasopressin receptor that produces water excess. c 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Mineral exploration, Mahd adh Dhahab District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worl, Ronald G.

    1978-01-01

    Mahd adh Dhahab is the largest of numerous ancient gold mines scattered through the Precambrian shield of Saudi Arabia and the only one with recent production. During the period 1939-54, 765,768 fine ounces of gold and 1,002,029 ounces of silver were produced from the mines by the Saudi Arabian Mining Syndicate. Ore minerals at Mahd adh Dhahab include free gold and silver, tellurides, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite in and associated with a system of north-trending quartz veins and quartz veinlet stockworks. Pyrite is a common sulfide gangue mineral. Country rocks are a north dipping sequence of pyroclastic and transported pyroclastic rocks of the Hulayfah Group that are locally highly silicified and potassium-feldspathized. The prime target for this exploration program was a north-trending zone of quartz veins and breccias, faults, alteration, and metalization approximately 400 m wide and 1000 m long. The ancient and recent mine workings are located in the northern part of this zone. Although the quartz veins and alteration cut all lithologies, the major metalization is confined to the intersection of veins and agglomerate. Ten holes were diamond drilled to explore geochemical, geological, and geophysical targets in the area. A significant new zone of metalization was discovered 700 m south of the ancient and recent mine workings and within the same major zone of quartz veins, alteration, and faults. Metalization in this southern mineralized zone is at the intersection of the quartz veins and a distinctive and highly altered agglomerate. The total zone of vein and agglomerate intercept is potentially metalized and comprises a block of ground 40 m thick and 400 m wide along the strike of the agglomerate and projected downdip 250 m. Tonnage of this block is 17.2 million tons. The explored zone, approximately 25 percent of the potentially metalized rock, has a potential resource of 1.1 million tons containing 27 g/t gold and 73 g/t silver.

  12. Is it cerebral or renal salt wasting?

    PubMed

    Maesaka, John K; Imbriano, Louis J; Ali, Nicole M; Ilamathi, Ekambaram

    2009-11-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting (CSW), or renal salt-wasting (RSW), has evolved from a misrepresentation of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) to acceptance as a distinct entity. Challenges still confront us as we attempt to differentiate RSW from SIADH, ascertain the prevalence of RSW, and address reports of RSW occurring without cerebral disease. RSW is redefined as 'extracellular volume depletion due to a renal sodium transport abnormality with or without high urinary sodium concentration, presence of hyponatremia or cerebral disease with normal adrenal and thyroid function.' Our inability to differentiate RSW from SIADH lies in the clinical and laboratory similarities between the two syndromes and the difficulty of accurate assessment of extracellular volume. Radioisotopic determinations of extracellular volume in neurosurgical patients reveal renal that RSW is more common than SIADH. We review the persistence of hypouricemia and increased fractional excretion of urate in RSW as compared to correction of both in SIADH, the appropriateness of ADH secretion in RSW, and the importance of differentiating renal RSW from SIADH because of disparate treatment goals: fluid repletion in RSW and fluid restriction in SIADH. Patients with RSW are being incorrectly treated by fluid restriction, with clinical consequences. We conclude that RSW is common and occurs without cerebral disease, and propose changing CSW to RSW.

  13. Transient overexpression of adh8a increases allyl alcohol toxicity in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; Ortmann, Julia; Paschke, Heidrun; Renner, Patrick; Ritter, Axel P; Scholz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Fish embryos are widely used as an alternative model to study toxicity in vertebrates. Due to their complexity, embryos are believed to more resemble an adult organism than in vitro cellular models. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the embryo's metabolic capacity. We recently identified allyl alcohol, an industrial chemical, to be several orders of magnitude less toxic to zebrafish embryo than to adult zebrafish (embryo LC50 = 478 mg/L vs. fish LC50 = 0.28 mg/L). Reports on mammals have indicated that allyl alcohol requires activation by alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh) to form the highly reactive and toxic metabolite acrolein, which shows similar toxicity in zebrafish embryos and adults. To identify if a limited metabolic capacity of embryos indeed can explain the low allyl alcohol sensitivity of zebrafish embryos, we compared the mRNA expression levels of Adh isoenzymes (adh5, adh8a, adh8b and adhfe1) during embryo development to that in adult fish. The greatest difference between embryo and adult fish was found for adh8a and adh8b expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that these genes might be required for allyl alcohol activation. Microinjection of adh8a, but not adh8b mRNA led to a significant increase of allyl alcohol toxicity in embryos similar to levels reported for adults (LC50 = 0.42 mg/L in adh8a mRNA-injected embryos). Furthermore, GC/MS analysis of adh8a-injected embryos indicated a significant decline of internal allyl alcohol concentrations from 0.23-58 ng/embryo to levels below the limit of detection (< 4.6 µg/L). Injection of neither adh8b nor gfp mRNA had an impact on internal allyl alcohol levels supporting that the increased allyl alcohol toxicity was mediated by an increase in its metabolization. These results underline the necessity to critically consider metabolic activation in the zebrafish embryo. As demonstrated here, mRNA injection is one useful approach to study the role of candidate enzymes involved in

  14. Characterization of polymorphisms of genes ADH2, ADH3, ALDH2 and CYP2E1 and relationship to the alcoholism in a Colombian population

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identify and characterize polymorphisms of genes ADH2, ADH3, ALDH2 and CYP2E1 in a Colombian population residing in the city of Bogotá and determine its possible relationship to the alcoholism. Methods: ADH2, ADH3, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 genotypes a population of 148 individuals with non-problematic alcohol and 65 individuals with alcoholism were determined with TaqMan probes and PCR-RFLP. DNA was obtained from peripheral blood white cells. Results: Significant difference was found in family history of alcoholism and use of other psychoactive substances to compare alcoholics with controls. When allelic frequencies for each category (gender) were considered, frequency of A2 allele carriers in ADH2 was found higher in male patients than controls. In women, the relative frequency for c1 allele in CYP2E1 was lower in controls than alcoholics. The ALDH2 locus is monomorphic. No significant differences in allele distributions of the loci examined to compare two populations were observed, however when stratifying the same trend was found that these differences tended to be significant. Conclusions: This study allows us to conclude the positive association between family history of alcoholism and alcoholism suggesting that there is a favourable hereditary predisposition. Since substance dependence requires interaction of multiple genes, the combination of genotypes ADH2 * 2, CYP2E1 * 1 combined with genotype homozygous ALDH2 * 1 found in this study could be leading to the population to a potential risk to alcoholism. PMID:26848198

  15. The Complete Sequence of 340 kb of DNA around the Rice Adh1–Adh2 Region Reveals Interrupted Colinearity with Maize Chromosome 4

    PubMed Central

    Tarchini, Renato; Biddle, Phyllis; Wineland, Robin; Tingey, Scott; Rafalski, Antoni

    2000-01-01

    A 2.3-centimorgan (cM) segment of rice chromosome 11 consisting of 340 kb of DNA sequence around the alcohol dehydrogenase Adh1 and Adh2 loci was completely sequenced, revealing the presence of 33 putative genes, including several apparently involved in disease resistance. Fourteen of the genes were confirmed by identifying the corresponding transcripts. Five genes, spanning 1.9 cM of the region, cross-hybridized with maize genomic DNA and were genetically mapped in maize, revealing a stretch of colinearity with maize chromosome 4. The Adh1 gene marked one significant interruption. This gene mapped to maize chromosome 1, indicating a possible translocation of Adh1 after the evolutionary divergence leading to maize and sorghum. Several other genes, most notably genes similar to known disease resistance genes, showed no cross-hybridization with maize genomic DNA, suggesting sequence divergence or absence of these sequences in maize, which is in contrast to several other well-conserved genes, including Adh1 and Adh2. These findings indicate that the use of rice as the model system for other cereals may sometimes be complicated by the presence of rapidly evolving gene families and microtranslocations. Seven retrotransposons and eight transposons were identified in this rice segment, including a Tc1/Mariner–like element, which is new to rice. In contrast to maize, retroelements are less frequent in rice. Only 14.4% of this genome segment consist of retroelements. Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements were found to be the most frequently occurring class of repetitive elements, accounting for 18.8% of the total repetitive DNA. PMID:10715324

  16. Molecular cloning of alcohol dehydrogenase genes of the yeast Pichia stipitis and identification of the fermentative ADH.

    PubMed

    Passoth, V; Schäfer, B; Liebel, B; Weierstall, T; Klinner, U

    1998-10-01

    Two Pichia stipitis ADH genes (PsADH1 and PsADH2) were isolated by complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Adh(-)-mutant. The genes enabled the transformants to grow in the presence of antimycin A on glucose, to use ethanol as sole carbon source and made them sensitive to allylalcohol. The sequences of the genes showed similarities of 70-77% to sequences of ADH genes of Candida albicans, Kluyveromyces lactis, K. marxianus, and S. cerevisiae and about 60% homology to those of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Aspergillus flavus. Southern hybridization experiments suggested that P. stipitis has only these two ADH genes. Both genes are located on the largest chromosome of P. stipitis. PsADH2 encodes for the ADH activity that is responsible for ethanol formation at oxygen limitation. The gene is regulated at the transcriptional level. Moreover, also in cells grown on ethanol, only PsADH2 transcript was found. PsADH1 transcript was detected under aerobic conditions on fermentable carbon sources.

  17. Ethanol formation in adh0 mutants reveals the existence of a novel acetaldehyde-reducing activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Drewke, C; Thielen, J; Ciriacy, M

    1990-01-01

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been constructed which is deficient in the four alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes known at present. This strain (adh0), being irreversibly mutated in the genes ADH1, ADH3, and ADH4 and carrying a point mutation in the gene ADH2 coding for the glucose-repressible isozyme ADHII, still produces up to one third of the theoretical maximum yield of ethanol in a homofermentative conversion of glucose to ethanol. Analysis of the glucose metabolism of adh0 cells shows that the lack of all known ADH isozymes results in the formation of glycerol as a major fermentation product, accompanied by a significant production of acetaldehyde and acetate. Treatment of glucose-growing adh0 cells with the respiratory-chain inhibitor antimycin A leads to an immediate cessation of ethanol production, demonstrating that ethanol production in adh0 cells is dependent on mitochondrial electron transport. Reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol in isolated mitochondria could also be demonstrated. This reduction is apparently linked to the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetate. Preliminary data suggest that this novel type of ethanol formation in S. cerevisiae is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. Images PMID:2193925

  18. The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Laniewska, Magdalena; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are present in gastric cancer cells (GC). Moreover, the activity of total ADH and class IV isoenzymes is significantly higher in cancer tissue than in healthy mucosa. The activity of these enzymes in cancer cells is probably reflected in the sera and could thus be helpful for diagnostics of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of ADH and ALDH as tumor markers for gastric cancer. We defined diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive value for positive and negative results, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve for tested enzymes. Serum samples were taken from 168 patients with gastric cancer before treatment and from 168 control subjects. Total ADH activity and class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by photometric but ALDH activity and ADH I and II by the fluorometric method, with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. There was significant increase in the activity of ADH IV isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of gastric cancer patients compared to the control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH IV was 73%, specificity 79%, positive and negative predictive values were 81 and 72% respectively. Area under ROC curve for ADH IV was 0.67. The results suggest a potential role for ADH IV as marker of gastric cancer.

  19. Characterization of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH12) from Haloarcula marismortui, an extreme halophile from the Dead Sea.

    PubMed

    Timpson, Leanne M; Alsafadi, Diya; Mac Donnchadha, Cillín; Liddell, Susan; Sharkey, Michael A; Paradisi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Haloarchaeal alcohol dehydrogenases are of increasing interest as biocatalysts in the field of white biotechnology. In this study, the gene adh12 from the extreme halophile Haloarcula marismortui (HmADH12), encoding a 384 residue protein, was cloned into two vectors: pRV1 and pTA963. The resulting constructs were used to transform host strains Haloferax volcanii (DS70) and (H1209), respectively. Overexpressed His-tagged recombinant HmADH12 was purified by immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC). The His-tagged protein was visualized by SDS-PAGE, with a subunit molecular mass of 41.6 kDa, and its identity was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Purified HmADH12 catalyzed the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes and ketones, being optimally active in the presence of 2 M KCl. It was thermoactive, with maximum activity registered at 60°C. The NADP(H) dependent enzyme was haloalkaliphilic for the oxidative reaction with optimum activity at pH 10.0. It favored a slightly acidic pH of 6.0 for catalysis of the reductive reaction. HmADH12 was significantly more tolerant than mesophilic ADHs to selected organic solvents, making it a much more suitable biocatalyst for industrial application.

  20. Clinical guidelines for management of diabetes insipidus and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Cristina; del Pozo, Carlos; Villabona, Carles

    2014-04-01

    Changes in water metabolism and regulation of vasopressin (AVP) or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are common complications of pituitary surgery. The scarcity of studies comparing different treatment and monitoring strategies for these disorders and the lack of prior clinical guidelines makes it difficult to provide recommendations following a methodology based on grades of evidence. This study reviews the pathophysiology of diabetes insipidus and inappropriate ADH secretion after pituitary surgery, and is intended to serve as a guide for their diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.

  1. ADH1A variation predisposes to personality traits and substance dependence.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lingjun; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R; Stein, Murray B; Zhang, Huiping; Wei, Feng; Sen, Srijan; Poling, James; Luo, Xingguang

    2010-03-05

    Human personality traits are strong predictors or characteristics of many psychiatric disorders including substance dependence (SD). Recently, significant associations between alcohol dehydrogenase type 1A gene (ADH1A) and SD have been reported, which led us to investigate the impact of ADH1A variation on personality traits and risk of SD. Five hundred fifty-eight subjects with SD [398 European-Americans (EAs) and 160 African-Americans (AAs)], 517 college students (384 EAs and 133 European-origin Hispanics), and 448 healthy subjects (385 EAs, 48 AAs, and 15 European-origin Hispanics) participated. Personality traits were assessed in 247 subjects with SD (179 EAs and 68 AAs), all 517 college students, and 332 healthy subjects (285 EAs, 40 AAs, and 7 European-origin Hispanics). The relationships between ADH1A and personality traits were comprehensively examined using stepwise multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), and then decomposed by stepwise analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The relationship between ADH1A and SD was examined using stepwise logistic regression analysis. Admixture effects on analyses were considered. Overall, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were associated with the diplotypes, haplotypes, genotypes, and/or alleles of ADH1A in three of four phenotype groups including EA SD subjects, healthy subjects, and AA SD subjects (1.7 x 10(-4) ADH1A (0.008 ADH1A variation may contribute to the genetic component of variation in personality traits and SD.

  2. Profound hyponatraemia following an idiosyncratic reaction to diuretics.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, A S; Ball, S G; Singh, N K

    1998-06-01

    A case report of a79-year-old woman with a breast adenocarcinoma who presented with clouding of consciousness and anorexia with a hyponatraemia of 97 mmol/l is described. An initial diagnosis of secretion of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) was made on the clinical history and a urine: plasma osmolality ratio of 2.25. Further investigation revealed the correct diagnosis of a sodium-losing state with dehydration, and that her ADH level was normal. The actual cause of her hyponatraemia was the recent prescription of a thiazide diuretic. This case illustrates the unreliability of urine: plasma osmolality ratios for the diagnosis of SIADH.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the nuclear alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene family in Carex section Acrocystis (Cyperaceae) and combined analyses of Adh and nuclear ribosomal ITS and ETS sequences for inferring species relationships.

    PubMed

    Roalson, Eric H; Friar, Elizabeth A

    2004-12-01

    We analyzed sequence variation for the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene family in Carex section Acrocystis (Cyperaceae) to reconstruct Adh gene trees for Acrocystis species and to characterize the structure of the Adh gene family in Carex. Two Adh loci were included with ITS and ETS sequences in a combined Bayesian inference analysis of Carex section Acrocystis to gain a better understanding of species relationships in the section. In addition, we comment on how the results presented here contribute to our knowledge of the birth-death process of the Adh gene family in angiosperms. It appears that the structure of the Adh gene family in Carex is complex with possibly six loci present in the gene family. Additionally, variation among Acrocystis species within loci is quite low, and there is little phylogenetic resolution in the individual datasets. Bayesian inference analysis of the combined ITS, ETS, Adh1, and Adh2 datasets resulted in a moderately well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships in the section which is discussed in relation to previous hypotheses of relationships.

  4. Severe hyponatremia caused by nab-paclitaxel-induced syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

    PubMed Central

    Neuzillet, Cindy; Babai, Samy; Kempf, Emmanuelle; Pujol, Géraldine; Rousseau, Benoît; Le-Louët, Hervé; Christophe Tournigand

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is increasing. Most patients have advanced disease at diagnosis and therapeutic options in this setting are limited. Gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel regimen was demonstrated to increase survival compared with gemcitabine monotherapy and is therefore indicated as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic PDAC and performance status Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 0-2. The safety profile of gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel combination includes neutropenia, fatigue, and neuropathy as most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher. No case of severe hyponatremia associated with the use of nab-paclitaxel for the treatment of PDAC has been reported to date. We report the case of a 72-year-old Caucasian man with a metastatic PDAC treated with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel regimen, who presented with a severe hyponatremia (grade 4) caused by a documented syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). This SIADH was attributed to nab-paclitaxel after a rigorous imputability analysis, including a rechallenge procedure with dose reduction. After dose and schedule adjustment, nab-paclitaxel was pursued without recurrence of severe hyponatremia and with maintained efficacy. Hyponatremia is a rare but potentially severe complication of nab-paclitaxel therapy that medical oncologists and gastroenterologists should be aware of. Nab-paclitaxel-induced hyponatremia is manageable upon dose and schedule adaptation, and should not contraindicate careful nab-paclitaxel reintroduction. This is of particular interest for a disease in which the therapeutic options are limited. PMID:27368013

  5. Disorders of water metabolism: diabetes insipidus and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Verbalis, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of body fluids are among the most commonly encountered problems in the practice of clinical medicine. This is in large part because many different disease states can potentially disrupt the finely balanced mechanisms that control the intake and output of water and solute. It therefore behooves clinicians treating such patients to have a good understanding of the pathophysiology, the differential diagnosis and the management of these disorders. Since body water is the primary determinant of the osmolality of the extracellular fluid (ECF), disorders of body water homeostasis can be divided into hypoosmolar disorders, in which there is an excess of body water relative to body solute, and hyperosmolar disorders, in which there is a deficiency of body water relative to body solute. The classical hyperosmolar disorder is diabetes insipidus (DI), and the classical hypoosmolar disorder is the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). This chapter first reviews the regulatory mechanisms underlying water and sodium metabolism, the two major determinants of body fluid homeostasis. The major disorders of water metabolism causing hyperosmolality and hypoosmolality, DI and SIADH, are then discussed in detail, including the pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

  6. Alcohol dehydrogenase AdhA plays a role in ethanol tolerance in model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Rebeca

    2017-02-03

    The protein AdhA from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis) has been previously reported to show alcohol dehydrogenase activity towards ethanol and both NAD and NADP. This protein is currently being used in genetically modified strains of Synechocystis capable of synthesizing ethanol showing the highest ethanol productivities. In the present work, mutant strains of Synechocystis lacking AdhA have been constructed and tested for tolerance to ethanol. The lack of AdhA in the wild-type strain reduces survival to externally added ethanol at lethal concentration of 4% (v/v). On the other hand, the lack of AdhA in an ethanologenic strain diminishes tolerance of cells to internally produced ethanol. It is also shown that light-activated heterotrophic growth (LAHG) of the wild-type strain is impaired in the mutant strain lacking AdhA (∆adhA strain). Photoautotrophic, mixotrophic, and photoheterotrophic growth are not affected in the mutant strain. Based on phenotypic characterization of ∆adhA mutants, the possible physiological function of AdhA in Synechocystis is discussed.

  7. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3): Turbulence Closure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ER D C/ CH L CR -1 5- 1 Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3): Turbulence Closure Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic...military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army, the Department of Defense, civilian agencies, and our...library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/CHL CR-15-1 June 2015 Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3

  8. CPPB and vasopressin secretion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, W. H., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role of vasopressin (or 'antidiuretic hormone') secretory control system in the maintenance of central vascular volume, and critical comments about the latest paper by Barratz et al. (1971) on the interrelation of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and fluid balance during continuous positive pressure breathing (CPPB) in dogs. It is felt that, while the increase in plasma ADH levels occurring with CPPB has been more carefully defined in this last paper than previously, still more accurate definitions could be obtained under experimental conditions modified in accordance with presented suggestions.

  9. Interactions between ADH and prostaglandins in isolated erythrocyte-perfused rat kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberthal, W.; Vasilevsky, M.L.; Valeri, C.R.; Levinsky, N.G.

    1987-02-01

    Interactions between antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and renal prostaglandins in the regulation of sodium reabsorption and urinary concentrating ability were studied in isolated erythrocyte-perfused rat kidneys (IEPK). In this model, hemodynamic characteristics are comparable to those found in vivo, and tubular morphology is preserved throughout the period of perfusion. (Deamino)-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP) markedly reduced fractional sodium excretion (FE/sub Na/) in the IEPK. After indomethacin, FE/sub Na/ fell still further. In the absence of dDAVP indomethacin had no effect on sodium excretion. dDAVP increased urine osmolality in the IEPK. When prostaglandin synthesis was blocked with indomethacin, urinary osmolality increased further. In isolated kidneys perfused without erythrocytes (IPK), dDAVP decreased FE/sub Na/ from 14.5 +/- 1.8% to 9.6 +/- 1.2%. dDAVP increased urine osmolality only modestly in the IPK and indomethacin did not increase concentrating ability further. Thus the IEPK (unlike the IPK) can excrete markedly hypertonic urine in response to ADH. ADH also enhances tubular reabsorption of sodium in the IEPK. Prostaglandins inhibit both these actions of ADH but do not directly affect sodium excretion in the absence of the hormone. Prostaglandius were measured by radioimmunoassay.

  10. Meta-Analyses of ALDH2 and ADH1B with Alcohol Dependence in Asians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczak, Susan E.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Wall, Tamara J.

    2006-01-01

    Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the magnitude of relationships between polymorphisms in 2 genes, ALDH2 and ADH1B, with alcohol dependence in Asians. For each gene, possession of 1 variant [asterisk]2 allele was protective against alcohol dependence, and possession of a 2nd [asterisk]2 allele did not offer significant additional…

  11. The influence of Adh function on ethanol preference and tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ogueta, Maite; Cibik, Osman; Eltrop, Rouven; Schneider, Andrea; Scholz, Henrike

    2010-11-01

    Preference determines behavioral choices such as choosing among food sources and mates. One preference-affecting chemical is ethanol, which guides insects to fermenting fruits or leaves. Here, we show that adult Drosophila melanogaster prefer food containing up to 5% ethanol over food without ethanol and avoid food with high levels (23%) of ethanol. Although female and male flies behaved differently at ethanol-containing food sources, there was no sexual dimorphism in the preference for food containing modest ethanol levels. We also investigated whether Drosophila preference, sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol was related to the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), the primary ethanol-metabolizing enzyme in D. melanogaster. Impaired Adh function reduced ethanol preference in both D. melanogaster and a related species, D. sechellia. Adh-impaired flies also displayed reduced aversion to high ethanol concentrations, increased sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on postural control, and negative tolerance/sensitization (i.e., a reduction of the increased resistance to ethanol's effects that normally occurs upon repeated exposure). These data strongly indicate a linkage between ethanol-induced behavior and ethanol metabolism in adult fruit flies: Adh deficiency resulted in reduced preference to low ethanol concentrations and reduced aversion to high ones, despite recovery from ethanol being strongly impaired.

  12. Suppression of ADH during water immersion in normal man. [antidiuretic hormone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Pins, D. S.; Miller, M.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken to ascertain whether diuresis induced by immersion is medicated by an inhibition of ADH. Immersion resulted in a progressive decrease in ADH excretion from 80.1 + or - 7 (SEM) to 37.3 + or - 6.3 microU/min (P less than 0.025). Cessation of immersion was associated with a marked increase in ADH from 37.3 + or - 6.3 microU/min to 176.6 + or - 72.6 microU/min during the recovery hour (P less than 0.05). Concomitant with these changes, urine osmolality decreased significantly beginning as early as the initial hour of immersion from 1044 + or - 36 to 542 + or - 66 mosmol/kg H2O during the final hour of immersion (P less than 0.001). These findings are consistent with the earlier suggestion that suppression of ADH release contributes to enhanced free water clearance in hydrated subjects undergoing immersion.

  13. Evaluation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 promoter for protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Michael; DaSilva, Nancy A

    2005-04-30

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 promoter (P(ADH2)) is repressed several hundred-fold in the presence of glucose; transcription is initiated once the glucose in the medium is exhausted. The promoter can thus be utilized for effective regulation of recombinant gene expression in S. cerevisiae without the addition of an inducer. To evaluate this promoter in the absence of plasmid copy number and stability variations, the P(ADH2)-lacZ cassette was integrated into the yeast chromosomes. The effects of medium composition, glucose concentration and cultivation time on promoter derepression and expression level were investigated. Maximum protein activity was obtained after 48 h of growth in complex YPD medium containing 1% glucose. The widely used S. cerevisiae GAL1 and CUP1 promoters both require the addition of an inducer [galactose and copper(II) ion, respectively] before regulated genes will be expressed. The strengths of these three different promoters were compared for cells containing one copy of an integrated lacZ gene under their control. The ADH2 promoter was superior for all induction strategies investigated.

  14. Temperature and water loss affect ADH activity and gene expression in grape berry during postharvest dehydration.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Marco; Bellincontro, Andrea; De Santis, Diana; Botondi, Rinaldo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Muleo, Rosario; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2012-05-01

    Clusters of Aleatico wine grape were picked at 18°Brix and placed at 10, 20, or 30°C, 45% relative humidity (RH) and 1.5m/s of air flow to dehydrate the berries up to 40% of loss of initial fresh weight. Sampling was done at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% weight loss (wl). ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene expression, enzyme activity, and related metabolites were analysed. At 10°C, acetaldehyde increased rapidly and then declined, while ethanol continued to rise. At 20°C, acetaldehyde and ethanol increased significantly with the same pattern and declined at 40%wl. At 30°C, acetaldehyde did not increase but ethanol increased rapidly already at 10%wl. At the latter temperature, a significant increase in acetic acid and ethyl acetate occurred, while at 10°C their values were low. At 30°C, the ADH activity (ethanol to acetaldehyde direction), increased rapidly but acetaldehyde did not rise because of its oxidation to acetic acid, which increased together with ethyl acetate. At 10°C, the ADH activity increased at 20%wl and continued to rise even at 40%wl, meaning that ethanol oxidation was delayed. At 20°C, the behaviour was intermediate to the other temperatures. The relative expression of the VvAdh2 gene was the highest at 10°C already at 10%wl in a synchrony with the ADH activity, indicating a rapid response likely due to low temperature. The expression subsequently declined. At 20 and 30°C, the expression was lower and increased slightly during dehydration in combination with the ADH activity. This imbalance between gene expression and ADH activity at 10°C, as well as the unexpected expression of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) gene, opens the discussion on the stress sensitivity and transcription event during postharvest dehydration, and the importance of carefully monitoring temperature during dehydration.

  15. The ADH7 Promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Vanillin-Inducible and Enables mRNA Translation Under Severe Vanillin Stress.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T M; Iwaki, Aya; Izawa, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the major phenolic aldehyde compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass and acts as a potent fermentation inhibitor to repress the growth and fermentative ability of yeast. Vanillin can be reduced to its less toxic form, vanillyl alcohol, by the yeast NADPH-dependent medium chain alcohol dehydrogenases, Adh6 and Adh7. However, there is little information available regarding the regulation of their gene expression upon severe vanillin stress, which has been shown to repress the bulk translation activity in yeast cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression patterns of the ADH6 and ADH7 genes in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin. We found that although both genes were transcriptionally upregulated by vanillin stress, they showed different protein expression patterns in response to vanillin. Expression of Adh6 was constitutive and gradually decreased under vanillin stress, whereas expression of Adh7 was inducible, and, importantly, occurred under severe vanillin stress. The null mutants of ADH6 or ADH7 genes were hypersensitive to vanillin and reduced vanillin less efficiently than the wild type, confirming the importance of Adh6 and Adh7 in vanillin detoxification. Additionally, we demonstrate that the ADH7 promoter is vanillin-inducible and enables effective protein synthesis even under severe vanillin stress, and it may be useful for the improvement of vanillin-tolerance and biofuel production efficiency via modification of yeast gene expression in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin.

  16. Opposing--activating or inhibitory--effects of cimetidine and daidzein on human ADH1C activity depending on substrates and solvents.

    PubMed

    Kollock, Ronny; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2012-01-01

    Toxification of benzylic alcohols (e.g. hydroxymethylpyrenes) by sulfotransferases is efficiently competed by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). We are interested in drugs and food constituents affecting this detoxification. Daidzein and cimetidine were reported to inhibit ADH1C-mediated ethanol oxidation. Surprisingly, we found that both modulators enhance the oxidation of 4-hydroxymethylpyrene by ADH1C. This activation was seen with either delivering solvents used, dimethylsulfoxide or acetonitrile. Addition of dimethylsulfoxide, but not acetonitrile, converted daidzein and cimetidine from inhibitors to activators of the ADH1C-mediated oxidation of the other substrate studied, ethanol (added in water). Other human ADH forms (ADH2, 3, 4) were inhibited by both agents independently of the substrate and the corresponding solvent used. Kinetic constants for the various reactions are presented. ADH1C was unique in its complex substrate-dependent interaction with daidzein/cimetidine and solvents.

  17. High diversity and no significant selection signal of human ADH1B gene in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background ADH1B is one of the most studied human genes with many polymorphic sites. One of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1229984, coding for the Arg48His substitution, have been associated with many serious diseases including alcoholism and cancers of the digestive system. The derived allele, ADH1B*48His, reaches high frequency only in East Asia and Southwest Asia, and is highly associated with agriculture. Micro-evolutionary study has defined seven haplogroups for ADH1B based on seven SNPs encompassing the gene. Three of those haplogroups, H5, H6, and H7, contain the ADH1B*48His allele. H5 occurs in Southwest Asia and the other two are found in East Asia. H7 is derived from H6 by the derived allele of rs3811801. The H7 haplotype has been shown to have undergone significant positive selection in Han Chinese, Hmong, Koreans, Japanese, Khazak, Mongols, and so on. Methods In the present study, we tested whether Tibetans also showed evidence for selection by typing 23 SNPs in the region covering the ADH1B gene in 1,175 individuals from 12 Tibetan populations representing all districts of the Tibet Autonomous Region. Multiple statistics were estimated to examine the gene diversities and positive selection signals among the Tibetans and other populations in East Asia. Results The larger Tibetan populations (Qamdo, Lhasa, Nagqu, Nyingchi, Shannan, and Shigatse) comprised mostly farmers, have around 12% of H7, and 2% of H6. The smaller populations, living on hunting or recently switched to farming, have lower H7 frequencies (Tingri 9%, Gongbo 8%, Monba and Sherpa 6%). Luoba (2%) and Deng (0%) have even lower frequencies. Long-range haplotype analyses revealed very weak signals of positive selection for H7 among Tibetans. Interestingly, the haplotype diversity of H7 is higher in Tibetans than in any other populations studied, indicating a longer diversification history for that haplogroup in Tibetans. Network analysis on the long-range haplotypes revealed

  18. Enhanced H2 gas production from bagasse using adhE inactivated Klebsiella oxytoca HP1 by sequential dark-photo fermentations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaobing; Li, Qianyi; Dieudonne, Mutangana; Cong, Yibo; Zhou, Juan; Long, Minnan

    2010-12-01

    Sequential dark-photo fermentations (SDPF) was used for hydrogen production from bagasse, an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (adhE) gene inactivated Klebsiella oxytoca HP1 (DeltaadhE HP1) mutant was used to reduce the alcohol content in dark fermentation (DF) broths and to further enhance the hydrogen yield during the photo fermentation (PF) stage. Compared with that of the wild strain, the ethanol concentration in DF broths of DeltaadhE HP1 decreased 69.4%, which resulted in a hydrogen yield in the PF stage and the total hydrogen yield over the two steps increased by 54.7% and 23.5%, respectively. The culture conditions for hydrogen production from acid pretreated bagasse by SDPF were optimized as culture temperature 37.5 degrees C, initial pH 7.0, and cellulase loading 20 FPA/g in the DF stage, with initial pH 6.5, temperature 30 degrees C and photo intensity 5,000 lux in the PF stage. Under optimum conditions, by using DeltaadhE HP1 and wild type strain, the H(2) yields were 107.8+/-5.3 mL H(2)/g-bagasse, 96.2+/-4.4 mL H(2)/g-bagasse in DF and 54.3+/-2.2 mL H(2)/g-bagasse, 35.1+/-2.0 mL H(2)/g-bagasse in PF, respectively. The special hydrogen production rate (SHPR) were 5.51+/-0.34 mL H(2)/g-bagasseh, 4.95+/-0.22 mL H(2)/g-bagasseh in DF and 0.93+/-0.12 mL H(2)/g-bagasseh, 0.59+/-0.07 mL H(2)/g-bagasseh in PF, respectively. The total hydrogen yield from bagasse over two steps was 162.1+/-7.5 mL H(2)/g-bagasse by using DeltaadhE HP1, which was 50.4% higher than that from dark fermentation only. These results indicate that reducing ethanol content during dark fermentation by using an adhE inactivated strain can significantly enhance hydrogen production from bagasse in the SDPF system. This work also proved that SDPF was an effective way to improve hydrogen production from bagasse.

  19. Genome-wide responses to carbonyl electrophiles in Bacillus subtilis: control of the thiol-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase AdhA and cysteine proteinase YraA by the MerR-family regulator YraB (AdhR).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Thu Huyen; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Mäder, Ulrike; Liebeke, Manuel; Lalk, Michael; Hecker, Michael; Helmann, John D; Antelmann, Haike

    2009-02-01

    Quinones and alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls are naturally occurring electrophiles that target cysteine residues via thiol-(S)-alkylation. We analysed the global expression profile of Bacillus subtilis to the toxic carbonyls methylglyoxal (MG) and formaldehyde (FA). Both carbonyl compounds cause a stress response characteristic for thiol-reactive electrophiles as revealed by the induction of the Spx, CtsR, CymR, PerR, ArsR, CzrA, CsoR and SigmaD regulons. MG and FA triggered also a SOS response which indicates DNA damage. Protection against FA is mediated by both the hxlAB operon, encoding the ribulose monophosphate pathway for FA fixation, and a thiol-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (AdhA) and DJ-1/PfpI-family cysteine proteinase (YraA). The adhA-yraA operon and the yraC gene, encoding a gamma-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase, are positively regulated by the MerR-family regulator, YraB(AdhR). AdhR binds specifically to its target promoters which contain a 7-4-7 inverted repeat (CTTAAAG-N4-CTTTAAG) between the -35 and -10 elements. Activation of adhA-yraA transcription by AdhR requires the conserved Cys52 residue in vivo. We speculate that AdhR is redox-regulated via thiol-(S)-alkylation by aldehydes and that AdhA and YraA are specifically involved in reduction of aldehydes and degradation or repair of damaged thiol-containing proteins respectively.

  20. [Partial defect in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone and disproportionate polydipsia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Montoliu, J; Botey, A; Revert, L

    1980-01-10

    A 20-year-old patient was evaluated because of polydipsia and polyuria; by means of the dehydration test a partial defect in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) was demonstrated, since the urinary osmolality after the administration of exogenous vasopressin was superior by 25 percent to the maximum spontaneous urinary osmolality reached after a period of fluid restriction. Nevertheless, there was also a component of psychogenic polydipsia because the daily basal fluid intake was superior to 15 liters, and in view of the fact that the urinary osmolality could reach 600 mOsm/kg, the endocrine defect cannot totally be responsible for the enormous volume of fluid intake. This is the first case in the world literature in which the association between potomania and deficiency in the secretion of ADH is reported. Since ADH is one of the factors which regulate the behaviour of various animal species it is possible that its deficiency may be directly responsible for the psychic disorder which led to the potomania. It is also possible that an anatomical hypothalamic lesion, too small to be demonstrated, might have a simultaneous effect on the centers regulating thirst and the neurons producing vasopressin.

  1. A New View of Alcohol Metabolism and Alcoholism—Role of the High-Km Class III Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH3)

    PubMed Central

    Haseba, Takeshi; Ohno, Youkichi

    2010-01-01

    The conventional view is that alcohol metabolism is carried out by ADH1 (Class I) in the liver. However, it has been suggested that another pathway plays an important role in alcohol metabolism, especially when the level of blood ethanol is high or when drinking is chronic. Over the past three decades, vigorous attempts to identify the enzyme responsible for the non-ADH1 pathway have focused on the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) and catalase, but have failed to clarify their roles in systemic alcohol metabolism. Recently, using ADH3-null mutant mice, we demonstrated that ADH3 (Class III), which has a high Km and is a ubiquitous enzyme of ancient origin, contributes to systemic alcohol metabolism in a dose-dependent manner, thereby diminishing acute alcohol intoxication. Although the activity of ADH3 toward ethanol is usually low in vitro due to its very high Km, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) is markedly enhanced when the solution hydrophobicity of the reaction medium increases. Activation of ADH3 by increasing hydrophobicity should also occur in liver cells; a cytoplasmic solution of mouse liver cells was shown to be much more hydrophobic than a buffer solution when using Nile red as a hydrophobicity probe. When various doses of ethanol are administered to mice, liver ADH3 activity is dynamically regulated through induction or kinetic activation, while ADH1 activity is markedly lower at high doses (3–5 g/kg). These data suggest that ADH3 plays a dynamic role in alcohol metabolism, either collaborating with ADH1 or compensating for the reduced role of ADH1. A complex two-ADH model that ascribes total liver ADH activity to both ADH1 and ADH3 explains the dose-dependent changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters (β, CLT, AUC) of blood ethanol very well, suggesting that alcohol metabolism in mice is primarily governed by these two ADHs. In patients with alcoholic liver disease, liver ADH3 activity increases, while ADH1 activity decreases, as alcohol

  2. The Analysis of Polymorphism of Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) Gene and Influence of Liver Function Status in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Suhartini; Mustofa; Nurhantari, Yudha; Rianto, Bambang Udji Djoko

    2017-01-31

    Indonesian culture actually has no historical record of behaviors in consuming alcohol, but there are many recent reports of alcohol abuse among Asian people involving their traditional drink. In genotype studies, the damage of the liver caused by consuming alcohol is influenced by the presence of the polymorphism enzyme gene. The lack of study regarding such topic is a signal to further investigate ADH3 gene distribution and its effect on liver function status. The total of 197 research subjects of Javanese descent received alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) genetic polymorphism and liver status tests in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesian. An analytical study with a cross-sectional design was then conducted on the subjects, with the resulting isolated DNAs amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genotype of ADH3 was determined by means of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using Ssp1 restricting enzyme. Liver function status was assessed by measuring serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) using a photometric system. Gene types of ADH3*1 (2.1%), ADH3*2 (82.7%) and ADH3*1/3*2 (15.2%) on the subjects were concluded, finding that there is no difference between the gender. In conclusion most of the ADH3 gene polymorphism of the subjects were ADH3*2 (82.7%). The influence of genetic polymorphisms on the status of liver function in the subjects showed significant difference according to GGT measurement, but the same cannot be said on the other two values measuring SGOT and SGPT.

