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  1. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  2. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  3. Central processing energetic factors mediate impaired motor control in ADHD combined subtype but not in ADHD inattentive subtype.

    PubMed

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I) subtype. The present study analyzes performance on the Visual Motor Integration Test relative to less effortful motor tests as well as on measures of energetics. Both ADHD groups showed evidence of impaired motor function on both visual-motor integration (VMI) and the less effortful motor tests. The ADHD-C group performed below the ADHD-I group on VMI, but their performance correlated highly with the measures of the energetic pools of arousal and effort. Different mechanisms may underlie impaired fine motor skills in ADHD. Central processing deficits contribute significantly to the deficit of ADHD-C but do not explain the motor impairment in ADHD-I.

  4. Motor skills development in children with inattentive versus combined subtypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Vasserman, Marsha; Bender, H Allison; Macallister, William S

    2014-01-01

    The relations between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and motor skills are well documented, with research indicating both early and lifelong motor deficits in children with this disorder. Despite neuroanatomical and neurodevelopmental differences, which may predict differential rates of motor impairment between ADHD subtypes, evaluation of motor skill deficits in children with different presentations are limited in scope and equivocal in findings. The present investigation evaluated early motor development history and objectively measured motor skills in children with ADHD-Inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) and ADHD-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). One hundred and one children with ADHD-I (n = 53) and ADHD-C (n = 48) were included. Variables included Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), history of motor delays, and utilization of early intervention services, as well as objectively measured motor impairment as assessed via tasks of fine-motor coordination. No between-group differences were found for FSIQ, but differences in age emerged, with the ADHD-I group being older. No differences in early motor delays were observed, though a considerably higher percentage of children with ADHD-C demonstrated early difficulties. Surprisingly, although children and adolescents with ADHD-C reported more frequent utilization of early intervention services, those with ADHD-I exhibited greater levels of current motor impairment on objective tasks. Given the over-representation of older children in the ADHD-I group, data were reanalyzed after excluding participants older than 10 years of age. Although the between-group differences were no longer significant, more than twice the number of parents of children with ADHD-C reported early motor delays, as compared with the ADHD-I group. Overall, children with ADHD-I were more likely to exhibit current objectively measured motor impairment, possibly due to later identification, less intervention, and/or different neurodevelopmental substrates

  5. Combined type versus ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type: is there a difference in functional impairment?

    PubMed

    Riley, Catherine; DuPaul, George J; Pipan, Mary; Kern, Lee; Van Brakle, John; Blum, Nathan J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-HI) and ADHD combined type (ADHD-C) have different levels of functional impairment in four domains: externalizing (oppositional and disruptive) behaviors, internalizing (anxious) behaviors, social skills, and preacademic functioning. The subjects were 102 children 3 to 5 years of age, meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. Children with ADHD-C versus ADHD-HI were compared across at least two measures for each of the four functional domains. Oppositional and anxious behaviors were assessed on the Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales. In addition, off-task and disruptive behaviors were assessed by direct observation in the preschool setting. Social skills were assessed on the parent and teacher versions of the Social Skills Rating System and preacademic skills were assessed on the letter word identification, passage comprehension, and applied problems subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement and the initial sound fluency subtest of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills 5th Edition. There were no significant differences between the groups on rating scale T scores for parent-reported oppositional symptoms (ADHD-C vs ADHD-HI; 66.7 +/- 13.5 vs 65.7 +/- 11.7; p = .73); parent-reported anxious symptoms (53.5 +/- 11.1 vs 53.2 +/- 9.7; p = .90); teacher-reported oppositional symptoms (70.9 +/- 15.6 vs 75.5 +/- 14.7; p = .17); or teacher reported anxious symptoms (59.2 +/- 11.6 vs 58.5 +/- 12.2; p = .77). No statistically significant differences were found between the groups when examining off-task and/or disruptive behavior during structured and free play observations at school. No significant differences between the subtypes were found for social skills or preacademic functioning. Across the four areas of functioning assessed in this study, preschool children with ADHD-HI and those

  6. Family Psychiatric History Evidence on the Nosological Relations of DSM-IV ADHD Combined and Inattentive Subtypes: New Data and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stawicki, Julie Ann; Nigg, Joel T.; Von Eye, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Background: A key issue in the nosology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has concerned whether the DSM-IV combined (ADHD-C) and primarily inattentive (ADHD-PI) subtypes are in fact distinct disorders, or instead are fairly closely related, perhaps differing only in severity. Pertinent to this question, but in short supply, are…

  7. Basic number processing deficits in ADHD: a broad examination of elementary and complex number processing skills in 9- to 12-year-old children with ADHD-C.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2008-09-01

    ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with ADHD-combined type and matched children without ADHD (of any type) without concomitant dyscalculia and/or dyslexia. Overall, group differences were not significant regarding overlearned and explicitly trained simple and complex calculation skills. More basic number processing skills are - for instance - the ability to compare one-digit numbers according to their magnitude (so-called magnitude comparison), to count or to transcode numbers, i.e. to write down an Arabic number '21' in verbal dictation. Significant differences favouring control children in basic number processing skills were obtained in a number comparison task and in a dot enumeration task. Importantly, our results cannot be explained by group differences regarding specific working memory and executive function components. Thus, number processing skills and in particular the processing of numerical magnitude should be investigated in children diagnosed with ADHD even when no comorbid learning disabilities are reported.

  8. Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

  9. Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

  10. Are children with ADHD predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes different in terms of aspects of everyday attention?

    PubMed

    Lemiere, Jurgen; Wouters, Heidi; Sterken, Caroline; Lagae, Lieven; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Danckaerts, Marina

    2010-08-01

    The validity of the DSM-IV subtypes is a recurring diagnostic debate in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Laboratory measures, such as the test of everyday attention for children (TEA-Ch) can help us address this question. TEA-Ch is a test battery covering different aspects of everyday attention relating to selective and sustained attention and attentional control. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether this instrument can differentiate between combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of ADHD. Subjects were recruited from a multidisciplinary ADHD outpatient unit and tested free of medication. Sixty-four children with a diagnosis of ADHD were included (38 with ADHD-C; 26 with ADHD-I). The control group was 76 children recruited from primary and secondary schools. Children with ADHD performed worse than controls on 6 out of 9 TEA-Ch subtests. However a regression analysis revealed that TEA-Ch subtests made only a marginal contribution to the correct classification of ADHD, once the effects of IQ and age are controlled. Confirmatory factor analysis in our ADHD group demonstrated that the three factor structure achieved a poor fit. More detailed analysis suggested that inferior performance on the tasks designed to test vigilance was not the result of deficient-sustained attention. ADHD-C and ADHD-I showed very few differences across tasks. In conclusion, our results provided not much support for the value of the ADHD-C and ADHD-I distinction in predicting difficulties in everyday attention.

  11. Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette’s Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype—A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hovik, Kjell Tore; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Skogli, Erik Winther; Andersen, Per Normann; Øie, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Objective This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior) in children and adolescents with Tourette’s Syndrome (TS) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). Method 19 children with TS, 33 with ADHD-C, and 50 typically developing children (TDC) were examined with a battery of psychometric measures and rating forms at baseline and two-years later. Results All three groups improved likewise in measures of cognitive control over time, whereas only the TDC improved in focused attention. The group of children with TS with comorbidities performed more similar to the children with ADHD-C in cognitive control at T1 and T2, whereas the children with TS without comorbidities performed more similar to the TDC in cognitive control at T1 and T2. In the decision-making task, the children with TS (with or without comorbidities) preferred a safer strategy in selecting advantageous choices than the children with ADHD-C and the TDC at T2. Children with TS and children with ADHD-C showed higher symptoms of anxiety and depression and more problems with emotional control compared with TDC at both time points. Finally, children with ADHD-C self-reported more depression symptoms than those with TS at both assessments. For the TS group, safer decision-making was related to better emotional control, and this relationship was stronger for the TS subgroup without comorbidities. Conclusion This study emphasizes the importance of addressing symptoms of anxiety and depression in children with TS or ADHD-C, identifying the effect of comorbidities in children with TS, and that children with TS or ADHD-C likely differ in their sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies. PMID:26673612

  12. Predictive Validity of Attentional Functions in Differentiating Children with and without ADHD: A Componential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Liane; Zieren, Nikola; Zotter, Sibylle; Karall, Daniela; Scholl-Burgi, Sabine; Haberlandt, Edda; Fimm, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate which attentional components are of predictive utility in differentiating children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-C) from their peers without ADHD. Methods: Thirty-four children participated in the study: 17 males with ADHD-C (mean age 10y 4mo, SD 1y 9mo) and…

  13. Predictive Validity of Attentional Functions in Differentiating Children with and without ADHD: A Componential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Liane; Zieren, Nikola; Zotter, Sibylle; Karall, Daniela; Scholl-Burgi, Sabine; Haberlandt, Edda; Fimm, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate which attentional components are of predictive utility in differentiating children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-C) from their peers without ADHD. Methods: Thirty-four children participated in the study: 17 males with ADHD-C (mean age 10y 4mo, SD 1y 9mo) and…

  14. Basic Number Processing Deficits in ADHD: A Broad Examination of Elementary and Complex Number Processing Skills in 9- to 12-Year-Old Children with ADHD-C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2008-01-01

    ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with…

  15. Basic Number Processing Deficits in ADHD: A Broad Examination of Elementary and Complex Number Processing Skills in 9- to 12-Year-Old Children with ADHD-C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2008-01-01

    ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with…

  16. Teacher Ratings of Executive Function Difficulties in Finnish Children with Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Symptoms of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Klenberg, Liisa; Hokkanen, Laura; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Närhi, Vesa

    2017-01-01

    School-age children with difficulties in executive functions (EFs) are at risk for substantial academic impairment and poorer developmental outcome. Although Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is generally associated with weaknesses in EFs, a relatively minimal amount is known about school-related EF difficulties and differences between ADHD subtypes. The present study examined teacher ratings of EF behaviors in 7- to 15-year-old Finnish children with combined symptoms of ADHD (ADHD-C; n = 189), predominantly inattentive symptoms (ADHD-I; n = 25), and no ADHD (n = 691). The teacher ratings showed that both ADHD groups had more EF difficulties than controls. Ratings also indicated specific EF profiles for the ADHD subtypes, students with ADHD-I having more wide-ranging EF difficulties in attention as well as initiation, planning, and execution of actions than children with ADHD-C. According to the present findings, the school-related EF difficulties of children with ADHD-I need to be specifically acknowledged. Teacher ratings seem to be sensitive indicators of EF difficulties and distinguish between different kinds of EF profiles. In clinical practice, rating scales with reliable psychometric properties and normative data relevant to the specific cultural environment should be employed.

  17. Rejection Sensitivity and Social Outcomes of Young Adult Men with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been consistently linked to social maladjustment. This study investigated whether elevated rejection sensitivity (RS) could contribute to the relational problems that adults with ADHD encounter. Method: Undergraduate men in ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C; n = 31), ADHD-Primarily…

  18. Rejection Sensitivity and Social Outcomes of Young Adult Men with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been consistently linked to social maladjustment. This study investigated whether elevated rejection sensitivity (RS) could contribute to the relational problems that adults with ADHD encounter. Method: Undergraduate men in ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C; n = 31), ADHD-Primarily…

  19. Alerting, Orienting, and Executive Attention in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Corkum, Penny V.; Klein, Raymond M.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth N.; Lawrence, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the alerting, orienting, and executive attention abilities of children with ADHD and their typically developing (TD) peers using a modified version of the adult attention network test (ANT-I). Method: A total of 25 children with ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-C, mean age = 9.20 years), 20 children with ADHD,…

  20. Alerting, Orienting, and Executive Attention in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Corkum, Penny V.; Klein, Raymond M.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth N.; Lawrence, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the alerting, orienting, and executive attention abilities of children with ADHD and their typically developing (TD) peers using a modified version of the adult attention network test (ANT-I). Method: A total of 25 children with ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-C, mean age = 9.20 years), 20 children with ADHD,…

  1. Evidence for Specificity of ERP Abnormalities during Response Inhibition in ADHD Children: A Comparison with Reading Disorder Children without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liotti, Mario; Pliszka, Steven R.; Higgins, Kellie; Perez, Ricardo, III; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Executive function and working memory deficits are not only present in ADHD, but also in reading disorder (RD). Here, high-density ERPs were recorded during the Stop Signal Task in 53 children and adolescents: An ADHD-combined type group, a group with RD, and a healthy control group. The ADHD-C group displayed unique abnormalities of the frontal…

  2. Evidence for Specificity of ERP Abnormalities during Response Inhibition in ADHD Children: A Comparison with Reading Disorder Children without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liotti, Mario; Pliszka, Steven R.; Higgins, Kellie; Perez, Ricardo, III; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Executive function and working memory deficits are not only present in ADHD, but also in reading disorder (RD). Here, high-density ERPs were recorded during the Stop Signal Task in 53 children and adolescents: An ADHD-combined type group, a group with RD, and a healthy control group. The ADHD-C group displayed unique abnormalities of the frontal…

  3. ADHD Subtype Differences in Reinforcement Sensitivity and Visuospatial Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; Van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W; Prins, Pier J M

    2015-01-01

    Both cognitive and motivational deficits are thought to give rise to the problems in the combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In both subtypes one of the most prominent cognitive weaknesses appears to be in visuospatial working memory (WM), which is composed of short-term memory (STM) and a central executive (CE). In children with ADHD-C, both STM and the CE seem impaired, and together with motivational impairments, give rise to their deficits in visuospatial WM. In children with ADHD-I, no studies investigated these WM components and their interplay with motivational impairments. Effects of a standard (feedback only) and a high level of reinforcement (feedback + 10 euros) on visuospatial WM-, STM-, and CE performance were examined in 27 children with ADHD-I (restrictive-subtype), 70 children with ADHD-C, and 40 typically developing controls (aged 9-12). In both ADHD-subtypes CE and WM performance was worse than in controls. STM performance of children with ADHD-I was, in contrast to that of children with ADHD-C, not different from controls. STM and WM performance was worse in ADHD-C than in ADHD-I, whereas CE-related performance did not differ. High reinforcement improved STM and WM performance in both subtypes but not in controls. This improvement was equally pronounced in both subtypes. High reinforcement did not improve CE-related performance. Both subtypes have equally pronounced motivational deficits, which have detrimental effects on their visuospatial STM and WM performance. In contrast to children with ADHD-C, children with ADHD-I seem unimpaired on visuospatial STM; only an impaired CE and motivational impairments give rise to their deficits in visuospatial WM.

  4. Inhibitory Functioning across ADHD Subtypes: Recent Findings, Clinical Implications, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Zachary W.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Although growing consensus supports the role of deficient behavioral inhibition as a central feature of the combined subtype of ADHD (ADHD/C; Barkley 1997 "Psychol Bull" 121:65-94; Nigg 2001 "Psychol Bull" 127:571-598), little research has focused on how this finding generalizes to the primarily inattentive subtype (ADHD/I). This question holds…

  5. Not Always Hyperactive? Elevated Apathy Scores in Adolescents and Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrente, Fernando; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torralva, Teresa; Lopez, Pablo; Roca, Maria; Manes, Facundo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the presence of apathy symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD as a behavioral manifestation of underlying motivational deficits and to determine whether apathy symptoms were associated with a specific neuropsychological profile. Method: A total of 38 ADHD participants (28 of the combined subtype [ADHD/C] and 10 of…

  6. Inhibitory Functioning across ADHD Subtypes: Recent Findings, Clinical Implications, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Zachary W.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Although growing consensus supports the role of deficient behavioral inhibition as a central feature of the combined subtype of ADHD (ADHD/C; Barkley 1997 "Psychol Bull" 121:65-94; Nigg 2001 "Psychol Bull" 127:571-598), little research has focused on how this finding generalizes to the primarily inattentive subtype (ADHD/I). This question holds…

  7. Specific cognitive-neurophysiological processes predict impulsivity in the childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined subtype.

    PubMed

    Bluschke, A; Roessner, V; Beste, C

    2016-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. Besides inattention and hyperactivity, impulsivity is the third core symptom leading to diverse and serious problems. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying impulsivity in ADHD are still not fully understood. This is all the more the case when patients with the ADHD combined subtype (ADHD-C) are considered who are characterized by both symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Combining high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recordings with source localization analyses, we examined what information processing stages are dysfunctional in ADHD-C (n = 20) compared with controls (n = 18). Patients with ADHD-C made more impulsive errors in a Go/No-go task than healthy controls. Neurophysiologically, different subprocesses from perceptual gating to attentional selection, resource allocation and response selection processes are altered in this patient group. Perceptual gating, stimulus-driven attention selection and resource allocation processes were more pronounced in ADHD-C, are related to activation differences in parieto-occipital networks and suggest attentional filtering deficits. However, only response selection processes, associated with medial prefrontal networks, predicted impulsive errors in ADHD-C. Although the clinical picture of ADHD-C is complex and a multitude of processing steps are altered, only a subset of processes seems to directly modulate impulsive behaviour. The present findings improve the understanding of mechanisms underlying impulsivity in patients with ADHD-C and might help to refine treatment algorithms focusing on impulsivity.

  8. Differentiating between comorbidity and symptom overlap in ADHD and early onset bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Udal, Anne H; Egeland, Jens; Oygarden, Bjørg; Malt, Ulrik F; Lövdahl, Hans; Pripp, Are H; Groholt, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Reported rates of comorbidity between early onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a wide range, perhaps due to developmental issues and differences in interpretation of overlapping symptoms. We compared questionnaire-based and neuropsychological measures of inattention and impulsivity/hyperactivity, in children/adolescents with ADHD combined subtype (ADHD-C; n26), concurrent ADHD-C and BD (n15), BD (n25) with Controls (n69). Sub-analyses were performed on BD with and without inattention symptoms. The two ADHD-C groups displayed neuropsychological impairments that were not found in the BD group in spite of subjective and questionnaire-rated inattention. The findings caution against over-diagnosis of ADHD in BD.

  9. Deficit in response inhibition in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): impact of motivation?

    PubMed

    Desman, Christiane; Petermann, Franz; Hampel, Petra

    2008-11-01

    To date, neuropsychological and psycho-physiological studies have revealed inconsistent results regarding an executive or motivational deficit explaining the response inhibition deficit in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research on differentiating neuropsychological processes in ADHD subtypes is still scarce. Therefore, the motivational impact on response inhibition among boys with ADHD was examined in this study. In the first study, 19 boys with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects performed a modified Go/No-Go task with the following experimental conditions: neutral, auditory feedback, reward, response cost, and reward/response cost. Performance and physiological data (heart rate and skin conductance responses) were recorded. In a second study with the modified Go/No-Go task, data for six children with ADHD-C, six with ADHD-inattentive subtype (ADHD-I), and six healthy control subjects were compared. Neither of the two studies revealed group by condition interactions. In study 1, boys with ADHD-C generally made more commissions and omissions compared to the control group. However, feedback significantly improved the response inhibition in all children. The heart rate of all children was increased in the two conditions of reward and reward/response cost. Study 2 revealed that children with ADHD-I responded more slowly and showed increased reaction time variability compared to both other groups. The present study supports an executive rather than a motivational deficit in the response inhibition among children with ADHD-C, though further results also indicate the role of auditory feedback on response inhibition. Additionally, the findings support the differentiation of ADHD-C and ADHD-I, suggesting that ADHD-I children are characterized by a sluggish cognitive tempo.

  10. Cognitive Control and Attentional Selection in Adolescents with ADHD versus ADD

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Laurie; Henderson, John; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    An important research question is whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is related to early or late stage attentional control mechanisms and whether this differentiates a non-hyperactive subtype (“ADD”). This question was addressed in a sample of 145 ADD/ADHD and typically developing comparison adolescents (aged 13-17). Attentional blink and antisaccade tasks were used to assay early and late stage control, respectively. ADD was defined using normative cutoffs to assure low activity level in children who otherwise met full criteria for ADHD. The ADD group had an attenuated attentional blink versus controls and ADHD-combined (ADHD-C). The effect was not produced using DSM-IV definition of ADHD-primarily inattentive type nor DSM symptom counts. ADHD-C showed greater weakness in response inhibition, as manifest in the antisaccade task. Combining tasks yielded an interaction differentiating group performance on the two tasks. PMID:21058121

  11. Investigation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) sub-types in Children via EEG Frequency Domain analysis.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, Ramazan; Demirci, Esra; Per, Huseyin; Canpolat, Mehmet; Özmen, Sevgi; Tokmakçı, Mahmut

    2017-09-19

    This study aims to investigate the frequency domain effects and changes in Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in children aged 7-12 years old who were diagnosed with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and which labelled subtypes of ADHD.The study's sample consisted of 20 healthy children and 20 ADHD children as control group. Of the 20 participants who were diagnosed with ADHD, 10 were classified as ADHD-I (inattentive subtype ADHD) and the other 10 were classified as ADHD-C (combined subtype ADHD).Participants were classified into 3 groups all of ADHD, ADHD-I,ADHD-C and Control group on the basis of the results of a standardized clinical interview, behavioral rating scales, and a continuous performance test. In this study, the frequency domain of EEG signals for ADHD, subtypes, and control groups were analyzed and compared using Matlab program. The mean age of the ADHD children's group was 8.7 years and the control group 9.1 years Spectral analysis of mean power (μV(2)) and relative-mean power (%) was carried out for 4 different frequency bands: delta (0-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (13-32 Hz). The ADHD and subtypes of ADHD-I, and ADHD-C groups had higher average power value of delta and theta band than that of control group. However, this is not the case for alpha and beta bands. Increases in delta/beta ratio and statistical significance were found only between ADHD-I and control group, and in delta/beta, theta/delta ratio statistical significance values were found to exist between ADHD-C and control group.

  12. Error related negativity and multi-source interference task in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Albarrán, Rosana; Poblano, Adrián; Santana-Vargas, Daniel; Castro-Sierra, Eduardo; Haro, Reyes; Garza-Morales, Saúl

    2015-03-01

    To compare performance of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders-combined (ADHD-C) type with control children in multi-source interference task (MSIT) evaluated by means of error related negativity (ERN). We studied 12 children with ADHD-C type with a median age of 7 years, control children were age- and gender-matched. Children performed MSIT and simultaneous recording of ERN. We found no differences in MSIT parameters among groups. We found no differences in ERN variables between groups. We found a significant association of ERN amplitude with MSIT in children with ADHD-C type. Some correlation went in positive direction (frequency of hits and MSIT amplitude), and others in negative direction (frequency of errors and RT in MSIT). Children with ADHD-C type exhibited a significant association between ERN amplitude with MSIT. These results underline participation of a cingulo-fronto-parietal network and could help in the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanisms of ADHD.

  13. The internal and external validity of sluggish cognitive tempo and its relation with DSM-IV ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Willcutt, Erik G.; Chhabildas, Nomita; Kinnear, Mikaela; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Leopold, Daniel R.; Keenan, Janice M.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of subtypes of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have provided inconsistent support for the discriminant validity of the combined type (ADHD-C) and predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I). A large sample of children and adolescents with ADHD (N = 410) and a comparison group without ADHD (N = 311) were used to test the internal and external validity of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT), a dimension characterized by low energy and sleepy and sluggish behavior. SCT scores were then incorporated in analyses of ADHD subtypes to test whether the discriminant validity of ADHD-C and ADHD-Icould be improved by includingSCT symptoms as part of the criteria for ADHD-I. Factor analyses of parent and teacher ratings indicated that six SCT items loaded on a factor separate from symptoms of ADHD and other psychopathology, providing important support for the internal validity of SCT. The external validity of SCT was supported by significant associationsbetween SCT and measures of functional impairment and neuropsychological functioning when symptoms of ADHD and other psychopathology were controlled. However, contrary to initial predictions, high levels of SCT did not identify a subgroup of ADHD-I that was clearly distinct from ADHD-C. Instead, the current results suggest that DSM-IV inattention and SCT are separate but correlated symptom dimensions that are each independently associated with important aspects of functional impairment and neuropsychological functioning. PMID:24122408

  14. [Executive function deficits in ADHD and Asperger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Paloscia, Claudio; Baglioni, Valentina; Alessandrelli, Riccardo; Rosa, Caterina; Guerini, Rossella; Aceti, Franca; Pasini, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the executive functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined subtype (ADHD-C) and Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to a control group. A sample of 79 children (28 ADHD-C; 24 AS; 27 subjects with typical development) was tested on a wide range of tasks related to major domains of executive functioning: inhibition response (prepotent and interference), visual working memory, planning and cognitive flexibility. Patients with AS showed deficits on visual working memory and cognitive flexibility. ADHD-C children were impaired on inhibition control (prepotent response) but also showed deficits on working memory and cognitive flexibility. The only executive functioning measure that differentiated ADHD from AS was inhibition of prepotent response and a more high deficit in cognitive flexibility and working memory in AS compared to ADHD-C. This study confirms recent evidence about the identification of specific executive profiles in these disorders. Other studies are warranted to evaluate the presence and specifity of a dysexecutive syndrome in ADHD and AS in a larger sample with girls.

  15. Microstructural Abnormalities in the Combined and Inattentive Subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Du; Ma, Jun; Du, Xiaoxia; Shen, Guohua; Jin, Xingming; Gong, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that there are specific white matter abnormalities in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the results of these studies are not consistent, and one of the most important factors that affects the inconsistency of previous studies maybe the ADHD subtype. Different ADHD subtypes may have some overlapping microstructural damage, but they may also have unique microstructural abnormalities. The objective of this study was to investigate the microstructural abnormalities associated with two subtypes of ADHD: combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive (ADHD-I). Twenty-eight children with ADHD-C, 28 children with ADHD-I and 28 healthy children participated in this study. Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) were used to analyze diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data to provide specific information regarding abnormal brain areas. Our results demonstrated that ADHD-I is related to abnormalities in the temporo-occipital areas, while the combined subtype (ADHD-C) is related to abnormalities in the frontal-subcortical circuit, the fronto-limbic pathway, and the temporo-occipital areas. Moreover, an abnormality in the motor circuit may represent the main difference between the ADHD-I and ADHD-C subtypes. PMID:25363043

  16. [Familial impact of children with the combined subtype of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: the effects of associated behavioural disorders].

    PubMed

    Presentación-Herrero, M J; García-Castellar, R; Miranda-Casas, A; Siegenthaler-Hierro, R; Jara-Jiménez, P

    To determine the impact that children with ADHD-C (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined subtype) have on their family by analysing their parents' perceptions, and to examine whether the presence of associated behavioural disorders affect that impact. Participants in the study included one group made up of the parents of 27 children with ADHD-C and another group consisting of the parents of 27 children without ADHD. The parents in the ADHD-C group were divided into two subgroups according to whether or not their children had an oppositional defiant disorder and/or a co-morbid conduct disorder (10 and 17 families, respectively). The results of the analyses performed showed significant differences between the perceptions of the parents of the control children and those of the parents of children with ADHD-C in the following categories: feelings and attitudes, social life, matrimonial relationship, day-to-day relationships with peers and siblings, stress and difficulty in living with their child. Comparisons between the two subgroups of children with ADHD-C did not reveal any significant differences in any of the categories that were analysed, and showed ADHD-C to be the fundamental factor underlying the problems in the family context. Some items, however, suggested that the problem is more serious in the subtype with associated behavioural disorders.

  17. Response inhibition and academic abilities in typically developing children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder-combined subtype.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, Jesse C; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R

    2010-11-01

    Research in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) generally utilizes clinical samples or children with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Findings indicated that children with ADHD experience academic underachievement and poor performance on measures of response inhibition (RI). Less is known, about the neuropsychological profile of typically developing children with ADHD. The aim of the current study was twofold: (1) determine if academic skills and RI were impaired in typically developing children with ADHD-combined subtype (ADHD-C) and (2) determine to what extent RI may predict academic abilities. Children with ADHD-C did not differ on any academic domain from controls. Children with ADHD-C performed more poorly than controls on RI measures. Regression analyses suggest that Written Expression ability was significantly influenced by RI. No other academic domain was related to RI. Results suggest that children with ADHD-C may experience impairments in RI despite adequate academic functioning. Impaired RI is not solely responsible for difficulties found in academic skills in ADHD-C.

  18. Examining Executive Functioning in Boys with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Lewandowski, Lawrence; Gordon, Michael

    This study examined executive functioning (EF) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) boys ages 6-12 on a parent-report measure from Barkley's model. Mothers of 40 boys (20 with ADHD-HI or ADHD-C, and 20 without ADHD) completed the ADHD Symptom Checklist (ADHD-SC4), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-P), School-Home Information Profile…

  19. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Has ADHD en español El ADHD ADHD, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , is a medical condition that affects ... them through first. ADHD used to be called attention deficit disorder , or ADD for short. In 1994, it ...

  20. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness ADHD KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Print A A A ... doesn't involve hyperactivity. Symptoms and Signs of ADHD Because ADHD covers lots of different things — attention, ...

  1. The role of inattention on academics, fluid reasoning, and visual-spatial functioning in two subtypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether subtype differences and the role of inattention in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type (ADHD-C) and ADHD-predominately inattentive type (ADHD-PI) and controls on measures of achievement, problem solving, and visual-spatial abilities are present. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the relation between ADHD symptoms and performance on visual-spatial-motor tasks. Children with ADHD-C and ADHD-PI and controls, all aged 8 to 16 years old, were compared on tests of achievement, fluid reasoning, and visual-motor skills. Children with ADHD-C and ADHD-PI performed significantly poorer on the mathematics calculation, written expression, fluid reasoning, and visual-motor tests compared with the controls. Inattention, but not hyperactivity or impulsivity, was found to significantly predict performance on these measures. The role of inattention on these tasks is important for understanding why children with both subtypes of ADHD experience significant academic problems even when performing in the average range on achievement tests.

  2. Differences in paper-and-pencil versus computerized line bisection according to ADHD subtype and hand-use.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Mei Hsin Suzanne; Hamm, Jeff P; Waldie, Karen E

    2008-03-01

    Two versions of the line bisection task, paper-and-pencil and computerized, were administered to non-medicated children (5-12 years) with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Fifteen children were classified with ADHD-Inattentive type (ADHD-I), 15 were classified with ADHD-Combined or Hyperactive-Impulsive type (ADHD-C), and 15 children served as controls. During the paper-and-pencil task, and irrespective of hand-use, participants with ADHD-C bisected lines with a right bias, whereas participants with ADHD-I showed a leftwards bias. Interestingly, during the computerized version, an opposite pattern of hemineglect was observed with a leftwards bias for participants with ADHD-C and a rightwards bias for participants with ADHD-I. These findings suggest that different task demands are associated with the paper-and-pencil and computerized tasks. The findings also suggest that the two subtypes differ according to their cognitive profile, and possibly differ as to their underlying neural impairment.

  3. Is the Inattentive Subtype of ADHD Different from the Combined/Hyperactive Subtype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grizenko, Natalie; Paci, Michael; Joober, Ridha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the ADHD combined/hyperactive subtype (ADHD/CH) to the ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD/I) on the level of comorbidity, treatment response, and possible etiological factors. Method: A total of 371 clinically referred children diagnosed with ADHD aged between 6 and 12 years are recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled…

  4. Is the Inattentive Subtype of ADHD Different from the Combined/Hyperactive Subtype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grizenko, Natalie; Paci, Michael; Joober, Ridha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the ADHD combined/hyperactive subtype (ADHD/CH) to the ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD/I) on the level of comorbidity, treatment response, and possible etiological factors. Method: A total of 371 clinically referred children diagnosed with ADHD aged between 6 and 12 years are recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled…

  5. Characteristics of DSM-IV Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes in a Turkish Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oner, Ozgur; Oner, Pinar; Cop, Esra; Munir, Kerim M.

    2012-01-01

    Consecutively referred subjects (N = 537) to an outpatient clinic were evaluated to compare the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined (ADHD-C) and predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI) subtypes using parent and teacher ratings and neuropsychological variables. Statistical significance was at P less than 0.002 adjusted for multiple…

  6. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ADHD FACT SHEET What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is sometimes referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). It ...

  7. [The sociometric status of children with the combined subtype of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    García-Castellar, R; Presentación-Herrero, M J; Siegenthaler-Hierro, R; Miranda-Casas, A

    2006-02-13

    Different studies show that one of the most important problem associate with ADHD combined subtype is the difficulty to establish appropriate social relationships, being rejected by their schoolmates. To study interactions of children with ADHD-C at school; specifically the sociometric status and the features of rejected children compared with non rejected children. 23 ADHD-C children from 20 primary schools (2nd to 5th degree) of Castellon were examined, using sociometric tasks and behaviour scales for parents and teachers. Sociometric tasks show that the ADHD-C children were preponderantly rejected by their schoolmates, and the reasons of this rejection were disruptive and antisocial behaviour. Furthermore, rejected children weren't aware of this fact. Our findings established the severity of social problems in this children al school.

  8. Neuronal Intra-Individual Variability Masks Response Selection Differences between ADHD Subtypes-A Need to Change Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bluschke, Annet; Chmielewski, Witold X; Mückschel, Moritz; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Due to the high intra-individual variability in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there may be considerable bias in knowledge about altered neurophysiological processes underlying executive dysfunctions in patients with different ADHD subtypes. When aiming to establish dimensional cognitive-neurophysiological constructs representing symptoms of ADHD as suggested by the initiative for Research Domain Criteria, it is crucial to consider such processes independent of variability. We examined patients with the predominantly inattentive subtype (attention deficit disorder, ADD) and the combined subtype of ADHD (ADHD-C) in a flanker task measuring conflict control. Groups were matched for task performance. Besides using classic event-related potential (ERP) techniques and source localization, neurophysiological data was also analyzed using residue iteration decomposition (RIDE) to statistically account for intra-individual variability and S-LORETA to estimate the sources of the activations. The analysis of classic ERPs related to conflict monitoring revealed no differences between patients with ADD and ADHD-C. When individual variability was accounted for, clear differences became apparent in the RIDE C-cluster (analog to the P3 ERP-component). While patients with ADD distinguished between compatible and incompatible flanker trials early on, patients with ADHD-C seemed to employ more cognitive resources overall. These differences are reflected in inferior parietal areas. The study demonstrates differences in neuronal mechanisms related to response selection processes between ADD and ADHD-C which, according to source localization, arise from the inferior parietal cortex. Importantly, these differences could only be detected when accounting for intra-individual variability. The results imply that it is very likely that differences in neurophysiological processes between ADHD subtypes are underestimated and have not been recognized because intra

  9. Parent-, teacher-, and self-rated motivational styles in ADHD subtypes.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Caryn L; Booth, Jane E; Shin, Misung; Canu, Will H

    2002-01-01

    The motivational styles of 25 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD/C), 13 children with ADHD, inattentive type (ADHD/IA), and 25 nondiagnosed controls (NC) were compared using parent, teacher, and self-ratings. Both ADHD subtypes demonstrated motivational impairment characterized by a preference for easy work, less enjoyment of learning, less persistence, and a greater reliance on external than on internal standards to judge their performance relative to NC. Some motivational style differences between ADHD subtypes were also revealed, with the ADHD/C group more motivated by competitiveness and a desire to be perceived as superior to others and the ADHD/IA group less uncooperative and possibly more passive in their learning styles. When IQ was statistically controlled, these results were generally unchanged. The contributing role of motivational deficits to the generally poor academic functioning of children with ADHD is discussed, along with potential intervention implications of the divergent motivational styles of different ADHD subtypes.

  10. Regional Volumetric Differences Based on Structural MRI in Children With Two Subtypes of ADHD and Controls.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse; Zhu, David C

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare groups of children with two subtypes of ADHD and controls on selected regions using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures. Children with ADHD were expected to have smaller volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and caudate. Parent behavioral rating measures of hyperactivity were predicted to relate to the volume of the caudate and attention with the ACC. There were a total of 74 children in the final sample (27 controls, 25 ADHD:Combined type [ADHD:C], 22 ADHD:Inattentive type [ADHD:I]). Findings indicated that the ADHD:C group had bilaterally smaller volumes of the caudate and ACC compared with the other two groups. In addition, parent ratings of attention and hyperactivity significantly predicted the right volume of the ACC, whereas hyperactivity ratings predicted the volume of the right caudate. Analysis of the ADHD groups without the control confirmed these findings. These findings indicate that different structures are related to the ADHD subtypes and suggest that they may be different phenotypes.

  11. Dystonia with MPH/Risperidone Combined Therapy for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon; Yee, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    Investigators from Child Neurology and Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, report extrapyramidal symptoms in a 13-year-old boy with a psychiatric history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism, responsive to combination risperidone, oxcarbazepine, and MPH.

  12. Combining Parent and Child Training for Young Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…

  13. Combining Parent and Child Training for Young Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…

  14. Combined psychophysiological assessment of ADHD: a pilot study of Bayesian probability approach illustrated by appraisal of ADHD in female college students.

    PubMed

    Robeva, Raina; Penberthy, Jennifer Kim; Loboschefski, Tim; Cox, Daniel; Kovatchev, Boris

    2004-03-01

    Manifestations of ADHD are observed at both psychological and physiological levels and assessed via various psychometric, EEG, and imaging tests. However, no test is 100% accurate in its assessment of ADHD. This study introduces a stochastic assessment combining psychometric tests with previously reported (Consistency Index) and newly developed (Alpha Blockade Index) EEG-based physiological markers of ADHD. The assessment utilizes classical Bayesian inference to refine after each step the probability of ADHD of each individual. In a pilot study involving six college females with ADHD and six matched controls, the assessment achieved correct classification for all ADHD and non-ADHD participants. In comparison, the classification of ADHD versus non-ADHD participants was < 85% for any one of the tests separately. The procedure significantly improved the score separation between ADHD versus non-ADHD groups. The final average probabilities for ADHD were 76% for the ADHD group and 8% for the control group. These probabilities correlated (r = .87) with the Brown ADD scale and (r = .84) with the ADHD-Symptom Inventory used for the screening of the participants. We conclude that, although each separate test was not completely accurate, a combination of several tests classified correctly all ADHD and all non-ADHD participants. The application of the proposed assessment is not limited to the specific tests used in this study--the assessment represents a general paradigm capable of accommodating a variety of ADHD tests into a single diagnostic assessment.

  15. Low self-awareness of ADHD in adults using a self-report screening questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Manor, I; Vurembrandt, N; Rozen, S; Gevah, D; Weizman, A; Zalsman, G

    2012-07-01

    Awareness of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has been growing over the last decade. One of the most interesting issues related to this topic is these adults' self-awareness of their ADHD symptoms and their estimation of their own impairments. Our hypothesis while studying young adult ADHD populations was that there would be a significant difference between their self-report and their clinical assessment. One hundred and three students volunteered for this study. In order to validate our ADHD screening questionnaire (ADHD-SQ), and to assess the level of awareness they have of their own symptoms, participants underwent a complete clinical assessment for ADHD. They were divided into a control group (n=24), and an ADHD study group (n=79), which in turn was composed of two sub-groups, one comprising 24 ADHD predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I) and the other 55 ADHD combined type (ADHD-C). Factor analysis yielded two factors explaining 41% of the variance. The Inattention (IA) subscale score tended to be higher in both ADHD sub-groups as compared to the control group (6.5 ± 2.1 vs. 2.34 ± 2.3 with P<0.001), with no significant difference between the two ADHD sub-groups. Hyperactivity Impulsivity (HI) subscale was significantly higher for the ADHD-C sub-group than in the ADHD-I sub-group, whose score was similar to that of the control group (control: 1.6 ± 2.1; ADHD-I: 1.55 ± 1.0; ADHD-C: 4.5 ± 2.6, P<0.0001). Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis showed similar results. The area under the curve (AUC) of IA subscale score was 0.90 (95% confidence: 0.83-0.96) and for HI subscale score was 0.75, (95% confidence: 0.63-0.86). Classification into groups used a cut-off point of 3+ items out of nine, in the SQ and 6+ items out of nine in the clinical assessment. These two classifications showed 68% agreement (46% sensitivity and 95% specificity). In both ADHD sub-groups, the self-reported average number of positive symptoms per student

  16. Examining Manual and Visual Response Inhibition among ADHD Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Zachary W.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared inhibitory functioning among ADHD subtype groups on manual and visual versions of the stop task. Seventy-six children, identified as ADHD/I (n = 17), ADHD/C (n = 43), and comparison (n = 20) completed both tasks. Results indicated that both ADHD groups were slower to inhibit responses than the comparison group on both tasks.…

  17. Response to cocaine, alone and in combination with methylphenidate, in cocaine abusers with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stephanie L; Levin, Frances R; Foltin, Richard W; Kleber, Herbert D; Evans, Suzette M

    2006-04-28

    not warrant termination of any test session. Maintenance on MPH-SR decreased some of the positive subjective effects of cocaine. Further, maintenance on a high dose of MPH-SR decreased cocaine choice. Thus, oral MPH-SR is safe in combination with repeated cocaine doses and decreases some of the positive and reinforcing effects of cocaine in cocaine abusers with ADHD.

  18. Balance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hsun-Ying; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Yang, Ai-Lun; Su, Chia-Ting

    2014-06-01

    The balance ability in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type (ADHD-C) has not been fully examined, particularly dynamic sitting balance. Moreover, the findings of some published studies are contradictory. We examined the static and dynamic sitting balance ability in 20 children with ADHD-C (mean age: 9 years 3 months; 18 boys, 2 girls) and 20 age-, sex-, height-, weight-, and IQ-matched healthy and typically developing controls (mean age: 9 years 2 months; 18 boys, 2 girls). The balance subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) were used to compare the two groups, and a mechanical horseback riding test was recorded using a motion-capture system. Compared with the controls, children with ADHD-C had less-consistent patterns of movement, more deviation of movement area, and less-effective balance strategies during mechanical horseback riding. In addition, their performance on the balance subtests of the MABC and BOTMP were not as well as those of the controls. Our findings suggest that balance ability skill levels in children with ADHD-C were generally not as high as those of the controls in various aspects, including static and dynamic balance.

  19. Atomoxetine Alone or Combined with Fluoxetine for Treating ADHD with Comorbid Depressive or Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Duesenberg, David; Emslie, Graham J.; Quintana, Humberto; Sarkis, Elias H.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Gao, Haitao; Michelson, David; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Symptoms of depression and anxiety are commonly comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors assessed the safety and effectiveness of atomoxetine monotherapy compared with combined atomoxetine/fluoxetine therapy in a population of children and adolescents with ADHD and concurrent symptoms of depression or…

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volumetric Analysis of the Putamen in Children with ADHD: Combined Type versus Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Tasha McMahon; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Gregory, Amanda Louise; Murphy, Jennifer Mary; Lancaster, Jack Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Volumetric differences in the putamen of boys with ADHD combined subtype with psychopathic traits and controls are investigated. Method: The putamen in 24 archival magnetic resonance imaging scans of 12 boys in residential treatment with symptoms of ADHD and psychopathic traits and 12 community control boys are analyzed using Display…

  1. Motivational Differences among Students with ADHD Reading Disabilities, Combined Groups, and Typical Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess reading motivational differences of students with reading disabilities/difficulties (RD), attention deficit hyperactive disorders/at-risk for ADHD, combined groups (RD+ADHD), and non-disabled comparisons (ND). Most motivational research has made academic motivational comparisons with typical students without…

  2. Motivational Differences among Students with ADHD Reading Disabilities, Combined Groups, and Typical Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess reading motivational differences of students with reading disabilities/difficulties (RD), attention deficit hyperactive disorders/at-risk for ADHD, combined groups (RD+ADHD), and non-disabled comparisons (ND). Most motivational research has made academic motivational comparisons with typical students without…

  3. Distinct neural signatures detected for ADHD subtypes after controlling for micro-movements in resting state functional connectivity MRI data

    PubMed Central

    Fair, Damien A.; Nigg, Joel T.; Iyer, Swathi; Bathula, Deepti; Mills, Kathryn L.; Dosenbach, Nico U. F.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Mennes, Maarten; Gutman, David; Bangaru, Saroja; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Di Martino, Adriana; Kennedy, David N.; Kelly, Clare; Luna, Beatriz; Schweitzer, Julie B.; Velanova, Katerina; Wang, Yu-Feng; Mostofsky, Stewart; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing enthusiasm that functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could achieve clinical utility for a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, several barriers remain. For example, the acquisition of large-scale datasets capable of clarifying the marked heterogeneity that exists in psychiatric illnesses will need to be realized. In addition, there continues to be a need for the development of image processing and analysis methods capable of separating signal from artifact. As a prototypical hyperkinetic disorder, and movement-related artifact being a significant confound in functional imaging studies, ADHD offers a unique challenge. As part of the ADHD-200 Global Competition and this special edition of Frontiers, the ADHD-200 Consortium demonstrates the utility of an aggregate dataset pooled across five institutions in addressing these challenges. The work aimed to (1) examine the impact of emerging techniques for controlling for “micro-movements,” and (2) provide novel insights into the neural correlates of ADHD subtypes. Using support vector machine (SVM)-based multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) we show that functional connectivity patterns in individuals are capable of differentiating the two most prominent ADHD subtypes. The application of graph-theory revealed that the Combined (ADHD-C) and Inattentive (ADHD-I) subtypes demonstrated some overlapping (particularly sensorimotor systems), but unique patterns of atypical connectivity. For ADHD-C, atypical connectivity was prominent in midline default network components, as well as insular cortex; in contrast, the ADHD-I group exhibited atypical patterns within the dlPFC regions and cerebellum. Systematic motion-related artifact was noted, and highlighted the need for stringent motion correction. Findings reported were robust to the specific motion correction strategy employed. These data suggest that resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) data can

  4. The Impact of Adult ADHD in the Quality of Life Profile.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Javier; Morales, Isabel; Vera, Rosa; Zuluaga, Pilar; Fernández, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    In this multicenter, cross-sectional study, we aimed to investigate the quality of life (QoL) and the neuropsychological and clinical characteristics of adults with ADHD with different developmental pathways. Our study sample included 25 control (healthy) participants, 31 patients with newly diagnosed ADHD without comorbidities (ADHD-C-D), 31 with newly diagnosed ADHD with comorbidities (ADHD+C-D), and 29 with previously diagnosed ADHD with comorbidities (ADHD+C+D). Compared with controls, ADHDs had little differences in the attentional performance but showed higher impulsivity, more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety, and lower QoL. The ADHD+C-D group showed more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety than the ADHD+C+D group ( p = .037 and p = .008, respectively), and poorer QoL in the psychological health sphere ( p = .003). Differences between ADHD and control subjects were particularly remarkable in mood symptoms and QoL. Previous diagnosis might have a positive impact on mood symptoms and QoL in ADHD adults.

  5. Subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): distinct or related disorders across measurement levels?

    PubMed

    Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert; Walle, Johan Vande

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding differences and similarities between the inattentive (IA) and combined (C) subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in order to detail challenges concerning further conceptualization, diagnostics, and treatment. The literature on ADHD-IA and ADHD-C was reviewed and contrasted across genetic, neuroanatomical, neurophysiological/ neurochemical, neuro(psycho)logical, and clinical psychiatric measurement levels. It was found that the more fundamental the measurement level, the less unambiguous evidence is found for subtype differences. Only on the clinical psychiatric diagnostic level, do more or less clear-cut differences in cognitive, social, academic, and behavioural functioning emerge. In conclusion, fundamental research that compares ADHD-IA and ADHD-C is relatively rare. At this point, only irrefutable phenomenological evidence of subtype differences seems to be available, even in attention problems which are presumed to be identical. The question as to whether both subtypes should be considered as two independent disorders was not adequately resolved.

  6. Individual and combined effects of LD and ADHD on computerized neurocognitive concussion test performance: evidence for separate norms.

    PubMed

    Elbin, R J; Kontos, Anthony P; Kegel, Nate; Johnson, Eric; Burkhart, Scott; Schatz, Philip

    2013-08-01

    Decreased neurocognitive performance in individuals with self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD) is well documented in the neuropsychological research literature. Previous studies employing paper-and-pencil neurocognitive assessments report lower performance in individuals with ADHD and LD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of a self-reported diagnosis of LD, ADHD, and combined LD/ADHD on baseline computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT) used for the concussion assessment. Results revealed athletes with a self-reported diagnosis of LD, ADHD, and/or combined LD/ADHD demonstrated lower performance on baseline CNT and reported larger numbers of symptoms than did control athletes without these diagnoses. These findings provide evidence for the development of separate normative data for athletes with LD, ADHD, and LD/ADHD diagnoses on CNT batteries commonly used for concussion management.

  7. ADHD-200 Global Competition: diagnosing ADHD using personal characteristic data can outperform resting state fMRI measurements.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew R G; Sidhu, Gagan S; Greiner, Russell; Asgarian, Nasimeh; Bastani, Meysam; Silverstone, Peter H; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Dursun, Serdar M

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging-based diagnostics could potentially assist clinicians to make more accurate diagnoses resulting in faster, more effective treatment. We participated in the 2011 ADHD-200 Global Competition which involved analyzing a large dataset of 973 participants including Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and healthy controls. Each participant's data included a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as well as personal characteristic and diagnostic data. The goal was to learn a machine learning classifier that used a participant's resting state fMRI scan to diagnose (classify) that individual into one of three categories: healthy control, ADHD combined (ADHD-C) type, or ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I) type. We used participants' personal characteristic data (site of data collection, age, gender, handedness, performance IQ, verbal IQ, and full scale IQ), without any fMRI data, as input to a logistic classifier to generate diagnostic predictions. Surprisingly, this approach achieved the highest diagnostic accuracy (62.52%) as well as the highest score (124 of 195) of any of the 21 teams participating in the competition. These results demonstrate the importance of accounting for differences in age, gender, and other personal characteristics in imaging diagnostics research. We discuss further implications of these results for fMRI-based diagnosis as well as fMRI-based clinical research. We also document our tests with a variety of imaging-based diagnostic methods, none of which performed as well as the logistic classifier using only personal characteristic data.

  8. ADHD-200 Global Competition: diagnosing ADHD using personal characteristic data can outperform resting state fMRI measurements

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Matthew R. G.; Sidhu, Gagan S.; Greiner, Russell; Asgarian, Nasimeh; Bastani, Meysam; Silverstone, Peter H.; Greenshaw, Andrew J.; Dursun, Serdar M.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging-based diagnostics could potentially assist clinicians to make more accurate diagnoses resulting in faster, more effective treatment. We participated in the 2011 ADHD-200 Global Competition which involved analyzing a large dataset of 973 participants including Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and healthy controls. Each participant's data included a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as well as personal characteristic and diagnostic data. The goal was to learn a machine learning classifier that used a participant's resting state fMRI scan to diagnose (classify) that individual into one of three categories: healthy control, ADHD combined (ADHD-C) type, or ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I) type. We used participants' personal characteristic data (site of data collection, age, gender, handedness, performance IQ, verbal IQ, and full scale IQ), without any fMRI data, as input to a logistic classifier to generate diagnostic predictions. Surprisingly, this approach achieved the highest diagnostic accuracy (62.52%) as well as the highest score (124 of 195) of any of the 21 teams participating in the competition. These results demonstrate the importance of accounting for differences in age, gender, and other personal characteristics in imaging diagnostics research. We discuss further implications of these results for fMRI-based diagnosis as well as fMRI-based clinical research. We also document our tests with a variety of imaging-based diagnostic methods, none of which performed as well as the logistic classifier using only personal characteristic data. PMID:23060754

  9. Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour in South African children.

    PubMed

    Aase, Heidi; Meyer, Anneke; Sagvolden, Terje

    2006-03-28

    The behaviour of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is characterized by low predictability of responding. Low behavioural predictability is one way of operationalizing intra-individual ADHD-related variability. ADHD-related variability may be caused by inefficient behavioural selection mechanisms linked to reinforcement and extinction, as suggested by the recently published dynamic developmental theory (DDT) of ADHD. DDT argues that ADHD is a basic neurobehavioural disorder, caused by dysfunctioning dopamine systems. For establishing ADHD as a neurobehavioural disorder, findings from studies conducted in Western countries should be replicated in other cultural populations. The present study replicated the study conducted in Norway, with children from the Limpopo province in the Republic of South Africa. Boys and girls, aged 6-9 yr, from seven ethnic groups participated. Scores by teachers on the Disruptive Behavior Disorders rating scale defined participation in either ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive (-HI), ADHD-predominantly inattentive (-PI), or ADHD-combined (-C) groups. Children below the 86th percentile were matched on gender and age and comprised the non-ADHD group. The children completed a computerized game-like task where mouse clicks on one of two squares on the screen resulted in delivery of a reinforcer according to a variable interval schedule of reinforcement. Reinforcers were cartoon pictures presented on the screen together with a sound. Predictability of response location and timing were measured in terms of explained variance. Overall, the results replicated findings from Norway. Specifically, the ADHD-C group showed significantly lower predictability of responding than the non-ADHD group, while the ADHD-HI and the ADHD-PI groups were in-between. In accordance with the previous study, response location, but not response timing, was a sensitive behavioural measure. There were no significant gender differences. Cartoon pictures were

  10. Game-based combined cognitive and neurofeedback training using Focus Pocus reduces symptom severity in children with diagnosed AD/HD and subclinical AD/HD.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Stuart J; Roodenrys, Steven J; Johnson, Kirsten; Bonfield, Rebecca; Bennett, Susan J

    2017-02-28

    Previous studies report reductions in symptom severity after combined working memory (WM) and inhibitory control (IC) training in children with AD/HD. Based on theoretical accounts of the role of arousal/attention modulation problems in AD/HD, the current study examined the efficacy of combined WM, IC, and neurofeedback training in children with AD/HD and subclinical AD/HD. Using a randomized waitlist control design, 85 children were randomly allocated to a training or waitlist condition and completed pre- and post-training assessments of overt behavior, trained and untrained cognitive task performance, and resting and task-related EEG activity. The training group completed twenty-five sessions of training using Focus Pocus software at home over a 7 to 8-week period. Trainees improved at the trained tasks, while enjoyment and engagement declined across sessions. After training, AD/HD symptom severity was reduced in the AD/HD and subclinical groups according to parents, and in the former group only according to blinded teachers and significant-others. There were minor improvements in two of six near-transfer tasks, and evidence of far-transfer of training effects in four of five far-transfer tasks. Frontal region changes indicated normalization of atypical EEG features with reduced delta and increased alpha activity. It is concluded that technology developments provide an interesting a vehicle for delivering interventions and that, while further research is needed, combined WM, IC, and neurofeedback training can reduce AD/HD symptom severity in children with AD/HD and may also be beneficial to children with subclinical AD/HD.

  11. WISC-IV profiles are associated with differences in symptomatology and outcome in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Bello, Danielle T; Etcoff, Lewis M

    2013-05-01

    The current study investigated the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) cluster profiles of children with ADHD to examine the association between IQ profiles and diagnostic frequency, symptomatology, and outcome in this population. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on 189 children with a diagnosis of ADHD-inattentive (ADHD-I) and ADHD-combined (ADHD-C) subtypes. Clusters were then compared across symptom rating scale factor scores, behavioral rating scales, and achievement scores. A five-cluster solution was extracted. One cluster was identified to have reduced processing speed relative to other WISC-IV indexes and significantly higher ratings of inattention and incidence of ADHD-I diagnosis. A second cluster had impairments in processing speed and working memory and was associated with impaired behavioral functioning. Findings support a relationship between reduced processing speed and inattention and provide evidence that WISC-IV profiles may be helpful in predicting symptomatology and outcome in children with ADHD.

  12. Social Functioning in Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Subtypes of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Pope-Boyd, Sabrina A.; Tryon, Warren W.; Stepak, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the social functioning of children with the Combined (CB) and Predominantly Inattentive (PI) subtypes of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), controlling for comorbidity and medication-status, which may have confounded the results of previous research. Method: Parents and teachers…

  13. Neurocognitive Functioning in AD/HD, Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Gilbert, Sharone N.; Raj, Anu; Zhu, John; Pope-Boyd, Sa'brina; Stepak, Brenda; Vail, Lucia; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2007-01-01

    The Predominantly Inattentive (PI) and Combined (CB) subtypes of AD/HD differ in cognitive tempo, age of onset, gender ratio, and comorbidity, yet a differentiating endophenotype has not been identified. The aim of this study was to test rigorously diagnosed PI, CB, and typical children on measures selected for their potential to reveal…

  14. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anneke; Sagvolden, Terje

    2006-10-09

    Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1) Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2) Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3) Are there gender differences? (4) Is there an effect of age? (5) Are there differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand? A total of 528 children (264 classified as having symptoms of ADHD and 264 matched comparisons) of both genders and from seven different South African ethnic groups participated in the study. They were assessed with three simple, easy to administer instruments which measure various functions of motor speed and eye-hand coordination: The Grooved Pegboard, the Maze Coordination Task, and the Finger Tapping Test. The results were analysed as a function of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance. The findings indicate that children with symptoms of ADHD performed significantly poorer on the Grooved Pegboard and Motor Coordination Task, but not on the Finger Tapping Test than their comparisons without ADHD symptoms. The impairment was most severe for the subtype with symptoms of ADHD-C (combined) and less severe for the subtypes with symptoms of ADHD-PI (predominantly inattentive) and ADHD-HI (predominantly hyperactive/impulsive). With few exceptions, both genders were equally affected while there were only slight differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand. The deficiencies in motor control were mainly confined to the younger age group (6-9 yr). An association between the symptoms of ADHD and motor problems was demonstrated in terms of accuracy and speed in fairly complex tasks, but not in simple motor tests of speed. This deficiency is found mainly in the children with ADHD-C symptoms, but also to a

  15. Task Demands Interact with the Single and Combined Effects of Medication and Contingencies on Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamm, Leanne; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate single and combined effects of stimulant medication and contingencies on the performance of ADHD children with tasks involving different cognitive demands. Method: Children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a within-subjects design. At two separate sessions, children on either medication or placebo (administered in a…

  16. Task Demands Interact with the Single and Combined Effects of Medication and Contingencies on Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamm, Leanne; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate single and combined effects of stimulant medication and contingencies on the performance of ADHD children with tasks involving different cognitive demands. Method: Children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a within-subjects design. At two separate sessions, children on either medication or placebo (administered in a…

  17. A Combined Treatment Approach for Adults with ADHD--Results of an Open Study of 43 Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostain, Anthony L.; Ramsay, J. Russell

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Increasing numbers of adults are seeking treatment for ADHD. Pharmacotherapy is well established as the first line treatment for adult ADHD, although medications alone may be insufficient treatment for the myriad problems experienced by these patients. Few studies have examined the clinical outcomes of a combination of pharmacotherapy…

  18. Executive functioning in children with Asperger syndrome, ADHD-combined type, ADHD-predominately inattentive type, and controls.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Butcher, Brianne

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychological and behavioral rating measures of executive functions (EF) in children with two subtypes of ADHD, Asperger syndrome (AS), and controls. Relative to the control group, the clinical groups experienced more difficulty in EF. The AS group showed the most difficulty in emotional control, behavioral regulation, fluid reasoning, and planning compared to the ADHD groups. Number of symptoms of ADHD or AS was found to be significantly related to ratings of difficulty with behavior regulation, metacognition, and general behavioral regulation across the sample. These findings indicate that children with AS or ADHD may have a differing EF profile and thus, may respond differentially to interventions.

  19. Improving outcomes for youth with ADHD: a conceptual framework for combined neurocognitive and skill-based treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Anil; Kofler, Michael; Jarrett, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and chronic mental health condition that often results in substantial impairments throughout life. Although evidence-based pharmacological and psychosocial treatments exist for ADHD, effects of these treatments are acute, do not typically generalize into non-treated settings, rarely sustain over time, and insufficiently affect key areas of functional impairment (i.e., family, social, and academic functioning) and executive functioning. The limitations of current evidence-based treatments may be due to the inability of these treatments to address underlying neurocognitive deficits that are related to the symptoms of ADHD and associated areas of functional impairment. Although efforts have been made to directly target the underlying neurocognitive deficits of ADHD, extant neurocognitive interventions have shown limited efficacy, possibly due to misspecification of training targets and inadequate potency. We argue herein that despite these limitations, next-generation neurocognitive training programs that more precisely and potently target neurocognitive deficits may lead to optimal outcomes when used in combination with specific skill-based psychosocial treatments for ADHD. We discuss the rationale for such a combined treatment approach, prominent examples of this combined treatment approach for other mental health disorders, and potential combined treatment approaches for pediatric ADHD. Finally, we conclude with directions for future research necessary to develop a combined neurocognitive + skill-based treatment for youth with ADHD.

  20. Improving Outcomes for Youth with ADHD: A Conceptual Framework for Combined Neurocognitive and Skill-Based Treatment Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Anil; Kofler, Michael; Jarrett, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and chronic mental health condition that often results in substantial impairments throughout life. Although evidence-based pharmacological and psychosocial treatments exist for ADHD, effects of these treatments are acute, do not typically generalize into non-treated settings, rarely sustain over time, and insufficiently affect key areas of functional impairment (i.e., family, social, and academic functioning) and executive functioning. The limitations of current evidence-based treatments may be due to the inability of these treatments to address underlying neurocognitive deficits that are related to the symptoms of ADHD and associated areas of functional impairment. Although efforts have been made to directly target the underlying neurocognitive deficits of ADHD, extant neurocognitive interventions have shown limited efficacy, possibly due to misspecification of training targets and inadequate potency. We argue herein that despite these limitations, next-generation neurocognitive training programs that more precisely and potently target neurocognitive deficits may lead to optimal outcomes when used in combination with specific skill-based psychosocial treatments for ADHD. We discuss the rationale for such a combined treatment approach, prominent examples of this combined treatment approach for other mental health disorders, and potential combined treatment approaches for pediatric ADHD. Finally, we conclude with directions for future research necessary to develop a combined neurocognitive + skill-based treatment for youth with ADHD. PMID:25120200

  1. Atypical left-right balance of visuomotor awareness in adult ADHD (combined type) on a test of executive function.

    PubMed

    Braun, Claude M J; Delisle, Josée; Suffren, Sabrina; Bolduc, Mélanie

    2013-01-01

    Significant left subclinical hemi-neglect or "hemi-unawareness" in juvenile and adult ADHD has been reported many times. However, this literature has never been thoroughly reviewed, and is generally ignored in neuropsychological accounts of ADHD. The purposes of the present report were (1) to introduce a systematic review of this literature and (2) to prospectively test whether adults with ADHD (combined type) would present left hemi-unawareness measurable on a test of executive function commonly used with children and adults with ADHD, the Colour-Word Interference Test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functions System. This test requires participants to discriminate unusual stimulus characteristics by stating words aloud while visually scanning plates comprising either 50 colour patches or 50 words. A total of 28 ADHD adults (combined type) and 30 IQ-, age-, and gender-matched controls completed the task. The ADHD group manifested a significantly higher proportion of errors on the left than right sides of the plates. This atypical left-right balance was related to severity of the ADHD according to the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) as well as to several other indicators from the Continuous Performance Test-II.

  2. An efficacy study of a combined parent and teacher management training programme for children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ostberg, Monica; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2012-04-01

    Several parent training programmes and behavioural teacher training programmes built on learning theory have been developed for problem prevention and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) during the last few decades. Group format has often been used for parent training but single-subject designs are more common in teacher training. More studies have focussed on pre-school children than on older children, and a minority have been conducted in public mental health settings. This study aimed to evaluate a combined parent and teacher manual-based group training programme for children with ADHD conducted by the staff at a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic in Sweden. The intervention was a modified version of Barkley's programme. Children were randomized to an Intervention or a Control group. Sixty-one parents and 68 teachers answered questions about ADHD and ODD symptoms, and about behavioural problems when the study started and at a 3-month follow-up. RESULTS showed that the intervention resulted in a reduction of the number of children who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and/or ODD. Effects were more pronounced in the home setting than in the school setting, and were further accentuated when both parents and teachers of the same child took part in the intervention. Teachers with more problematic classroom situations benefited most from the intervention. The programme, "Strategies in Everyday Life", has, in a regular clinical setting, demonstrated promising effects on children's disruptive behaviour, and a clinical implication was to recommend involving both parents and teachers in the programme.

  3. Executive Functioning in Children with Asperger Syndrome, ADHD-Combined Type, ADHD-Predominately Inattentive Type, and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Butcher, Brianne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychological and behavioral rating measures of executive functions (EF) in children with two subtypes of ADHD, Asperger syndrome (AS), and controls. Relative to the control group, the clinical groups experienced more difficulty in EF. The AS group showed the most difficulty in emotional control,…

  4. Executive Functioning in Children with Asperger Syndrome, ADHD-Combined Type, ADHD-Predominately Inattentive Type, and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Butcher, Brianne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychological and behavioral rating measures of executive functions (EF) in children with two subtypes of ADHD, Asperger syndrome (AS), and controls. Relative to the control group, the clinical groups experienced more difficulty in EF. The AS group showed the most difficulty in emotional control,…

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Omega-3/6 Fatty Acids, Methylphenidate, and a Combined Treatment in Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Barragán, Eduardo; Breuer, Dieter; Döpfner, Manfred

    2017-03-01

    To compare efficacy of Omega-3/6 fatty acids (Equazen eye q™) with methylphenidate (MPH) and combined MPH + Omega-3/6 in children with ADHD. Participants ( N = 90) were randomized to Omega-3/6, long-acting MPH, or combination for 12 months. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scale. ADHD symptoms decreased in all treatment arms. Although significant differences favoring Omega + MPH over Omega-3/6 alone were found for ADHD Total and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subscales, results on the Inattention subscale were similar. CGI-S scores decreased slowly and consistently with Omega-3/6, compared with a rapid decrease and subsequent slight increase in the MPH-containing arms. Adverse events were numerically less frequent with Omega-3/6 or MPH + Omega-3/6 than MPH alone. The tested combination of Omega-3/6 fatty acids had similar effects to MPH, whereas the MPH + Omega combination appeared to have some tolerability benefits over MPH.

  6. The Motor Function Neurological Assessment (MFNU) as an indicator of motor function problems in boys with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Stray, Liv Larsen; Stray, Torstein; Iversen, Synnøve; Ruud, Anne; Ellertsen, Bjørn; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2009-01-01

    Background The paper presents the Motor Function Neurological Assessment (MFNU), as a tool for identifying typical motor function problems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study investigated motor functions in boys diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD, F.90.0). HKD corresponds to the ADHD-combined (ADHD-C) diagnosis in the DSM-IV. The paper addresses the ability of the instrument to discriminate between non-medicated boys with HKD and a control group consisting of normal non-referred boys without any clinical significant ADHD symptoms. Methods 25 drug-naïve boys, aged 8–12 years and recently diagnosed as HKD F90.0, were compared with 27 controls, all boys in the same age range, on 17 MFNU subtests, and with a 'Total score' parameter. Results On the individual subtests 80–96% (median 88%) of the ADHD group showed 'moderate' to 'severe' problems, compared to 0–44% (median 14.8%) within the control group. The percentage of 'severe problems' ranged from 44–84%, (median 64%) in the ADHD group, and 0–44% (median 0%) in the control group. The highly significant differences found between the groups on all subtests, and on the Total score scores, indicated that the MFNU had a high discriminative power when children with ADHD and normal controls were compared. The Total score parameter seemed to be a meaningful discriminator of a common underlying factor of the 17 subtests used in the study. Conclusion The study confirms our clinical findings that the MFNU measures a consistent pattern of motor function problems in children with HKD, and that these problems are rarely represented in individuals without ADHD. Further research is needed to investigate to what extent the MFNU taps motor problems that are truly specific to ADHD, in contrast to motor problems common to children with DCD or other clinical problems. PMID:19450246

  7. Multiclass Classification for the Differential Diagnosis on the ADHD Subtypes Using Recursive Feature Elimination and Hierarchical Extreme Learning Machine: Structural MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Naveed Iqbal; Min, Beomjun; Jo, Hang Joon; Lee, Boreom

    2016-01-01

    The classification of neuroimaging data for the diagnosis of certain brain diseases is one of the main research goals of the neuroscience and clinical communities. In this study, we performed multiclass classification using a hierarchical extreme learning machine (H-ELM) classifier. We compared the performance of this classifier with that of a support vector machine (SVM) and basic extreme learning machine (ELM) for cortical MRI data from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. We used 159 structural MRI images of children from the publicly available ADHD-200 MRI dataset. The data consisted of three types, namely, typically developing (TDC), ADHD-inattentive (ADHD-I), and ADHD-combined (ADHD-C). We carried out feature selection by using standard SVM-based recursive feature elimination (RFE-SVM) that enabled us to achieve good classification accuracy (60.78%). In this study, we found the RFE-SVM feature selection approach in combination with H-ELM to effectively enable the acquisition of high multiclass classification accuracy rates for structural neuroimaging data. In addition, we found that the most important features for classification were the surface area of the superior frontal lobe, and the cortical thickness, volume, and mean surface area of the whole cortex.

  8. Event-Related Potentials in Adolescents with Combined ADHD and CD Disorder: A Single Stimulus Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jing; Li, Jianming; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Qianjin; Livesley, W. John; Jang, Kerry L.; Wang, Kai; Wang, Wei

    2006-01-01

    Some studies of the event-related potentials demonstrated a reduction of the voluntary component P3 (P300 or P3b) in youngsters with the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or in conduct disorders (CD), and a reduction of the automatic processing component, mismatch negativity, in patients with both ADHD and CD (ADHD+CD). Recently, a…

  9. Event-Related Potentials in Adolescents with Combined ADHD and CD Disorder: A Single Stimulus Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jing; Li, Jianming; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Qianjin; Livesley, W. John; Jang, Kerry L.; Wang, Kai; Wang, Wei

    2006-01-01

    Some studies of the event-related potentials demonstrated a reduction of the voluntary component P3 (P300 or P3b) in youngsters with the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or in conduct disorders (CD), and a reduction of the automatic processing component, mismatch negativity, in patients with both ADHD and CD (ADHD+CD). Recently, a…

  10. Distinct Response Time Distributions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Querne, Laurent; Berquin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To address the issue of response time (RT) profiles in hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI), inattentive (ADHD-IA), and combined (ADHD-C) subtypes of ADHD. We hypothesized that children with ADHD-HI should respond more rapidly than children without ADHD and children with ADHD-IA and ADHD-C should respond more slowly than children without…

  11. Distinct Response Time Distributions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Querne, Laurent; Berquin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To address the issue of response time (RT) profiles in hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI), inattentive (ADHD-IA), and combined (ADHD-C) subtypes of ADHD. We hypothesized that children with ADHD-HI should respond more rapidly than children without ADHD and children with ADHD-IA and ADHD-C should respond more slowly than children without…

  12. Smaller splenium in children with nonverbal learning disability compared to controls, high-functioning autism and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Musielak, Kayla A; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated morphological differences in the corpus callosum in children ages 8 to 18 years old with nonverbal learning disability (NLD; n = 19), high-functioning autism (HFA; n = 23), predominantly inattentive ADHD (ADHD:PI; n = 23), and combined type ADHD (ADHD:C; n = 25), as well as those demonstrating typical development (n = 57). Midsagittal area of the corpus callosum and five midsagittal anterior-to-posterior corpus callosum segments were examined using magnetic resonance imaging. Controlling for midsagittal brain area and age, no group differences were found for total corpus callosum area. This finding indicates that higher functioning children on the autistic spectrum do not have smaller corpus callosi as has been found in previous research with heterogeneous samples. Following segmentation of the corpus callosum, the NLD group was observed to have significantly smaller splenia compared to all other groups. Smaller splenia in the NLD group was associated with lower WASI PIQ scores but not WASI VIQ scores. Children with HFA were observed to have larger midbody areas than children with NLD and neurotypically developing children. Children with HFA and NLD demonstrated behavioral symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity similar to the ADHD groups indicating that corpus callosum differences seen in the NLD and HFA groups are not related to these behaviors.

  13. Diagnostic Instability of "DSM-IV" ADHD Subtypes: Effects of Informant Source, Instrumentation, and Methods for Combining Symptom Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valo, Shana; Tannock, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 123 children (aged 6-12 years) referred consecutively to a pediatric neuropsychiatry clinic by community physicians for assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and related problems, we investigated the effects of informant (parent, teacher), tool (interview, rating scale), and method for combining symptom…

  14. Differences in academic and executive function domains among children with ADHD Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Types.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Cynthia A; Homack, Susan; Jarratt, Kelly Pizzitola; Wolfe, Monica E

    2006-10-01

    Differences between the subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) continue to have a place in the clinical and research literature. The purpose of this study was to examine differences specific to academic and executive function deficits in a sample of 40 children, aged 9-15 years. Although there was a tendency for the Predominantly Inattentive (PI) group to evidence lower performance on calculation and written expression tasks, these differences dissipated when IQ was included as a covariate. For executive function domains of set shifting, interference, inhibition, and planning, differences emerged for interference, but only when girls were excluded from the analysis and no control for IQ was made. For parent ratings of executive function, expected differences were found on the Inhibit scale with the Combined Type (CT) group evidencing greater problems in this area; this difference remained even when girls were excluded and IQ was controlled. Implications for research and practice are presented.

  15. Comparative Cost Analysis of Sequential, Adaptive, Behavioral, Pharmacological, and Combined Treatments for Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Page, Timothy F.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Hart, Katie; Coxe, Stefany; Waxmonsky, James G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted a cost-analysis of the behavioral, pharmacological, and combined interventions employed in a sequential, multiple assignment randomized, and adaptive trial investigating the sequencing and enhancement of treatment for ADHD children (Pelham et al., under review; N=152, 76% male, 80% Caucasian). Methods The quantity of resources expended on each child’s treatment was determined from records that listed the type, date, location, persons present, and duration of all services provided. The inputs considered were the amount of physician time, clinician time, paraprofessional time, teacher time, parent time, medication, and gasoline. Quantities of these inputs were converted into costs in 2013 USD using national wage estimates from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the prices of 30-day supplies of prescription drugs from the national Express Scripts service, and mean fuel prices from the Energy Information Administration. Results Beginning treatment with a low-intensity regimen of behavior modification (group parent training) was less costly for a school-year of treatment ($961) than beginning treatment with a low dose of stimulant medication ($1689), regardless of whether the initial treatment was intensified with a higher “dose” or if the other modality was added. Conclusions Outcome data from the parent study (Pelham et al., under review) found equivalent or superior outcomes for treatments beginning with low-intensity behavior modification compared to intervention beginning with medication. Combined with the present analyses, these findings document that initiating treatment with behavior modification rather than medication is the more cost-effective option for children with ADHD. PMID:26808137

  16. Direct and indirect measures of social perception, behavior, and emotional functioning in children with Asperger's disorder, nonverbal learning disability, or ADHD.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Minne, Elizabeth Portman

    2010-05-01

    Understanding social interactions is crucial for development of social competence. The present study was one of the first to utilize direct and indirect measures of social perception to explore possible differences among children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), Asperger's Syndrome (AS), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined (ADHD-C), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Predominately Inattentive (ADHD-PI), and controls (N = 342). Multiple informants provided ratings of the child's behavioral and social functioning. Results indicated that the NLD and AS groups experienced the most difficulty understanding emotional and nonverbal cues on the direct measure. In addition, children with AS or NLD showed significant signs of sadness and social withdrawal compared to the other groups. Attentional skills, while related to social perception, did not predict social perception difficulties to the same degree as number of AS symptoms.

  17. Family Adversity in DSM-IV ADHD Combined and Inattentive Subtypes and Associated Disruptive Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Carla A.; Nigg, Joel T.; Stawicki, Julie Ann; Rappley, Marsha D.; von Eye, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the relationship between a family adversity index and DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes and associated behavior problems. The relationship of family adversity to symptoms and subtypes of ADHD was examined. Method: Parents and 206 children aged 7-13 completed diagnostic interviews and…

  18. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Medicación para el tratamiento del TDAH (ADHD) Managing ADHD With Medicine Just about everyone has trouble concentrating ...

  19. Combined cognitive and parent training interventions for adolescents with ADHD and their mothers: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Steeger, Christine M; Gondoli, Dawn M; Gibson, Bradley S; Morrissey, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the individual and combined effects of two nonpharmacological treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Cogmed working memory training (CWMT) for adolescents and behavioral parent training (BPT) for mothers. Ninety-one adolescents (ages 11-15) and their mothers were randomized to one of four CWMT and BPT treatment and active control (placebo) group combinations of 5-week interventions. At pre- and posttest, mothers and teachers completed rating forms, and adolescents completed neuropsychological measures of working memory (WM). Individual intervention effects showed that treatment CWMT significantly improved WM spans, whereas there were no significant differences for treatment or control BPT on reports of parent-related outcomes. Combined treatment effects indicated an overall pattern of greatest improvements for the control CWMT/treatment BPT group, as compared to the other three groups, on adolescent WM deficit, behavioral regulation problems, and global executive deficit. Most significant effects for outcomes were main effects of improvements over time. A combination of CWMT and BPT did not result in increased treatment gains. However, potential effects of combined treatment may have been masked by greater perceived benefits arising from lack of struggle in the nonadaptive, CWMT active control condition. Future combined intervention research should focus on specific, theoretically driven WM deficits among individuals with ADHD, should include possible adaptations to the standard CWMT program, should examine effectiveness of cognitive treatments combined with contextual interventions and should utilize appropriate control groups to fully understand the unique and combined effects of interventions.

  20. Neurocognitive functioning in AD/HD, predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes.

    PubMed

    Solanto, Mary V; Gilbert, Sharone N; Raj, Anu; Zhu, John; Pope-Boyd, Sabrina; Pope-Boyd, Sa'brina; Stepak, Brenda; Vail, Lucia; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2007-10-01

    The Predominantly Inattentive (PI) and Combined (CB) subtypes of AD/HD differ in cognitive tempo, age of onset, gender ratio, and comorbidity, yet a differentiating endophenotype has not been identified. The aim of this study was to test rigorously diagnosed PI, CB, and typical children on measures selected for their potential to reveal hypothesized differences between the subtypes in specific neurocognitive systems (anterior vs. posterior attentional systems) and processes (arousal vs. activation). Thirty-four CB and 26 PI children meeting full DSM-IV criteria for subtype both in school and at home, without confounding reading disability or emotional disorder, were enrolled along with 20 typically developing children. Neurocognitive functions measured included attention, inhibitory control, working memory, learning, and executive functions. Tasks included the Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Buschke Selective Reminding Test, ad the Tower of London (TOL), as well as instruments developed by Posner and Sternberg, and tasks assessing the impact on reaction time of [corrected] varying preparatory intervals and stimulus/response complexity. After co-varying for IQ, subtypes differed primarily on measures of impulsivity during tests of vigilance (CPT) and executive function (TOL), with the CB group showing greater impulsivity than both other groups. In addition, the PI group showed worse performance than CB and control groups on the WISC-III Processing Speed Index. Whether analyzed with or without an IQ co-variate, there was no support in the data for hypothesized differences between subtypes in functioning of the anterior vs. posterior attentional systems, nor in involvement of arousal vs. activation processes. The results indicate that the PI and CB subtypes are best differentiated by ratings, observations and tests of cognitive tempo and behavioral impulsivity. Neuropsychological methods have yet to identify critical

  1. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... under a psychiatrist's or other doctor's care. ADHD medications have helped teens with ADHD in all sorts of areas, even helping reduce things like substance abuse, injuries, and automobile accidents. ADHD medicines also can ...

  2. Epistatic and gene wide effects in YWHA and aromatic amino hydroxylase genes across ADHD and other common neuropsychiatric disorders: Association with YWHAE

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Kaya K.; Kleppe, Rune; Johansson, Stefan; Zayats, Tetyana

    2015-01-01

    Monoamines critically modulate neurophysiological functions affected in several neuropsychiatric disorders. We therefore examined genes encoding key enzymes of catecholamine and serotonin biosynthesis (tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases—TH and TPH1/2) as well as their regulatory 14‐3‐3 proteins (encoded by YWHA‐genes). Previous studies have focused mainly on the individual genes, but no analysis spanning this regulatory network has been reported. We explored interactions between these genes in Norwegian patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (aADHD), followed by gene‐complex association tests in four major neuropsychiatric conditions; childhood ADHD (cADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder. For interaction analyses, we evaluated 55 SNPs across these genes in a sample of 583 aADHD patients and 637 controls. For the gene‐complex tests, we utilized the data from large‐scale studies of The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). The four major neuropsychiatric disorders were examined for association with each of the genes individually as well as in three complexes as follows: (1) TPH1 and YWHA‐genes; (2) TH, TPH2 and YWHA‐genes; and (3) all genes together. The results show suggestive epistasis between YWHAE and two other 14‐3‐3‐genes ‐ YWHAZ, YWHAQ ‐ in aADHD (nominal P‐value of 0.0005 and 0.0008, respectively). In PGC data, association between YWHAE and schizophrenia was noted (P = 1.00E‐05), whereas the combination of TPH1 and YWHA‐genes revealed signs of association in cADHD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. In conclusion, polymorphisms in the YWHA‐genes and their targets may exert a cumulative effect in ADHD and related neuropsychiatric conditions, warranting the need for further investigation of these gene‐complexes. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26172220

  3. Combined Cognitive and Parent Training Interventions for Adolescents with ADHD and Their Mothers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Gibson, Bradley S.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the individual and combined effects of two non-pharmacological treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Cogmed working memory training (CWMT) for adolescents, and behavioral parent training (BPT) for mothers. Method Ninety-one adolescents (ages 11–15) and their mothers were randomized to one of four CWMT and BPT treatment and active control (placebo) group combinations of 5-week interventions. At pre- and post-test, mothers and teachers completed rating forms, and adolescents completed neuropsychological measures of working memory (WM). Results Individual intervention effects showed that treatment CWMT significantly improved WM spans, whereas there were no significant differences for treatment or control BPT on reports of parenting-related outcomes. Combined treatment effects indicated an overall pattern of greatest improvements for the control CWMT/treatment BPT group, as compared to the other three groups, on adolescent WM deficit, behavioral regulation problems, and global executive deficit. Most significant effects for outcomes were main effects of improvements over time. Conclusions: Combination CWMT and BPT did not result in increased treatment gains. However, potential effects of combined treatment may have been masked by greater perceived benefits arising from lack of struggle in the non-adaptive, CWMT active control condition. Future combined intervention research should focus on specific, theoretically-driven WM deficits among individuals with ADHD, include possible adaptations to the standard CWMT program, examine effectiveness of cognitive treatments combined with contextual interventions, and utilize appropriate control groups to fully understand the unique and combined effects of interventions. PMID:25731907

  4. Are there any potentially dangerous pharmacological effects of combining ADHD medication with alcohol and drugs of abuse? A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Barkla, Xanthe M; McArdle, Paul A; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2015-10-30

    Among young people up to 18 years of age, approximately 5% have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), many of whom have symptoms persisting into adulthood. ADHD is associated with increased risk of co-morbid psychiatric disorders, including substance misuse. Many will be prescribed medication, namely methylphenidate, atomoxetine, dexamphetamine and lisdexamfetamine. If so, it is important to know if interactions exist and if they are potentially toxic. Three databases (Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO) from a 22 year period (1992 - June 2014) were searched systematically. Key search terms included alcohol, substance related disorders, methylphenidate, atomoxetine, dexamphetamine, lisdexamfetamine, and death, which identified 493 citations (344 after removal of duplicates). The eligibility of each study was assessed jointly by two investigators, leaving 20 relevant articles. We identified only a minimal increase in side-effects when ADHD medication (therapeutic doses) was taken with alcohol. None of the reviewed studies showed severe sequelae among those who had overdosed on ADHD medication and other coingestants, including alcohol. The numbers across all the papers studied remain too low to exclude uncommon effects. Also, studies of combined effects with novel psychoactive substances have not yet appeared in the literature. Nevertheless, no serious sequelae were identified from combining ADHD medication with alcohol/illicit substances from the pre-novel psychoactive substance era.

  5. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  6. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... can have lifetime consequences . Compared with the general population, individuals with untreated ADHD have higher rates of ... study sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health found that a combination of medication and behavior ...

  8. A high-density SNP linkage scan with 142 combined subtype ADHD sib pairs identifies linkage regions on chromosomes 9 and 16.

    PubMed

    Asherson, P; Zhou, K; Anney, R J L; Franke, B; Buitelaar, J; Ebstein, R; Gill, M; Altink, M; Arnold, R; Boer, F; Brookes, K; Buschgens, C; Butler, L; Cambell, D; Chen, W; Christiansen, H; Feldman, L; Fleischman, K; Fliers, E; Howe-Forbes, R; Goldfarb, A; Heise, A; Gabriëls, I; Johansson, L; Lubetzki, I; Marco, R; Medad, S; Minderaa, R; Mulas, F; Müller, U; Mulligan, A; Neale, B; Rijsdijk, F; Rabin, K; Rommelse, N; Sethna, V; Sorohan, J; Uebel, H; Psychogiou, L; Weeks, A; Barrett, R; Xu, X; Banaschewski, T; Sonuga-Barke, E; Eisenberg, J; Manor, I; Miranda, A; Oades, R D; Roeyers, H; Rothenberger, A; Sergeant, J; Steinhausen, H-C; Taylor, E; Thompson, M; Faraone, S V

    2008-05-01

    As part of the International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics project we completed an affected sibling pair study of 142 narrowly defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) proband-sibling pairs. No linkage was observed on the most established ADHD-linked genomic regions of 5p and 17p. We found suggestive linkage signals on chromosomes 9 and 16, respectively, with the highest multipoint nonparametric linkage signal on chromosome 16q23 at 99 cM (log of the odds, LOD=3.1) overlapping data published from the previous UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) (LOD>1, approximately 95 cM) and Dutch (LOD>1, approximately 100 cM) studies. The second highest peak in this study was on chromosome 9q22 at 90 cM (LOD=2.13); both the previous UCLA and German studies also found some evidence of linkage at almost the same location (UCLA LOD=1.45 at 93 cM; German LOD=0.68 at 100 cM). The overlap of these two main peaks with previous findings suggests that loci linked to ADHD may lie within these regions. Meta-analysis or reanalysis of the raw data of all the available ADHD linkage scan data may help to clarify whether these represent true linked loci.

  9. Comparison of the DSM-IV Combined and Inattentive Types of ADHD in a School-Based Sample of Latino/Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; Matos, Maribel; Reina, Graciela; Salas, Carmen C.; Martinez, Jose V.; Cumba, Eduardo; Barkley, Russell A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of this investigation was to examine the construct validity and distinctiveness of the inattentive type (IT) and combined type (CT) of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a Latino/Hispanic sample. Method: A comprehensive assessment was conducted with a clinically diagnosed school-based sample of 98 children aged…

  10. Studying the Effectiveness of Combination Therapy (Based on Executive Function and Sensory Integration) Child-Centered on the Symptoms of Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salami, Fatemeh; Ashayeri, Hassan; Estaki, Mahnaz; Farzad, Valiollah; Entezar, Roya Koochak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the effectiveness of combination therapy based on executive function and sensory integration child-centered on ADHD. For this purpose, from among all first, second and third grade primary school students in Shiraz, 40 children were selected. The selected students were randomly assigned in two groups of…

  11. Differentiating among Children with PDD-NOS, ADHD, and Those with a Combined Diagnosis on the Basis of WISC-III Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirs, J. G. M.; Timmers, E. A.

    2009-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have partly overlapping symptoms. It can also be debated whether a third diagnostic category exists: children with a combined diagnosis. In this study an attempt was made to distinguish among the three groups on the basis of…

  12. Onset time of binocular rivalry and duration of inter-dominance periods as psychophysical markers of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Aznar Casanova, J Antonio; Amador Campos, Juan Antonio; Moreno Sánchez, Manuel; Supér, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the main neurobiological disorders in young children. Despite its prevalence, current diagnosis is debated. In this study we tested whether measures of binocular rivalry (BR) can contribute to the diagnosis of ADHD. BR is a phenomenon that is produced when two different images are presented to the two eyes simultaneously. Under these conditions the image presented to one eye competes with that presented to the other eye in seeking to achieve perceptual dominance. This competition is resolved through the activation of a given percept coupled with the suppression of the percept that had predominated until that point. We assume that the difficulty with inhibiting responses of ADHD children also affects their ability to inhibit the dominant image in a BR context. We analyzed the time to rivalry onset and the inter-dominance periods as measures of the temporal cost of resolving how long it takes for the brain to select (or suppress) one percept over the other. Our results show that the time to onset of rivalry (the first dominance) was longer in the clinical groups (ADHD-C and ADHD-I) than in the control group. As regards the inter-dominance periods, these were longer in the ADHD-C group than among controls, with the shortest period corresponding to the ADHD-I group. This study shows that BR can be used as a tool to develop a behavioral indicator of ADHD.

  13. One-Year Follow-Up of Combined Parent and Child Intervention for Young Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    Efficacies of the Incredible Years (IY) interventions are well-established in children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) but not among those with a primary diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to evaluate 1-year follow-up outcomes among young children with ADHD who were treated with the IY interventions.…

  14. One-Year Follow-Up of Combined Parent and Child Intervention for Young Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    Efficacies of the Incredible Years (IY) interventions are well-established in children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) but not among those with a primary diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to evaluate 1-year follow-up outcomes among young children with ADHD who were treated with the IY interventions.…

  15. Treating ADHD in schools.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven M S

    2004-11-01

    The school nurse has a tremendous opportunity to be a part of the home, school, and community team in promoting state-of-the-art care for youngsters with ADHD. The multi-modal strategic approach, combining carefully titrated pharmacotherapy with these specific behavioral interventions in the child's school and other settings, currently provides the greatest likelihood of a positive treatment outcome for youth with ADHD.

  16. Homogeneous Combinations of ASD-ADHD Traits and Their Cognitive and Behavioral Correlates in a Population-Based Sample.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Jolanda M J; Lappenschaar, Martijn G A; Hartman, Catharina A; Greven, Corina U; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2017-07-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and ADHD are assumed to be the extreme manifestations of continuous heterogeneous traits that frequently co-occur. This study aims to identify subgroups of children with distinct ASD-ADHD trait profiles in the general population, using measures sensitive across both trait continua, and show how these subgroups differ in cognitive functioning. We examined 378 children (6-13 years) from a population-based sample. Latent class analyses (LCA) detected three concordant classes with low (10.1%), medium (54.2%), or high (13.2%) scores on both traits, and two discordant classes with more ADHD than ASD characteristics (ADHD > ASD, 18.3%) and vice versa (ASD > ADHD, 4.2%). Findings suggest that ASD and ADHD traits usually are strongly related in the unaffected population, and that a minority of children displays atypical discordant trait profiles characterized by differential visual-spatial functioning. This dissociation suggests that heterogeneity in ASD and ADHD is rooted in heterogeneity in the lower unaffected end of the distribution.

  17. EEG theta and beta power spectra in adolescents with ADHD versus adolescents with ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bink, M; van Boxtel, G J M; Popma, A; Bongers, I L; Denissen, A J M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2015-08-01

    Attention problems are common in youngsters with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in adolescents with combined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. However, it is unknown whether there is psychophysiological overlap and/or a difference in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra between ADHD and comorbid ASD and ADHD (ASD + ADHD), on and off stimulant medication. To explore potential differences and overlap, measures of theta and beta power in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (n = 33) versus adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD (n = 20), categorized by stimulant medication use (57 % of the total sample), were compared. EEG measures were acquired in three conditions: (1) resting state, eyes closed (2) resting state, eyes open and (3) during an oddball task. In addition, performance on the d2 attention test was analyzed. Adolescents with ADHD displayed more absolute theta activity than adolescents with ASD + ADHD during the eyes open and task conditions, independent of stimulant medication use. In addition, only the adolescents with ADHD showed an association between diminished attention test performance and increased theta in the eyes open condition. Results of the current study suggest that although there is behavioral overlap between ADHD characteristics in adolescents with ADHD and adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD, the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms may be different. Adolescents with ASD + ADHD exhibited fewer of the EEG physiological signs usually associated with ADHD, although there was an overlap in attentional problems between the groups. This may indicate that treatments developed for ADHD work differently in some adolescents with ASD + ADHD and adolescents with ADHD only.