  3. The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of patients with brain tumor

    PubMed Central

    Laniewska-Dunaj, Magdalena; Orywal, Karolina; Kochanowicz, Jan; Rutkowski, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) exist in the brain. Alcohol dehydrogenase and ALDH are also present in brain tumor cells. Moreover, the activity of class I isoenzymes was significantly higher in cancer than healthy brain cells. The activity of these enzymes in tumor tissue is reflected in the serum and could thus be helpful for diagnostics of brain neoplasms. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of ADH and ALDH as markers for brain tumors. Material and methods Serum samples were taken for routine biochemical investigation from 115 patients suffering from brain tumors (65 glioblastomas, 50 meningiomas). For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, fluorometric methods were used. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method. Results There was a significant increase in the activity of ADH I isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of brain tumor patients compared to the controls. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH I was 78%, specificity 85%, and positive and negative predictive values were 86% and 76% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ADH I increased with the stage of the carcinoma. Area under receiver-operating characteristic curve for ADH I was 0.71. Conclusions The results suggest a potential role for ADH I as a marker for brain tumor. PMID:28261287

  4. Differential interactions of promoter elements in stress responses of the Arabidopsis Adh gene.

    PubMed Central

    Dolferus, R; Jacobs, M; Peacock, W J; Dennis, E S

    1994-01-01

    The Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.1.1.) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. can be induced by dehydration and cold, as well as by hypoxia. A 1-kb promoter fragment (CADH: -964 to +53) is sufficient to confer the stress induction and tissue-specific developmental expression characteristics of the Adh gene to a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Deletion mapping of the 5' end and site-specific mutagenesis identified four regions of the promoter essential for expression under the three stress conditions. Some sequence elements are important for response to all three stress treatments, whereas others are stress specific. The most critical region essential for expression of the Arabidopsis Adh promoter under all three environmental stresses (region IV: -172 to -141) contains sequences homologous to the GT motif (-160 to -152) and the GC motif (-147 to -144) of the maize Adh1 anaerobic responsive element. Region III (-235 to -172) contains two regions shown by R.J. Ferl and B.H. Laughner ([1989] Plant Mol Biol 12: 357-366) to bind regulatory proteins; mutation of the G-box-1 region (5'-CCACGTGG-3', -216 to -209) does not affect expression under uninduced or hypoxic conditions, but significantly reduces induction by cold stress and, to a lesser extent, by dehydration stress. Mutation of the other G-box-like sequence (G-box-2: 5'-CCAAGTGG-3', -193 to -182) does not change hypoxic response and affects cold and dehydration stress only slightly. G-box-2 mutations also promote high levels of expression under uninduced conditions. Deletion of region I (-964 to -510) results in increased expression under uninduced and all stress conditions, suggesting that this region contains a repressor binding site. Region II (-510 to -384) contains a positive regulatory element and is necessary for high expression levels under all treatments. PMID:7972489

  5. DRYAD and ADH: Further comments on explaining age-related differences in memory.

    PubMed

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Smyth, Andrea C

    2016-02-01

    Recently, Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016) questioned some of the main assumptions/hypotheses of DRYAD (or density of representations yields age-related deficits), a global-deficit model of aging and memory judgments (Benjamin, 2010; Benjamin et al., 2012). Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016) provided empirical evidence that seems incompatible with DRYAD, but that fits the associative deficit hypothesis (ADH; Naveh-Benjamin, 2000), 1 specific-deficit theoretical view. In response, Aaron Benjamin (2016) offered a discussion of the complementary strengths and weaknesses of the DRYAD and the ADH, and the potential ways they might work together. We agree with many of his comments, but are not convinced that DRYAD is able to explain basic replicable empirical evidence of the type mentioned in Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016). We discuss the reasons why we are not fully convinced by the demonstration of DRYAD's simulation of results presented in Benjamin (2016) and then present an implementation of ADH in a computationally based age-related impaired neuromodulation approach that was shown to simulate the basic empirical results of age-related associative memory deficits. We also discuss the issues of parsimony of theories and the appropriate type of representation, in the context of global versus specific deficits theoretical views. Finally, we show that the ADH's take on the distinction between items and associations has been adopted by some global computational models of memory. We believe that considerations of the above issues and others raised by Benjamin (2016) can lead to fruitful discussions that will benefit both theory development and existing knowledge of aging and memory.

  6. Is ADH1C genotype relevant for the cardioprotective effect of alcohol?

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Magnus, Per; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Jansen, Mona Dverdal; Næss, Oyvind; Tambs, Kristian; Mørland, Jørg

    2013-03-01

    The cardioprotective effect of ethanol has been suggested to be linked to one of the ethanol metabolizing enzymes (ADH1C), which constitutes a high V(max) and a low V(max) variant. This has been demonstrated in some studies, while others have not been able to replicate the findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between the different ADH1C genotypes, death from coronary heart disease (CHD) and alcohol in a material larger than the previously published studies. Eight hundred CHD deaths as well as 1303 controls were genotyped for the high V(max) (γ1) and the low V(max) (γ2) ADH1C variant. Information of alcohol use was available for all subjects. Multiple logistic regression analyses was used to study if the decreased risk of death from CHD in alcohol consuming subjects was more pronounced in subjects homozygous for the γ2 allele (γ2γ2 subjects) compared to γ1γ1 and γ1γ2 subjects. The odds ratio (OR) for death from CHD in alcohol consumers compared to abstainers was similar in the genotype groups, i.e., 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88) in γ1γ1 subjects and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.42-0.91) in γ2γ2 subjects. Also when stratifying the results by gender and when dividing alcohol consumers into different alcohol consumption groups, there was no difference in the OR between the different genotype groups. This study, which included the largest study group published so far, failed to find any link between the ADH1C genotype and the cardioprotective effects of alcohol.

  7. Polymorphisms in Alcohol Metabolism Genes ADH1B and ALDH2, Alcohol Consumption and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Rennert, Gad; Cuadras, Daniel; Salazar, Ramon; Cordero, David; Saltz Rennert, Hedy; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Kopelovich, Levy; Monroe Lipkin, Steven; Bernard Gruber, Stephen; Moreno, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epidemiological risk factors for CRC included alcohol intake, which is mainly metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase; consequently, the role of genes in the alcohol metabolism pathways is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between SNPs in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes and CRC risk, and also the main effect of alcohol consumption on CRC risk in the study population. Methodology/Principal Findings SNPs from ADH1B and ALDH2 genes, included in alcohol metabolism pathway, were genotyped in 1694 CRC cases and 1851 matched controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits were also obtained. Logistic regression and association analysis were conducted. A positive association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk was observed in male participants from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (MECC) study (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.18-1.81). Moreover, the SNPs rs1229984 in ADH1B gene was found to be associated with CRC risk: under the recessive model, the OR was 1.75 for A/A genotype (95%CI = 1.21-2.52; p-value = 0.0025). A path analysis based on structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of ADH1B gene polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis and also an indirect effect mediated through alcohol consumption. Conclusions/Significance Genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolism pathways have a potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis, probably due to the differences in the ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde oxidation of these enzyme variants. PMID:24282520

  8. Infanticide secrets

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Jennieffer A.; Beck, Cheryl T.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore thoughts of infanticide that did not lead to the act among mothers with postpartum depression. DESIGN A phenomenologic hermeneutic study in which women were invited to share their experiences of having thoughts of infanticide. SETTING Community setting in a large metropolitan city, Brisbane, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Fifteen women who had been diagnosed as clinically depressed with postpartum onset whose babies were 12 months of age or younger. METHOD Audiotaped, in-depth interviews were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis commenced immediately after the first interview, and data collection continued until saturation was achieved. A questioning approach that reflected hermeneutics was facilitated by use of journals by the researchers. MAIN FINDINGS Six themes emerged from the data: imagined acts of infanticide, the experience of horror, distorted sense of responsibility, consuming negativity, keeping secrets, and managing the crisis. CONCLUSION Women who experienced nonpsychotic depression preferred not to disclose their thoughts of infanticide to health professionals, including trusted general practitioners or psychiatrists. These women were more likely to mention their suicidal thoughts than their infanticidal thoughts in order to obtain health care. General practitioners and other health professionals should directly ask about whether a woman has been experiencing thoughts of harming herself or her baby, regardless of the reason why she has presented. PMID:19074717

  9. Miliary tuberculosis presenting with hyponatremia and thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, D. W.; Donevan, R. E.; Copland, G. M.; Ibbott, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman with miliary tuberculosis had moderately severe hyponatremia due to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and very severe thrombocytopenia without other hematologic abnormalities. She was treated with isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, prednisone, vincristine and fluid restriction and recovered completely. The SIADH may have been a response by the posterior pituitary to a decrease in intravascular volume resulting from the extensive pulmonary disease or associated hypoxia, or the tuberculous lung may have released ADH or an ADH-like substance. The thrombocytopenia may have resulted from a direct or indirect toxic effect of infection or, less likely, the tuberculosis may have activated latent idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:991033

  10. Effects of ADH2 overexpression in Saccharomyces bayanus during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Oscar; García-Martínez, Teresa; Peinado, Rafael A; Mauricio, Juan C

    2008-02-01

    The effect of overexpression of the gene ADH2 on metabolic and biological activity in Saccharomyces bayanus V5 during alcoholic fermentation has been evaluated. This gene is known to encode alcohol dehydrogenase II (ADH II). During the biological aging of sherry wines, where yeasts have to grow on ethanol owing to the absence of glucose, this isoenzyme plays a prominent role by converting the ethanol into acetaldehyde and producing NADH in the process. Overexpression of the gene ADH2 during alcoholic fermentation has no effect on the proteomic profile or the net production of some metabolites associated with glycolysis and alcoholic fermentation such as ethanol, acetaldehyde, and glycerol. However, it affects indirectly glucose and ammonium uptakes, cell growth, and intracellular redox potential, which lead to an altered metabolome. The increased contents in acetoin, acetic acid, and L-proline present in the fermentation medium under these conditions can be ascribed to detoxification by removal of excess acetaldehyde and the need to restore and maintain the intracellular redox potential balance.

  11. The Relationship between CmADHs and the Diversity of Volatile Organic Compounds of Three Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao; Jin, Yazhong; Tang, Yufan; Qi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) plays an important role in aroma volatile compounds synthesis of plants. In this paper, we tried to explore the relationship between CmADHs and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in oriental melon. Three different aroma types of melon were used as materials. The principle component analysis of three types of melon fruit was conducted. We also measured the CmADHs expression level and enzymatic activities of ADH and alcohol acyl-transferase (AAT) on different stages of fruit ripening. An incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of substrates and inhibitor (4-MP, 4-methylpyrazole) on CmADHs expression, ADH activity, and the main compounds of oriental melon. The results illustrated that ethyl acetate, hexyl acetate (E,Z)-3,6-nonadien-1-ol and 2-ethyl-2hexen-1-ol were the four principal volatile compounds of these three types of melon. AAT activity was increasing with fruit ripening, and the AAT activity in CH were the highest, whereas ADH activity peaked on 32 DAP, 2 days before maturation, and the ADH activity in CB and CG were higher than that in CH. The expression pattern of 11 CmADH genes from 24 to 36 day after pollination (DAP) was found to vary in three melon varieties. CmADH4 was only expressed in CG and the expression levels of CmADH3 and CmADH12 in CH and CB were much higher than that in CG, and they both peaked 2 days before fruit ripening. Ethanol and 4-MP decreased the reductase activity of ADH, the expression of most CmADHs and ethyl acetate or hexyl acetate contents of CB, except for 0.1 mM 4-MP, while aldehyde improved the two acetate ester contents. In addition, we found a positive correlation between the expression of CmADH3 and CmADH12 and the key volatile compound of CB. The relationship between CmADHs and VOCs synthesis of oriental melon was discussed. PMID:27445845

  12. Genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2, alcohol consumption, and the risk of gastric cancer: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Akihisa; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-02-01

    The association between alcohol consumption, genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and gastric cancer risk is not completely understood. We investigated the association between ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms, alcohol consumption and the risk of gastric cancer among Japanese subjects in a population-based, nested, case-control study (1990-2004). Among 36 745 subjects who answered the baseline questionnaire and provided blood samples, 457 new gastric cancer cases matched to 457 controls were used in the analysis. The odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression models. No association was observed between alcohol consumption, ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk. However, considering gene-environmental interaction, ADH1C G allele carriers who drink ≥150 g/week of ethanol had a 2.5-fold increased risk of gastric cancer (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.05-6.17) relative to AA genotype carriers who drink 0 to <150 g/week (P for interaction = 0.02). ALDH2 A allele carriers who drink ≥150 g/week also had an increased risk (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.05-4.12) relative to GG genotype carriers who drink 0 to < 150 g/week (P for interaction = 0.08). To find the relation between alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk, it is important to consider both alcohol consumption level and ADH1C and ALDH2 polymorphisms.

  13. The ADH1B and DRD2 gene polymorphism may modify the protective effect of the ALDH2 gene against heroin dependence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Chen-Lin; Yeh, Pin-Hsi; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lu, Ru-Band

    2013-06-03

    Understanding the influences of genes involved in dopamine and serotonin metabolism, such as the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) genes, is critical for understanding addictive behavior. In addition, dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene may also interact with the dopamine metabolizing genes and link to addiction. Therefore, we investigated the association between the ALDH2, ADH1B and DRD2 polymorphisms and heroin dependence. Heroin-dependent Han Chinese patients (n=304) and healthy controls (n=335) were recruited. Genotypes of ALDH2, ADH1B and DRD2 polymorphisms were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism. The frequency of the ALDH2*1/*1 genotype was significantly lower in heroin-dependent patients than in controls, but the frequency of ADH1B and DRD2 genotypes was not significantly different. Further stratification of the ALDH2 gene with the ADH1B gene showed that the protective effect of ALDH2*1/*1 existed only in patients who also carried the ADH1B*1/*1 and ADH1B*1/*2 genotype. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant interaction between ALDH2 and ADH1B (P=0.022) and DRD2, ALDH2 and ADH1B in patients (P=0.037). The ALDH2*1/*1, ADH1B*1/*1, and ADH1B*1/*2 genotypes may interact and protect their carriers against heroin dependence and the protective effect may be varied by the DRD2 gene polymorphism. We conclude that the protective effect of the ALDH2 polymorphism against heroin dependence may be modified by the ADH1B and DRD2 polymorphism.

  14. Maintenance of the Adh polymorphism in Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum (tiger salamanders). I. Genotypic differences in time to metamorphosis in extreme oxygen environments.

    PubMed

    Carter, P A

    1997-01-01

    Populations of gilled tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum) living in ephemeral ponds were studied in order to determine what evolutionary processes might be affecting genetic variation at the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) locus. Ponds frequently dried in late summer; salamanders that did not metamorphose and leave drying ponds died of desiccation. Low levels of water oxygen significantly slowed metamorphosis of tiger salamanders in both natural and laboratory populations. Adh- SS frequency was significantly positively correlated with daily oxygen maxima in ponds, Adh-FF frequency demonstrated a nonsignificant trend to be negatively correlated with this measure, and Adh-SF frequency was unrelated to pond oxygen. Genotype frequency changes across the season in hypoxic and supersaturated ponds suggested that differential mortality of genotypes might explain the relationships with pond oxygen, although other mechanisms cannot be ruled out. Individuals of the Adh-SS genotype metamorphosed more slowly in hypoxic water than in normoxic water in the laboratory, and Adh-FF individuals metamorphosed more slowly in supersaturated water in the field, and in hypoxic water in the laboratory, than they did in normoxic water. Adh-SF individuals metamorphosed at the same rate in all oxygen environments. These data suggest that the Adh polymorphism in tiger salamanders is being maintained by selection for Adh or for a linked locus through differential metamorphosis in extreme oxygen environments.

  15. Role of cardiac volume receptors in the control of ADH release during acute simulated weightlessness in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Benjamin, B. A.; Keil, L. C.; Sandler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured during body position changes, designed to induce central blood volume shifts in ten cardiac and one heart-lung transplant recipients, to assess the contribution of cardiac volume receptors in the control of ADH release during the initial acute phase of exposure to weightlessness. Each subject underwent 15 min of a sitting-control period (C) followed by 30 min of 6 deg headdown tilt (T) and 30 min of resumed sitting (S). Venous blood samples and cardiac dimensions were taken at 0 and 15 min of C; 5, 15, and 30 min of T; and 5, 15, and 30 min of S. Blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity (PRA), and ADH. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded every two min. Plasma osmolality was not altered by posture changes. Mean left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased (P less than 0.05) from 90 ml in C to 106 ml in T and returned to 87 ml in S. Plasma ADH was reduced by 20 percent (P less than 0.05) with T, and returned to control levels with S. These responses were similar in six normal cardiac-innervated control subjects. These data may suggest that cardiac volume receptors are not the primary mechanism for the control of ADH release during acute central volume shifts in man.

  16. Cloning of the Arabidopsis and Rice Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase Genes: Implications for the Origin of Plant Adh Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Dolferus, R.; Osterman, J. C.; Peacock, W. J.; Dennis, E. S.

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the cloning of the genes encoding the Arabidopsis and rice class III ADH enzymes, members of the alcohol dehydrogenase or medium chain reductase/dehydrogenase superfamily of proteins with glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity (GSH-FDH). Both genes contain eight introns in exactly the same positions, and these positions are conserved in plant ethanol-active Adh genes (class P). These data provide further evidence that plant class P genes have evolved from class III genes by gene duplication and acquisition of new substrate specificities. The position of introns and similarities in the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of the different classes of ADH enzymes in plants and humans suggest that plant and animal class III enzymes diverged before they duplicated to give rise to plant and animal ethanol-active ADH enzymes. Plant class P ADH enzymes have gained substrate specificities and evolved promoters with different expression properties, in keeping with their metabolic function as part of the alcohol fermentation pathway. PMID:9215914

  17. Vasopressin and oxytocin secretion in response to the consumption of ecstasy in a clubbing population.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Kim; Tsapakis, E M; Winstock, A R; Hartley, D; Holt, D; Forsling, M L; Aitchison, Katherine J

    2006-05-01

    Despite the common use of MDMA (ecstasy) in the UK, the mechanism underlying associated potentially fatal cerebral oedema is unclear. We used a new experimental approach working directly with clubbers to perform a study on 30 (17 male) experienced clubbers (mean 6.6 years of clubbing). Pre- and post-clubbing measurements were performed to compare plasma levels of pituitary hormones (vasopressin, oxytocin), plasma and urine osmolality, urinary pH, and plasma sodium and urea. Ecstasy consumption was confirmed by using urinary drug screening pre- and post-clubbing. MDMA was detected in the urine samples of 17 subjects, three of which tested positive during pre-clubbing tests. Mean plasma vasopressin concentration increased in the MDMA group (1.28 +/- 0.29 to 1.43 +/- 0.41 pmol/l), but fell in other participants (1.23 +/- 0.42 to 1.16 +/- 0.0.34 pmol/l). Similarly, mean plasma oxytocin concentrations increased after ingestion of MDMA (2.02 +/- 0.29 to 2.43 +/- 0.24 pmol/l), but fell in the group that did not use MDMA (2.17 +/- 0.36 pmol/l to 1.89 +/- 0.37 pmol/l). There was a significant group by time interaction for plasma osmolality and plasma sodium (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively) and between change in urinary osmolality (p < 0.001) and MDMA use, with the pattern of change being consistent with the induction of inappropriate vasopressin secretion (also known as SIADH) by MDMA. This report demonstrates SIADH in ecstasy-using "clubbers", which has important clinical implications.

  18. Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase after 2-propanol exposure in different geographic races of Drosophila mojavensis: lack of evidence for selection at the Adh-2 locus.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, Edward; Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A

    2005-03-15

    High frequencies of the fast allele of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (Adh-2F) are found in populations of Drosophila mojavensis that inhabit the Baja California peninsula (race BII) whereas the slow allele (Adh-2S) predominates at most other localities within the species' geographic range. Race BII flies utilize necrotic tissue of pitaya agria cactus (Stenocereus gummosus) which contains high levels of 2-propanol, whereas flies from most other localities utilize different cactus hosts in which 2-propanol levels are low. To test if 2-propanol acts as a selective force on Adh-2 genotype, or whether some other yet undetermined genetic factor is responsible, mature males of D. mojavensis lines derived from the Grand Canyon (race A) and Santa Catalina Island (race C), each with individuals homozygous for Adh-2F and Adh-2S, were exposed to 2-propanol for 24 h and ADH-2 specific activity was then determined on each genotype. Flies from five other localities homozygous for either the fast or slow allele also were examined. Results for all reported races of D. mojavensis were obtained. 2-propanol exposure inhibited ADH-2 specific activity in both genotypes from all localities, but inhibition was significantly less in two populations of race BII flies homozygous for Adh-2F. When F/F and S/S genotypes in flies from the same locality were compared, both genotypes showed high 2-propanol inhibition that was not statistically different, indicating that the F/F genotype alone does not provide a benefit against the inhibitory effects of 2-propanol. ADH-1 activity in female ovaries was inhibited less by 2-propanol than ADH-2. These results do not support the hypothesis that 2-propanol acts as a selective factor favoring the Adh-2F allele.

  19. [Changes in kidney function and the cortisol and ADH levels after peritoneal dialysis with 5% glucose in dogs].

    PubMed

    Nachev, N; Bratanova, Ts; Pavlov, D

    1975-01-01

    The authors made peritoneal dialisis with 5% of glucose (7 ml/kg of body weight) in 11 dogs under the conditions of an acute experiments. They examined cortiosl and ADH activity, hematocrite and plasma protein in the samples of blood, obtained on the 20th and 50th minute. ADH was titrated biologicaly by a new method, proposed by Nacev. The results were compared with the changes in the circulatory and renal indices, obtained at the same procedure in the preceding investigations. There was an increase in the cortisol and ADH activity, which could be explained by the total hypovolemia, induced by peritoneal dialisis. The increase of the cortisol level is described as a separate link in a more complex mechanism, assuring metabolic homeostasis.

  20. Enantiomeric recognition of racemic 4-aryl-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives via chiralpak AD-H stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi; Pittman, Charles U; Li, Tingyu

    2012-10-01

    The chromatographic chiral resolution of two new series of racemic 4-substituted-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives was studied on a commercial Chiralpak AD-H column. Analytes without 5,5-dimethyl substituents (1-15) are more efficiently resolved than analytes with 5,5-dimethyl groups (16-30). The AD-H column discriminated between enantiomers through both hydrogen bonding attractions and π-π interactions. This interpretation is in accord with plots of the logarithm of separation factors, log(α), versus σ (Hammett-Swain substituent parameter) and σ(+) (Brown substituent constant) plots. By elucidating the effects of the remote substituents on these chiral separations, it was shown that the influence of π-π interaction forces increase when steric bulk effects act to decrease the hydrogen bonding attractive forces on the AD-H column.

  1. Severe hyponatremia caused by nab-paclitaxel-induced syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion: A case report in a patient with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Neuzillet, Cindy; Babai, Samy; Kempf, Emmanuelle; Pujol, Géraldine; Rousseau, Benoît; Le-Louët, Hervé; Christophe Tournigand

    2016-06-01

    Incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is increasing. Most patients have advanced disease at diagnosis and therapeutic options in this setting are limited. Gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel regimen was demonstrated to increase survival compared with gemcitabine monotherapy and is therefore indicated as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic PDAC and performance status Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 0-2. The safety profile of gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel combination includes neutropenia, fatigue, and neuropathy as most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher. No case of severe hyponatremia associated with the use of nab-paclitaxel for the treatment of PDAC has been reported to date.We report the case of a 72-year-old Caucasian man with a metastatic PDAC treated with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel regimen, who presented with a severe hyponatremia (grade 4) caused by a documented syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). This SIADH was attributed to nab-paclitaxel after a rigorous imputability analysis, including a rechallenge procedure with dose reduction. After dose and schedule adjustment, nab-paclitaxel was pursued without recurrence of severe hyponatremia and with maintained efficacy.Hyponatremia is a rare but potentially severe complication of nab-paclitaxel therapy that medical oncologists and gastroenterologists should be aware of. Nab-paclitaxel-induced hyponatremia is manageable upon dose and schedule adaptation, and should not contraindicate careful nab-paclitaxel reintroduction. This is of particular interest for a disease in which the therapeutic options are limited.

  2. Regulation of protein secretion by ... protein secretion?

    PubMed

    Atmakuri, Krishnamohan; Fortune, Sarah M

    2008-09-11

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires an alternative protein secretion system, ESX1, for virulence. Recently, Raghavan et al. (2008) reported a new regulatory circuit that may explain how ESX1 activity is controlled during infection. Mtb appears to regulate ESX1 by modulating transcription of associated genes rather than structural components of the secretion system itself.

  3. Dynamically Coupled Food-web and Hydrodynamic Modeling with ADH-CASM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piercy, C.; Swannack, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    Oysters and freshwater mussels are "ecological engineers," modifying the local water quality by filtering zooplankton and other suspended particulate matter from the water column and flow hydraulics by impinging on the near-bed flow environment. The success of sessile, benthic invertebrates such as oysters depends on environmental factors including but not limited to temperature, salinity, and flow regime. Typically food-web and other types of ecological models use flow and water quality data as direct input without regard to the feedback between the ecosystem and the physical environment. The USACE-ERDC has developed a coupled hydrodynamic-ecological modeling approach that dynamically couples a 2-D hydrodynamic and constituent transport model, Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH), with a bioenergetics food-web model, the Comprehensive Aquatics Systems Model (CASM), which captures the dynamic feedback between aquatic ecological systems and the environment. We present modeling results from restored oyster reefs in the Great Wicomico River on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay, which quantify ecosystem services such as the influence of the benthic ecosystem on water quality. Preliminary results indicate that while the influence of oyster reefs on bulk flow dynamics is limited due to the localized influence of oyster reefs, large reefs and the associated benthic ecosystem can create measurable changes in the concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon in the areas around reefs. We also present a sensitivity analysis to quantify the relative sensitivity of the coupled ADH-CASM model to both hydrodynamic and ecological parameter choice.

  4. Alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3 activates glucose alcoholic fermentation in genetically engineered Dekkera bruxellensis yeast.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Siurkus, Juozas; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Joerck-Ramberg, Dorte; Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Nerve; Blevins, James E; Sibirny, Andriy A; Piškur, Jure; Ishchuk, Olena P

    2016-04-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a non-conventional Crabtree-positive yeast with a good ethanol production capability. Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its tolerance to acidic pH and its utilization of alternative carbon sources make it a promising organism for producing biofuel. In this study, we developed an auxotrophic transformation system and an expression vector, which enabled the manipulation of D. bruxellensis, thereby improving its fermentative performance. Its gene ADH3, coding for alcohol dehydrogenase, was cloned and overexpressed under the control of the strong and constitutive promoter TEF1. Our recombinant D. bruxellensis strain displayed 1.4 and 1.7 times faster specific glucose consumption rate during aerobic and anaerobic glucose fermentations, respectively; it yielded 1.2 times and 1.5 times more ethanol than did the parental strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The overexpression of ADH3 in D. bruxellensis also reduced the inhibition of fermentation by anaerobiosis, the "Custer effect". Thus, the fermentative capacity of D. bruxellensis could be further improved by metabolic engineering.

  5. The Arabidopsis Adh gene exhibits diverse nucleosome arrangements within a small DNase I-sensitive domain.

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Palas, M A; Ferl, R J

    1995-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene from Arabidopsis shows enhanced sensitivity to DNase I in cells that express the gene. This generalized sensitivity to DNase I is demarcated by position -500 on the 5' side and the end of the mRNA on the 3' side. Thus, the gene defined as the promoter and mRNA coding region corresponds very closely in size with the gene defined as a nuclease-sensitive domain. This is a remarkably close correspondence between a sensitive domain and a eukaryotic transcriptional unit, because previously reported DNase I-sensitive domains include large regions of DNA that are not transcribed. Nucleosomes are present in the coding region of the Adh gene when it is expressed, indicating that the transcriptional elongation process causes nucleosome disruption rather than release of nucleosomes from the coding region. In addition, the regulatory region contains a loosely positioned nucleosome that is separated from adjacent nucleosomes by internucleosomic DNA segments longer than the average linker DNA in bulk chromatin. This specific array of nucleosomes coexists with bound transcription factors that could contribute to the organization of the nucleosome arrangement. These results enhance our understanding of the complex interactions among DNA, nucleosomes, and transcription factors during gene expression in plants. PMID:8535143

  6. Combination of ADH1B*2/ALDH2*2 polymorphisms alters acetaldehyde-derived DNA damage in the blood of Japanese alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Manabu; Hori, Kimiko; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Yokoyama, Akira; Chiba, Tsutomu; Matsuda, Tomonari

    2012-09-01

    The acetaldehyde associated with alcoholic beverages is an evident carcinogen for the esophagus. Genetic polymorphisms of the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genes are associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, the exact mechanism via which these genetic polymorphisms affect esophageal carcinogenesis has not been elucidated. ADH1B*2 is involved in overproduction of acetaldehyde due to increased ethanol metabolism into acetaldehyde, and ALDH2*2 is involved in accumulation of acetaldehyde due to the deficiency of acetaldehyde metabolism. Acetaldehyde can interact with DNA and form DNA adducts, resulting in DNA damage. N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethylidene-dG) is the most abundant DNA adduct derived from acetaldehyde. Therefore, we quantified N(2)-ethylidene-dG levels in blood samples from 66 Japanese alcoholic patients using liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, and investigated the relationship between N(2)-ethylidene-dG levels and ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes. The median N(2)-ethylidene-dG levels (25th percentile, 75th percentile) in patients with ADH1B*1/*1 plus ALDH2*1/*1, ADH1B*2 carrier plus ALDH2*1/*1, ADH1B*1/*1 plus ALDH2*1/*2, and ADH1B*2 carrier plus ALDH2*1/*2 were 2.14 (0.97, 2.37)/10(7) bases, 2.38 (1.18, 2.98)/10(7) bases, 5.38 (3.19, 6.52)/10(7) bases, and 21.04 (12.75, 34.80)/10(7) bases, respectively. In the ALDH2*1/*2 group, N(2)-ethylidene-dG levels were significantly higher in ADH1B*2 carriers than in the ADH1B*1/*1 group (P < 0.01). N(2)-ethylidene-dG levels were significantly higher in the ALDH2*1/*2 group than in the ALDH2*1/*1 group, regardless of ADH1B genotype (ADH1B*1/*1, P < 0.05; ADH1B*2 carriers, P < 0.01) N(2)-ethylidene-dG levels in blood DNA of the alcoholics was remarkably higher in individuals with a combination of the ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 alleles. These results provide a new perspective on the carcinogenicity of the acetaldehyde associated with

  7. Structural insights into substrate specificity and solvent tolerance in alcohol dehydrogenase ADH-'A' from Rhodococcus ruber DSM 44541.

    PubMed

    Karabec, Martin; Łyskowski, Andrzej; Tauber, Katharina C; Steinkellner, Georg; Kroutil, Wolfgang; Grogan, Gideon; Gruber, Karl

    2010-09-14

    The structure of the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH-'A' from Rhodococcus ruber reveals possible reasons for its remarkable tolerance to organic co-solvents and suggests new directions for structure-informed mutagenesis to produce enzymes of altered substrate specificity or improved selectivity.

  8. Expression pattern, ethanol-metabolizing activities, and cellular localization of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in human large bowel: association of the functional polymorphisms of ADH and ALDH genes with hemorrhoids and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chien-Ping; Jao, Shu-Wen; Lee, Shiao-Pieng; Chen, Pei-Chi; Chung, Chia-Chi; Lee, Shou-Lun; Nieh, Shin; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are principal enzymes responsible for metabolism of ethanol. Functional polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2 genes occur among racial populations. The goal of this study was to systematically determine the functional expressions and cellular localization of ADHs and ALDHs in human rectal mucosa, the lesions of adenocarcinoma and hemorrhoid, and the genetic association of allelic variations of ADH and ALDH with large bowel disorders. Twenty-one surgical specimens of rectal adenocarcinoma and the adjacent normal mucosa, including 16 paired tissues of rectal tumor, normal mucosae of rectum and sigmoid colon from the same individuals, and 18 surgical mixed hemorrhoid specimens and leukocyte DNA samples from 103 colorectal cancer patients, 67 hemorrhoid patients, and 545 control subjects recruited in previous study, were investigated. The isozyme/allozyme expression patterns of ADH and ALDH were identified by isoelectric focusing and the activities were assayed spectrophotometrically. The protein contents of ADH/ALDH isozymes were determined by immunoblotting using the corresponding purified class-specific antibodies; the cellular activity and protein localizations were detected by immunohistochemistry and histochemistry, respectively. Genotypes of ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2 were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. At 33mM ethanol, pH 7.5, the activity of ADH1C*1/1 phenotypes exhibited 87% higher than that of the ADH1C*1/*2 phenotypes in normal rectal mucosa. The activity of ALDH2-active phenotypes of rectal mucosa was 33% greater than ALDH2-inactive phenotypes at 200μM acetaldehyde. The protein contents in normal rectal mucosa were in the following order: ADH1>ALDH2>ADH3≈ALDH1A1, whereas those of ADH2, ADH4, and ALDH3A1 were fairly low. Both activity and content of ADH1 were significantly decreased in rectal tumors, whereas the ALDH activity remained

  9. Interaction of vitamin A supplementation level with ADH1C genotype on intramuscular fat in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Krone, K G; Ward, A K; Madder, K M; Hendrick, S; McKinnon, J J; Buchanan, F C

    2016-03-01

    Previously, the single nucleotide polymorphism in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1C c.-64T>C) was shown to have an association with intramuscular fat (IMF) in the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle when vitamin A was limited in finishing rations of beef steers. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum vitamin A supplementation level, in combination with ADH1C genotype, to increase IMF of the LT muscle. In total, 45 TT genotype, 45 CT and 27 CC Black Angus crossbred steers were backgrounded on a commercial ration containing 3360 IU vitamin A/kg dry matter (DM). During finishing, the steers were randomly assigned to one of three vitamin A treatments at 25%, 50% and 75% of the National Research Council recommendation of 2200 IU/kg DM. Treatments were administered via an oral bolus. Carcass quality was evaluated and a sample from the LT muscle was collected for analysis of IMF. A treatment×genotype interaction (P=0.04) was observed for IMF; TT steers on the 75% treatment had higher IMF relative to CT and CC steers on the same treatment. Western blot analysis showed that TT steers had higher (P=0.02) ADH1C protein expression in hepatic tissue. Previously, TT steers exhibited increased IMF when fed limited vitamin A. In the current study, the lack of variation in IMF between treatments and genotypes at the lower vitamin A treatment levels was likely due to the majority of the steers grading Canada AAA (USDA Choice). However, the western blot data supports that TT steers are expected to have higher IMF deposition, due to an increased production of ADH1C. The interaction between ADH1C genotype and vitamin A supplementation level has the potential for use in marker-assisted management programs to target niche markets based on increased marbling.

  10. T-shaped trichome-specific expression of monoterpene synthase ADH2 using promoter-β-GUS fusion in transgenic Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueqing; Shi, Pu; Shen, Qian; Jiang, Weimin; Tang, Yueli; Lv, Zongyou; Yan, Tingxiang; Li, Ling; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-11-01

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood), is extensively used in the treatment of malaria. In order to better understand the metabolism of terpenes in A. annua and the influence of terpene synthases on artemisinin yield, the expression pattern of a monoterpene alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2) has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion. ADH2 played a major role in monoterpenoid biosynthesis including carveol, borneol, and artemisia ketone through in vitro biochemical analysis. In this study, the ADH2 promoter was cloned by the genome walking method. A number of putative cis-acting elements were predicted in promoter region, suggesting that the ADH2 is driven by a complex regulation mechanism. ADH2 gene was highly expressed in old leaves, whereas the artemisinin biosynthetic genes were mainly expressed in bud and young leaves. The expression of ADH2 gene increased quickly during leaf development, revealed by qRT-PCR. GUS expression analysis in different tissues of transgenic A. annua demonstrates that ADH2 expression is exclusively located to T-shaped trichome, not glandular secretory trichome.

  11. Evidence for a role for AtMYB2 in the induction of the Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH1) by low oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeren, F U; Dolferus, R; Wu, Y; Peacock, W J; Dennis, E S

    1998-01-01

    The transcription factor AtMYB2 binds to two sequence motifs in the promoter of the Arabidopsis ADH1 gene. The binding to the GT-motif (5'-TGGTTT-3') is essential for induction of ADH1 by low oxygen, while binding to the second motif, MBS-2, is not essential for induction. We show that AtMYB2 is induced by hypoxia with kinetics compatible with a role in the regulation of ADH1. Like ADH1, AtMYB2 has root-limited expression. When driven by a constitutive promoter, AtMYB2 is able to transactivate ADH1 expression in transient assays in both Arabidopsis and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protoplasts, and in particle bombardment of Pisum sativum leaves. Mutation of the GT-motif abolished binding of AtMYB2 and caused loss of activity of the ADH1 promoter in both transient assays and transgenic Arabidopsis plants. These results are consistent with AtMYB2 being a key regulatory factor in the induction of the ADH1 promoter by low oxygen. PMID:9611167

  12. SPINK1, ADH2, and ALDH2 gene variants and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimosegawa, Tooru; Kume, Kiyoshi; Masamune, Atsushi

    2008-03-01

    The serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) is a potent antiprotease and an important inactivation factor of intrapancreatic trypsin activity. Loss of function by the SPINK1 mutations leads to decreased inhibitory capacity. The significance of SPINK1 mutations in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP) in Japan and its functional role remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to clarify the incidence of SPINK1, alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) variants in CP patients in Japan. One hundred and 86 patients with CP, and 527 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Mutational analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing. Serum pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) level was measured by radioimmunoassay. The frequencies of N34S and IVS3 + 2T > C in the SPINK1 gene were significantly higher in patients with non-alcoholic CP (12.9% and 8.6%, respectively) than in normal subjects (0.37% and 0%). In total, 18 of 93 (19.4%) patients with non-alcoholic CP had at least one SPINK1 mutation. Concerning alcoholic CP, we found IVS3 + 2T > C in a small number of patients (3.9%). Serum PSTI concentration was decreased in patients with the IVS3 + 2T > C mutation. The frequency of the ADH2*2 allele in the alcoholic CP group was significantly higher than that in alcoholics without pancreatitis. The frequency of the ALDH2*2 allele was significantly low in patients with alcoholic CP compared with healthy controls. In conclusion, SPINK1 mutations were associated with non-alcoholic CP. Furthermore, we revealed the amount of wild-type PSTI was decreased in patients with IVS3 + 2T > C mutation. Variants of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes appeared in the relation to alcoholic CP.

  13. Protective effects of the alcohol dehydrogenase-ADH1B*3 allele on attention and behavior problems in adolescents exposed to alcohol during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Neil C; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase is a critical enzyme in the metabolism of alcohol. Expression of three alleles at the ADH1B locus results in enzymes that differ in turnover rate and affinity for alcohol. The ADH1B*3 allele, which appears to be unique to individuals of African descent, is associated with more rapid alcohol metabolism than the more prevalent ADH1B*1 allele. It has been previously demonstrated that the presence of at least one maternal ADH1B*3 allele confers a protective effect against alcohol teratogenicity in infants and children. This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of the ADH1B*3 allele in the mother or child continues to be protective in alcohol-exposed individuals during adolescence. 186 adolescents and 167 mothers participating in a 14-year follow-up of the Detroit Longitudinal Cohort were genotyped for ADH1B alleles. Behavioral reports were obtained from classroom teachers. Frequencies of the ADH1B*3 allele were 17.6% in the mothers and 21.0% in the adolescents, which are consistent with the 15-20% expected for African Americans. Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with increased attention problems and externalizing behaviors in adolescents born to mothers with two ADH1B*1 alleles but not in those whose mothers had at least one ADH1B*3 allele. A similar pattern was seen in relation to the presence or absence of an ADH1B*3 allele in the adolescent, which may have reflected the presence/absence of the maternal variant. This study is the first to demonstrate that the protective effects of the maternal ADH1B*3 allele continue to be evident during adolescence. These persistent individual differences in vulnerability of offspring to the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure are likely attributable to more rapid metabolism of alcohol that the ADH1B*3 variant confers on the mother, leading to a reduction of the peak blood alcohol concentration to which the fetus is exposed during each drinking episode.

  14. Authentication Without Secrets

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  15. The Genetics of a Small Autosomal Region of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Containing the Structural Gene for Alcohol Dehydrogenase. I. Characterization of Deficiencies and Mapping of ADH and Visible Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, R. C.; Ashburner, M.