  18. The dynamic approach to neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders: use of fMRI combined with neuropsychology to elucidate the dynamics of psychiatric disorders, exemplified in ADHD and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rubia, Katya

    2002-03-10

    The paper discusses the application of fMRI in combination with neuropsychology to neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders, exemplified on the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with schizophrenia. The view is presented that ADHD, rather than being a compound of unrelated co-existing deficits, is a pervasive disorder of impulsiveness, which manifests at the motor, emotional, social and cognitive domain. Neuropsychology needs to refine the psychological measurements of these impulsivity symptoms and, in combination with fMRI, provide new insights into the interrelationship between brain and dysfunction and its bi-directional causalities. The suitability of the dynamic technique of functional MRI to assess the dynamic nature of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders is discussed. Brain activation can inform about strategy and compensatory mechanisms at a neuroanatomical level, which are not observable at a psychological level, providing insight into the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. Data are presented and discussed on opposing neurocognitive activation patterns for patients with ADHD and those with schizophrenia while performing a stop task. Comparisons between patient groups will be essential to address the specificity of neurocognitive mechanisms corresponding to specific neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders.

  19. Intraindividual Variability in Inhibitory Function in Adults with ADHD – An Ex-Gaussian Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Walther, Stephan; Debelak, Rudolf; Rentrop, Mirjam; Westermann, Celina; Sharma, Anuradha; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Attention deficit disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with inhibitory dysfunction contributing to typical behavioral symptoms like impulsivity or hyperactivity. However, some studies analyzing intraindividual variability (IIV) of reaction times in children with ADHD (cADHD) question a predominance of inhibitory deficits. IIV is a measure of the stability of information processing and provides evidence that longer reaction times (RT) in inhibitory tasks in cADHD are due to only a few prolonged responses which may indicate deficits in sustained attention rather than inhibitory dysfunction. We wanted to find out, whether a slowing in inhibitory functioning in adults with ADHD (aADHD) is due to isolated slow responses. Methods Computing classical RT measures (mean RT, SD), ex-Gaussian parameters of IIV (which allow a better separation of reaction time (mu), variability (sigma) and abnormally slow responses (tau) than classical measures) as well as errors of omission and commission, we examined response inhibition in a well-established GoNogo task in a sample of aADHD subjects without medication and healthy controls matched for age, gender and education. Results We did not find higher numbers of commission errors in aADHD, while the number of omissions was significantly increased compared with controls. In contrast to increased mean RT, the distributional parameter mu did not document a significant slowing in aADHD. However, subjects with aADHD were characterized by increased IIV throughout the entire RT distribution as indicated by the parameters sigma and tau as well as the SD of reaction time. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between tau and the number of omission errors. Conclusions Our findings question a primacy of inhibitory deficits in aADHD and provide evidence for attentional dysfunction. The present findings may have theoretical implications for etiological models of ADHD as well as more practical implications for neuropsychological

  20. Aetiology for the Covariation between Combined Type ADHD and Reading Difficulties in a Family Study: The Role of IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Celeste H. M.; Wood, Alexis C.; Paloyelis, Yannis; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Franke, Barbara; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Rommelse, Nanda; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Background: Twin studies using both clinical and population-based samples suggest that the frequent co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading ability/disability (RD) is largely driven by shared genetic influences. While both disorders are associated with lower IQ, recent twin data suggest that the shared genetic…

  1. Aetiology for the Covariation between Combined Type ADHD and Reading Difficulties in a Family Study: The Role of IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Celeste H. M.; Wood, Alexis C.; Paloyelis, Yannis; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Franke, Barbara; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Rommelse, Nanda; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Background: Twin studies using both clinical and population-based samples suggest that the frequent co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading ability/disability (RD) is largely driven by shared genetic influences. While both disorders are associated with lower IQ, recent twin data suggest that the shared genetic…

  2. Cerebellar Gray Matter Density in Females with ADHD Combined Type: A Cross-Sectional Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; De la Torre, Lazaro Barajas; Prado Alcantara, Hugo; Martinez Garcia, Reyna Beatriz; Avila Acosta, David; Fernandez Bouzas, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Background: MRI studies have shown a decreased cerebellum volume in individuals with ADHD. However, most of these studies were conducted with male children, many of whom were medicated with stimulants. As such, unmedicated, non-White girls are underrepresented in such MRI studies. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the density…

  3. Cerebellar Gray Matter Density in Females with ADHD Combined Type: A Cross-Sectional Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; De la Torre, Lazaro Barajas; Prado Alcantara, Hugo; Martinez Garcia, Reyna Beatriz; Avila Acosta, David; Fernandez Bouzas, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Background: MRI studies have shown a decreased cerebellum volume in individuals with ADHD. However, most of these studies were conducted with male children, many of whom were medicated with stimulants. As such, unmedicated, non-White girls are underrepresented in such MRI studies. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the density…

  4. Epistatic and gene wide effects in YWHA and aromatic amino hydroxylase genes across ADHD and other common neuropsychiatric disorders: Association with YWHAE.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Kaya K; Kleppe, Rune; Johansson, Stefan; Zayats, Tetyana; Haavik, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Monoamines critically modulate neurophysiological functions affected in several neuropsychiatric disorders. We therefore examined genes encoding key enzymes of catecholamine and serotonin biosynthesis (tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases-TH and TPH1/2) as well as their regulatory 14-3-3 proteins (encoded by YWHA-genes). Previous studies have focused mainly on the individual genes, but no analysis spanning this regulatory network has been reported. We explored interactions between these genes in Norwegian patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (aADHD), followed by gene-complex association tests in four major neuropsychiatric conditions; childhood ADHD (cADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder. For interaction analyses, we evaluated 55 SNPs across these genes in a sample of 583 aADHD patients and 637 controls. For the gene-complex tests, we utilized the data from large-scale studies of The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). The four major neuropsychiatric disorders were examined for association with each of the genes individually as well as in three complexes as follows: (1) TPH1 and YWHA-genes; (2) TH, TPH2 and YWHA-genes; and (3) all genes together. The results show suggestive epistasis between YWHAE and two other 14-3-3-genes - YWHAZ, YWHAQ - in aADHD (nominal P-value of 0.0005 and 0.0008, respectively). In PGC data, association between YWHAE and schizophrenia was noted (P = 1.00E-05), whereas the combination of TPH1 and YWHA-genes revealed signs of association in cADHD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. In conclusion, polymorphisms in the YWHA-genes and their targets may exert a cumulative effect in ADHD and related neuropsychiatric conditions, warranting the need for further investigation of these gene-complexes. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics

  5. Distinctive linguistic styles in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungil

    2009-10-01

    To assess whether the writing styles of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) combined type differ significantly from those of children in a nonclinical control group, writing samples from 17 children with ADHD combined type and 18 children in a nonclinical control group were compared using the language analysis program Korean Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. These writing samples, produced in response to instructions, served as dependent variables. Analysis showed that children with ADHD used fewer linguistic variables (e.g., sentences, phrases, and morphemes) than the control group. In addition, the ADHD group used fewer words reflecting cognitive processes and fewer pronouns than members of the control group. Also, the ADHD group showed a different pattern in the use of words referring to friends. This study provides preliminary descriptive data on language use among children diagnosed with a main subtype of ADHD.

  6. Coaching for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin; Ratey, Nancy; Maynard, Sandy; Sussman, Susan; Wright, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite limited scientific study on ADHD coaching as an intervention for adults with ADHD, the field of ADHD coaching has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years. ADHD coaching is becoming a bona fide profession where one must advance through a rigorous training process, in order to be certified as a professional ADHD coach.…

  7. Developing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has developed from the notion of a specific form of brain dysfunction to that of a heterogeneous set of related behaviours. The great advances in genetics, neuroimaging and neuropsychiatry have made it one of the best understood forms of complex mental…

  8. Developing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has developed from the notion of a specific form of brain dysfunction to that of a heterogeneous set of related behaviours. The great advances in genetics, neuroimaging and neuropsychiatry have made it one of the best understood forms of complex mental…

  9. [ADHD: Burden of Disease According to Subtypes in Adult Patients].

    PubMed

    Retz-Junginger, Petra; Rösler, Michael; Giesen, Lisa Katharina; Philipp-Wiegmann, Florence; Römer, Konstanze; Zinnow, Toivo; Retz, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    In consideration of ADHD subtype we assessed burden of disease of adult ADHD patients and neuroticism. 511 adult ADHD patients were enrolled in the study. We measured ADHD symptoms categorically and dimensionally by the "Homburger ADHS-Skalen für Erwachsene (HASE)". All participants rated their ADHD associated level of suffering. To assess personality traits, the psychometric instrument NEO-PI-R was used. In patients with higher levels of neuroticism, there was no significant difference in the level of suffering between the ADHD subtypes. In the group of ADHD patients which scored low on the neuroticism scale, ADHD combined patients are significant more affected compared to the predominantly hyperactive-impulsive or the predominantly inattentive type. These results underline the hypothesis that the burden of disease is not only related to the level of ADHD symptoms and subtype but also moderated by neuroticism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Exercise: applications to childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wigal, Sharon B; Emmerson, Natasha; Gehricke, Jean-G; Galassetti, Pietro

    2013-05-01

    ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, presenting with pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, or a combination. The leading hypothesis of the underlying physiology of this disorder of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity is based on catecholamine dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy research indicates that psychostimulants, which are catecholamine agonists, show the greatest efficacy for treating the core symptoms of ADHD. Exercise affects the same dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems that stimulant medications target and is a stressor, which elicits measurable physiological changes. The magnitude of these peripheral alterations is posited as a potential biomarker of ADHD. The hypothesis that exercise training alters the underlying physiology present in ADHD and other medical conditions as well as conceptual issues behind its potential clinical utility is reviewed.

  11. Kids' Quest: ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids with ADHD. Learning To Slow Down & Pay Attention: A Book for Kids about ADHD by Kathleen ... AD/HD. Fun activities teach kids to manage attention problems and helps them in setting priorities, planning, ...

  12. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines A A A ... doctor can decide if ADHD medicine is needed. Medicine and the Mind There are a lot of ...

  13. Perceptions of Greek Female Adolescents with ADHD Regarding Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liontou, Magdalini

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging that the ADHD literature is shaped by male experiences, the purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of female adolescents with ADHD and the impact of the label in their family relationships. Four Greek adolescents aged 13-18 with a diagnosis of combined-type ADHD were interviewed through a purposive criterion…

  14. Factor structure of symptom dimensions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Parke, Elyse M; Mayfield, Abigail R; Barchard, Kimberly A; Thaler, Nicholas S; Etcoff, Lewis M; Allen, Daniel N

    2015-12-01

    There is disagreement on whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are best characterized along two dimensions consisting of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity or three dimensions where hyperactivity and impulsivity are separate. To address this, the current study investigated the underlying symptom dimensions of ADHD by examining two- and three-factor models of ADHD symptom ratings in 400 children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD symptom ratings for each of the 18 DSM-IV Criteria A symptoms were obtained from mothers using a standardized symptom rating scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine whether the 18 symptoms were best explained by two or three latent constructs. Results of the CFA demonstrated that a three-factor model was superior to a two-factor model. Findings support three distinct symptom dimensions that are consistent with previous research demonstrating unique clinical presentations of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Differentiating between these three domains may aid in predicting behavioral outcomes in children with ADHD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. ADHD Perspectives: Medicalization and ADHD Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gloria Sunnie

    2012-01-01

    Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…

  16. ADHD and School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    A review of the research and legal literature summarizes the status of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under school law. Following a brief introduction, discussion of ADHD as a disability notes the impact of ADHD on overall functioning and provides a table of diagnostic criteria for subtypes of ADHD. The following section focuses…

  17. The MTA at 8 Years: Prospective Follow-Up of Children Treated for Combined-Type ADHD in a Multisite Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James W.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Jensen, Peter S.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hoza, Betsy; Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan; Houck, Patricia R.

    2009-01-01

    Participants of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) eight years earlier do not differ significantly in repeated measures or newly analyzed variables that include school grades and psychiatric hospitalization. The treatment of childhood ADHD does not predict functioning six to eight…

  18. Developing ADHD.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has developed from the notion of a specific form of brain dysfunction to that of a heterogeneous set of related behaviours. The great advances in genetics, neuroimaging and neuropsychiatry have made it one of the best understood forms of complex mental disturbance--but much remains to be done to translate understanding into practice. More effective treatment may come from identifying and treating more specific components of disorder and by a focus on identifying the factors determining course in the longer term so that they, as well as the core features of disorder, can become targets for intervention.

  19. The structure of adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A; Faraone, Stephen V; Spencer, Thomas J; Berglund, Patricia; Alperin, Samuel; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    Although DSM-5 stipulates that symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the same for adults as children, clinical observations suggest that adults have more diverse deficits than children in higher-level executive functioning and emotional control. Previous psychometric analyses to evaluate these observations have been limited in ways addressed in the current study, which analyzes the structure of an expanded set of adult ADHD symptoms in three pooled US samples: a national household sample, a sample of health plan members, and a sample of adults referred for evaluation at an adult ADHD clinic. Exploratory factor analysis found four factors representing executive dysfunction/inattention (including, but not limited to, all the DSM-5 inattentive symptoms, with non-DSM symptoms having factor loadings comparable to those of DSM symptoms), hyperactivity, impulsivity, and emotional dyscontrol. Empirically-derived multivariate symptom profiles were broadly consistent with the DSM-5 inattentive-only, hyperactive/impulsive-only, and combined presentations, but with inattention including executive dysfunction/inattention and hyperactivity-only limited to hyperactivity without high symptoms of impulsivity. These results show that executive dysfunction is as central as DSM-5 symptoms to adult ADHD, while emotional dyscontrol is more distinct but nonetheless part of the combined presentation of adult ADHD.

  20. Improving recognition and management of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Fiona

    2010-04-01

    ADHD covers a group of common, chronic neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by developmentally abnormal and disabling levels of restlessness and overactivity (usually combined with impulsiveness) and/or inattention. There are three subtypes of ADHD: predominantly inattentive; predominantly hyperactive-impulsive; and combined type. For a diagnosis of ADHD to be made: onset of symptoms has to occur before the age of seven, symptoms should have been present longer than 6 months and they must be causing significant impairment. The prevalence of ADHD is at least 5%. Two-thirds of children with ADHD continue to have symptoms in adolescence. At the age of 25, half will still have symptoms which continue to cause significant impairment. ADHD is associated with an increased rate of other disorders: mood disorders; anxiety; other behavioural disorders; autism spectrum disorders; tic disorders; specific learning difficulties; developmental co-ordination disorder and sleep disorders. The GP has an important role in identification of possible ADHD, and onward referral, and also in the management of ADHD post-diagnosis, particularly with respect to prescribing medication usually on a shared care basis with specialist services.

  1. Symptom-correlated brain regions in young adults with combined-type ADHD: Their organization, variability, and relation to behavioral performance

    PubMed Central

    Depue, Brendan E.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ruzic, Luka; Banich, Marie T.

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a widely diagnosed psychiatric disorder of childhood that may continue to manifest itself during adulthood. Across adults and children, inattention appears to be the most developmentally stable symptomatology of ADHD. To determine the neural systems that may be linked to such symptoms, the association between brain activation in a group of young adults in the face of an attentional challenge (the Stroop task) and inattentive symptoms was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results implicated a broad array of brain regions that are linked to behaviors compromised in ADHD, including executive function/cognitive control (prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum), reward and motivational circuitry (ventral striatum), and stimulus representation and timing (posterior cortex and cerebellum). Also implicating these regions as being important for the manifestation of ADHD symptoms, the variability in the size of the BOLD signal across individuals was significantly higher for the ADHD group than for the control group, and variability across the time series in individuals with ADHD was linked to symptom severity and behavioral performance. The results suggest that a diverse set of brain structures is linked to ADHD symptoms and that the variability of activation within these regions may contribute to compromised attentional control. PMID:20399622

  2. Symptom-correlated brain regions in young adults with combined-type ADHD: their organization, variability, and relation to behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Depue, Brendan E; Burgess, Gregory C; Willcutt, Erik G; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Ruzic, Luka; Banich, Marie T

    2010-05-30

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a widely diagnosed psychiatric disorder of childhood that may continue to manifest itself during adulthood. Across adults and children, inattention appears to be the most developmentally stable symptomatology of ADHD. To determine the neural systems that may be linked to such symptoms, the association between brain activation in a group of young adults in the face of an attentional challenge (the Stroop task) and inattentive symptoms was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results implicated a broad array of brain regions that are linked to behaviors compromised in ADHD, including executive function/cognitive control (prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum), reward and motivational circuitry (ventral striatum), and stimulus representation and timing (posterior cortex and cerebellum). Also implicating these regions as being important for the manifestation of ADHD symptoms, the variability in the size of the BOLD signal across individuals was significantly higher for the ADHD group than for the control group, and variability across the time series in individuals with ADHD was linked to symptom severity and behavioral performance. The results suggest that a diverse set of brain structures is linked to ADHD symptoms and that the variability of activation within these regions may contribute to compromised attentional control.

  3. Exercise: Applications to Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Emmerson, Natasha; Gehricke, Jean-G.; Galassetti, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, presenting with pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, or a combination. The leading hypothesis of the underlying physiology of this disorder of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity is based on catecholamine dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy…

  4. Exercise: Applications to Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Emmerson, Natasha; Gehricke, Jean-G.; Galassetti, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, presenting with pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, or a combination. The leading hypothesis of the underlying physiology of this disorder of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity is based on catecholamine dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy…

  5. Bayesian probability approach to ADHD appraisal.

    PubMed

    Robeva, Raina; Penberthy, Jennifer Kim

    2009-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of attentional disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is imperative because there are multiple negative psychosocial sequelae related to undiagnosed and untreated ADHD. Early and accurate detection can lead to effective intervention and prevention of negative sequelae. Unfortunately, diagnosing ADHD presents a challenge to traditional assessment paradigms because there is no single test that definitively establishes its presence. Even though ADHD is a physiologically based disorder with a multifactorial etiology, the diagnosis has been traditionally based on a subjective history of symptoms. In this chapter we outline a stochastic method that utilizes a Bayesian interface for quantifying and assessing ADHD. It can be used to combine of a variety of psychometric tests and physiological markers into a single standardized instrument that, on each step, refines a probability for ADHD for each individual based on information provided by the individual assessments. The method is illustrated with data from a small study of six college female students with ADHD and six matched controls in which the method achieves correct classification for all participants, where none of the individual assessments was capable of achieving perfect classification. Further, we provide a framework for applying this Bayesian method for performing meta-analysis of data obtained from disparate studies and using disparate tests for ADHD based on calibration of the data into a unified probability scale. We use this method to combine data from five studies that examine the diagnostic abilities of different behavioral rating scales and EEG assessments of ADHD, enrolling a total of 56 ADHD and 55 control subjects of different age groups and gender.

  6. Use of sleep medication in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Efron, Daryl; Lycett, Kate; Sciberras, Emma

    2014-04-01

    Sleep problems are common in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet little is known about sleep medication use in this population. The aim of this study was to describe sleep medication use, as well as associated child and family characteristics in school-aged children with ADHD. Sleep medication use was ascertained using a prospective parent-completed seven-night sleep and medication log. Exposure variables included socio-demographic characteristics, total sleep problem severity (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire), ADHD severity and subtype (ADHD Rating Scale IV), ADHD medication use, internalising and externalising co-morbidities (Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children/Parent version IV) and parent mental health (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale). Two hundred and fifty-seven children with ADHD participated and of these 57 (22%) were taking sleep medication (melatonin 14% and clonidine 9%). Sleep medication use was associated with combined-type ADHD and ADHD medication use. The presence of co-occurring internalising and externalising co-morbidities was also associated with sleep medication use in ad hoc analyses. Sleep medication use is common in children with ADHD and is associated with combined-type ADHD and use of ADHD medication. Further research is needed on the broad functional benefits and long-term safety of sleep medication in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Examination of spatial working memory performance in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT) and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Vance, Alasdair; Ferrin, Maite; Winther, Jo; Gomez, Rapson

    2013-08-01

    Spatial working memory (SWM) is known to be impaired in children with ADHD-CT, whether anxiety is present or not. Yet, it remains unclear whether anxiety disorders add to the SWM impairments evident in ADHD-CT and whether these findings extend into adolescents with ADHD-CT and anxiety. Further, it is not yet known whether children and adolescents with carefully defined anxiety disorders alone, demonstrate SWM deficits. This study explored the association of SWM and its strategy and spatial span components in carefully defined children and adolescents (age 6-16 years) with ADHD-CT alone (N = 163; 14 % female), ADHD-CT and anxiety (N = 243; 23 % female), anxiety disorders alone (N = 69; 25 % female) compared to age- and gender-matched healthy control participants (N = 116; 19 % female). The relationship between SWM and its strategy and span components and core ADHD-CT symptoms and anxiety symptoms were also examined. There was no evidence of an additive effect of ADHD and anxiety on SWM, strategy and spatial span deficits. But, anxiety disorders alone were associated with impaired SWM and span performance compared to healthy control participants. In contrast, strategy did not differ between children and adolescents with anxiety disorders alone and healthy control participants, suggesting that with anxiety span is the most affected component. Further, these findings were age-independent. This study concurs with and extends current influential models about the cognitive effects of anxiety on performance in the setting of ADHD-CT. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  8. Executive Functioning in Subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    BAHÇİVAN SAYDAM, Reyhan; AYVAŞIK, H. Belgin; ALYANAK, Behiye

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to evaluate executive functions (EF), such as inhibition, planning, working memory, and set shifting, in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by comparing three ADHD subtype groups (ADHD-Inattentive, ADHD-Combined, and ADHD-Comorbid) and a normal control group. Methods Participants included 147 children. In total, 111 children were assigned to the ADHD groups of the study. Each child was matched according to the WISC-R Full-Scale IQ-score, sex, and age and was grouped as follows: ADHD-Inattentive group (ADHD-I; n=37), ADHD-Combined (ADHD-C; n=37), ADHD-Comorbid group (ADHD-Comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder; n=37), and control group (n=36). The tests used to assess the children were Conners’ Parent and Teacher Rating Scales; Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Revised; Tower of London test; Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; Stroop Color-Word Test, and verbal fluency test. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA between subjects for all dependent variables. Results Children in the ADHD-I group had significantly better performances in verbal working memory and verbal category shifting than children in the ADHD-C group. There was no significant difference between the ADHD-I and ADHD-C groups in terms of inhibition, set shifting, verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility, and planning. The ADHD-Comorbid group displayed more severe impairments in EF measures than the ADHD-C group; however, the severity was not statistically significant. EF performances of children in the control group were similar to children in the ADHD-I group but better than children in the ADHD-C and ADHD-Comorbid groups. Conclusion The outcome of the study indicated that subjects in the ADHD-Comorbid and ADHD-C groups had more severe EF deficits than subjects in the ADHD-I and control groups.

  9. False Memory in Adults With ADHD: A Comparison Between Subtypes and Normal Controls.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Abdrabo Moghazy; Elfar, Rania Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    To examine the performance on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott task of adults divided into ADHD subtypes and compares their performance to that of healthy controls to examine whether adults with ADHD are more susceptible to the production of false memories under experimental conditions. A total of 128 adults with ADHD (50% females), classified into three Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV-TR) subtypes, were compared with 48 controls. The results indicated that the ADHD participants recalled and recognized fewer studied words than the controls, the ADHD groups produced more false memories than the control group, no differences in either the false positives or the false negatives. The ADHD-combined (ADHD-CT) group recognized significantly more critical words than the control, ADHD-predominantly inattentive (ADHD-IA), and ADHD-predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI) groups. The ADHD groups recalled and recognized more false positives, were more confident in their false responses, and displayed more knowledge corruption than the controls. The ADHD-CT group recalled and recognized more false positives than the other ADHD groups. The adults with ADHD have more false memories than the controls and that false memory formation varied with the ADHD subtypes.

  10. ADHD in Young Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Error processing SSI file Error processing SSI file ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  11. What Is ADHD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the doctor, who recommended an evaluation for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a common ... through because they can't sit still, pay attention, or focus on details. Of course, all kids ( ...

  12. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... learning skills, including memory tips from LD Online. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) top ADHD is a ... condition that affects a person’s ability to pay attention, sit still, and follow directions. If you have ...

  13. Temporal reward discounting and ADHD: task and symptom specific effects.

    PubMed

    Scheres, A; Lee, A; Sumiya, M

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated a new aspect of the association between ADHD symptoms and delay aversion. Participants were 55 undergraduate Psychology students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD symptoms. Various delay aversion tasks were used, including real and hypothetical temporal discounting tasks previously used in the field of ADHD. ADHD symptoms, specifically hyperactivity/impulsivity, were associated with steep discounting, but only when rewards and delays were real. These data suggest that (1) real temporal discounting tasks are more sensitive to ADHD-related delay aversion than hypothetical ones; (2) delay aversion may be a causal mechanism specifically associated with ADHD-Combined and Hyperactive/Impulsive Types but not Inattentive Type. These findings may help refine behavioral treatment approaches and models of ADHD.

  14. The joint effect of bilingualism and ADHD on executive functions.

    PubMed

    Mor, Billy; Yitzhaki-Amsalem, Sarin; Prior, Anat

    2015-06-01

    The current study investigated the combined effect of ADHD, previously associated with executive function (EF) deficits, and of bilingualism, previously associated with EF enhancement, on EF. Eighty University students, Hebrew monolinguals and Russian Hebrew bilinguals, with and without ADHD participated. Inhibition tasks were a Numeric Stroop task and a Simon arrows task. Shifting tasks were the Trail Making Test (TMT) and a task-switching paradigm. Participants with ADHD performed worse than controls, but we did not find a bilingual advantage in EF. The negative impact of ADHD was more pronounced for bilinguals than for monolinguals, but only in interference suppression tasks. Bilingual participants with ADHD had the lowest performance. Bilingualism might prove to be an added burden for adults with ADHD, leading to reduced EF abilities. Alternatively, the current findings might be ascribed to over- or under-diagnosis of ADHD due to cultural differences between groups. These issues should be pursued in future research. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  15. Home environment: association with hyperactivity/impulsivity in children with ADHD and their non-ADHD siblings

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Aisling; Anney, Richard; Butler, Louise; O’Regan, Myra; Richardson, Thomas; Tulewicz, Edyta Maria; Fitzgerald, Michael; Gill, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective We wished to ascertain if there is an association between symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and home environment in children with ADHD and non-ADHD siblings, controlling for other environmental measures. Method 96 children with ADHD combined type (ADHD-CT) and their siblings participated in the study. Parent and teacher Conners’ rating scales were completed and home environment was assessed using the Middle Childhood and Early Adolescent Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME). ADHD symptoms were assessed for correlation with HOME in children with ADHD-CT and non-ADHD siblings and multiple regression analysis was used to control for gender, socio-economic status, exposure to nicotine, exposure to alcohol in utero, birth weight, gestational age, pregnancy and perinatal risk factors. The presence of oppositional disorders was assessed for association with HOME score in those with ADHD-CT. The multiple regression analysis was repeated controlling for environmental factors and for oppositional disorders in those with ADHD-CT. Oppositional symptoms were assessed for correlation with HOME score in non-ADHD siblings. Results Teacher-rated hyperactive/impulsive scores correlated with HOME (r = −.27, p <.01) in children with ADHD-CT. This association remained significant when other environmental factors and oppositional disorders were controlled for. Environmental factors and gender contributed to 30% of the variance of ADHD symptoms in ADHD-CT. Parent-rated hyperactive/impulsive scores also correlated with HOME (r = −.28, p < .05) for non-ADHD siblings. An association between HOME and diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder or CD was found for children with ADHD-CT and between HOME and oppositional symptoms in non-ADHD siblings. Conclusions The home environment has a small but significant association with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children with ADHD-CT and non-ADHD siblings. This association remained

  16. ADHD: Tips to Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD: Tips to Try Print A A A en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a medical ...

  17. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading What to Do in a Fire CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A A A What's in this article? About ADHD Medicine and the Mind How Therapy Can Help en español Medicamentos para ...

  18. Personality profiles in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Perroud, Nader; Hasler, Roland; Golay, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Julien; Prada, Paco; Nicastro, Rosetta; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Ardu, Stefano; Herrmann, François R; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Baud, Patrick

    2016-06-14

    Previous studies suggested that the presence of ADHD in children and young adolescents may affect the development of personality. Whether or not the persistence of ADHD in adult life is associated with distinct personality patterns is still matter for debate. To address this issue, we compared the profiles of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) that assesses personality dimensions in 119 adults ADHD and 403 controls. ANCOVA were used to examine group differences (controls vs. ADHD and ADHD inattentive type vs. ADHD combined + hyperactive/impulsive types) in Temperaments and Characters. Partial correlation coefficients were used to assess correlation between TCI and expression and severity of symptoms of ADHD. High novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and self-transcendence (ST) scores as well as low self-directedness (SD) and cooperativeness (C) scores were associated with ADHD diagnosis. Low SD was the strongest personality trait associated with adult ADHD. Cases with the ADHD inattentive type showed higher HA and lower SD scores compared to the combined and hyperactive/impulsive types. High HA scores correlated with inattention symptoms whereas high NS and ST scores were related to hyperactive symptoms. Finally low SD and high NS were associated with increased ADHD severity. Distinct temperaments were associated with inattentive versus hyperactive/impulsive symptoms supporting the heterogeneous nature of the disorder.

  19. Effects of combined exercise on physical fitness and neurotransmitters in children with ADHD: a pilot randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Lee, Chung-Moo; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a jump rope and ball combined exercise program on the physical fitness the neurotransmitter (epinephrine, serotonin) levels of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 12 boys attending elementary school, whose grade levels ranged from 1–4. The block randomization method was used to distribute the participants between the combined exercise group (n = 6) and control group (n = 6). The program consisted of a 60-min exercise (10-min warm-up, 40-min main exercise, and 10-min cool down) performed three times a week, for a total of 12 weeks. [Results] The exercise group showed a significant improvement in cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance and flexibility after 12 weeks. A significant increase in the epinephrine level was observed in the exercise group. [Conclusion] The 12-week combined exercise program in the current study (jump rope and ball exercises) had a positive effect on overall fitness level, and neurotransmission in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:26504324

  20. Cognitive functioning in children with and without Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with and without comorbid learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Jakobson, Angela; Kikas, Eve

    2007-01-01

    This study attempted to determine whether children with the combined subtype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have impairments in cognitive functioning and motor skills. The specific effect of the comorbidity of learning disabilities (LD) was also investigated. A battery of cognitive tests was administered to 26 children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD-combined subtype (ADHD/C), to 24 children with ADHD/C with a comorbid diagnosis of LD (ADHD/C+LD), and to 102 participants without disabilities, all between ages 7 and 10. The testing battery consisted of tasks assessing memory, visuospatial and verbal abilities, and fine motor skills. In general, the test results of children with ADHD/C were poorer than those of the control group but better than the results of children with a combined ADHD/C+LD diagnosis (with the exception of motor skills). The predictive accuracy of the testing battery tasks in children with ADHD/C and ADHD/C+LD was examined. The results of a standard procedure of discriminant function analyses revealed that the measures correctly classified 73.6% of the children.

  1. ADHD in idiopathic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Duran, Marcos H C; Guimarães, Catarina A; Montenegro, Maria Augusta; Neri, Marina L; Guerreiro, Marilisa M

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to clarify the correlation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with epilepsy and behavior problems. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty children with idiopathic epilepsy were interviewed using the MTA-SNAP IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Conners' Rating Scales. We used the chi-square test to analyze the correlation of epilepsy variables in patients with and without ADHD with a significance level of 0.05. Eight patients had ADHD symptoms (13%), seven had the inattentive ADHD subtype and only three had behavioral problems. When epileptic patients with and without ADHD symptoms were compared we found no significant difference in regard to epilepsy variables. All patients were controlled and 43% were either without AED or undergoing withdrawal. Our study revealed a low comorbidity of ADHD symptoms and epilepsy due to low interference of seizures and drug treatment on the comorbid condition.

  2. Treating nicotine dependence by targeting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The role of ADHD severity and treatment response in a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Edward V.; Covey, Lirio S.; Brigham, Gregory; Hu, Mei-Chen; Levin, Frances R.; Somoza, Eugene; Winhusen, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether treatment of ADHD with osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) promotes abstinence from smoking among ADHD-smokers with greater severity of ADHD symptoms at baseline, or greater improvement in ADHD during treatment. Method A randomized, double-blind, 11-week trial, was conducted between December 2005 and January 2008 at six clinical sites, sponsored by the National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Adult cigarette smokers, meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD, were randomly assigned to OROS-MPH (72 mg/day) (N = 127) or matching placebo (N = 128). All participants received nicotine patch (21 mg) and weekly individual smoking cessation counseling. Logistic regression was used to model prolonged abstinence from smoking (ascertained by self-report and breath carbon monoxide testing) as a function of treatment, baseline DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) score, change in ADHD-RS during treatment, and their interactions. Results Treatment interacted with both ADHD-RS at baseline (p=0.01), and with change in ADHD-RS during treatment (p=0.008). Among patients with higher ADHD-RS scores (>36) at baseline and the most improvement in ADHD during treatment (ADHD-RS change score ≥24), 70% achieved abstinence on OROS-MPH, compared to 37% on placebo (p=.02). In contrast, among patients with the lowest ADHD-RS baseline scores (≤ 30), 30% achieved abstinence on OROS-MPH, compared to 61% on placebo (p=.02). Conclusions OROS-MPH, in combination with nicotine patch, may be an effective treatment for nicotine dependence among smokers with more severe ADHD, and more robust response of ADHD symptoms to the medication. OROS-MPH may be counterproductive among smokers with lower severity of ADHD. PMID:24229749

  3. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  4. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  5. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  6. ADHD and delinquency--a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    von Polier, G G; Vloet, T D; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence. Until now, it has been unclear whether ADHD by itself constitutes a risk factor for later delinquency or does so only in combination with other disruptive symptoms. This article seeks to give a comprehensive account of the literature to shed light on the developmental pathway from childhood ADHD to adult criminality. Comorbid ADHD and conduct disorder (CD) are significantly related to a range of biological and environmental risk factors such as neurocognitive impairment, high parental psychopathology, poor social functioning, and other comorbid mental disorders, particularly substance abuse, that are described in this review. In addition, the results of treatment studies are presented, with a special focus on the results of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). Although treatment programs, including medication and psychosocial treatment, can be very effective in improving the functioning of children with ADHD in the social and academic domains in the short term, there is no conclusive evidence that such treatments lower the risk for developing delinquency in adulthood.

  7. Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were…

  8. [Immunological and endocrinological pattern in ADHD etiopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Budziszewska, Bogusława; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Lasoń, Władysław

    2010-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder among children. There are 3 subtypes of ADHD: (1) with prevalent inattentive symptoms (2) with prevalent hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and (3) the combined subtype. It typically manifests itself before age 7 years and occurs more frequently in boys than in girls. It is diagnosed when the hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattention last long, appear at least in two environments and their intensity impairs the functioning of the child. The etiology of ADHD is not well-known but recent studies have shown that genetic factors are of big importance. Also several environmental influences that raise the risk for ADHD development have been identified. Recently, it has been postulated that the reduced activity of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems play a crucial role in ADHD pathogenesis. It is evidenced by the fact that drugs intensifying the noradrenergic and dopaminergic transmission are the most successful for ADHD treatment. At present, it has been also postulated that the disturbances in endocrine and immune systems are involved in the ADHD pathogenesis. Interconnections between functions of these systems and function of neurotransmitters are better recognized now and show that disturbances in their cooperation can be involved in some psychiatric disorders. In the case of ADHD, most data are related to disturbances in the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In particular, the lower level of cortisol in children with ADHD, especially in the hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD, the disturbance in the circadian rhythm of this steroid and the lack of its inhibition by the dexamethasone have been documented. Many clinical data indicate that in children with ADHD, the psychological stress evokes a weaker activation of the HPA axis than in the control group. Epidemiological and preclinical investigations have shown that the disturbance in

  9. [Mental retardation and ADHD].

    PubMed

    Hässler, Frank; Thome, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Hyperactivity syndromes and disorders (ADHD and HKD) include the symptoms of overactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, which occur in many other mental disorders as well, including mental retardation (MR). It is not surprising that symptoms of ADHD occur significantly higher in children with learning disabilities. Dekker and Koot (2003) found a prevalence of 14.8 % for ADHD in Dutch children attending special schools, and Emerson (2003) reported rates of 8.7 % for HKD in children with global learning disability, representing a 10-fold increased risk compared to the prevalence of hyperactivity (0.9 %) in the general population sample. Yet only very few studies have been published concerning ADHD in children with mental retardation. Several features distinguish the diagnoses of ADHD and MR. In contrast to the limited knowledge about the differences and similarities of ADHD and MR, many studies considered stimulant medication as a pharmacological management strategy for children suffering from ADHD, MR, or both. According to these studies, psychostimulants may improve the target symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, disinhibition, and inattention, albeit with caveats: ADHD symptoms in patients with MR may be less responsive to medical treatment than in patients without MR. Moreover, people with MR may be more susceptible to side effects.

  10. ADHD: A Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Rosalyn A.

    This paper provides a brief historical outline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), its definition, its behavioral characteristics, and a guide to creating successful learning environments for these students. Diagnostic criteria for ADHD are listed and discussed, and incidence figures of 3 to 5 percent of all school-age children are…

  11. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Interaction between socioeconomic status and parental history of ADHD determines prevalence.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Andrew S; Skipper, Betty J; Rabiner, David L; Qeadan, Fares; Campbell, Richard A; Naftel, A Jack; Umbach, David M

    2017-08-12

    Many studies have reported a higher prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among disadvantaged populations, but few have considered how parental history of ADHD might modify that relationship. We evaluated whether the prevalence of ADHD varies by socioeconomic status (SES) and parental history of ADHD in a population-sample of elementary school children age 6-14 years. We screened all children in grades 1-5 in 17 schools in one North Carolina (U.S.) county for ADHD using teacher rating scales and 1,160 parent interviews, including an ADHD structured interview (DISC). We combined parent and teacher ratings to determine DSM-IV ADHD status. Data analysis was restricted to 967 children with information about parental history of ADHD. SES was measured by family income and respondent education. We found an interaction between family income and parental history of ADHD diagnosis (p = .016). The SES gradient was stronger in families without a parental history and weaker among children with a parental history. Among children without a parental history of ADHD diagnosis, low income children had 6.2 times the odds of ADHD (95% CI 3.4-11.3) as high income children after adjusting for covariates. Among children with a parental history, all had over 10 times the odds of ADHD as high income children without a parental history but the SES gradient between high and low income children was less pronounced [odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5]. Socioeconomic status and parental history of ADHD are each strong risk factors for ADHD that interact to determine prevalence. More research is needed to dissect the components of SES that contribute to risk of ADHD. Future ADHD research should evaluate whether the strength of other environmental risk factors vary by parental history. Early identification and interventions for children with low SES or parental histories of ADHD should be explored. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. Temperament, Executive Control, and ADHD across Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitz, Beth B.; O’Neill, Sarah; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining factors linking early temperament and later ADHD is limited by cross-sectional approaches and having the same informant rate both temperament and psychopathology. We used multi-informant/multi-method longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that negative emotionality during preschool is positively associated with ADHD symptom severity in middle childhood, but developing executive control mediates this relation. Children (N=161) with and without ADHD were evaluated three times: Parent and teacher temperament ratings and NEPSY Visual Attention at ages 3–4 years; WISC-IV Working Memory Index and NEPSY Response Set at age 6 years; and ADHD symptoms using the Kiddie-SADS at age 7 years. Parent and teacher ratings of preschoolers’ temperament were combined to form an Anger/Frustration composite. Similarly, an Executive Functioning composite was derived from age 6 measures. Bootstrapping was used to determine whether age 6 Executive Functioning mediated the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, while controlling for early executive functioning. Preschoolers’ Anger/Frustration was significantly associated with later ADHD symptoms, with this relation partially mediated by age 6 Executive Functioning. Developing executive control mediates the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, suggesting that Anger/Frustration influences ADHD symptom severity through its impact on developing executive control. Early interventions targeting the harmful influences of negative emotionality or enhancing executive functioning may diminish later ADHD severity. PMID:26854505

  13. Is emotion recognition the only problem in ADHD? effects of pharmacotherapy on face and emotion recognition in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Esra; Erdogan, Ayten

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate both face and emotion recognition, to detect differences among attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subgroups, to identify effects of the gender and to assess the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatment on both face and emotion recognition in patients with ADHD. The study sample consisted of 41 male, 29 female patients, 8-15 years of age, who were diagnosed as having combined type ADHD (N = 26), hyperactive/impulsive type ADHD (N = 21) or inattentive type ADHD (N = 23) but had not previously used any medication for ADHD and 35 male, 25 female healthy individuals. Long-acting methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) was prescribed to 38 patients, whereas atomoxetine was prescribed to 32 patients. The reading the mind in the eyes test (RMET) and Benton face recognition test (BFRT) were applied to all participants before and after treatment. The patients with ADHD had a significantly lower number of correct answers in child and adolescent RMET and in BFRT than the healthy controls. Among the ADHD subtypes, the hyperactive/impulsive subtype had a lower number of correct answers in the RMET than the inattentive subtypes, and the hyperactive/impulsive subtype had a lower number of correct answers in short and long form of BFRT than the combined and inattentive subtypes. Male and female patients with ADHD did not differ significantly with respect to the number of correct answers on the RMET and BFRT. The patients showed significant improvement in RMET and BFRT after treatment with OROS-MPH or atomoxetine. Patients with ADHD have difficulties in face recognition as well as emotion recognition. Both OROS-MPH and atomoxetine affect emotion recognition. However, further studies on the face and emotion recognition are needed in ADHD.

  14. Comparing treatments for children with ADHD and word reading difficulties: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Denton, Carolyn A; Epstein, Jeffery N; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Heather; Arnold, L Eugene; Bukstein, Oscar; Anixt, Julia; Koshy, Anson; Newman, Nicholas C; Maltinsky, Jan; Brinson, Patricia; Loren, Richard E A; Prasad, Mary R; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Vaughn, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    This trial compared attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment alone, intensive reading intervention alone, and their combination for children with ADHD and word reading difficulties and disabilities (RD). Children (n = 216; predominantly African American males) in Grades 2-5 with ADHD and word reading/decoding deficits were randomized to ADHD treatment (medication + parent training), reading treatment (reading instruction), or combined ADHD + reading treatment. Outcomes were parent and teacher ADHD ratings and measures of word reading/decoding. Analyses utilized a mixed models covariate-adjusted gain score approach with posttest regressed onto pretest. Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity outcomes were significantly better in the ADHD (parent Hedges's g = .87/.75; teacher g = .67/.50) and combined (parent g = 1.06/.95; teacher g = .36/41) treatment groups than reading treatment alone; the ADHD and Combined groups did not differ significantly (parent g = .19/.20; teacher g = .31/.09). Word reading and decoding outcomes were significantly better in the reading (word reading g = .23; decoding g = .39) and combined (word reading g = .32; decoding g = .39) treatment groups than ADHD treatment alone; reading and combined groups did not differ (word reading g = .09; decoding g = .00). Significant group differences were maintained at the 3- to 5-month follow-up on all outcomes except word reading. Children with ADHD and RD benefit from specific treatment of each disorder. ADHD treatment is associated with more improvement in ADHD symptoms than RD treatment, and reading instruction is associated with better word reading and decoding outcomes than ADHD treatment. The additive value of combining treatments was not significant within disorder, but the combination allows treating both disorders simultaneously. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Medicines for ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007592.htm Medicines for ADHD To use the sharing features on ... that the treatment plan is successful. TYPES OF MEDICINES Stimulants are the most commonly used type of ...

  16. College Students with ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have a summary of treatment or any psychological tests that were done within the last 3 years, bring them to the visit. Practice using planners, calendars, or scheduling ... and psychological risks of misusing ADHD medications. There can also ...

  17. AD(H)D.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2008-06-01

    The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.

  18. [Clinical features of various subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in children].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Zhao; Wen, Fei-Qiu; Zhou, Ke-Ying; Yang, Chun-He; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ning

    2010-09-01

    To study the features of various subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children. Sex composition, risk factors, comorbidities, intelligence quotient and behavioral problems were investigated in 175 children with ADHD who met the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder Criteria (DSM-IV). The children were classified into three groups: ADHD predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I, n=82), ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI, n=24) and ADHD combined type (ADHD-C, n=69). There were no significant differences in the sex composition among the three groups. The rates of birth abnormality in the ADHD-I and the ADHD-C groups were higher than those in the ADHD-HI group. Negative parenting practices were noted more frequently in the ADHD-HI and the ADHD-C groups than the ADHD-I group. There were no significant differences in the performance intelligence quotient (PIQ), verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) and full intelligence quotient (FIQ) among the three groups. However, the incidence of imbalance between VIQ and PIQ in the ADHD-I group was higher than the other two groups. The rate of comorbidities with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and tic disorder (TD) in the ADHD-C and the ADHD-HI groups was higher than that in the ADHD-I group. Both the ADHD-I and the ADHD-C groups had a higher rate of comorbidities with learning disorder (LD) than the ADHD-HI group. The impulsive/hyperactive and conduct problems were more severe and the hyperactivity index was higher in the ADHD-C and the ADHD-HI groups than those in the ADHD-I group, while the learning difficulties in the ADHD-I group were the most severe. The children with ADHD-C or ADHD-HI have higher incidences of comorbidities with ODD and TD than those with ADHD-I who the learning difficulties and the imbalance between VIQ and PIQ are more severe.