    1979-01-01

    The position of the structural gene coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to be within polytene chromosome bands 35B1 and 35B3, most probably within 35B2. The genetic and cytological properties of twelve deficiencies in polytene chromosome region 34–35 have been characterized, eleven of which include Adh. Also mapped cytogenetically are seven other recessive visible mutant loci. Flies heterozygous for overlapping deficiencies that include both the Adh locus and that for the outspread mutant (osp: a recessive wing phenotype) are homozygous viable and show a complete ADH negative phenotype and strong osp phenotype. These deficiencies probably include two polytene chromosome bands, 35B2 and 35B3. PMID:115743

  16. [Onset of Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone in a Gastric Cancer Patient on SOX Treatment].

    PubMed

    Goto, Yoshinori; Wakita, Shigenori; Yoshimitsu, Masashi; Inagaki, Satoko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2015-12-01

    A 78-year-old man with advanced gastric cancer was treated with S-1 and oxaliplatin chemotherapy. He developed hiccups and nausea, and was diagnosed with hyponatremia (serum Na: 120 mEq/L) on day 6 of the first treatment course. Because of his increased urinary Na excretion and relatively high ADH values, he was subsequently diagnosed with chemotherapy-induced syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. The patient recovered after an infusion of hypertonic saline. Although S-1 was restarted, hyponatremia did not recur. We suspected adverse drug reactions to ACE inhibitors and K-sparing diuretics in our case of hyponatremia.

  17. ADH1B and CDH1 polymorphisms predict prognosis in male patients with non-metastatic laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tianbo; He, Na; Ren, Le; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Qingna; Xu, Ran; Tao, Hong; Zeng, Guang; Gao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes and the prognosis of laryngeal cancer (LC) patients. Thirty-seven SNPs in 26 genes were genotyped in 170 male Han Chinese patients with LC. The effects of the candidate genes on the prognosis of LC patients were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models. The GA genotype of rs1229984 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.537; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.340–0.848; p = 0.008) in alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B), and the AA genotype of rs9929218 (HR, 6.074; 95% CI, 1.426–25.870; p = 0.015) in CDH1 were associated with overall survival. Our data suggest that polymorphisms in ADH1B and CDH1 may be prognostic indicators in LC. PMID:27689323

  18. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP839) in the adh1 reference gene affects the quantitation of genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Schimmel, Heinz; Trapmann, Stefanie; Vincent, Sandra; Emons, Hendrik

    2008-10-08

    The real-time PCR methods recommended in the European Union for the quantitation of genetically modified (GM) maize events NK603, GA21, and MON 863 measure the number of copies of the GM event in relation to those of the maize-specific adh1 reference gene. The study reported here revealed that the targeted 70 base pair adh1 region exhibits a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP839) that hampers the binding of the reverse primer used in the adh1 detection method. Partial fragments of the adh1-A and adh1-F allele were cloned. By allele-specific real-time PCR, it was shown that SNP839 corresponds to a common allelic polymorphism in maize. As a result, the quantitation of the GM maize events mentioned is positively or negatively biased, depending on the adh1 genotype of sample and calibrant. Therefore, it is proposed to revise the quantitative detection methods for NK603, GA21, and MON 863 maize.

  19. Overexpression of ADH1 and HXT1 genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves the fermentative efficiency during tequila elaboration.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; Torres-Guzmán, Juan Carlos; González-Hernández, Gloria Angélica; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Ramírez-Córdova, Jose de Jesús

    2008-05-01

    This work assessed the effect of the overexpression of ADH1 and HXT1 genes in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae AR5 strain during fermentation of Agave tequilana Weber blue variety must. Both genes were cloned individually and simultaneously into a yeast centromere plasmid. Two transformant strains overexpressing ADH1 and HXT1 individually and one strain overexpressing both genes were randomly selected and named A1, A3 and A5 respectively. Overexpression effect on growth and ethanol production of the A1, A3 and A5 strains was evaluated in fermentative conditions in A. tequilana Weber blue variety must and YPD medium. During growth in YPD and Agave media, all the recombinant strains showed lower cell mass formation than the wild type AR5 strain. Adh enzymatic activity in the recombinant strains A1 and A5 cultivated in A. tequilana and YPD medium was higher than in the wild type. The overexpression of both genes individually and simultaneously had no significant effect on ethanol formation; however, the fermentative efficiency of the A5 strain increased from 80.33% to 84.57% and 89.40% to 94.29% in YPD and Agave medium respectively.

  20. TSH secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Jha, S; Kumar, S

    2009-07-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) secreting pituitary adenomas are a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism. They typically present with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and rarely can be asymptomatic. TSH secreting tumors account for 1 percent of all pituitary adenoma. They are a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis in which adenomas completely or partially lose feedback regulation of thyroid hormones and lead to sustained stimulation of thyroid gland. The most definitive treatment of thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas is transsphenoidal removal of tumor after restoring euthyroidism. We report a case of pituitary adenoma associated with elevated serum free thyroid hormones and non-suppressed TSH levels.

  1. Cellulosic Ethanol Production by Recombinant Cellulolytic Bacteria Harbouring pdc and adh II Genes of Zymomonas mobilis

    PubMed Central

    Piriya, P. Sobana; Vasan, P. Thirumalai; Padma, V. S.; Vidhyadevi, U.; Archana, K.; Vennison, S. John

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol fermenting genes such as pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adh II) were cloned from Zymomonas mobilis and transformed into three different cellulolytic bacteria, namely Enterobacter cloacae JV, Proteus mirabilis JV and Erwinia chrysanthemi and their cellulosic ethanol production capability was studied. Recombinant E. cloacae JV was found to produce 4.5% and 3.5% (v/v) ethanol, respectively, when CMC and 4% NaOH pretreated bagasse were used as substrates, whereas recombinant P. mirabilis and E. chrysanthemi with the same substrates could only produce 4%, 3.5%, 1%, and 1.5 % of ethanol, respectively. The recombinant E. cloacae strain produced twofold higher percentage of ethanol than the wild type. The recombinant E. cloacae strain could be improved further by increasing its ethanol tolerance capability through media optimization and also by combining multigene cellulase expression for enhancing ethanol production from various types of lignocellulosic biomass so that it can be used for industrial level ethanol production. PMID:22919503

  2. Steric vs. electronic effects in the Lactobacillus brevis ADH-catalyzed bioreduction of ketones.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Cristina; Borzęcka, Wioleta; Sattler, Johann H; Kroutil, Wolfgang; Lavandera, Iván; Gotor, Vicente

    2014-01-28

    Lactobacillus brevis ADH (LBADH) is an alcohol dehydrogenase that is commonly employed to reduce alkyl or aryl ketones usually bearing a methyl, an ethyl or a chloromethyl as a small ketone substituent to the corresponding (R)-alcohols. Herein we have tested a series of 24 acetophenone derivatives differing in their size and electronic properties for their reduction employing LBADH. After plotting the relative activity against the measured substrate volumes we observed that apart from the substrate size other effects must be responsible for the activity obtained. Compared to acetophenone (100% relative activity), other small substrates such as propiophenone, α,α,α-trifluoroacetophenone, α-hydroxyacetophenone, and benzoylacetonitrile had relative activities lower than 30%, while medium-sized ketones such as α-bromo-, α,α-dichloro-, and α,α-dibromoacetophenone presented relative activities between 70% and 550%. Moreover, the comparison between the enzymatic activity and the obtained final conversions using an excess or just 2.5 equiv. of the hydrogen donor 2-propanol, denoted again deviations between them. These data supported that these hydrogen transfer (HT) transformations are mainly thermodynamically controlled. For instance, bulky α-halogenated derivatives could be quantitatively reduced by LBADH even employing 2.5 equiv. of 2-propanol independently of their kinetic values. Finally, we found good correlations between the IR absorption band of the carbonyl groups and the degrees of conversion obtained in these HT processes, making this simple method a convenient tool to predict the success of these transformations.

  3. Six secrets of champagne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2015-12-01

    Popping open a bottle of champagne is one of life's great delights, but how much do you really know about the science behind this greatest of wines? Gérard Liger-Belair reveals his six favourite champagne secrets.

  4. Secret quality of love.

    PubMed

    Strachan-Hall, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Many of us can recite three Donabedian dimensions of the quality of care of structure, process and outcome. Recently, I was introduced to another of Avedis Donabedian's quotes about the 'secret quality of love'.

  5. Type VI secretion system.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells.

  6. Efficient quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2016-05-01

    An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the dealer generates some single particles and then uses the operations of quantum-controlled-not and Hadamard gate to encode a determinate secret into these particles. The participants get their shadows by performing the single-particle measurements on their particles, and even the dealer cannot know their shadows. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more practical within the present technologies.

  7. Managing hyponatremia in patients with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Verbalis, Joseph G

    2010-05-01

    Disorders of sodium [Na+] and water metabolism are commonly encountered in the hospital setting due to the wide range of disease states that can disrupt the balanced control of water and solute intake and output. In particular, the prompt identification and appropriate management of abnormally low serum [Na+] is critical if we are to reduce the increased morbidity and mortality that accompany hyponatremia in hospitalized patients. Use of an algorithm that is based primarily on the symptomatology of hyponatremic patients, rather than the serum [Na+] or the chronicity of the hyponatremia, will help to choose the correct initial therapy in hospitalized hyponatremic patients. However, careful monitoring of serum [Na+] responses is required in all cases to adjust therapy appropriately in response to changing clinical conditions. Although this approach will enable efficacious and safe treatment of hyponatremic patients with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) at the present time, evolving knowledge of the consequences of chronic hyponatremia will likely alter treatment indications and guidelines in the future.

  8. Biogeochemical sampling in the Mahd Adh Dhahab District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebens, Richard J.; Shacklette, Hansford T.; Worl, Ronald G.

    1983-01-01

    A biogeochemical reconnaissance of the Mahd adh Dhahab district, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, confirms the ability of deep-rooted Acacia trees to reflect bedrock concentrations of some trace elements. The analytical values for lead, zinc, selenium, and cadmium in ash of tree branches are significantly higher in samples from areas of known mineralization (13 sites) than in samples from areas of no known mineralization (12 sites). Geometric mean concentrations of these elements in the two areas (mineralized; nonmineralized), quoted as parts per million in ash, are lead (122; 28), zinc (713; 443), selenium (1.2; 0.6), and cadmium (1.4; 0.5). The range of molybdenum values in ash from the two areas is similar, but a cluster of four sites in an area classified as nonmineralized corresponds to an area where the U.S. Geological Survey reported anomalous molybdenum values in rock in 1965. Results for other elements were either equivocal (mercury, tellurium, silver) or showed no correspondence to the two areas. Mean values for barium, manganese, potassium, and sodium are significantly higher in areas of no known mineralization, but we conclude that this reflects a difference in country rock major-element chemistry rather than the effect of ore-forming processes. The pattern of trace-metal values in Acacia ash is present whether the sampled tree grows on bedrock, on talus, or on residual or modern alluvium. This fact suggests that the trace-element chemistry of the trees reflects bedrock geochemistry and implies that Acacia biogeochemistry could be applied as a prospecting tool in areas where bedrock is not well exposed.

  9. Promoter elements required for developmental expression of the maize Adh1 gene in transgenic rice.

    PubMed Central

    Kyozuka, J; Olive, M; Peacock, W J; Dennis, E S; Shimamoto, K

    1994-01-01

    To define the regions of the maize alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) promoter that confer tissue-specific expression, a series of 5' promoter deletions and substitution mutations were linked to the Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase A (uidA) reporter gene and introduced into rice plants. A region between -140 and -99 not only conferred anaerobically inducible expression in the roots of transgenic plants but was also required for expression in the root cap, embryo, and in endosperm under aerobic conditions. GC-rich (GC-1, GC-2, and GC-3) or GT-rich (GT-1 and GT-2) sequence motifs in this region were necessary for expression in these tissues, as they were in anaerobic expression. Expression in the root cap under aerobic conditions required all the GC- and GT-rich motifs. The GT-1, GC-1, GC-2, and GC-3 motifs, and to a lesser extent the GT-2 motif, were also required for anaerobic responsiveness in rice roots. All elements except the GC-3 motif were needed for endosperm-specific expression. The GC-2 motif and perhaps the GT-1 motif appeared to be the only elements required for high-level expression in the embryos of rice seeds. Promoter regions important for shoot-, embryo-, and pollen-specific expression were proximal to -99, and nucleotides required for shoot-specific expression occurred between positions -72 and -43. Pollen-specific expression required a sequence element outside the promoter region, between +54 and +106 of the untranslated leader, as well as a silencer element in the promoter between -72 and -43. PMID:8061518

  10. Nurses’ perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M.; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses’ survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Results: Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Conclusion: Nurses are highly aware of adherence

  11. Estimation of Vasopressin Excretion in the Urine as a Method of Monitoring Vasopressin Secretion During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    It is demonstrated that, under the circumstances of space flight, the measurement of plasma ADH levels might be misleading and that only the urinary ADH levels provide reliable information. The results of a partially completed survey of ADH levels in urine samples from human subjects in which simultaneous plasma ADH levels were available are included.

  12. Coexpression of Lactobacillus brevis ADH with GDH or G6PDH in Arxula adeninivorans for the synthesis of 1-(R)-phenylethanol.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Marion; Prokoph, Alexandra; Kasprzak, Jakub; Becker, Karin; Baronian, Keith; Bode, Rüdiger; Kunze, Gotthard; Vorbrodt, H- Matthias

    2015-06-01

    The yeast Arxula adeninivorans was used for the overexpression of an ADH gene of Lactobacillus brevis coding for (R)-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (LbADH) to synthesise enantiomerically pure 1-(R)-phenylethanol. Glucose dehydrogenase gene from Bacillus megaterium (BmGDH) or glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase of Bacillus pumilus (BpG6PDH) were coexpressed in Arxula to regenerate the cofactor NADPH by oxidising glucose or glucose 6-phosphate. The yeast strain expressing LbADH and BpG6PDH produced 5200 U l(-1) ADH and 370 U l(-1) G6PDH activity, whereas the strain expressing LbADH and BmGDH produced 2700 U l(-1) ADH and 170 U l(-1) GDH activity. However, the crude extract of both strains reduced 40 mM acetophenone to pure 1-(R)-phenylethanol with an enantiomeric excess (ee) of >99 % in 60 min without detectable by-products. An increase in yield was achieved using immobilised crude extracts (IEs), Triton X-100 permeabilised cells (PCs) and permeabilised immobilised cells (PICs) with PICs being most stable with GDH regeneration over 52 cycles. Even though the activity and synthesis rate of 1-(R)-phenylethanol with the BpG6PDH and LbADH coexpressing strain was higher, the BmGDH-LbADH strain was more stable over successive reaction cycles. This, combined with its higher total turnover number (TTN) of 391 mol product per mole NADP(+), makes it the preferred strain for continuous reaction systems. The initial non-optimised semi-continuous reaction produced 9.74 g l(-1) day(-1) or 406 g kg(-1) dry cell weight (dcw) day(-1) isolated 1-(R)-phenylethanol with an ee of 100 % and a TTN of 206 mol product per mole NADP(+). In conclusion, A. adeninivorans is a promising host for LbADH and BpG6PDH or BmGDH production and offers a simple method for the production of enantiomerically pure alcohols.

  13. Ethylene-responsive transcription factors interact with promoters of ADH and PDC involved in persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit de-astringency.

    PubMed

    Min, Ting; Yin, Xue-ren; Shi, Yan-na; Luo, Zheng-rong; Yao, Yun-cong; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian B; Chen, Kun-song

    2012-11-01

    The persimmon fruit is a particularly good model for studying fruit response to hypoxia, in particular, the hypoxia-response ERF (HRE) genes. An anaerobic environment reduces fruit astringency by converting soluble condensed tannins (SCTs) into an insoluble form. Although the physiology of de-astringency has been widely studied, its molecular control is poorly understood. Both CO(2) and ethylene treatments efficiently removed the astringency from 'Mopan' persimmon fruit, as indicated by a decrease in SCTs. Acetaldehyde, the putative agent for causing de-astringency, accumulated during these treatments, as did activities of the key enzymes of acetaldehyde synthesis, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC). Eight DkADH and DkPDC genes were isolated, and three candidates for a role in de-astringency, DkADH1, DkPDC1, and DkPDC2, were characterized by transcriptional analysis in different tissues. The significance of these specific isoforms was confirmed by principal component analysis. Transient expression in leaf tissue showed that DkPDC2 decreased SCTs. Interactions of six hypoxia-responsive ERF genes and target promoters were tested in transient assays. The results indicated that two hypoxia-responsive ERF genes, DkERF9 and DkERF10, were involved in separately regulating the DkPDC2 and DkADH1 promoters. It is proposed that a DkERF-DkADH/DkPDC cascade is involved in regulating persimmon de-astringency.

  14. Co-expression of TAL1 and ADH1 in recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the presence of furfural.

    PubMed

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Nambu, Yumiko; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass dedicated to bioethanol production usually contains pentoses and inhibitory compounds such as furfural that are not well tolerated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thus, S. cerevisiae strains with the capability of utilizing both glucose and xylose in the presence of inhibitors such as furfural are very important in industrial ethanol production. Under the synergistic conditions of transaldolase (TAL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) overexpression, S. cerevisiae MT8-1X/TAL-ADH was able to produce 1.3-fold and 2.3-fold more ethanol in the presence of 70 mM furfural than a TAL-expressing strain and a control strain, respectively. We also tested the strains' ability by mimicking industrial ethanol production from hemicellulosic hydrolysate containing fermentation inhibitors, and ethanol production was further improved by 16% when using MT8-1X/TAL-ADH compared to the control strain. Transcript analysis further revealed that besides the pentose phosphate pathway genes TKL1 and TAL1, ADH7 was also upregulated in response to furfural stress, which resulted in higher ethanol production compared to the TAL-expressing strain. The improved capability of our modified strain was based on its capacity to more quickly reduce furfural in situ resulting in higher ethanol production. The co-expression of TAL/ADH genes is one crucial strategy to fully utilize undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate, leading to cost-competitive ethanol production.

  15. Urine output and resultant osmotic water shift are major determinants of plasma sodium level in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Ataru; Ishikawa, Kota; Watanabe, Risako; Tsunekawa, Taku; Asai, Chikako; Kiyota, Atsushi; Watanabe, Minemori; Oiso, Yutaka

    2013-07-01

    Although various formulas predicting plasma sodium level ([Na]) are proposed for correction of hyponatremia, it seems that an anticipated [Na] frequently exceeds or falls below the measured [Na], especially in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). The causative factors of the fluctuation have never been investigated clearly. The aim of this study was to identify the determining factors for accurate prediction of [Na] by comparing data from previously proposed formulas and a novel osmotic compartment model (O-C model). The O-C model, which simulates the amounts of osmoles in extracellular and intracellular fluids, can estimate resultant osmotic water shift (OWS) and [Na]. The accuracy of representative formulas was verified in a point-to-point study using blood and urine samples obtained every 4 hours from 9 patients. Among 161 measurement points, a large fluctuation of urine volume and urine sodium level was observed. The gap between anticipated and measured [Na] in the widely used Adrogue-Madias formula was -0.5 ± 0.1 mEq/L/4 h (mean ± standard error), showing a marked tendency to underestimate [Na]. The gap in the O-C model including OWS was 0.1 ± 0.1 mEq/L/4 h, and that in the O-C model eliminating OWS was 1.9 ± 0.2 mEq/L/4 h, indicating that measurement of urine output and estimation of resulting OWS are essential for a superior prediction of [Na] in SIADH. A simulation study with the O-C model including OWS unveiled a distinctive correction pattern of [Na] dependent on the urine volume and urine sodium level, providing a useful choice for the proper type and rate of infusion.

  16. Multiparty quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhanjun; Li Yong; Man Zhongxiao

    2005-04-01

    Based on a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol [Phys. Rev. A 69 052319 (2004)], we propose a (n,n)-threshold scheme of multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical messages (QSSCM) using only single photons. We take advantage of this multiparty QSSCM scheme to establish a scheme of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information (SSQI), in which only all quantum information receivers collaborate can the original qubit be reconstructed. A general idea is also proposed for constructing multiparty SSQI schemes from any QSSCM scheme.

  17. Use of a modified alcohol dehydrogenase, ADH1, promoter in construction of diacetyl non-producing brewer's yeast.

    PubMed

    Onnela, M L; Suihko, M L; Penttilä, M; Keränen, S

    1996-08-20

    The bacterial gene, encoding alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (alpha-ALDC), was expressed in a bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast under the control of a modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1) promoter which lacks the upstream regions from -800 bp to -1500 bp. In pilot scale brewing conditions, the level of alpha-ALDC produced was high enough to reduce the concentration of diacetyl so that lagering was not required. alpha-ALDC active brewer's yeast strains were also shown to be suitable for high gravity brewing.

  18. A new regulatory element mediates ethanol repression of KlADH3, a Kluyveromyces lactis gene coding for a mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Saliola, Michele; Getuli, Claudia; Mazzoni, Cristina; Fantozzi, Ivana; Falcone, Claudio

    2007-08-01

    KlADH3 is a Kluyveromyces lactis alcohol dehydrogenase gene induced in the presence of all respiratory carbon sources except ethanol, which specifically represses this gene. Deletion analysis of the KlADH3 promoter revealed the presence of both positive and negative elements. However, by site-directed mutagenesis and gel retardation experiments, we identified a 15-bp element responsible for the transcriptional repression of this gene by ethanol. In particular, this element showed putative sites required for the sequential binding of ethanol-induced factors responsible for the repressed conditions, and the binding of additional factors relieved repression. In addition, we showed that the ethanol element was required for in vivo repression of KlAdh3 activity.

  19. Trade-Secret Dispute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1994-01-01

    A Michigan court has ruled that a Wayne State University (Michigan) chemistry professor appropriated a trade secret from a Massachusetts chemist for whom he was consulting and incorporated it into his own patent application, violating a written agreement. The university contends its pursuit of the patent was not improper. (MSE)

  20. Analysis of secreted proteins.

    PubMed

    Severino, Valeria; Farina, Annarita; Chambery, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes including growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are coordinated by tightly regulated signaling pathways, which also involve secreted proteins acting in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner. In addition, extracellular signaling molecules affect local niche biology and influence the cross-talking with the surrounding tissues. The understanding of this molecular language may provide an integrated and broader view of cellular regulatory networks under physiological and pathological conditions. In this context, the profiling at a global level of cell secretomes (i.e., the subpopulations of a proteome secreted from the cell) has become an active area of research. The current interest in secretome research also deals with its high potential for the biomarker discovery and the identification of new targets for therapeutic strategies. Several proteomic and mass spectrometry platforms and methodologies have been applied to secretome profiling of conditioned media of cultured cell lines and primary cells. Nevertheless, the analysis of secreted proteins is still a very challenging task, because of the technical difficulties that may hamper the subsequent mass spectrometry analysis. This chapter describes a typical workflow for the analysis of proteins secreted by cultured cells. Crucial issues related to cell culture conditions for the collection of conditioned media, secretome preparation, and mass spectrometry analysis are discussed. Furthermore, an overview of quantitative LC-MS-based approaches, computational tools for data analysis, and strategies for validation of potential secretome biomarkers is also presented.

  1. Secrets of Successful Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Parents who homeschool gifted children often find the daily practice of home education very different from what they had imagined. Gifted children are complex in both personality and learning styles. Parents who say that homeschooling works well for their gifted children have learned from others or discovered on their own several secrets that make…

  2. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  3. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YMR318C (ADH6) gene product as a broad specificity NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase: relevance in aldehyde reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Larroy, Carol; Fernández, M Rosario; González, Eva; Parés, Xavier; Biosca, Josep A

    2002-01-01

    YMR318C represents an open reading frame from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with unknown function. It possesses a conserved sequence motif, the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) signature, specific to the medium-chain zinc-containing ADHs. In the present study, the YMR318C gene product has been purified to homogeneity from overexpressing yeast cells, and found to be a homodimeric ADH, composed of 40 kDa subunits and with a pI of 5.0-5.4. The enzyme was strictly specific for NADPH and was active with a wide variety of substrates, including aliphatic (linear and branched-chain) and aromatic primary alcohols and aldehydes. Aldehydes were processed with a 50-fold higher catalytic efficiency than that for the corresponding alcohols. The highest k(cat)/K(m) values were found with pentanal>veratraldehyde > hexanal > 3-methylbutanal >cinnamaldehyde. Taking into consideration the substrate specificity and sequence characteristics of the YMR318C gene product, we have proposed this gene to be called ADH6. The disruption of ADH6 was not lethal for the yeast under laboratory conditions. Although S. cerevisiae is considered a non lignin-degrading organism, the catalytic activity of ADHVI can direct veratraldehyde and anisaldehyde, arising from the oxidation of lignocellulose by fungal lignin peroxidases, to the lignin biodegradation pathway. ADHVI is the only S. cerevisiae enzyme able to significantly reduce veratraldehyde in vivo, and its overexpression allowed yeast to grow under toxic concentrations of this aldehyde. The enzyme may also be involved in the synthesis of fusel alcohols. To our knowledge this is the first NADPH-dependent medium-chain ADH to be characterized in S. cerevisiae. PMID:11742541

  4. Influence d'un traitement laser sur les propriétés d'adhésion de surfaces métalliques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, A.; Delaporte, Ph.; Cros, A.; Sentis, M.; Marine, W.; Thomann, A. L.; Leborgne, C.; Semmar, N.

    2005-06-01

    Nous avons mis en évidence une nanostructuration de la surface due à la formation de nanoparticules d'oxydes métalliques dans le plasma et une modification de propriétés chimiques de la surface permettant l'établissement de liaisons acide-base. Les tests mécaniques d'adhérence ont révélé une qualité d'adhésion tout à fait satisfaisante. Le procédé laser apparaît donc comme une technique llpropregg de préparation de surface.

  5. A 5-hydroxymethyl furfural reducing enzyme encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH6 gene conveys HMF tolerance.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Anneli; Almeida, João R M; Modig, Tobias; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F; Lidén, Gunnar

    2006-04-30

    The fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fuel ethanol production is inhibited by 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), a furan derivative which is formed during the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. The inhibition can be avoided if the yeast strain used in the fermentation has the ability to reduce HMF to 5-hydroxymethylfurfuryl alcohol. To enable the identification of enzyme(s) responsible for HMF conversion in S. cerevisiae, microarray analyses of two strains with different abilities to convert HMF were performed. Based on the expression data, a subset of 15 reductase genes was chosen to be further examined using an overexpression strain collection. Three candidate genes were cloned from two different strains, TMB3000 and the laboratory strain CEN.PK 113-5D, and overexpressed using a strong promoter in the strain CEN.PK 113-5D. Strains overexpressing ADH6 had increased HMF conversion activity in cell-free crude extracts with both NADPH and NADH as co-factors. In vitro activities were recorded of 8 mU/mg with NADH as co-factor and as high as 1200 mU/mg for the NADPH-coupled reduction. Yeast strains overexpressing ADH6 also had a substantially higher in vivo conversion rate of HMF in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures, showing that the overexpression indeed conveyed the desired increased reduction capacity.

  6. Regulation of nitrogen metabolism, starch utilisation and the beta-hbd-adh1 gene cluster in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Woods, D R; Reid, S J

    1995-10-01

    The successful genetic manipulation of Clostridium acetobutylicum for the increased production of solvents will depend on an understanding of gene structure and regulation in the bacterium. The glutamine synthetase (glnA) gene is regulated by antisense RNA, transcribed from a downstream promoter, in the opposite direction to the glnA gene. An open reading frame (ORF) was detected downstream of the glnA gene, which has sequence homology to response regulators with anti-termination activity and may be involved in sensing nitrogen conditions. The expression of the linked beta-hbd, adh1 and fixB genes was investigated throughout the bacterial growth cycle by RNA hybridisation techniques. The adh1 gene was independently expressed as a 2.4-kb transcript which peaked at 12 h, immediately prior to the solventogenic phase. The beta-hbd and fixB genes were transcribed throughout the acidogenic and solventogenic phases. A regulator gene, regA, which complements a Bacillus subtilis ccpA mutant, has been identified and sequenced from C. acetobutylicum P262. The regA gene repressed the degradation of starch by an uncharacterised C. acetobutylicum gene, and may therefore play a role in the utilisation of carbohydrate substrates in this organism.

  7. Wrapped up in Covers: Preschoolers' Secrets and Secret Hiding Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Kimberly; Colwell, Malinda J.; Bell, Nancy J.; Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this qualitative study, interviews about children's secret hiding places were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?17) in a university sponsored preschool programme using art narratives. Since prior studies indicate that children understand the concept of a secret as early as five and that they associate secrets with hiding places, the purpose of…

  8. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    DOEpatents

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  9. Generalized quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srikanth, R.

    2005-01-01

    We explore a generalization of quantum secret sharing (QSS) in which classical shares play a complementary role to quantum shares, exploring further consequences of an idea first studied by Nascimento, Mueller-Quade, and Imai [Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)]. We examine three ways, termed inflation, compression, and twin thresholding, by which the proportion of classical shares can be augmented. This has the important application that it reduces quantum (information processing) players by replacing them with their classical counterparts, thereby making quantum secret sharing considerably easier and less expensive to implement in a practical setting. In compression, a QSS scheme is turned into an equivalent scheme with fewer quantum players, compensated for by suitable classical shares. In inflation, a QSS scheme is enlarged by adding only classical shares and players. In a twin-threshold scheme, we invoke two separate thresholds for classical and quantum shares based on the idea of information dilution.

  10. Cell secretion: an update

    PubMed Central

    Jeremic, A

    2008-01-01

    This past decade has witnessed the publication of a flurry of scientific papers and reports on the subject of cell secretion, following discovery of a permanent plasma membrane structure termed ‘porosome’ and its determination as the universal secretory machinery in cells. This discovery has led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the secretory process, demonstrating that membrane-bound secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse at the porosome base to release their contents to the cell exterior. The regulated release of intravesicular contents during cell secretion is governed by dilation of the porosome opening to the outside, and the extent of vesicle swelling. In agreement, a great number of articles have been written and studies performed, which are briefly discussed in this article. PMID:18363838

  11. Proactive quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2015-11-01

    A proactive quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the participants can update their key shares periodically. In an updating period, one participant randomly generates the EPR pairs, and the other participants update their key shares and perform the corresponding unitary operations on the particles of the EPR pairs. Then, the participant who generated the EPR pairs performs the Bell-state measurement and updates his key share according to the result of the Bell-state measurement. After an updating period, each participant can change his key share, but the secret is changeless, and the old key shares will be useless even if they have been stolen by the attacker. The proactive property of our scheme is very useful to resist the mobile attacker.

  12. Bile Formation and Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Bile is a unique and vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by the hepatocyte and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium. Approximately 5% of bile consists of organic and inorganic solutes of considerable complexity. The bile-secretory unit consists of a canalicular network which is formed by the apical membrane of adjacent hepatocytes and sealed by tight junctions. The bile canaliculi (~1 μm in diameter) conduct the flow of bile countercurrent to the direction of portal blood flow and connect with the canal of Hering and bile ducts which progressively increase in diameter and complexity prior to the entry of bile into the gallbladder, common bile duct, and intestine. Canalicular bile secretion is determined by both bile salt-dependent and independent transport systems which are localized at the apical membrane of the hepatocyte and largely consist of a series of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport proteins that function as export pumps for bile salts and other organic solutes. These transporters create osmotic gradients within the bile canalicular lumen that provide the driving force for movement of fluid into the lumen via aquaporins. Species vary with respect to the relative amounts of bile salt-dependent and independent canalicular flow and cholangiocyte secretion which is highly regulated by hormones, second messengers, and signal transduction pathways. Most determinants of bile secretion are now characterized at the molecular level in animal models and in man. Genetic mutations serve to illuminate many of their functions. PMID:23897680

  13. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals altered transcriptional response of ADH-genes to glucose stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Ståhlberg, Anders; Elbing, Karin; Andrade-Garda, José Manuel; Sjögreen, Björn; Forootan, Amin; Kubista, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Background The large sensitivity, high reproducibility and essentially unlimited dynamic range of real-time PCR to measure gene expression in complex samples provides the opportunity for powerful multivariate and multiway studies of biological phenomena. In multiway studies samples are characterized by their expression profiles to monitor changes over time, effect of treatment, drug dosage etc. Here we perform a multiway study of the temporal response of four yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different glucose uptake rates upon altered metabolic conditions. Results We measured the expression of 18 genes as function of time after addition of glucose to four strains of yeast grown in ethanol. The data are analyzed by matrix-augmented PCA, which is a generalization of PCA for 3-way data, and the results are confirmed by hierarchical clustering and clustering by Kohonen self-organizing map. Our approach identifies gene groups that respond similarly to the change of nutrient, and genes that behave differently in mutant strains. Of particular interest is our finding that ADH4 and ADH6 show a behavior typical of glucose-induced genes, while ADH3 and ADH5 are repressed after glucose addition. Conclusion Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling is a powerful technique which can be utilized to characterize functions of new genes by, for example, comparing their temporal response after perturbation in different genetic variants of the studied subject. The technique also identifies genes that show perturbed expression in specific strains. PMID:18412983

  14. Preliminary mineralogic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope study of the Mahd adh Dhahab gold mine, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rye, Robert O.; Hall, W.E.; Cunningham, C.G.; Czamanske, G.K.; Afifi, A.M.; Stacey, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The Mahd adh Dhahab mine, located about 280 km northeast of Jiddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has yielded more than 2 million ounces of gold from periodic production during the past 3,000 years. A new orebody on the southern side of the ancient workings, known as the South orebody, is being developed by Gold Fields-Mahd adh Dhahab Limited. A suite of samples was collected from the newly exposed orebody for preliminary mineralogic, stable isotope, fluid inclusion, and geochemical studies. The Mahd adh Dhahab deposit is in the carapace of a Proterozoic epizonal rhyolite stock that domed pyroclastic and metasedimentary rocks of the Proterozoic Halaban group. Ore of gold, silver, copper, zinc, tellurium, and lead is associated with north-trending, steeply dipping quartz veins in a zone 1,000 m long and 400 m wide. The veins include an assemblage of quartz-chlorite-pyrite-hematite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-precious metals, which is similar to the mineral assemblage at the epithermal deposit at Creede, Colorado. The primary ore contains abundant chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and pyrite in addition to a complex precious metal assemblage. Gold and silver occur principally as minute grains of telluride minerals disseminated in quartz-chlorite-hematite and as inclusions in chalcopyrite and sphalerite. Telluride minerals include petzite, hessite, and sylvanite. Free gold is present but not abundant. All of the vein-quartz samples contained abundant, minute inclusions of both low-density, vapor-rich fluids and liquid-rich fluids. Primary fluid inclusions yielded homogenization temperatures of from 110? to 238? C. Preliminary light-stable isotope studies of the sulfide minerals and quartz showed that all of the d34S values are between 1.2 and 6.3 per mil, which is a typical range for hydrothermal sulfide minerals that derive their sulfur from an igneous source. The data-suggest that the sulfide sulfur isotope geochemistry was controlled by exchange with la large sulfur isotope

  15. The Impact of ADH1B Alleles and Educational Status on Levels and Modes of Alcohol Consumption in Russian Male Individuals.

    PubMed

    Borinskaya, S A; Kim, A A; Rubanovich, A V; Yankovsky, N K

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the main reasons behind the low life span in Russia. Both social and genetic factors affect the alcohol consumption level. The genetic factors are alleles of the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B and aldehyde dehydrogenaseALDH2 genes. We have typed and found frequencies for the alleles in a cohort of 642 men, ethnic Russians. The individuals of the cohort were asked to complete a questionnaire in the framework of the Izhevsk Family Study (Leon et al., 2007, 2009) regarding the amount of alcohol consumed and on the type of hazardous alcohol consumption (nonbeverage alcohol consumption and the so-called "zapoï" which is a Russian term for a heavy drinking bout lasting for at least 2 days, when an individual is withdrawn from the normal social life). The ADH1B*48His allele was found among heterozygous individuals only (N=68, 10.6% of the cohort). The ALDH2*504Lys allele was also found among heterozygous individuals only (N=2, 0.3%) The effect of ADH1B alleles and the influence of the education level on the amount and type of alcohol consumed had not previously been studied in Russians. We have found that the amount of consumed alcohol is 21.6% lower (1733 g of ethanol per year) for ADH1B*48His allele carriers in the cohort of Russian men. The amount of consumed alcohol was found to be 9.8% lower (793 g of ethanol per year) in the case when individuals had a higher education as compared to those who had a secondary- or elementary school education level in the same cohort. Hence, the protective effect of the genetic factor (ADH1B*48His allele carriage) has proven to be more pronounced than the influence of the social factor (education level) at the individual level in the cohort of Russian men. Both factors have also proven to have a protective effect against hazardous types of alcohol consumption. Zapoï was not scored among individuals of the cohort with ADH1B*48His allele carriage (OR=12.6, P=0.006), as compared to 8.4% of "zapoï" individuals who

  16. Hyponatremia in the postoperative craniofacial pediatric patient population: a connection to cerebral salt wasting syndrome and management of the disorder.

    PubMed

    Levine, J P; Stelnicki, E; Weiner, H L; Bradley, J P; McCarthy, J G

    2001-11-01

    Hyponatremia after cranial vault remodeling has been noted in a pediatric patient population. If left untreated, the patients may develop a clinical hypoosmotic condition that can lead to cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, and eventually, to central nervous system and circulatory compromise. The hyponatremia has traditionally been attributed to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH); however, in our patients the treatment has been resuscitation with normal saline as opposed to fluid restriction (the accepted treatment of SIADH), thus placing the diagnosis of SIADH in question. Patients who developed hyponatremia after intracranial injury or surgery were, until recently, grouped together as having SIADH. However, there are diagnosis and treatment differences between SIADH and another distinct but poorly understood disorder that is designated cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW). CSW is associated with increased urine output and increased urine sodium concentration and volume contraction, and it is frequently seen after a central nervous system trauma. We therefore developed a prospective study to evaluate the cause of the sodium imbalance.Ten consecutive pediatric patients who underwent intracranial surgery for various craniosynostotic disorders were postoperatively monitored in the pediatric intensive care unit for hemodynamic, respiratory, and fluid management. The first four patients were evaluated for electrolyte changes and overall fluid balance to determine the consistency with which these changes occurred. The remaining six patients had daily (including preoperative) measurement of serum electrolytes, urine electrolytes, urine osmolarity, serum antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, and atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH). All patients received normal saline intravenous replacement fluid in the postoperative period. All of the patients developed a transient hyponatremia postoperatively, despite normal saline

  17. The interplay between alcohol consumption, oral hygiene, ALDH2 and ADH1B in the risk of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sen-Tien; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Ou, Chun-Yen; Fang, Sheen-Yie; Chen, Ken-Chung; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Lee, Wei-Ting; Lo, Hung-I; Huang, Jehn-Shyun; Wu, Jiunn-Liang; Yen, Chia-Jui; Hsueh, Wei-Ting; Wu, Yuan-Hua; Yang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Forn-Chia; Chang, Jang-Yang; Chang, Kwang-Yu; Wu, Shang-Yin; Liao, Hsiao-Chen; Lin, Chen-Lin; Wang, Yi-Hui; Weng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Han-Chien; Chang, Jeffrey S

    2014-11-15

    Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). The major carcinogen from alcohol is acetaldehyde, which may be produced by humans or by oral microorganisms through the metabolism of ethanol. To account for the different sources of acetaldehyde production, the current study examined the interplay between alcohol consumption, oral hygiene (as a proxy measure for the growth of oral microorganisms), and alcohol-metabolizing genes (ADH1B and ALDH2) in the risk of HNC. We found that both the fast (*2/*2) and the slow (*1/*1+ *1/*2) ADH1B genotypes increased the risk of HNC due to alcohol consumption, and this association differed according to the slow/non-functional ALDH2 genotypes (*1/*2+ *2/*2) or poor oral hygiene. In persons with the fast ADH1B genotype, the HNC risk associated with alcohol drinking was increased for those with the slow/non-functional ALDH2 genotypes. For those with the slow ADH1B genotypes, oral hygiene appeared to play an important role; the highest magnitude of an increased HNC risk in alcohol drinkers occurred among those with the worst oral hygiene. This is the first study to show that the association between alcohol drinking and HNC risk may be modified by the interplay between genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B and ALDH2 and oral hygiene. Although it is important to promote abstinence from or reduction of alcohol drinking to decrease the occurrence of HNC, improving oral hygiene practices may provide additional benefit.

  18. Immunoglobulin in intestinal secretions.

    PubMed

    Cutropia de Guirao, C

    1977-12-01

    The objective of the present investigation is the study and interpretation of the role played by the immunoglobulins, especially IgA, during acute diarrhea in children. IgA, IGG and IgM values in serum and IgA in intestinal secretions were studied in a group of children (between 3 months and 5 years of age) during diarrhea, convalescence and in normals. The method of simple radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini was employed. IgA is the immunoglobulin which suffers the greastest alteration in acute diarrhea. The precipitation halos (the average values), were lower during the diarrhea than in convalescence and in normals.

  19. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Fragaria (strawberry) using intron-containing sequence from the ADH-1 gene.

    PubMed

    DiMeglio, Laura M; Staudt, Günter; Yu, Hongrun; Davis, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fragaria encompasses species at ploidy levels ranging from diploid to decaploid. The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa, and its two immediate progenitors, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, are octoploids. To elucidate the ancestries of these octoploid species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using intron-containing sequences of the nuclear ADH-1 gene from 39 germplasm accessions representing nineteen Fragaria species and one outgroup species, Dasiphora fruticosa. All trees from Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed two major clades, Clade A and Clade B. Each of the sampled octoploids contributed alleles to both major clades. All octoploid-derived alleles in Clade A clustered with alleles of diploid F. vesca, with the exception of one octoploid allele that clustered with the alleles of diploid F. mandshurica. All octoploid-derived alleles in clade B clustered with the alleles of only one diploid species, F. iinumae. When gaps encoded as binary characters were included in the Maximum Parsimony analysis, tree resolution was improved with the addition of six nodes, and the bootstrap support was generally higher, rising above the 50% threshold for an additional nine branches. These results, coupled with the congruence of the sequence data and the coded gap data, validate and encourage the employment of sequence sets containing gaps for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic conclusions, based upon sequence data from the ADH-1 gene located on F. vesca linkage group II, complement and generally agree with those obtained from analyses of protein-encoding genes GBSSI-2 and DHAR located on F. vesca linkage groups V and VII, respectively, but differ from a previous study that utilized rDNA sequences and did not detect the ancestral role of F. iinumae.

  20. A Phylogenetic Analysis of the Genus Fragaria (Strawberry) Using Intron-Containing Sequence from the ADH-1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    DiMeglio, Laura M.; Yu, Hongrun; Davis, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fragaria encompasses species at ploidy levels ranging from diploid to decaploid. The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa, and its two immediate progenitors, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, are octoploids. To elucidate the ancestries of these octoploid species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using intron-containing sequences of the nuclear ADH-1 gene from 39 germplasm accessions representing nineteen Fragaria species and one outgroup species, Dasiphora fruticosa. All trees from Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed two major clades, Clade A and Clade B. Each of the sampled octoploids contributed alleles to both major clades. All octoploid-derived alleles in Clade A clustered with alleles of diploid F. vesca, with the exception of one octoploid allele that clustered with the alleles of diploid F. mandshurica. All octoploid-derived alleles in clade B clustered with the alleles of only one diploid species, F. iinumae. When gaps encoded as binary characters were included in the Maximum Parsimony analysis, tree resolution was improved with the addition of six nodes, and the bootstrap support was generally higher, rising above the 50% threshold for an additional nine branches. These results, coupled with the congruence of the sequence data and the coded gap data, validate and encourage the employment of sequence sets containing gaps for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic conclusions, based upon sequence data from the ADH-1 gene located on F. vesca linkage group II, complement and generally agree with those obtained from analyses of protein-encoding genes GBSSI-2 and DHAR located on F. vesca linkage groups V and VII, respectively, but differ from a previous study that utilized rDNA sequences and did not detect the ancestral role of F. iinumae. PMID:25078607

  1. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    PubMed

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-05-18

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes.

  2. General secretion signal for the mycobacterial type VII secretion pathway

    PubMed Central

    Daleke, Maria H.; Ummels, Roy; Bawono, Punto; Heringa, Jaap; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Luirink, Joen; Bitter, Wilbert

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterial pathogens use specialized type VII secretion (T7S) systems to transport crucial virulence factors across their unusual cell envelope into infected host cells. These virulence factors lack classical secretion signals and the mechanism of substrate recognition is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that the model T7S substrates PE25/PPE41, which form a heterodimer, are targeted to the T7S pathway ESX-5 by a signal located in the C terminus of PE25. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues within this C terminus resulted in the identification of a highly conserved motif, i.e., YxxxD/E, which is required for secretion. This motif was also essential for the secretion of LipY, another ESX-5 substrate. Pathogenic mycobacteria have several different T7S systems and we identified a PE protein that is secreted by the ESX-1 system, which allowed us to compare substrate recognition of these two T7S systems. Surprisingly, this ESX-1 substrate contained a C-terminal signal functionally equivalent to that of PE25. Exchange of these C-terminal secretion signals between the PE proteins restored secretion, but each PE protein remained secreted via its own ESX secretion system, indicating that an additional signal(s) provides system specificity. Remarkably, the YxxxD/E motif was also present in and required for efficient secretion of the ESX-1 substrates CFP-10 and EspB. Therefore, our data show that the YxxxD/E motif is a general secretion signal that is present in all known mycobacterial T7S substrates or substrate complexes. PMID:22733768

  3. Expansible quantum secret sharing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2013-08-01

    In the practical applications, member expansion is a usual demand during the development of a secret sharing network. However, there are few consideration and discussion on network expansibility in the existing quantum secret sharing schemes. We propose an expansible quantum secret sharing scheme with relatively simple and economical quantum resources and show how to split and reconstruct the quantum secret among an expansible user group in our scheme. Its trait, no requirement of any agent's assistant during the process of member expansion, can help to prevent potential menaces of insider cheating. We also give a discussion on the security of this scheme from three aspects.

  4. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  5. Study Guide: Seven Simple Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, Nancy; Breaux, Annette; Whitaker, Todd

    2007-01-01

    This study guide has been developed to accompany the "Seven Simple Secrets" book written by Dr. Todd Whitaker and Annette Breaux. "Seven Simple Secrets" focuses on those attributes that have been found to help teachers be their absolute best in their daily challenges of teaching and improving student learning. The study guide is divided into the…

  6. Protein secretion in Bacillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Simonen, M; Palva, I

    1993-01-01

    Bacilli secrete numerous proteins into the environment. Many of the secretory proteins, their export signals, and their processing steps during secretion have been characterized in detail. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms of protein secretion have been relatively poorly characterized. However, several components of the protein secretion machinery have been identified and cloned recently, which is likely to lead to rapid expansion of the knowledge of the protein secretion mechanism in Bacillus species. Comparison of the presently known export components of Bacillus species with those of Escherichia coli suggests that the mechanism of protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane is conserved among gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria differences are found in steps preceding and following the translocation process. Many of the secretory proteins of bacilli are produced industrially, but several problems have been encountered in the production of Bacillus heterologous secretory proteins. In the final section we discuss these problems and point out some possibilities to overcome them. PMID:8464403

  7. Purification of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenases from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E and characterization of the secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) as a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase--acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase.

    PubMed

    Burdette, D; Zeikus, J G

    1994-08-15

    The purification and characterization of three enzymes involved in ethanol formation from acetyl-CoA in Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E (formerly Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum 39E) is described. The secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 40 kDa subunits (SDS/PAGE) with a molecular mass of 160 kDa. The 2 degrees Adh had a lower catalytic efficiency for the oxidation of 1 degree alcohols, including ethanol, than for the oxidation of secondary (2 degrees) alcohols or the reduction of ketones or aldehydes. This enzyme possesses a significant acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase activity as determined by NADPH oxidation, thiol formation and ethanol production. The primary-alcohol dehydrogenase (1 degree Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 41.5 kDa (SDS/PAGE) subunits with a molecular mass of 170 kDa. The 1 degree Adh used both NAD(H) and NADP(H) and displayed higher catalytic efficiencies for NADP(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation and NADH-dependent acetaldehyde (identical to ethanal) reduction than for NADPH-dependent acetaldehyde reduction or NAD(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation. The NAD(H)-linked acetaldehyde dehydrogenase was a homotetramer (360 kDa) of identical subunits (100 kDa) that readily catalysed thioester cleavage and condensation. The 1 degree Adh was expressed at 5-20% of the level of the 2 degrees Adh throughout the growth cycle on glucose. The results suggest that the 2 degrees Adh primarily functions in ethanol production from acetyl-CoA and acetaldehyde, whereas the 1 degree Adh functions in ethanol consumption for nicotinamide-cofactor recycling.

  8. Purification of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenases from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E and characterization of the secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) as a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase--acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase.

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, D; Zeikus, J G

    1994-01-01

    The purification and characterization of three enzymes involved in ethanol formation from acetyl-CoA in Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E (formerly Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum 39E) is described. The secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 40 kDa subunits (SDS/PAGE) with a molecular mass of 160 kDa. The 2 degrees Adh had a lower catalytic efficiency for the oxidation of 1 degree alcohols, including ethanol, than for the oxidation of secondary (2 degrees) alcohols or the reduction of ketones or aldehydes. This enzyme possesses a significant acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase activity as determined by NADPH oxidation, thiol formation and ethanol production. The primary-alcohol dehydrogenase (1 degree Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 41.5 kDa (SDS/PAGE) subunits with a molecular mass of 170 kDa. The 1 degree Adh used both NAD(H) and NADP(H) and displayed higher catalytic efficiencies for NADP(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation and NADH-dependent acetaldehyde (identical to ethanal) reduction than for NADPH-dependent acetaldehyde reduction or NAD(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation. The NAD(H)-linked acetaldehyde dehydrogenase was a homotetramer (360 kDa) of identical subunits (100 kDa) that readily catalysed thioester cleavage and condensation. The 1 degree Adh was expressed at 5-20% of the level of the 2 degrees Adh throughout the growth cycle on glucose. The results suggest that the 2 degrees Adh primarily functions in ethanol production from acetyl-CoA and acetaldehyde, whereas the 1 degree Adh functions in ethanol consumption for nicotinamide-cofactor recycling. Images Figure 1 PMID:8068002

  9. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome after calvarial remodeling in craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Jun-Hee; Yoo, Gyeol

    2005-10-01

    Hyponatremia and increased urine output after calvarial remodeling have been noted in pediatric patients with craniosynostosis. If not treated properly, patients develop hypoosmotic conditions that can lead to cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, and collapsed circulation. Postoperative hyponatremia after central nervous system surgery is considered as the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. Recently, however, cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) instead of SIADH has been reported frequently. CSWS is associated with a decreased serum sodium level, increased urinary sodium level, increased urine output, decreased ECF volume, increased atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) level, and increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level. We experienced nine patients with craniosynostosis who underwent calvarial remodeling. By postoperative day 1, the ANP and BNP levels increased by 3-6 folds compared with the preoperative levels. They returned to the normal levels by postoperative day 5. The ADH level was within the normal range even after operation. The urinary sodium level increased in all patients by postoperative day 1 and 3. But the serum sodium level, and serum and urine osmolarity were normal due to appropriate replacement of sodium and fluid. After calvarial remodeling, the potential development of CSWS should be considered and distinguished from SIADH. The patients with CSWS require normal saline resuscitation and should prophylactically receive normal saline.

  10. POZ domain transcription factor, FBI-1, represses transcription of ADH5/FDH by interacting with the zinc finger and interfering with DNA binding activity of Sp1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kee; Suh, Dongchul; Edenberg, Howard J; Hur, Man-Wook

    2002-07-26

    The POZ domain is a protein-protein interaction motif that is found in many transcription factors, which are important for development, oncogenesis, apoptosis, and transcription repression. We cloned the POZ domain transcription factor, FBI-1, that recognizes the cis-element (bp -38 to -22) located just upstream of the core Sp1 binding sites (bp -22 to +22) of the ADH5/FDH minimal promoter (bp -38 to +61) in vitro and in vivo, as revealed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The ADH5/FDH minimal promoter is potently repressed by the FBI-1. Glutathione S-transferase fusion protein pull-down showed that the POZ domains of FBI-1, Plzf, and Bcl-6 directly interact with the zinc finger DNA binding domain of Sp1. DNase I footprinting assays showed that the interaction prevents binding of Sp1 to the GC boxes of the ADH5/FDH promoter. Gal4-POZ domain fusions targeted proximal to the GC boxes repress transcription of the Gal4 upstream activator sequence-Sp1-adenovirus major late promoter. Our data suggest that POZ domain represses transcription by interacting with Sp1 zinc fingers and by interfering with the DNA binding activity of Sp1.

  11. Mutant alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH III) presequences that affect both in vitro mitochondrial import and in vitro processing by the matrix protease.

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, D T; Pilgrim, D B; Young, E T

    1990-01-01

    Point mutations in the presequence of the mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogerase isoenzyme (ADH III) have been shown to affect either the import of the precursor protein into yeast mitochondria in vivo or its processing within the organelle. In the present work, the behavior of these mutants during in vitro import into isolated mitochondria was investigated. All point mutants tested were imported with a slower initial rate than that of the wild-type precursor. This defect was corrected when the precursors were treated with urea prior to import. Once imported, the extent of processing to the mature form of mutant precursors varied greatly and correlated well with the defects observed in vivo. This result was not affected by prior urea treatment. When matrix extracts enriched for the processing protease were used, this defect was shown to be due to failure of the protease to efficiently recognize or cleave the presequence, rather than to a lack of access to the precursor. The rate of import of two ADH III precursors bearing internal deletions in the leader sequence was similar to those of the point mutants, whereas a deletion leading to the removal of the 15 amino-terminal amino acids was poorly imported. The mature amino terminus of wild-type ADH III was determined to be Gln-25. Mutant m01 (Ser-26 to Phe), which reduced the efficiency of cleavage in vitro by 80%, was cleaved at the correct site. Images PMID:2188098

  12. Metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, in mouse liver by alcohol dehydrogenase Adh1 and aldehyde reductase AKR1A4

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Duncan M.; Lyon, Robert; Watson, David G.; Barski, Oleg A.; McGarvie, Gail; Ellis, Elizabeth M. . E-mail: Elizabeth.ellis@strath.ac.uk

    2006-01-15

    The reductive metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, was studied in mouse liver. Using an HPLC-based stopped assay, the primary reduced metabolite was identified as 6-hydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadienal (OH/CHO) and the secondary metabolite as 1,6-dihydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadiene (OH/OH). The main enzymes responsible for the highest levels of reductase activity towards trans, trans-muconaldehyde were purified from mouse liver soluble fraction first by Q-sepharose chromatography followed by either blue or red dye affinity chromatography. In mouse liver, trans, trans-muconaldehyde is predominantly reduced by an NADH-dependent enzyme, which was identified as alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1). Kinetic constants obtained for trans, trans-muconaldehyde with the native Adh1 enzyme showed a V {sub max} of 2141 {+-} 500 nmol/min/mg and a K {sub m} of 11 {+-} 4 {mu}M. This enzyme was inhibited by pyrazole with a K {sub I} of 3.1 {+-} 0.57 {mu}M. Other fractions were found to contain muconaldehyde reductase activity independent of Adh1, and one enzyme was identified as the NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase AKR1A4. This showed a V {sub max} of 115 nmol/min/mg and a K {sub m} of 15 {+-} 2 {mu}M and was not inhibited by pyrazole.

  13. Problèmes de mesure d'adhérence de revêtement métallique sur substrat métallique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, A.; Chassaing, E.; Goryachev, S. B.

    2003-03-01

    De tous les couples film/substrat, les systèmes métal/métal sont ceux qui présentent le plus de difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de mesurer leur énergie d'adhérence. Les deux principales concernent d'une part leur caractère fortement adhérent, d'autre part la grande ductilité des matériaux mis en jeu. Parmi les nombreux tests mécaniques de mesure d'adhérence, les tests de rupture interfaciale, qui consistent à mesurer la résistance à la propagation d'une fissure interfaciale, sont les plus intéressants. Cependant, les tests de ce type les plus utilisés s'avèrent inadaptés aux interfaces métal/métal et un test original, le test de pelage avec cylindre en rotation, semble plus adéquat.

  14. Molecular Variation of Adh and P6 Genes in an African Population of Drosophila Melanogaster and Its Relation to Chromosomal Inversions

    PubMed Central

    Benassi, V.; Aulard, S.; Mazeau, S.; Veuille, M.

    1993-01-01

    Four-cutter molecular polymorphism of Adh and P6, and chromosome inversion polymorphism of chromosome II were investigated in 95 isogenic lines of an Ivory Coast population of Drosophila melanogaster, a species assumed to have recently spread throughout the world from a West African origin. The P6 gene showed little linkage disequilibrium with the In(2L)t inversion, although it is located within this inversion. This suggests that the inversion and the P6 locus have extensively exchanged genetic information through either double crossover or gene conversion. Allozymic variation in ADH was in linkage disequilibrium with In(2L)t and In(2R)NS inversions. Evidence suggests either that inversion linkage with the Fast allele is selectively maintained, or that this allele only recently appeared. Molecular polymorphism at the Adh locus in the Ivory Coast is not higher than in North American populations. New haplotypes specific to the African population were found, some of them connect the ``Wa(s)-like'' haplotypes found at high frequencies in the United States to the other slow haplotypes. Their relation with In(2L)t supports the hypothesis that Wa(s) recently recombined away from an In(2L)t chromosome which may be the cause of its divergence from the other haplotypes. PMID:8349110

  15. Helicobacter pylori in lacrimal secretions.

    PubMed

    Batioglu-Karaaltin, Aysegul; Saatci, Ozlem; Akpinar, Meltem; Celik, Melih Ozgür; Develioglu, Omer; Yigit, Ozgur; Külekçi, Mehmet; Akarsubaşı, Alper Tunga

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Helicobacter pylori in human lacrimal and nasal secretions. Eighty patients with complaints of dyspepsia who had undergone endoscopies and gastric antrum biopsies were included in the study. A total of five specimens, including 2 lacrimal secretion samples, 2 nasal mucosal swab samples, and 1 gastric antrum biopsy, were collected from each patient and investigated with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods consisting of the urease enzyme coding gene GlmM (UreC) and the H pylori-specific 16S rRNA coding gene. The Reflux Symptom Index and ophthalmologic complaints of the patients were recorded. The detected positivity rates of the H pylori 16S rRNA coding gene in gastric biopsies and nasal mucous and lacrimal secretions were 55, 11.2, and 20%, respectively. The patients were grouped as gastric-antrum-biopsy-negative (Group I [n = 36]) and -positive (Group II [n = 44). In Group II, H pylori positivity in the lacrimal and nasal mucous secretions was 36.3 and 18%, respectively. A comparison between the groups in terms of H pylori presence in nasal mucous and lacrimal secretions yielded statistically significant differences (p = 0.0001, p = 0.003). The simultaneous presence of H pylori in nasal mucous and lacrimal secretions was 13.6% in Group II. H pylori positivity in nasal mucous and lacrimal secretions had a positive moderate correlation (r = 0.40; p = 0.0003). The present study is the first report on the presence of H pylori in lacrimal secretions through nested PCR, which suggested the presence of a number of mechanisms for H pylori transmission to lacrimal secretions.

  16. Secret Key Generation via a Modified Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Smith IV, Amos M; Evans, Philip G; Lawrie, Benjamin J; Legre, Matthieu; Lougovski, Pavel; Ray, William R; Williams, Brian P; Qi, Bing; Grice, Warren P

    2015-01-01

    We present and experimentally show a novel protocol for distributing secret information between two and only two parties in a N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS) system. We demonstrate this new algorithm with N = 3 active parties over 6km of telecom. ber. Our experimental device is based on the Clavis2 Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system built by ID Quantique but is generalizable to any implementation. We show that any two out of the N parties can build secret keys based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N > 2 parties. This algorithm allows for the creation of two-party secret keys were standard QSS does not and signicantly reduces the number of resources needed to implement QKD on a highly connected network such as the electrical grid.

  17. Secret key generation via a modified quantum secret sharing protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. M.; Evans, P. G.; Lawrie, B.; Legré, M.; Lougovski, P.; Ray, W.; Williams, B. P.; Qi, B.; Grice, W. P.

    2015-05-01

    We present and experimentally show a novel protocol for distributing secret information between two and only two parties in a N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS) system. We demonstrate this new algorithm with N = 3 active parties over ~6km of telecom. fiber. Our experimental device is based on the Clavis2 Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system built by ID Quantique but is generalizable to any implementation. We show that any two out of the N parties can build secret keys based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N - 2 parties. This algorithm allows for the creation of two-party secret keys were standard QSS does not and significantly reduces the number of resources needed to implement QKD on a highly connected network such as the electrical grid.

  18. Fast Principal-Component Analysis Reveals Convergent Evolution of ADH1B in Europe and East Asia.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, Kevin J; Bhatia, Gaurav; Loh, Po-Ru; Georgiev, Stoyan; Mukherjee, Sayan; Patterson, Nick J; Price, Alkes L

    2016-03-03

    Searching for genetic variants with unusual differentiation between subpopulations is an established approach for identifying signals of natural selection. However, existing methods generally require discrete subpopulations. We introduce a method that infers selection using principal components (PCs) by identifying variants whose differentiation along top PCs is significantly greater than the null distribution of genetic drift. To enable the application of this method to large datasets, we developed the FastPCA software, which employs recent advances in random matrix theory to accurately approximate top PCs while reducing time and memory cost from quadratic to linear in the number of individuals, a computational improvement of many orders of magnitude. We apply FastPCA to a cohort of 54,734 European Americans, identifying 5 distinct subpopulations spanning the top 4 PCs. Using the PC-based test for natural selection, we replicate previously known selected loci and identify three new genome-wide significant signals of selection, including selection in Europeans at ADH1B. The coding variant rs1229984(∗)T has previously been associated to a decreased risk of alcoholism and shown to be under selection in East Asians; we show that it is a rare example of independent evolution on two continents. We also detect selection signals at IGFBP3 and IGH, which have also previously been associated to human disease.

  19. Fast Principal-Component Analysis Reveals Convergent Evolution of ADH1B in Europe and East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Galinsky, Kevin J.; Bhatia, Gaurav; Loh, Po-Ru; Georgiev, Stoyan; Mukherjee, Sayan; Patterson, Nick J.; Price, Alkes L.

    2016-01-01

    Searching for genetic variants with unusual differentiation between subpopulations is an established approach for identifying signals of natural selection. However, existing methods generally require discrete subpopulations. We introduce a method that infers selection using principal components (PCs) by identifying variants whose differentiation along top PCs is significantly greater than the null distribution of genetic drift. To enable the application of this method to large datasets, we developed the FastPCA software, which employs recent advances in random matrix theory to accurately approximate top PCs while reducing time and memory cost from quadratic to linear in the number of individuals, a computational improvement of many orders of magnitude. We apply FastPCA to a cohort of 54,734 European Americans, identifying 5 distinct subpopulations spanning the top 4 PCs. Using the PC-based test for natural selection, we replicate previously known selected loci and identify three new genome-wide significant signals of selection, including selection in Europeans at ADH1B. The coding variant rs1229984∗T has previously been associated to a decreased risk of alcoholism and shown to be under selection in East Asians; we show that it is a rare example of independent evolution on two continents. We also detect selection signals at IGFBP3 and IGH, which have also previously been associated to human disease. PMID:26924531

  20. Proposal for quantum rational secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Arpita; De, Sourya Joyee; Paul, Goutam; Pal, Asim K.

    2015-08-01

    A rational secret sharing scheme is a game in which each party responsible for reconstructing a secret tries to maximize his or her utility by obtaining the secret alone. Quantum secret sharing schemes, derived either from quantum teleportation or from quantum error correcting code, do not succeed when we assume rational participants. This is because all existing quantum secret sharing schemes consider that the secret is reconstructed by a party chosen by the dealer. In this paper, for the first time, we propose a quantum secret sharing scheme which is resistant to rational parties. The proposed scheme is fair (everyone gets the secret), is correct, and achieves strict Nash equilibrium.

  1. [Pancreatic secretion in domestic sprue].

    PubMed

    Otte, M; Thurmayr, G R; Dageförde, J; Thurmayr, R; Forell, M M

    1985-02-15

    Pancreatic function was determined (using the secretin-pancreozymin test) before the use of gluten-free diet in 22 patients with endemic (celiac) sprue. Water and bicarbonate secretion were within normal limits, if anything there was a trend to high-normal values. Remarkable and apparently characteristic for celiac sprue was the only slight contraction of the gallbladder after intravenous injection of submaximal doses of cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CCK). Secretion of the 3 enzymes amylase, lipase and trypsin was decreased in about one third of cases, the difference relating both to the concentrations and the amount secreted, compared with normal control values was significant (P greater than 0.01). But in no case was the reduced enzyme secretion so marked that one would expect maldigestion. Multivariate non-linear discriminance analysis demonstrated that pancreatic secretion in sprue is quite distinct from that in healthy subjects and those with chronic pancreatitis. It is assumed that there is a pattern of exocrine pancreatic secretion typical for sprue.

  2. Nonlinear Secret Image Sharing Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2⁡m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

  3. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  4. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh

    2015-02-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced. This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can no longer be leaked.

  5. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF PROSTATIC SECRETION

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Charles; Sommer, John Lambert

    1953-01-01

    The prostate of the dog was relocated permanently in the perineum where its size could be measured and correlated with the output of prostatic secretion during many months. The secretion of a submaxillary gland obtained through a fistula was utilized as an internal biologic standard of the effects of pilocarpine, the secretory stimulus employed, because the amount and route of administration of the alkaloid are critical factors in inducing secretion. Prostatic secretion was found to be profoundly affected by androgenic and estrogenic compounds, in contrast to salivation. The curves of the secretory response of the prostate and submaxillary glands to pilocarpine proved to be similar and a mathematical formula has been constructed to represent them. When testosterone propionate was administered in increasing quantities for periods of weeks at each level, the volume of the prostate increased in a series of flattened curves. This volume, under the conditions mentioned, was found to stand in a simple arithmetic relationship to the amount of testosterone propionate administered. Moderate quantities of testosterone propionate masked the effects of small amounts of stilbestrol on the prostate. The reverse was also true and the critical amounts of these compounds were defined. The amounts of stilbestrol were determined which lowered the quantity of prostatic secretion resulting from the simultaneous administration of moderate amounts of testosterone propionate in castrate dogs, the result being a level and flat secretory curve which was maintained for many weeks. We designate this effect the plateau phenomenon. When this amount of estrogen was continued, and the dosage of testosterone propionate greatly augmented, the prostatic secretion did not increase in volume. Very slight increases above the critical amount of stilbestrol, however, caused the secretory curve to fall to new and still lower levels though the secretion was never completely suppressed. The acid phosphatase

  6. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF PROSTATIC SECRETION

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Charles; Masina, M. H.; Eichelberger, Lillian; Wharton, James D.

    1939-01-01

    A simple isolation of the prostate enabled quantitative collection of prostatic secretion in dogs over periods of months. The secretory stimulant was pilocarpine and 2 similar amounts injected with a 6 hour interval gave smaller amounts at the second testing, suggesting a fatigue effect. The prostate was not absolutely refractory since doubling the amount of alkaloid injected at the second test increased the volume to equal or exceed the preliminary secretion. The depression effect had disappeared at 24 hours. In normal dogs the secretory curves were essentially regular, with occasional prolonged rises or depressions. The amount of secretion did not bear a direct relationship to the weight of the gland in adult dogs. The germinal epithelium of the testis underwent atrophy during the first few weeks of cage life while the prostatic secretion was maintained, showing that the atrophy was differential and did not involve the cells producing the androgenic hormone. The atrophy was reversible and all dogs kept for more than 4 months showed restoration of the germ cells. A few dogs developed atrophy of the germinal cells with cessation of prostatic secretion for many weeks but with final recovery. Removal of the suprarenal glands with suprarenal insufficiency did not produce sterility. The distribution of electrolytes in the prostatic secretion differed from that in the serum-transudate system, although the concentration of osmotically active substances was the same, being made up almost entirely of sodium and chloride. The distribution was not affected by the different physiological procedures used in this study. Protein concentrations were less than 1 per cent. The rate of prostatic atrophy following castration was determined, and cessation of secretion occurred in 7 to 23 days. The restoration of prostatic fluid in castrate dogs following daily injections of testosterone propionate followed a smooth curve to form a plateau which was interrupted occasionally by

  7. Secret sharing using biometric traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmatov, Alisher; Yanikoglu, Berrin; Savas, Erkay; Levi, Albert

    2006-04-01

    In biometric based authentication, biometric traits of a person are matched against his/her stored biometric profile and access is granted if there is sufficient match. However, there are other access scenarios, which require participation of multiple previously registered users for a successful authentication or to get an access grant for a certain entity. For instance, there are cryptographic constructs generally known as secret sharing schemes, where a secret is split into shares and distributed amongst participants in such a way that it is reconstructed/revealed only when the necessary number of share holders come together. The revealed secret can then be used for encryption or authentication (if the revealed key is verified against the previously registered value). In this work we propose a method for the biometric based secret sharing. Instead of splitting a secret amongst participants, as is done in cryptography, a single biometric construct is created using the biometric traits of the participants. During authentication, a valid cryptographic key is released out of the construct when the required number of genuine participants present their biometric traits.

  8. Thyroid hormones and renin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    Circulating angiotensin is produced by the action of renin from the kidneys on circulating angiotensinogen. There are other renin-angiotensin systems in various organs in the body, and recent observations raise the intriguing possibility that angiotensin II is produced by a totally intracellular pathway in the juxtaglomerular cells, the gonadotrops of the anterior pituitary, neurons, in the brain, salivary duct cells, and neuroblastoma cells. Circulating angiotensin II levels depend in large part on the plasma concentration of angiotensinogen, which is hormonally regulated, and on the rate of renin secretion. Renin secretion is regulated by an intrarenal baroreceptor mechanism, a macula densa mechanism, angiotensin II, vasopressin, and the sympathetic nervous system. The increase in renin secretion produced by sympathetic discharge is mediated for the most part by beta-adrenergic receptors, which are probably located on the juxtaglomerular cells. Hyperthyroidism would be expected to be associated with increased renin secretion in view of the increased beta-adrenergic activity in this condition, and hypothyroidism would be associated with decreased plasma renin activity due to decreased beta-adrenergic activity. Our recent research on serotonin-mediated increases in renin secretion that depend on the integrity of the dorsal raphe nucleus and the mediobasal hypothalamus has led us to investigate the effect of the pituitary on the renin response to p-chloroamphetamine. The response is potentiated immediately after hypophysectomy, but 22 days after the operation, it is abolished. This slowly developing decrease in responsiveness may be due to decreased thyroid function.

  9. Identification of a G‐Protein Subunit‐α11 Gain‐of‐Function Mutation, Val340Met, in a Family With Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia Type 2 (ADH2)

    PubMed Central

    Piret, Sian E; Gorvin, Caroline M; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Howles, Sarah A; Cranston, Treena; Rust, Nigel; Nesbit, M Andrew; Glaser, Ben; Taylor, Jenny C; Buchs, Andreas E; Hannan, Fadil M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) is characterized by hypocalcemia, inappropriately low serum parathyroid hormone concentrations and hypercalciuria. ADH is genetically heterogeneous with ADH type 1 (ADH1), the predominant form, being caused by germline gain‐of‐function mutations of the G‐protein coupled calcium‐sensing receptor (CaSR), and ADH2 caused by germline gain‐of‐function mutations of G‐protein subunit α‐11 (Gα11). To date Gα11 mutations causing ADH2 have been reported in only five probands. We investigated a multigenerational nonconsanguineous family, from Iran, with ADH and keratoconus which are not known to be associated, for causative mutations by whole‐exome sequencing in two individuals with hypoparathyroidism, of whom one also had keratoconus, followed by cosegregation analysis of variants. This identified a novel heterozygous germline Val340Met Gα11 mutation in both individuals, and this was also present in the other two relatives with hypocalcemia that were tested. Three‐dimensional modeling revealed the Val340Met mutation to likely alter the conformation of the C‐terminal α5 helix, which may affect G‐protein coupled receptor binding and G‐protein activation. In vitro functional expression of wild‐type (Val340) and mutant (Met340) Gα11 proteins in HEK293 cells stably expressing the CaSR, demonstrated that the intracellular calcium responses following stimulation with extracellular calcium, of the mutant Met340 Gα11 led to a leftward shift of the concentration‐response curve with a significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced mean half‐maximal concentration (EC50) value of 2.44 mM (95% CI, 2.31 to 2.77 mM) when compared to the wild‐type EC50 of 3.14 mM (95% CI, 3.03 to 3.26 mM), consistent with a gain‐of‐function mutation. A novel His403Gln variant in transforming growth factor, beta‐induced (TGFBI), that may be causing keratoconus was also identified, indicating likely digenic

  10. Metabolic process engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Δack-adhE2 for enhanced n-butanol production from glucose: effects of methyl viologen on NADH availability, flux distribution, and fermentation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Du, Yinming; Jiang, Wenyan; Yu, Mingrui; Tang, I-Ching; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-04-01

    Butanol biosynthesis through aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE2) is usually limited by NADH availability, resulting in low butanol titer, yield, and productivity. To alleviate this limitation and improve n-butanol production by Clostridium tyrobutyricum Δack-adhE2 overexpressing adhE2, the NADH availability was increased by using methyl viologen (MV) as an artificial electron carrier to divert electrons from ferredoxin normally used for H2 production. In the batch fermentation with the addition of 500 μM MV, H2 , acetate, and butyrate production was reduced by more than 80-90%, while butanol production increased more than 40% to 14.5 g/L. Metabolic flux analysis revealed that butanol production increased in the fermentation with MV because of increased NADH availability as a result of reduced H2 production. Furthermore, continuous butanol production of ∼55 g/L with a high yield of ∼0.33 g/g glucose and extremely low ethanol, acetate, and butyrate production was obtained in fed-batch fermentation with gas stripping for in situ butanol recovery. This study demonstrated a stable and reliable process for high-yield and high-titer n-butanol production by metabolically engineered C. tyrobutyricum by applying MV as an electron carrier to increase butanol biosynthesis.

  11. Paraneoplastic syndromes in olfactory neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Gabrych, Anna; Czapiewski, Piotr; Sworczak, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare malignant neoplasm of sinonasal tract, derived from olfactory epithelium. Unilateral nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sinusitis, and headaches are common symptoms. Olfactory neuroblastoma shows neuroendocrine differentiation and similarly to other neuroendocrine tumors can produce several types of peptic substances and hormones. Excess production of these substances can be responsible for different types of endocrinological paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS). Moreover, besides endocrinological, in ONB may also occur neurological PNS, caused by immune cross-reactivity between tumor and normal host tissues in the nervous system. Paraneoplastic syndromes in ONB include: syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS), humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), hypertension due to catecholamine secretion by tumor, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia (OMA) and paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. Paraneoplastic syndromes in ONB tend to have atypical features, therefore diagnosis may be difficult. In this review, we described initial symptoms, patterns of presentation, treatment and outcome of paraneoplastic syndromes in ONB, reported in the literature. PMID:26199564

  12. Prospective Multicenter Phase II Trial of Systemic ADH-1 in Combination With Melphalan via Isolated Limb Infusion in Patients With Advanced Extremity Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Georgia M.; Riboh, Jonathan C.; Augustine, Christina K.; Zager, Jonathan S.; Hochwald, Steven N.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Peterson, Bercedis; Royal, Richard; Ross, Merrick I.; Tyler, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Isolated limb infusion (ILI) with melphalan (M-ILI) dosing corrected for ideal body weight (IBW) is a well-tolerated treatment for patients with in-transit melanoma with a 29% complete response rate. ADH-1 is a cyclic pentapeptide that disrupts N-cadherin adhesion complexes. In a preclinical animal model, systemic ADH-1 given with regional melphalan demonstrated synergistic antitumor activity, and in a phase I trial with M-ILI it had minimal toxicity. Patients and Methods Patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage IIIB or IIIC extremity melanoma were treated with 4,000 mg of ADH-1, administered systemically on days 1 and 8, and with M-ILI corrected for IBW on day 1. Drug pharmacokinetics and N-cadherin immunohistochemical staining were performed on pretreatment tumor. The primary end point was response at 12 weeks determined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. Results In all, 45 patients were enrolled over 15 months at four institutions. In-field responses included 17 patients with complete responses (CRs; 38%), 10 with partial responses (22%), six with stable disease (13%), eight with progressive disease (18%), and four (9%) who were not evaluable. Median duration of in-field response among the 17 CRs was 5 months, and median time to in-field progression among 41 evaluable patients was 4.6 months (95% CI, 4.0 to 7.1 months). N-cadherin was detected in 20 (69%) of 29 tumor samples. Grade 4 toxicities included creatinine phosphokinase increase (four patients), arterial injury (one), neutropenia (one), and pneumonitis (one). Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this phase II trial is the first prospective multicenter ILI trial and the first to incorporate a targeted agent in an attempt to augment antitumor responses to regional chemotherapy. Although targeting N-cadherin may improve melanoma sensitivity to chemotherapy, no difference in response to treatment was seen in this study. PMID:21343562

  13. The influence of genetic polymorphisms in XRCC3 and ADH5 genes on the frequency of genotoxicity biomarkers in workers exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ladeira, Carina; Viegas, Susana; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Manuel C; Brito, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans because there is "sufficient epidemiological evidence that it causes nasopharyngeal cancer in humans". Genes involved in DNA repair and maintenance of genome integrity are critically involved in protecting against mutations that lead to cancer and/or inherited genetic disease. Association studies have recently provided evidence for a link between DNA repair polymorphisms and micronucleus (MN) induction. We used the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN assay) in peripheral lymphocytes and MN test in buccal cells to investigate the effects of XRCC3 Thr241Met, ADH5 Val309Ile, and Asp353Glu polymorphisms on the frequency of genotoxicity biomarkers in individuals occupationally exposed to formaldehyde (n = 54) and unexposed workers (n = 82). XRCC3 participates in DNA double-strand break/recombination repair, while ADH5 is an important component of cellular metabolism for the elimination of formaldehyde. Exposed workers had significantly higher frequencies (P < 0.01) than controls for all genotoxicity biomarkers evaluated in this study. Moreover, there were significant associations between XRCC3 genotypes and nuclear buds, namely XRCC3 Met/Met (OR = 3.975, CI 1.053-14.998, P = 0.042) and XRCC3 Thr/Met (OR = 5.632, CI 1.673-18.961, P = 0.005) in comparison with XRCC3 Thr/Thr. ADH5 polymorphisms did not show significant effects. This study highlights the importance of integrating genotoxicity biomarkers and genetic polymorphisms in human biomonitoring studies.

  14. Secrets and Disclosures: How Young Children Handle Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J.; Papathanasiou, Athanasia

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of content and verbal cues on young children's understanding of secret information and of its disclosure. Participants were 209 5- and 6-year-old children in an experiment where a puppet, named Zinc, was the protagonist. Children were asked to whom Zinc would disclose a list of pieces of information, some of…

  15. FOIA: What's a Trade Secret?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawker, Curtis

    The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) was amended in 1974 in order to restrict government control and to facilitate the public's access to information. However, part of the FOIA bans federal officials from disclosing "trade secrets" and commercial or financial information obtained in confidential circumstances. This exemption has…

  16. The Year of Secret Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Jaclyn

    2004-01-01

    The path to "novelist" was a convoluted one for Moriarty, who began writing fiction as doctoral student at Cambridge University. Her interest in young adults stems from an appreciation for the "troubles, strengths, and surprises of that age group." Now, in a uniquely formatted book titled "The Year of Secret Assignments," we peek inside the mind…

  17. Seven Simple Secrets: What the Best Teachers Know and Do!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breaux, Annette L.; Whitaker, Todd

    2006-01-01

    Implementing the secrets presented in this book will change your life both in and out of the classroom. But most importantly, implementing these secrets will enhance the lives of every student you teach. The following are contained in this book: Secret One: The Secret of Planning; Secret Two: The Secret of Classroom Management; Secret Three: The…

  18. Acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (EhADH2) and clathrin are involved in internalization of human transferrin by Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Reyes-López, Magda; Bermúdez-Cruz, Rosa María; Avila, Eva E; de la Garza, Mireya

    2011-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a host glycoprotein capable of binding two ferric-iron ions to become holotransferrin (holoTf), which transports iron in to all cells. Entamoeba histolytica is a parasitic protozoan able to use holoTf as a sole iron source in vitro. The mechanism by which this parasite scavenges iron from holoTf is unknown. An E. histolytica holoTf-binding protein (EhTfbp) was purified by using an anti-human transferrin receptor (TfR) monoclonal antibody. EhTfbp was identified by MS/MS analysis and database searches as E. histolytica acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (EhADH2), an iron-dependent enzyme. Both EhTfbp and EhADH2 bound holoTf and were recognized by the anti-human TfR antibody, indicating that they correspond to the same protein. It was found that the amoebae internalized holoTf through clathrin-coated pits, suggesting that holoTf endocytosis could be important for the parasite during colonization and invasion of the intestinal mucosa and liver.