  19. DNA methylation profiles at birth and child ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    van Mil, Nina H; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Bouwland-Both, Marieke I; Verbiest, Michael M P J; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Stolk, Lisette; Eilers, Paul H C; Uitterlinden, André G; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-02-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable psychiatric disorder. In addition, early life environmental factors contribute to the occurrence of ADHD. Recently, DNA methylation has emerged as a mechanism potentially mediating genetic and environmental effects. Here, we investigated whether newborn DNA methylation patterns of selected candidate genes involved in psychiatric disorders or fetal growth are associated with ADHD symptoms in childhood. Participants were 426 children from a large population based cohort of Dutch national origin. Behavioral data were obtained at age 6 years with the Child Behavior Checklist. For the current study, 11 regions at 7 different genes were selected. DNA methylation levels of cord blood DNA were measured for the 11 regions combined and for each region separately. We examined the association between DNA methylation levels at different regions and ADHD symptoms with linear mixed models. DNA methylation levels were negatively associated with ADHD symptom score in the overall analysis of all 11 regions. This association was largely explained by associations of DRD4 and 5-HTT regions. Other candidate genes showed no association between DNA methylation levels and ADHD symptom score. Associations between DNA methylation levels and ADHD symptom score were attenuated by co-occurring Oppositional defiant disorder and total symptoms. Lower DNA methylation levels of the 7 genes assessed at birth, were associated with more ADHD symptoms of the child at 6 years of age. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to investigate the possible underlying mechanism.

  20. Modelling ADHD: A review of ADHD theories through their predictions for computational models of decision-making and reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Sigurd; Pedersen, Mads L; Mowinckel, Athanasia M; Biele, Guido

    2016-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by altered decision-making (DM) and reinforcement learning (RL), for which competing theories propose alternative explanations. Computational modelling contributes to understanding DM and RL by integrating behavioural and neurobiological findings, and could elucidate pathogenic mechanisms behind ADHD. This review of neurobiological theories of ADHD describes predictions for the effect of ADHD on DM and RL as described by the drift-diffusion model of DM (DDM) and a basic RL model. Empirical studies employing these models are also reviewed. While theories often agree on how ADHD should be reflected in model parameters, each theory implies a unique combination of predictions. Empirical studies agree with the theories' assumptions of a lowered DDM drift rate in ADHD, while findings are less conclusive for boundary separation. The few studies employing RL models support a lower choice sensitivity in ADHD, but not an altered learning rate. The discussion outlines research areas for further theoretical refinement in the ADHD field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  2. Familial Clustering of Latent Class and DSM-IV Defined Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Erik R.; Neuman, Rosalind J.; Heath, Andrew C.; Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.; Todd, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Findings from family and twin-based studies of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have indicated that inattentive and combined subtypes cluster together among sibling pairs who both express ADHD symptoms. The current report examines the familial clustering of ADHD subtypes, defined according to latent class and DSM-IV…

  3. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  4. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  5. Health-related impairments in young children with ADHD: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Sciberras, E; Bisset, M; Hazell, P; Nicholson, J M; Anderson, V; Lycett, K; Jongeling, B; Efron, D

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to examine health-related impairments in young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD controls and explore differences in children with ADHD by gender, ADHD subtype and mental health co-morbidity status. Children with ADHD (n = 177) and controls (n = 212) aged 6-8 years were recruited across 43 schools in Melbourne, Australia following a screening (Conners 3 ADHD Index) and case confirmation procedure (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV). Direct and blinded assessments of height and weight were used to calculate body mass index z-score and to identify overweight/obesity. Parents reported on child global health, sleep problems and physical injuries. Unadjusted and adjusted (socio-demographic factors and co-morbidities) logistic and linear regression were conducted to compare health-related impairments between (1) children with and without ADHD; (2) boys and girls with ADHD; (3) children with ADHD-inattentive and ADHD-combined types; and (4) children with ADHD by internalizing and externalizing disorder status. Children with ADHD had poorer global health than controls when adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics (OR: 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.9); however, this attenuated after adjusting for co-morbidities. In adjusted analyses, children with ADHD had increased odds of moderate/large sleep problems (OR: 3.1; 95% CI 1.4, 6.8), compared with controls. There were no differences between children with and without ADHD in terms of physical injuries or overweight/obesity. Findings were similar when excluding children taking ADHD medication, and health-related impairments did not differ between boys and girls with ADHD. Children with ADHD-combined type had higher BMI z-scores than controls in adjusted analyses (P = 0.04). Children with ADHD and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing co-morbidities were particularly vulnerable to health-related impairments. Young children with ADHD experience a number

  6. Latent Class Analysis of ADHD Neurodevelopmental and Mental Health Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bramlett, Matthew D; Visser, Susanna N; Danielson, Melissa L; Blumberg, Stephen J

    2017-09-08

    Many children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience co-occurring neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, and those who do often exhibit higher levels of impairment than children with ADHD alone. This study provides a latent class analysis (LCA) approach to categorizing children with ADHD into comorbidity groups, evaluating condition expression and treatment patterns in each group. Parent-reported data from a large probability-based national sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome) were used for an LCA to identify groups of children with similar groupings of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric comorbidities among children with current ADHD (n = 2495). Differences between classes were compared using multivariate logistic regressions. LCA placed children who were indicated to have ADHD into 4 classes: (low comorbidity [LCM] [64.5%], predominantly developmental disorders [PDD] [13.7%], predominantly internalizing disorders [PID] [18.5%], and high comorbidity [HCM] [3.3%]). Children belonging to the HCM class were most likely to have a combined ADHD subtype and the highest number of impaired domains. Children belonging to the PDD class were most likely to be receiving school services, whereas children in the PID class were more likely to be taking medication than those belonging to the LCM class who were least likely to receive psychosocial treatments. Latent classes based on co-occurring psychiatric conditions predicted use of varied. These findings contribute to the characterization of the ADHD phenotype and may help clinicians identify how services could be best organized and coordinated in treating ADHD.

  7. [Drug addiction in young prison inmates with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Retz, W; Retz-Junginger, P; Schneider, M; Scherk, H; Hengesch, G; Rösler, M

    2007-05-01

    Prospective studies of children with ADHD have shown a high level of substance use disorder comorbidity, particularly when associated with social maladaptation and antisocial behavior. Conversely, studies of drug abusing participants and delinquents revealed a high prevalence of ADHD comorbidity. In this study 129 young male prison inmates were systematically examined for ADHD and substance use disorders. 64,3 % showed harmful alcohol consumption. 67,4 % fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for any drug abuse or dependence. 28,8 % of these participants were diagnosed with ADHD, combined type, other 52,1 % showed ADHD residual type. Opioid dependence was more common in delinquents without ADHD. Addicted delinquents with ADHD showed worse social environment and a higher degree of psychopathology, including externalizing and internalizing behavior, compared to addicted delinquents without ADHD. Neuroticism and conscientiousness ratings of the addicted ADHD group, but not of those without ADHD, differed from non-addicted delinquents. The results underline the need of adequate therapeutic programs for addicted young prison inmates considering ADHD comorbidity, which is associated with additional psychopathology and social problems.

  8. Treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and irritability: results from the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD (MTA).

    PubMed

    Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Simonoff, Emily; McGough, James J; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Arnold, L Eugene; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Clinically impairing irritability affects 25% to 45% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); yet, we know little about what interventions are effective in treating children with ADHD and co-occurring irritability. We used data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA) to address 3 aims: to establish whether irritability in children with ADHD can be distinguished from other symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); to examine whether ADHD treatment is effective in treating irritability; and to examine how irritability influences ADHD treatment outcomes. Secondary analyses of data from the MTA included multivariate analyses, and intent-to-treat random-effects regression models were used. Irritability was separable from other ODD symptoms. For treating irritability, systematic stimulant treatment was superior to behavioral management but not to routine community care; a combination of stimulants and behavioral treatment was superior to community care and to behavioral treatment alone, but not to medication alone. Irritability did not moderate the impact of treatment on parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms in any of the 4 treatment groups. Treatments targeting ADHD symptoms are helpful for improving irritability in children with ADHD. Moreover, irritability does not appear to influence the response to treatment of ADHD. Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00000388. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychaitry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prospective Follow-Up of Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder into Early Adulthood: Continuing Impairment Includes Elevated Risk for Suicide Attempts and Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Zalecki, Christine; Huggins, Suzanne Perrigue; Montenegro-Nevado, Adriana J.; Schrodek, Emily; Swanson, Erika N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We performed a 10-year prospective follow-up of a childhood-ascertained (6-12 years), ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 140: combined type [ADHD-C] n = 93; inattentive type [ADHD-I] n = 47) plus a matched comparison group (N = 88). Girls were recruited from…

  10. Prospective Follow-Up of Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder into Early Adulthood: Continuing Impairment Includes Elevated Risk for Suicide Attempts and Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Zalecki, Christine; Huggins, Suzanne Perrigue; Montenegro-Nevado, Adriana J.; Schrodek, Emily; Swanson, Erika N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We performed a 10-year prospective follow-up of a childhood-ascertained (6-12 years), ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 140: combined type [ADHD-C] n = 93; inattentive type [ADHD-I] n = 47) plus a matched comparison group (N = 88). Girls were recruited from…

  11. Comorbid anxiety and neurocognitive dysfunctions in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bloemsma, J Monique; Boer, Frits; Arnold, Renée; Banaschewski, Tobias; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Sergeant, Joseph A; Rommelse, Nanda; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2013-04-01

    Previous research established that children with ADHD and comorbid anxiety have a later age of ADHD onset, show less off-task and hyperactive behavior, and have more school problems than children with ADHD alone. Comorbid anxiety appears to ameliorate behavioral inhibition deficits, worsen working memory problems, and lengthen reaction times in ADHD. This study investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on a broad range of neurocognitive functions and includes child-, parent- and teacher reports of anxiety. The sample consisted of 509 children in the age range 5-19 years, including 238 children with a diagnosis of ADHD combined subtype and 271 normal control children. Children were tested on a broad battery of neurocognitive tasks that proved highly sensitive to ADHD in previous work. Linear Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to estimate the effect of comorbid anxiety on the neurocognitive functions. Child reported anxiety was associated with slower motor speed and response speed and better behavioral inhibition. Teacher reported anxiety was related to worse time production. Parent reported anxiety was not significantly associated with any of the neurocognitive functions. Compared to parent and teacher reports of anxiety, child reported comorbid anxiety shows foremost the largest associations with the neurocognitive dysfunctions observed in children with ADHD. This stresses the importance of including child self-reported anxiety assessments in clinical and research practice.

  12. Working memory deficits in adults with ADHD: is there evidence for subtype differences?

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Julie B; Hanford, Russell B; Medoff, Deborah R

    2006-01-01

    Background Working memory performance is important for maintaining functioning in cognitive, academic and social activities. Previous research suggests there are prevalent working memory deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is now a growing body of literature characterizing working memory functioning according to ADHD subtypes in children. The expression of working memory deficits in adults with ADHD and how they vary according to subtype, however, remains to be more fully documented. Methods This study assessed differences in working memory functioning between Normal Control (NC) adults (N = 18); patients with ADHD, Combined (ADHD-CT) Type ADHD (N = 17); and ADHD, Inattentive (ADHD-IA) Type (N = 16) using subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-III and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Results The ADHD groups displayed significant weaknesses in contrast to the NC group on working memory tests requiring rapid processing and active stimulus manipulation. This included the Letter-Number-Sequencing test of the Wechsler scales, PASAT omission errors and the longest sequence of consecutive correct answers on the PASAT. No overall ADHD group subtype differences emerged; however differences between the ADHD groups and the NC group varied depending on the measure and the gender of the participants. Gender differences in performance were evident on some measures of working memory, regardless of group, with males performing better than females. Conclusion In general, the data support a dimensional interpretation of working memory deficits experienced by the ADHD-CT and ADHD-IA subtypes, rather than an absolute difference between subtypes. Future studies should test the effects of processing speed and load on subtype performance and how those variables interact with gender in adults with ADHD. PMID:17173676

  13. ADHD Symptom Severity following Participation in a Pilot, 10-Week, Manualized, Family-Based Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, David F.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the effectiveness of a pilot, manualized 10-week intervention of family skills training for ADHD-related symptoms. The intervention combined behavioral parent training and child focused behavioral activation therapy. Participants were families with children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. This pilot…

  14. ADHD, circadian rhythms and seasonality.

    PubMed

    Wynchank, Dora S; Bijlenga, Denise; Lamers, Femke; Bron, Tannetje I; Winthorst, Wim H; Vogel, Suzan W; Penninx, Brenda W; Beekman, Aartjan T; Kooij, J Sandra

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated whether the association between Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) was mediated by the circadian rhythm. Data of 2239 persons from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used. Two groups were compared: with clinically significant ADHD symptoms (N = 175) and with No ADHD symptoms (N = 2064). Sleep parameters were sleep-onset and offset times, mid sleep and sleep duration from the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. We identified the prevalence of probable SAD and subsyndromal SAD using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). Clinically significant ADHD symptoms were identified by using a T score>65 on the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale. The prevalence of probable SAD was estimated at 9.9% in the ADHD group (vs. 3.3% in the No ADHD group) and of probable s-SAD at 12.5% in the ADHD group (vs 4.6% in the No ADHD group). Regression analyses showed consistently significant associations between ADHD symptoms and probable SAD, even after adjustment for current depression and anxiety, age, sex, education, use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines (B = 1.81, p < 0.001). Late self-reported sleep onset was an important mediator in the significant relationship between ADHD symptoms and probable SAD, even after correction for confounders (total model effects: B = 0.14, p ≤ 0.001). Both seasonal and circadian rhythm disturbances are significantly associated with ADHD symptoms. Delayed sleep onset time in ADHD may explain the increase in SAD symptoms. Treating patients with SAD for possible ADHD and delayed sleep onset time may reduce symptom severity in these complex patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Cognitive Profiles of Preschool Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders and ADHD].

    PubMed

    Jascenoka, Julia; Korsch, Franziska; Petermann, Franz; Petermann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Profiles of Preschool Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders and ADHD Studies confirm that developmental coordination disorders (DCD) are often accompanied by ADHD. It is important to know why children with combined disorders show a special profile in a common intelligence test (WPPSI-III). For this purpose, the WPPSI-III results of a total of 125 children aged five to six years with diagnosed isolated DCD, isolated ADHD, combined disorders and a normative sample were compared. Children with isolated ADHD showed the best cognitive profile. Children of all three diagnosis subgroups presented significantly poorer abilities in all WPPSI-III scales than the normative sample. In comparison with preschoolers showing isolated ADHD, children with DCD and ADHD have a significant lower Processing Speed Quotient.

  16. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADHD symptoms may not be as clear as ADHD symptoms in children. In adults, hyperactivity may decrease, but struggles with ... similar to treatment for childhood ADHD, though some ADHD medications approved for children are not approved for adult use. Adult ADHD ...

  17. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  18. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  19. Effects of Methylphenidate on Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Erin B.; Klorman, Rafael; Thatcher, Joan E.; Borgstedt, Agneta D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of methylphenidate on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes. Method: Nineteen ADHD/inattentive (ADHD/I) and 22 ADHD/combined (ADHD/C) 6- to 12-year-old children entered a 6-week, double-blind trial of placebo and methylphenidate in divided doses (0.94 [plus or minus] 0.02 mg/kg/day = 33.06 [plus…

  20. Effects of Methylphenidate on Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Erin B.; Klorman, Rafael; Thatcher, Joan E.; Borgstedt, Agneta D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of methylphenidate on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes. Method: Nineteen ADHD/inattentive (ADHD/I) and 22 ADHD/combined (ADHD/C) 6- to 12-year-old children entered a 6-week, double-blind trial of placebo and methylphenidate in divided doses (0.94 [plus or minus] 0.02 mg/kg/day = 33.06 [plus…

  1. Colour Perception in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  2. ADHD, Culture and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ilina

    2008-01-01

    This article is a socio-historical account of the development of the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and methylphenidate treatment in America, attending particularly to the political and institutional contexts that have supported this development. Historical developments in early-mid-twentieth-century America frame a…

  3. ADHD: Tips to Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... with ADHD to take tests. Some teens may benefit from smaller class sizes and tutoring help. Use tools that help you stay organized. For example, keep track of assignments in a homework notebook, including a list of books and readings you'll need to bring home to do. ...

  4. Colour Perception in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  5. ADHD, Culture and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ilina

    2008-01-01

    This article is a socio-historical account of the development of the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and methylphenidate treatment in America, attending particularly to the political and institutional contexts that have supported this development. Historical developments in early-mid-twentieth-century America frame a…

  6. Treating ADHD with Agomelatine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Agomelatine is a relatively new antidepressant, with affinities to MT1 and MT2 (responsible for the circadian rhythm) as well as to 5-HT2C receptors. Since antidepressants have demonstrated some benefit in the treatment of ADH and because of the fact, that ADHD is often associated with sleep disorders, we assumed, that it might be a…

  7. Treating ADHD with Agomelatine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Agomelatine is a relatively new antidepressant, with affinities to MT1 and MT2 (responsible for the circadian rhythm) as well as to 5-HT2C receptors. Since antidepressants have demonstrated some benefit in the treatment of ADH and because of the fact, that ADHD is often associated with sleep disorders, we assumed, that it might be a…

  8. A critical appraisal of atomoxetine in the management of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Childress, Ann C

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder beginning in childhood and often continuing into adulthood. A wealth of data shows that ADHD symptoms respond well to pharmacological treatment. Stimulant medications, including amphetamine and methylphenidate, are most commonly used to treat ADHD. However, with the approval of atomoxetine (Strattera®, [ATX]) by the US Food and Drug Administration in late 2002, an effective non-stimulant option became available. The US Food and Drug Administration approved ATX for the treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults. Although the effect size of ATX is generally lower than that of stimulants, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Practice Parameter for the treatment of ADHD lists ATX as a first-line treatment option. ATX is widely prescribed and accounted for 6% of the prescriptions of ADHD visits in the US in 2010. Numerous trials have found that ATX improves quality of life and emotional lability in addition to core ADHD symptoms. Although some improvement may be seen in a patient as early as one week after the initiation of treatment, ATX generally takes longer to have a full effect. The median time to response using 25% improvement in ADHD symptoms in pooled trials was 3.7 weeks. Data from these trials indicate that the probability of symptom improvement may continue to increase up to 52 weeks after treatment is initiated. ATX has been shown to be safe and effective in combination with stimulants. It has also been studied systematically in subjects with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. The mechanism of action of ATX, its efficacy, and adverse events reported in trials is reviewed. PMID:26730199

  9. Treating nicotine dependence by targeting attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with OROS methylphenidate: the role of baseline ADHD severity and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Edward V; Covey, Lirio S; Brigham, Gregory; Hu, Mei-Chen; Levin, Frances R; Somoza, Eugene C; Winhusen, Theresa M

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate promotes abstinence from smoking among smokers with ADHD who have greater severity of ADHD symptoms at baseline or greater improvement in ADHD during treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized, double-blind, 11-week trial conducted between December 2005 and January 2008 at 6 clinical sites; the original trial was sponsored by the National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Adult cigarette smokers (aged 18-55 years) who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were randomly assigned to OROS methylphenidate (72 mg/d) (n = 127) or matching placebo (n = 128). All participants received nicotine patches (21 mg/d) and weekly individual smoking cessation counseling. Logistic regression was used to model prolonged abstinence from smoking (ascertained by self-report and breath carbon monoxide testing) as a function of treatment, baseline ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS) score, change in ADHD-RS score during treatment, and their interactions. Treatment interacted with both ADHD-RS score at baseline (P = .01) and change in ADHD-RS score during treatment (P = .008). Among patients with higher ADHD-RS scores (> 36) at baseline and the most improvement in ADHD during treatment (ADHD-RS change score ≥ 24), 70.0% of those who took OROS methylphenidate achieved abstinence from smoking compared to 36.8% of those who took placebo (P = .02). In contrast, among patients with the lowest ADHD-RS baseline scores (≤ 30), 30.3% of those who took OROS methylphenidate achieved abstinence from smoking compared to 60.7% of those who took placebo (P = .02). OROS methylphenidate, in combination with nicotine patch, may be an effective treatment for nicotine dependence among smokers with more severe ADHD and more robust response of ADHD symptoms to medication. OROS methylphenidate may be counterproductive among smokers with lower severity of ADHD

  10. Prevalence of ADHD in primary school children in Vinh Long, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hoai Danh; Nguyen, Huu Bao Han; Tran, Diep Tuan

    2015-10-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder in children. It affects not only the subjects but also their families and society. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ADHD in primary school children in South Vietnam, especially Vinh Long province. Children were chosen randomly from primary schools in Vinh Long from February to March in 2009 in a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of ADHD using the ADHD Rating Scale-IV for parents/caregivers and teachers. ADHD Rating Scale-IV was based on DSM-IV for diagnosis of ADHD. A total of 600 children were chosen and 1200 reports were collected from parents/caregivers and teachers. The prevalence rate of ADHD was 7.7%. The rates of the predominantly inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive type and combined type were 1.7%, 5% and 1%, respectively. The difference in sex was not significant across all subtypes. The prevalence of ADHD in urban children was 2.2-fold that in rural children. The prevalence of ADHD in primary school children in Vinh Long, southern Vietnam, is in the same range as other regions in the world. Therefore, awareness of ADHD needs to be raised, to ensure suitable psychiatric care for children. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Executive Functions in Girls with ADHD Followed Prospectively into Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Meghan; Ho, Jennifer; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Overview We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with ADHD (n = 140) and a matched comparison group (n = 88) into young adulthood (Mage = 19.6), 10 years after childhood initial assessments, to evaluate neuropsychological functioning. We hypothesized that neuropsychological deficits would persist through young adulthood for those with ADHD, and that those with continuing ADHD symptomatology in young adulthood would show the largest impairments. Method Neuropsychological measures at follow-up emphasized executive functions (EF) including planning, organization, inhibitory control, sustained attention, working memory, and set shifting. Results Parallel to findings from childhood and adolescence, the girls with childhood-diagnosed ADHD displayed medium to large deficits in EF relative to comparisons at follow-up, even with statistical control of baseline demographic and comorbidity variables. The addition of IQ as a covariate attenuated differences but several remained significant. Comparisons between the inattentive and combined subtypes of ADHD yielded nonsignificant results with small effect sizes. EF impairments were evident in both participants whose ADHD diagnoses persisted and in those whose ADHD symptoms had remitted to a non-diagnosable level; both subgroups had more EF deficits than those who did not meet criteria for ADHD in either childhood or young adulthood. Conclusions Those in both the persistent and remitted ADHD groups showed impairments in EF relative to comparisons and generally did not differ from each other. Overall, childhood ADHD in girls portends neuropsychological/EF deficits that persist for at least 10 years. PMID:22468822

  12. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-06-08

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6-14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children.

  13. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children. PMID:27338457

  14. Sensitivity of Scales to Evaluate Change in Symptomatology with Psychostimulants in Different ADHD Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Grizenko, Natalie; Rodrigues Pereira, Ricardo M.; Joober, Ridha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sensitivity of scales (Conners’ Global Index Parent and Teacher form [CGI-P, CGI-T], Clinical Global Impression Scale [CGI], Continuous Performance Test [CPT], and Restricted Academic Situation Scale [RASS]) in evaluating improvement in symptomatology with methylphenidate in different Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) subtypes. Method: Four hundred and ninety children (309 with ADHD Combined/Hyperactive [ADHD-CH] and 181 with ADHD Inattentive subtype [ADHD-I]) participated in a two week double-blind placebo-controlled crossover methylphenidate trial. Results: CGI-P showed small effect size for ADHD-I and medium effect size for the ADHD-CH subtype. CGI-T showed medium effect size for ADHD-I and large effect size for ADHD-CH subtype. CGI and RASS showed large effect size while CPT showed medium effect size for both subtypes. Conclusion: Acute behavioural assessments by clinicians (CGI, RASS) are better at detecting improvement with medication in all subtypes than parent or teacher reports (CGI-P, CGI-T). CGI-T is better than CGI-P for ADHD-I in detecting change in symptomatology as there is a greater demand for attention at school. PMID:23667362

  15. Persistence and Subtype Stability of ADHD Among Substance Use Disorder Treatment Seekers

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Sharlene; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; van de Glind, Geurt; Levin, Frances R.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Allsop, Steve; Degenhardt, Louisa; Moggi, Franz; Barta, Csaba; Konstenius, Maija; Franck, Johan; Skutle, Arvid; Bu, Eli-Torild; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Schoevers, Robert A.; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter-Jan; Dom, Geert; Verspreet, Sofie; Crunelle, Cleo L.; Young, Jesse T.; Carruthers, Susan; Cassar, Joanne; Fatséas, Melina; Auriacombe, Marc; Johnson, Brian; Dunn, Matthew; Slobodin, Ortal; van den Brink, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine ADHD symptom persistence and subtype stability among substance use disorder (SUD) treatment seekers. Method In all, 1,276 adult SUD treatment seekers were assessed for childhood and adult ADHD using Conners’ Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; CAADID). A total of 290 (22.7%) participants met CAADID criteria for childhood ADHD and comprise the current study sample. Results Childhood ADHD persisted into adulthood in 72.8% (n = 211) of cases. ADHD persistence was significantly associated with a family history of ADHD, and the presence of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. The combined subtype was the most stable into adulthood (78.6%) and this stability was significantly associated with conduct disorder and past treatment of ADHD. Conclusion ADHD is highly prevalent and persistent among SUD treatment seekers and is associated with the more severe phenotype that is also less likely to remit. Routine screening and follow-up assessment for ADHD is indicated to enhance treatment management and outcomes. PMID:26922805

  16. Parental Preferences and Goals Regarding ADHD Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mayne, Stephanie; DeBartolo, Elena; Power, Thomas J.; Guevara, James P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between parents’ attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment preferences and goals and treatment initiation. METHODS: Parents/guardians of children aged 6 to 12 years diagnosed with ADHD in the past 18 months and not currently receiving combined treatment (both medication and behavior therapy [BT]) were recruited from 8 primary care sites and an ADHD treatment center. Parents completed the ADHD Preference and Goal Instrument, a validated measure, and reported treatment receipt at 6 months. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association of baseline preferences and goals with treatment initiation. Using linear regression, we compared the change in preferences and goals over 6 months for children who initiated treatment versus others. RESULTS: The study included 148 parents/guardians. Baseline medication and BT preference were associated with treatment initiation (odds ratio [OR]: 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI):1.2–5.5] and 2.2 [95% CI: 1.0–5.1], respectively). The goal of academic achievement was associated with medication initiation (OR: 2.1 [95% CI: 1.3–3.4]) and the goal of behavioral compliance with initiation of BT (OR: 1.6 [95% CI: 1.1–2.4]). At 6 months, parents whose children initiated medication or BT compared with others had decreased academic and behavioral goals, suggesting their goals were attained. However, only those initiating BT had diminished interpersonal relationship goals. CONCLUSIONS: Parental treatment preferences were associated with treatment initiation, and those with distinct goals selected different treatments. Results support the formal measurement of preferences and goals in practice as prioritized in recent national guidelines for ADHD management. PMID:23999959

  17. Hoarding in Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Leah E; Park, Jennifer M; Timpano, Kiara R; Cavitt, Mark A; Alvaro, Jeffrey L; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2016-07-01

    Although evidence suggests that hoarding may be associated with symptoms of ADHD, no study has examined this relationship in children. Participants included 99 youth diagnosed with ADHD (and a parent) seen in a general outpatient psychiatry clinic. Children completed the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version, the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Parents completed the Children's Saving Inventory and Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scale-Parent Version. Inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were the only indicator that differentiated those with and without clinically significant hoarding. Symptoms of ADHD, but not nonhoarding obsessive-compulsive symptoms, significantly predicted hoarding. Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were uniquely associated with individual hoarding features. Hoarding symptoms mediated the relationship between ADHD and oppositionality. These findings contribute to the growing literature about the association between hoarding and ADHD. © The Author(s) 2012.

  18. Extreme learning machine-based classification of ADHD using brain structural MRI data.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaolong; Lin, Pan; Zhang, Tongsheng; Wang, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Effective and accurate diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently of significant interest. ADHD has been associated with multiple cortical features from structural MRI data. However, most existing learning algorithms for ADHD identification contain obvious defects, such as time-consuming training, parameters selection, etc. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) Propose an ADHD classification model using the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm for automatic, efficient and objective clinical ADHD diagnosis. (2) Assess the computational efficiency and the effect of sample size on both ELM and support vector machine (SVM) methods and analyze which brain segments are involved in ADHD. High-resolution three-dimensional MR images were acquired from 55 ADHD subjects and 55 healthy controls. Multiple brain measures (cortical thickness, etc.) were calculated using a fully automated procedure in the FreeSurfer software package. In total, 340 cortical features were automatically extracted from 68 brain segments with 5 basic cortical features. F-score and SFS methods were adopted to select the optimal features for ADHD classification. Both ELM and SVM were evaluated for classification accuracy using leave-one-out cross-validation. We achieved ADHD prediction accuracies of 90.18% for ELM using eleven combined features, 84.73% for SVM-Linear and 86.55% for SVM-RBF. Our results show that ELM has better computational efficiency and is more robust as sample size changes than is SVM for ADHD classification. The most pronounced differences between ADHD and healthy subjects were observed in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe and insular. Our ELM-based algorithm for ADHD diagnosis performs considerably better than the traditional SVM algorithm. This result suggests that ELM may be used for the clinical diagnosis of ADHD and the investigation of different brain diseases.

  19. Familiality of Co-existing ADHD and Tic Disorders: Evidence from a Large Sibling Study

    PubMed Central

    Roessner, Veit; Banaschewski, Tobias; Becker, Andreas; Buse, Judith; Wanderer, Sina; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Steven V.; Asherson, Philip; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) is frequent and clinically important. Very few and inconclusive attempts have been made to clarify if and how the combination of ADHD+TD runs in families. Aim: To determine the first time in a large-scale ADHD sample whether ADHD+TD increases the risk of ADHD+TD in siblings and, also the first time, if this is independent of their psychopathological vulnerability in general. Methods: The study is based on the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. The present sub-sample of 2815 individuals included ADHD-index patients with co-existing TD (ADHD+TD, n = 262) and without TD (ADHD–TD, n = 947) as well as their 1606 full siblings (n = 358 of the ADHD+TD index patients and n = 1248 of the ADHD-TD index patients). We assessed psychopathological symptoms in index patients and siblings by using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the parent and teacher Conners' long version Rating Scales (CRS). For disorder classification the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS-Interview) was applied in n = 271 children. Odds ratio with the GENMOD procedure (PROCGENMOD) was used to test if the risk for ADHD, TD, and ADHD+TD in siblings was associated with the related index patients' diagnoses. In order to get an estimate for specificity we compared the four groups for general psychopathological symptoms. Results: Co-existing ADHD+TD in index patients increased the risk of both comorbid ADHD+TD and TD in the siblings of these index patients. These effects did not extend to general psychopathology. Interpretation: Co-existence of ADHD+TD may segregate in families. The same holds true for TD (without ADHD). Hence, the segregation of TD (included in both groups) seems to be the determining factor, independent of further behavioral problems. This close relationship between ADHD and TD supports the clinical approach to carefully assess ADHD in any case

  20. Parent ADHD and Evidence-Based Treatment for Their Children: Review and Directions for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Wang, Christine H; Woods, Kelsey E; Strickland, Jennifer; Stein, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    One fourth to one half of parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have ADHD themselves, complicating delivery of evidence-based child behavioral and pharmacological treatments. In this article, we review the literature examining the relation between parent ADHD and outcomes following behavioral and pharmacological treatments for children with ADHD. We also review research that has incorporated treatment of parent ADHD (either alone or in combination with child treatment) with the goal of improving parenting and child outcomes. Finally, we offer recommendations for future research on the relation between parent ADHD and evidence-based treatment outcomes for their children, with the purpose of advancing the science and informing clinical care of these families.

  1. Optimising treatment strategies for ADHD in adolescence to minimise 'lost in transition' to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Buitelaar, J K

    2017-10-01

    The persistence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from adolescence to adulthood is not matched by continuity of care in this transition period. Many adolescents with ADHD have poor medication adherence or even stop medication treatment, and use of behavioural interventions is also suboptimal. The present commentary focuses on treatment strategies that might improve effects of ADHD medication treatment by improving adherence in adolescents with ADHD and/or optimise behavioural interventions for ADHD in adolescence. Most treatment strategies in adolescents with ADHD are merely copied from treatments offered to children. Instead however treatment should be focused on what makes adolescents special and vulnerable, such as poor insight into own functioning and poor decision making. Techniques that offer promise for adolescents are motivational interviewing, use of ecological momentary assessments and interventions, mindfulness-based training and serious games. Systematic studies into the effects of these techniques alone and in combination with medication are lacking.

  2. Neurobiology in public and private discourse: the case of adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bröer, Christian; Heerings, Marjolijn

    2013-01-01

    How do people describe their health? How do their descriptions relate to public definitions? This article focuses on adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We look at Dutch adults who adopt the ADHD label and ask: which discourses structure their descriptions of ADHD? How do these relate to the dominant public discourse on ADHD? Do people use, for example, neurobiological explanations of ADHD? The research makes use of Q-methodology, which combines a discursive relational approach with factor analysis. We examine five different personal discourses that partly differ from the public discourse. People borrow neurobiological, psychological, sociological and even holistic arguments from public discourse to come up with a distinct set of discourses. Neurobiology resonates among adults with ADHD but does not dominate their thinking. Contrary to our expectation, this supports reflexivity instead of discipline theory. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Comparison of neuropsychological performances and behavioral patterns of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and severe mood dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Uran, Pınar; Kılıç, Birim Günay

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the similarities and differences in neuropsychological test performance, demographic features and behavioral patterns of children and adolescents with the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined type (ADHD-C), and the severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Study includes 112 children: 67 with ADHD-C, 24 with SMD and 21 healthy controls. These groups were identified by using the schedule for affective disorders, and schizophrenia for the school-age children-present and lifetime version (KSADS-PL) and the K-SADS-PL-SMD Module. Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scale-revised long form (CPRS-R:L and CTRS-R:L) and neuropsychological tests were administered to the research groups. ADHD-C group's performances in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test TBAG form and Controlled Oral Word Association Test were significantly poorer than the control group's performances (p < 0.05). Performance of the SMD group was only descriptively intermediate between performances of the ADHD-C and control group. In the "Oppositional", "Hyperactivity", "Social Problems", "Impulsive", "Emotional Lability" and "Conners' Global Index" subscales of CPRS-R:L, the average scores of the SMD group were significantly higher than the ADHD-C and control group's average scores (p < 0.05). ADHD-C group (but not SMD) could be significantly differentiated from healthy controls with the neuropsychological tests used. SMD group could be differentiated from the ADHD-C and healthy control groups with CPRS-R:L; i.e., ADHD-C versus SMD could be differentiated at the behavioral level only.

  4. [Genetic findings in Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Schimmelmann, Benno Graf; Friedel, Susann; Christiansen, Hanna; Dempfle, Astrid; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2006-11-01

    Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent psychiatric disorder with a prevalence rate of 3-7%. Formal genetic studies provided an estimated heritability of 0.6-0.8 and an approximately five-fold elevated risk for ADHD in first-degree relatives. Currently, four genome scans have led to the identification of chromosomal regions potentially relevant in ADHD; especially the evidence for linkage to chromosome 5p13 is convincing. Meta-analyses of a large number of candidate gene studies suggest association with gene variants of the dopaminergic receptors DRD4 and DRD5, the serotonergic receptor HTR1B, and the synaptosomal receptor protein (SNAP-25). Hyperactivity has been investigated particularly in animal models, focusing on knockout- and quantitative trait loci (QTL) designs, with promising results for the dopaminergic system. It is likely that several gene polymorphisms with moderate to small effect sizes contribute to the phenotype ADHD; different combinations of such predisposing variants presumably underlie ADHD in different individuals. Therefore, large samples for molecular genetic studies are mandatory to detect these polymorphisms. Accordingly, several of today's findings have to be regarded as preliminary. The understanding of ADHD's neurobiology may be advanced by new technologies, such as SNP-based genome scans performed with gene chips comprising 10,000-1,000,000 SNPs, as well as using more sophisticated animal model designs.

  5. Adults with autism spectrum disorders and ADHD neuropsychological aspects.

    PubMed

    Nydén, Agneta; Niklasson, Lena; Stahlberg, Ola; Anckarsater, Henrik; Wentz, Elisabet; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess which types of neuropsychological deficits appear to be most commonly associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. The effect of the combination of ASD with ADHD (ASD/ADHD) was also studied. One hundred and sixty-one adult individuals (≥18 years of age) were included in the study. None had full scale IQ less than 71. The neuropsychological investigations included measures of intellectual ability, learning and memory, attention/executive function and theory of mind. The three diagnostic groups showed reduced performance in most cognitive domains. However, within these domains differentiating distinct features could be seen. The dysfunctions of the ASD/ADHD group cannot be seen as a summary of the dysfunctions found in the ASD and ADHD groups. The ADHD seemed to have the most severe neuropsychological impairments of the three groups. No domain-specific deficit typical of any of the diagnostic groups was found. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Decision-making in social contexts in youth with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ili; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda N J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Scheres, Anouk P J

    2017-03-01

    This study examined reward-related decision-making in children and adolescents with ADHD in a social context, using economic games. We furthermore examined the role of individual differences in reward-related decision-making, specifically, the roles of reward sensitivity and prosocial skills. Children and adolescents (9-17 years) with ADHD-combined subtype (n = 29; 20 boys) and healthy controls (n = 38; 20 boys) completed the ultimatum game and dictator game as measures of reward-related decision-making in social contexts. Prosocial skills were measured with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. The ADHD group had a larger discrepancy between ultimatum game and dictator game offers than controls, indicating strategic rather than fairness driven decisions. This finding was supported by self-reports showing fewer individuals with ADHD than controls who considered fairness as motive for the decisions. Perspective taking or empathic concern did not differ between groups and was not significantly associated with offers. In conclusion, the results suggest that rather than a failure to understand the perspective of others, children and adolescents with ADHD were less motivated by fairness than controls in simple social situations. Results encourage the use of economic games in ADHD research.

  7. Classroom changes in ADHD symptoms following clinic-based behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David F; Chapman, Stephanie; Dempsey, Jack; Mire, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    This study examined classroom behavioral outcomes for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) following their participation in a manualized, 10-week intervention called Family Skills Training for ADHD-Related Symptoms (Family STARS). Family STARS combined behavioral parent training (BPT) and child-focused behavioral activation therapy (CBAT). Participants were children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. Pre- and post-treatment teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms were compared using a single group, within-subjects research design. Intervention effectiveness was analyzed using paired-samples t-tests. Results indicated statistically significant classroom improvements for externalizing behaviors and attention problems with medium and large main effects (respectively) for the intervention. Possible implications for combining CBAT with BPT for the treatment of ADHD are discussed as well as the relevance of these results for improving the effectiveness and portability of empirically supported interventions.

  8. Symptomatic Improvement in Children with ADHD Treated with Long-Term Methylphenidate and Multimodal Psychosocial Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; Hechtman, Lily; Klein, Rachel G.; Weiss, Gabrielle; Fleiss, Karen; Etcovitch, Joy; Cousins, Lorne; Greenfield, Brian; Martin, Diane; Pollack, Simcha

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypotheses that in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (1) symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and overall functioning are significantly improved by methylphenidate combined with intensive multimodal psychosocial treatment compared with methylphenidate alone and with methylphenidate…

  9. A Novel Group Therapy for Children with ADHD and Severe Mood Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxmonsky, James G.; Wymbs, Fran A.; Pariseau, Meaghan E.; Belin, Peter J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Babocsai, Lysett; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Akinnusi, Opeolowa O.; Haak, Jenifer L.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: No psychosocial treatments have been developed for children with ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD) despite the significant prevalence and morbidity of this combination. Therefore, the authors developed a novel treatment program for children with ADHD and SMD. Method: The novel therapy program integrates components of…

  10. A Novel Group Therapy for Children with ADHD and Severe Mood Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxmonsky, James G.; Wymbs, Fran A.; Pariseau, Meaghan E.; Belin, Peter J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Babocsai, Lysett; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Akinnusi, Opeolowa O.; Haak, Jenifer L.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: No psychosocial treatments have been developed for children with ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD) despite the significant prevalence and morbidity of this combination. Therefore, the authors developed a novel treatment program for children with ADHD and SMD. Method: The novel therapy program integrates components of…

  11. Working Memory Deficits in ADHD: The Contribution of Age, Learning/Language Difficulties, and Task Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowerby, Paula; Seal, Simon; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To further define the nature of working memory (WM) impairments in children with combined-type ADHD. Method: A total of 40 Children with ADHD and an age and gender-matched control group (n = 40) completed two measures of visuo-spatial WM and two measures of verbal WM. The effects of age and learning/language difficulties on performance…

  12. Integrating Genetic, Psychopharmacological and Neuroimaging Studies: A Converging Methods Approach to Understanding the Neurobiology of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durston, Sarah; Konrad, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to illustrate how combining multiple approaches can inform us about the neurobiology of ADHD. Converging evidence from genetic, psychopharmacological and functional neuroimaging studies has implicated dopaminergic fronto-striatal circuitry in ADHD. However, while the observation of converging evidence from multiple vantage points…

  13. Time Course of Treatment Effect of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Robert B.; Damaraju, C. V.; Ascher, Steve; Schwarzman, Lesley; O'Neill, James; Starr, H. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the time course of the treatment effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS[R] MPH) HCl (Concerta[R], Raritan, NJ) CII in children with ADHD. Method: Data were combined from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, analog classroom studies in children (9-12 years) with ADHD.…

  14. The Effect of Video Feedback on the Social Behavior of an Adolescent with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Mazur, Amy; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Ross, J. Megan; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The social functioning of adolescents with ADHD is characteristically impaired, yet almost no interventions effectively address the peer relationships of these youth. This study evaluates the preliminary effects of a video-feedback intervention on the social behavior of a 16-year-old male with ADHD-combined type in the context of a…

  15. Symptomatic Improvement in Children with ADHD Treated with Long-Term Methylphenidate and Multimodal Psychosocial Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; Hechtman, Lily; Klein, Rachel G.; Weiss, Gabrielle; Fleiss, Karen; Etcovitch, Joy; Cousins, Lorne; Greenfield, Brian; Martin, Diane; Pollack, Simcha

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypotheses that in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (1) symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and overall functioning are significantly improved by methylphenidate combined with intensive multimodal psychosocial treatment compared with methylphenidate alone and with methylphenidate…

  16. Time Course of Treatment Effect of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Robert B.; Damaraju, C. V.; Ascher, Steve; Schwarzman, Lesley; O'Neill, James; Starr, H. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the time course of the treatment effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS[R] MPH) HCl (Concerta[R], Raritan, NJ) CII in children with ADHD. Method: Data were combined from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, analog classroom studies in children (9-12 years) with ADHD.…

  17. Integrating Genetic, Psychopharmacological and Neuroimaging Studies: A Converging Methods Approach to Understanding the Neurobiology of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durston, Sarah; Konrad, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to illustrate how combining multiple approaches can inform us about the neurobiology of ADHD. Converging evidence from genetic, psychopharmacological and functional neuroimaging studies has implicated dopaminergic fronto-striatal circuitry in ADHD. However, while the observation of converging evidence from multiple vantage points…

  18. The Effect of Video Feedback on the Social Behavior of an Adolescent with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Mazur, Amy; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Ross, J. Megan; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The social functioning of adolescents with ADHD is characteristically impaired, yet almost no interventions effectively address the peer relationships of these youth. This study evaluates the preliminary effects of a video-feedback intervention on the social behavior of a 16-year-old male with ADHD-combined type in the context of a…

  19. Teacher's Guide to ADHD. What Works for Special-Needs Learners Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert; Johnson, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Meeting a key need for teachers, this book provides practical, data-based tools for helping students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) succeed in the classroom. The authors combine instructional expertise with extensive knowledge about the nature and treatment of ADHD. Coverage includes ways to support students and teach them…

  20. Differential perinatal risk factors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder by subtype.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Oh, Seung Min; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2014-11-30

    We compared the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) combined subtype (ADHD-C) to the ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) in terms of genetic, perinatal, and developmental risk factors as well as clinical and neuropsychological characteristics. A total of 147 children diagnosed with ADHD between the ages of 6 and 15 years participated in this study. The parents of the children completed the structured diagnostic interview, the ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Children's Behavior Checklist, and structured questionnaires on perinatal risk factors, and the children underwent a neuropsychological test and were genotyped. A total of 502 children without ADHD were recruited from the community as a healthy control group. The ADHD-C children showed more severe externalizing symptoms, showed more deficits in a continuous performance test, and were more likely to have comorbid disorders. Maternal stress during pregnancy, postpartum depression, and changes in the primary caretaker during first 3 years were significantly associated with both ADHD-I and ADHD-C. The ADHD-I group was less likely to have received regular prenatal check-ups and more likely to have had postnatal medical illness than the ADHD-C group. There were no significant differences in the genotype frequencies of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and the serotonin transporter -linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms between ADHD-I and ADHD-C groups. This study shows that the inattentive subtype of ADHD is different from the combined subtype in many parameters including severity of symptoms, comorbidity, neuropsychological characteristics, and environmental risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Symptoms of ADHD and Academic Concerns in College Students with and without ADHD Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence J.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Codding, Robin S.; Gordon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has found ADHD symptoms to be common in the general population but has not compared endorsement of symptoms between ADHD and non-ADHD groups. This study examines self-reported ADHD symptoms and academic complaints in college students. Method: Students without (n = 496) and with ADHD (n = 38) completed a questionnaire…

  2. ADHD: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscome, Jennifer; Cunningham, Teddi; Kelley, Heather; Brown, Caitlyn

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of ADHD and to provide evidence-based training interventions for school counselors. An overview of basic information about ADHD will be provided, including diagnosis, presentation, causes, prevalence, and common misconceptions. Evidence-based training…

  3. Adaptations for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrady, Mart

    2005-01-01

    ADHD is a neurobiological-based brain disorder, most often hereditary, affecting nearly one in twenty students. The ADHD brain functions differently because the area between the frontal lobe and rear lobe is having short-circuit problems and is not transmitting necessary information. The technical part of the disorder does not engage us as…

  4. ADHD: From Intervention to Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaban, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a chronic neurological disorder, is not formally recognized in the educational systems across Canada. As a result, there is little opportunity for collaboration or sharing of information between the medical/research community and the educational system. Because ADHD is not formally identified,…

  5. Contemporary Trends in ADHD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    With many children and adults affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, researchers strive to understand the underpinnings of ADHD and associated factors on both a basic and applied level. The goal of this volume is to explore some of the broad array of research in the field of ADHD. The 12 chapters cover a variety of topics as varied…

  6. The Child's Experience of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Iser, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the agreement between parent- and child-reported quality of life (QoL) and the self-perceptions of children with ADHD. Method: A cross-sectional survey of school-aged children with ADHD and their parents was undertaken. Results: Parents reported their child's QoL as lower than the children rated…

  7. Contemporary Trends in ADHD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    With many children and adults affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, researchers strive to understand the underpinnings of ADHD and associated factors on both a basic and applied level. The goal of this volume is to explore some of the broad array of research in the field of ADHD. The 12 chapters cover a variety of topics as varied…

  8. The Child's Experience of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Iser, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the agreement between parent- and child-reported quality of life (QoL) and the self-perceptions of children with ADHD. Method: A cross-sectional survey of school-aged children with ADHD and their parents was undertaken. Results: Parents reported their child's QoL as lower than the children rated…

  9. Understanding ADHD: Our Personal Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blahy, Tammy Lynn

    2004-01-01

    No good time exists to face the realities of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children across the United States and Canada are accompanied to clinics and schools by frightened, worried parents. In the book, In Understanding ADHD (2001), Ken and Andrea McCluskey bring to life the realities of the everyday journey of coping with…

  10. Adaptations for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrady, Mart

    2005-01-01

    ADHD is a neurobiological-based brain disorder, most often hereditary, affecting nearly one in twenty students. The ADHD brain functions differently because the area between the frontal lobe and rear lobe is having short-circuit problems and is not transmitting necessary information. The technical part of the disorder does not engage us as…

  11. Anxiety and Depression among College Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Cross-Informant, Sex, and Subtype Differences.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jason M; Liebel, Spencer W

    2017-09-22

    This study examined symptoms of anxiety and depression among college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Data were collected between March 2011 and March 2016 from 150 college students with ADHD and 150 college students without ADHD. Participants with ADHD were compared to a sex- and ethnicity-matched control group. For the ADHD group, parent and self-report of anxiety and depression were also compared. College students with ADHD self-reported significantly higher anxiety and depressive symptoms than did students without ADHD. Scores on parent-report measures of anxiety and depressive symptoms were significantly higher than scores on self-report measures. Significant sex differences were found for participants with ADHD, with females showing higher depressive and anxiety symptoms than males. Parent-reported anxiety symptoms were higher for those with inattentive type ADHD compared to combined type ADHD. The current study highlights the importance of multi-informant assessment in ADHD evaluations for college-aged adults.