  19. Efficient production of lycopene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of synthetic crt genes from a plasmid harboring the ADH2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Bahieldin, Ahmed; Gadalla, Nour O; Al-Garni, Saleh M; Almehdar, Hussein; Noor, Samah; Hassan, Sabah M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Sabir, Jamal S M; Murata, Norio

    2014-03-01

    Lycopene is an effective antioxidant proposed as a possible treatment for some cancers and other degenerative human conditions. This study aims at generation of a yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) of efficient productivity of lycopene by overexpressing synthetic genes derived from crtE, crtB and crtI genes of Erwinia uredovora. These synthetic genes were constructed in accordance with the preferred codon usage in S. cerevisiae but with no changes in amino acid sequences of the gene products. S. cerevisiae cells were transformed with these synthetic crt genes, whose expression was regulated by the ADH2 promoter, which is de-repressed upon glucose depletion. The RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses indicated that the synthetic crt genes were efficiently transcribed and translated in crt-transformed S. cerevisiae cells. The highest level of lycopene in one of the transformed lines was 3.3mglycopene/g dry cell weight, which is higher than the previously reported levels of lycopene in other microorganisms transformed with the three genes. These results suggest the excellence of using the synthetic crt genes and the ADH2 promoter in generation of recombinant S. cerevisiae that produces a high level of lycopene. The level of ergosterol was reversely correlated to that of lycopene in crt-transformed S. cerevisiae cells, suggesting that two pathways for lycopene and ergosterol syntheses compete for the use of farnesyl diphosphate.

  20. Analysis of the hypoxia-induced ADH2 promoter of the respiratory yeast Pichia stipitis reveals a new mechanism for sensing of oxygen limitation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Passoth, Volkmar; Cohn, Marita; Schäfer, Bernd; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Klinner, Ulrich

    2003-01-15

    We introduced a reporter gene system into Pichia stipitis using the gene for the artificial green fluorescent protein (GFP), variant yEGFP. This system was used to analyse hypoxia-dependent PsADH2 regulation. Reporter gene activity was only found under oxygen limitation on a fermentable carbon source. The promoter was not induced by oxygen limitation in the Crabtree-positive yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Promoter deletions revealed that a region of 15 bp contained the essential site for hypoxic induction. This motif was different from the known hypoxia response elements of S. cerevisiae but showed some similarity to the mammalian HIF-1 binding site. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated specific protein binding to this region under oxygen limitation. Similar to the S. cerevisiae heme sensor system, the promoter was induced by Co(2+). Cyanide was not able to mimic the effect of oxygen limitation. The activation mechanism of PsADH2 also, in this respect, has similarities to the mammalian HIF-1 system, which is inducible by Co(2+) but not by cyanide. Thus, the very first promoter analysis in P. stipitis revealed a hitherto unknown mechanism of oxygen sensing in yeast.

  1. Molecular basis of the size polymorphism of the first intron of the Adh-1 gene of the mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Gomulski, Ludvik M; Brogna, Saverio; Babaratsas, Alekos; Gasperi, Giuliano; Zacharopoulou, Antigoni; Savakis, Charalambos; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2004-06-01

    The first intron of the gene encoding one of the alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes (ADH-1) in Ceratitis capitata is highly polymorphic in size. Five size variants of this intron were isolated from different strains and populations and characterized. Restriction map and sequence analysis showed that the intron size polymorphism is due to the presence or absence of (a) a copy of a defective mariner-like element, postdoc; (b) an approximately 550-bp 3' indel which exhibits no similarity to any known sequence; and (c) a central duplication of 704 bp consisting of part of the 3' end of the postdoc element, the region between postdoc and the 3' indel, and the first 20 bp of the 3' indel. The homologous Adh-1 intron was amplified from the congeneric species, Ceratitis rosa, in order to obtain an outgroup for comparative and phylogenetic analyses. The C. rosa introns were polymorphic in size, ranging from about 1100 to 2000 bp, the major difference between them being the presence or absence of a mariner-like element Crmar2, unrelated to the postdoc element. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the shorter intron variants in C. capitata may represent the ancestral form of the intron, the longest variants apparently being the most recent.

  2. Tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheated secret keys and shared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Liu, Chong-An

    2013-01-01

    A (t,n) secret image-sharing scheme shares a secret image to n participants, and the t users recover the image. During the recovery procedure of a conventional secret image-sharing scheme, cheaters may use counterfeit secret keys or modified shared images to cheat other users' secret keys and shared images. A cheated secret key or shared image leads to an incorrect secret image. Unfortunately, the cheater cannot be identified. We present an exponent and modulus-based scheme to provide a tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheaters on secret keys or shared images. The proposed scheme allows users to securely select their secret key. This assignment can be performed over networks. Modulus results of each shared image is calculated to recognize cheaters of a shared image. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme is excellent at identifying cheated secret keys and shared images.

  3. Metagenomic sequencing of expressed prostate secretions.

    PubMed

    Smelov, Vitaly; Arroyo Mühr, L Sara; Bzhalava, Davit; Brown, Lyndon J; Komyakov, Boris; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-12-01

    To investigate which microorganisms may be present in expressed prostate secretions (EPS) metagenomic sequencing (MGS) was applied to prostate secretion samples from five men with prostatitis and five matched control men as well as to combined expressed prostate secretion and urine from six patients with prostate cancer and six matched control men. The prostate secretion samples contained a variety of bacterial sequences, mostly belonging to the Proteobacteria phylum. The combined prostate secretion and urine samples were dominated by abundant presence of the JC polyomavirus, representing >20% of all detected metagenomic sequence reads. There were also other viruses detected, for example, human papillomavirus type 81. All combined prostate secretion and urine samples were also positive for Proteobacteria. In summary, MGS of expressed prostate secretion is informative for detecting a variety of bacteria and viruses, suggesting that a more large-scale use of MGS of prostate secretions may be useful in medical and epidemiological studies of prostate infections.

  4. [Hyponatremia--with comments on hypernatremia].

    PubMed

    Palm, C; Reimann, D; Gross, P

    2000-06-01

    Disorders of the serum sodium concentration (hypo- and hypernatremia) are amongst the most frequent electrolyte disorders in clinical medicine. They are attributable to disturbance of to water metabolism. Hyponatremia is almost always a condition of water excess while hypernatremia is due water deficiency. Physiological normonatremia (normal plasma osmolality) is maintained by an integrated system involving regulated water intake via thirst and control of water excretion via antidiuretic hormone secretion. Therefore hypo- and hypernatremia should be analyzed in terms of dysregulated ADH secretion, fluid intake and renal water excretion. Hyponatremia is usually a disorder of vasopressin excess, due to 'non-osmotic' vasopressin release. The latter may occur in two different settings: (I) SIADH, (II) baroreceptor mediated vasopressin secretion (cardiac failure, liver cirrhosis). This entities are easy to distinguish in clinical practice. SIADH is associated with striking lower plasma concentrations of urate, creatinine and urea. In SIADH the blood pressure is normal and there is no edema. In contrast in the hyponatremia of liver cirrhosis and heart failure the plasma measurements indicated are usually slightly elevated, the blood pressure is low and there is edema. The typical patient with hypernatremia is old and has no thirst sensation. Hypo- or hypernatremia may cause major neurologic symptoms. These symptoms are more related to the rate of change in the serum sodium concentration than to the absolute level of a hypo- or hypernatremia reached. The traditional treatment for hyponatremia used to be water restriction. However V2-Vasopressin-Antagonists may provide a better treatment modality in the future. Hypernatremia is treated by slow rehydratation.

  5. Stimulation of incretin secreting cells

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Ramona; Gribble, Fiona M.; Reimann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted from enteroendocrine cells in the gut and regulate physiological and homeostatic functions related to glucose control, metabolism and food intake. This review provides a systematic summary of the molecular mechanisms underlying secretion from incretin cells, and an understanding of how they sense and interact with lumen and vascular factors and the enteric nervous system through transporters and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) present on their surface to ultimately culminate in hormone release. Some of the molecules described below such as sodium coupled glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1), G-protein coupled receptor (GPR) 119 and GPR40 are targets of novel therapeutics designed to enhance endogenous gut hormone release. Synthetic ligands at these receptors aimed at treating obesity and type 2 diabetes are currently under investigation. PMID:26885360

  6. [Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas].

    PubMed

    Caron, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas represent 0.5 to 1% of all pituitary adenomas. They are recognized with increasing frequency due to the measurement of TSH level in patients with hyperthyroidism, the ultra sensitive TSH assays and the improvement in pituitary imaging. Patients present mild or moderate signs of hyperthyroidism. Hormonal evaluation shows increased free thyroid hormone concentration with detectable, normal or increased serum TSH level, raising the differential diagnosis with pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals pituitary adenomas in most patients. Transphenoidal surgery remains the treatment of choice in patients with TSH-secreting pituitary microadenomas, while long-acting somatostatin analogs seem to be an alternative medical treatment to surgery in patients with macroadenomas or invasive pituitary tumors.

  7. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trade secrets. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 Labor Regulations... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... inspection or proceeding under this Act which contains or which might reveal a trade secret referred to...

  8. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trade secrets. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 Labor Regulations... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... inspection or proceeding under this Act which contains or which might reveal a trade secret referred to...

  9. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trade secrets. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 Labor Regulations... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... inspection or proceeding under this Act which contains or which might reveal a trade secret referred to...

  10. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trade secrets. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 Labor Regulations... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... inspection or proceeding under this Act which contains or which might reveal a trade secret referred to...

  11. Anticounterfeit holographic marks with secret codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shou; Zhang, Xiangsu; Lai, Hongkai

    1993-11-01

    The paper introduces the methods of making secret codes in the holograms for the purpose of anti-counterfeiting, especially the production of two kinds of visual holographic secret codes. The optical arrangements for recording are presented, and the effective results from using the visual secret codes into holographic trade marks are reported.

  12. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trade secrets. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 Labor Regulations... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... inspection or proceeding under this Act which contains or which might reveal a trade secret referred to...

  13. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in...

  14. Quantum secret sharing with qudit graph states

    SciTech Connect

    Keet, Adrian; Fortescue, Ben; Sanders, Barry C.; Markham, Damian

    2010-12-15

    We present a unified formalism for threshold quantum secret sharing using graph states of systems with prime dimension. We construct protocols for three varieties of secret sharing: with classical and quantum secrets shared between parties over both classical and quantum channels.

  15. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in...

  16. 5 CFR 2421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secret ballot. 2421.15 Section 2421.15... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine or otherwise, but in no event by proxy, of...

  17. 29 CFR 1202.4 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Secret ballot. 1202.4 Section 1202.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.4 Secret ballot. In conducting such investigation, the Board is authorized to take a secret ballot of the employees involved,...

  18. 5 CFR 2421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Secret ballot. 2421.15 Section 2421.15... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine or otherwise, but in no event by proxy, of...

  19. 29 CFR 401.11 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Secret ballot. 401.11 Section 401.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.11 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression...

  20. 5 CFR 2421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Secret ballot. 2421.15 Section 2421.15... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine or otherwise, but in no event by proxy, of...

  1. 29 CFR 1202.4 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Secret ballot. 1202.4 Section 1202.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.4 Secret ballot. In conducting such investigation, the Board is authorized to take a secret ballot of the employees involved,...

  2. 29 CFR 401.11 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Secret ballot. 401.11 Section 401.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.11 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression...

  3. 22 CFR 1421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Secret ballot. 1421.15 Section 1421.15 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting...

  4. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in...

  5. 22 CFR 1421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Secret ballot. 1421.15 Section 1421.15 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting...

  6. 29 CFR 1202.4 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Secret ballot. 1202.4 Section 1202.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.4 Secret ballot. In conducting such investigation, the Board is authorized to take a secret ballot of the employees involved,...

  7. 22 CFR 1421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Secret ballot. 1421.15 Section 1421.15 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting...

  8. 29 CFR 401.11 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Secret ballot. 401.11 Section 401.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.11 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression...

  9. 29 CFR 1202.4 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Secret ballot. 1202.4 Section 1202.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.4 Secret ballot. In conducting such investigation, the Board is authorized to take a secret ballot of the employees involved,...

  10. 29 CFR 1202.4 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 1202.4 Section 1202.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.4 Secret ballot. In conducting such investigation, the Board is authorized to take a secret ballot of the employees involved,...

  11. 5 CFR 2421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Secret ballot. 2421.15 Section 2421.15... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine or otherwise, but in no event by proxy, of...

  12. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in...

  13. 22 CFR 1421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Secret ballot. 1421.15 Section 1421.15 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting...

  14. 5 CFR 2421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Secret ballot. 2421.15 Section 2421.15... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine or otherwise, but in no event by proxy, of...

  15. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in...

  16. 29 CFR 401.11 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Secret ballot. 401.11 Section 401.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.11 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression...

  17. 22 CFR 1421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Secret ballot. 1421.15 Section 1421.15 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting...

  18. 29 CFR 401.11 - Secret ballot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 401.11 Section 401.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.11 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression...

  19. A Resilient Quantum Secret Sharing Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Arpita; Paul, Goutam

    2015-02-01

    A resilient secret sharing scheme is supposed to generate the secret correctly even after some shares are damaged. In this paper, we show how quantum error correcting codes can be exploited to design a resilient quantum secret sharing scheme, where a quantum state is shared among more than one parties.

  20. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidity in CF. We used a novel, mini-Ussing chamber system to investigate the properties of HCO3− transport in native porcine small airways (∼ 1 mm φ). We assayed HCO3− transport across small airway epithelia as reflected by the transepithelial voltage, conductance, and equivalent short-circuit current with bilateral 25-mM HCO3− plus 125-mM NaGlu Ringer’s solution in the presence of luminal amiloride (10 μM). Under these conditions, because no major transportable anions other than HCO3− were present, we took the equivalent short-circuit current to be a direct measure of active HCO3− secretion. Applying selective agonists and inhibitors, we show constitutive HCO3− secretion in small airways, which can be stimulated significantly by β-adrenergic– (cAMP) and purinergic (Ca2+) -mediated agonists, independently. These results indicate that two separate components for HCO3− secretion, likely via CFTR- and calcium-activated chloride channel–dependent processes, are physiologically regulated for likely roles in mucus clearance and antimicrobial innate defenses of small airways. PMID:24224935

  1. Electronic enhancement of tear secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinton, Mark; Lim Chung, Jae; Kossler, Andrea; Kook, Koung Hoon; Loudin, Jim; Franke, Manfred; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Objective. To study electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves for enhanced tear secretion, as a potential treatment for dry eye disease. We investigate the response pathways and electrical parameters to safely maximize tear secretion. Approach. We evaluated the tear response to electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves in isofluorane-anesthetized rabbits. In acute studies, electrical stimulation was performed using bipolar platinum foil electrodes, implanted beneath the inferior lacrimal gland, and a monopolar electrode placed near the afferent ethmoid nerve. Wireless microstimulators with bipolar electrodes were implanted beneath the lacrimal gland for chronic studies. To identify the response pathways, we applied various pharmacological inhibitors. To optimize the stimulus, we measured tear secretion rate (Schirmer test) as a function of pulse amplitude (1.5-12 mA), duration (0.1-1 ms) and repetition rate (10-100 Hz). Main results. Stimulation of the lacrimal gland increased tear secretion by engaging efferent parasympathetic nerves. Tearing increased with stimulation amplitude, pulse duration and repetition rate, up to 70 Hz. Stimulation with 3 mA, 500 μs pulses at 70 Hz provided a 4.5 mm (125%) increase in Schirmer score. Modulating duty cycle further increased tearing up to 57%, compared to continuous stimulation in chronically implanted animals (36%). Ethmoid (afferent) nerve stimulation increased tearing similar to gland stimulation (3.6 mm) via a reflex pathway. In animals with chronically implanted stimulators, a nearly 6 mm increase (57%) was achieved with 12-fold less charge density per pulse (0.06-0.3 μC mm-2 with 170-680 μs pulses) than the damage threshold (3.5 μC mm-2 with 1 ms pulses). Significance. Electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland or afferent nerves may be used as a treatment for dry eye disease. Clinical trials should validate this approach in patients with aqueous tear deficiency, and

  2. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-05-07

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as "plug-and-play" biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance.

  3. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as “plug-and-play” biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance. PMID:23613592

  4. Unconventional Pathways of Secretion Contribute to Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Michael J. D.; Brough, David

    2017-01-01

    In the conventional pathway of protein secretion, leader sequence-containing proteins leave the cell following processing through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi body. However, leaderless proteins also enter the extracellular space through mechanisms collectively known as unconventional secretion. Unconventionally secreted proteins often have vital roles in cell and organism function such as inflammation. Amongst the best-studied inflammatory unconventionally secreted proteins are interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1α, IL-33 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). In this review we discuss the current understanding of the unconventional secretion of these proteins and highlight future areas of research such as the role of nuclear localisation. PMID:28067797

  5. Studies into secretions of Tetrahymena: enzymes secreted into inorganic medium.

    PubMed

    Kovács, P; Karsa, J; Csaba, G

    1992-01-01

    The peptides secreted by Tetrahymena cells into inorganic medium were chromatographed. Six fractions showing a marked enzyme-like activity were examined for influence on certain physiological parameters of Tetrahymena. The enzymatically active fractions increased the phagocytic activity of Tetrahymena and decreased its binding capacity for lectins and hormone (insulin), but enhanced insulin imprinting at primary interaction. It remains to be clarified whether these effects were due to the enzymatic or other components of the fractions investigated, or to lack of the compensatory influence of the fractions not studied.

  6. Proteome of human minor salivary gland secretion.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, W L; Salih, E; Wan, D L; Helmerhorst, E J; Oppenheim, F G

    2008-05-01

    Recent research efforts in oral biology have resulted in elucidation of the proteomes of major human salivary secretions and whole saliva. One might hypothesize that the proteome of minor gland secretions may show significantly different characteristics when compared with the proteomes of parotid or submandibular/sublingual secretions. To test this hypothesis, we conducted the first exploration into the proteome of minor salivary gland secretion. Minor gland secretion was obtained from healthy volunteers, and its components were subjected to liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry. This led to the identification of 56 proteins, 12 of which had never been identified in any salivary secretion. The unique characteristics of the minor salivary gland secretion proteome are related to the types as well as the numbers of components present. The differences between salivary proteomes may be important with respect to specific oral functions.

  7. Semiquantum secret sharing using entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Li Qin; Chan, W. H.; Long Dongyang

    2010-08-15

    Secret sharing is a procedure for sharing a secret among a number of participants such that only the qualified subsets of participants have the ability to reconstruct the secret. Even in the presence of eavesdropping, secret sharing can be achieved when all the members are quantum. So what happens if not all the members are quantum? In this paper, we propose two semiquantum secret sharing protocols by using maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states in which quantum Alice shares a secret with two classical parties, Bob and Charlie, in a way that both parties are sufficient to obtain the secret, but one of them cannot. The presented protocols are also shown to be secure against eavesdropping.

  8. Unconventional protein secretion: an evolving mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    The process by which proteins are secreted without entering the classical endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi complex pathway, in eukaryotic cells, is conveniently called unconventional protein secretion. Recent studies on one such protein called Acb1 have revealed a number of components involved in its secretion. Interestingly, conditions that promote the secretion of Acb1 trigger the biogenesis of a new compartment called CUPS (Compartment for Unconventional Protein Secretion). CUPS form near the ER exit site but lack ER-specific proteins. Other proteins that share some of the features common with the secretion of Acb1 are interleukin-1β and tissue transglutaminase. Here I will review recent advances made in the field and propose a new model for unconventional protein secretion. PMID:23665917

  9. DkPK Genes Promote Natural Deastringency in C-PCNA Persimmon by Up-regulating DkPDC and DkADH Expression

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Changfei; Du, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Qinglin; Ma, Fengwang; Luo, Zhengrong; Yang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The astringency of Chinese pollination-constant non-astringent (C-PCNA) persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) can be naturally removed on the tree. This process is controlled by a single locus and is dominant against other types of persimmons; therefore, this variant is an important candidate for commercial cultivation and the breeding of PCNA cultivars. In our previous study, six full-length coding sequences (CDS) for pyruvate kinase genes (DkPK1-6) were isolated, and DkPK1 is thought to be involved in the natural deastringency of C-PCNA persimmon fruit. Here, we characterize the eight other DkPK genes (DkPK7-14) from C-PCNA persimmon fruit based on transcriptome data. The transcript changes in DkPK7-14 genes and correlations with the proanthocyanidin (PA) content were investigated during different fruit development stages in C-PCNA, J-PCNA, and non-PCNA persimmon; DkPK7 and DkPK8 exhibited up-regulation patterns during the last developmental stage in C-PCNA persimmon that was negatively correlated with the decrease in soluble PAs. Phylogenetic analysis and subcellular localization analysis revealed that DkPK7 and DkPK8 are cytosolic proteins. Notably, DkPK7 and DkPK8 were ubiquitously expressed in various persimmon organs and abundantly up-regulated in seeds. Furthermore, transient over-expression of DkPK7 and DkPK8 in persimmon leaves led to a significant decrease in the content of soluble PAs but a significant increase in the expression levels of the pyruvate decarboxylase (DkPDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase genes (DkADH), which are closely related to acetaldehyde metabolism. The accumulated acetaldehyde that results from the up-regulation of the DkPDC and DkADH genes can combine with soluble PAs to form insoluble PAs, resulting in the removal of astringency from persimmon fruit. Thus, we suggest that both DkPK7 and DkPK8 are likely to be involved in natural deastringency via the up-regulation of DkPDC and DkADH expression during the last developmental stage in C

  10. Effets du Parecoxib dans la Prévention des Adhérences abdominales postopératoires: étude expérimentale randomisée chez les rats

    PubMed Central

    Arung, Willy; Tshilombo, François; Odimba, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bien d’études ont été menées sur les adhérences intrapéritonéales, mais aucune unanimité n'est encore acquise sur leur prévention. Le but de notre étude a été d’évaluer le potentiel effet d'un antiinflammatoire, parecoxib dans la prévention des adhérences ainsi que sur la cicatrisation chez des rats. Méthodes Dans un modèle expérimental d'adhérences postopératoires secondaires à des lésions péritonéales par brûlure, 30 rats furent randomisés en trois groupes suivant le mode d'administration de parecoxib (groupe contrôle; intrapéritonéal; intramusculaire. Résultats Le parecoxib a significativement diminué la quantité (p < .05) et la sévérité (p < .01) des adhérences postopératoires dans les deux modèles expérimentaux. Au total, 21 rats ont développé des adhérences, respectivement 9 (100%) dans le groupe A, 5 (50%) dans le groupe B et 7 (70%) dans le groupe C (p = 0.05). Du point de vue de la formation des adhérences au site du traumatisme, dix-neuf rats en ont développé: 9 (100%) dans le groupe A et 5 (50%) pour chacun de deux autres groupes B et C. Une différence significative a été constatée en comparant ces groupes deux à deux: A vs B (p < 0.05); A vs C (p < 0,05). Parecoxib n'a pas compromis la cicatrisation intestinale, ni cutanée. Conclusion Cette étude a montré que le parecoxib pouvait réduire la formation des adhérences postopératoires. La confirmation de la sécurité du parecoxib sur les anastomoses intestinales doit être investiguée au cours d'autres expérimentations. PMID:26966478

  11. Russian scientists save American secrets

    SciTech Connect

    Sagdeev, R.

    1993-05-01

    Many have feared that the collapse of the Soviet Union has created new opportunities for would-be nuclear proliferators. Until recently, those dangers have seemed mainly theoretical. However, the former Soviet world was recently on the brink of breaching the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) from an unexpected corner -- the KGB. This article discusses the irony that a move to publicize Russia's files on early Soviet espionage activities in the United States would originate from the KGB. It is of note that a publication of such secrets could have been useful to countries currently trying to develop a basic nuclear bomb.

  12. Matroids and quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

    2010-05-15

    A secret-sharing scheme is a cryptographic protocol to distribute a secret state in an encoded form among a group of players such that only authorized subsets of the players can reconstruct the secret. Classically, efficient secret-sharing schemes have been shown to be induced by matroids. Furthermore, access structures of such schemes can be characterized by an excluded minor relation. No such relations are known for quantum secret-sharing schemes. In this paper we take the first steps toward a matroidal characterization of quantum-secret-sharing schemes. In addition to providing a new perspective on quantum-secret-sharing schemes, this characterization has important benefits. While previous work has shown how to construct quantum-secret-sharing schemes for general access structures, these schemes are not claimed to be efficient. In this context the present results prove to be useful; they enable us to construct efficient quantum-secret-sharing schemes for many general access structures. More precisely, we show that an identically self-dual matroid that is representable over a finite field induces a pure-state quantum-secret-sharing scheme with information rate 1.

  13. Secretion expression of SOD1 and its overlapping function with GSH in brewing yeast strain for better flavor and anti-aging ability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoyue; Bai, Xuejing; He, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun

    2014-09-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a significant antioxidant, but unlike glutathione (GSH), SOD cannot be secreted into beer by yeast cells during fermentation, this directly leads to the limited application of SOD in beer anti-aging. In this investigation, we constructed the SOD1 secretion cassette in which strong promoter PGK1p and the sequence of secreting signal factor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were both harbored to the upstream of coding sequence of SOD1 gene, as a result, the obtained strains carrying this cassette successfully realized the secretion of SOD1. In order to overcome the limitation of previous genetic modification on yeast strains, one new comprehensive strategy was adopted targeting the suitable homologous sites by gene deletion and SOD1 + GSH1 co-overexpression, and the new strain ST31 (Δadh2::SOD1 + Δilv2::GSH1) was constructed. The results of the pilot-scale fermentation showed that the diacetyl content of ST31 was lower by 42 % than that of the host, and the acetaldehyde content decreased by 29 %, the GSH content in the fermenting liquor of ST31 increased by 29 % compared with the host. Both SOD activity test and the positive and negative staining assay after native PAGE indicated that the secreted active SOD in the fermenting liquor of ST31 was mainly a dimer with the size of 32,500 Da. The anti-aging indexes such as the thiobarbituric acid and the resistance staling value further proved that the flavor stability of the beer brewed with strain ST31 was not only better than that of the original strain, but also better than that of the previous engineering strains. The multi-modification and comprehensive improvement of the beer yeast strain would greatly enhance beer quality than ever, and the self-cloning strain would be attractive to the public due to its bio-safety.

  14. U-Pb zircon geochronology and Nd-Hf-O isotopic systematics of the Neoproterozoic Hadb adh Dayheen ring complex, Central Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kamal A.; Jeon, Heejin; Andresen, Arild; Li, Shuang-Qing; Harbi, Hesham M.; Hegner, Ernst

    2014-10-01

    A combined study of single zircon U-Pb dating, Hf-O zircon isotopic analyses and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions was carried out to infer the magma sources of Neoproterozoic post-collisional A-type granitoids in Saudi Arabia. U-Pb zircon dating of magmatic zircons of two samples from the Hadb adh Dayheen ring complex yielded ages of 625 ± 11 Ma for a hornblende-biotite granite sample, and 613 ± 4 Ma for a monzogranite sample. The granitic rocks show initial εNd values of + 4.1 to + 5.3 and εHf of + 4.5 to + 8.4 that are lower than those of a model depleted mantle (εHf ~+ 14 and εNd ~+ 6.5) and consistent with melting of subduction-related crustal protoliths that were formed during the Neoproterozoic assembly of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). Crustal-model ages (Hf-tNC) of 0.81 to 1.1 Ga are inconsistent with depleted-mantle Nd model ages of 0.71 to 0.81 Ga and indicate that the post-collisional Hadb adh Dayheen granites were derived mostly from juvenile crust formed in Neoproterozoic time. Single zircons data show a wide range in δ18O values from + 3.2‰ to + 6.4‰, possibly indicating crystallization of zircon from magma derived from magmatic rocks altered by meteoric water in a magma chamber-caldera system.

  15. A gastric acid secretion model.

    PubMed Central

    de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

    1993-01-01

    A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8396457

  16. Problem based review: the patient presenting with hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Saeed, M; Ahmad, S; Hayat, A; Saeed, S

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte anomaly and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with severe hyponatraemia often present to acute medical units with non-specific symptoms which can progress to overt neurological manifestations. There are many causes of hyponatriaemia, the most common being drug-induced causes, particularly thiazide diuretics, and the Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH Secretion (SIADH). Initial assessment should include a careful evaluation of the patient's volume status, which helps to identify the most likely cause. This article utilises a recent case which presented to our AMU to illustrate the importance of a careful and systematic assessment of patients presenting to hospital with hyponatraemia. The new vasopressin receptor antagonists are explored as an option for the management of severe hyponatraemia.

  17. Liquid secretion properties of airway submucosal glands

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Stephen T; Inglis, Sarah K

    2004-01-01

    The tracheobronchial submucosal glands secrete liquid that is important for hydrating airway surfaces, supporting mucociliary transport, and serving as a fluid matrix for numerous secreted macromolecules including the gel-forming mucins. This review details the essential structural elements of airway glands and summarizes what is currently known regarding the ion transport processes responsible for producing the liquid component of gland secretion. Liquid secretion most likely arises from serous cells and is principally under neural control with muscarinic agonists, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) functioning as effective secretogogues. Liquid secretion is driven by the active transepithelial secretion of both Cl− and HCO3− and at least a portion of this process is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is highly expressed in glands. The potential role of submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease is discussed. PMID:14660706

  18. Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria Prophylaxis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0098 TITLE: Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria Prophylaxis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Eckhard R. Podack...1. REPORT DATE October 2014 2. REPORT TYPE ANNUAL 3. DATES COVERED 30 SEPT 2013 – 29 SEPT 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Secreted HSP Vaccine for...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Proposed vaccine principle relies on secreted gp96-Ig chaperoning PfCSP and PfAMA1 sporozoite proteins that are efficiently

  19. Physiology of Epithelial Chloride and Fluid Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Frizzell, Raymond A.; Hanrahan, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial salt and water secretion serves a variety of functions in different organ systems, such as the airways, intestines, pancreas, and salivary glands. In cystic fibrosis (CF), the volume and/or composition of secreted luminal fluids are compromised owing to mutations in the gene encoding CFTR, the apical membrane anion channel that is responsible for salt secretion in response to cAMP/PKA stimulation. This article examines CFTR and related cellular transport processes that underlie epithelial anion and fluid secretion, their regulation, and how these processes are altered in CF disease to account for organ-specific secretory phenotypes. PMID:22675668

  20. Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Li; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu; Pan Jianwei

    2004-05-01

    In this work, we generalize the quantum-secret-sharing scheme of Hillery, Buzek, and Berthiaume [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999)] into arbitrary multiparties. Explicit expressions for the shared secret bit is given. It is shown that in the Hillery-Buzek-Berthiaume quantum-secret-sharing scheme the secret information is shared in the parity of binary strings formed by the measured outcomes of the participants. In addition, we have increased the efficiency of the quantum-secret-sharing scheme by generalizing two techniques from quantum key distribution. The favored-measuring-basis quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Lo-Chau-Ardehali technique [H. K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print quant-ph/0011056] where all the participants choose their measuring-basis asymmetrically, and the measuring-basis-encrypted quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Hwang-Koh-Han technique [W. Y. Hwang, I. G. Koh, and Y. D. Han, Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)] where all participants choose their measuring basis according to a control key. Both schemes are asymptotically 100% in efficiency, hence nearly all the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in a quantum-secret-sharing process are used to generate shared secret information.

  1. Secretion by numbers: protein traffic in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Anastasias; Christie, Peter J.; Fernandez, Rachel C.; Palmer, Tracy; Plano, Greg V.; Pugsley, Anthony P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Almost all aspects of protein traffic in bacteria were covered at the ASM-FEMS meeting on the topic in Iraklio, Crete in May 2006. The studies presented ranged from mechanistic analysis of specific events leading proteins to their final destinations to the physiological roles of the targeted proteins. Among the highlights from the meeting that are reviewed here are the molecular dynamics of SecA protein, membrane protein insertion, type III secretion needles and chaperones, type IV secretion, the two partner and autosecretion systems, the ‘secretion competent state’, and the recently discovered type VI secretion system. PMID:17020575

  2. Random Secretion of Growth Hormone in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prank, Klaus; Kloppstech, Mirko; Nowlan, Steven J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Brabant, Georg

    1996-08-01

    In normal humans, growth hormone (GH) is secreted from a gland located adjacent to the brain (pituitary) into the blood in distinct pulses, but in patients bearing a tumor within the pituitary (acromegaly) GH is excessively secreted in an irregular manner. It has been hypothesized that GH secretion in the diseased state becomes random. This hypothesis is supported by demonstrating that GH secretion in patients with acromegaly cannot be distinguished from a variety of linear stochastic processes based on the predictability of the fluctuations of GH concentration in the bloodstream.

  3. Stimulation of leptin secretion by insulin

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Minglun; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Inui, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Leptin has a crucial role in regulating food intake and maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Although little is known about the process of leptin secretion, insulin, which has an important role in the metabolism of glucose and lipids, is believed to regulate leptin secretion through a posttranscriptional mechanism in the short term, and via glucose metabolism in the long term. The gastric mucosa secretes leptin, but this mechanism has not been completely elucidated. Understanding the mechanism of insulin-regulated leptin secretion could lead to the development of new treatment methods for obesity and its comorbidities, which are serious public health concerns. PMID:23565488

  4. Protein secretion pathways in Bacillus subtilis: implication for optimization of heterologous protein secretion.

    PubMed

    Ling Lin Fu; Zi Rong Xu; Wei Fen Li; Jiang Bing Shuai; Ping Lu; Chun Xia Hu

    2007-01-01

    The absence of an outer membrane in Bacillus subtilis can simplify the protein secretion pathways and allow the organism to secrete high levels of extracellular proteins. Of the three known secretory routes, Sec-SRP pathway can direct the majority of secretory proteins into the growth medium. Alternatively, a small number of exoproteins with specific functions are secreted via Tat pathway or ABC transporters in B. subtilis. The discriminating function of precursor proteins among these pathways is largely attributed to the distinct structure of their cleavable signal peptides. Individual secretion machinery components with their special functions are involved in the total flow of proteins from the cytoplasm to the medium. Notably, multiple regulators with signal transduction functions can affect expression of secretion machinery as well as their post-transcriptional actions for protein secretion, resulting in the complicated networks in B. subtilis. Ultimately, according to the available knowledge of secretion machinery, several approaches aimed at optimizing protein secretion are discussed.

  5. [Mucoprotein secretion in calculous gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Fernández Lobato, R; Ortega, L; Balibrea, J L; Torres, A J; García-Calvo, M; Alvarez Sánchez, J A

    1994-05-01

    Secretion of mucoproteins or mucine (MP) have been studied as possible markers in several pathological conditions of the digestive tract, such us colonic polyposis or gastric dysplasia. In the gallbladder (VB) it has been established that form the core of crystalization for the calculi. A study in 100 gallbladders have been made based on the utility of the analysis of the qualitative and quantitative modifications of MP in lithogenesis. It was been determined by histochemical techniques the three main types of MP (neutral, low and high sulphated acid) to evaluate the alterations in the process of lithiasis. Results show a high production of the MP in VB with lithiasis, presenting in 97% a mixed composition of MP (48.9% of 2 types, and 3 types in 46%), without a predominating type in this pathology.

  6. Metabolic control of renin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Riquier-Brison, Anne

    2015-01-01

    One emerging topic in renin–angiotensin system (RAS) research is the direct local control of renin synthesis and release by endogenous metabolic intermediates. During the past few years, our laboratory has characterized the localization and signaling of the novel metabolic receptor GPR91 in the normal and diabetic kidney and established GPR91 as a new, direct link between high glucose and RAS activation in diabetes. GPR91 (also called SUCNR1) binds tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate succinate which can rapidly accumulate in the local tissue environment when energy supply and demand are out of balance. In a variety of physiological and pathological conditions associated with metabolic stress, succinate signaling via GPR91 appears to be an important mediator or modulator of renin secretion. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the control of renin release by molecules of endogenous metabolic pathways with the main focus on succinate/GPR91. PMID:22729752

  7. Metabolic control of renin secretion.

    PubMed

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Riquier-Brison, Anne

    2013-01-01

    One emerging topic in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) research is the direct local control of renin synthesis and release by endogenous metabolic intermediates. During the past few years, our laboratory has characterized the localization and signaling of the novel metabolic receptor GPR91 in the normal and diabetic kidney and established GPR91 as a new, direct link between high glucose and RAS activation in diabetes. GPR91 (also called SUCNR1) binds tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate succinate which can rapidly accumulate in the local tissue environment when energy supply and demand are out of balance. In a variety of physiological and pathological conditions associated with metabolic stress, succinate signaling via GPR91 appears to be an important mediator or modulator of renin secretion. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the control of renin release by molecules of endogenous metabolic pathways with the main focus on succinate/GPR91.

  8. Bacterial Secretion Systems – An overview

    PubMed Central

    Green, Erin R.; Mecsas, Joan

    2015-01-01

    CHAPTER SUMMARY Bacterial pathogens utilize a multitude of methods to invade mammalian hosts, damage tissue sites, and thwart the immune system from responding. One essential component of these strategies for many bacterial pathogens is the secretion of proteins across phospholipid membranes. Secreted proteins can play many roles in promoting bacterial virulence, from enhancing attachment to eukaryotic cells, to scavenging resources in an environmental niche, to directly intoxicating target cells and disrupting their functions. Many pathogens use dedicated protein secretion systems to secrete virulence factors from the cytosol of the bacteria into host cells or the host environment. In general, bacterial protein secretion apparatuses can be divided into different classes, based on their structures, functions, and specificity. Some systems are conserved in all classes of bacteria and secrete a broad array of substrates, while others are only found in a small number of bacterial species and/or are specific to only one or a few proteins. In this chapter, we review the canonical features of several common bacterial protein secretion systems, as well as their roles in promoting the virulence of bacterial pathogens. Additionally, we address recent findings that indicate that the innate immune system of the host can detect and respond to the presence of protein secretion systems during mammalian infection. PMID:26999395

  9. "The Secret Garden": A Literary Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the life of Frances Hodgson Burnett, author of "The Secret Garden." Argues that it not only tells an enthralling tale, but takes readers on a journey through the history of English literature. Discusses the gothic tradition and romanticism of "The Secret Garden." Lists classic elements in the book and offers five ideas…

  10. Comment on "Proactive quantum secret sharing"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Gan; Wang, Yue

    2017-03-01

    In the paper, Qin and Dai (Quantum Inf Process 14:4237-4244, 2015) proposed a proactive quantum secret sharing scheme. We study the security of the proposed scheme and find that it is not secure. In the distribution phase of the proposed scheme, two dishonest participants may collaborate to eavesdrop the secret of the dealer without introducing any error.

  11. Family Secrets: The Bioethics of Genetic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Dina G.; DuPre, Michael J.; Holt, Susan; Chen, Shaw-Ree; Wischnowski, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses "Family Secrets," a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum module that focuses on the bioethical implications of genetic testing. In high school biology classrooms throughout New York State, students are using "Family Secrets" to learn about DNA testing; Huntington's disease (HD); and the ethical, legal,…

  12. Type VI secretion system: secretion by a contractile nanomachine

    PubMed Central

    Basler, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are present in about a quarter of all Gram-negative bacteria. Several key components of T6SS are evolutionarily related to components of contractile nanomachines such as phages and R-type pyocins. The T6SS assembly is initiated by formation of a membrane complex that binds a phage-like baseplate with a sharp spike, and this is followed by polymerization of a long rigid inner tube and an outer contractile sheath. Effectors are preloaded onto the spike or into the tube during the assembly by various mechanisms. Contraction of the sheath releases an unprecedented amount of energy, which is used to thrust the spike and tube with the associated effectors out of the effector cell and across membranes of both bacterial and eukaryotic target cells. Subunits of the contracted sheath are recycled by T6SS-specific unfoldase to allow for a new round of assembly. Live-cell imaging has shown that the assembly is highly dynamic and its subcellular localization is in certain bacteria regulated with a remarkable precision. Through the action of effectors, T6SS has mainly been shown to contribute to pathogenicity and competition between bacteria. This review summarizes the knowledge that has contributed to our current understanding of T6SS mode of action. PMID:26370934

  13. Accurate prediction of secreted substrates and identification of a conserved putative secretion signal for type III secretion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Ram; Heffron, Fred; McDermott, Jason E.

    2009-04-24

    The type III secretion system is an essential component for virulence in many Gram-negative bacteria. Though components of the secretion system apparatus are conserved, its substrates, effector proteins, are not. We have used a machine learning approach to identify new secreted effectors. The method integrates evolutionary measures, such as the pattern of homologs in a range of other organisms, and sequence-based features, such as G+C content, amino acid composition and the N-terminal 30 residues of the protein sequence. The method was trained on known effectors from Salmonella typhimurium and validated on a corresponding set of effectors from Pseudomonas syringae, after eliminating effectors with detectable sequence similarity. The method was able to identify all of the known effectors in P. syringae with a specificity of 84% and sensitivity of 82%. The reciprocal validation, training on P. syringae and validating on S. typhimurium, gave similar results with a specificity of 86% when the sensitivity level was 87%. These results show that type III effectors in disparate organisms share common features. We found that maximal performance is attained by including an N-terminal sequence of only 30 residues, which agrees with previous studies indicating that this region contains the secretion signal. We then used the method to define the most important residues in this putative secretion signal. Finally, we present novel predictions of secreted effectors in S. typhimurium, some of which have been experimentally validated, and apply the method to predict secreted effectors in the genetically intractable human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. This approach is a novel and effective way to identify secreted effectors in a broad range of pathogenic bacteria for further experimental characterization and provides insight into the nature of the type III secretion signal.

  14. Glucagon secretion from pancreatic α-cells

    PubMed Central

    Briant, Linford; Salehi, Albert; Vergari, Elisa; Zhang, Quan; Rorsman, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes involves a ménage à trois of impaired glucose regulation of pancreatic hormone release: in addition to impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion, the release of the hyperglycaemic hormone glucagon becomes dysregulated; these last-mentioned defects exacerbate the metabolic consequences of hypoinsulinaemia and are compounded further by hypersecretion of somatostatin (which inhibits both insulin and glucagon secretion). Glucagon secretion has been proposed to be regulated by either intrinsic or paracrine mechanisms, but their relative significance and the conditions under which they operate are debated. Importantly, the paracrine and intrinsic modes of regulation are not mutually exclusive; they could operate in parallel to control glucagon secretion. Here we have applied mathematical modelling of α-cell electrical activity as a novel means of dissecting the processes that underlie metabolic regulation of glucagon secretion. Our analyses indicate that basal hypersecretion of somatostatin and/or increased activity of somatostatin receptors may explain the loss of adequate counter-regulation under hypoglycaemic conditions, as well as the physiologically inappropriate stimulation of glucagon secretion during hyperglycaemia seen in diabetic patients. We therefore advocate studying the interaction of the paracrine and intrinsic mechanisms; unifying these processes may give a more complete picture of the regulation of glucagon secretion from α-cells than studying the individual parts. PMID:27044683

  15. Secretion of phospholipase C by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, M W; Hayden, C

    1979-01-01

    The conditions necessary for the secretion of phospholipase C (phosphatidylcholine cholinephosphohydrolase) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied. Enzyme secretion by washed cell suspensions required a carbon source and ammonium, potassium, and calcium ions. The calcium requirement could be substituted by magnesium and strontium but not by copper, manganese, cobalt, or zinc. During growth in liquid medium, cells secreted phospholipase C during late logarithmic and early stationary phases. Secretion was repressed by the addition of inorganic phosphate but not by organic phosphates, glucose, or sodium succinate. Studies with tetracycline indicated that de novo protein synthesis was necessary for the secretion of phospholipase C and that the exoenzyme was not released from a preformed periplasmic pool. Similarly, extraction of actively secreting cells with 0.2 M MgCl2 at pH 8.4 solubilized large quantities of the periplasmic enzyme alkaline phosphatase but insignificant amounts of phospholipase C. Bacteria continued to secrete enzyme for nearly 45 min after the addition of inorganic phosphate or rifampin. Images PMID:114487

  16. Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

  17. Digestive Secretion of Dionaea muscipula (Venus's Flytrap).

    PubMed

    Scala, J; Iott, K; Schwab, D W; Semersky, F E

    1969-03-01

    The digestive fluid of Dionaea muscipula has been studied with respect to its protein content as a function of time after entrapment of protein material and some enzymes of the secretion. Maximum secretion of enzyme occurs within the first 3 days of the digestive cycle and protein reaches its maximum at 4 days. Phosphatase, proteinase, nuclease and amylase have been observed in the secretion. The enzymes have acid pH optima and the proteinase has a molecular weight of about 40,000.

  18. Landmark discoveries in intracellular transport and secretion

    PubMed Central

    Paknikar, Kishore M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Cellular protein transport and secretion is fundamental to the very existence of an organism, regulating important physiological functions such as reproduction, digestion, energy production, growth, neurotransmission, hormone release, water and ion transport, etc., all required for the survival and maintenance of homeostasis within an organism. Molecular understanding of transport and secretion of intracellular product has therefore been of paramount importance and aggressively investigated for over six decades. Only in the last 20 years, the general molecular mechanism of the process has come to light, following discovery of key proteins involved in ER-Golgi transport, and discovery of the ‘porosome’– the universal secretion machinery in cells. PMID:17635635

  19. Multimer recognition and secretion by the non-classical secretion pathway in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liuqun; Chen, Jingqi; Sun, Jibin; Zhang, Dawei

    2017-01-01

    Non-classical protein secretion in bacteria is a common phenomenon. However, the selection principle for non-classical secretion pathways remains unclear. Here, our experimental data, to our knowledge, are the first to show that folded multimeric proteins can be recognized and excreted by a non-classical secretion pathway in Bacillus subtilis. We explored the secretion pattern of a typical cytoplasmic protein D-psicose 3-epimerase from Ruminococcus sp. 5_1_39BFAA (RDPE), and showed that its non-classical secretion is not simply due to cell lysis. Analysis of truncation variants revealed that the C- and N-terminus, and two hydrophobic domains, are required for structural stability and non-classical secretion of RDPE. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the hydrophobic segments of RDPE revealed that hydrophobic residues mediated the equilibrium between its folded and unfolded forms. Reporter mCherry and GFP fusions with RDPE regions show that its secretion requires an intact tetrameric protein complex. Using cross-linked tetramers, we show that folded tetrameric RDPE can be secreted as a single unit. Finally, we provide evidence that the non-classical secretion pathway has a strong preference for multimeric substrates, which accumulate at the poles and septum region. Altogether, these data show that a multimer recognition mechanism is likely applicable across the non-classical secretion pathway. PMID:28276482

  20. Using Transcriptional Control To Increase Titers of Secreted Heterologous Proteins by the Type III Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Kevin J.; Finnerty, Casey; Azam, Anum; Valdivia, Elias

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded at the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) locus secretes protein directly from the cytosol to the culture media in a concerted, one-step process, bypassing the periplasm. While this approach is attractive for heterologous protein production, product titers are too low for many applications. In addition, the expression of the SPI-1 gene cluster is subject to native regulation, which requires culturing conditions that are not ideal for high-density growth. We used transcriptional control to increase the amount of protein that is secreted into the extracellular space by the T3SS of Salmonella enterica. The controlled expression of the gene encoding SPI-1 transcription factor HilA circumvents the requirement of endogenous induction conditions and allows for synthetic induction of the secretion system. This strategy increases the number of cells that express SPI-1 genes, as measured by promoter activity. In addition, protein secretion titer is sensitive to the time of addition and the concentration of inducer for the protein to be secreted and SPI-1 gene cluster. Overexpression of hilA increases secreted protein titer by >10-fold and enables recovery of up to 28 ± 9 mg/liter of secreted protein from an 8-h culture. We also demonstrate that the protein beta-lactamase is able to adopt an active conformation after secretion, and the increase in secreted titer from hilA overexpression also correlates to increased enzyme activity in the culture supernatant. PMID:25038096

  1. EPCRA Trade Secret Form Instructions (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Detail on what information is required for each section of the form. Only the specific chemical identity required to be disclosed in EPCRA sections 303, 311,312, and 313 submissions may be claimed trade secret on the EPCRA report.

  2. Applying secret sharing for HIS backup exchange.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kimura, Eizen; Matsumura, Yasushi; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Hiramatsu, Haruhiko; Kume, Naoto; Sato, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    To secure business continuity is indispensable for hospitals to fulfill its social responsibility under disasters. Although to back up the data of the hospital information system (HIS) at multiple remote sites is a key strategy of business continuity plan (BCP), the requirements to treat privacy sensitive data jack up the cost for the backup. The secret sharing is a method to split an original secret message up so that each individual piece is meaningless, but putting sufficient number of pieces together to reveal the original message. The secret sharing method eases us to exchange HIS backups between multiple hospitals. This paper evaluated the feasibility of the commercial secret sharing solution for HIS backup through several simulations. The result shows that the commercial solution is feasible to realize reasonable HIS backup exchange platform when template of contract between participating hospitals is ready.

  3. How to Share a Quantum Secret

    SciTech Connect

    Cleve, R.; Gottesman, D.; Lo, H.

    1999-07-01

    We investigate the concept of quantum secret sharing. In a (k,thinspn) threshold scheme, a secret quantum state is divided into n shares such that any k of those shares can be used to reconstruct the secret, but any set of k{minus}1 or fewer shares contains absolutely no information about the secret. We show that the only constraint on the existence of threshold schemes comes from the quantum {open_quotes}no-cloning theorem,{close_quotes} which requires that n{lt}2k , and we give efficient constructions of all threshold schemes. We also show that, for k{le}n{lt}2k{minus}1 , then any (k,thinspn) threshold scheme {ital must} distribute information that is globally in a mixed state. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }

  4. Insulin and Glucagon Secretion In Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, Arun S.

    1998-01-01

    Long-duration space flight is associated with many physiological abnormalities in astronauts. In particular, altered regulation of the hormones insulin and glucagon may contribute to metabolic disturbances such as increased blood sugar levels, which if persistently elevated result in toxic effects. These changes are also observed in the highly prevalent disease diabetes, which affects 16 million Americans and consumes over $100 billion in annual healthcare costs. By mimicking the microgravity environment of space in the research laboratory using a NASA-developed bioreactor, one can study the physiology of insulin and glucagon secretion and determine if there are alterations in these cellular processes. The original specific objectives of the project included: (1) growing ('cell culture') of pancreatic islet beta and alpha cells that secrete insulin and glucagon respectively, in the NASA bioreactor; (2) examination of the effects of microgravity on insulin and glucagon secretion; and (3) study of molecular mechanisms of insulin and glucagon secretion if altered by microgravity.

  5. Progress in Studying Salt Secretion from the Salt Glands in Recretohalophytes: How Do Plants Secrete Salt?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Leng, Bingying; Wang, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    To survive in a saline environment, halophytes have evolved many strategies to resist salt stress. The salt glands of recretohalophytes are exceptional features for directly secreting salt out of a plant. Knowledge of the pathway(s) of salt secretion in relation to the function of salt glands may help us to change the salt-tolerance of crops and to cultivate the extensive saline lands that are available. Recently, ultrastructural studies of salt glands and the mechanism of salt secretion, particularly the candidate genes involved in salt secretion, have been illustrated in detail. In this review, we summarize current researches on salt gland structure, salt secretion mechanism and candidate genes involved, and provide an overview of the salt secretion pathway and the asymmetric ion transport of the salt gland. A new model recretohalophyte is also proposed. PMID:27446195

  6. Peptides and neurotransmitters that affect renin secretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganong, W. F.; Porter, J. P.; Bahnson, T. D.; Said, S. I.

    1984-01-01

    Substance P inhibits renin secretion. This polypeptide is a transmitter in primary afferent neurons and is released from the peripheral as well as the central portions of these neurons. It is present in afferent nerves from the kidneys. Neuropeptide Y, which is a cotransmitter with norepinephrine and epinephrine, is found in sympathetic neurons that are closely associated with and presumably innervate the juxtagolmerular cells. Its effect on renin secretion is unknown, but it produces renal vasoconstriction and natriuresis. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a cotransmitter with acetylocholine in cholinergic neurons, and this polypeptide stimulates renin secretion. We cannot find any evidence for its occurence in neurons in the kidneys, but various stimuli increase plasma VIP to levels comparable to those produced by doses of exogenous VIP which stimulated renin secretion. Neostigmine increases plasma VIP and plasma renin activity, and the VIP appears to be responsible for the increase in renin secretion, since the increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Stimulation of various areas in the brain produces sympathetically mediated increases in plasma renin activity associated with increases in blood pressure. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the renin response can be separated from the blood pressure response. In anaesthetized dogs, drugs that increase central serotonergic discharge increase renin secretion without increasing blood pressure. In rats, activation of sertonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus increases renin secretion by a pathway that projects from this nucleus to the ventral hypothalamus, and from there to the kidneys via the sympathetic nervous system. The serotonin releasing drug parachloramphetamine also increases plasma VIP, but VIP does not appear to be the primary mediator of the renin response. There is preliminary evidence that the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus are part of the

  7. A New Improving Quantum Secret Sharing Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ting-Ting; Li, Zhi-Hui; Bai, Chen-Ming; Ma, Min

    2017-01-01

    An improving quantum secret sharing scheme (IQSS scheme) was introduced by Nascimento et al. (Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)), which was analyzed by the improved quantum access structure. In this paper, we propose a new improving quantum secret sharing scheme, and more quantum access structures can be realized by this scheme than the previous one. For example, we prove that any threshold and hypercycle quantum access structures can be realized by the new scheme.

  8. Percolation of secret correlations in a network

    SciTech Connect

    Leverrier, Anthony; Garcia-Patron, Raul

    2011-09-15

    In this work, we explore the analogy between entanglement and secret classical correlations in the context of large networks--more precisely, the question of percolation of secret correlations in a network. It is known that entanglement percolation in quantum networks can display a highly nontrivial behavior depending on the topology of the network and on the presence of entanglement between the nodes. Here we show that this behavior, thought to be of a genuine quantum nature, also occurs in a classical context.

  9. A New Improving Quantum Secret Sharing Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ting-Ting; Li, Zhi-Hui; Bai, Chen-Ming; Ma, Min

    2017-04-01

    An improving quantum secret sharing scheme (IQSS scheme) was introduced by Nascimento et al. (Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)), which was analyzed by the improved quantum access structure. In this paper, we propose a new improving quantum secret sharing scheme, and more quantum access structures can be realized by this scheme than the previous one. For example, we prove that any threshold and hypercycle quantum access structures can be realized by the new scheme.

  10. An unexpected knock on Corrigan's secret door.

    PubMed

    Woywodt, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    Corrigan's secret door describes a metaphorical escape route for busy physicians. The term was derived from the successful and exceptionally busy professional life of Irish physician Dominic John Corrigan (1802-80). It is claimed that Corrigan's outpatient clinic was so busy that he required a secret door in his consulting rooms to escape from the ever-growing queue of eager patients. The origins of this charming story are unknown, and the door may have never existed. However, at present, Corrigan's secret door is often quoted when busy physicians have their own little ways in surviving a stressful professional life. Generations of British-trained doctors have grown up with Corrigan's secret door, as it was featured in the introduction of the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine. Accordingly, trainees as well as more senior doctors are often reminded that having a 'secret door' is vital in surviving in the medical profession. My own escape is through classical music and the violoncello, in particular. As the name implies, my own secret door is normally invisible to colleagues and patients. This little article is about a patient who found me out, and a reflection on the role of classical music and the cello in my professional life.

  11. A gatekeeper chaperone complex directs translocator secretion during Type Three Secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, Tara L.; Spiller, Benjamin W.; Kubori, Tomoko

    2014-11-06

    Many Gram-negative bacteria use Type Three Secretion Systems (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into host cells. These protein delivery machines are composed of cytosolic components that recognize substrates and generate the force needed for translocation, the secretion conduit, formed by a needle complex and associated membrane spanning basal body, and translocators that form the pore in the target cell. A defined order of secretion in which needle component proteins are secreted first, followed by translocators, and finally effectors, is necessary for this system to be effective. While the secreted effectors vary significantly between organisms, the ~20 individual protein components that form the T3SS are conserved in many pathogenic bacteria. One such conserved protein, referred to as either a plug or gatekeeper, is necessary to prevent unregulated effector release and to allow efficient translocator secretion. The mechanism by which translocator secretion is promoted while effector release is inhibited by gatekeepers is unknown. We present the structure of the Chlamydial gatekeeper, CopN, bound to a translocator-specific chaperone. The structure identifies a previously unknown interface between gatekeepers and translocator chaperones and reveals that in the gatekeeper-chaperone complex the canonical translocator-binding groove is free to bind translocators. Thus, structure-based mutagenesis of the homologous complex in Shigella reveals that the gatekeeper-chaperone-translocator complex is essential for translocator secretion and for the ordered secretion of translocators prior to effectors.

  12. A gatekeeper chaperone complex directs translocator secretion during Type Three Secretion

    DOE PAGES

    Archuleta, Tara L.; Spiller, Benjamin W.; Kubori, Tomoko

    2014-11-06

    Many Gram-negative bacteria use Type Three Secretion Systems (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into host cells. These protein delivery machines are composed of cytosolic components that recognize substrates and generate the force needed for translocation, the secretion conduit, formed by a needle complex and associated membrane spanning basal body, and translocators that form the pore in the target cell. A defined order of secretion in which needle component proteins are secreted first, followed by translocators, and finally effectors, is necessary for this system to be effective. While the secreted effectors vary significantly between organisms, the ~20 individual protein components thatmore » form the T3SS are conserved in many pathogenic bacteria. One such conserved protein, referred to as either a plug or gatekeeper, is necessary to prevent unregulated effector release and to allow efficient translocator secretion. The mechanism by which translocator secretion is promoted while effector release is inhibited by gatekeepers is unknown. We present the structure of the Chlamydial gatekeeper, CopN, bound to a translocator-specific chaperone. The structure identifies a previously unknown interface between gatekeepers and translocator chaperones and reveals that in the gatekeeper-chaperone complex the canonical translocator-binding groove is free to bind translocators. Thus, structure-based mutagenesis of the homologous complex in Shigella reveals that the gatekeeper-chaperone-translocator complex is essential for translocator secretion and for the ordered secretion of translocators prior to effectors.« less

  13. Interactive cytokine regulation of synoviocyte lubricant secretion.

    PubMed

    Blewis, Megan E; Lao, Brian J; Schumacher, Barbara L; Bugbee, William D; Sah, Robert L; Firestein, Gary S

    2010-04-01

    Cytokine regulation of synovial fluid (SF) lubricants, hyaluronan (HA), and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is important in health, injury, and disease of synovial joints, and may also provide powerful regulation of lubricant secretion in bioreactors for articulating tissues. This study assessed lubricant secretion rates by human synoviocytes and the molecular weight (MW) of secreted lubricants in response to interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-17, IL-32, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), applied individually and in all combinations. Lubricant secretion rates were assessed using ELISA and binding assays, and lubricant MW was assessed using gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. HA secretion rates were increased approximately 40-fold by IL-1beta, and increased synergistically to approximately 80-fold by the combination of IL-1beta + TGF-beta1 or TNF-alpha + IL-17. PRG4 secretion rates were increased approximately 80-fold by TGF-beta1, and this effect was counterbalanced by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. HA MW was predominantly <1 MDa for controls and individual cytokine stimulation, but was concentrated at >3 MDa after stimulation by IL-1beta + TGF-beta1 + TNF-alpha to resemble the distribution in human SF. PRG4 MW was unaffected by cytokines and similar to that in human SF. These results contribute to an understanding of the relationship between SF cytokine and lubricant content in health, injury, and disease, and provide approaches for using cytokines to modulate lubricant secretion rates and MW to help achieve desired lubricant composition of fluid in bioreactors.

  14. Sagnac secret sharing over telecom fiber networks.

    PubMed

    Bogdanski, Jan; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2009-01-19

    We report the first Sagnac quantum secret sharing (in three-and four-party implementations) over 1550 nm single mode fiber (SMF) networks, using a single qubit protocol with phase encoding. Our secret sharing experiment has been based on a single qubit protocol, which has opened the door to practical secret sharing implementation over fiber telecom channels and in free-space. The previous quantum secret sharing proposals were based on multiparticle entangled states, difficult in the practical implementation and not scalable. Our experimental data in the three-party implementation show stable (in regards to birefringence drift) quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 55-75 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 2.3-2.4% for the mean photon number micro?= 0.1 and 1.7-2.1% for micro= 0.3. In the four-party case we have achieved quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 45-55 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 3.0-3.7% for the mean photon number micro= 0.1 and 1.8-3.0% for micro?= 0.3. The stability of quantum transmission has been achieved thanks to our new concept for compensation of SMF birefringence effects in Sagnac, based on a polarization control system and a polarization insensitive phase modulator. The measurement results have showed feasibility of quantum secret sharing over telecom fiber networks in Sagnac configuration, using standard fiber telecom components.

  15. Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Ruskoaho, H.; Toth, M.; Lang, R.E.; Unger, Th.; Garten, D.

    1986-03-05

    To investigate the role of calcium, protein kinase C and adenylate cyclase in the ANP secretion, the secretory responses from isolated perfused rat hearts to a calcium channel activator, Bay k8644 (methyl-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3-nitro-4-(2-trifluomethylphenyl)-2-pyridine-5-carboxylate), the calcium ionophore (A23187), the phorbol ester (12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, TPA), and to forskolin were studied. ANP in perfusate was measured by radioimmunoassay 10 min before and during the infusion (30 min) of various agents at 2 min intervals. A23187 (5.7 x 10/sup -7/) induced a sharp increase, whereas TPA (0.15 - 1.6 x 10/sup -7/) caused a slowly progressive increase in ANP secretion. 4a-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, a non-active phorbol ester, had no effect on ANP secretion. Bay k8644 (4 x 10/sup -7/) and forskolin (1 x 10/sup -6/) alone caused small but sustained increase in ANP secretion. The combination of TPA with Bay k8644, forskolin or A23187 stimulated ANP secretion higher than the calculated additive value for each agent. Dibuturyl-cAMP (1.6 x 10/sup -4/) pretreatment also enhanced TPA-induced ANP release. 8-Bromo-cGMP (1.3 x 10/sup -4/) and sodium nitroprusside (9 x 10/sup -5/) alone had no effect, but both attenuated the TPA-induced ANP secretion. The results suggest that atrial cardiocytes possess at least two different secretory pathways for ANP secretion, which are probably dependent on protein kinase C and cyclic AMP.

  16. Milk secretion: The role of SNARE proteins.

    PubMed

    Truchet, Sandrine; Chat, Sophie; Ollivier-Bousquet, Michèle

    2014-03-01

    During lactation, polarized mammary epithelial secretory cells (MESCs) secrete huge quantities of the nutrient molecules that make up milk, i.e. proteins, fat globules and soluble components such as lactose and minerals. Some of these nutrients are only produced by the MESCs themselves, while others are to a great extent transferred from the blood. MESCs can thus be seen as a crossroads for both the uptake and the secretion with cross-talks between intracellular compartments that enable spatial and temporal coordination of the secretion of the milk constituents. Although the physiology of lactation is well understood, the molecular mechanisms underlying the secretion of milk components remain incompletely characterized. Major milk proteins, namely caseins, are secreted by exocytosis, while the milk fat globules are released by budding, being enwrapped by the apical plasma membrane. Prolactin, which stimulates the transcription of casein genes, also induces the production of arachidonic acid, leading to accelerated casein transport and/or secretion. Because of their ability to form complexes that bridge two membranes and promote their fusion, SNARE (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor) proteins are involved in almost all intracellular trafficking steps and exocytosis. As SNAREs can bind arachidonic acid, they could be the effectors of the secretagogue effect of prolactin in MESCs. Indeed, some SNAREs have been observed between secretory vesicles and lipid droplets suggesting that these proteins could not only orchestrate the intracellular trafficking of milk components but also act as key regulators for both the coupling and coordination of milk product secretion in response to hormones.

  17. 30 CFR 47.81 - Provisions for withholding trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provisions for withholding trade secrets. 47.81... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.81 Provisions for withholding trade secrets. (a) Operators may withhold the identity of a trade secret chemical, including the...

  18. 30 CFR 47.81 - Provisions for withholding trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Provisions for withholding trade secrets. 47.81... withholding trade secrets. (a) Operators may withhold the identity of a trade secret chemical, including the... trade secret, (2) Identifies the chemical in a way that it can be referred to without disclosing...

  19. 30 CFR 47.81 - Provisions for withholding trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Provisions for withholding trade secrets. 47.81... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.81 Provisions for withholding trade secrets. (a) Operators may withhold the identity of a trade secret chemical, including the...

  20. 30 CFR 47.81 - Provisions for withholding trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Provisions for withholding trade secrets. 47.81... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.81 Provisions for withholding trade secrets. (a) Operators may withhold the identity of a trade secret chemical, including the...

  1. 30 CFR 47.81 - Provisions for withholding trade secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Provisions for withholding trade secrets. 47.81... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.81 Provisions for withholding trade secrets. (a) Operators may withhold the identity of a trade secret chemical, including the...

  2. 5 CFR 1312.27 - Top secret control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Top secret control. 1312.27 Section 1312... Classified Information § 1312.27 Top secret control. The EOP Security Officer serves as the Top Secret... Top Secret material. The ATSCOs will be responsible for the accountability and custodianship of...

  3. 5 CFR 1312.27 - Top secret control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Top secret control. 1312.27 Section 1312... Classified Information § 1312.27 Top secret control. The EOP Security Officer serves as the Top Secret... Top Secret material. The ATSCOs will be responsible for the accountability and custodianship of...

  4. 5 CFR 1312.27 - Top secret control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Top secret control. 1312.27 Section 1312... Classified Information § 1312.27 Top secret control. The EOP Security Officer serves as the Top Secret... Top Secret material. The ATSCOs will be responsible for the accountability and custodianship of...

  5. 5 CFR 1312.27 - Top secret control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Top secret control. 1312.27 Section 1312... Classified Information § 1312.27 Top secret control. The EOP Security Officer serves as the Top Secret... Top Secret material. The ATSCOs will be responsible for the accountability and custodianship of...

  6. 5 CFR 1312.27 - Top secret control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Top secret control. 1312.27 Section 1312... Classified Information § 1312.27 Top secret control. The EOP Security Officer serves as the Top Secret... Top Secret material. The ATSCOs will be responsible for the accountability and custodianship of...

  7. Quantum Ramp Secret Sharing Scheme and Quantum Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Heling; Wang, Huifeng; Wang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of quantum secret sharing, quantum ramp secret sharing schemes were proposed (Ogawa et al., Phys. Rev. A 72, 032318 [2005]), which had a trade-off between security and coding efficiency. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an intermediate set, which cannot fully reconstruct the secret. This paper revisits the size of a share in the quantum ramp secret scheme based on a relation between the quantum operations and the coherent information. We also propose an optimal quantum ramp secret sharing scheme.

  8. Role of adipose secreted factors and kisspeptin in the metabolic control of gonadotropin secretion and puberty

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors secreted by adipose tissue continue to be discovered. Evidence indicates a strong link between neural influences and adipocyte expression and secretion of a wide array of cytokines, neurotrophic factors, growth factors, binding proteins, and neuropeptides. These “adipokines” are linked to im...

  9. Secrets and the Sociological Imagination: Using PostSecret.com to Illustrate Sociological Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noy, Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Introductory sociology classes afford instructors an opportunity to expose students, often from a variety of backgrounds and majors, to the sociological imagination. In this article, I describe how the use of secrets from a popular website, PostSecret.com, can help teach students about the sociological imagination and incorporate biographical…

  10. Shared Secrets versus Secrets Kept Private Are Linked to Better Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frijns, Tom; Finkenauer, Catrin; Keijsers, Loes

    2013-01-01

    It is a household notion that secrecy is bad while sharing is good. But what about shared secrets? The present research adopts a functional analysis of sharing secrets, arguing that it should negate harmful consequences generally associated with secrecy and serves important interpersonal functions in adolescence. A survey study among 790 Dutch…

  11. Characterization of Nops, nodulation outer proteins, secreted via the type III secretion system of NGR234.

    PubMed

    Marie, Corinne; Deakin, William J; Viprey, Virginie; Kopciñska, Joanna; Golinowski, Wladyslaw; Krishnan, Hari B; Perret, Xavier; Broughton, William J

    2003-09-01

    The nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium species NGR234 secretes, via a type III secretion system (TTSS), proteins called Nops (nodulation outer proteins). Abolition of TTSS-dependent protein secretion has either no effect or leads to a change in the number of nodules on selected plants. More dramatically, Nops impair nodule development on Crotalaria juncea roots, resulting in the formation of nonfixing pseudonodules. A double mutation of nopX and nopL, which code for two previously identified secreted proteins, leads to a phenotype on Pachyrhizus tuberosus differing from that of a mutant in which the TTSS is not functional. Use of antibodies and a modification of the purification protocol revealed that NGR234 secretes additional proteins in a TTSS-dependent manner. One of them was identified as NopA, a small 7-kDa protein. Single mutations in nopX and nopL were also generated to assess the involvement of each Nop in protein secretion and nodule formation. Mutation of nopX had little effect on NopL and NopA secretion but greatly affected the interaction of NGR234 with many plant hosts tested. NopL was not necessary for the secretion of any Nops but was required for efficient nodulation of some plant species. NopL may thus act as an effector protein whose recognition is dependent upon the hosts' genetic background.

  12. An exploration of the sequence of a 2.9-Mb region of the genome of Drosophila melanogaster: the Adh region.

    PubMed Central

    Ashburner, M; Misra, S; Roote, J; Lewis, S E; Blazej, R; Davis, T; Doyle, C; Galle, R; George, R; Harris, N; Hartzell, G; Harvey, D; Hong, L; Houston, K; Hoskins, R; Johnson, G; Martin, C; Moshrefi, A; Palazzolo, M; Reese, M G; Spradling, A; Tsang, G; Wan, K; Whitelaw, K; Celniker, S

    1999-01-01

    A contiguous sequence of nearly 3 Mb from the genome of Drosophila melanogaster has been sequenced from a series of overlapping P1 and BAC clones. This region covers 69 chromosome polytene bands on chromosome arm 2L, including the genetically well-characterized "Adh region." A computational analysis of the sequence predicts 218 protein-coding genes, 11 tRNAs, and 17 transposable element sequences. At least 38 of the protein-coding genes are arranged in clusters of from 2 to 6 closely related genes, suggesting extensive tandem duplication. The gene density is one protein-coding gene every 13 kb; the transposable element density is one element every 171 kb. Of 73 genes in this region identified by genetic analysis, 49 have been located on the sequence; P-element insertions have been mapped to 43 genes. Ninety-five (44%) of the known and predicted genes match a Drosophila EST, and 144 (66%) have clear similarities to proteins in other organisms. Genes known to have mutant phenotypes are more likely to be represented in cDNA libraries, and far more likely to have products similar to proteins of other organisms, than are genes with no known mutant phenotype. Over 650 chromosome aberration breakpoints map to this chromosome region, and their nonrandom distribution on the genetic map reflects variation in gene spacing on the DNA. This is the first large-scale analysis of the genome of D. melanogaster at the sequence level. In addition to the direct results obtained, this analysis has allowed us to develop and test methods that will be needed to interpret the complete sequence of the genome of this species.Before beginning a Hunt, it is wise to ask someone what you are looking for before you begin looking for it. Milne 1926 PMID:10471707

  13. Analysis of anal secretions from phlaeothripine thrips.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahisa; Haga, Kazuo; Tsutsumi, Tadaaki; Matsuyama, Shigeru

    2004-02-01

    The anal secretions of 16 phlaeothripine thrips species (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) were studied, including a reinvestigation of three species previously reported. A total of 37 components were detected, including hydrocarbons, acetates, terpenes, carboxylic acids, a quinone, an aromatic compound, and a pyranone compound. The secretions of all species were composed of some of these components, with Xylaplothrips inquilinus possessing as many as 11 components. Of these components, (Z)-9-octadecene, (Z)-9-nonadecene, nonadecadiene, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, geranial, neral, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, caryophyllene, 2-hydroxy-6-methylbenzaldehyde, and two unidentified monoterpenes [UK-I (M+136) and UK-II (M+168)] were detected for the first time. The chemicals were species-specific; four Liothrips species and three Holothrips species could be distinguished from each other and their congeners by the GC profiles of the ether extracts of their anal secretions. The anal secretions of gall-inducing thrips commonly contained terpenes. of which citral (a mixture of geranial and neral) and beta-acaridial repelled ants or had antifungal activity. The findings suggest that these terpenes play a defensive role and prevent galls from fungal infestation. 3-Butanoyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one, found from three Holothrips spp., caused paralysis in ants. Chemical analysis of anal secretion components is a useful method for the classification of tubuliferan species that are difficult to distinguish on the basis of morphological characters.

  14. Fast-weighted secret image sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sian-Jheng; Chen, Lee Shu-Teng; Lin, Ja-Chen

    2009-07-01

    Thien and Lin [Comput. and Graphics 26(5), 765-770 (2002)] proposed a threshold scheme to share a secret image among n shadows: any t of the n shadows can recover the secret, whereas t-1 or fewer shadows cannot. However, in real life, certain managers probably play key roles to run a company and thus need special authority to recover the secret in managers' meeting. (Each manager's shadow should be more powerful than an ordinary employee's shadow.) In Thien and Lin's scheme, if a company has less than t managers, then manager's meeting cannot recover the secret, unless some managers were given multiple shadows in advance. But this compromise causes managers inconvenience because too many shadows were to be kept daily and carried to the meeting. To solve this dilemma, a weighted sharing method is proposed: each of the shadows has a weight. The secret is recovered if and only if the total weights (rather than the number) of received shadows is at least t. The properties of GF(2r) are utilized to accelerate sharing speed. Besides, the method is also a more general approach to polynomial-based sharing. Moreover, for convenience, each person keeps only one shadow and only one shadow index.

  15. Experimental demonstration of four-party quantum secret sharing.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, S; Kurtsiefer, C; Bourennane, M; Weinfurter, H

    2007-01-12

    Secret sharing is a multiparty cryptographic task in which some secret information is split into several pieces which are distributed among the participants such that only an authorized set of participants can reconstruct the original secret. Similar to quantum key distribution, in quantum secret sharing, the secrecy of the shared information relies not on computational assumptions, but on laws of quantum physics. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of four-party quantum secret sharing via the resource of four-photon entanglement.

  16. A light-triggered protein secretion system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel; Gibson, Emily S; Kennedy, Matthew J

    2013-05-13

    Optical control of protein interactions has emerged as a powerful experimental paradigm for manipulating and studying various cellular processes. Tools are now available for controlling a number of cellular functions, but some fundamental processes, such as protein secretion, have been difficult to engineer using current optical tools. Here we use UVR8, a plant photoreceptor protein that forms photolabile homodimers, to engineer the first light-triggered protein secretion system. UVR8 fusion proteins were conditionally sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum, and a brief pulse of light triggered robust forward trafficking through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. UVR8 was not responsive to excitation light used to image cyan, green, or red fluorescent protein variants, allowing multicolor visualization of cellular markers and secreted protein cargo as it traverses the cellular secretory pathway. We implemented this novel tool in neurons to demonstrate restricted, local trafficking of secretory cargo near dendritic branch points.

  17. Regulation and secretion of Xanthomonas virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Daniela; Bonas, Ulla

    2010-03-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas cause a variety of diseases in economically important monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous crop plants worldwide. Successful infection and bacterial multiplication in the host tissue often depend on the virulence factors secreted including adhesins, polysaccharides, LPS and degradative enzymes. One of the key pathogenicity factors is the type III secretion system, which injects effector proteins into the host cell cytosol to manipulate plant cellular processes such as basal defense to the benefit of the pathogen. The coordinated expression of bacterial virulence factors is orchestrated by quorum-sensing pathways, multiple two-component systems and transcriptional regulators such as Clp, Zur, FhrR, HrpX and HpaR. Furthermore, virulence gene expression is post-transcriptionally controlled by the RNA-binding protein RsmA. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the infection strategies and regulatory networks controlling secreted virulence factors from Xanthomonas species.

  18. The 'Secret' of success part 1.

    PubMed

    Busby, Mike

    2011-03-01

    Practice success is defined across the four'dimensions' of oral health, patient satisfaction, job satisfaction and financial profit. It is suggested that the 'secret' of success in dental practice is to make patient (customer) satisfaction the primary focus. Not a very earth shattering or surprising'secret' perhaps! This is hardly a new idea, and not a concept restricted to dental practice. This principle applies to all businesses. This series of articles reviews evidence from across a broad spectrum of publications: from populist business publications through to refereed scientific papers, this'secret' seems to be confirmed. The evidence for which aspects of our service are most important in achieving patient satisfaction (and therefore success) is explored. Good oral health outcomes for patients are defined as the primary purpose of dental practice and, therefore, an essential dimension of success. The link between positive patient perceptions of general care and their own oral health to practice success is explored.