  12. ADHD comorbidity can matter when assessing cortical thickness abnormalities in patients with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hegarty, Catherine E; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Narr, Katherine L; Sugar, Catherine A; McGough, James J; Thompson, Paul M; Altshuler, Lori L

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in patients with bipolar disorder (BP), but very few studies consider this when interpreting magnetic resonance imaging findings. No studies, to our knowledge, have screened for or controlled for the presence of ADHD when examining cortical thickness in patients with BP. We used a 2 × 2 design to evaluate the joint effects of BP and ADHD on cortical thickness and uncover the importance of ADHD comorbidity in BP subjects. Methods The study included 85 subjects: 31 healthy controls, 17 BP-only, 19 ADHD-only, and 18 BP/ADHD. All patients with BP were subtype I, were euthymic, and were not taking lithium. Groups did not differ significantly in age or sex distribution. We used cortical thickness measuring tools combined with cortical pattern matching methods to align sulcal/gyral anatomy across participants. Significance maps were used to check for both main effects of BP and ADHD and their interaction. Post-hoc comparisons assessed how the effects of BP on cortical thickness varied as a function of the presence or absence of ADHD. Results Interactions of BP and ADHD diagnoses were found in the left subgenual cingulate and right orbitofrontal cortex, demonstrating that the effect of BP on cortical thickness depends on ADHD status. Conclusions Some brain abnormalities attributed to BP may result from the presence of ADHD. Diagnostic interactions were found in regions previously implicated in the pathophysiology of BP, making it vital to control for an ADHD comorbid diagnosis when attempting to isolate neural or genetic abnormalities specific to BP. PMID:23167934

  13. Functional status in children with ADHD at age 6-8: a controlled community study.

    PubMed

    Efron, Daryl; Sciberras, Emma; Anderson, Vicki; Hazell, Philip; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Jongeling, Brad; Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Bisset, Matthew; Nicholson, Jan M

    2014-10-01

    To examine the functional status (mental health, academic performance, peer problems) of a community-based sample of children who have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD controls, and to investigate gender and subtype differences. Children aged 6 to 8 years were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools, using a 2-stage screening (parent and teacher Conners 3 ADHD index) and case confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV; [DISC-IV]) procedure. Outcome measures were mental health disorders (DISC-IV), academic performance (Wide Range Achievement Test 4), and peer problems (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire). Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to compare ADHD and non-ADHD controls. A total of 179 children who have ADHD and 212 non-ADHD controls were recruited. Compared with controls, children who had ADHD had higher odds of externalizing (odds ratio [OR], 11.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-21.6; P < .001) and internalizing (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-7.2; P = .02) disorders; poorer reading (effect size, -0.66) and mathematics (effect size, -0.69) performance; and more peer problems (P < .001). Boys and girls who had ADHD were equally impaired. Only 17% of children in our ADHD group had been previously diagnosed. Previous diagnosis was higher in the Combined group and for boys. In their second year of school, children who had ADHD performed worse than controls across all functional domains, yet only a minority had been formally diagnosed with ADHD. Findings highlight the need for earlier diagnosis and intervention. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Age dependent electroencephalographic changes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Poil, S-S; Bollmann, S; Ghisleni, C; O'Gorman, R L; Klaver, P; Ball, J; Eich-Höchli, D; Brandeis, D; Michels, L

    2014-08-01

    Objective biomarkers for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could improve diagnostics or treatment monitoring of this psychiatric disorder. The resting electroencephalogram (EEG) provides non-invasive spectral markers of brain function and development. Their accuracy as ADHD markers is increasingly questioned but may improve with pattern classification. This study provides an integrated analysis of ADHD and developmental effects in children and adults using regression analysis and support vector machine classification of spectral resting (eyes-closed) EEG biomarkers in order to clarify their diagnostic value. ADHD effects on EEG strongly depend on age and frequency. We observed typical non-linear developmental decreases in delta and theta power for both ADHD and control groups. However, for ADHD adults we found a slowing in alpha frequency combined with a higher power in alpha-1 (8-10Hz) and beta (13-30Hz). Support vector machine classification of ADHD adults versus controls yielded a notable cross validated sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 83% using power and central frequency from all frequency bands. ADHD children were not classified convincingly with these markers. Resting state electrophysiology is altered in ADHD, and these electrophysiological impairments persist into adulthood. Spectral biomarkers may have both diagnostic and prognostic value. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Guney, Esra; Ceylan, Mehmet Fatih; Kara, Mehmet; Tekin, Neslihan; Goker, Zeynep; Senses Dinc, Gulser; Ozturk, Onder; Eker, Sevda; Kizilgun, Murat

    2014-02-07

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. The etiopathogeny of ADHD has not been totally defined. Recent reports have suggested a pathophysiological role of neurotrophins in ADHD. In this study, we evaluated serum levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) in patients with ADHD. The sample population consisted of 44 child or adolescent patients diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria; 36 healthy subjects were included in the study as controls. Venous blood samples were collected, and NGF levels were measured. The mean serum NGF levels of the ADHD patients were significantly higher than those of the controls. Age and gender of the patients were not correlated with serum NGF levels. There were no significant differences in NGF levels among the combined and predominantly inattentive subtypes of ADHD. Our study suggests that there are higher levels of serum NGF in drug naive ADHD patients, and that increased levels of NGF might have an important role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Confronting ADHD in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Patience

    2009-01-01

    Tell-tale signs of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) ADHD and its relative ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) include an inability to maintain attention, impulsive behaviors, and/or motor restlessness. There are three subcategories of ADHD; for the purpose of this article, the blanket term ADHD applies to all three. A crucial first step…

  17. Confronting ADHD in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Patience

    2009-01-01

    Tell-tale signs of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) ADHD and its relative ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) include an inability to maintain attention, impulsive behaviors, and/or motor restlessness. There are three subcategories of ADHD; for the purpose of this article, the blanket term ADHD applies to all three. A crucial first step…

  18. The Impact of Pharmacotherapy on Substance Use in Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Variations Across Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Navneet; Chen, Hua; Mgbere, Osaro; Bhatara, Vinod S; Aparasu, Rajender R

    2017-08-24

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pharmacotherapy on the risk of substance use within each ADHD subtype. The study used data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent supplement, a nationally representative sample of US adolescents (ages 13-18) collected from 6,483 adolescent-parent interviews conducted between 2001 and 2004. ADHD was categorized into three subtypes: ADHD-predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-H); ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I); and ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. Substance use information was obtained from the adolescents' interview. The impact of ADHD-pharmacotherapy on substance use was examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Among the adolescents with ADHD, ADHD pharmacotherapy significantly associated with reduced risk of substance use (OR = 0.53, 95%CI [0.31-0.90]); with regards to ADHD subtypes, ADHD pharmacotherapy is negatively associated with substance use in adolescents with ADHD-C (OR = 0.53, 95%CI [0.24-0.97]) and those with ADHD-H (OR = 0.23, 95% CI [0.07-0.78]), but it did not have statistically significant effect on risk of substance use in those with ADHD-I subtype (OR = 0.49, 95%CI [0.17-1.39]). Among the group who never received ADHD-pharmacotherapy before the interview, individuals with ADHD-H and ADHD-C had a similar risk of substance use compared to adolescents with ADHD-I (ADHD-C: OR = 1.5, 95%CI [0.77-2.95] and ADHD-H: OR = 2.10, 95%CI [0.87-4.95]). Adolescents with ADHD were equally susceptible to future substance use disregard their ADHD subtypes. Receipt of pharmacotherapy could decrease risk of substance use in adolescents with ADHD-H and ADHD-C, but it may not affect risk of substance use among individuals with ADHD-I.

  19. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With and Without Medication for Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Cherkasova, Mariya V; French, Lisa R; Syer, Cassidy A; Cousins, Lorne; Galina, Harry; Ahmadi-Kashani, Yasaman; Hechtman, Lily

    2016-10-01

    Recent trials have demonstrated efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in medicated adults with ADHD. Efficacy of CBT in unmedicated versus medicated adults remains mostly unknown. We evaluated the effects of group CBT alone versus combined with medication on ADHD symptoms and functional outcomes in adult patients. Eighty-eight adults with ADHD received 12 manualized group CBT sessions, accompanied by individual coaching, either without ( n = 46) or with ( n = 42) medication. Treatment effects were evaluated following treatment and 3-month and 6-month follow-up using un-blinded self-report and observer ratings. CBT + medication resulted in greater improvements than CBT alone in ADHD symptoms, organizational skills, and self-esteem. Group differences diminished over follow-up, as the CBT alone group continued improving, while the combined group maintained the gains. CBT + medication outperformed CBT alone for ADHD symptoms, organizational skills, and self-esteem, although its superiority tended to decrease over follow-up.

  20. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAVY PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ARE NOT EXACERBATED BY COMORBID ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or heavy prenatal alcohol exposure has been well documented independently. This study examined the interaction between both factors on cognitive performance in children. Method: As part of a multisite study, 344 children (8-16y, M=12.28, SD=2.52) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Four subject groups were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and ADHD (AE+, n=90), alcohol-exposed without ADHD, (AE−, n=38), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=80), and non-exposed without ADHD (CON, n=136). Results: Separate 2(AE) × 2(ADHD) MANCOVAs revealed significant main and interactive effects of ADHD and AE on overall WISC-IV, D-KEFS, and CANTAB performance. Individual ANOVAs revealed significant interactions on 2 WISC-IV indices [Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)], and four D-KEFS and CANTAB subtests [Design Fluency, Verbal Fluency, Trail Making, Spatial Working Memory]. Follow-up analyses demonstrated no difference between AE+ and AE− groups on any measures. The combined AE+/− group demonstrated more severe impairment than the ADHD group on VCI and PRI, but there were no other differences between clinical groups. Conclusions: These results support a combined AE+/− group for neuropsychological research and indicate that, in some cases, the neuropsychological effects seen in ADHD are altered by prenatal alcohol exposure. The effects of alcohol exposure on verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning were greater than those related to having ADHD without alcohol exposure, although both conditions independently resulted in cognitive impairment compared to controls. Clinically, these findings demonstrate task-dependent patterns of impairment across clinical disorders. PMID:24040921

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adaptation night as determinants of sleep patterns in children.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Roumen; Uebel, Henrik; Albrecht, Bjoern; Banaschewski, Tobias; Yordanova, Juliana; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2012-12-01

    Sleep problems are a prominent feature in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but their relationships to sleep structure are not consistent across studies. We aimed at further examining the sleep architecture in children with ADHD, while considering the role of the first-night effect (FNE) as a possible confounder. Twenty unmedicated children with ADHD combined type (8-15 years old; mean 11.24, SD 2.31) and 19 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, underwent polysomnography during an adaptation and a consecutive second night. ADHD and controls displayed a typical FNE without group differences. Independently of testing night, children with ADHD spent more time in sleep and had shortened rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency and a greater amount of REM sleep relative to controls. However, the increased REM sleep amount in ADHD children was more expressed in the second night when it was also significantly related to scores of inattention and hyperactivity. Our results (1) document similar sleep adaptation processes in children with ADHD and typically developing children, (2) reveal that REM sleep changes in association with ADHD-specific psychopathology may characterize sleep in ADHD children, which is evident only when the FNE is accounted for, (3) indicate that ADHD psychopathology and adaptation night may exert opposite effects on REM sleep in children. These results may prompt the awareness of clinicians about the importance of actual sleep alterations and their precise evaluation in children with ADHD, which could significantly contribute to better diagnostic, treatment and early prevention strategies.

  2. When Diagnosing ADHD in Young Adults Emphasize Informant Reports, DSM Items, and Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Garefino, Allison C.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Babinski, Dara E.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined several questions about the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adults using data from a childhood-diagnosed sample of 200 individuals with ADHD (age M = 20.20 years) and 121 demographically similar non-ADHD controls (total N = 321). Method We examined the use of self-versus informant ratings of current and childhood functioning and evaluated the diagnostic utility of adult-specific items versus items from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM). Results Results indicated that although a majority of young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD continued to experience elevated ADHD symptoms (75%) and clinically significant impairment (60%), only 9.6%–19.7% of the childhood ADHD group continued to meet DSM–IV–TR (DSM, 4th ed., text rev.) criteria for ADHD in young adulthood. Parent report was more diagnostically sensitive than self-report. Young adults with ADHD tended to underreport current symptoms, while young adults without ADHD tended to overreport symptoms. There was no significant incremental benefit beyond parent report alone to combining self-report with parent report. Non-DSM-based, adult-specific symptoms of ADHD were significantly correlated with functional impairment and endorsed at slightly higher rates than the DSM-IV-TR symptoms. However, DSM-IV-TR items tended to be more predictive of diagnostic group membership than the non-DSM adult-specific items due to elevated control group item endorsement. Conclusions Implications for the assessment and treatment of ADHD in young adults are discussed (i.e., collecting informant reports, lowering the diagnostic threshold, emphasizing impairment, and cautiously interpreting retrospective reports). PMID:22774792

  3. Women and Girls (With ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a home or office, helping to set up systems that are easier to maintain. For more information on organization, see Organizing and Time Management . 5. Career guidance . Just as women with ADHD ...

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused ...

  5. ADHD: Is Objective Diagnosis Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lynda G.

    2005-01-01

    Although attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common cognitive disorders, the usual diagnostic procedures pursued by psychiatrists, neurologists, pediatricians, and family practitioners are based largely, if not exclusively, on subjective assessments of perceived behavior. The recommended approaches to ADHD diagnosis are reviewed, first from the perspective of the various expert panels, and then from the research literature upon which those recommendations are based. The authors agree that ADHD is a clinical diagnosis, and that the assessment of subjective reports can be systematic. But they propose that objective data should also contribute to the clinical diagnosis of ADHD; and that new computerized assessment technology can generate objective cognitive data in an efficient and cost-effective way. Computerized tests can also improve the assessment of treatment response over time. PMID:21120096

  6. Intact Context-Dependent Modulation of Conflict Monitoring in Childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bluschke, Annet; Chmielewski, Witold X; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2016-04-25

    Conflict monitoring is well known to be modulated by context. This is known as the Gratton effect, meaning that the degree of interference is smaller when a stimulus-response conflict had been encountered previously. It is unclear to what extent these processes are changed in ADHD. Children with ADHD (combined subtype) and healthy controls performed a modified version of the sequence flanker task. Patients with ADHD made significantly more errors than healthy controls, indicating general performance deficits. However, there were no differences regarding reaction times, indicating an intact Gratton effect in ADHD. These results were supported by Bayesian statistics. The results suggest that the ability to take contextual information into account during conflict monitoring is preserved in patients with ADHD despite this disorder being associated with changes in executive control functions overall. These findings are discussed in light of different theoretical accounts on contextual modulations of conflict monitoring. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. The Association of Lifestyle Factors and ADHD in Children.

    PubMed

    Holton, Kathleen F; Nigg, Joel T

    2016-04-28

    The objective of the study is to examine whether children aged 7 to 11 years with very well-characterized ADHD, recruited from the community, have a similar number of healthy lifestyle behaviors as compared with typically developing children from the same community. Parents of children with (n = 184) and without (n = 104) ADHD completed a lifestyle questionnaire asking about water intake, sweetened beverage consumption, multivitamin/supplement use, reading, screen time, physical activity, and sleep. A lifestyle index was formed from these seven domains (0-7), and multivariable ordered logistic regression was used to examine the association of ADHD status and total healthy lifestyle behaviors. Children with ADHD were almost twice as likely to have fewer healthy behaviors, even after adjustment for age, sex, intelligence quotient (IQ), ADHD medication use, household income, and four comorbid psychiatric disorders (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval] = 1.95 [1.16, 3.30], p = .01). Future research is needed to assess the effects of a combined lifestyle intervention in this group. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Executive impairment determines ADHD medication response: implications for academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Hale, James B; Reddy, Linda A; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Hain, Lisa A; Whitaker, James; Morley, Jessica; Lawrence, Kyle; Smith, Alex; Jones, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) often ameliorates attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behavioral dysfunction according to indirect informant reports and rating scales. The standard of care behavioral MPH titration approach seldom includes direct neuropsychological or academic assessment data to determine treatment efficacy. Documenting "cool" executive-working memory (EWM) and "hot" self-regulation (SR) neuropsychological impairments could aid in differential diagnosis of ADHD subtypes and determining cognitive and academic MPH response. In this study, children aged 6 to 16 with ADHD inattentive type (IT; n = 19) and combined type (n = 33)/hyperactive-impulsive type (n = 4) (CT) participated in double-blind placebo-controlled MPH trials with baseline and randomized placebo, low MPH dose, and high MPH dose conditions. EWM/ SR measures and behavior ratings/classroom observations were rank ordered separately across conditions, with nonparametric randomization tests conducted to determine individual MPH response. Participants were subsequently grouped according to their level of cool EWM and hot SR circuit dysfunction. Robust cognitive and behavioral MPH response was achieved for children with significant baseline EWM/SR impairment, yet response was poor for those with adequate EWM/ SR baseline performance. Even for strong MPH responders, the best dose for neuropsychological functioning was typically lower than the best dose for behavior. Findings offer one possible explanation for why long-term academic MPH treatment gains in ADHD have not been realized. Implications for academic achievement and medication titration practices for children with behaviorally diagnosed ADHD will be discussed.

  9. Elevated rates of ADHD in mothers of children with comorbid ADHD and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Hamoda, Hesham M; Luna, Laura; Rao, Sneha; McClendon, James; Rotella, Peter; Waber, Deborah; Boyer, Katherine; Faraone, Steven V; Whitney, Jane; Guild, Danielle; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives To describe the prevalence of ADHD in mothers of children with comorbid ADHD and epilepsy (ADHD+E) and to compare ADHD symptoms in mothers with (Fam+) and without (Fam−) additional relative(s) with epilepsy. Patients & methods Mothers (n = 16) of children with ADHD+E were assessed by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children ADHD module and the ADHD Rating Scale IV. Information was collected on the presence (Fam+) or absence (Fam−) of first- or second-degree relatives with epilepsy in the sample. Results A total of 50% of mothers met the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. ADHD was more prevalent in Fam+ mothers (80%) compared with Fam− mothers (36%; p = 0.14). Fam+ mothers had more current hyperactivity symptoms than Fam− mothers (p = 0.002), higher current ADHD severity (p = 0.02) and higher ADHD Rating Scale IV hyperactivity scores (p = 0.008). Conclusion The prevalence of ADHD in mothers of children with ADHD+E is elevated in this pilot study, suggesting that ADHD symptoms in children with epilepsy and their mothers reflects shared familial genetic or environmental risks, potentially resulting in a higher prevalence of both disorders among family members. This is a pilot study and larger controlled studies are warranted. PMID:23397446

  10. Social Functioning in Children with ADHD Treated with Long-Term Methylphenidate and Multimodal Psychosocial Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; Hechtman, Lily; Klein, Rachel G.; Gallagher, Richard; Fleiss, Karen; Etcovitch, Joy; Cousins, Lorne; Greenfield, Brian; Martin, Diane; Pollack, Simcha

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test that methylphenidate combined with intensive multimodal psychosocial intervention, which includes social skills training, significantly enhances social functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with methylphenidate alone and methylphenidate plus nonspecific psychosocial treatment…

  11. Pharmacological Management of Treatment-Induced Insomnia in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Lake, Marybeth; Pliszka, Steven R.; Walkup, John T.

    2005-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined subtype, and oppositional defiant disorder presents with a complaint of marked insomnia. Her parents describe 60 to 90 minutes of nightly initial insomnia that began with the initiation of 36 mg OROS methylphenidate (Concerta) 2 months ago. Behavioral interventions…

  12. Physical Activity Experiences of Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, William J.; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.; Staples, Kerri; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity experiences of 12 age-matched boys with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were explored by converging information from Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessments and semistructured interviews. The knowledge-based approach and the inhibitory model of executive functions, a combined theoretical lens,…

  13. Interventions in School Settings for Students With ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Ana; Jarque, Sonia; Tarraga, Raul

    2006-01-01

    This article consists of a review of 16 research studies on treatments in school settings for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) carried out in the last decade. It includes both simple interventions and multicomponent interventions where different techniques are combined. Based on this revision, the conclusion is drawn…

  14. How Greek Teachers Perceive School Functioning of Pupils with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakouros, Efthymios; Maniadaki, Katerina; Papaeliou, Christina

    2004-01-01

    In this study Greek teachers assessed school functioning in 26 pupils with the possibility of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, i.e. combined (C) type, inattentive (IA) type and hyperactive-impulsive (HI) type, and 26 controls. Results showed that C and IA pupils were evaluated as impaired in all areas of academic and…

  15. Physical Activity Experiences of Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, William J.; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.; Staples, Kerri; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity experiences of 12 age-matched boys with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were explored by converging information from Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessments and semistructured interviews. The knowledge-based approach and the inhibitory model of executive functions, a combined theoretical lens,…

  16. Pharmacological Management of Treatment-Induced Insomnia in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Lake, Marybeth; Pliszka, Steven R.; Walkup, John T.

    2005-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined subtype, and oppositional defiant disorder presents with a complaint of marked insomnia. Her parents describe 60 to 90 minutes of nightly initial insomnia that began with the initiation of 36 mg OROS methylphenidate (Concerta) 2 months ago. Behavioral interventions…

  17. Disruptive patterns of eating behaviors and associated lifestyles in males with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ptacek, Radek; Kuzelova, Hana; Stefano, George B; Raboch, Jiří; Sadkova, Tereza; Goetz, Michal; Kream, Richard M

    2014-04-14

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological/behavioral disorder characterized by inattention or hyperactivity and impulsivity, or combined symptomatology. Children with ADHD are predisposed to irregular and/or impulsive eating patterns often leading to compromised physical condition. The goal of the present study was to statistically evaluate parental scoring of patterned eating behaviors and associated lifestyles within a cohort of 100 boys diagnosed with ADHD in comparison to age-matched male controls. The study population consisted of 100 boys aged 6-10 years diagnosed with mixed type ADHD by DSM-IV criteria and 100 aged-matched healthy male control subjects. Patterns of eating behaviors and associated lifestyles were scored by structured parental interviews using a nominal rating scale. Interview scores indicated statistically significant differences in patterned eating behaviors in subjects with ADHD in comparison to healthy controls. Notably, subjects diagnosed with ADHD exhibited markedly diminished adherence to a traditional breakfast, lunch, and dinner schedule, which was linked to a significantly higher frequency (>5/day) of irregular eating times. In the ADHD cohort, disruptive patterns of eating behaviors were associated with diminished nutritional value of ingested food (expressed as lowered content of fruits and vegetables) and increased consumption of sweetened beverages. Disruptive patterns of eating behaviors, metabolically unfavorable nutritional status, and diminished physical activities of male children diagnosed with ADHD are linked to compromised growth and development and appearance of metabolic diseases in adulthood.

  18. Characterizing heterogeneity in children with and without ADHD based on reward system connectivity.

    PubMed

    Costa Dias, Taciana G; Iyer, Swathi P; Carpenter, Samuel D; Cary, Robert P; Wilson, Vanessa B; Mitchell, Suzanne H; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2015-02-01

    One potential obstacle limiting our ability to clarify ADHD etiology is the heterogeneity within the disorder, as well as in typical samples. In this study, we utilized a community detection approach on 106 children with and without ADHD (aged 7-12 years), in order to identify potential subgroups of participants based on the connectivity of the reward system. Children with ADHD were compared to typically developing children within each identified community, aiming to find the community-specific ADHD characteristics. Furthermore, to assess how the organization in subgroups relates to behavior, we evaluated delay-discounting gradient and impulsivity-related temperament traits within each community. We found that discrete subgroups were identified that characterized distinct connectivity profiles in the reward system. Importantly, which connections were atypical in ADHD relative to the control children were specific to the community membership. Our findings showed that children with ADHD and typically developing children could be classified into distinct subgroups according to brain functional connectivity. Results also suggested that the differentiation in "functional" subgroups is related to specific behavioral characteristics, in this case impulsivity. Thus, combining neuroimaging data and community detection might be a valuable approach to elucidate heterogeneity in ADHD etiology and examine ADHD neurobiology.

  19. Characterizing heterogeneity in children with and without ADHD based on reward system connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Costa Dias, Taciana G.; Iyer, Swathi P.; Carpenter, Samuel D.; Cary, Robert P.; Wilson, Vanessa B.; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Nigg, Joel T.; Fair, Damien A.

    2015-01-01

    One potential obstacle limiting our ability to clarify ADHD etiology is the heterogeneity within the disorder, as well as in typical samples. In this study, we utilized a community detection approach on 106 children with and without ADHD (aged 7–12 years), in order to identify potential subgroups of participants based on the connectivity of the reward system. Children with ADHD were compared to typically developing children within each identified community, aiming to find the community-specific ADHD characteristics. Furthermore, to assess how the organization in subgroups relates to behavior, we evaluated delay-discounting gradient and impulsivity-related temperament traits within each community. We found that discrete subgroups were identified that characterized distinct connectivity profiles in the reward system. Importantly, which connections were atypical in ADHD relative to the control children were specific to the community membership. Our findings showed that children with ADHD and typically developing children could be classified into distinct subgroups according to brain functional connectivity. Results also suggested that the differentiation in “functional” subgroups is related to specific behavioral characteristics, in this case impulsivity. Thus, combining neuroimaging data and community detection might be a valuable approach to elucidate heterogeneity in ADHD etiology and examine ADHD neurobiology. PMID:25660033

  20. Altered Neural Substrates of Cognitive Control in Childhood ADHD: Evidence From Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Chandan J.; Bunge, Silvia A.; Dudukovic, Nicole M.; Zalecki, Christine A.; Elliott, Glen R.; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study compared the neural bases of two cognitive control operations, interference suppression and response inhibition, between children with and children without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method Ten children (7–11 years of age) with combined-type ADHD and 10 comparison subjects matched for age and gender underwent rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of a modified flanker task. Functional maps were generated through group averaging and performance-based correlational analyses. Results Interference suppression in ADHD subjects was characterized by reduced engagement of a frontal-striatal-temporal-parietal network that subserved healthy performance. In contrast, response inhibition performance relied upon different regions in the two groups, frontal-striatal in comparison subjects but right superior temporal in ADHD children. Conclusions Alteration in the neural basis of two cognitive control operations in childhood ADHD was characterized by distinct, rather than unitary, patterns of functional abnormality. Greater between-group overlap in the neural network activated for interference suppression than in response inhibition suggests that components of cognitive control are differentially sensitive to ADHD. The ADHD children's inability to activate the caudate nucleus constitutes a core abnormality in ADHD. Observed functional abnormalities did not result from prolonged stimulant exposure, since most children were medication naive. PMID:16135618

  1. Multitasking in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Merkt, Julia; Goossens-Merkt, Heinrich; Bodenburg, Sebastian; Wendt, Mike

    2011-09-01

    Adults with ADHD have problems in everyday multitasking situations presumably because of deficits in executive functions. The present study aims to find out (a) whether adults with ADHD show deficient multitasking performance in a standardized task, (b) how they perceive the multitasking situation, and (c) which task structure might be beneficial for them as compared with adults without ADHD. Therefore, we experimentally compared task performance, mood, and motivation in a group of 45 men with ADHD (M-age = 34.47, SD = 9.95) with a comparison group of 42 men without ADHD (M-age = 31.12, SD = 10.59) in three conditions: (a) a multitasking paradigm, (b) an interleaving condition in which tasks had to be performed without planning or monitoring, and (c) a non-interleaving condition. Our results showed no impaired multitasking performance in adults with ADHD. However, they showed better mood and more motivation in the non-interleaving condition.

  2. Can Executive Functions Explain the Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda; McBurnett, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the ability of executive functions (EF) to account for the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) status and social adjustment as indexed by parent and teacher report and by performance on a standardized observational "chat room" task. Children with the Combined subtype (ADHD-C; n = 23), the…

  3. Structural brain imaging correlates of ASD and ADHD across the lifespan: a hypothesis-generating review on developmental ASD-ADHD subtypes.

    PubMed

    Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A

    2017-02-01

    We hypothesize that it is plausible that biologically distinct developmental ASD-ADHD subtypes are present, each characterized by a distinct time of onset of symptoms, progression and combination of symptoms. The aim of the present narrative review was to explore if structural brain imaging studies may shed light on key brain areas that are linked to both ASD and ADHD symptoms and undergo significant changes during development. These findings may possibly pinpoint to brain mechanisms underlying differential developmental ASD-ADHD subtypes. To this end we brought together the literature on ASD and ADHD structural brain imaging symptoms and particularly highlight the adolescent years and beyond. Findings indicate that the vast majority of existing MRI studies has been cross-sectional and conducted in children, and sometimes did include adolescents as well, but without explicitly documenting on this age group. MRI studies documenting on age effects in adults with ASD and/or ADHD are rare, and if age is taken into account, only linear effects are examined. Data from various studies suggest that a crucial distinctive feature underlying different developmental ASD-ADHD subtypes may be the differential developmental thinning patterns of the anterior cingulate cortex and related connections towards other prefrontal regions. These regions are crucial for the development of cognitive/effortful control and socio-emotional functioning, with impairments in these features as key to both ASD and ADHD.

  4. Maternal and Child Attributions in ADHD versus Non-ADHD Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, Brent R.; Gimpel, Gretchen A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study explores child and maternal attributions in ADHD and non-ADHD populations. Participants included children with ADHD (N = 26) and without ADHD (N = 24) and their mothers. Method: Children completed the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised (CASQ-R; Kaslow & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) and mothers completed the…

  5. ADHD and Cannabis Use in Young Adults Examined Using fMRI of a Go/NoGo Task

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Jerod; Casey, B.J.; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Buss, Claudia; Bjork, James M.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Velanova, Katerina; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Somerville, Leah; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Tim; Arnold, L. Eugene; Potkin, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for substance abuse. Response inhibition is a hallmark of ADHD, yet the combined effects of ADHD and regular substance use on neural networks associated with response inhibition are unknown. Methods Task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from young adults with childhood ADHD with (n=25) and without (n=25) cannabis use ≥ monthly in the past year were compared with a local normative comparison group (LNCG) with (n=11) and without (n=12) cannabis use. Go/NoGo behavioral and fMRI data were evaluated for main and interaction effects of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use. Results ADHD participants made significantly more commission errors on NoGo trials than controls. ADHD participants also had less frontoparietal and frontostriatal activity, independent of cannabis use. No main effects of cannabis use on response inhibition or functional brain activation were observed. An interaction of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use was found in the right hippocampus and cerebellar vermis, with increased recruitment of these regions in cannabis-using controls during correct response inhibition. Conclusions ADHD participants had impaired response inhibition combined with less fronto-parietal/striatal activity, regardless of cannabis use history. Cannabis use did not impact behavioral response inhibition. Cannabis use was associated with hippocampal and cerebellar activation, areas rich in cannabinoid receptors, in LNCG but not ADHD participants. This may reflect recruitment of compensatory circuitry in cannabis using controls but not ADHD participants. Future studies targeting hippocampal and cerebellar-dependent function in these groups may provide further insight into how this circuitry is altered by ADHD and cannabis use. PMID:26489976

  6. ADHD and cannabis use in young adults examined using fMRI of a Go/NoGo task.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jerod; Casey, B J; van Erp, Theo G M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Buss, Claudia; Bjork, James M; Molina, Brooke S G; Velanova, Katerina; Mathalon, Daniel H; Somerville, Leah; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Tim; Arnold, L Eugene; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-09-01

    Children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for substance abuse. Response inhibition is a hallmark of ADHD, yet the combined effects of ADHD and regular substance use on neural networks associated with response inhibition are unknown. Task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from young adults with childhood ADHD with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) cannabis use ≥ monthly in the past year were compared with a local normative comparison group (LNCG) with (n = 11) and without (n = 12) cannabis use. Go/NoGo behavioral and fMRI data were evaluated for main and interaction effects of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use. ADHD participants made significantly more commission errors on NoGo trials than controls. ADHD participants also had less frontoparietal and frontostriatal activity, independent of cannabis use. No main effects of cannabis use on response inhibition or functional brain activation were observed. An interaction of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use was found in the right hippocampus and cerebellar vermis, with increased recruitment of these regions in cannabis-using controls during correct response inhibition. ADHD participants had impaired response inhibition combined with less fronto-parietal/striatal activity, regardless of cannabis use history. Cannabis use did not impact behavioral response inhibition. Cannabis use was associated with hippocampal and cerebellar activation, areas rich in cannabinoid receptors, in LNCG but not ADHD participants. This may reflect recruitment of compensatory circuitry in cannabis using controls but not ADHD participants. Future studies targeting hippocampal and cerebellar-dependent function in these groups may provide further insight into how this circuitry is altered by ADHD and cannabis use.

  7. Which Executive Functioning Deficits Are Associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and Comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD? (Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder)(Oppositional Defiant Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scheres, Anouk; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD…

  8. Comparative Study of Children with ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in…

  9. Comparative Study of Children with ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in…

  10. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... say about the relationship between food additives and ADHD? Answers from David C. Agerter, M.D Food ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and ...

  11. Executive Function in Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle; Nikolas, Molly; Nigg, Joel T.

    2007-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine the specificity of executive function weakness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during adolescence. Results suggest that executive function weakness in ADHD is specifically associated with symptoms of inattention-disorganization.

  12. The Romantic Relationships of Adolescents With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Rokeach, Alan; Wiener, Judith

    2014-06-27

    This study compared the romantic relationships of adolescents with and without ADHD with regard to romantic involvement, relationship content, and relationship quality. A community sample of 58 participants (30 ADHD, 28 Comparison), ages 13 to 18, completed questionnaires assessing various features of romantic relationships. Adolescents with ADHD reported having more romantic partners than their typically developing (TD) peers. Females with ADHD were found to have shorter romantic relationships than TD adolescents while males with ADHD reported their age of first intercourse to be nearly 2 years sooner than TD peers. Irrespective of gender, adolescents with ADHD had nearly double the number of lifetime sexual partners. However, the romantic relationships of adolescents with and without ADHD did not differ on levels of aggression or relationship quality. Given the outcomes associated with poor-quality romantic relationships, comprehensive assessments of adolescents with ADHD should include queries into their romantic relationships. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  13. Executive Function in Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle; Nikolas, Molly; Nigg, Joel T.

    2007-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine the specificity of executive function weakness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during adolescence. Results suggest that executive function weakness in ADHD is specifically associated with symptoms of inattention-disorganization.

  14. The neurobiological link between OCD and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Brem, Silvia; Grünblatt, Edna; Drechsler, Renate; Riederer, Peter; Walitza, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two of the most common neuropsychiatric diseases in paediatric populations. The high comorbidity of ADHD and OCD with each other, especially of ADHD in paediatric OCD, is well described. OCD and ADHD often follow a chronic course with persistent rates of at least 40-50 %. Family studies showed high heritability in ADHD and OCD, and some genetic findings showed similar variants for both disorders of the same pathogenetic mechanisms, whereas other genetic findings may differentiate between ADHD and OCD. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies suggest that partly similar executive functions are affected in both disorders. The deficits in the corresponding brain networks may be responsible for the perseverative, compulsive symptoms in OCD but also for the disinhibited and impulsive symptoms characterizing ADHD. This article reviews the current literature of neuroimaging, neurochemical circuitry, neuropsychological and genetic findings considering similarities as well as differences between OCD and ADHD.

  15. Diagnosis of ADHD in Adults: What Is the Appropriate "DSM-5" Symptom Threshold for Hyperactivity-Impulsivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Marks, David J.; Mitchell, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To empirically identify the appropriate symptom threshold for hyperactivity-impulsivity for diagnosis of ADHD in adults. Method: Participants were 88 adults (M [SD] age = 41.69 [11.78] years, 66% female, 16% minority) meeting formal "DSM-IV" criteria for ADHD combined or predominantly inattentive subtypes based on a structured…

  16. Effective Methylphenidate Treatment of an Adult Aspergers Syndrome and a Comorbid ADHD: A Clinical Investigation with fMRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Mandy; Dillo, Wolfgang; Bessling, Svenja; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Ohlmeier, Martin D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Aspergers Syndrome can present as comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Very few cases of the assessment and treatment of this comorbidity in adulthood are described in the research literature. Method: A 26-year-old patient as suffering from ADHD in combination with Aspergers Syndrome is diagnosed. Treatment is…

  17. Information and Communication Technologies and the Impact of Gender on the Writing Performance of Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Georgia; Riga, Asimina; Papayiannis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates whether the use of ICTs improves the writing performance of students with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). It also examines whether gender affects performance. A number of ADHD students were selected and were assessed for their use of a combination of distinct educational tools. Divided into two…

  18. Match or Mismatch? Influence of Parental and Offspring ASD and ADHD Symptoms on the Parent-Child Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the influence of parental ASD and ADHD symptoms in combination with child pathology on the parent- child relationship as perceived by the child. A sample of 132 families was recruited with one child with ASD (with/without ADHD), and one unaffected sibling. Affected children (regardless of diagnosis) reported lower…

  19. Diagnosis of ADHD in Adults: What Is the Appropriate "DSM-5" Symptom Threshold for Hyperactivity-Impulsivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Marks, David J.; Mitchell, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To empirically identify the appropriate symptom threshold for hyperactivity-impulsivity for diagnosis of ADHD in adults. Method: Participants were 88 adults (M [SD] age = 41.69 [11.78] years, 66% female, 16% minority) meeting formal "DSM-IV" criteria for ADHD combined or predominantly inattentive subtypes based on a structured…

  20. Effective Methylphenidate Treatment of an Adult Aspergers Syndrome and a Comorbid ADHD: A Clinical Investigation with fMRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Mandy; Dillo, Wolfgang; Bessling, Svenja; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Ohlmeier, Martin D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Aspergers Syndrome can present as comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Very few cases of the assessment and treatment of this comorbidity in adulthood are described in the research literature. Method: A 26-year-old patient as suffering from ADHD in combination with Aspergers Syndrome is diagnosed. Treatment is…

  1. Case Report: "ADHD Trainer": the mobile application that enhances cognitive skills in ADHD patients.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Manrique, Gonzalo; Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Montañes-Rada, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 10 year old patient diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid video game addiction, who was treated with medication combined with a novel cognitive training method based on video games called TCT method. A great risk of developing video game or internet addiction has been reported in children, especially in children with ADHD. Despite this risk, we hypothesize that the good use of these new technologies might be useful to develop new methods of cognitive training. The cognitive areas in which a greater improvement was observed through the use of video games were visuospatial working memory and fine motor skills. TCT method is a cognitive training method that enhances cognitive skills such as attention, working memory, processing speed, calculation ability, reasoning, and visuomotor coordination. The purpose of reviewing this case is to highlight that regular cognitive computerized training in ADHD patients may improve some of their cognitive symptoms and might be helpful for treating video game addiction.

  2. ADHD (ATTENTION DEFFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER)--A TROUBLING ENTITY, SOMETIMES PERPETUATING DURING ADULT LIFE.

    PubMed

    Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a neurologic development disorder resulting in impairment of attention and inhibitory control, manifested as attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsiveness; symptoms should develop between age six and twelve and have to persist for more than six months. Approximately 30-50% of the diagnosed cases are manifesting the disorder during adulthood and 2.5-5% of the adults are suffering of ADHD. Genetics are important factors in ADHD, being involved in 75% of the cases, as well in the persistence of ADHD during adult life. Three subtypes of ADHD are described--one in which is predominating the attention deficit, one with predominant hyperactivity and impulsiveness and a third combined subtype. Diagnosis criteria in ADHD are established by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM criteria) and by World Health Organization. Differential diagnosis is mainly considering bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Management of ADHD is including behavioral therapies and medication, alone or combined. Stimulant medications such as amphetamine represent the therapy of choice, being effective in 80% of the cases. New data are underlying the need for following up of the cases during adulthood, since the risk for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, as well as the suicidal behavior is higher than in the general population.

  3. Cognitive-motivational deficits in ADHD: development of a classification system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rashmi; Kar, Bhoomika R; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2011-01-01

    The classification systems developed so far to detect attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not have high sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a classification system based on several neuropsychological tests that measure cognitive-motivational functions that are specifically impaired in ADHD children. A total of 240 (120 ADHD children and 120 healthy controls) children in the age range of 6-9 years and 32 Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) children (aged 9 years) participated in the study. Stop-Signal, Task-Switching, Attentional Network, and Choice Delay tests were administered to all the participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that percentage choice of long-delay reward best classified the ADHD children from healthy controls. Single parameters were not helpful in making a differential classification of ADHD with ODD. Multinominal logistic regression (MLR) was performed with multiple parameters (data fusion) that produced improved overall classification accuracy. A combination of stop-signal reaction time, posterror-slowing, mean delay, switch cost, and percentage choice of long-delay reward produced an overall classification accuracy of 97.8%; with internal validation, the overall accuracy was 92.2%. Combining parameters from different tests of control functions not only enabled us to accurately classify ADHD children from healthy controls but also in making a differential classification with ODD. These results have implications for the theories of ADHD.

  4. Risk of unintentional injuries in children and adolescents with ADHD and the impact of ADHD medications: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Goikoetxea, Maite; Cortese, Samuele; Aznarez-Sanado, Maite; Magallon, Sara; Luis, Elkin O; Zallo, Noelia Alvarez; de Castro-Manglano, Pilar; Soutullo, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been related to increased rates of unintentional injuries. However, the magnitude of the effect and to which extent variables such as sex, age or comorbidity can influence this relationship is unknown. Additionally, and importantly, it is unclear if, and to which degree, ADHD medications can decrease the number of unintentional injuries. Due to the amount of economic and social resources invested in the treatment of injuries, filling these gaps in the literature is highly relevant from a public health standpoint. Here, we present a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the relationship between ADHD and unintentional injuries and assess the impact of pharmacological treatment for ADHD Methods and analysis We will combine results from 114 bibliographic databases for studies relating ADHD and risk of injuries. Bibliographic searches and data extraction will be carried out independently by two researchers. The studies’ risk of bias will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Articles reporting ORs or HRs of suffering an injury in ADHD compared with controls (or enough data to calculate them) will be combined using Robust Variance Estimation, a method that permits to include multiple non-independent outcomes in the analysis. All analyses will be carried out in Stata. Age, sex and comorbid conduct disorders will be considered as potential causes of variance and their effect analysed through meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Sensitivity analyses will exclude articles with longer follow-ups, non-stringent definitions of ADHD or controls and statistically uncontrolled/controlled outcomes. Studies implementing a self-controlled case series methodology to investigate if ADHD drugs reduce the risk of injuries will be combined with a generalised linear mixed model using the Poisson distribution and a log link function. Registration details PROSPERO—Prospective Register of

  5. ADHD is a risk factor for overweight and obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Fliers, Ellen A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Maras, Athanasios; Bul, Kim; Höhle, Esther; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Rommelse, Nanda N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although hyperactivity would seem to increase energy expenditure, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appears to increase the risk for being overweight. The present study examined the Body Mass Index (BMI) in children with ADHD and its relationship with age, gender, ADHD and comorbid symptom severity, inhibitory control, developmental coordination disorder (DCD), sleep duration and methylphenidate use. Method Participants were 372 Dutch children with ADHD combined type aged 5–17 years participating in the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. We categorized BMI according to international age- and gender-specific reference values and calculated BMI-standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS). The control population was matched for age, gender and ethnicity and originated from the same birth cohort as the ADHD group. Inhibitory control was measured by the computerized Stop-signal task. Prevalence differences of underweight, overweight and obesity between groups were expressed in odds ratio’s. We used linear regression analyses with gender, age, parent- and teacher-rated ADHD and comorbid scores, inhibitory control, sleep duration, motor coordination and methylphenidate use to predict BMI-SDS. Results Boys with ADHD 10–17 and girls 10–12 years of age were more likely to be overweight than children in the general Dutch population. Younger girls and female teenagers, however, seemed to be at lower risk for being overweight. Higher oppositional behavior and social communication problems related to higher BMI-SDS scores, whereas more stereotyped behaviors related to lower BMI-SDS scores. We found no effects of the other examined associated risk factors on BMI-SDS. Conclusion ADHD in boys is a risk factor for overweight. In girls with ADHD, the prevalence of overweight is age-dependent and most pronounced in girls 10–12 years of age. They have a fourfold risk of being obese. Higher oppositional and social communication problems pose

  6. The relationship between the presence of ADHD and certain candidate gene polymorphisms in a Turkish sample.

    PubMed

    Pazvantoğlu, Ozan; Güneş, Sezgin; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yeğin, Zeynep; Erenkuş, Zehra; Akbaş, Seher; Sarısoy, Gökhan; Korkmaz, Işıl Zabun; Böke, Omer; Bağcı, Hasan; Sahin, Ahmet Rifat

    2013-10-10

    Due to the high heritability of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), parents of children with ADHD appear to represent a good sample group for investigating the genetics of the disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ADHD and six polymorphisms in five candidate genes [5-HT2A (rs6311), NET1 (rs2242447), COMT (rs4818), NTF3 (rs6332), SNAP-25 (rs3746544) and (rs1051312)]. We included 228 parents of children diagnosed with ADHD and 109 healthy parents as the control group. The polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays and analyzed using the chi-square test and the multinomial logit model. SNAP-25 (rs3746544) polymorphism was associated with loading for ADHD, while 5-HT2A (rs6311) and NET1 (rs2242447) polymorphisms were associated with ADHD. On the other hand, there was no significant association between the SNAP-25 (rs1051312), NTF3 (rs6332), or COMT (rs4818) gene polymorphisms and ADHD. In addition, we found that even if variation in the SNAP-25 gene alone does not affect the phenotype, it may nevertheless lead to the emergence of a clinical ADHD picture in the presence of other genetic factors. Our findings suggest that a combination of NET1 (rs2242447) and SNAP-25 (rs3746544) is a risk factor for ADHD. Problems associated with the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems and SNAP-25 may play a role, both alone and in interaction with one another, in the pathophysiological mechanisms of ADHD.

  7. Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture.

    PubMed

    Harold, Gordon T; Leve, Leslie D; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-10-01

    Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children's ADHD symptoms, and the role of children's ADHD symptoms as an evocative influence on the quality of relationships experienced within such families. Utilizing the attributes of two genetically sensitive research designs, the present study examined associations between biologically related and nonbiologically related maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The combined attributes of the study designs permit assessment of associations while controlling for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examining evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE); two relatively under examined confounds of past research in this area. A cross-sectional adoption-at-conception design (Cardiff IVF Study; C-IVF) and a longitudinal adoption-at-birth design (Early Growth and Development Study; EGDS) were used. The C-IVF sample included 160 mothers and children (age 5-8 years). The EGDS sample included 320 linked sets of adopted children (age 6 years), adoptive-, and biologically related mothers. Questionnaires were used to assess maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. A cross-rater approach was used across measures of maternal behavior (mother reports) and child ADHD symptoms (father reports). Significant associations were revealed between rearing mother ADHD symptoms, hostile parenting behavior, and child ADHD symptoms in both samples. Because both samples consisted of genetically unrelated mothers and children, passive rGE was removed as a possible explanatory factor underlying these associations. Further, path analysis revealed evidence for evocative rGE processes in the

  8. Biological and Rearing Mother Influences on Child ADHD Symptoms: Revisiting the Developmental Interface between Nature and Nurture

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children’s ADHD symptoms, and the role of children’s ADHD symptoms as an evocative influence on the quality of relationships experienced within such families. Utilizing the attributes of two genetically sensitive research designs, the present study examined associations between biologically related and non-biologically related maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The combined attributes of the study designs permit assessment of associations while controlling for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examining evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE); two relatively under examined confounds of past research in this area. Methods A cross-sectional adoption-at-conception design (Cardiff IVF Study; C-IVF) and a longitudinal adoption-at-birth design (Early Growth and Development Study; EGDS) were used. The C-IVF sample included 160 mothers and children (age 5–8 years). The EGDS sample included 320 linked sets of adopted children (age 6 years), adoptive-, and biologically-related mothers. Questionnaires were used to assess maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. A cross-rater approach was used across measures of maternal behavior (mother reports) and child ADHD symptoms (father reports). Results Significant associations were revealed between rearing mother ADHD symptoms, hostile parenting behavior, and child ADHD symptoms in both samples. Because both samples consisted of genetically-unrelated mothers and children, passive rGE was removed as a possible explanatory factor underlying these associations. Further, path analysis revealed evidence for

  9. Personalized Treatment of Mothers with ADHD and Their Young At-Risk Children: A SMART Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Wang, Christine H.; Strickland, Jennifer; Almirall, Daniel; Stein, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Young children of mothers with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for ADHD by virtue of genetics and environmental factors. Moreover, parent ADHD is associated with maladaptive parenting and poor child behavioral treatment response. Thus, a combined approach consisting of behavioral parent training (BPT) and maternal stimulant medication (MSM) may be needed to effectively treat ADHD within families. However, providing combined BPT+MSM initially to all families may be unnecessarily burdensome since not all families likely need combined treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine how to combine, sequence, and personalize treatment for these multiplex families in order to yield benefits to both the parent and child, thereby impacting the course of child ADHD and disruptive behavior symptoms. Study Design and Preliminary Experiences This paper presents our rationale for, design of, and preliminary experiences (based on N = 26 participants) with an ongoing pilot Sequential Multiple Assessment Randomized Trial (SMART) designed to answer questions regarding the feasibility and acceptability of study protocols and interventions. This manuscript also describes how the subsequent full-scale SMART might change based on what is learned in the SMART pilot, and illustrates how the full-scale SMART could be used to inform clinical decision making about how to combine, sequence, and personalize treatment for complex children and families in which a parent has ADHD. PMID:26799502

  10. The ADHD Concomitant Difficulties Scale (ADHD-CDS), a Brief Scale to Measure Comorbidity Associated to ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fenollar-Cortés, Javier; Fuentes, Luis J

    2016-01-01

    Although the critical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity behavior, the disorder is clinically heterogeneous, and concomitant difficulties are common. Children with ADHD are at increased risk for experiencing lifelong impairments in multiple domains of daily functioning. In the present study we aimed to build a brief ADHD impairment-related tool -ADHD concomitant difficulties scale (ADHD-CDS)- to assess the presence of some of the most important comorbidities that usually appear associated with ADHD such as emotional/motivational management, fine motor coordination, problem-solving/management of time, disruptive behavior, sleep habits, academic achievement and quality of life. The two main objectives of the study were (i) to discriminate those profiles with several and important ADHD functional difficulties and (ii) to create a brief clinical tool that fosters a comprehensive evaluation process and can be easily used by clinicians. The total sample included 399 parents of children with ADHD aged 6-18 years (M = 11.65; SD = 3.1; 280 males) and 297 parents of children without a diagnosis of ADHD (M = 10.91; SD = 3.2; 149 male). The scale construction followed an item improved sequential process. Factor analysis showed a 13-item single factor model with good fit indices. Higher scores on inattention predicted higher scores on ADHD-CDS for both the clinical sample (β = 0.50; p < 0.001) and the whole sample (β = 0.85; p < 0.001). The ROC curve for the ADHD-CDS (against the ADHD diagnostic status) gave an area under the curve (AUC) of.979 (95%, CI = [0.969, 0.990]). The ADHD-CDS has shown preliminary adequate psychometric properties, with high convergent validity and good sensitivity for different ADHD profiles, which makes it a potentially appropriate and brief instrument that may be easily used by clinicians, researchers, and health professionals in dealing with ADHD.

  11. Children with ADHD in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Kathryn J.; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Reid, Robert; Chmelka, Beth; Thompson, Ronald W.; Daly, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the characteristics or functioning of children with ADHD in residential care as compared to their non-ADHD peers. This study evaluated data on 538 children with (n = 125) and without (n = 413) ADHD in residential care to determine demographic, mental health, behavioral, and treatment (i.e., medication use) characteristics.…

  12. The Energetic Brain: Understanding and Managing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Harrison, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    ADHD affects millions of people-some 3 to 5% of the general population. Written by a neuroscientist who has studied ADHD, a clinician who has diagnosed and treated it for 30 years, and a special educator who sees it daily, "The Energetic Brain" provides the latest information from neuroscience on how the ADHD brain works and shows how to harness…

  13. ADHD in Preschool: Approaches and Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ajay; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Due to the prevalence of ADHD, there is a need for early intervention at the preschool level to improve children's chance of academic success in later years. Yet few preschool teachers are trained to meet the challenges children with ADHD present. This paper gives a rationale and curriculum for teacher training in ADHD, with an emphasis on Social…

  14. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  15. The Energetic Brain: Understanding and Managing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Harrison, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    ADHD affects millions of people-some 3 to 5% of the general population. Written by a neuroscientist who has studied ADHD, a clinician who has diagnosed and treated it for 30 years, and a special educator who sees it daily, "The Energetic Brain" provides the latest information from neuroscience on how the ADHD brain works and shows how to harness…

  16. ADHD--Building Academic Success. Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    This policy brief discusses students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their school performance. Reasons are presented to explain why children with ADHD fail. The three main characteristics of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity) and their interference with academic performance are discussed. The brief…

  17. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  18. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2008-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…

  19. Is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder a valid diagnosis in the presence of high IQ? Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Faraone, Stephen V; Stallone, Kimberly; Nave, Andrea; Kaufmann, Felice A; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Seidman, Larry; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of diagnosing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in high IQ children and to further characterize the clinical features associated with their ADHD. We operationalized giftedness/high IQ as having a full scale IQ >/=120. We identified 92 children with a high IQ who did not have ADHD and 49 children with a high IQ that met diagnostic criteria for ADHD who had participated in the Massachusetts General Hospital Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD. Of our participants with ADHD and a high IQ, the majority (n = 35) met criteria for the Combined subtype. Relative to control participants, children with ADHD and high IQ had a higher prevalence rate of familial ADHD in first-degree relatives, repeated grades more often, had a poorer performance on the WISC-III Block Design, had more comorbid psychopathology, and had more functional impairments across a number of domains. Children with a high IQ and ADHD showed a pattern of familiality as well as cognitive, psychiatric and behavioral features consistent with the diagnosis of ADHD in children with average IQ. These data suggest that the diagnosis of ADHD is valid among high IQ children.

  20. Relationship between subtypes and symptoms of ADHD, insomnia, and nightmares in connection with quality of life in children.

    PubMed

    Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika Anita

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the links between sleep disorders and subtypes of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-inattention, ADHD-combined, ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive) in childhood. We set up a hypothetical model linking different symptoms of both disorders to construct the underlying and shared pathways. By examining a sample of children with ADHD we firstly tested parts of the model. A total of 72 children with symptoms of ADHD (aged 6-13 years; 79.2% boys) were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition and the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, third edition in regards to ADHD and sleep disorders via standardized parent-rated questionnaires. Additionally, quality of life (QoL) was assessed. Overall, 46 children fulfilled the criteria of ADHD and were medication-naive. On average, the whole sample had clinically elevated total scores of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire in the validated German version (CSHQ-DE), indicating an increased prevalence of sleep disorders in children with ADHD. In accordance to our hypothetical model, children with primarily hyperactive-impulsive ADHD showed the highest CSHQ-DE scores. Moreover, we found a high impact for insomnia in this subgroup and a high comorbid load for the mutual occurrence of insomnia and nightmares. Furthermore, QoL was reduced in our whole sample, and again intensified in children with comorbid insomnia and nightmares. We verified an elevated occurrence of sleep disorders in children with ADHD and were able to link them to specific subtypes of ADHD. These results were in line with our hypothetical model. Moreover, we found a clinically reduced QoL in mean for the whole sample, indicating the strong impact of ADHD in the lives of affected children, even intensified if children exhibited comorbid insomnia and nightmares. These results should be kept in mind regarding the treatment and therapy of this subgroup of children. Specific

  1. Validity of the behavior rating inventory of executive function in children with ADHD and/or Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mahone, E Mark; Cirino, Paul T; Cutting, Laurie E; Cerrone, Paula M; Hagelthorn, Kathleen M; Hiemenz, Jennifer R; Singer, Harvey S; Denckla, Martha B

    2002-10-01

    The dynamic, multidimensional nature of executive function (EF), thought to be characteristically impaired in those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has been challenging to operationalize and assess in a clinical setting [Barkley, R. A. (1997). ADHD and the nature of self-control. New York: Guilford Press.]. Gioia, Isquith, Guy, and Kenworthy [Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000) Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.] developed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) to address these concerns. In order to provide concurrent validity information on the BRIEF, parents of 76 children (ADHD=18; Tourette syndrome (TS)=21; TS+ADHD=17; controls=20) completed the BRIEF, additional behavior rating scales and interviews, measures of psychoeducational (PE) competence, and performance-based measures of EF. Both ADHD and TS+ADHD groups were rated as more impaired (P<.0001) than the other groups on the five primary BRIEF indices. BRIEF index scores showed no significant correlation with performance-based EF or PE measures, with the exception of math achievement; however, the BRIEF showed a strong relationship with interviews and other parent rating measures of behaviors seen in ADHD. Future attempts to validate the BRIEF should focus on differences within subtypes of ADHD (e.g., inattentive, combined subtypes), and separating ADHD from other clinical groups in which EF is reported to be a problem.

  2. Effects of behavioral and pharmacological therapies on peer reinforcement of deviancy in children with ADHD-only, ADHD and conduct problems, and controls.

    PubMed

    Helseth, Sarah A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Onyango, Adia N; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Fabiano, Gregory A; Coles, Erika K; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T; Walker, Kathryn S; Wymbs, Frances A; Garefino, Allison; Massetti, Greta M; Robb Mazzant, Jessica; Hoffman, Martin T; Waxmonsky, James G; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin; Pelham, William E

    2015-04-01

    This study compared the unique and combined effects of evidence-based treatments for ADHD-stimulant medication and behavior modification-on children's rates of reinforcement for deviant peer behavior (RDPB). Using a within-subjects design, 222 elementary school-age children attending a summer treatment program, including 151 children with ADHD (127 male), with and without comorbid conduct problems, and 71 control children (57 male), received varying combinations of behavior modification (no, low-intensity, and high-intensity) and methylphenidate (placebo, 0.15 mg/kg, 0.30 mg/kg, and 0.60 mg/kg). RDPB was measured through direct observation and compared across all behavior modification and medication conditions. Children with ADHD reinforced the deviant behavior of their peers at a significantly higher rate than control children in the absence of either intervention. However, that difference largely disappeared in the presence of both behavior modification and medication. Both low and high-intensity behavior modification, as well as medium (0.30 mg/kg) and high (0.60 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate, significantly reduced the rate of ADHD children's RDPB to levels similar to the control group. Results indicate that although untreated children with ADHD do engage in RDPB at a greater rate than their non-ADHD peers, existing evidence-based interventions can substantially decrease the presence of RDPB, thereby limiting potential iatrogenic effects in group-based treatment settings. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Discriminating among ADHD alone, ADHD with a comorbid psychological disorder, and feigned ADHD in a college sample.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kimberly D; Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Mason, Lisa H; Edmundson, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 2000s concern has increased that college students might feign ADHD in pursuit of academic accommodations and stimulant medication. In response, several studies have validated tests for use in differentiating feigned from genuine ADHD. Although results have generally been positive, relatively few publications have addressed the possible impact of the presence of psychological disorders comorbid with ADHD. Because ADHD is thought to have accompanying conditions at rates of 50% and higher, it is important to determine if the additional psychological disorders might compromise the accuracy of feigning detection measures. The present study extended the findings of Jasinski et al. (2011) to examine the efficacy of various measures in the context of feigned versus genuine ADHD with comorbid psychological disorders in undergraduate students. Two clinical groups (ADHD only and ADHD + comorbid psychological disorder) were contrasted with two non-clinical groups (normal controls answering honestly and normal participants feigning ADHD). Extending previous research to individuals with ADHD and either an anxiety or learning disorder, performance validity tests such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), the Letter Memory Test (LMT), and the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT) were effective in differentiating both ADHD groups from normal participants feigning ADHD. However, the Digit Memory Test (DMT) underperformed in this study, as did embedded validity indices from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) and Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-III (WJ-III).

  4. Empirical tests of natural selection-based evolutionary accounts of ADHD: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thagaard, Marthe S; Faraone, Stephen V; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J; Østergaard, Søren D

    2016-10-01

    ADHD is a prevalent and highly heritable mental disorder associated with significant impairment, morbidity and increased rates of mortality. This combination of high prevalence and high morbidity/mortality seen in ADHD and other mental disorders presents a challenge to natural selection-based models of human evolution. Several hypotheses have been proposed in an attempt to resolve this apparent paradox. The aim of this study was to review the evidence for these hypotheses. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on empirical investigations of natural selection-based evolutionary accounts for ADHD in adherence with the PRISMA guideline. The PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were screened for relevant publications, by combining search terms covering evolution/selection with search terms covering ADHD. The search identified 790 records. Of these, 15 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, and three were included in the review. Two of these reported on the evolution of the seven-repeat allele of the ADHD-associated dopamine receptor D4 gene, and one reported on the results of a simulation study of the effect of suggested ADHD-traits on group survival. The authors of the three studies interpreted their findings as favouring the notion that ADHD-traits may have been associated with increased fitness during human evolution. However, we argue that none of the three studies really tap into the core symptoms of ADHD, and that their conclusions therefore lack validity for the disorder. This review indicates that the natural selection-based accounts of ADHD have not been subjected to empirical test and therefore remain hypothetical.

  5. Children With Conduct Problems and Co-occurring ADHD: Behavioral Improvements Following Parent Management Training

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnebekk, Gunnar; Kjøbli, John; Ogden, Terje

    2015-01-01

    To scale up evidence-based treatment of conduct problems, parent management training, Oregon model (PMTO) has been disseminated throughout Norway. This study examined whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) predicted the outcomes of PMTO. Of 253 children and families, 97 were reported to have an ADHD diagnosis. Although different at intake, the groups with and without ADHD had close to an equal change in behavioral status following treatment. Maternal depression and family income predicted the combined group's behavior following PMTO. The study indicates that reductions in conduct problems following PMTO are of the same magnitude in children with or without ADHD. However, some characteristics may differentially predict outcomes for children with combined problems. PMID:25892844

  6. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ashwood, Karen L; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and ASD + ADHD (n = 38). Results demonstrated lower socialisation and composite scores and greater discrepancy between cognitive and adaptive abilities in the ASD + ADHD group compared to the ADHD-only group. Significant associations were shown between reduced adaptive functioning and autism symptoms, but not ADHD symptoms. Children with ASD + ADHD present with exacerbated impairments in adaptive functioning relative to children with ADHD, associated with ASD symptoms. Disentangling variation in adaptive skills may aid the assessment of complex cases.

  7. Examining autistic traits in children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2010-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated ratings of core ASD traits (ADHD+) not accounted for by ADHD or behavioral symptoms. Further, analyses revealed greater oppositional behaviors, but not ADHD severity or anxiety, in the ADHD+ subgroup compared to those with ADHD only. These results highlight the importance of specifically examining autistic traits in children with ADHD for better characterization in studies of the underlying physiopathology and treatment. PMID:21108041

  8. Coaching for College Students with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Prevatt, Frances

    2016-12-01

    Evidence suggests that ADHD can impair academic achievement in college students and throughout the life span. College students with ADHD are an at-risk population who might benefit from interventions. An offshoot of CBT-oriented therapy that has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years is ADHD coaching. ADHD coaching is a psychosocial intervention that helps individuals develop skills, strategies, and behaviors to cope with the core impairments associated with ADHD. Most coaching programs are primarily based on a CBT approach and target planning, time management, goal setting, organization, and problem solving. This paper describes ADHD coaching for college students and discusses how coaching is different from standard CBT treatment. This is followed by a review of empirical studies of the effectiveness of ADHD coaching for college students. Finally, some specific considerations and procedures used in coaching are described.

  9. Neurocognitive Predictors of ADHD Outcome: a 6-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Marloes; Luman, Marjolein; Twisk, Jos W R; Faraone, Stephen V; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-02-01

    Although a broad array of neurocognitive dysfunctions are associated with ADHD, it is unknown whether these dysfunctions play a role in the course of ADHD symptoms. The present longitudinal study investigated whether neurocognitive functions assessed at study-entry (mean age = 11.5 years, SD = 2.7) predicted ADHD symptom severity and overall functioning 6 years later (mean age = 17.4 years, 82.6 % = male) in a carefully phenotyped large sample of 226 Caucasian participants from 182 families diagnosed with ADHD-combined type. Outcome measures were dimensional measures of ADHD symptom severity and the Kiddie-Global Assessment Scale (K-GAS) for overall functioning. Predictors were derived from component scores for 8 domains of neurocognitive functioning: working memory, motor inhibition, cognitive inhibition, reaction time variability, timing, information processing speed, motor control, intelligence. Effects of age, gender, and pharmacological treatment were considered. Results showed that better working memory predicted lower ADHD symptom severity (R (2)  = 3.0 %), and less reaction time variability predicted better overall functioning (higher K-GAS-score, R (2)  = 5.6 %). Predictors were still significant with baseline behavior included in the models. The role of neurocognitive functioning in the long term outcome of ADHD behavior is discussed.

  10. Pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for adolescents with ADHD: an updated systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Kuriyan, Aparajita B; Evans, Steven W; Waxmonsky, James G; Smith, Bradley H

    2014-04-01

    Smith, Waschbusch, Willoughby, and Evans (2000) reviewed a small treatment literature on ADHD in adolescents and concluded that methylphenidate stimulant medication was a well-established treatment and behavior therapy (BT) demonstrated preliminary efficacy. This review extends and updates the findings of the prior one based on the previous 15years of research. Studies published since 1999 were identified and coded using standard criteria and effect sizes were calculated where appropriate. Highlights of the last 15years of research include an expansion of pharmacological treatment options and developmentally appropriate psychosocial treatment packages for adolescents with ADHD. Additionally, nonstimulant medications (e.g., atomoxetine) are now approved for the treatment of ADHD in adolescence. The review concludes that medication and BT produce a similar range of therapeutic effects on the symptoms of adolescents with ADHD. However, results suggest that BT may produce greater overall benefits on measures of impairment. There was no evidence that cognitive enhancement trainings, such as working memory training or neurofeedback improved the functioning of adolescents with ADHD. Whether to use medication, BT, or their combination to treat an adolescent with ADHD is complicated and we provide evidence-informed guidelines for treatment selection. The reviewed evidence does not support current American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry professional guidelines, which state that stimulant medication is the preferred treatment for adolescents with ADHD. Recommendations for assessment, practice guidelines, and future research are discussed.

  11. Genetic associations between the ADHD symptom dimensions and Cloninger's temperament dimensions in adult twins.

    PubMed

    Merwood, Andrew; Asherson, Philip; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have identified phenotypic associations between Cloninger's temperament dimensions and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. However the underlying aetiology of these associations remains unclear. We investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental influences contribute to the relationship between temperament and ADHD, examining the ADHD symptoms of inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) separately. Participants were 886 adult twin pairs aged 19-20 years. ADHD symptoms of IA and HI were measured using a DSM-IV based rating scale. Temperament was measured using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), across four dimensions: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (PS). The twin method was used to decompose phenotypic variance/covariance among these variables into genetic and environmental components. We found that NS was genetically associated with both ADHD symptom dimensions (IA and HI), but that HA was genetically associated with IA only. There was also some evidence of genetic association between PS, IA and HI. These findings suggest that unique profiles of temperament are genetically related to the two ADHD symptom dimensions in adults. Further work is now needed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie both the combined and separate symptom factor domains of ADHD.

  12. [Motor problems in children with ADHD receive too little attention in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Fliers, Ellen A; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2011-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not only display hyperactive motor behaviour, but half of them are also clumsy when executing motor skills. Alongside displaying hyperactivity and poor concentration skills, they have difficulty with writing, tying shoelaces, eating properly using fork and knife, and playing games and sports. This is known as dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Poor performance in sports and games is, just as ADHD, an important negative predictor of a child's popularity within the peer group. Children with a combination of ADHD and poor motor performance are doubly disadvantaged. A dopamine-induced imbalance in the neuronal circuits of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum is a possible cause of ADHD-DCD. On the basis of family and twin studies, there are also indications that ADHD and DCD have a common genetic background. In daily practice, DCD receives too little attention during diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. Screening for motor problems in children with ADHD, followed by referral to a physiotherapist or occupational therapist if necessary, is useful, because treatment with cognitive-oriented and task-oriented physiotherapy can help.

  13. Efficacy of Neurofeedback Versus Pharmacological Support in Subjects with ADHD.

    PubMed

    González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Rodríguez, Celestino; García, Trinidad; Álvarez, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral training in neurofeedback has proven to be an essential complement to generalize the effects of pharmacological support in subjects who have attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Therefore, this investigation attempts to analyze the efficacy of neurofeedback compared with pharmacological support and the combination of both. Participants were 131 students, classified into four groups: control (did not receive neurofeedback or pharmacological support), neurofeedback group, pharmacological support group, and combined group (neurofeedback + pharmacological support). Participants' executive control and cortical activation were assessed before and after treatment. Results indicate that the combined group obtained more benefits and that the neurofeedback group improved to a greater extent in executive control than the pharmacological support group. It is concluded that this kind of training may be an alternative to stimulate activation in subjects with ADHD.

  14. ADHD, Multimodal Treatment, and Longitudinal Outcome: Evidence, Paradox, and Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, L. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Given major increases in the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in rates of medication for this condition, we carefully examine evidence for effects of single versus multimodal (i.e., combined medication and psychosocial/behavioral) interventions for ADHD. Our primary data source is the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA), a 14-month, randomized clinical trial in which intensive behavioral, medication, and multimodal treatment arms were contrasted with one another and with community intervention (treatment-as-usual), regarding outcome domains of ADHD symptoms, comorbidities, and core functional impairments. Although initial reports emphasized the superiority of well-monitored medication for symptomatic improvement, reanalyses and reappraisals have highlighted (a) the superiority of combination treatment for composite outcomes and for domains of functional impairment (e.g., academic achievement, social skills, parenting practices); (b) the importance of considering moderator and mediator processes underlying differential patterns of outcome, including comorbid subgroups and improvements in family discipline style during the intervention period; (c) the emergence of side effects (e.g., mild growth suppression) in youth treated with long-term medication; and (d) the diminution of medication’s initial superiority once the randomly assigned treatment phase turned into naturalistic follow-up. The key paradox is that whereas ADHD clearly responds to medication and behavioral treatment in the short term, evidence for long-term effectiveness remains elusive. We close with discussion of future directions and a call for greater understanding of relevant developmental processes in the attempt to promote optimal, generalized, and lasting treatments for this important and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:25558298

  15. Childhood ADHD Predicts Risky Sexual Behavior in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Kate; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Smith, Bradley

    2006-01-01

    This study compared young adults (ages 18 to 26) with and without childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on self-reported risky sexual behaviors. Participants were 175 men with childhood ADHD and 111 demographically similar men without ADHD in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Childhood ADHD predicted earlier…

  16. Pharmacological treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with comorbid tic disorders.

    PubMed

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Steeves, Thomas

    2011-04-13

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent of the comorbid psychiatric disorders that complicate tic disorders. Medications commonly used to treat ADHD symptoms include the stimulants methylphenidate and amphetamine; nonstimulants, such as atomoxetine; tricyclic antidepressants; and alpha agonists. Due to the impact of ADHD symptoms on the child with tic disorder, treatment of ADHD is often of greater priority than the medical management of tics. However, for many decades clinicians have been reluctant to use stimulants to treat children with ADHD and tics for fear of worsening their tics.  To assess the effects of pharmacological treatments for ADHD on ADHD symptoms and tic severity in children with ADHD and comorbid tic disorders.  We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to July 2009), EMBASE (1980 to July 2009), CINAHL (1982 to July 2009), PsycINFO (1806 to July Week 4 2009) and BIOSIS Previews (1985 to July 2009). Dissertation Abstracts (searched via Dissertaation Express), and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials were searched (30 July 2009). We included randomized, double-blind, controlled trials of any pharmacological treatment for ADHD used specifically in children with comorbid tic disorders. We included both parallel group and cross-over study designs. Two authors independently extracted data using standardized forms. We included a total of eight randomized controlled studies in the review but were unable to combine any of these in meta-analysis. Several of the trials assessed multiple agents. Medications assessed included methylphenidate, clonidine, desipramine, dextroamphetamine, guanfacine, atomoxetine, and deprenyl. All treatments, with the exception of deprenyl, were efficacious in treating symptoms of ADHD. Tic symptoms improved in children treated with guanfacine, desipramine, methylphenidate, clonidine, and the combination of methylphenidate and clonidine. Fear of worsening tics

  17. ABR and auditory P300 findings in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Schochat, Eliane; Scheuer, Claudia Ines; Andrade, Enio Roberto

    2002-09-01

    Auditory processing disorders (APD), also referred as central auditory processing disorders (CAPD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) have become popular diagnostic entities for school age children. It has been demonstrated a high incidence of comorbid ADHD with communication disorders and auditory processing disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate ABR and P300 auditory evoked potentials in children with ADHD, in a double-blind study. Twenty-one children, ages between 7 and 10 years, with a primary diagnosis of ADHD, participated in this experiment. Results showed that all children had normal ABR with normal latency for wave V. Results also showed that among 42 ears combined 52.38% did not have P300. For the medicated subjects we observed that among 28 ears, 42.85% did not have P300 and for the non-medicated 71.43% (N = 14 ears) did not have P300. Our results suggest that the medicated subjects had more presence of P300 (57.15%) than the non-medicated group (28.57%), though the absence of these potentials were high among the group--52.38%.

  18. Is ADHD a "Real" Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Michael; Lynch, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In many western countries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status, such that it probably no longer requires introduction. The disorder is a global phenomenon, spreading rapidly as result of the increasing dominance internationally of US psychiatric models, the need for new markets for major pharmaceutical…

  19. Are ADHD Kids More Creative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugate, C. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Unfortunately, there are many students that feel "stupid" in classrooms all around the country. They know they are gifted, but their ADHD and co-occurring conditions can make them feel isolated and alone. This is hard not only for the children, but for the parents who may feel powerless in helping their child know how special he or she…

  20. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Madaan, Vishal

    2008-05-01

    Stimulants are extremely effective and safe and have been the mainstay for the pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for many years. However, there have been some concerns regarding their abuse, especially by teenagers and young adults. Lisdexamfetamine was recently approved for the treatment of ADHD in 6-12-year-olds and provides a novel approach to the treatment of ADHD. Lisdexamfetamine is a prodrug comprised of dextroamphetamine covalently attached to an essential amino acid, L-lysine. Following oral administration, the amide linkage between the two molecules is enzymatically hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract, thus releasing active dextroamphetamine, which mediates the therapeutic effect in a fashion similar to other stimulants. The parent drug does not bind to sites responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine in vitro. Lisdexamfetamine does not produce high dextroamphetamine levels when injected or snorted, and thus may have lower abuse potential compared to conventional stimulants. Lisdexamfetamine appears to have efficacy and tolerability comparable to other extended-release stimulant formulations used to treat ADHD, but reduced potential for abuse-related liking effects. Compared to equivalent amounts of immediate-release dextroamphetamine. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  1. ADHD and dysgraphia: underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Landau, Yael E; Frenkel, Lior; Teicher, Mina; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Shalev, Ruth S

    2007-08-01

    Multiple complaints in the domain of writing are common among children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In this work we sought to characterize the writing disorder by studying dysgraphia in twenty 6th grade boys with ADHD and normal reading skills matched to 20 healthy boys who served as a comparison group. Dysgraphia, defined as deficits in spelling and handwriting, was assessed according to neuropsychological explanatory processes within 3 primary domains: linguistic processing, motor programming and motor kinematics. Children with ADHD made significantly more spelling errors, but showed a unique pattern introducing letter insertions, substitutions, transpositions and omissions. This error type, also known as graphemic buffer errors, can be explained by impaired attention aspects needed for motor planning. Kinematic manifestations of writing deficits were fast, inaccurate and an inefficient written product accompanied by higher levels of axial pen pressure. These results suggest that the spelling errors and writing deficits seen in children with ADHD and normal reading skills stem primarily from non-linguistic deficits, while linguistic factors play a secondary role. Recommendations for remediation include educational interventions, use of word processing and judicious use of psychostimulants.

  2. Comorbidity of Migraine with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how often drugs used to treat migraine and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients to assess, indirectly, the comorbidity of these disorders. Method: We used data from the Norwegian prescription database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (N = 4,640,219). Results:…

  3. Is ADHD a "Real" Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Michael; Lynch, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In many western countries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status, such that it probably no longer requires introduction. The disorder is a global phenomenon, spreading rapidly as result of the increasing dominance internationally of US psychiatric models, the need for new markets for major pharmaceutical…

  4. Are ADHD Kids More Creative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugate, C. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Unfortunately, there are many students that feel "stupid" in classrooms all around the country. They know they are gifted, but their ADHD and co-occurring conditions can make them feel isolated and alone. This is hard not only for the children, but for the parents who may feel powerless in helping their child know how special he or she…

  5. Comorbidity of Migraine with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how often drugs used to treat migraine and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients to assess, indirectly, the comorbidity of these disorders. Method: We used data from the Norwegian prescription database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (N = 4,640,219). Results:…

  6. Comorbidity of Asthma with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Eagan, Tomas Mikal; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess how frequently drugs used to treat asthma and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients. Method: The authors used data from the Norwegian Prescription Database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (n = 4,640,219). Results: Anti-asthma drugs were prescribed to 350,894 persons (7.56 % of the population), anti-ADHD…

  7. Striatal Sensitivity During Reward Processing in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Mehta, Mitul A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to deficits in the dopaminergic reward-processing circuitry, yet existing evidence is limited and the influence of genetic variation affecting dopamine signaling remains unknown. We investigated striatal responsivity to rewards in ADHD combined type (ADHD-CT) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and whether it is modulated by variation in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). Method We tested 29 male adolescents with ADHD-CT and 30 age-, handedness-and gender-matched healthy controls, selected for DAT110/6 haplotype dosage. Based on previous research, we focused our analysis on the ventral striatum and the caudate nucleus. Results Three main findings emerged: first, male adolescents with ADHD-CT did not differ from controls in terms of blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI response to reward-predicting cues (gain or loss-avoidance) in the ventral striatum. Second, male adolescents with ADHD-CT showed a relative increase, compared to controls, in the striatal BOLD response to successful outcomes. Third, DAT110/6 dosage differentially modulated neural activation to reward-predicting cues in the caudate nucleus in the ADHD-CT and control groups. Conclusions The findings challenge the idea of a deficit in anticipation-related activation in the ventral striatum in male adolescents with ADHD-CT, while suggesting that the processing of reward outcomes is dysfunctional, consistent with a recent neurobiological model of the disorder. Preliminary evidence suggests that polymorphic variations in genes affecting dopamine signaling need to be taken into consideration when investigating reward-related deficits in ADHD-CT. PMID:22721595

  8. Social and academic impairment in youth with ADHD, predominately inattentive type and sluggish cognitive tempo.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stephen A; Evans, Steven W; Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Becker, Stephen P; Power, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) was originally identified as a construct that characterized the inattention problems of some children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Research has indicated that using SCT symptoms to identify a subset of youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominately inattentive type (ADHD-IT) may elucidate distinct patterns of impairment and thereby improve the external validity of ADHD subtypes. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether youth with clinically-assessed ADHD-IT and high levels of SCT exhibit unique social and academic impairments. In a clinic-referred sample of youth (N = 209; 23 % female) aged 6 to 17 years, participants who met criteria for three different groups were identified: ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-CT; n = 80), ADHD-IT with low SCT symptoms (n = 74), and ADHD-IT with high SCT symptoms (n = 55). These groups were compared on indicators of social and academic functioning while considering the effects of co-occurring internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Youth with ADHD-IT high in SCT exhibited uniquely elevated withdrawal, as well as low leadership and low peer-directed relational and overt aggression, which were not accounted for by co-occurring disorders. This high-SCT group was also the only group to have more homework problems than the ADHD-CT group, but only when other disruptive behavior disorders were absent. The distinctiveness of the high-SCT group, which was primarily evident in social as opposed to academic functioning, provides partial support for the external validity and clinical utility of SCT.

  9. Differences in Real World Executive Function between Children with Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Trivedi, Nidhi; Dominguez-Colman, Liza; Patel, Manharkumar; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent research evidence suggests that executive function (EF) is impaired in both pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although the underlying cognitive mechanisms are still unclear. In this study we examined EF, including cognitive and emotional control, in three pediatric groups with overlapping symptoms. Methods Sixteen children and adolescents with PBD, 17 children and adolescents with ADHD, Type Combined, and 13 children and adolescents with PBD and comorbid ADHD (PBD+ADHD) (mean age=12.70, SD=2.21) were assessed using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Parental Report (BRIEF-PR), clinical scales and neuropsychological tests of attention, working memory and executive function. Results All groups showed impairment on the Trails A and B tests. However, there were no significant group differences. On the BRIEF-PR while all three groups were impaired in General Executive Functioning and Metacognition only the two PBD groups revealed more extensive EF dysfunction, in both cognitive and emotional control domains, relative to the ADHD group. Conversely, the ADHD group exhibited selective deficits in cognitive domains such as working memory, planning/organization, monitoring, and metacognition. The two PBD groups showed greater impairment than the ADHD group in the domains of Inhibition, Shifting, Monitoring and Emotional Control. Furthermore, results from regression analyses suggest cognitive predictors of EF impairment in ADHD and mood predictors for inhibition in PBD. Conclusions The current results contribute new knowledge on domain-specific similarities and differences in executive dysfunction between PBD, ADHD, and the comorbid phenotype, which may inform the diagnostic process and cognitive intervention. PMID:27924149

  10. Differences in Real World Executive Function between Children with Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Passarotti, Alessandra M; Trivedi, Nidhi; Dominguez-Colman, Liza; Patel, Manharkumar; Langenecker, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Recent research evidence suggests that executive function (EF) is impaired in both pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although the underlying cognitive mechanisms are still unclear. In this study we examined EF, including cognitive and emotional control, in three pediatric groups with overlapping symptoms. Sixteen children and adolescents with PBD, 17 children and adolescents with ADHD, Type Combined, and 13 children and adolescents with PBD and comorbid ADHD (PBD+ADHD) (mean age=12.70, SD=2.21) were assessed using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Parental Report (BRIEF-PR), clinical scales and neuropsychological tests of attention, working memory and executive function. All groups showed impairment on the Trails A and B tests. However, there were no significant group differences. On the BRIEF-PR while all three groups were impaired in General Executive Functioning and Metacognition only the two PBD groups revealed more extensive EF dysfunction, in both cognitive and emotional control domains, relative to the ADHD group. Conversely, the ADHD group exhibited selective deficits in cognitive domains such as working memory, planning/organization, monitoring, and metacognition. The two PBD groups showed greater impairment than the ADHD group in the domains of Inhibition, Shifting, Monitoring and Emotional Control. Furthermore, results from regression analyses suggest cognitive predictors of EF impairment in ADHD and mood predictors for inhibition in PBD. The current results contribute new knowledge on domain-specific similarities and differences in executive dysfunction between PBD, ADHD, and the comorbid phenotype, which may inform the diagnostic process and cognitive intervention.

  11. ADHD and Depression Symptoms in Parent Couples Predict Response to Child ADHD and ODD Behavior.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Brian T; Dawson, Anne E; Egan, Theresa E; Sacchetti, Gina M; Tams, Sean T; Wymbs, Frances A

    2017-04-01

    Parents of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) often have elevated ADHD and depressive symptoms, both of which increase the risk of ineffective parenting and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether child ADHD/ODD behavior and parent ADHD or depressive symptoms uniquely or synergistically predict the quality of parenting and interparental communication during triadic (mother-father-child) interactions. Ninety parent couples, including 51 who have children diagnosed with ADHD, were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child (84 % male) exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Parents reported their own ADHD and depressive symptoms, and parents and observers rated the quality of parenting and interparental communication during the interaction. Actor-partner interdependence modeling indicated that child ADHD/ODD behavior predicted less positive and more negative parenting and communication, independent of adult ADHD and depressive symptoms. Parent couples including two parents with elevated ADHD communicated more positively while managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior than couples managing children behaving typically or couples with only one parent with elevated ADHD symptoms. Couples including one parent with, and one parent without, elevated ADHD or depressive symptoms parented less positively and more negatively, and communicated more negatively, when managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior than when managing children behaving typically. Taken together, depending on the similarity of ADHD and depressive symptom levels in parent couples, adults managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior may parent or communicate positively or negatively. Findings highlight the need to consider the psychopathology of both parents when treating children with ADHD in two-parent homes.

  12. Parents, ADHD and the internet.

    PubMed

    Terbeck, Sylvia; Chesterman, L Paul

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the potential impact of using the internet on medical consultations by analysing the attitudes, attributions, and emotional responses of parents who have been informed by specialists that their child does not have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine the nature of the feedback they obtained from members of online internet support groups. Over 40,000 messages from the five most popular international internet forums discussing children with ADHD were analysed. Messages from parents who reported that they had seen at least one specialist (e.g. paediatrician, psychiatrist or psychologist) because of their concerns that their child had ADHD were identified. The children included boys and girls with an age range from 2 to 16 years. Of these, we analysed messages where the parents additionally reported that the specialist had excluded a diagnosis of ADHD. Using these criteria, 91 messages from parents who had consulted over 200 different specialists and 398 replies to these messages were identified for content analysis. The replies to concerned parents were analysed to determine whether they were offered impartial advice. A majority of the parents reported that they did not believe the specialist and were unhappy about their child not being diagnosed with ADHD. They expressed dissatisfaction with the professional's opinions and the implication that their child's conduct was caused by their poor parenting skills. Importantly, 87.6 % of the responses that these parents received, from other members of online forums, reinforced the parent's negative attitude towards the professional's judgement. It was generally suggested that the parents should not believe the expert and should seek a further opinion. The use of the internet may encourage "doctor shopping" and mistrust in health services. Medical professionals and others may need to be aware of this, and parents may need more support than is generally

  13. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Voeller, Kytja K S

    2004-10-01

    Approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are undergoing a major change as a result of information from studies on the genetics of ADHD and the use of new neuroimaging technologies. Moreover, pharmacogenomics, although still in its infancy, will provide a basis for much more sophisticated treatment strategies for ADHD, particularly once more information is available about the genetics of ADHD. Even at this point in time, there is some pertinent information available that, although not ready for application in clinical settings, nonetheless provides a broader perspective for the clinician. In terms of etiology, ADHD is a neuropsychiatric disorder. There is a genetic basis in about 80% of the cases, involving a number of different genes, and in about 20% of the cases, ADHD is the result of an acquired insult to the brain. Some individuals likely have both genetic and acquired forms. Although medication works well in many cases of ADHD, optimal treatment of ADHD requires integrated medical and behavioral treatment. The family plays a crucial role in the management of children with ADHD. Because there is often a very high degree of comorbidity between ADHD and learning disabilities, teachers also have a great deal to contribute in the day-to-day management of these children. Early recognition and treatment prevent the development of more serious psychopathology in adolescence and adulthood.

  14. Exploration of ADHD Subtype Definitions and Co-Occurring Psychopathology in a Missouri Population-Based Large Sibship Sample.