  19. Nutrient detection by incretin hormone secreting cells

    PubMed Central

    Diakogiannaki, Eleftheria; Gribble, Fiona M.; Reimann, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulintropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted after a meal. Like other enteroendocrine hormones they help to orchestrate the bodies' response to the availability of newly absorbable nutrients and are noteworthy as they stimulate postprandial insulin secretion, underlying what is known as the incretin effect. GLP-1-mimetics are now widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and advantages over older insulinotropic therapies include weight loss. An alternative treatment regime might be the recruitment of endogenous GLP-1, however, very little is known about the physiological control of enteroendocrine responses. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms to detect nutrient arrival in the gut that have been implicated within the incretin secreting cells. PMID:22182802

  20. Lactation and the physiology of prolactin secretion

    PubMed Central

    McNeilly, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    Prolactin in man appears to form an essential part of the complex of hormones necessary for milk secretion and lactation. Levels of prolactin during pregnancy gradually increase towards term, and remain elevated for up to 6 weeks post partum. The lactogenic effects of prolactin appear to be blocked at the mammary gland by the elevated levels of fetoplacental steroids secreted during pregnancy. The immediate decline in steroid levels at delivery removes this block to prolactin and milk secretion ensues. The amenorrhoea associated with both puerperal lactation and galactorrhoea appears to reflect failure of cyclical discharge of gonadotrophins and anovulation. This appears to be due to peripheral inhibition of steroidogenesis by the elevated levels of prolactin associated with these situations. No consistent changes in circulating levels of prolactin occur during the menstrual cycle, but changes in prolactin levels within the follicular fluid of the developing ovarian follicle indicate a specific and permissive role of prolactin in steroidogenesis. PMID:1197152

  1. Apocrine secretion--fact or artifact?

    PubMed

    Aumüller, G; Wilhelm, B; Seitz, J

    1999-09-01

    In this review, the history of apocrine secretion and the essential categories are briefly mentioned and fused into a more generally applicable terminology. Using the coagulating gland of the male rat as a model, the mechanisms of apocrine secretion, the participation of the cytoskeleton in the formation of the apocrine blebs ("aposomes") and the structure of the secretory proteins, as well as the hormonal regulation of their biosynthesis are described. Apocrine secreted proteins share the following peculiarities: (i) Their biosynthesis and post-translational modification (including an unusual form of glycosylation) take place in the cytoplasm. (ii) Intracellular transport proceeds without participation of the endomembrane system, the Golgi apparatus and secretion granules. (iii) Blood serum derived transsudated albumin entering the secretory cells functions as a carrier of the apocrine-released proteins. Some common molecular features are specific for the apocrine-synthesized proteins studied so far by our group: (a) Their primary sequence is synthesized without a signal peptide. (b) Their N-terminus is blocked by acetylation. (c) The substituting glycanes are neither O- nor N-linked. (d) At least one of the apocrine-synthesized proteins (secretory transglutaminase) contains a glycerol-phosphoinositol (GPI-) anchor. There are a number of still open questions in apocrine secretion, pertaining to (I) the intracellular transport and targeting of the proteins, (II) the coordination of simultaneously occurring apocrine and merocrine secretion in several of the apocrine glands, (III) the biosynthesis of the apical membrane proteins surrounding the aposomes and (IV) the repair mechanisms of the apical cell pole following the release of the aposomes. In conclusion, apocrine release is not an artifact but rather an alternative extrusion mechanism of soluble and membrane-associated proteins, usually linked with sex- or reproductive-related glands, such as the prostate, the

  2. Noncholinergic control of adrenal catecholamine secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Livett, B G; Marley, P D

    1993-01-01

    It has been known for over 70 years that adrenal catecholamine secretion can be modulated or elicited by noncholinergic neurotransmitters and hormones. However, our understanding of the cellular mechanisms by which these agents produce their effects and the physiological conditions under which they act are not well characterised. Here we briefly review the mechanisms by which one such agent (the neuropeptide substance P) modulates the cholinergic secretory response of adrenal chromaffin cells, and another agent (angiotensin II) elicits catecholamine secretion independently of the cholinergic innervation. PMID:7507911

  3. Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christian; Trojek, Pavel; Bourennane, Mohamed; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Zukowski, Marek; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-12-02

    We present a simple and practical protocol for the solution of a secure multiparty communication task, the secret sharing, and its proof-of-principle experimental realization. In this protocol, a secret is split among several parties in a way that its reconstruction requires the collaboration of the participating parties. In our scheme the parties solve the problem by sequential transformations on a single qubit. In contrast with recently proposed schemes involving multiparticle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, the approach demonstrated here is much easier to realize and scalable in practical applications.

  4. Differential-phase-shift quantum secret sharing.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Ohashi, T; Kukita, T; Watanebe, K; Hayashi, S; Honjo, T; Takesue, H

    2008-09-29

    A quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol based on a differential-phase-shift scheme is proposed, which quantum mechanically provides a full secret key to one party and partial keys to two other parties. A weak coherent pulse train is utilized instead of individual photons as in conventional schemes. Compared with previous QSS protocols, the present one features a simple setup, is suitable for fiber transmission, and offers the possibility for a high key creation rate. An experiment is also carried out to demonstrate the operation.

  5. THE HYPOPHYSIS AND SECRETION OF INSULIN

    PubMed Central

    Houssay, B. A.; Foglia, V. G.; Smyth, F. S.; Rietti, C. T.; Houssay, A. B.

    1942-01-01

    The ability of the pancreas, from various types of dogs, to correct diabetic hyperglycemia has been studied (Table XI). The pancreas from one animal was united by a vascular union with the neck blood vessels of another dog which had been pancreatectomized for 20 hours. The time necessary to reduce the blood sugar level to 120 mg. per cent was determined. 1. Pancreas from 6 hypophysectomized dogs produced a normal insulin secretion, showing that an anterior pituitary hormone is not necessary for its production or maintenance. 2. In 14 of 17 normal dogs given anterior pituitary extract for 3 or more consecutive days and presenting diabetes (fasting blood sugar 150 mg. per cent or more) the pancreas showed diminished insulin production. 3. In animals which remained diabetic after discontinuing the injections of hypophyseal extract, the pancreas islands were markedly pathologic and the insulin secretion was practically nil. 4. When hyperglycemia existed on the 2nd to 5th day but fell later, the insulin secretion of 5 dogs was normal in 2, supernormal in 1, and less than normal in 2. Histologic examination showed a restoration of beta cells. 5. In 14 dogs resistant to the diabetogenic action of anterior pituitary extract, as shown by little or no change in blood sugar, the pancreatic secretion of insulin was normal in 6 cases, supernormal in 3, and subnormal in 5 cases. Clear signs of hyperfunction of B cells were observed. In 6 resistant animals a high blood sugar (150 mg. per cent) appeared shortly before transplanting, but insulin secretion was normal in 4, supernormal in 1, and subnormal in 1 case. 6. With one injection of extract and 1 day of hyperglycemia the capacity of the pancreas to secrete insulin was not altered. 7. A high blood sugar level lasting 4 days does not alter the islets. The hypophyseal extract acts, therefore, by some other mechanism. In normal dogs, the continuous intravenous infusion of glucose for 4 days maintained the blood sugar at levels as

  6. Transcriptomic identification of ADH1B as a novel candidate gene for obesity and insulin resistance in human adipose tissue in Mexican Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES).

    PubMed

    Winnier, Deidre A; Fourcaudot, Marcel; Norton, Luke; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A; Hu, Shirley L; Farook, Vidya S; Coletta, Dawn K; Kumar, Satish; Puppala, Sobha; Chittoor, Geetha; Dyer, Thomas D; Arya, Rector; Carless, Melanie; Lehman, Donna M; Curran, Joanne E; Cromack, Douglas T; Tripathy, Devjit; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Göring, Harald H H; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Jenkinson, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease that is more prevalent in ethnic groups such as Mexican Americans, and is strongly associated with the risk factors obesity and insulin resistance. The goal of this study was to perform whole genome gene expression profiling in adipose tissue to detect common patterns of gene regulation associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 308 Mexican American participants from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Basal fasting RNA was extracted from adipose tissue biopsies from a subset of 75 unrelated individuals, and gene expression data generated on the Illumina BeadArray platform. The number of gene probes with significant expression above baseline was approximately 31,000. We performed multiple regression analysis of all probes with 15 metabolic traits. Adipose tissue had 3,012 genes significantly associated with the traits of interest (false discovery rate, FDR ≤ 0.05). The significance of gene expression changes was used to select 52 genes with significant (FDR ≤ 10(-4)) gene expression changes across multiple traits. Gene sets/Pathways analysis identified one gene, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) that was significantly enriched (P < 10(-60)) as a prime candidate for involvement in multiple relevant metabolic pathways. Illumina BeadChip derived ADH1B expression data was consistent with quantitative real time PCR data. We observed significant inverse correlations with waist circumference (2.8 x 10(-9)), BMI (5.4 x 10(-6)), and fasting plasma insulin (P < 0.001). These findings are consistent with a central role for ADH1B in obesity and insulin resistance and provide evidence for a novel genetic regulatory mechanism for human metabolic diseases related to these traits.

  7. Transcriptomic Identification of ADH1B as a Novel Candidate Gene for Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Human Adipose Tissue in Mexican Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES)

    PubMed Central

    Winnier, Deidre A.; Fourcaudot, Marcel; Norton, Luke; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A.; Hu, Shirley L.; Farook, Vidya S.; Coletta, Dawn K.; Kumar, Satish; Puppala, Sobha; Chittoor, Geetha; Dyer, Thomas D.; Arya, Rector; Carless, Melanie; Lehman, Donna M.; Curran, Joanne E.; Cromack, Douglas T.; Tripathy, Devjit; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Göring, Harald H. H.; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease that is more prevalent in ethnic groups such as Mexican Americans, and is strongly associated with the risk factors obesity and insulin resistance. The goal of this study was to perform whole genome gene expression profiling in adipose tissue to detect common patterns of gene regulation associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 308 Mexican American participants from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Basal fasting RNA was extracted from adipose tissue biopsies from a subset of 75 unrelated individuals, and gene expression data generated on the Illumina BeadArray platform. The number of gene probes with significant expression above baseline was approximately 31,000. We performed multiple regression analysis of all probes with 15 metabolic traits. Adipose tissue had 3,012 genes significantly associated with the traits of interest (false discovery rate, FDR ≤ 0.05). The significance of gene expression changes was used to select 52 genes with significant (FDR ≤ 10-4) gene expression changes across multiple traits. Gene sets/Pathways analysis identified one gene, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) that was significantly enriched (P < 10-60) as a prime candidate for involvement in multiple relevant metabolic pathways. Illumina BeadChip derived ADH1B expression data was consistent with quantitative real time PCR data. We observed significant inverse correlations with waist circumference (2.8 x 10-9), BMI (5.4 x 10-6), and fasting plasma insulin (P < 0.001). These findings are consistent with a central role for ADH1B in obesity and insulin resistance and provide evidence for a novel genetic regulatory mechanism for human metabolic diseases related to these traits. PMID:25830378

  8. Bladder cancer cells secrete while normal bladder cells express but do not secrete AGR2

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Melissa E.; Quek, Sue -Ing; True, Lawrence D.; Seiler, Roland; Fleischmann, Achim; Bagryanova, Lora; Kim, Sara R.; Chia, David; Goodglick, Lee; Shimizu, Yoshiko; Rosser, Charles J.; Gao, Yuqian; Liu, Alvin Y.

    2016-02-15

    Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) is a cancer-associated secreted protein found predominantly in adenocarcinomas. Given its ubiquity in solid tumors, cancer-secreted AGR2 could be a useful biomarker in urine or blood for early detection. Normal organs express AGR2 and might also secrete AGR2, which would impact on the utility of AGR2 as a cancer biomarker. Uniform AGR2 expression is found in the normal bladder urothelium. Little AGR2 is, however, secreted by the urothelial cells as no measurable amounts could be detected in urine. The urinary proteomes of healthy people contain no listing for AGR2. The blood proteomes also contain no significant peptide counts for AGR2 suggesting that little urothelial secretion into capillaries of the lamina propria. Expression is lost in urothelial carcinoma, but 25% primary tumors retained AGR2 expression in a cohort of lymph node positive cases. AGR2 is secreted by the urothelial carcinoma cells as urinary AGR2 was measured in the voided urine of 25% of the cases analyzed in a cohort of cancer vs. non-cancer urine, which matched the frequency of AGR2-positive urothelial carcinoma. Since cancer cells secrete AGR2 while normal cells do not, its measurement in body fluids could be used to indicate tumor presence. In addition to secretion, AGR2 is also localized to the cell surface. Thus, secretion/cell surface localization of AGR2 is pecific to cancer while expression itself is not. Lastly, since AGR2 is found in many solid tumor types, this tumor-associated antigen constitutes a highly promising therapeutic target.

  9. Bladder cancer cells secrete while normal bladder cells express but do not secrete AGR2

    DOE PAGES

    Ho, Melissa E.; Quek, Sue -Ing; True, Lawrence D.; ...

    2016-02-15

    Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) is a cancer-associated secreted protein found predominantly in adenocarcinomas. Given its ubiquity in solid tumors, cancer-secreted AGR2 could be a useful biomarker in urine or blood for early detection. Normal organs express AGR2 and might also secrete AGR2, which would impact on the utility of AGR2 as a cancer biomarker. Uniform AGR2 expression is found in the normal bladder urothelium. Little AGR2 is, however, secreted by the urothelial cells as no measurable amounts could be detected in urine. The urinary proteomes of healthy people contain no listing for AGR2. The blood proteomes also contain no significantmore » peptide counts for AGR2 suggesting that little urothelial secretion into capillaries of the lamina propria. Expression is lost in urothelial carcinoma, but 25% primary tumors retained AGR2 expression in a cohort of lymph node positive cases. AGR2 is secreted by the urothelial carcinoma cells as urinary AGR2 was measured in the voided urine of 25% of the cases analyzed in a cohort of cancer vs. non-cancer urine, which matched the frequency of AGR2-positive urothelial carcinoma. Since cancer cells secrete AGR2 while normal cells do not, its measurement in body fluids could be used to indicate tumor presence. In addition to secretion, AGR2 is also localized to the cell surface. Thus, secretion/cell surface localization of AGR2 is pecific to cancer while expression itself is not. Lastly, since AGR2 is found in many solid tumor types, this tumor-associated antigen constitutes a highly promising therapeutic target.« less

  10. Activation of the basolateral membrane Cl− conductance essential for electrogenic K+ secretion suppresses electrogenic Cl− secretion

    PubMed Central

    He, Quanhua; Halm, Susan T.; Zhang, Jin; Halm, Dan R.

    2010-01-01

    Adrenaline activates transient Cl−-secretion and sustained K+-secretion across isolated distal colonic mucosa of guinea pig. The Ca++-activated Cl− channel inhibitor CaCCinh-A01 [30μM] significantly reduced electrogenic K+-secretion, detected as short-circuit current (Isc). This inhibition supported the cell model for K+-secretion in which basolateral membrane Cl− channels provide an exit pathway for Cl− entering the cell via Na+/K+/2Cl−-cotransporters. CaCCinh-A01 inhibited both Isc and transepithelial conductance in a concentration dependent manner, IC50 = 6.3μM. GlyH-101, another Cl− channel inhibitor, also reduced sustained adrenaline-activated Isc (IC50 = 9.4μM). Adrenaline activated whole-cell Cl− current in isolated intact colonic crypts, confirmed by ion substitution. This adrenaline-activated whole-cell Cl− current also was inhibited by CaCCinh-A01 or GlyH-101. In contrast to K+-secretion, CaCCinh-A01 augmented the electrogenic Cl−-secretion activated by adrenaline as well as that activated by PGE2. Synergistic Cl−-secretion activated by cholinergic/PGE2 stimulation was insensitive to CaCCinh-A01. Colonic expression of the Ca++-activated Cl− channel protein Tmem16A was supported by RT-PCR detection of Tmem16A-mRNA, by immuno-blot with a Tmem16A-antibody, and by immuno-fluorescence detection in lateral membranes of epithelial cells. Alternative splices of Tmem16A were detected for exons that are involved in channel activation. Inhibition of K+-secretion and augmentation of Cl−-secretion by CaCCinh-A01 supports a common colonic cell model for these two ion secretory processes, such that activation of basolateral membrane Cl− channels contributes to the production of electrogenic K+-secretion and limits the rate of Cl−-secretion. Maximal physiological Cl−-secretion occurs only for synergistic activation mechanisms that close these basolateral membrane Cl− channels. PMID:21169331

  11. Eccrine sweat gland development and sweat secretion.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Schlessinger, David

    2015-09-01

    Eccrine sweat glands help to maintain homoeostasis, primarily by stabilizing body temperature. Derived from embryonic ectoderm, millions of eccrine glands are distributed across human skin and secrete litres of sweat per day. Their easy accessibility has facilitated the start of analyses of their development and function. Mouse genetic models find sweat gland development regulated sequentially by Wnt, Eda and Shh pathways, although precise subpathways and additional regulators require further elucidation. Mature glands have two secretory cell types, clear and dark cells, whose comparative development and functional interactions remain largely unknown. Clear cells have long been known as the major secretory cells, but recent studies suggest that dark cells are also indispensable for sweat secretion. Dark cell-specific Foxa1 expression was shown to regulate a Ca(2+) -dependent Best2 anion channel that is the candidate driver for the required ion currents. Overall, it was shown that cholinergic impulses trigger sweat secretion in mature glands through second messengers - for example InsP3 and Ca(2+) - and downstream ion channels/transporters in the framework of a Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter model. Notably, the microenvironment surrounding secretory cells, including acid-base balance, was implicated to be important for proper sweat secretion, which requires further clarification. Furthermore, multiple ion channels have been shown to be expressed in clear and dark cells, but the degree to which various ion channels function redundantly or indispensably also remains to be determined.

  12. The Best-Kept Secret in Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he has toured many impressive schools over the years and has heard one familiar statement that amazes him: "We are the best-kept secret in town." How can a school exist for any significant period of time and be virtually unknown to the community it serves? The truth is that if one considers his school to…

  13. Trade Secrets for Crafting a Conceptual Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamone, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    The author clarifies the distinction between a sound conceptual article and a literature review, outlines the creative process as it applies to written work, and provides "trade secrets" for novice writers on how to enhance their literary creativity and how to confront and solve writing problems. (Author/SR)

  14. Secrets of Mlearning Failures: Confronting Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Having implemented and evaluated over 35 mlearning projects in a variety of contexts in higher education over the past 6 years the researcher is ready to share the untold secret: not all mlearning projects succeed! This article critiques three of the researcher's mlearning projects that can be classed as "failures" and compares them to successful…

  15. Containing the secret of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

    2012-04-01

    This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as one of containing the secret of child sexual abuse. Three key dynamics were identified: the active withholding of the secret on the part of the child, the experience of a 'pressure cooker effect' reflecting a conflict between the wish to tell and the wish to keep the secret, and the confiding itself which often occurs in the context of an intimacy being shared. Children's experiences of disclosure were multidetermined and suggest the need for multifaceted and multisystemic approaches to prevention and intervention. The need for the secret to be contained, individually and interpersonally in appropriate safeguarding and therapeutic contexts needs to be respected in helping children tell.

  16. Analysis of assembly of secreted mucins.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Malin E V; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2012-01-01

    Studies of assembly and secretion of gel-forming mucins are complex. The pulse-chase methods for mucins described here include metabolic radiolabeling and labeling in animals with azido-GalNAc. The labeled mucins are analyzed by composite agarose-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography or by mucus-preserving tissue fixation and Click-iT(®) chemistry.

  17. Secret Codes, Remainder Arithmetic, and Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Lyman C.

    This pamphlet is designed for use as enrichment material for able junior and senior high school students who are interested in mathematics. No more than a clear understanding of basic arithmetic is expected. Students are introduced to ideas from number theory and modern algebra by learning mathematical ways of coding and decoding secret messages.…

  18. ACTH-secreting 'apudoma' of gallbladder.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, R W; Burns-Cox, C J

    1975-01-01

    The case of a 44-year-old woman is reported. The diagnosis after the appropriate tests and laparotomy was ACTH-secreting 'apudoma' of the gallbladder. This is a rare tumour and this case is believed to be the first reported of an ectopic hormone producing tumour from this side. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:168130

  19. The Best Kept Secret in Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvino, James

    2004-01-01

    It is perhaps one of the best-kept secrets in educating gifted high school youth, and yet for 45 years, Hugh O'Brian Youth Leadership (HOBY) has been going strong, "Motivating Tomorrow's Leaders Today." After spending nine inspirational days in 1958 with Albert Schweitzer (Nobel Prize physician and philosopher) at his clinic in the African jungle,…

  20. Secret Shopping as User Experience Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Crystal M.

    2015-01-01

    Secret shopping is a form of unobtrusive evaluation that can be accomplished with minimal effort, but still produce rich results. With as few as 11 shoppers, the author was able to identify trends in user satisfaction with services provided across two entry-level desks at Illinois Wesleyan University's The Ames Library. The focus of this secret…

  1. Hyponatremia associated with sertraline and fluoxetine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Kalani; Tokeshi, Jinichi

    2002-03-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a rare but serious adverse effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Although many case reports describe this association, few report the effect of rechallenge with another SSRI. We present a case of an elderly patient who developed hyponatremia with sertraline and SIADH when rechallenged with fluoxetine.

  2. Hyponatremia and antidiuresis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie; Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Douillard, Claire

    2011-12-01

    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is primarily regulated through plasma osmolarity, as well as non-osmotic stimuli including blood volume and stress. Links between water-electrolyte and carbohydrate metabolism have also been recently demonstrated. AVP acts via the intermediary of three types of receptors: V1a, or V1, which exerts vasoconstrictive effects; pituitary gland V1b, or V3, which participates in the secretion of ACTH; and renal V2, which reduces the excretion of pure water by combining with water channels (aquaporin 2). Antidiuresis syndrome is a form of euvolaemic, hypoosmolar hyponatraemia, which is characterised by a negative free water clearance with inappropriate urine osmolality and intracellular hyper-hydration in the absence of renal, adrenal and thyroid insufficiency. Ninety percent of cases of antidiuresis syndrome occur in association with hypersecretion of vasopressin, while vasopressin is undetectable in 10% of cases. Thus the term "antidiuresis syndrome" is more appropriate than the classic name "syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion" (SIADH). The clinical symptoms, morbidity and mortality of hyponatraemia are related to its severity, as well as to the rapidity of its onset and duration. Even in cases of moderate hyponatraemia that are considered asymptomatic, there is a very high risk of falls due to gait and attention disorders, as well as rhabdomyolysis, which increases the fracture risk. The aetiological diagnosis of hyponatraemia is based on the analysis of calculated or measured plasma osmolality (POsm), as well as blood volume (skin tenting of dehydration, oedema). Hyperglycaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia lead to hyper- and normoosmolar hyponatraemia, respectively. Salt loss of gastrointestinal, renal, cutaneous and sometimes cerebral origin is hypovolaemic, hypoosmolar hyponatraemia (skin tenting), whereas oedema is present with hypervolaemic, hypoosmolar hyponatraemia of heart failure, nephrotic syndrome

  3. SecretEPDB: a comprehensive web-based resource for secreted effector proteins of the bacterial types III, IV and VI secretion systems

    PubMed Central

    An, Yi; Wang, Jiawei; Li, Chen; Revote, Jerico; Zhang, Yang; Naderer, Thomas; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Webb, Geoffrey I.; Lithgow, Trevor; Song, Jiangning

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria translocate effector molecules to host cells through highly evolved secretion systems. By definition, the function of these effector proteins is to manipulate host cell biology and the sequence, structural and functional annotations of these effector proteins will provide a better understanding of how bacterial secretion systems promote bacterial survival and virulence. Here we developed a knowledgebase, termed SecretEPDB (Bacterial Secreted Effector Protein DataBase), for effector proteins of type III secretion system (T3SS), type IV secretion system (T4SS) and type VI secretion system (T6SS). SecretEPDB provides enriched annotations of the aforementioned three classes of effector proteins by manually extracting and integrating structural and functional information from currently available databases and the literature. The database is conservative and strictly curated to ensure that every effector protein entry is supported by experimental evidence that demonstrates it is secreted by a T3SS, T4SS or T6SS. The annotations of effector proteins documented in SecretEPDB are provided in terms of protein characteristics, protein function, protein secondary structure, Pfam domains, metabolic pathway and evolutionary details. It is our hope that this integrated knowledgebase will serve as a useful resource for biological investigation and the generation of new hypotheses for research efforts aimed at bacterial secretion systems. PMID:28112271

  4. Secretion of slow-folding proteins by a Type 1 secretion system.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Christian K W; Lenders, Michael H H; Smits, Sander H J; Schmitt, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Protein production through dedicated secretion systems might offer an potential alternative to the conventional cytoplasmical expression. The application of Type 1 secretion systems of Gram-negative bacteria, however, where often not successful in the past for a wide range of proteins. Recently, two studies using the E. coli maltose binding protein (MalE) and the rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) revealed a rational to circumvent these limitations. Here, wild-type passenger proteins were not secreted, while folding mutants with decreased folding kinetics were efficiently exported to the extracellular space. Subsequently, an one-step purification protocol yielded homogeneous and active protein. Taken together, theses two studies suggest that the introduction of slow-folding mutations into a protein sequence might be the key to use Type 1 secretion systems for the biotechnological production of proteins.

  5. Properties of Duvernoy's secretions from opisthoglyphous and aglyphous colubrid snakes.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, S A; Kardong, K V

    1994-10-01

    Relatively little attention has been given to the biological properties of Duvernoy's secretions produced by opisthoglyphous and some aglyphous colubrid snakes. A review is presented of literature pertaining to these secretions. Most detailed analyses of Duvernoy's secretions and their biological properties have been performed since the late 1970s. The dispholidines, Dispholidus typus and Thelotornis sp., and the natricines, Rhabdophis tigrinus and R. subminiata, have received the most attention due to the high toxicity of their secretions and their medical importance. These species produce secretions with variably strong prothrombin-activating activity, defibrinating activity, and hemorrhagic potential. Boigines, and natricines other than Rhabdophis, produce secretions of low to moderate toxicity and are variably hemorrhagic and proteolytic. Xenodontines and homalopsines similarly show hemorrhagic potential with low to moderate toxicity. Neurotoxic activity has been reported only from secretions of the boigines, Boiga blandingi and B. irregularis and the xenodontine, Heterodon platyrhinos. These species produce secretions containing postsynaptically acting components. Analyses of some of these secretions have shown that enzymes common to many ophidian venoms such as phospholipases A and L-amino acid oxidase are uncommon in the colubrid secretions studied. This may be due to few studies assaying for multiple enzyme activities and/or the unavailability of many secretion samples for study. Methods of secretion extraction, storage, and assay are discussed. Projected future research and the adaptive implications of Duvernoy's secretions are considered.

  6. Somatomammotrophic cells in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting human pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, M; Brina, M; Spada, A; Giannattasio, G

    1989-11-01

    A morphological study has been carried out on 20 GH-secreting adenomas removed from acromegalic normoprolactinemic patients, on 29 PRL-secreting adenomas removed from hyperprolactinemic patients without signs of acromegaly and on one normal human anterior pituitary gland collected at autopsy. The protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopic technique has been utilized in order to verify the presence of mixed cells producing both GH and PRL (somatomammotrophs) in these pituitary tissues. In the normal pituitary a considerable number of somatomammotrophs (15-20%) was found, thus supporting the idea that these cells are normal components of the human anterior pituitary gland. In 10 GH-secreting adenomas and in 10 PRL-secreting adenomas somatomammotrophs were present in a variable number (from 4 to 20% of the whole cell population in GH adenomas and from 1 to 47% in PRL tumors). It can be concluded therefore that these cells, largely present in all GH/PRL-secreting adenomas, can also be found in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting tumors without clinical evidence of a mixed secretion. Adenomatous somatomammotrophs displayed ultrastructural features of adenomatous somatotrophs and mammotrophs (prominent Golgi complexes, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, irregular nuclei). The size and the number of granules were variable. In some cells GH and PRL were stored in distinct secretory granules, in others in mixed granules or both in mixed and distinct granules, thus suggesting that in adenomatous somatomammotrophs the efficiency of the mechanisms of sorting of the two hormones varies from one cell to another.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Involvement of type VI secretion system in secretion of iron chelator pyoverdine in Pseudomonas taiwanensis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Jen; Kuo, Tzu-Yen; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Chen, Pi-Yu; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Shih, Yu-Ling; Lai, Ying-Mi; Liu, Je-Ruei; Yang, Yu-Liang; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-01-01

    Rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. Therefore, in addition to breeding disease-resistant rice cultivars, it is desirable to develop effective biocontrol agents against Xoo. Here, we report that a soil bacterium Pseudomonas taiwanensis displayed strong antagonistic activity against Xoo. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry, we identified an iron chelator, pyoverdine, secreted by P. taiwanensis that could inhibit the growth of Xoo. Through Tn5 mutagenesis of P. taiwanensis, we showed that mutations in genes that encode components of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) as well as biosynthesis and maturation of pyoverdine resulted in reduced toxicity against Xoo. Our results indicated that T6SS is involved in the secretion of endogenous pyoverdine. Mutations in T6SS component genes affected the secretion of mature pyoverdine from the periplasmic space into the extracellular medium after pyoverdine precursor is transferred to the periplasm by the inner membrane transporter PvdE. In addition, we also showed that other export systems, i.e., the PvdRT-OpmQ and MexAB-OprM efflux systems (for which there have been previous suggestions of involvement) and the type II secretion system (T2SS), are not involved in pyoverdine secretion. PMID:27605490

  8. Sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that hormone secretion from endocrine glands is regulated by hierarchical feedback mechanisms. However, although Cannon revealed in the 1920s that sympathoadrenal medullary function increased during emergency situations, no studies on the autonomic nervous regulation of hormone secretion have been undertaken for many years. In the past 40 years, the autonomic nervous regulation of insulin secretion from the pancreas, gastrin secretion from the stomach, glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex, etc., has been demonstrated. Estradiol secretion from the ovary is strongly controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and its possible regulation by autonomic nerves has been largely unnoticed. Some histological studies have revealed rich adrenergic sympathetic innervation in the ovary. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the activation of the sympathetic nerves to the ovary directly reduces estradiol secretion from the ovary. This article reviews physiological and morphological studies, primarily in rats, on the sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary.

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatt, Peter R.; Bailey, Clifford J.

    1991-01-01

    Information and current ideas on the factors regulating insulin secretion, the mechanisms underlying the secretion and biological actions of insulin, and the main characteristics of diabetes mellitus are presented. (Author)

  10. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Sang-Jik; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Yeam, Inhwa; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  11. Regulation of renal potassium secretion: molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Welling, Paul A

    2013-05-01

    A new understanding of renal potassium balance has emerged as the molecular underpinnings of potassium secretion have become illuminated, highlighting the key roles of apical potassium channels, renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK) and Big Potassium (BK), in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron and collecting duct. These channels act as the final-regulated components of the renal potassium secretory machinery. Their activity, number, and driving forces are precisely modulated to ensure potassium excretion matches dietary potassium intake. Recent identification of the underlying regulatory mechanisms at the molecular level provides a new appreciation of the physiology and reveals a molecular insight to explain the paradoxic actions of aldosterone on potassium secretion. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in the field.

  12. The secretion, components, and properties of saliva.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Guy H

    2013-01-01

    Saliva has one of the most difficult roles to perform in the body. It must facilitate the taste and detection of foods nutritious to the body but also defend the mucosa from infection by the ever-present microbiota present in the mouth. It achieves these roles by having a complex composition and versatile physical properties. The protein and ion components make a solution that is 99% water into a viscoelastic solution capable of many roles, such as acting as a lubricant and an antimicrobial, preventing the dissolution of teeth, aiding digestion, and facilitating taste. This review describes the neural regulation of salivary secretion in terms of fluid, protein, and ion secretion. It then describes some of the components and physical properties of saliva and attempts to relate them to the functions that saliva must perform.

  13. Pituitary tumours: TSH-secreting adenomas.

    PubMed

    Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Persani, Luca; Mannavola, Deborah; Campi, Irene

    2009-10-01

    Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism and account for less than 2% of all pituitary adenomas. In the last years, the diagnosis has been facilitated by the routine use of ultra-sensitive TSH immunometric assays. Failure to recognise the presence of a TSHoma may result in dramatic consequences, such as improper thyroid ablation that may cause the pituitary tumour volume to further expand. The diagnosis mainly rests on dynamic testing, such as T3 suppression tests and TRH, which are useful in differentiating TSHomas from the syndromes of thyroid hormone resistance. The first therapeutical approach to TSHomas is the pituitary neurosurgery. The medical treatment of TSHomas mainly rests on the administration of somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide and lanreotide, which are effective in reducing TSH secretion in more than 90% of patients with consequent normalisation of FT4 and FT3 levels and restoration of the euthyroid state.

  14. Management of oral secretions in neurological disease.

    PubMed

    McGeachan, Alexander J; Mcdermott, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Sialorrhoea is a common and problematic symptom that arises from a range of neurological conditions associated with bulbar or facial muscle dysfunction. Drooling can significantly affect quality of life due to both physical complications such as oral chapping, and psychological complications such as embarrassment and social isolation. Thicker, tenacious oral and pharyngeal secretions may result from the drying management approach to sialorrhoea. The management of sialorrhoea in neurological diseases depends on the underlying pathology and severity of symptoms. Interventions include anticholinergic drugs, salivary gland-targeted radiotherapy, salivary gland botulinum toxin and surgical approaches. The management of thick secretions involves mainly conservative measures such as pineapple juice as a lytic agent, cough assist, saline nebulisers and suctioning or mucolytic drugs like carbocisteine. Despite a current lack of evidence and variable practice, management of sialorrhoea should form a part of the multidisciplinary approach needed for long-term neurological conditions.

  15. [The symbolic power of bodily secretions].

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Lise Widding

    2002-01-10

    Are ethical and political questions discussed more in aesthetic than in social terms? Political debates in contemporary art are often expressed through the use of symbolic power structures that are related to bodily secretions and products. By visualizing the less delicate parts of the organic body, contemporary artists focus on the vulnerability of the human body and its illness and pain. If human suffering is aestheticized: is this a question of form or a question of creating a cultural cover-up? Bodily secretions are associated with a range of complex social and cultural meanings and symbols. Metaphors related to body products may function as markers of ethnic, religious, social and sexual differences. In postmodern cultural criticism, the symbolic power of body metaphors is of great importance.

  16. A switchable yeast display/secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Van Deventer, James A.; Kelly, Ryan L.; Rajan, Saravanan; Wittrup, K. Dane; Sidhu, Sachdev S.

    2015-01-01

    Display technologies such as yeast and phage display offer powerful alternatives to traditional immunization-based antibody discovery, but require conversion of displayed proteins into soluble form prior to downstream characterization. Here we utilize amber suppression to implement a yeast-based switchable display/secretion system that enables the immediate production of soluble, antibody-like reagents at the end of screening efforts. Model selections in the switchable format remain efficient, and library screening in the switchable format yields renewable sources of affinity reagents exhibiting nanomolar binding affinities. These results confirm that this system provides a seamless link between display-based screening and the production and evaluation of soluble forms of candidate binding proteins. Switchable display/secretion libraries provide a cloning-free, accessible approach to affinity reagent generation. PMID:26333274

  17. A switchable yeast display/secretion system.

    PubMed

    Van Deventer, James A; Kelly, Ryan L; Rajan, Saravanan; Wittrup, K Dane; Sidhu, Sachdev S

    2015-10-01

    Display technologies such as yeast and phage display offer powerful alternatives to traditional immunization-based antibody discovery, but require conversion of displayed proteins into soluble form prior to downstream characterization. Here we utilize amber suppression to implement a yeast-based switchable display/secretion system that enables the immediate production of soluble, antibody-like reagents at the end of screening efforts. Model selections in the switchable format remain efficient, and library screening in the switchable format yields renewable sources of affinity reagents exhibiting nanomolar binding affinities. These results confirm that this system provides a seamless link between display-based screening and the production and evaluation of soluble forms of candidate binding proteins. Switchable display/secretion libraries provide a cloning-free, accessible approach to affinity reagent generation.

  18. Milk protein concentrations in galactorrhoeic mammary secretions.

    PubMed

    Yap, P L; Pryde, E A; McClelland, D B

    1980-02-01

    Milk protein concentrations were determined either by double antibody radioimmunoassay (IgA) or single radial immunodiffusion (IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme and albumin) in the mammayr secretions of one nulliparous and three parous female patients with galactorrhoea due to hyperprolactinaemia. Concentrations of all the proteins studied were found to be similar to the concentrations observed in post-partum colostrum. In particular, secretory IgA was the only form of IgA detected in galactorrhoeic secretions. It is suggested that hyperprolactinaemia alone can result in increased mammary synthesis of the milk proteins since the steroid changes associated with a full-term pregnancy and delivery of the placenta did not immediately precede the galactorrhoea in three of the four patients studied.

  19. Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, M.; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.; Arco, L.; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N.

    2014-09-01

    Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation.

  20. 40 CFR 209.23 - Trade secrets and privileged information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trade secrets and privileged... administrative law judge shall preserve the confidentiality of trade secrets and other privileged commercial and financial information. The confidential or trade secret status of any information shall not,...

  1. Trade secrets in life science and pharmaceutical companies.

    PubMed

    Nealey, Tara; Daignault, Ronald M; Cai, Yu

    2014-11-20

    Trade secret protection arises under state common law and state statutes. In general, a trade secret is information that is not generally known to the public and is maintained as a secret, and it provides a competitive advantage or economic benefit to the trade secret holder. Trade secrets can be worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollars, and damage awards in trade secret litigation have been high; often, there is a lot at stake. Obtaining a trade secret through "improper means" is misappropriation. If the alleged trade secret, however, was developed independently, known publicly, or not maintained as a secret, then those defenses may successfully overcome a claim for trade secret misappropriation. With today's interconnectedness in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields, more collaborations, joint ventures, and outsourcing arrangements among firms, and increased mobility of employees' careers, life science companies need to not only understand how to protect their trade secrets, but also know how to defend against a claim for trade secret theft.

  2. 40 CFR 209.23 - Trade secrets and privileged information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trade secrets and privileged... administrative law judge shall preserve the confidentiality of trade secrets and other privileged commercial and financial information. The confidential or trade secret status of any information shall not,...

  3. 40 CFR 209.23 - Trade secrets and privileged information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Trade secrets and privileged... administrative law judge shall preserve the confidentiality of trade secrets and other privileged commercial and financial information. The confidential or trade secret status of any information shall not,...

  4. 40 CFR 209.23 - Trade secrets and privileged information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trade secrets and privileged... administrative law judge shall preserve the confidentiality of trade secrets and other privileged commercial and financial information. The confidential or trade secret status of any information shall not,...

  5. 40 CFR 209.23 - Trade secrets and privileged information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trade secrets and privileged... administrative law judge shall preserve the confidentiality of trade secrets and other privileged commercial and financial information. The confidential or trade secret status of any information shall not,...

  6. Preventing Prostate Cancer Metastasis by Targeting Exosome Secretion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Exosome Secretion PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christine Vogel CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: New York University, New York, NY 10012...30 Sep 2013 - 29 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Preventing Prostate Cancer Metastasis by Targeting Exosome Secretion 5a. CONTRACT...NUMBER Preventing Prostate Cancer Metastasis by Targeting Exosome Secretion 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0467 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  7. Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions.

    PubMed

    Soler, Juan J; Martín-Vivaldi, M; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Arco, L; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N

    2014-09-01

    Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation.

  8. 10 CFR 1016.34 - Accountability for Secret Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. 1016.34 Section... Information § 1016.34 Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. Each permittee possessing documents containing Secret Restricted Data shall establish a document accountability procedure and shall...

  9. 10 CFR 1016.34 - Accountability for Secret Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. 1016.34 Section... Information § 1016.34 Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. Each permittee possessing documents containing Secret Restricted Data shall establish a document accountability procedure and shall...

  10. 10 CFR 1016.34 - Accountability for Secret Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. 1016.34 Section... Information § 1016.34 Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. Each permittee possessing documents containing Secret Restricted Data shall establish a document accountability procedure and shall...

  11. 10 CFR 1016.34 - Accountability for Secret Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. 1016.34 Section... Information § 1016.34 Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. Each permittee possessing documents containing Secret Restricted Data shall establish a document accountability procedure and shall...

  12. 10 CFR 1016.34 - Accountability for Secret Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. 1016.34 Section... Information § 1016.34 Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. Each permittee possessing documents containing Secret Restricted Data shall establish a document accountability procedure and shall...

  13. Effect of diazepam on unstimulated and on stimulated gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Bennett, P N; Davies, P; Frigo, G M; Weerasinghe, W M; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1975-01-01

    The effect of intravenous diazepam on unstimulated and on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric secretion has been studied in normal subjects. No significant effect of diazapam was found on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric secretion. Unstimulated secretion was reduced by diazepam. This action of diazepam may be useful in peptic ulcer therapy.