    PubMed

    Reiersen, Angela M; Todorov, Alexandre A

    2013-03-01

    There is some debate regarding the utility of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) subtypes as currently defined. Differences in co-occurring psychopathology among subtypes would support the validity of subtype definitions. To explore how ADHD subtype relates to co-occurring psychopathology in a large population-based sample of children and adolescents (n=5744). Parents completed the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptoms and Normal behavior (SWAN) questionnaire, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Methods including discriminant analysis, principal components analysis, and fractional polynomial regression were used to examine the relationship between ADHD diagnostic subtypes and co-occurring psychopathology. Children with different ADHD subtypes show differences on several CBCL subscales. A combination of CBCL subscales and SRS score had good ability to discriminate ADHD subtypes. Conversely, for the same overall number of ADHD symptoms, individuals who present with both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms exhibit higher severity of co-occurring psychopathology on a summary measure derived from principal components analysis of the CBCL subscales and SRS. This includes some subjects who fail to meet the DSM-IV-TR ADHD symptom criterion due to having less than 6 inattentive and less than six hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, yet have ADHD symptom severity similar to those with the inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive subtype. Several convergent lines of analysis provide support for the continued use of ADHD subtypes (or current presentation symptom profiles), as evidenced by differences in co-existing psychopathlogy. We also found that current diagnostic criteria may fail to identify a potentially impaired group of individuals who have low-to-moderate levels of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Under the upcoming DSM-5, it will be important for clinicians to consider the option of giving

  15. A Novel Group Therapy for Children with ADHD and Severe Mood Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Waxmonsky, J.G.; Wymbs, F.A; Pariseau, M.E.; Belin, P.J.; Waschbusch, D.A.; Babocsai, L.; Fabiano, G.A.; Akinnusi, O.O.; Haak, J.L.; Pelham, W.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective No psychosocial treatments have been developed for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Severe Mood Dysregulation (SMD) despite the significant prevalence and morbidity of this combination. Therefore, the authors developed a novel treatment program for children with ADHD and SMD. Method The novel therapy program integrates components of cognitive behavioral therapies for affect regulation with a parent training intervention for managing recurrent defiant behaviors. It consists of nine 105-minute child and parent groups run in unison. A pilot trial was conducted with seven participants with ADHD and SMD ages 7-12 who were on a stable stimulant regimen. Results Six of the seven (86%) families completed the program. Participants showed large improvements in depressive symptoms, mood lability, and global functioning. Milder improvements in externalizing behaviors were observed. Conclusion Results suggest the feasibility and potential efficacy of the therapy program for children with ADHD and SMD and warrant a larger controlled trial. PMID:22373865

  16. Maternal ADHD, Parenting, and Psychopathology Among Mothers of Adolescents With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Babinski, Dara E; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Wymbs, Brian T; Sibley, Margaret H; Derefinko, Karen J; Kuriyan, Aparajita B

    2016-05-01

    This study describes the parenting and psychopathology of mothers with ADHD of adolescents with ADHD (MCA), non-ADHD mothers of adolescents with ADHD (CA), and non-ADHD mothers of adolescents without ADHD (COMP). Two sets of pairwise comparisons: (a) COMP versus CA and (b) CA versus MCA were conducted. We hypothesized that CA would experience greater distress in parenting and psychopathology compared with COMP and that MCA would experience even more impairment compared with CA. Few differences emerged in comparisons of CA and COMP, with the exception of CA reporting greater parent-adolescent conflict and internalizing problems. In contrast, differences consistently emerged in comparisons of MCA and CA showing more difficulty for MCA in parenting and psychopathology. These findings underscore the need for treatments that address parental ADHD when adolescent ADHD is the intended target. © The Author(s) 2012.

  17. Maternal ADHD, parenting, and psychopathology among mothers of adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study describes the parenting and psychopathology of mothers with ADHD of adolescents with ADHD (MCA), non-ADHD mothers of adolescents with ADHD (CA), and non-ADHD mothers of adolescents without ADHD (COMP). Method Two sets of pairwise comparisons: 1) COMP vs. CA and 2) CA vs. MCA were conducted. We hypothesized that CA would experience greater distress in parenting and psychopathology compared to COMP, and that MCA would experience even more impairment compared to CA. Results Few differences emerged in comparisons of CA and COMP, with the exception of CA reporting greater parent-adolescent conflict and internalizing problems. In contrast, differences consistently emerged in comparisons of MCA and CA showing more difficulty for MCA in parenting and psychopathology. Conclusion These findings underscore the need for treatments that address parental ADHD when adolescent ADHD is the intended target. PMID:23160485

  18. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care providers can diagnose or treat ADHD. DSM-5 Criteria for ADHD People with ADHD show ... National Institutes of Mental Health . Changes in the DSM-5 The fifth edition of the DSM was ...

  19. Treating ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Treating ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Currently available treatments aim at reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Treatments include medication, various types ...

  20. Adults with ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Adults with ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Some ... as clear cut as symptoms seen in children. ADHD Research The expansion of knowledge in genetics, brain ...

  1. Causes of ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Causes of ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Scientists ... research discounts this theory than supports it. Diagnosing ADHD Children mature at different rates and have different ...

  2. ADHD Symptoms and Subtypes: Relationship between Childhood and Adolescent Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Moilanen, Irma K.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in childhood and adolescence. The results conclude the persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence with specific symptoms contributing to persistent ADHD.

  3. ADHD Symptoms and Subtypes: Relationship between Childhood and Adolescent Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Moilanen, Irma K.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in childhood and adolescence. The results conclude the persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence with specific symptoms contributing to persistent ADHD.

  4. Distinct effects of childhood ADHD and cannabis use on brain functional architecture in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Clare; Castellanos, F Xavier; Tomaselli, Olivia; Lisdahl, Krista; Tamm, Leanne; Jernigan, Terry; Newman, Erik; Epstein, Jeffery N; Molina, Brooke S G; Greenhill, Laurence L; Potkin, Steven G; Hinshaw, Stephen; Swanson, James M

    2017-01-01

    One of the most salient long-term implications of a childhood diagnosis of ADHD is an increased risk for substance use, abuse, or dependence in adolescence and adulthood. The extent to which cannabis use affects ADHD-related alterations in brain functional organization is unknown, however. To address this research gap, we recruited a sample of 75 individuals aged 21-25 years with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD Combined Type, who were either frequent users or non-users of cannabis. These participants have been followed longitudinally since age 7-9.9 years as part of a large multi-site longitudinal study of ADHD, the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). We examined task-independent intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) within 9 functional networks using a 2 × 2 design, which compared four groups of participants: (1) individuals with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD who currently use cannabis (n = 23); (2) individuals with ADHD who do not currently use cannabis (n = 22); (3) comparisons who currently use cannabis (n = 15); and (4) comparisons who do not currently use cannabis (n = 15). The main effects of childhood ADHD were primarily weakened iFC in networks supporting executive function and somatomotor control. Contrary to expectations, effects of cannabis use were distinct from those of diagnostic group and no interactions were observed. Exploratory brain-behavior analyses suggested that ADHD-related effects were primarily linked with poorer neurocognitive performance. Deficits in the integrity of functional networks supporting executive function and somatomotor control are consistent with the phenotypic and neurocognitive features of ADHD. Our data suggest that cannabis use does not exacerbate ADHD-related alterations, but this finding awaits replication in a larger sample. Longitudinal neuroimaging studies are urgently required to delineate the neurodevelopmental cascade that culminates in positive and negative outcomes

  5. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, and criminality: a difficult problem with complex solutions.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Balanza-Martinez, Vicent

    2015-05-01

    The association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminality has been increasingly recognized as an important societal concern. Studies conducted in different settings have revealed high rates of ADHD among adolescent offenders. The risk for criminal behavior among individuals with ADHD is increased when there is psychiatric comorbidity, particularly conduct disorder and substance use disorder. In the present report, it is aimed to systematically review the literature on the epidemiological, neurobiological, and other risk factors contributing to this association, as well as the key aspects of the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD among offenders. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals. Studies conducted in various settings within the judicial system and in many different countries suggest that the rate of adolescent and adult inmates with ADHD far exceeds that reported in the general population; however, underdiagnosis is common. Similarly, follow-up studies of children with ADHD have revealed high rates of criminal behaviors, arrests, convictions, and imprisonment in adolescence and adulthood. Assessment of ADHD and comorbid condition requires an ongoing and careful process. When treating offenders or inmates with ADHD, who commonly present other comorbid psychiatric disorder complex, comprehensive and tailored interventions, combining pharmacological and psychosocial strategies are likely to be needed.

  6. Pharmacological treatment of adult ADHD in Europe.

    PubMed

    Retz, Wolfgang; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Thome, Johannes; Rösler, Michael

    2011-09-01

    It is now widely accepted that ADHD is a frequent chronic condition with a lifelong perspective. Adult ADHD is a reliable and valid diagnosis. The disorder and the co-morbid conditions can place a severe burden on the patients, their families and their partners, requiring adequate treatment. A systematic literature search was conducted to review the available pharmacological treatment options for adults with ADHD in European countries. Supported by meta-analyses, stimulant medication is the first-line pharmacological therapy for adult ADHD. However, from a European perspective the pharmacological treatment options are very limited and only a minority of adults with ADHD in European countries receives adequate treatment. With reference to the epidemiological data, it seems very likely that the number of people with ADHD in Europe seeking multimodal treatment including pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, coaching or other therapeutic services will increase profoundly during the coming years.

  7. Learning disabilities and ADHD: overlapping spectrumn disorders.

    PubMed

    Mayes, S D; Calhoun, S L; Crowell, E W

    2000-01-01

    Clinical and psychoeducational data were analyzed for 119 children ages 8 to 16 years who were evaluated in a child diagnostic clinic. A learning disability (LD) was present in 70% of the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with a learning disability in written expression two times more common (65%) than a learning disability in reading, math, or spelling. Children with LD and ADHD had more severe learning problems than children who had LD but no ADHD, and the former also had more severe attention problems than children who had ADHD but no LD. Further, children with ADHD but no LD had some degree of learning problem, and children with LD but no ADHD had some degree of attention problem. Results suggest that learning and attention problems are on a continuum, are interrelated, and usually coexist.

  8. Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L; Azadi, Bahar; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick F; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2017-09-13

    Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD (ASD/ASD + ADHD) showed reduced theta and alpha power compared to children without ASD (controls/ADHD). Children with ADHD (ADHD/ASD + ADHD) displayed decreased delta power compared to children without ADHD (ASD/controls). Children with ASD + ADHD largely presented as an additive co-occurrence with deficits of both disorders, although reduced theta compared to ADHD-only and reduced delta compared to controls suggested some unique markers. Identifying specific neurophysiological profiles in ASD and ADHD may assist in characterising more homogeneous subgroups to inform treatment approaches and aetiological investigations.

  9. Comparing ADHD in Velocardiofacial Syndrome to Idiopathic ADHD: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Fremont, Wanda; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kates, Wendy R.; Doyle, Alysa; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Background: Children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a contiguous deletion syndrome, have an increased prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The authors compared youth with VCFS+ADHD (from the SUNY Upstate VCFS Research Program) to those with ADHD but not VCFS (from the Massachusetts General…

  10. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  11. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  12. Comparing ADHD in Velocardiofacial Syndrome to Idiopathic ADHD: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Fremont, Wanda; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kates, Wendy R.; Doyle, Alysa; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Background: Children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a contiguous deletion syndrome, have an increased prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The authors compared youth with VCFS+ADHD (from the SUNY Upstate VCFS Research Program) to those with ADHD but not VCFS (from the Massachusetts General…

  13. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group. PMID:20815868

  14. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  15. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  16. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwood, Karen L.; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and…

  17. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwood, Karen L.; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and…

  18. Organisation of services for managing ADHD.

    PubMed

    Coghill, D R

    2017-10-01

    There is considerable variation in practice, both between and with different countries in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whilst there is no one optimal model of service organisation there are general principles of care that can be introduced to reduce this variability. There are frequent debates and discussions about which professional group is best placed to manage ADHD at different points in the life cycle. Who delivers care is however less important than ensuring that training schemes provide adequate exposure, training and experience to both the core and non-core skills required to provide a comprehensive package of care. Most evidence-based guidelines recommend a multi-modal, multi-professional and multi-agency approach. Many also promote the use of both stepped care and shared care approaches for the management of ADHD. As most of those with ADHD continue to have ADHD-related problems into adulthood, it is important to consider how best to transition care into adulthood and think about who should deliver care to adults with ADHD. Young people with ADHD should generally be transferred to adult mental health services if they continue to have significant symptoms of ADHD or other coexisting conditions that require treatment. Unfortunately services for adults with ADHD remain relatively scarce across much of the world and some adult psychiatrists remain unsure of the diagnosis and uncertain about the appropriate use of ADHD medications in adults, but there is a strong case for increased services for adults. ADHD is on the one hand easy to treat; it is much more difficult to treat well. Although optimised care for ADHD requires routine measurement of outcomes, this often does not happen in routine clinical practice. Focusing on optimising symptoms and minimising adverse effects can significantly improve both short- and long-term outcomes.

  19. Integrated pharmacologic treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Horst, Robert O; Hendren, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    This article is a review of what is currently known about optimal treatments for patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It begins with a description of assessment techniques and the differential diagnosis, which includes learning disorders, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. The high rate of comorbidity in patients with ADHD and the impact of comorbidity on treatment decisions are also discussed. Detailed descriptions of various pharmacologic treatments are provided, including a description of the role of combination pharmacotherapy and the integration of nonpharmacologic therapy. A decision-making model for selecting the most appropriate pharmacologic therapy versus combining pharmacotherapy with psychosocial interventions is described. The advantages and disadvantages of various pharmacologic agents--including long-acting stimulants and atomoxetine--are examined. Particular attention is paid to the recent Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health, which includes a comparison of long-term pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy, or a combination thereof, as well as an evaluation of the role of community-based therapy (i.e., treatment as usual). This article focuses on children and adolescents, because most of the research on ADHD has been conducted in this age group. However, a brief section on adults is also provided.

  20. Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Faraone, Stephen V; Gordon, Michael

    2014-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for managing adolescent ADHD. A total of 68 adolescents with ADHD and associated psychiatric comorbidities completed a manualized CBT treatment protocol. The intervention used in the study was a downward extension of the Safren et al. program for adults with ADHD who have symptoms unresolved by medication. Outcome variables consisted of narrow band (ADHD) and broadband (e.g., mood, anxiety, conduct) symptom measures (Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd edition and ADHD-Rating Scales) as well as functioning measures (parent/teacher ratings and several ecologically real-world measures). Treatment effects emerged on the medication dosage, parent rating of pharmacotherapy adherence, adolescent self-report of personal adjustment (e.g., self-esteem), parent and teacher ratings of inattentive symptoms, school attendance, school tardiness, parent report of peer, family and academic functioning and teacher report of adolescent relationship with teacher, academic progress, and adolescent self-esteem. Adolescents with ADHD with oppositional defiant disorder were rated by parents and teachers as benefiting less from the CBT intervention. Adolescents with ADHD and comorbid anxiety/depression were rated by parents and teachers as benefiting more from the CBT intervention. A downward extension of an empirically validated adult ADHD CBT protocol can benefit some adolescents with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  1. The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one of the purposes of this study was to examine the structure of the PT in dyslexia and ADHD. The other purposes included examining the PT in relation to overall expressive language ability and in relation to several specific linguistic functions given language functioning often is affected in both dyslexia and ADHD. Participants included 50 children: 10 with dyslexia, 15 with comorbid dyslexia/ADHD, 15 with ADHD, and 10 controls. Using a 2 (dyslexia or not) X 2 (ADHD or not) MANCOVA, findings revealed PT length and shape were comparable between those with and without dyslexia. However, children with ADHD had smaller right PT lengths than those without ADHD, and right anterior ascending ramus length was related to attention problems in the total sample. In terms of linguistic functioning, presence of an extra sulcus in the left PT was related to poor expressive language ability. In those with adequate expressive language functioning, left PT length was related to phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory and rapid automatic naming (RAN). Right PT length was related to RAN and semantic processing. Further work on PT morphology in relation to ADHD and linguistic functioning is warranted. PMID:19356794

  2. Atypical alpha asymmetry in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hale, T Sigi; Smalley, Susan L; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T; McGough, James J; Loo, Sandra K

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha asymmetry has been associated with ADHD-like traits such as reduced reward responsiveness, a lack of inhibition toward aversive experience, and increased approach behaviors, and previous work has indicated increased rightward alpha asymmetry in children with ADHD. The current study explores whether increased rightward alpha asymmetry is also evident in adults with ADHD. We assessed low (8-10 Hz) and high (10-12 Hz) alpha asymmetry in adults with ADHD (n=29) versus controls (n=62) during baseline and cognitive activation conditions for nine homologous electrode pairs along the anterior-posterior axis. Seven results emerged (p<.05) showing increased rightward alpha asymmetry in adults with ADHD. This occurred in three specific electrode pairs across two testing conditions, and five of six results occurred in the lower alpha band. Finally, post hoc analysis indicated that increased rightward alpha asymmetry was generally associated with greater numbers of ADHD symptoms--with a possible parietal association for inattentive and a fronto-temporal association for hyperactivity symptoms. Increased rightward alpha asymmetry previously observed in children with ADHD appears to be a developmentally persistent feature of ADHD.

  3. Vitamin levels in adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Landaas, Elisabeth Toverud; Aarsland, Tore Ivar Malmei; Ulvik, Arve; Halmøy, Anne; Ueland, Per Magne; Haavik, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Micronutrients containing vitamins are reported to reduce symptom levels in persons with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but data on vitamin levels in ADHD are sparse. Aims To examine the relationship between vitamin concentrations, ADHD diagnosis and psychiatric symptoms in young adult ADHD patients and controls. Method Eight vitamins and the nicotine metabolite cotinine were analysed in serum samples from 133 ADHD patients and 131 controls aged between 18 and 40, who also reported ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions. Results Lower concentrations of vitamins B2, B6 and B9 were associated with the ADHD diagnosis, and B2 and B6 also with symptom severity. Smokers had lower levels of vitamins B2 and B9. Conclusions ADHD patients were overrepresented in the group with low levels of some vitamins, possibly indicative of inadequate dietary intake of these micronutrients in a subgroup of patients. It is important to identify these patients in dietary intervention trials of ADHD. Declaration of interest J.H. has received lecture honoraria as part of continuing medical education programmes sponsored by Novartis, Eli Lilly and Company, and Janssen-Cilag. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27990293

  4. The ADHD Concomitant Difficulties Scale (ADHD-CDS), a Brief Scale to Measure Comorbidity Associated to ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fenollar-Cortés, Javier; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although the critical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity behavior, the disorder is clinically heterogeneous, and concomitant difficulties are common. Children with ADHD are at increased risk for experiencing lifelong impairments in multiple domains of daily functioning. In the present study we aimed to build a brief ADHD impairment-related tool -ADHD concomitant difficulties scale (ADHD-CDS)- to assess the presence of some of the most important comorbidities that usually appear associated with ADHD such as emotional/motivational management, fine motor coordination, problem-solving/management of time, disruptive behavior, sleep habits, academic achievement and quality of life. The two main objectives of the study were (i) to discriminate those profiles with several and important ADHD functional difficulties and (ii) to create a brief clinical tool that fosters a comprehensive evaluation process and can be easily used by clinicians. Methods: The total sample included 399 parents of children with ADHD aged 6–18 years (M = 11.65; SD = 3.1; 280 males) and 297 parents of children without a diagnosis of ADHD (M = 10.91; SD = 3.2; 149 male). The scale construction followed an item improved sequential process. Results: Factor analysis showed a 13-item single factor model with good fit indices. Higher scores on inattention predicted higher scores on ADHD-CDS for both the clinical sample (β = 0.50; p < 0.001) and the whole sample (β = 0.85; p < 0.001). The ROC curve for the ADHD-CDS (against the ADHD diagnostic status) gave an area under the curve (AUC) of.979 (95%, CI = [0.969, 0.990]). Discussion: The ADHD-CDS has shown preliminary adequate psychometric properties, with high convergent validity and good sensitivity for different ADHD profiles, which makes it a potentially appropriate and brief instrument that may be easily used by clinicians, researchers, and

  5. Abnormal affective responsiveness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: subtype differences.

    PubMed

    Conzelmann, Annette; Mucha, Ronald F; Jacob, Christian P; Weyers, Peter; Romanos, Jasmin; Gerdes, Antje B M; Baehne, Christina G; Boreatti-Hümmer, Andrea; Heine, Monika; Alpers, Georg W; Warnke, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Pauli, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Emotional-motivational dysfunctions likely contribute to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially to hyperactive and impulsive symptoms. This study examined the affective modulation of the startle reflex in a large sample of ADHD patients. The aim was to compare subtypes of ADHD. One hundred ninety-seven unmedicated adult ADHD patients (127 combined type [ADHD-C]; 50 inattentive type [ADHD-I]; 20 hyperactive-impulsive type [ADHD-HI]) and 128 healthy control subjects were examined. The affect-modulated startle response as well as valence and arousal ratings were assessed for pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant picture stimuli. Control subjects exhibited startle response attenuation and potentiation by pleasant and unpleasant pictures, respectively. In ADHD-HI, startle response was not attenuated by pleasant and not potentiated by unpleasant stimuli. In ADHD-C, startle response was not attenuated by pleasant pictures, and ADHD-I responded similar to control subjects but startle response was attenuated to a lesser degree by pleasant stimuli. The ADHD-HI group rated all pictures as more positive, and male ADHD-HI rated unpleasant stimuli as less arousing. This is the first study to assess the affect-modulated startle response in ADHD. It confirms emotional dysfunctions in these patients; all subtypes showed more or less diminished emotional reactions to pleasant stimuli. The hyperactive-impulsive type was also marked by blunted reactions to unpleasant stimuli. Results suggest that response patterns to emotional cues or reward may help to differentiate ADHD subtypes. Blunted emotional reactivity is especially pronounced in ADHD patients with symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity (ADHD-C, ADHD-HI).

  6. Testing for Neuropsychological Endophenotypes in Siblings Discordant for ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Neurocognitive deficits associated with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be useful intermediate endophenotypes for determining specific genetic pathways that contribute to ADHD. Methods This study administered 17 measures from prominent neuropsychological theories of ADHD (executive function, processing speed, arousal regulation and motivation/delay aversion) in dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs discordant for ADHD and control twin pairs (ages 8–18) in order to compare performance between twins affected with ADHD (n = 266), their unaffected co-twins (n = 228), and control children from twin pairs without ADHD or learning difficulties (n = 332). Results ADHD subjects show significant impairment on executive function, processing speed, and response variability measures compared to control subjects. Unaffected cotwins of ADHD subjects are significantly impaired on nearly all the same measures as their ADHD siblings, even when subclinical symptoms of ADHD are controlled. Conclusion Executive function, processing speed, and response variability deficits may be useful endophenotypes for genetic studies of ADHD. PMID:17585884

  7. Reliability of DSM-IV Symptom Ratings of ADHD: implications for DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Solanto, Mary V; Alvir, Jose

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the intrarater reliability of DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. Two-hundred-two children referred for attention problems and 49 comparison children (all 7-12 years) were rated by parents and teachers on the identical DSM-IV items presented in two different formats, the SNAP-IV and Conners' Revised Questionnaires, at two closely spaced points in time. For the combined sample, weighted kappa scores for intrarater agreement ranged from .30 ("fair") to .77 ("good") across symptoms. Kappa scores were good with respect to agreement on the DSM-IV criterion of endorsement of at least six symptoms in a given cluster for Inattention (.60 and .76, for parents and teachers, respectively) and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity (.72 and .75, respectively). Kappas for identification of cases as AD/HD or not AD/HD were good to excellent (.67 and .79 for parents and teachers, respectively). Classification as AD/HD or not AD/HD changed from the first to the second rating in 12% and 10% of cases rated parents and teachers, respectively. Reliability of individual ADHD symptoms appears to be suboptimal for clinical and research use and is improved, although less than ideal, at the levels of cluster endorsement and case classification.

  8. Action Monitoring in boys with ADHD, their Nonaffected Siblings and Normal Controls: Evidence for an Endophenotype

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Bjoern; Brandeis, Daniel; Uebel, Henrik; Heinrich, Hartmut; Mueller, Ueli C.; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a very common and highly heritable child psychiatric disorder associated with dysfunctions in fronto-striatal networks that control attention and response organisation. Aim of this study was to investigate whether features of action monitoring related to dopaminergic functions represent endophenotypes which are brain functions on the pathway from genes and environmental risk factors to behaviour. Methods Action monitoring and error processing as indicated by behavioural and electrophysiological parameters during a flanker task were examined in boys with ADHD combined type according to DSM-IV (N=68), their nonaffected siblings (N=18) and healthy controls with no known family history of ADHD (N=22). Results Boys with ADHD displayed slower and more variable reaction-times. Error negativity (Ne) was smaller in boys with ADHD compared to healthy controls, while nonaffected siblings displayed intermediate amplitudes following a linear model predicted by genetic concordance. The three groups did not differ on error positivity (Pe). N2 amplitude enhancement due to conflict (incongruent flankers) was reduced in the ADHD group. Nonaffected siblings also displayed intermediate N2 enhancement. Conclusions Converging evidence from behavioural and ERP findings suggests that action monitoring and initial error processing, both related to dopaminergically modulated functions of anterior cingulate cortex, might be an endophenotype related to ADHD. PMID:18339358

  9. Psychiatric Comorbidity at the Time of Diagnosis in Adults With ADHD: The CAT Study.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Dieguez, Benjamín; Balanzá-Martínez, Vicent; García-García, Pilar; Soler-López, Begoña

    2016-12-01

    The CAT (Comorbilidad en Adultos con TDAH) study aimed to quantify and characterize the psychiatric comorbidity at the time of diagnosis of ADHD in adult outpatients. Cross-sectional, multicenter, observational register of adults with ADHD diagnosed for the first time. In this large sample of adult ADHD (n = 367), psychiatric comorbidities were present in 66.2% of the sample, and were more prevalent in males and in the hyperactive-impulsive and combined subtypes. The most common comorbidities were substance use disorders (39.2%), anxiety disorders (23%), and mood disorders (18.1%). In all, 88.8% patients were prescribed pharmacological treatment for ADHD (in 93.4% of cases, modified release methylphenidate capsules 50:50). A high proportion of psychiatric comorbidity was observed when adult outpatients received a first-time diagnosis of ADHD. The systematic registering of patients and comorbidities in clinical practice may help to better understand and manage the prognostic determinants in adult ADHD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Sex differences in the functional neuroanatomy of working memory in adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Eve M.; Brown, Ariel; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Makris, Nikos; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Vitulano, Michael; Schiller, Michael; Seidman, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with significant morbidity and dysfunction and afflicts both sexes, relatively few imaging studies have examined females and none have had sufficient power to adequately examine sex differences. We sought to examine sex differences in neural functioning of ADHD adults during performance on a verbal working memory task. Method Participants were 44 adults with ADHD matched on age, sex, and estimated IQ to 49 controls. Accuracy and reaction time on an n-back task were measures of working memory performance. The blood-oxygenation-level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging response was used as a measure of neural activity. Results A group by sex ANOVA showed no between-group differences in either reaction time or percent correct for the working memory task. For imaging data, with both sexes combined, ADHD adults showed less activity than controls in prefrontal regions. However, sex-by-group analyses revealed an interaction, such that male ADHD adults showed significantly less activity lateralized to right frontal, temporal and subcortical regions, as well as left occipital and cerebellar regions relative to male controls, whereas female ADHD adults showed no differences from female controls. Exploratory correlation analyses revealed negative associations between working memory related activation and number of hyperactive symptoms for males and number of inattentive symptoms for females. Conclusions Male but not female adults with ADHD showed significantly altered patterns of neural activity during performance on a verbal working memory task. Males and females showed different associations between neural activity and ADHD symptoms. PMID:19884224

  11. Towards an ICF core set for ADHD: a worldwide expert survey on ability and disability.

    PubMed

    de Schipper, Elles; Mahdi, Soheil; Coghill, David; de Vries, Petrus J; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Granlund, Mats; Holtmann, Martin; Karande, Sunil; Levy, Florence; Almodayfer, Omar; Rohde, Luis; Tannock, Rosemary; Bölte, Sven

    2015-12-01

    This is the second in a series of four empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF and Children and Youth version, ICF-CY) core sets for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this stage was to gather the opinions from international experts on which ability and disability concepts were considered relevant to functioning in ADHD. An email-based survey was carried out amongst international experts in ADHD. Relevant functional ability and disability concepts were extracted from their responses and linked to the ICF/-CY categories by two independent researchers using a standardised linking procedure. 174 experts from 11 different disciplines and 45 different countries completed the survey. Meaningful concepts identified in their responses were linked to 185 ICF/-CY categories. Of these, 83 categories were identified by at least 5 % of the experts and considered the most relevant to ADHD: 30 of these were related to Body functions (most identified: attention functions, 85 %), 30 to Activities and Participation (most identified: school education, 52 %), 20 to Environmental factors (most identified: support from immediate family, 61 %), and 3 to Body structures (most identified: structure of brain, 83 %). Experts also provided their views on particular abilities related to ADHD, naming characteristics such as high-energy levels, flexibility and resiliency. Gender differences in the expression of ADHD identified by experts pertained mainly to females showing more internalising (e.g. anxiety, low self-esteem) and less externalising behaviours (e.g. hyperactivity), leading to a risk of late- and under-diagnosis in females. Results indicate that the impact of ADHD extends beyond the core symptom domains, into all areas of life and across the lifespan. The current study in combination with three additional preparatory studies (comprehensive scoping review, focus groups, clinical study

  12. Glutamate/glutamine and neuronal integrity in adults with ADHD: a proton MRS study

    PubMed Central

    Maltezos, S; Horder, J; Coghlan, S; Skirrow, C; O'Gorman, R; Lavender, T J; Mendez, M A; Mehta, M; Daly, E; Xenitidis, K; Paliokosta, E; Spain, D; Pitts, M; Asherson, P; Lythgoe, D J; Barker, G J; Murphy, D G

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that abnormalities in glutamate signalling may contribute to the pathophysiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([1H]MRS) can be used to measure glutamate, and also its metabolite glutamine, in vivo. However, few studies have investigated glutamate in the brain of adults with ADHD naive to stimulant medication. Therefore, we used [1H]MRS to measure the combined signal of glutamate and glutamine (Glu+Gln; abbreviated as Glx) along with other neurometabolites such as creatine (Cr), N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline. Data were acquired from three brain regions, including two implicated in ADHD—the basal ganglia (caudate/striatum) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)—and one ‘control' region—the medial parietal cortex. We compared 40 adults with ADHD, of whom 24 were naive for ADHD medication, whereas 16 were currently on stimulants, against 20 age, sex and IQ-matched healthy controls. We found that compared with controls, adult ADHD participants had a significantly lower concentration of Glx, Cr and NAA in the basal ganglia and Cr in the DLPFC, after correction for multiple comparisons. There were no differences between stimulant-treated and treatment-naive ADHD participants. In people with untreated ADHD, lower basal ganglia Glx was significantly associated with more severe symptoms of inattention. There were no significant differences in the parietal ‘control' region. We suggest that subcortical glutamate and glutamine have a modulatory role in ADHD adults; and that differences in glutamate–glutamine levels are not explained by use of stimulant medication. PMID:24643164

  13. Brief Report: Children with ADHD without Co-Morbid Autism Do Not Have Impaired Motor Proficiency on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; Rinehart, Nicole; Bradshaw, John L.; McGinley, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Motor proficiency was investigated in a sample of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined type (ADHD-CT) without autism. Accounting for the influence of co-morbid autistic symptoms in ADHD motor studies is vital given that motor impairment has been linked to social-communication symptoms in children who have co-morbid ADHD…

  14. Brief Report: Children with ADHD without Co-Morbid Autism Do Not Have Impaired Motor Proficiency on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; Rinehart, Nicole; Bradshaw, John L.; McGinley, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Motor proficiency was investigated in a sample of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined type (ADHD-CT) without autism. Accounting for the influence of co-morbid autistic symptoms in ADHD motor studies is vital given that motor impairment has been linked to social-communication symptoms in children who have co-morbid ADHD…

  15. Optimal management of ADHD in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Torgersen, Terje; Gjervan, Bjorn; Lensing, Michael B; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background The manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among older adults has become an interesting topic of interest due to an increasing number of adults aged 50 years and older (≥50 years) seeking assessment for ADHD. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on ADHD in older adults, and until recently only a few case reports existed. Method A systematic search was conducted in the databases Medline/PubMed and PsycINFO in order to identify studies regarding ADHD in adults ≥50 years. Results ADHD persists into older ages in many patients, but the prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis at age ≥50 years is still unknown. It is reason to believe that the prevalence is falling gradually with age, and that the ADHD symptom level is significantly lower in the age group 70–80 years than the group 50–60 years. There is a lack of controlled studies of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years, but this review suggests that many patients aged ≥50 years experience beneficial effects of pharmacological treatment. The problem with side effects and somatic complications may rise to a level that makes pharmacotherapy for ADHD difficult after the age of 65 years. Physical assessment prior to initiation of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years should include a thorough clinical examination, and medication should be titrated with low doses initially and with a slow increase. In motivated patients, different psychological therapies alone or in addition to pharmacotherapy should be considered. Conclusion It is essential when treating older adult patients with ADHD to provide good support based on knowledge and understanding of how ADHD symptoms have affected health, quality of life, and function through the life span. Individualized therapy for each elderly patient should be recommended to balance risk–benefit ratio when pharmacotherapy is considered to be a possible treatment. PMID:26811680

  16. A Follow-Up Study of Maternal Expressed Emotion Toward Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Relation With Severity and Persistence of ADHD and Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jennifer S.; Vásquez, Alejandro Arias; Rommelse, Nanda N.J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with conflicted parent–child relationships. The underlying mechanisms of this association are not yet fully understood. We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between externalizing psychopathology in children with ADHD, and expressed emotion (EE; warmth and criticism) and psychopathology in mothers. Method In this 6-year follow-up study 385 children with an ADHD combined subtype were included at baseline (mean=11.5 years, 83.4% male), of which 285 children (74%) were available at follow-up (mean=17.5 years, 83.5% male). At both time points, measures of child psychopathology (i.e., ADHD severity, oppositional, and conduct problems), maternal EE, and maternal psychopathology (i.e., ADHD and affective problems) were obtained. Results EE was not significantly correlated over time. At baseline, we found a nominally negative association (p≤.05) between maternal warmth and child ADHD severity. At follow-up, maternal criticism was significantly associated with child oppositional problems, and nominally with child conduct problems. Maternal warmth was nominally associated with child oppositional and conduct problems. These associations were independent of maternal psychopathology. No longitudinal associations were found between EE at baseline and child psychopathology at follow-up, or child psychopathology at baseline and EE at follow-up. Conclusions The results support previous findings of cross-sectional associations between parental EE and child psychopathology. This, together with the finding that EE was not stable over six years, suggests that EE is a momentary state measure varying with contextual and developmental factors. EE does not appear to be a risk factor for later externalizing behavior in children with ADHD. PMID:24565358

  17. A follow-up study of maternal expressed emotion toward children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): relation with severity and persistence of ADHD and comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jennifer S; Vásquez, Alejandro Arias; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2014-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with conflicted parent-child relationships. The underlying mechanisms of this association are not yet fully understood. We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between externalizing psychopathology in children with ADHD, and expressed emotion (EE; warmth and criticism) and psychopathology in mothers. In this 6-year follow-up study, 385 children with an ADHD combined subtype were included at baseline (mean, 11.5 years, 83.4% male), of which 285 children (74%) were available at follow-up (mean, 17.5 years, 83.5% male). At both time points, measures of child psychopathology (i.e., ADHD severity, oppositional, and conduct problems), maternal EE, and maternal psychopathology (i.e., ADHD and affective problems) were obtained. EE was not significantly correlated over time. At baseline, we found a nominally negative association (p ≤ .05) between maternal warmth and child ADHD severity. At follow-up, maternal criticism was significantly associated with child oppositional problems, and nominally with child conduct problems. Maternal warmth was nominally associated with child oppositional and conduct problems. These associations were independent of maternal psychopathology. No longitudinal associations were found between EE at baseline and child psychopathology at follow-up, or child psychopathology at baseline and EE at follow-up. The results support previous findings of cross-sectional associations between parental EE and child psychopathology. This, together with the finding that EE was not stable over 6 years, suggests that EE is a momentary state measure varying with contextual and developmental factors. EE does not appear to be a risk factor for later externalizing behavior in children with ADHD. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Defining the Neural Substrate of the Adult Outcome of Childhood ADHD: A Multimodal Neuroimaging Study of Response Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Eszter; Sudre, Gustavo P; Sharp, Wendy; Leibenluft, Ellen; Shaw, Philip

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the neural processes tied to the adult outcome of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could guide novel interventions to improve its clinical course. It has been argued that normalization of prefrontal cortical activity drives remission from ADHD, while anomalies in subcortical processes are "fixed," present even in remission. Using multimodal neuroimaging of inhibitory processes, the authors tested these hypotheses in adults followed since childhood, contrasting remitted against persistent ADHD. Adult participants (persistent ADHD, N=35; remit-ted ADHD, N=47; never affected, N=99) were scanned with functional MRI (fMRI) (N=85), magnetoencephalography (N=33), or both (N=63) during a response inhibition task. In fMRI analyses, during inhibition, right caudate anomalies reflected a childhood ADHD history and were present even among those who remitted. By contrast, differences related to adult outcome emerged in cortical (right inferior frontal and inferior parietal/precuneus) and cerebellar regions. The persistent ADHD group showed under-activation, whereas the remitted ADHD group did not differ significantly from the never-affected group. Magnetoencephalography showed that the association between adult symptom severity and prefrontal neuronal activity was confined to the time window covering the act of inhibition (300 ms-350 ms). Group differences in cerebellar and parietal neuronal activity occurred during the time window of performance monitoring processes (500 ms-600 ms). By combining fMRI and magnetoencephalography, the location and time window of neuronal activity that underpins the adult outcome of ADHD was pinpointed. Thus, the cortico-cerebellar processes tied to the clinical course of ADHD are separated from the subcortical processes that are not.

  19. Child ADHD and ODD behavior interacts with parent ADHD symptoms to worsen parenting and interparental communication.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Brian T; Wymbs, Frances A; Dawson, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults increases risk of parenting difficulties and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether disruptive child behavior and adult ADHD operate additively or synergistically to predict parenting and interparental relationship quality. As part of a larger study, 90 parent couples were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Before these interactions, parents reported their own ADHD symptoms. Afterwards, parents reported on their partner's parenting and interparental communication behavior. Observers coded the parenting and communication behavior of both partners during the tasks. Child ADHD/ODD-like behavior was found to predict less positive and more negative parenting and communication reported by partners and observers beyond adult ADHD symptoms and other covariates. Elevated adult ADHD symptoms only uniquely increased risk of observer-coded negative parenting. Child and adult ADHD behavior interacted synergistically to predict partner-reported negative parenting and interparental communication, such that parents reporting greater ADHD symptoms-especially inattentiveness-were rated by their partners as parenting and communicating more negatively when managing child ADHD/ODD-like behavior than parents with fewer ADHD symptoms or those managing typical child behavior. Child and adult ADHD behavior did not interact to predict observer-coded parenting or interparental communication, and patterns did not differ for mothers or fathers. Our results underscore the potential risk of parents with elevated ADHD symptoms parenting and communicating negatively, at least as perceived by their partners, during interactions with children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior.

  20. Mediators and Moderators of the Relation between Parental ADHD Symptomatology and the Early Development of Child ADHD and ODD Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Brown, Hallie R; Harvey, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined mediators and moderators of the relation between parental ADHD symptomatology and the development of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms across the preschool years. Participants included 258 (138 boys) 3-year-old children (M = 44.13 months, SD = 3.39) with and without behavior problems and their parents who took part in a 3-year longitudinal study. Maternal ADHD symptoms predicted later ADHD symptoms in children, controlling for early child symptomatology. Both family history of ADHD and paternal comorbid psychopathology predicted later child ADHD and ODD symptoms, but they did not account for the association between maternal and child ADHD symptoms. Although paternal ADHD symptoms were associated with age 3 child ADHD symptoms, they did not significantly predict later child ADHD symptoms controlling for early symptomatology. Family adversity moderated the relation between maternal ADHD and child ADHD symptoms, such that the relation between maternal and child ADHD symptoms was stronger for families with less adversity. Maternal overreactive parenting mediated the relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and later child ADHD and ODD symptoms. Our findings suggest that targeting paternal comorbid psychopathology and maternal parenting holds promise for attenuating the effects of parental ADHD on children's ADHD.

  1. Anchoring ADHD Symptoms to Mental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Callie; Dunham, Mardis; Patel, Samir H.; Contreras-Bloomdahl, Susana

    2016-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)," requires that symptoms of ADHD must be "developmentally inappropriate" in order for an ADHD diagnosis to be considered. Because the DSM-5 does not specifically outline procedure for determining developmental inappropriateness of behaviors,…

  2. Metamemory Development in Preschool Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Nastasi, Robert

    2008-01-01

    An aspect of metacognition, metamemory (knowledge and awareness of one's memory) was investigated across time in preschool children with ADHD (n = 31) and a sample of age, sex, socioeconomic and IQ-matched typically developing children (n = 31). Only children with stable ADHD diagnoses were included. Participants were assessed on a variety of…

  3. Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Olsen, John L.; Wender, Paul H.; Robison, Reid J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD…

  4. What Parents Should Know about ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2016-01-01

    Some gifted children suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's functioning. For a diagnosis of ADHD, children under the age of 17 must display at least six symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity in at least two different settings (school and home, for example),…

  5. An ADHD Primer. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyandt, Lisa L.

    2007-01-01

    Filled with current, practical, and useful information for professionals and individuals, this second edition summarizes the literature concerning ADHD across the lifespan. It offers a better understanding of the disorder by addressing the potential causes of ADHD, the developmental course, and numerous treatment approaches. The author delivers…

  6. Friendship Characteristics of Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Marton, Imola; Wiener, Judith; Rogers, Maria; Moore, Chris

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the friendship characteristics of 8 to 12 year old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Friendship characteristics included number of nominated and corroborated friends, duration of friendships, amount of contact with friends, and the proportion of friends with learning and behavioral problems. The sample comprised 92 children, 50 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 42 comparison children. While children with ADHD did not differ from comparison children in the number of friends they nominated, parents and teachers of children with ADHD were less likely to corroborate that these friendships existed. The friendships of children with ADHD were also shorter in duration. While children with ADHD were indistinguishable from comparison children with regards to the amount of telephone contact with friends, they spent less time with friends outside of school than comparison children. Children with ADHD had a higher proportion of friends with learning and behavior problems. While children with ADHD differ from comparison children in the above friendship characteristics, it is promising that they still fall within the average range for the number of corroborated friendships and they demonstrate adequate stability in their friendships. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  7. The Relationship between ADHD and Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orendorff, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder that is often identified when a child first enters school. About 2% of boys and girls in our population are diagnosed with the disorder (Kaufmann, 2000). Although ADHD is the most frequent reason that children are referred to a mental health professional, the diagnosis of ADHD…

  8. Heart Rate and Reinforcement Sensitivity in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hyde, Christopher; van Meel, Catharina S.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Both theoretical and clinical accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) implicate a dysfunctional reinforcement system. This study investigated heart rate parameters in response to feedback associated with reward and response cost in ADHD children and controls aged 8 to 12. Methods: Heart rate responses (HRRs)…

  9. Detection of Feigned ADHD in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sollman, Myriam J.; Ranseen, John D.; Berry, David T. R.

    2010-01-01

    Significant motivations and incentives exist for young-adult students to seek a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With ADHD information readily accessible on the Internet, today's students are likely to be symptom educated prior to evaluation. This may result in false-positive diagnoses, particularly when students are…

  10. ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

  11. ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

  12. Heart Rate and Reinforcement Sensitivity in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hyde, Christopher; van Meel, Catharina S.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Both theoretical and clinical accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) implicate a dysfunctional reinforcement system. This study investigated heart rate parameters in response to feedback associated with reward and response cost in ADHD children and controls aged 8 to 12. Methods: Heart rate responses (HRRs)…

  13. Intervention Strategies for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; White, George P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe three types of ADHD behavior that affect from 3 percent to 7 percent of elementary school children, mostly boys. They recommend supplementing stimulant medication with behavior modification strategies, at home and school, to improve ADHD students' social skills and school performance.

  14. Detection of Feigned ADHD in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sollman, Myriam J.; Ranseen, John D.; Berry, David T. R.