  14. Information Theoretic Secret Key Generation: Structured Codes and Tree Packing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitinawarat, Sirin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation deals with a multiterminal source model for secret key generation by multiple network terminals with prior and privileged access to a set of correlated signals complemented by public discussion among themselves. Emphasis is placed on a characterization of secret key capacity, i.e., the largest rate of an achievable secret key,…

  15. Trade Secrets in Life Science and Pharmaceutical Companies

    PubMed Central

    Nealey, Tara; Daignault, Ronald M.; Cai, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Trade secret protection arises under state common law and state statutes. In general, a trade secret is information that is not generally known to the public and is maintained as a secret, and it provides a competitive advantage or economic benefit to the trade secret holder. Trade secrets can be worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollars, and damage awards in trade secret litigation have been high; often, there is a lot at stake. Obtaining a trade secret through “improper means” is misappropriation. If the alleged trade secret, however, was developed independently, known publicly, or not maintained as a secret, then those defenses may successfully overcome a claim for trade secret misappropriation. With today’s interconnectedness in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields, more collaborations, joint ventures, and outsourcing arrangements among firms, and increased mobility of employees’ careers, life science companies need to not only understand how to protect their trade secrets, but also know how to defend against a claim for trade secret theft. PMID:25414378

  16. America's Secret Educational Weapon: Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, C. Peter

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. has a powerful weapon in its educational arsenal: its community colleges. Yet these institutions, according to the author, are so often overlooked in discussions of the future of U.S. society and the U.S. work force that they might as well be deemed "top secret." More than 1,200 community colleges enroll some 47% of all undergraduates.…

  17. Secret Sharing Schemes and Advanced Encryption Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    without the selfless support and sacrifice of my wife, Sharon, who took the time to nurture our two children, Rianne and Rayden, during this one-year...polynomial to either a non-linear, or a monic polynomial form. Opportunities for future work of this nature are discussed in Chapter 6. Therefore, it...introduced variables that are protected by any secret sharing scheme cannot be solved using any algebraic transformation that is linear in nature , since

  18. Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria Prophylaxis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    based vaccines secreting heat shock protein gp96-Ig (for short from here on: gp96) are safe for use in humans and represent the most efficient ... efficiently taken up and cross presented by activated DC via MHC I to CD8 CTL, thereby stimulating an avid, antigen specific, cytotoxic T cell response . This...gp96 delivered subcutaneously , induces very strong antigen specific immune response systemically as well as liver-infiltrating effector CD8 + T cells

  19. Validation of the secretion severity rating scale.

    PubMed

    Pluschinski, Petra; Zaretsky, Eugen; Stöver, Timo; Murray, Joseph; Sader, Robert; Hey, Christiane

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of secretions within the hypopharynx, aditus laryngis, and trachea is one characteristic of severe dysphagia and is of high clinical and therapeutic relevance. For the graduation of the secretion severity level, a secretion scale was provided by Murray et al. in 1996. The purpose of the study presented here is the validation of this scale by analyzing the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability as well as concurrent validity. For examination of reliability and validity, a reference standard was defined by two expert clinicians who reviewed 40 video recordings of fiberendoscopic swallowing evaluations, with 10 videos for each severity grade. These videos were rated and rerated independently and blinded by 4 ENT-residents with an interval of 4 weeks. Both the intra-rater (Kendall's τ > 0.847***) and inter-rater reliability (Kendall's W > 0.951***) were highly significant and can be considered good or very good. Correlation of the median of all ratings with the reference standard was close to the highest possible value 1 (τ = 0.984***). The scale was proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for graduation of one of the principal symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia and is recommended as an evidence-based instrument for standardized fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.

  20. Cell-secreted signals shape lymphoma identity.

    PubMed

    Gloghini, Annunziata; Bongarzone, Italia

    2015-10-01

    Sequencing data show that both specific genes and a number of signaling pathways are recurrently mutated in various types of lymphoma. DNA sequencing analyses of lymphoma have identified several aberrations that might affect the interaction between malignant cells and the tumor microenvironment. Microenvironmental functions are essential to lymphoma; they provide survival and proliferation signals and license immune evasion. It is plausible that interventions that aim to destroy tumor-microenvironment interactions may improve responses to therapeutics. Accordingly, the identification of extrinsic factors and their downstream intracellular signaling targets has led to much progress in understanding tumor-microenvironment interactions. Lymphoma cells are differently influenced by cells' interactions with components of their microenvironment; these cell extrinsic factors include soluble and immobilized factors, the extracellular matrix, and signals presented by neighboring cells. Soluble factors, which are often cell-secreted autocrine and paracrine factors, comprise a significant fraction of targetable molecules. To begin to understand how intercellular communication is conducted in lymphoma, a first order of study is deciphering the soluble factors secreted by malignant cells and microenvironmental cells. These soluble factors are shed into the interstitial fluid in lymphoma and can be conveniently explored using mass spectrometry. Protein components can be detected and quantified, thus enabling the routine navigation of the soluble part of the microenvironment. Elucidating functional and signaling states affords a new paradigm for understanding cancer biology and devising new therapies. This review summarizes knowledge in this field and discusses the utility of studying tumor-secreted factors.

  1. A Trade Secret Model for Genomic Biobanking

    PubMed Central

    Conley, John M.; Kenan, William Rand; Mitchell, Robert; Cadigan, R. Jean; Davis, Arlene M.; Dobson, Allison W.; Gladden, Ryan Q.

    2012-01-01

    Genomic biobanks present ethical challenges that are qualitatively unique and quantitatively unprecedented. Many critics have questioned whether the current system of informed consent can be meaningfully applied to genomic biobanking. Proposals for reform have come from many directions, but have tended to involve incremental change in current informed consent practice. This paper reports on our efforts to seek new ideas and approaches from those whom informed consent is designed to protect: research subjects. Our model emerged from semi-structured interviews with healthy volunteers who had been recruited to join either of two biobanks (some joined, some did not), and whom we encouraged to explain their concerns and how they understood the relationship between specimen contributors and biobanks. These subjects spoke about their DNA and the information it contains in ways that were strikingly evocative of the legal concept of the trade secret. They then described the terms and conditions under which they might let others study their DNA, and there was a compelling analogy to the commonplace practice of trade secret licensing. We propose a novel biobanking model based on this trade secret concept, and argue that it would be a practical, legal, and ethical improvement on the status quo. PMID:23061589

  2. A trade secret model for genomic biobanking.

    PubMed

    Conley, John M; Mitchell, Robert; Cadigan, R Jean; Davis, Arlene M; Dobson, Allison W; Gladden, Ryan Q

    2012-01-01

    Genomic biobanks present ethical challenges that are qualitatively unique and quantitatively unprecedented. Many critics have questioned whether the current system of informed consent can be meaningfully applied to genomic biobanking. Proposals for reform have come from many directions, but have tended to involve incremental change in current informed consent practice. This paper reports on our efforts to seek new ideas and approaches from those whom informed consent is designed to protect: research subjects. Our model emerged from semi-structured interviews with healthy volunteers who had been recruited to join either of two biobanks (some joined, some did not), and whom we encouraged to explain their concerns and how they understood the relationship between specimen contributors and biobanks. These subjects spoke about their DNA and the information it contains in ways that were strikingly evocative of the legal concept of the trade secret. They then described the terms and conditions under which they might let others study their DNA, and there was a compelling analogy to the commonplace practice of trade secret licensing. We propose a novel biobanking model based on this trade secret concept, and argue that it would be a practical, legal, and ethical improvement on the status quo.

  3. Secret Sharing of a Quantum State.

    PubMed

    Lu, He; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Chang; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-07-15

    Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share a certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality: with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists: the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here, by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which shows that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the five-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors.

  4. [Prostaglandins, insulin secretion and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Giugliano, D; Torella, R; Scheen, A J; Lefebvre, P J; D'Onofrio, F

    1988-12-01

    The islets of Langerhans have the enzymatic equipment permitting the synthesis of the metabolites of arachidonic acid: cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase. Numerous studies have shown that cyclo-oxygenase derivatives, mainly PGE2, reduce the insulin response to glucose whereas lipo-oxygenase derivatives, mainly 15-HPETE, stimulate insulin secretion. So, for instance, drugs that increase prostaglandins synthesis as colchicine or furosemide inhibit insulin secretion while non steroid anti-inflammator drugs, mainly salicylates, which inhibit cyclo-oxygenase, enhance the insulin response to various stimuli. In type-2 (non insulin-dependent) diabetes, an increased sensitivity to endogenous prostaglandins has been proposed as a possible cause for the insulin secretion defect which characterizes this disease. Play in favor of this hypothesis the fact that the administration of PGE inhibits the insulin response to arginine in type-2 diabetics but not in normal subject and the fact that the administration of salicylates could improve the insulin response to glucose in some of these patients.

  5. Secret Sharing of a Quantum State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, He; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Chang; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share a certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality: with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists: the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here, by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which shows that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the five-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors.

  6. Adopting Frank Warren's PostSecret Art Project to Illustrate the Role of Secrets in Interpersonal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxman, Christina G.

    2013-01-01

    The exploration of secrets summons the adage that ''what someone doesn't know won't hurt them.'' While this phrase implies that keeping secrets can be advantageous, it also foreshadows another consideration: secrets have the propensity to hurt others (Caughlin, Scott, Miller, & Hefner, 2009). Despite this, the act…

  7. Distinct Action of Flavonoids, Myricetin and Quercetin, on Epithelial Cl− Secretion: Useful Tools as Regulators of Cl− Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongxin; Niisato, Naomi; Nishio, Kyosuke; Hamilton, Kirk L.; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial Cl− secretion plays important roles in water secretion preventing bacterial/viral infection and regulation of body fluid. We previously suggested that quercetin would be a useful compound for maintaining epithelial Cl− secretion at a moderate level irrespective of cAMP-induced stimulation. However, we need a compound that stimulates epithelial Cl− secretion even under cAMP-stimulated conditions, since in some cases epithelial Cl− secretion is not large enough even under cAMP-stimulated conditions. We demonstrated that quercetin and myricetin, flavonoids, stimulated epithelial Cl− secretion under basal conditions in epithelial A6 cells. We used forskolin, which activates adenylyl cyclase increasing cytosolic cAMP concentrations, to study the effects of quercetin and myricetin on cAMP-stimulated epithelial Cl− secretion. In the presence of forskolin, quercetin diminished epithelial Cl− secretion to a level similar to that with quercetin alone without forskolin. Conversely, myricetin further stimulated epithelial Cl− secretion even under forskolin-stimulated conditions. This suggests that the action of myricetin is via a cAMP-independent pathway. Therefore, myricetin may be a potentially useful compound to increase epithelial Cl− secretion under cAMP-stimulated conditions. In conclusion, myricetin would be a useful compound for prevention from bacterial/viral infection even under conditions that the amount of water secretion driven by cAMP-stimulated epithelial Cl− secretion is insufficient. PMID:24818160

  8. Verifiable Quantum ( k, n)-threshold Secret Key Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Teng, Yi-Wei; Chai, Hai-Ping; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2011-03-01

    Based on Lagrange interpolation formula and the post-verification mechanism, we show how to construct a verifiable quantum ( k, n) threshold secret key sharing scheme. Compared with the previous secret sharing protocols, ours has the merits: (i) it can resist the fraud of the dealer who generates and distributes fake shares among the participants during the secret distribution phase; Most importantly, (ii) It can check the cheating of the dishonest participant who provides a false share during the secret reconstruction phase such that the authorized group cannot recover the correct secret.

  9. In vivo quantification of the secretion rates of the hemolysin A Type I secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Lenders, Michael H. H.; Beer, Tobias; Smits, Sander H. J.; Schmitt, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 secretion systems (T1SS) of Gram-negative bacteria secrete a broad range of substrates into the extracellular space. Common to all substrates is a C-terminal secretion sequence and nonapeptide repeats in the C-terminal part that bind Ca2+ in the extracellular space, to trigger protein folding. Like all T1SS, the hemolysin A (HlyA) T1SS of Escherichia coli consists of an ABC transporter, a membrane fusion protein and an outer membrane protein allowing the one step translocation of the substrate across both membranes. Here, we analyzed the secretion rate of the HlyA T1SS. Our results demonstrate that the rate is independent of substrate-size and operates at a speed of approximately 16 amino acids per transporter per second. We also demonstrate that the rate is independent of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration raising the question of the driving force of substrate secretion by T1SS in general. PMID:27616645

  10. Immature ovarian teratoma with hyponatremia and low serum vasopressin level.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuki; Takei, Yuji; Saga, Yasushi; Machida, Shizuo; Takahashi, Yoshifumi; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Hyponatremia is often caused by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Hypersecretion of vasopressin from malignant tumors can be considered a cause of SIADH. Most of these ectopic productions of vasopressin are complications of small cell lung cancer. Cases concomitant with ovarian tumors are very rare, and a specific causative substance from the ovary is often unknown. A 16-year-old woman was diagnosed with an ovarian tumor. She developed hyponatremia that was resistant to medical treatment, but immediately improved after surgical resection of the tumor. Her diagnosis was SIADH caused by an ovarian tumor; however, her serum vasopressin level was normal. It is possible that a vasopressin-like substance causing SIADH was secreted by either nervous system tissue within an immature teratoma or small cell lung cancer. We should be cautious when SIADH is a complication of an ovarian tumor.

  11. Mechanisms of bicarbonate secretion: lessons from the airways.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Robert J

    2012-08-01

    Early studies showed that airway cells secrete HCO(3)(-) in response to cAMP-mediated agonists and HCO(3)(-) secretion was impaired in cystic fibrosis (CF). Studies with Calu-3 cells, an airway serous model with high expression of CFTR, also show the secretion of HCO(3)(-) when cells are stimulated with cAMP-mediated agonists. Activation of basolateral membrane hIK-1 K(+) channels inhibits HCO(3)(-) secretion and stimulates Cl(-) secretion. CFTR mediates the exit of both HCO(3)(-) and Cl(-) across the apical membrane. Entry of HCO(3)(-) on a basolateral membrane NBC or Cl(-) on the NKCC determines which anion is secreted. Switching between these two secreted anions is determined by the activity of hIK-1 K(+) channels.

  12. [Secret remedies in France until abolition in 1926].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Secret remedies are preparations or medicines whose composition is not disclosed by the inventor in order to protect his invention or to deceive the public. Secret remedies have always existed. From time immemorial the communities of apothecaries in Paris or in the provinces were opposed to quack doctors or healers who sold inactive mixtures. The 1352 Royal Edict forbade preparations of secret remedies. However, in the 17th century secret remedies were authorized through commission letters or warrants. In the 18th century regulations were implemented to control secret trade. The famous 11 April 1803 Law called the Germinal Law banned the sale of secret remedies but its severity was softened through successive decrees based on divergent interpretations of the regulations. The final banning of secret remedies was pronounced by a decree on 13 July 1926.

  13. Mechanisms and regulation of neurotrophin synthesis and secretion.

    PubMed

    Al-Qudah, Mohammad A; Al-Dwairi, Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Neurotrophins are secreted proteins that are synthesized as pre-pro-neurotrophins on the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which are subsequently processed and then secreted as mature proteins. During synthesis, neurotrophins are sorted in the trans-Golgi apparatus into 2 pathways of secretion; the constitutive and the regulated pathways. Neurotrophins in the constitutive pathway are secreted cautiously without any trigger, while in the regulated pathway of secretion an external stimulus elevates the calcium concentration intracellularly leading to neurotrophin release. The regulation of sorting and secretion of neurotrophins is critical for several processes in the body, such as synaptic plasticity, neurodegenerative disorders, demyelination disease, and inflammation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current mechanisms of neurotrophin sorting and secretion.

  14. The semantics of secrecy: young children's classification of secret content.

    PubMed

    Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J; Bourchier-Sutton, Alison J

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored whether young children can distinguish potential secrets from nonsecrets by their content, as can older children, adolescents, and adults. Ninety children, 4, 5, and 6 years old, rated the secrecy of items from an adult-validated list of personal information about an age- and gender-appropriate puppet. Two factors of the children's data corresponded to the adult categories of nonsecrets and secrets, and a third factor corresponded to surprises. All ages rated surprises as significantly more secret than nonsecret items; however, the surprise items contained linguistic cues to secrecy. A tendency to rate nonsecrets as secret decreased with age, but only the 6-year-olds rated secrets other than surprises as significantly more secret than nonsecrets. Thus, children acquire the implicit rules defining secret content from a somewhat later age than that reported for the cognitive or behavioral capacities for secrecy.

  15. Two-party secret key distribution via a modified quantum secret sharing protocol.

    PubMed

    Grice, W P; Evans, P G; Lawrie, B; Legré, M; Lougovski, P; Ray, W; Williams, B P; Qi, B; Smith, A M

    2015-03-23

    We present and demonstrate a novel protocol for distributing secret keys between two and only two parties based on N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS). We demonstrate our new protocol with N = 3 parties using phase-encoded photons. We show that any two out of N parties can build a secret key based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N - 2 parties. Our implementation allows for an accessible transition between N-party QSS and arbitrary two party QKD without modification of hardware. In addition, our approach significantly reduces the number of resources such as single photon detectors, lasers and dark fiber connections needed to implement QKD.

  16. Long-term outcomes of surgery and radiotherapy for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, El

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate treatment outcome and long term complication after surgery and radiotherapy (RT) for pituitary adenoma. Materials and Methods: From 1990 to 2009, 73 patients with surgery and RT for pituitary adenoma were analyzed in this study. Median age was 51 years (range, 25 to 71 years). Median tumor size was 3 cm (range, 1 to 5 cm) with suprasellar (n = 21), cavernous sinus extension (n = 14) or both (n = 5). Hormone secreting tumor was diagnosed in 29 patients; 16 patients with prolactin, 12 patients with growth hormone, and 1 patient with adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Impairment of visual acuity or visual field was presented in 33 patients at first diagnosis. Most patients (n = 64) received RT as postoperative adjuvant setting. Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 45 to 59.4 Gy). Results: Median follow-up duration was 8 years (range, 3 to 22 years). In secreting tumors, hormone normalization rate was 55% (16 of 29 patients). For 25 patients with evaluable visual field and visual acuity test, 21 patients (84%) showed improvement of visual disturbance after treatment. The 10-year tumor control rate for non-secreting and secreting adenoma was 100% and 58%, respectively (p < 0.001). Progression free survival rate at 10 years was 98%. Only 1 patient experienced endocrinological recurrence. Following surgery, 60% (n = 44) suffered from pituitary function deficit. Late complication associated with RT was only 1 patient, who developed cataract. Conclusion: Surgery and RT are very effective and safe in hormonal and tumor growth control for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma. PMID:27306775

  17. Will They or Won't They? Secret Telling in Interpersonal Interactions.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Robin Marie; Morgan, Chad Alan; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Zaremba, Brittany; Frazee, Laura; Dean, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of within-gender secret telling. Eighty-eight participants were exposed to either a "positive" or a "negative" secret about another individual. Just under 20% of participants told the secret. Conscientiousness, secret condition, empathy, and the conscientiousness by secret condition interaction had effects on the rate of secret telling, χ(2) (5,82) = 17.78, p = .003, AIC = 80.60. Conscientiousness had a negative effect on secret telling among participants that told the "negative" secret.

  18. Secret Objective Standoff: International Safeguards Educational Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Okowita, Samantha L

    2014-01-01

    The International Safeguards Regime, being so multi-faceted, can be overwhelming to those first introduced to its many components. The organizers and lecturers of workshops and courses on nonproliferation often provide a series of independent lectures and must somehow demonstrate the cohesive and effective nature of the system. An exercise titled The Secret Objective Standoff was developed to complement lectures with hands-on learning to assist participants in bringing all the many components (IAEA agreements, export controls, treaty obligations, international diplomacy, etc.) of the International Safeguards Regime together. This exercise divides participants into teams that are assigned the role of either a country or the IAEA and asks that they fully immerse themselves in their roles. The teams are then randomly assigned three unique and secret objectives that are intended to represent realistic and current geopolitical scenarios. Through construction, trading, or hoarding of four resources (experts, technology, money, and uranium), the teams have a finite number of turns to accomplish their objectives. Each turn has three phases random dispersal of resources, a timed discussion where teams can coordinate and strategize with others, and an action phase. During the action phase, teams inform the moderator individually and secretly what they will be doing that turn. The exercise has been tested twice with Oak Ridge National Laboratory personnel, and has been conducted with outside participants twice, in each case the experience was well received by both participants and instructors. This exercise provides instructors the ability to modify the exercise before or during game play to best fit their educational goals. By offering a range of experiences, from an in-depth look at specific components to a generalized overview, this exercise is an effective tool in helping participants achieve a full understanding the International Safeguards Regime.

  19. Adrenergic and cromolyn sodium modulation of ECL cell histamine secretion.

    PubMed

    Lawton, G P; Tang, L H; Miu, K; Gilligan, C J; Absood, A; Modlin, I M

    1995-01-01

    The histamine secreting enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell is now recognized as the principal regulator of gastric acid secretion. Histamine is not only a primary modulator of acid secretion, but may be of relevance in gastritis and as a mitogen in gastric neoplasia. Study of the ECL cell has been limited since no pure preparation was available. We therefore developed a pure isolated ECL cell preparation with a purity of 90-95% as determined by total histamine content and chromogranin immunofluorescence. Trypan blue exclusion demonstrated > 95% viability. While gastrin and acetylcholine are known modulators of acid secretion, the role of adrenergic neurotransmitters has not been clearly delineated. The purpose of this study was to examine adrenergic modulation of ECL cell histamine release. To further define the inhibitory mechanisms of histamine secretion, we evaluated the mast cell histamine inhibitor sodium cromoglycate. Histamine secretion was determined by radioimmunoassay. Basal secretion was 0.6 +/- 0.2 nmol/10(3) cells. Gastrin stimulated histamine secretion with an EC50 of 3 x 10(-10) M. Octopamine (alpha-adrenergic agonist) (10(-11)-10(-4) M) failed to stimulate histamine secretion. Isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) stimulated histamine secretion (EC50, 6 x 10(-8) M) and was inhibited by propranolol (IC50 5 x 10(-10) M).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Caractérisation de la surface du polydicyclopentadiène (Poly-DCPD) : influence du vieillissement sur le mouillage et l'adhésion de peinture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perwuelz, A.; Campagne, C.; Lam, T. M.

    1999-05-01

    This paper deals with the surface study of an industrial polydicyclopentadiene. First, the chemical structure of this polymer is presented. Then the contact angle measurements between the solid surface and various liquids are discussed. Surface energy value is 48 mJ/m2 for total energy and 3 mJ/m2 for the polar component. During ageing, surface polarity increases leading to a good paint adhesion and a great affinity for water. However, weak boundary layers formation is possible and discussed in the last part of this paper. Cet article concerne l'étude de la surface d'un polydicyclopentadiène industriel. Il débute par une brève présentation de la structure chimique de ce polymère. Les conditions de mesure de l'angle de contact de différents liquides et des tests d'adhésion sont précisées et mises au point. L'énergie de surface est de l'ordre de 48 mJ/m2 et comporte une faible composante polaire (3 mJ/m^2). Au cours du vieillissement, la polarité de surface augmente ce qui est à l'origine de la bonne adhésion des peintures et d'une grande affinité pour l'eau. Cependant dans certaines conditions il peut y avoir formation de couches de faible cohésion défavorable à l'accrochage.

  1. Trade Secret Law and Information Systems: Can Your Students Keep a Secret?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Lorrie; Ford, Janet C.; White, Barbara Jo; Clapper, Danial L.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of intellectual property (IP) law on information systems (IS) professionals in business cannot be overstated. The IS 2010 model curriculum guidelines for undergraduate IS programs stress the importance of information security and knowledge about IP. While copyright and patents are the most well-known types of IP, another, trade secrets,…

  2. The Versatile Type VI Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Alteri, Christopher J.; Mobley, Harry L.T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bacterial Type VI Secretion Systems (T6SS) function as contractile nanomachines to puncture target cells and deliver lethal effectors. In the ten years since the discovery of the T6SS, much has been learned about the structure and function of this versatile protein secretion apparatus. Most of the conserved protein components that comprise the T6SS apparatus itself have been identified and ascribed specific functions. In addition, numerous effector proteins that are translocated by the T6SS have been identified and characterized. These protein effectors usually represent toxic cargoes that are delivered by the attacker cell to a target cell. The field is beginning to better understand the lifestyle or physiology that dictates when bacteria normally express their T6SS. In this Chapter, we consider what is known about the structure and regulation of the T6SS, the numerous classes of antibacterial effector T6SS substrates, and how the action of the T6SS relates to a given lifestyle or behavior in certain bacteria. PMID:27227310

  3. Secretion of clostridium cellulase by E. coli

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Ida Kuo

    1998-01-01

    A gene, encoding an endocellulase from a newly isolated mesophilic Clostridium strain IY-2 which can digest bamboo fibers, cellulose, rice straw, and sawdust, was isolated by shotgun cloning in an E. coli expression plasmid pLC2833. E. coli positive clones were selected based on their ability to hydrolyze milled bamboo fibers and cellulose present in agar plates. One clone contained a 2.8 kb DNA fragment that was responsible for cellulase activity. Western blot analyses indicated that the positive clone produced a secreted cellulase with a mass of about 58,000 daltons that was identical in size to the subunit of one of the three major Clostridium cellulases. The products of cellulose digestion by this cloned cellulase were cellotetraose and soluble higher polymers. The cloned DNA contained signal sequences capable of directing the secretion of heterologous proteins from an E. coli host. The invention describes a bioprocess for the treatment of cellulosic plant materials to produce cellular growth substrates and fermentation end products suitable for production of liquid fuels, solvents, and acids.

  4. Dopamine-Secreting Paraganglioma in the Retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yusuke; Kimura, Noriko; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Sekiguchi, Yoshihiro; Tomoishi, Junzo; Kasahara, Ichiro; Hara, Yoshihito; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-03-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, which exclusively produce dopamine, are very rare. Herein, we report for the first time a Japanese case of an exclusively dopamine-producing paraganglioma accompanied by detailed immunohistochemical analyses. A 70-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital for functional examination of her left retroperitoneal mass. Her adrenal functions were normal, except for excessive dopamine secretion. After the tumorectomy, her dopamine level normalized. The histopathological diagnosis of the tumor was paraganglioma; this was confirmed by positive immunostaining of chromogranin A (CgA), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), and succinate dehydrogenase gene subunit B (SDHB). However, the immunostaining of CgA in the tumor cells showed peculiar dot-like staining located corresponding to Golgi complex in the perinuclear area, rather than the diffuse cytoplasmic staining usually observed in epinephrine- or norepinephrine-producing functional pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. The immunohistochemical results suggested that the tumor cells had sparse neuroendocrine granules in the cytoplasm, resulting in inhibition of catecholamine synthesis from dopamine to norepinephrine in neurosecretory granules. This may be the mechanism responsible for exclusive dopamine secretion in the present case.

  5. Managing prolactin-secreting adenomas during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Syed Ali; Ur, Ehud; Clarke, David B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine an appropriate approach to managing prolactin-secreting adenomas of varying severity in pregnant women. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE was searched using the key words “hyperprolactinemia,” “prolactinoma,” “pregnancy,” and “management.” Experience from a multidisciplinary tertiary care centre was also reviewed. Recommendations are based on mostly levels II and III evidence. MAIN MESSAGE With appropriate management, most women with hyperprolactinemia can achieve pregnancy. Although most women with prolactin-secreting adenomas during pregnancy need only careful observation, others might require medical treatment or even surgical evacuation. Ideally, such patients should be managed by multidisciplinary teams. In the absence of such teams, most pregnant women with small tumours can be managed safely by their primary physicians. Those with large tumours should be referred to specialists. CONCLUSION Family physicians play an important role in managing women with prolactinomas during pregnancy. Knowledge of current approaches to management is crucial in determining when and how to refer these patients. PMID:17872715

  6. Gastric lipase secretion in children with gastritis.

    PubMed

    Tomasik, Przemyslaw J; Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Rogatko, Iwona; Zając, Andrzej; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Sztefko, Krystyna

    2013-07-29

    Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL) in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10), the second including patients with superficial gastritis caused by pathogens other than H. pylori (non-HPG; n = 14) and the control group including healthy adolescents (n = 14). Activity of HGL was measured in gastric juice collected during endoscopy. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured in all adolescents. Activity of HGL in the non-HPG group was significantly lower than in the HPG group (p < 0.005) and the control group (p < 0.005). Mean plasma GIP levels in the control group were lower than in the non-HPG group (p < 0.003) and the HPG group (p < 0.01). We conclude that the regulation of HGL secretion by GLP-1 and CCK is altered in patients with gastritis. Moreover, GIP is a potent controller of HGL activity, both in healthy subjects and in patients with gastritis.

  7. [Thyrotropin--TSH secreting pituitary tumor].

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Grzegorz; Podgórski, Jan K; Warczyńska, Agnieszka; Koziarski, Andrzej; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2002-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing pituitary tumors represent 0.9 to 2.8% of all pituitary adenomas. They cause secondary or central hyperthyroidism. The diagnosis of these tumors has been increasing in the past 20 years. It was produced by introduction of the sensitive immunoradio-metric assay of TSH and better radiological imaging (magnetic resonance imaging). TSH--secreting pituitary adenomas are aggressive and invasive neoplasms. Most reports describe a poor outcome after pharmacological therapy, surgery and radiation therapy. Presently the diagnosis of thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumor is based on the lack of: a. inhibition of TSH levels in the presence of increased free thyroid hormones; b. response of TSH to stimulation with TRH; c. and presence of a abnormal, neoplastic(adenomatous) intrasellar or parasellar mass. Surgical excision (selective adenomectomy) by the transsphenoidal route is the first treatment. Craniotomy should be reserved for parasellar tumors with significant lateral extension. Pharmacological pretreatment with long acting somatostatin analogues is recently a standard before surgery. This medical treatment of the TSH-omas is effective in reducing TSH and free thyroid hormone plasma levels. Administration of the somatostatin analogues causing tumor mass shrinkage and changes consistency. This pretreatment is effective therapy and improves surgical outcome especially in patients harbouring macroadenomas. Radiotherapy is noncurative and produces long term complications (hypopituitarism). Authors present and discuss current cure criteria of TSH-omas with reference to their clinical experience.

  8. Identification of secreted bacterial proteins by noncanonical amino acid tagging.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Alborz; Szychowski, Janek; Ngo, John T; Sweredoski, Michael J; Graham, Robert L J; Hess, Sonja; Schneewind, Olaf; Mazmanian, Sarkis K; Tirrell, David A

    2014-01-07

    Pathogenic microbes have evolved complex secretion systems to deliver virulence factors into host cells. Identification of these factors is critical for understanding the infection process. We report a powerful and versatile approach to the selective labeling and identification of secreted pathogen proteins. Selective labeling of microbial proteins is accomplished via translational incorporation of azidonorleucine (Anl), a methionine surrogate that requires a mutant form of the methionyl-tRNA synthetase for activation. Secreted pathogen proteins containing Anl can be tagged by azide-alkyne cycloaddition and enriched by affinity purification. Application of the method to analysis of the type III secretion system of the human pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica enabled efficient identification of secreted proteins, identification of distinct secretion profiles for intracellular and extracellular bacteria, and determination of the order of substrate injection into host cells. This approach should be widely useful for the identification of virulence factors in microbial pathogens and the development of potential new targets for antimicrobial therapy.

  9. Insulin secretion from beta cells within intact islets: location matters.

    PubMed

    Hoang Do, Oanh; Thorn, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The control of hormone secretion is central to body homeostasis, and its dysfunction is important in many diseases. The key cellular steps that lead to hormone secretion have been identified, and the stimulus-secretion pathway is understood in outline for many endocrine cells. In the case of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, this pathway involves the uptake of glucose, cell depolarization, calcium entry, and the triggering of the fusion of insulin-containing granules with the cell membrane. The wealth of information on the control of insulin secretion has largely been obtained from isolated single-cell studies. However, physiologically, beta cells exist within the islets of Langerhans, with structural and functional specializations that are not preserved in single-cell cultures. This review focuses on recent work that is revealing distinct aspects of insulin secretion from beta cells within the islet.

  10. Urinary Excretion of Antidiuretic Hormone in Man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that urinary excretion of ADH can be detected readily and quantitated accurately. The ADH excretion in normal subjects is inhibited following the administration of a water load and stimulated following water deprivation. It appears that measurement of ADH excretion in man provides a means of quantitating alterations in neurohypophyseal ADH secretion. By determining not only the basal excretion of ADH but also the response to such physiological influences as water loading and dehydration, it becomes possible to study the dynamics of ADH release. Thus, the ability to extract ADH efficiently from urine combined with a sensitive and specific technique for determination of ADH concentration allows the exploration of regulatory systems for ADH control in the normal state as well as the etiological role of altered ADH secretion in clinical disorders of water balance.

  11. How to secretly share the treasure map of the captain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, N.; Puech, W.; Brouzet, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for sharing a secret image between l users exploiting additive homomorphic property of Paillier algorithm. With a traditional approach, when a dealer wants to share an image between l players, the secret image must be sequentially encrypted l + 1 times using l + 1 keys (secret or public keys). When the dealer and the l players want to extract the secret image, they must decrypt sequentially, keeping the same order of the encryption step, by using l + 1 keys (secret or private). With the proposed approach, during the encryption step, each player encrypts his own secret image using the same public key given by the dealer, the dealer encrypts the secret image to be shared with the same key and then the l secret encrypted images plus the encrypted image to be shared are multiplied between them to get a scrambled image. After this step, the dealer can securely use the private key to decrypt this scrambled image to get a new scrambled image which corresponds to the addition of the l + 1 original images because of the additive homomorphic property of Paillier algorithm. When the l players want to extract the secret image, they do not need the dealer and to use keys. Indeed, with our approach, to extract the secret image, the l players need only to subtract their own secret image from the scrambled image. In this paper we illustrate our approach with an example of a captain who wants to share a secret treasure map between l pirates. Experimental results and security analysis show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  12. Trade-secret protection in utility rate cases

    SciTech Connect

    Massella, I.M.

    1982-07-08

    A closed hearing of the Ohio Public Utility Commission put a statute protecting private trade secrets in conflict with protecting the public's right to know. A first step in resolving the controversy over constitutional protections against a forced disclosure of proprietary secrets and the legal problems of balancing public and private interests is identifying those trade secrets that are protectible business information, developing a protective order, and enforcing that order. (DCK)

  13. Secure direct communication based on secret transmitting order of particles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Aidong; Zhang Shou; Xia Yan; Fan Qiubo

    2006-02-15

    We propose the schemes of quantum secure direct communication based on a secret transmitting order of particles. In these protocols, the secret transmitting order of particles ensures the security of communication, and no secret messages are leaked even if the communication is interrupted for security. This strategy of security for communication is also generalized to a quantum dialogue. It not only ensures the unconditional security but also improves the efficiency of communication.

  14. BetaHCG secretion by a pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer in a 43-year-old woman with a history of smoking. The tumor secreted human chorionic gonadotropin and its beta subunit (BetaHCG). The patient presented with amenorrhea, a positive pregnancy test and chest pain. A physical examination and investigations revealed no pregnancy, and it was determined that a paraneoplastic syndrome stemming from a pulmonary tumor was responsible for the secretion of BetaHCG. This secretion decreased with tumor response to chemotherapy. Only a few reports of paraneoplastic BetaHCG secretion can be found in the literature for several different cancers. PMID:24034807

  15. A Brevibacillus choshinensis system that secretes cytoplasmic proteins.

    PubMed

    Horne, Irene; Williams, Michelle; Sutherland, Tara D; Russell, Robyn J; Oakeshott, John G

    2004-01-01

    Brevibacillus choshinensis has previously been shown to be a useful strain for the secretion of heterologous proteins via the Sec secretory pathway. This pathway involves the secretion of proteins prior to folding, whereas the alternative TAT (twin-arginine translocation) pathway enables pre-folded proteins to be secreted. We have modified the signal peptide of the Brevibacillus expression vector pNCMO2 to accommodate a Sec avoidance signal as well as the twin arginines required for secretion via the TAT system. Use of this modified signal peptide with the phosphotriesterase OpdA enabled B. choshinensis transformants to express and secrete the enzyme in an active and substantially pure form. The system was also used successfully to secrete two cytoplasmic proteins, the phosphotriesterase HocA from Pseudomonas monteilii and the phenylcarbamate-degrading enzyme, PCD, from Arthrobacter oxydans. The inhibitors carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine and sodium azide were used to confirm that secretion was occurring via the TAT secretion pathway. The modified B. choshinensis system we have developed may have general utility in secreting a wide range of heterologous proteins in active and conveniently processed form.

  16. A secret image sharing scheme for light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kuang-Shyr

    2013-12-01

    In this study, a new ( r, n)-threshold secret image sharing scheme with low information overhead for images is provided, which has a low distortion rate, and is more applicable for light images. A secret image is encoded into n noise-like shadow images to satisfy the condition that any r of the n shares can be used to reveal the secret image, and no information on the secret can be revealed from any r - 1 or fewer shares. The size of the shadow images is relatively small. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  17. Secreted Factors from Human Vestibular Schwannomas Can Cause Cochlear Damage

    PubMed Central

    Dilwali, Sonam; Landegger, Lukas D.; Soares, Vitor Y. R.; Deschler, Daniel G.; Stankovic, Konstantina M.

    2015-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) are the most common tumours of the cerebellopontine angle. Ninety-five percent of people with VS present with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL); the mechanism of this SNHL is currently unknown. To establish the first model to study the role of VS-secreted factors in causing SNHL, murine cochlear explant cultures were treated with human tumour secretions from thirteen different unilateral, sporadic VSs of subjects demonstrating varied degrees of ipsilateral SNHL. The extent of cochlear explant damage due to secretion application roughly correlated with the subjects’ degree of SNHL. Secretions from tumours associated with most substantial SNHL resulted in most significant hair cell loss and neuronal fibre disorganization. Secretions from VSs associated with good hearing or from healthy human nerves led to either no effect or solely fibre disorganization. Our results are the first to demonstrate that secreted factors from VSs can lead to cochlear damage. Further, we identified tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) as an ototoxic molecule and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) as an otoprotective molecule in VS secretions. Antibody-mediated TNFα neutralization in VS secretions partially prevented hair cell loss due to the secretions. Taken together, we have identified a new mechanism responsible for SNHL due to VSs. PMID:26690506

  18. Gastric bicarbonate secretion, acid secretion, and mucosal blood flow during influence of pentagastrin and omeprazole in the cat.

    PubMed

    Guttu, K; Røsok, B; Gislason, H; Fändriks, L; Svanes, K; Grønbech, J E

    1991-04-01

    In this study secretion of bicarbonate and acid and mucosal blood flow were determined simultaneously in cats. The gastric lumen of anesthetized cats was continuously perfused with isotonic saline. Secretion of HCO-3 and H+ was calculated from continuous measurements of pH and PCO2 in the perfusate. Mucosal blood was measured by means of radiolabeled microspheres. Under resting acid secretory conditions, bicarbonate secretion into the gastric lumen averaged 1.0 mumol/min. Somewhat surprising, both omeprazole (4 mg/kg as bolus) and pentagastrin (16 micrograms/kg.h intravenously) significantly reduced the HCO-3 secretion. Omeprazole did not influence mucosal blood flow, whereas corpus mucosal blood flow increased during pentagastrin stimulation. Under resting acid secretory conditions and during omeprazole treatment there was a close linear relationship between acid and bicarbonate secretion. No such relationship was found during pentagastrin stimulation of the mucosa. No consistent relationship was obtained between blood flow and bicarbonate secretion in normal gastric mucosa.

  19. Marker for type VI secretion system effectors

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Dor; Kinch, Lisa N.; Trudgian, David C.; Guo, Xiaofeng; Klimko, John A.; Grishin, Nick V.; Mirzaei, Hamid; Orth, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria use diverse mechanisms to kill, manipulate, and compete with other cells. The recently discovered type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in bacterial pathogens and used to deliver virulence effector proteins into target cells. Using comparative proteomics, we identified two previously unidentified T6SS effectors that contained a conserved motif. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that this N-terminal motif, named MIX (marker for type six effectors), is found in numerous polymorphic bacterial proteins that are primarily located in the T6SS genome neighborhood. We demonstrate that several MIX-containing proteins are T6SS effectors and that they are not required for T6SS activity. Thus, we propose that MIX-containing proteins are T6SS effectors. Our findings allow for the identification of numerous uncharacterized T6SS effectors that will undoubtedly lead to the discovery of new biological mechanisms. PMID:24927539

  20. Secreted fungal aspartic proteases: A review.

    PubMed

    Mandujano-González, Virginia; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia

    2016-01-01

    The aspartic proteases, also called aspartyl and aspartate proteases or acid proteases (E.C.3.4.23), belong to the endopeptidase family and are characterized by the conserved sequence Asp-Gly-Thr at the active site. These enzymes are found in a wide variety of microorganisms in which they perform important functions related to nutrition and pathogenesis. In addition, their high activity and stability at acid pH make them attractive for industrial application in the food industry; specifically, they are used as milk-coagulating agents in cheese production or serve to improve the taste of some foods. This review presents an analysis of the characteristics and properties of secreted microbial aspartic proteases and their potential for commercial application.