    2010-01-01

    Significant motivations and incentives exist for young-adult students to seek a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With ADHD information readily accessible on the Internet, today's students are likely to be symptom educated prior to evaluation. This may result in false-positive diagnoses, particularly when students are…

  15. Decision Making in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…

  16. Classroom Management and the ADHD Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colberg, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the academic needs of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be taxing on teachers and students. This research highlights classroom management strategies that general education teachers might include in their teaching to support the academic growth students with ADHD, while continuing to support all students in…

  17. Decision Making in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…

  18. What Parents Should Know about ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2016-01-01

    Some gifted children suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's functioning. For a diagnosis of ADHD, children under the age of 17 must display at least six symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity in at least two different settings (school and home, for example),…

  19. Rethinking a Right Hemisphere Deficit in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Loo, Sandra K.; Zaidel, Eran; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; Smalley, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Early observations from lesion studies suggested right hemisphere (RH) dysfunction in ADHD. However, a strictly right-lateralized deficit has not been well supported. An alternatively view suggests increased R greater than L asymmetry of brain function and abnormal interhemispheric interaction. If true, RH pathology in ADHD should…

  20. ADHD and Children Who Are Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, James T.; Latimer, Diane

    1993-01-01

    Guidelines are offered for the differential identification of children who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), giftedness, or both. Careful evaluation of the situation and setting in which behavior or attentional problems occur is recommended, as is individual evaluation for children who may be gifted and ADHD. (DB)

  1. Does serotonin deficit mediate susceptibility to ADHD?

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Emili; Nandagopal, Krishnadas

    2015-03-01

    The onset of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) in childhood is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. A chronic deficit of serotonin (5-HT) at the synapse may trigger symptoms of ADHD. This review focuses on neuro-anatomical, experimental and clinical pharmacological evidence, as well as the genetic underpinnings of serotoninergic involvement in the etiology of ADHD. Neuro-anatomical investigations suggest that serotonin through the orbitofrontal-striatal circuitry may regulate behavioral domains of hyperactivity and impulsivity in ADHD. Studies from animal models of ADHD indicate intimate interplay between 5-HT and dopaminergic neurotransmission. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, as also non-stimulant drugs acting on the 5-HT system are, however, clinically effective. They impart less severe side effects in patients with no risk of addiction. Oral administration of l-tryptophan, the amino acid precursor of 5-HT, significantly alleviates ADHD symptoms. Given the multifactorial nature of ADHD, candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have suggested that serotoninergic gene variants are associated with increased risk of ADHD with each locus individually exerting a modest effect on overall risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anchoring ADHD Symptoms to Mental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Callie; Dunham, Mardis; Patel, Samir H.; Contreras-Bloomdahl, Susana

    2016-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)," requires that symptoms of ADHD must be "developmentally inappropriate" in order for an ADHD diagnosis to be considered. Because the DSM-5 does not specifically outline procedure for determining developmental inappropriateness of behaviors,…

  3. Agomelatine Treatment with Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Antidepressants, in particular Atomextine, along with stimulants have demonstrated benefit in the treatment of ADHD. Agomelatine is a new antidepressant with additional affinities to the melatonergic system. As ADHD has been associated with sleep disorders, it is assumed that Agomelatiine might serve as a therapeutic alternative to…

  4. Agomelatine Treatment with Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Antidepressants, in particular Atomextine, along with stimulants have demonstrated benefit in the treatment of ADHD. Agomelatine is a new antidepressant with additional affinities to the melatonergic system. As ADHD has been associated with sleep disorders, it is assumed that Agomelatiine might serve as a therapeutic alternative to…

  5. Rethinking a Right Hemisphere Deficit in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Loo, Sandra K.; Zaidel, Eran; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; Smalley, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Early observations from lesion studies suggested right hemisphere (RH) dysfunction in ADHD. However, a strictly right-lateralized deficit has not been well supported. An alternatively view suggests increased R greater than L asymmetry of brain function and abnormal interhemispheric interaction. If true, RH pathology in ADHD should…

  6. Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Olsen, John L.; Wender, Paul H.; Robison, Reid J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD…

  7. Characterizing the ADHD Phenotype for Genetic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; Asherson, Phil; Hay, David; Levy, Florence; Swanson, Jim; Thapar, Anita; Willcutt, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The genetic study of ADHD has made considerable progress. Further developments in the field will be reliant in part on identifying the most appropriate phenotypes for genetic analysis. The use of both categorical and dimensional measures of symptoms related to ADHD has been productive. The use of multiple reporters is a valuable feature of the…

  8. Trends in Medication Treatment for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Lon; Aubert, Ronald E.; Verbrugge, Robert R.; Khalid, Mona; Epstein, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines demographic trends in the use of medications to treat ADHD in adult and pediatric populations. Method: Using pharmacy claims data for a large population of commercially insured Americans, the study measures ADHD treatment prevalence and drug use from 2000 to 2005. Results: In 2005, 4.4% of children (ages 0 to 19) and…

  9. Relationship Between Sleep Problems and Quality of Life in Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Yürümez, Esra; Kılıç, Birim Günay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the sleep behaviors, sleep problems and frequency, and relationship with psychiatric comorbidities in ADHD Combined type and to evaluate the effect of sleep problems on quality of life. Forty-six boys, aged 7 to 13 years, with ADHD-combined type and 31 healthy boys were included. ADHD children were never treated for sleep or psychiatric disorders. Intelligence quotient (IQ) test scores were minimum 80, body mass index were normal and did not have medical disorders. Parents completed Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Conners' Parent Rating Scale and The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and participants were asked about sleep behaviors and were administered PedsQL and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. The frequency of sleep problems in ADHD is 84.8%, higher than the control group (p = .002). Evaluating PedsQL scores, the quality of life is worse in physical, psychosocial health, and total life quality (p < .05). ADHD group with sleep problems have more night wakings than control group with sleep problems (p = .02). The comorbidity do not increase sleep problems. The frequency of parasomnias is increased in group with learning disorders (p = .05). The results of this study, which controls for a number of possible confounders found in previous examinations of ADHD and sleep, support the results of a number of other studies that have found an increased overall prevalence of parent-reported sleep disturbances in children with ADHD compared with healthy control participants. As the ADHD group have more night wakings than the control group through the night, it is thought that night wakings that cause a partitioned sleep may be important signs seen in ADHD. That could be suggested by two hypotheses. First one is that, daytime sleepiness is more common in ADHD and those children present excessive hyperactivity during the day to stay awake and the second one is the improvement of ADHD signs when the

  10. The relation between maternal ADHD symptoms & improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training is mediated by change in negative parenting.

    PubMed

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A; Clarke, Tana L; Raggi, Veronica L; Rooney, Mary E; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy mothers of 6-10 year old children with ADHD underwent a comprehensive assessment of adult ADHD prior to participating in an abbreviated parent training program. Before and after treatment, parenting was assessed via maternal reports and observations and child disruptive behavior was measured via maternal report. Controlling for pre-treatment levels, maternal ADHD symptomatology predicted post-treatment child disruptive behavior problems. The relation between maternal ADHD symptomatology and improvement in child behavior was mediated by change in observed maternal negative parenting. This study replicated findings linking maternal ADHD symptoms with attenuated child improvement following parent training, and is the first to demonstrate that negative parenting at least partially explains this relationship. Innovative approaches combining evidence-based treatment for adult ADHD with parent training may therefore be necessary for families in which both the mother and child have ADHD. Larger-scale studies using a full evidence-based parent training program are needed to replicate these findings.

  11. ADHD & Pharmacotherapy: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, JJ; Glessner, JT; Elia, J; Hakonarson, H

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobiological disorder in children, with a prevalence of ~6–7%1,2 that has remained stable for decades2. The social and economic burden associated with patients3, families, and broader systems (healthcare/educational) is substantial, with the annual economic impact of ADHD exceed $30 billion in the US alone4. Efficacy of pharmacotherapy in treating ADHD symptoms has generally been considerable with at least ¾ of individuals benefitting from pharmacotherapy, typically in the form of stimulants5. In this review, we begin by briefly reviewing the history of pharmacotherapy in relation to ADHD, before focusing (primarily) on the state-of-the-field on themes such as biophysiology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacogenomics. We conclude with a summary of emerging clinical and research studies, particularly the potential role for precision therapy in matching ADHD patients and drug types. PMID:26366330

  12. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  13. ADHD Symptomology and Impairment: Relevance to Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Joy

    2010-01-01

    ADHD is a pervasive and persistent condition which continues into adulthood with a prevalence rate of 5%. Research demonstrates that 2% to 4% of the college learner population is affected by ADHD and, interestingly enough, ADHD symptomology prevalence rates have been shown to be higher than expected within the general college population. ADHD is a…

  14. The Academic Experience of Male High School Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Kristine M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Biswas, Aparajita; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the high school academic experience of adolescents with and without childhood ADHD using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Participants were 326 males with childhood ADHD and 213 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited at the start of the follow-up study. Data were collected yearly…

  15. Giftedness and ADHD: Identification, Misdiagnosis, and Dual Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2015-01-01

    Many gifted characteristics overlap the symptoms of attention deficity-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The potential for the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD exists, but so does the potential for a dual diagnosis of giftedness and ADHD. A decade after the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD was first investigated we examine lessons learned…

  16. Retrospective Reports of Childhood Trauma in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia J.; Brown, Deborah L.; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although studies have documented higher prevalence of abuse in children with ADHD, no studies have investigated childhood reports of abuse in individuals identified with ADHD in adulthood. Method: Forty ADHD women, 17 ADHD males, 17 female controls, and 40 male controls complete the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and other measures of…

  17. Retrospective Reports of Childhood Trauma in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia J.; Brown, Deborah L.; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although studies have documented higher prevalence of abuse in children with ADHD, no studies have investigated childhood reports of abuse in individuals identified with ADHD in adulthood. Method: Forty ADHD women, 17 ADHD males, 17 female controls, and 40 male controls complete the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and other measures of…

  18. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  19. Reexamining the Familial Association between Asthma and ADHD in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerness, Paul; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gallo, Lauren; Murphy, Heather; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to further evaluate the association between asthma and ADHD, addressing issues of familiality in female probands. A case control study of referred ADHD proband girls, controls, and relatives are used. Participants include 140 ADHD proband girls and 122 non-ADHD comparisons, with 417 and 369 first-degree biological…

  20. Do Hyperactive Symptoms Matter in ADHD-I Restricted Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Marcelo; Ludwig, Henrique; Rohde, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a proposed restrictive inattentive type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by comparing clinical correlates among youths with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I) as a function of the number of hyperactivity symptoms presented (none vs. 3 or less) and controls (individuals without ADHD).…

  1. Sustained and Focused Attention Deficits in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetta, Natalie D. J.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the specificity of deficits in focused attention and sustained attention in adults with ADHD and to evaluate the effect of comorbidity. Method: Twenty-eight adults with ADHD without comorbidity were compared with 28 ADHD outpatients with comorbidity. Two control groups were used: 68 adults referred for ADHD but with another…

  2. Giftedness and ADHD: Identification, Misdiagnosis, and Dual Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2015-01-01

    Many gifted characteristics overlap the symptoms of attention deficity-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The potential for the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD exists, but so does the potential for a dual diagnosis of giftedness and ADHD. A decade after the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD was first investigated we examine lessons learned…

  3. Comorbidity and Phenomenology of Bipolar Disorder in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Eduardo; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children with ADHD and to study the psychopathological profile of ADHD children with and without mania. Method: A total of 100 children with ADHD were assessed with a semistructured diagnostic interview and questionnaires of mania, ADHD, and general psychopathology. Results: 8% of…

  4. ADHD and Children Who Are Gifted. ERIC Digest #522.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, James T.; Latimer, Diane

    This fact sheet summarizes information on children who have an attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), are gifted, or are both ADHD and gifted. Fourteen diagnostic criteria for ADHD from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III are listed. A comparison of behaviors associated with ADHD and with giftedness is…

  5. Comorbidity and Phenomenology of Bipolar Disorder in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Eduardo; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children with ADHD and to study the psychopathological profile of ADHD children with and without mania. Method: A total of 100 children with ADHD were assessed with a semistructured diagnostic interview and questionnaires of mania, ADHD, and general psychopathology. Results: 8% of…

  6. Reexamining the Familial Association between Asthma and ADHD in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerness, Paul; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gallo, Lauren; Murphy, Heather; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to further evaluate the association between asthma and ADHD, addressing issues of familiality in female probands. A case control study of referred ADHD proband girls, controls, and relatives are used. Participants include 140 ADHD proband girls and 122 non-ADHD comparisons, with 417 and 369 first-degree biological…

  7. Sustained and Focused Attention Deficits in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetta, Natalie D. J.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the specificity of deficits in focused attention and sustained attention in adults with ADHD and to evaluate the effect of comorbidity. Method: Twenty-eight adults with ADHD without comorbidity were compared with 28 ADHD outpatients with comorbidity. Two control groups were used: 68 adults referred for ADHD but with another…

  8. Reliable Ratings or Reading Tea Leaves: Can Parent, Teacher, and Clinician Behavioral Ratings of Preschoolers Predict ADHD at Age Six?

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Sarah; Schneiderman, Robyn L.; Rajendran, Khushmand; Marks, David J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the relative ability of parent, teacher, and clinician behavioral ratings of preschoolers to predict ADHD severity and diagnosis at 6 years of age. Method Hyperactive/inattentive preschoolers [N=104, 75% boys, Mean (SD) age = 4.37 (.47) years] were followed over two years (mean=26.44 months, SD=5.66). At baseline (BL), parents and teachers completed the ADHD-RS-IV and clinicians completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory for Children following a psychological testing session. At age 6, [Mean (SD) age = 6.62 (.35) years], parents were interviewed with the K-SADS-PL; teachers completed the ADHD-RS-IV; and laboratory measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention were obtained from children. Hierarchical logistic and linear regression analyses examined which combination of BL ratings best predicted 6-year-old ADHD diagnosis and severity, respectively. Results At age 6, 56 (53.8%) children met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of ADHD. BL ratings from parent/teacher/clinician, parent/teacher and parent/clinician combinations significantly predicted children who had an ADHD diagnosis at age 6. Parent and clinician, but not teacher, behavior ratings were significant independent predictors of ADHD diagnosis and severity at 6-years-old. However, only clinician reports of preschoolers’ behaviors predicted laboratory measures of over-activity and inattention at follow-up. Conclusion Cross-situationality is important for a diagnosis of ADHD during the preschool years. Among parents, teachers and clinicians, positive endorsements from all three informants, parent/teacher or parent/clinician appear to have prognostic value. Clinicians’ ratings of preschoolers’ inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity are valid sources of information for predicting ADHD diagnosis and severity over time. PMID:24085388

  9. Youth Views on Communication About ADHD and Medication Adherence.

    PubMed

    Sleath, Betsy; Carpenter, Delesha M; Sayner, Robyn; Thomas, Kathleen; Mann, Larry; Sage, Adam; Sulzer, Sandra H; Sandler, Adrian D

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine youth perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) communication with their pediatric providers, their reported adherence to their ADHD medications, and their desired location for an ADHD educational program. Youth ages 7 through 17 with an ADHD diagnosis were recruited. A research associate interviewed the youth. Parents completed demographic questionnaires. Seventy families participated. One-third of the youth wanted more discussion about ADHD with their providers during visits. The average youth had over eight questions about ADHD and its treatment. Most youth wanted to learn about ADHD at their provider's office. Non-white and older youth were significantly more likely to be less adherent to their ADHD medications. Youth want their providers to engage them more during visits. Providers should take advantage of this interest to engage youth more in discussions regarding ADHD and its treatment during pediatric ADHD visits.

  10. Inhibition, Reinforcement Sensitivity and Temporal Information Processing in ADHD and ADHD+ODD: Evidence of a Separate Entity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luman, Marjolein; van Noesel, Steffen J. P.; Papanikolau, Alky; Van Oostenbruggen-Scheffer, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    This study compared children with ADHD-only, ADHD+ODD and normal controls (age 8-12) on three key neurocognitive functions: response inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity, and temporal information processing. The goal was twofold: (a) to investigate neurocognitive impairments in children with ADHD-only and children with ADHD+ODD, and (b) to test…

  11. Effects of behavioral and pharmacological therapies on peer reinforcement of deviancy in children with ADHD-only, ADHD and conduct problems, and controls

    PubMed Central

    Helseth, Sarah A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Onyango, Adia N.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances A.; Garefino, Allison; Massetti, Greta M.; Mazzant, Jessica Robb; Hoffman, Martin T.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin; Pelham, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study compared the unique and combined effects of evidence-based treatments for ADHD —stimulant medication and behavior modification—on children’s rates of reinforcement for deviant peer behavior (RDPB). Method Using a within-subjects design, 222 elementary school-age children attending a summer treatment program, including 151 children with ADHD (127 male), with and without comorbid conduct problems, and 71 control children (57 male), received varying combinations of behavior modification (no, low-intensity, and high-intensity) and methylphenidate (placebo, 0.15 mg/kg, 0.30 mg/kg, and 0.60 mg/kg). RDPB was measured through direct observation and compared across all behavior modification and medication conditions. Results Children with ADHD reinforced the deviant behavior of their peers at a significantly higher rate than control children in the absence of either intervention. However, that difference largely disappeared in the presence of both behavior modification and medication. Both low and high-intensity behavior modification, as well as medium (0.30 mg/kg) and high (0.60 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate, significantly reduced the rate of ADHD children’s RDPB to levels similar to the control group. Conclusions Results indicate that although untreated children with ADHD do engage in RDPB at a greater rate than their non-ADHD peers, existing evidence-based interventions can substantially decrease the presence of RDPB, thereby limiting potential iatrogenic effects in group-based treatment settings. Public Health Significance Statement This study found that children with behavior disorders reinforced their peers' deviant behaviors much more than typically developing children. However, behavior modification and medication treatments both reduced reinforcement rates, indicating that peer contagion can easily be managed in group-based treatments for children PMID:25495357

  12. ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors

    PubMed Central

    Weissenberger, Simon; Ptacek, Radek; Klicperova-Baker, Martina; Erman, Andreja; Schonova, Katerina; Raboch, Jiri; Goetz, Michal

    2017-01-01

    The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A). Social factors are illustrated by effects of social deprivation and seduction to unhealthy lifestyles. Maternal lifestyle during pregnancy is pointed out (particularly her exposure to nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and drugs, even seemingly benign medications like acetaminophen), which all tend to be related to ADHD. Family environment is discussed with respect to protective effect of (mainly authoritative and autocratic) parenting styles. Societal factors include mainly economic and political issues: income inequality and poverty (low SES is an ADHD risk factor) and a growing moral dilemma between a humanistic effort to globally spread the knowledge of ADHD and the medicalization and commercialization of the disorder. The second part of the review is devoted to ADHD related lifestyles and resulting comorbidities (e.g., food addiction and obesity, substance abuse, electronic media dependencies and conduct and personality disorders). Although ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder, its assessment and treatment are also linked to environmental, behavioral and social factors and their interactions. PMID:28428763

  13. Evaluation of underlying mechanisms in the link between childhood ADHD symptoms and risk for early initiation of substance use.

    PubMed

    Vitulano, Michael L; Fite, Paula J; Hopko, Derek R; Lochman, John; Wells, Karen; Asif, Irfan

    2014-09-01

    Although there has been support for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk for early substance use, this link is not fully established or understood. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms explaining these associations are unclear. The current study examined peer rejection, school bonding, and internalizing problems as potential mediators of the association between childhood ADHD symptoms and risk for early initiation of substance use. The sample included a control group of 126 students with problematic aggression (79% African American, 66% male) from an intervention study following children from fourth to ninth grade. Results suggested that ADHD symptoms follow a path to early initiation of tobacco use through the combined effects of peer rejection and internalizing problems as well as through internalizing problems alone. ADHD symptoms were also associated with the cubic slope of marijuana use initiation, such that increased ADHD symptoms were associated with a strong cubic trend (e.g., a more rapid acceleration of risk for initiation). ADHD symptoms were not associated with risk for early initiation of alcohol use. Identification of important vulnerability factors in children with ADHD symptoms highlight the need for primary prevention and psychological interventions that target these factors and decrease the likelihood of early tobacco and marijuana use initiation.

  14. Assessing Homework Problems in Children with ADHD: Validation of a Parent-Report Measure and Evaluation of Homework Performance Patterns.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Arnold, L Eugene; Flowers, Amanda M; Altaye, Mekibib; Epstein, Jeff N; Molina, Brooke S G

    2010-03-01

    The factor structure of a parent-report measure of child homework problems, the Homework Problems Checklist, was examined in a geographically and ethnically diverse sample of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This measure was completed by the parents of 579 children ages 7.0-9.9 diagnosed with ADHD Combined Type as part of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). Results replicated previous work showing two salient factors that measure homework completion behaviors (Factor I) and homework management behaviors (Factor II). This two-factor solution remained consistent when examined across child sex and ethnicity subgroups. Analysis of patterns revealed that homework problems are greater for children in higher grades and that children with ADHD and comorbid Learning Disabilities experience significantly more homework problems than children with ADHD alone. This study also replicated previous work showing that homework problems and ADHD inattentive symptoms are highly correlated whereas correlations between homework problems and hyperactivity and impulsivity are low to moderate. Implications of the findings for the assessment of homework problems in children with ADHD and for intervention are discussed.

  15. Assessing Homework Problems in Children with ADHD: Validation of a Parent-Report Measure and Evaluation of Homework Performance Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Flowers, Amanda M.; Altaye, Mekibib; Epstein, Jeff N.; Molina, Brooke S.G.

    2011-01-01

    The factor structure of a parent-report measure of child homework problems, the Homework Problems Checklist, was examined in a geographically and ethnically diverse sample of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This measure was completed by the parents of 579 children ages 7.0-9.9 diagnosed with ADHD Combined Type as part of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). Results replicated previous work showing two salient factors that measure homework completion behaviors (Factor I) and homework management behaviors (Factor II). This two-factor solution remained consistent when examined across child sex and ethnicity subgroups. Analysis of patterns revealed that homework problems are greater for children in higher grades and that children with ADHD and comorbid Learning Disabilities experience significantly more homework problems than children with ADHD alone. This study also replicated previous work showing that homework problems and ADHD inattentive symptoms are highly correlated whereas correlations between homework problems and hyperactivity and impulsivity are low to moderate. Implications of the findings for the assessment of homework problems in children with ADHD and for intervention are discussed. PMID:21544228

  16. No association between the 2D:4D fetal testosterone marker and multidimensional attentional abilities in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lemiere, Jurgen; Boets, Bart; Danckaerts, Marina

    2010-09-01

    It has been suggested that high levels of prenatal testosterone exposure are implied in the aetiology of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined the association between the ratio of the length of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D ratio), a marker of fetal testosterone exposure, and the presence of ADHD-related cognitive and behavioural problems in children with ADHD and in typically developing comparison individuals. A clinically referred group of 64 children who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD (47 males, 17 females; mean age 8 y 8 mo, SD 1 y 8 mo, range 7-12 y) and 46 comparison children (25 males, 21 females; mean age 9 y 2 mo; SD 1 y 10 mo, range 7-12 y) were included in the study. The length of the second and fourth digits was measured by two independent raters. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) were used to assess behavioural problems and different aspects of attention. No group differences in 2D:4D ratio were observed between children with (combined, inattentive, or hyperactive-impulsive subtype of) ADHD and comparison children. The ratio did not show the postulated relation with cognitive and behavioural aspects of ADHD. These findings challenge the hypothesis that fetal testosterone exposure plays a prominent role in the aetiology of ADHD.

  17. The impact of failing to identify suspect effort in patients undergoing adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessment.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul S; Hoelzle, James B; Heyerdahl, Danielle; Nelson, Nathaniel W

    2016-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 28(10) of Psychological Assessment (see record 2016-22725-001). In the article, the penultimate sentence of the abstract should read “These results suggest that a significant percentage of those making a suspect effort will be diagnosed with ADHD using the most commonly employed assessment methods: an interview alone (71%); an interview and ADHD behavior rating scales combined (65%); and an interview, behavior rating scales, and most continuous performance tests combined (62%).” All versions of this article have been corrected.] This retrospective study examines how many adult patients would plausibly receive a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) if performance and symptom validity measures were not administered during neuropsychological evaluations. Five hundred fifty-four patients were extracted from an archival clinical dataset. A total of 102 were diagnosed with ADHD based on cognitive testing, behavior rating scales, effort testing, and clinical interview; 115 were identified as putting forth suspect effort in accordance with the Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) criteria. From a clinical decision-making perspective, suspect effort and ADHD groups were nearly indistinguishable on ADHD behavior, executive function, and functional impairment rating scales, as well as on cognitive testing and key clinical interview questions. These results suggest that a significant percentage of those making a suspect effort will be diagnosed with ADHD using the most commonly employed assessment methods: an interview alone (71%); an interview and ADHD behavior rating scales combined (65%); and an interview, behavior rating scales, and most continuous performance tests combined (62%) [corrected]. This research makes clear that it is essential to evaluate task engagement and possible symptom amplification during clinical evaluations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights

  18. Risk of unintentional injuries in children and adolescents with ADHD and the impact of ADHD medications: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Goikoetxea, Maite; Cortese, Samuele; Aznarez-Sanado, Maite; Magallon, Sara; Luis, Elkin O; Zallo, Noelia Alvarez; Castro-Manglano, Pilar de; Soutullo, Cesar; Arrondo, Gonzalo

    2017-09-25

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been related to increased rates of unintentional injuries. However, the magnitude of the effect and to which extent variables such as sex, age or comorbidity can influence this relationship is unknown. Additionally, and importantly, it is unclear if, and to which degree, ADHD medications can decrease the number of unintentional injuries. Due to the amount of economic and social resources invested in the treatment of injuries, filling these gaps in the literature is highly relevant from a public health standpoint. Here, we present a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the relationship between ADHD and unintentional injuries and assess the impact of pharmacological treatment for ADHD METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will combine results from 114 bibliographic databases for studies relating ADHD and risk of injuries. Bibliographic searches and data extraction will be carried out independently by two researchers. The studies' risk of bias will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Articles reporting ORs or HRs of suffering an injury in ADHD compared with controls (or enough data to calculate them) will be combined using Robust Variance Estimation, a method that permits to include multiple non-independent outcomes in the analysis. All analyses will be carried out in Stata. Age, sex and comorbid conduct disorders will be considered as potential causes of variance and their effect analysed through meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Sensitivity analyses will exclude articles with longer follow-ups, non-stringent definitions of ADHD or controls and statistically uncontrolled/controlled outcomes. Studies implementing a self-controlled case series methodology to investigate if ADHD drugs reduce the risk of injuries will be combined with a generalised linear mixed model using the Poisson distribution and a log link function. PROSPERO-Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42017064967).

  19. Linkages between childhood executive functioning and adolescent social functioning and psychopathology in girls with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Rinsky, Jenna R; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2011-01-01

    We followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early/midadolescence, with the aim of determining whether childhood levels of executive function (EF) would predict adolescent multi-informant outcomes of social functioning and psychopathology, including comorbidity between externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. Predictors were well-established measures of planning, response inhibition, and working memory, along with a control measure of fine motor control. Independent of ADHD versus comparison group status, (a) childhood planning and response inhibition predicted adolescent social functioning and (b) childhood planning predicted comorbid internalizing/externalizing disorders in adolescence. Subgroup status (ADHD-Combined, ADHD-Inattentive, and comparison) moderated the relationship between childhood planning and adolescent internalizing/externalizing comorbidity, with the combined type revealing particularly strong associations between baseline planning and adolescent comorbidity. Mediation analyses indicated that adolescent social functioning mediated the prediction from childhood EF to comorbidity at follow-up; in turn, in the girls with ADHD, adolescent comorbidity mediated the prediction from childhood EF to social functioning at follow-up. We conclude that childhood interventions should target EF impairments in addition to behavioral symptoms.

  20. Linkages Between Childhood Executive Functioning and Adolescent Social Functioning and Psychopathology in Girls with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Rinsky, Jenna R.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    We followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n=140) and matched comparison girls (n=88) over a period of five years, from middle childhood through early/mid-adolescence, with the aim of determining whether childhood levels of executive function (EF) would predict adolescent multi-informant outcomes of social functioning and psychopathology, including comorbidity between externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. Predictors were well-established measures of planning, response inhibition, and working memory, along with a control measure of fine motor control. Independent of ADHD vs. comparison group status, (a) childhood planning and response inhibition predicted adolescent social functioning and (b) childhood planning predicted comorbid internalizing/externalizing disorders in adolescence. Subgroup status (ADHD-Combined, ADHD-Inattentive, and comparison) moderated the relationship between childhood planning and adolescent internalizing/externalizing comorbidity, with the Combined type revealing particularly strong associations between baseline planning and adolescent comorbidity. Mediation analyses indicated that adolescent social functioning mediated the prediction from childhood EF to comorbidity at follow-up; in turn, in the girls with ADHD, adolescent comorbidity mediated the prediction from childhood EF to social functioning at follow-up. We conclude that childhood interventions should target EF impairments in addition to behavioral symptoms. PMID:21390921

  1. Maturational delay in ADHD: evidence from CPT

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Itai; Slobodin, Ortal; Aboud, Merav; Melamed, Julia; Cassuto, Hanoch

    2013-01-01

    While data from behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain studies suggested that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is related to a developmental lag that reduces with age, other studies have proposed that ADHD represents a deviant brain function. The present study used a cross-sectional approach to examine whether ADHD children show a developmental delay in cognitive performance measured by continuous performance test (CPT). We thus, compared six age groups of ADHD children (N = 559) and their unaffected peers (N = 365), aged 6–11, in four parameters of MOXO-CPT performance: Attention, Timing, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity. Results have shown that despite improvement in CPT performance with age, ADHD children continued to demonstrate impaired performance as compared to controls. In most parameters, CPT performance of ADHD children matched that of 1–3 years younger normal controls, with a delay most prominent in older children. However, in the Hyperactivity parameter, ADHD children's performance resembled that of much younger healthy children, with almost no evidence for a developmental catch up. This study suggests that while some cognitive functions develop slower but normally, other functions (e.g., inhibitory control) show a different trajectory. PMID:24298243

  2. Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bink, Marleen; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs; Popma, Arne; Bongers, Ilja L; van Boxtel, Geert J M

    2015-09-01

    Neurofeedback has been proposed as a potentially effective intervention for reducing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether neurofeedback is of additional value to treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents with clinical ADHD symptoms. Using a multicenter parallel-randomized controlled trial design, adolescents with ADHD symptoms were randomized to receive either a combination of TAU and neurofeedback (NFB + TAU, n = 45) or TAU-only (n = 26). Randomization was computer generated and stratified for age group (ages 12 through 16, 16 through 20, 20 through 24). Neurofeedback treatment consisted of approximately 37 sessions of theta/sensorimotor rhythm (SMR)-training on the vertex (Cz). Primary behavioral outcome measures included the ADHD-rating scale, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist all assessed pre- and post-intervention. Behavioral problems decreased equally for both groups with medium to large effect sizes, range of partial η2 = 0.08-0.31, p < 0.05. Hence, the combination of NFB + TAU was not more effective than TAU-only on the behavioral outcome measures. In addition, reported adverse effects were similar for both groups. On behavioral outcome measures, the combination of neurofeedback and TAU was as effective as TAU-only for adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Considering the absence of additional behavioral effects in the current study, in combination with the limited knowledge of specific treatment effects, it is questionable whether theta/SMR neurofeedback for adolescents with ADHD and comorbid disorders in clinical practice should be used. Further research is warranted to investigate possible working mechanisms and (long-term) specific treatment effects of neurofeedback.

  3. A Review of Factors that Promote Resilience in Youth with ADHD and ADHD Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dvorsky, Melissa R; Langberg, Joshua M

    2016-12-01

    The vast majority of research on youth with ADHD has focused on risk factors and describing the types of impairment individuals with ADHD experience. However, functional outcomes associated with ADHD are heterogeneous, and although many youth with ADHD experience significant negative outcomes (e.g., school dropout), some are successful in multiple domains of functioning (e.g., pursue and graduate college). There is a growing body of literature supporting the existence of factors that protect youth with ADHD from experiencing negative outcomes, but there is no published synthesis of this literature. Accordingly, the goals of this review are to conceptualize risk-resilience in the context of ADHD using a developmental psychopathology framework and to systematically review and critique evidence for promotive and protective factors in the context of ADHD. The literature search focused specifically on resilience in the context of ADHD symptoms or an ADHD diagnosis and identified 21 studies, including clinic, school, and community samples. Findings of promotive and/or protective factors are summarized across individual, family, and social-community systems. Overall, we know very little of the buffering processes for these youth, given that the study of promotive and protective factors in ADHD is in its infancy. The strongest evidence to date was found for social- and family-level systems. Specifically, multiple longitudinal studies support social acceptance as a protective factor, buffering against negative outcomes such as poor academic performance and comorbid depressive symptoms for youth with ADHD. There was also compelling evidence supporting positive parenting as a promotive factor. In terms of individual-level factors, positive or modest self-perceptions of competence were identified as a promotive factor in multiple studies. Future directions for research that will catalyze the study of resilience with ADHD are provided, and the potential for targeting protective

  4. Task-related Default Mode Network modulation and inhibitory control in ADHD: effects of motivation and methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Hollis, Chris; Batty, Martin J.; Groom, Madeleine J.; Totman, John J.; Liotti, Mario; Scerif, Gaia; Liddle, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Deficits characteristic of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including poor attention and inhibitory control, are at least partially alleviated by factors that increase engagement of attention, suggesting a hypodopaminergic reward deficit. Lapses of attention are associated with attenuated deactivation of the Default Mode Network (DMN), a distributed brain system normally deactivated during tasks requiring attention to the external world. Task-related DMN deactivation has been shown to be attenuated in ADHD relative to controls. We hypothesised that motivational incentives to balance speed against restraint would increase task engagement during an inhibitory control task, enhancing DMN deactivation in ADHD. We also hypothesised that methylphenidate, an indirect dopamine agonist, would tend to normalise abnormal patterns of DMN deactivation. Method We obtained functional magnetic resonance images from eighteen methylphenidate-responsive children with ADHD (DSM-IV combined subtype) and 18 pairwise-matched typically developing children aged 9-15 years while they performed a paced Go/No-go task. We manipulated motivational incentive to balance response speed against inhibitory control, and tested children with ADHD both on and off methylphenidate. Results When children with ADHD were off-methylphenidate and task incentive was low, event-related DMN deactivation was significantly attenuated compared to controls, but the two groups did not differ under high motivational incentives. The modulation of DMN deactivation by incentive in the children with ADHD, off- methylphenidate, was statistically significant, and significantly greater than in typically developing children. When children with ADHD were on-methylphenidate, motivational modulation of event-related DMN deactivation was abolished, and no attenuation relative to their typically developing peers was apparent in either motivational condition. Conclusions During an inhibitory control task

  5. Screening for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): can high-risk children be identified in first grade?

    PubMed

    Holmberg, K; Sundelin, C; Hjern, A

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial long-term effects of an indicated parent support programme for acting out behaviour in pre-school children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits. In this study we wanted to assess different thresholds for screening with the Conners scale for hyperactive-inattentive behaviours in first grade for ADHD in grade four. The study population consisted of 422 first graders (6- to 7-year-olds) in one municipality in Stockholm County who were screened with Conners 10-item scale and followed up by ADHD assessment in grade four. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and positive predictive value (PPV) of the screening by parents and teachers in first grade for being diagnosed with ADHD in fourth grade were calculated. The prevalence of pervasive and situational ADHD was 5.7% and 5.9% respectively. A score ≥ 10 on the Conners scale in first grade in teachers' reports identified 63% [95% confidence interval (CI): 43-79] of children diagnosed with pervasive ADHD in grade four (P < 0.001) with a PPV of 29% and a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 6.72. Parental reports of a score ≥ 10 yielded a lower sensitivity (29%; 95% CI: 15-49), PPV of 20% and LR+ of 4.24 for pervasive ADHD. The best predictor was a combination of parent and teacher scores ≥ 10 with a PPV of 50% and LR+ of 16.63. Associations with situational ADHD were weak with LR+ of 1.81 and 2.49, respectively, for teachers' and parental scores ≥ 10. This study indicates a strong association between a teacher's report of a score ≥ 10 on the Conners scale in first grade and pervasive ADHD in grade four, while parental reports were less predictive. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. ADHD in DSM-5: a field trial in a large, representative sample of 18- to 19-year-old adults.

    PubMed

    Matte, B; Anselmi, L; Salum, G A; Kieling, C; Gonçalves, H; Menezes, A; Grevet, E H; Rohde, L A

    2015-01-01

    The DSM criteria for adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been tested in American Psychiatric Association (APA) field trials for either DSM-IV or DSM-5. This study aimed to assess: (a) the prevalence of ADHD according to DSM-5 criteria; (b) the factor solution that provides the best fit for ADHD symptoms; (c) the symptoms with the highest predictive value for clinical impairment; and (d) the best symptomatic threshold for each ADHD dimension (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity). Trained psychologists evaluated 4000 young adults from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study with an instrument covering all DSM-5 ADHD criteria. A series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) tested the best factor structure. Complex logistic regressions assessed differential contributions of each symptom to clinical impairment. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses tested which would be the best symptomatic cut-off in the number of symptoms for predicting impairment. The prevalence of DSM-5 ADHD was 3.55% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.98-4.12]. The estimated prevalence of DSM-IV ADHD was 2.8%. CFA revealed that a bifactor model with a single general factor and two specific factors provided the best fit for DSM-5 symptoms. Inattentive symptoms continued to be the most important predictors of impairment in adults. The best cut-offs were five symptoms of inattention and four symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our results, combined with previous findings, suggest a 27% increase in the expected prevalence of ADHD among young adults, comparing DSM-IV to DSM-5 criteria. The DSM-5 symptomatic organization derived a similar factor structure for adults as DSM-IV symptoms. Data using DSM-5 criteria support lowering the symptomatic threshold for diagnosing ADHD in adults.

  7. Identifying Unique Versus Shared Pre- and Perinatal Risk Factors for ASD and ADHD Using a Simplex-Multiplex Stratification.

    PubMed

    Oerlemans, Anoek M; Burmanje, Marlot J; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2016-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur. Besides shared genetic factors, pre- and perinatal risk factors (PPFs) may determine if ASD, ADHD, or the combination of both disorders becomes manifest. This study aimed to test shared and unique involvement of PPFs for ASD and ADHD, using an approach that stratifies the sample into affected/unaffected offspring and single-incidence (SPX) versus multi-incidence (MPX) families. Pre- perinatal data based on retrospective parent-report were collected in 288 children (71 % males) from 31 SPX and 59 MPX ASD families, 476 children (65 % males) from 31 SPX and 171 MPX ADHD families, and 408 control children (42 % males). Except for large family size and more firstborns amongst affected offspring, no shared PFFs were identified for ASD and ADHD. PPFs predominantly related to ASD (maternal infections and suboptimal condition at birth) were more often reported in affected than unaffected siblings. PPFs associated with ADHD (low parental age, maternal diseases, smoking and stress) were shared between affected and unaffected siblings. Firstborn-ship was more frequent in SPX than MPX ASD probands. Our results suggest that the co-morbidity of ASD and ADHD is not likely explained by shared PPFs. Instead, PPFs might play a crucial role in the developmental pathways leading up to either disorder. PPFs in ADHD appear to index an increased shared risk, whereas in ASD PPFs possibly have a more determining role in the disorder. SPX-MPX stratification detected possible etiological differences in ASD families, but provided no deeper insight in the role of PPFs in ADHD.

  8. Inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity and temporal information processing in ADHD and ADHD+ODD: evidence of a separate entity?

    PubMed

    Luman, Marjolein; van Noesel, Steffen J P; Papanikolau, Alky; Van Oostenbruggen-Scheffer, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Sergeant, Joseph A; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-11-01

    This study compared children with ADHD-only, ADHD+ODD and normal controls (age 8-12) on three key neurocognitive functions: response inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity, and temporal information processing. The goal was twofold: (a) to investigate neurocognitive impairments in children with ADHD-only and children with ADHD+ODD, and (b) to test whether ADHD+ODD is a more severe from of ADHD in terms of neurocognitive performance. In Experiment 1, inhibition abilities were measured using the Stop Task. In Experiment 2, reinforcement sensitivity and temporal information processing abilities were measured using a Timing Task with both a reward and penalty condition. Compared to controls, children with ADHD-only demonstrated impaired inhibitory control, showed more time underestimations, and showed performance deterioration in the face of reward and penalty. Children with ADHD+ODD performed in-between children with ADHD-only and controls in terms of inhibitory controls and the tendency to underestimate time, but were more impaired than controls and children with ADHD-only in terms of timing variability. In the face of reward and penalty children with ADHD+ODD improved their performance compared to a neutral condition, in contrast to children with ADHD-only. In the face of reward, the performance improvement in the ADHD+ODD group was disproportionally larger than that of controls. Taken together the findings suggest that, in terms of neurocognitive functioning, comorbid ADHD+ODD is a substantial different entity than ADHD-only.

  9. Reading Comprehension in Boys with ADHD: The Mediating Roles of Working Memory and Orthographic Conversion.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lauren M; Rapport, Mark D; Raiker, Joseph S; Orban, Sarah A; Eckrich, Samuel J

    2017-02-01

    Reading comprehension difficulties in children with ADHD are well established; however, limited information exists concerning the cognitive mechanisms that contribute to these difficulties and the extent to which they interact with one another. The current study examines two broad cognitive processes known to be involved in children's reading comprehension abilities-(a) working memory (i.e., central executive processes [CE], phonological short-term memory [PH STM], and visuospatial short-term memory [VS STM]) and (b) orthographic conversion (i.e., conversion of visually presented text to a phonological code)-to elucidate their unique and interactive contribution to ADHD-related reading comprehension differences. Thirty-one boys with ADHD-combined type and 30 typically developing (TD) boys aged 8 to 12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.22) were administered multiple counterbalanced tasks assessing WM and orthographic conversion processes. Relative to TD boys, boys with ADHD exhibited significant deficits in PH STM (d = -0.70), VS STM (d = -0.92), CE (d = -1.58), and orthographic conversion (d = -0.93). Bias-corrected, bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that CE and orthographic conversion processes modeled separately mediated ADHD-related reading comprehension differences partially, whereas PH STM and VS STM did not. CE and orthographic conversion modeled jointly mediated ADHD-related reading comprehension differences fully wherein orthographic conversion's large magnitude influence on reading comprehension occurred indirectly through CE's impact on the orthographic system. The findings suggest that adaptive cognitive interventions designed to improve reading-related outcomes in children with ADHD may benefit by including modules that train CE and orthographic conversion processes independently and interactively.

  10. ADHD Symptoms, Autistic Traits, and Substance Use and Misuse in Adult Australian Twins

    PubMed Central

    De Alwis, Duneesha; Agrawal, Arpana; Reiersen, Angela M; Constantino, John N; Henders, Anjali; Martin, Nicholas G; Lynskey, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder frequently co-occur. Several studies show increased risk of substance use disorders in ADHD, yet there is limited information related to how ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, and their combined effects are associated with nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use and use disorders in the general population. Method: Cross-sectional interview and self-report questionnaire data from 3,080 young adult Australian twins (mean age 31.9 years) were used to assess ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, substance use, and substance use disorders. Substance use disorders—based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria—were assessed in the full sample as well as in those who reported substance use. Logistic regression analyses were used for comparing the associations between ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, substance use, and substance misuse after conduct disorder, sex, age, and zygosity were controlled for. Results: Greater ADHD symptoms and autistic traits scores were associated with elevated levels of regular smoking; cannabis use; and nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use disorders, even after conduct disorder was adjusted for. In contrast, for alcohol use, those with high autistic traits scores were less likely to report drinking to intoxication. However, upon initiation, and similar to the findings for nicotine and cannabis, they were at elevated risk for developing alcohol dependence. Conclusions: Increased liability to ADHD and elevated autistic traits scores were associated with substance use and misuse, with the exception of alcohol use. Given the social underpinnings of drinking, persons with autistic traits may be less likely to engage in it; however, upon engagement in drinking, their vulnerability to alcohol dependence is elevated. PMID:24650814

  11. Abnormal Parietal Brain Function in ADHD: Replication and Extension of Previous EEG Beta Asymmetry Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T. Sigi; Kane, Andrea M.; Tung, Kelly L.; Kaminsky, Olivia; McGough, James J.; Hanada, Grant; Loo, Sandra K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abundant work indicates ADHD abnormal posterior brain structure and function, including abnormal structural and functional asymmetries and reduced corpus callosum size. However, this literature has attracted considerably less research interest than fronto-striatal findings. Objective: To help address this imbalance, the current study replicates and extends our previous work showing abnormal parietal brain function in ADHD adults during the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Method: Our previous study found that ADHD adults had increased rightward EEG beta (16–21 Hz) asymmetry in inferior parietal brain regions during the CPT (p = 0.00001), and that this metric exhibited a lack of normal correlation (i.e., observed in controls) with beta asymmetry at temporal–parietal regions. We re-tested these effects in a new ADHD sample and with both new and old samples combined. We additionally examined: (a) EEG asymmetry in multiple frequency bands, (b) unilateral effects for all asymmetry findings, and (c) the association between EEG asymmetry and a battery of cognitive tests. Results: We replicated our original findings by demonstrating abnormal rightward inferior parietal beta asymmetry in adults with ADHD during the CPT, and again this metric exhibited abnormal reduced correlation to temporal–parietal beta asymmetry. Novel analyses also demonstrated a broader pattern of rightward beta and theta asymmetry across inferior, superior, and temporal–parietal brain regions, and showed that rightward parietal asymmetry in ADHD was atypically associated with multiple cognitive tests. Conclusion: Abnormal increased rightward parietal EEG beta asymmetry is an important feature of ADHD. We speculate that this phenotype may occur with any form of impaired capacity for top-down task-directed control over sensory encoding functions, and that it may reflect associated increase of attentional shifting and compensatory sustained/selective attention. PMID

  12. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample

    PubMed Central

    Starck, Martina; Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated. Method In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children’s ADHD was tested. Results ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed. Conclusion As nearly half of the parents suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent–child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child’s therapy outcome. In the

  13. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Starck, Martina; Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated. In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children's ADHD was tested. ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed. As nearly half of the parents suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent-child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child's therapy outcome. In the future, parents should be screened for ADHD

  14. Altered neurophysiological responses to emotional faces discriminate children with ASD, ADHD and ASD+ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tye, Charlotte; Battaglia, Marco; Bertoletti, Eleonora; Ashwood, Karen L; Azadi, Bahare; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick; McLoughlin, Gráinne

    2014-12-01

    There are high rates of overlap between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Emotional impairment in the two disorders, however, has not been directly compared using event-related potentials (ERPs) that are able to measure distinct temporal stages in emotional processing. The N170 and N400 ERP components were measured during presentation of emotional face stimuli to boys with ASD (n=19), ADHD (n=18), comorbid ASD+ADHD (n=29) and typically developing controls (n=26). Subjects with ASD (ASD/ASD+ADHD) displayed reduced N170 amplitude across all stimuli, particularly for fearful versus neutral facial expressions. Conversely, subjects with ADHD (ADHD/ASD+ADHD) demonstrated reduced modulation of N400 amplitude by fearful expressions in parietal scalp regions and happy facial expressions in central scalp regions. These findings indicate a dissociation between disorders on the basis of distinct stages of emotion processing; while children with ASD show alterations at the structural encoding stage, children with ADHD display abnormality at the contextual processing stage. The comorbid ASD+ADHD group presents as an additive condition with the unique deficits of both disorders. This supports the use of objective neural measurement of emotional processing to delineate pathophysiological mechanisms in complex overlapping disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of brain volume abnormalities between ADHD and conduct disorder in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael C; Haney-Caron, Emily

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies of brain structure abnormalities in conduct disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) samples have been limited owing to cross-comorbidity, preventing clear understanding of which structural brain abnormalities might be specific to or shared by each disorder. To our knowledge, this study was the first direct comparison of grey and white matter volumes in diagnostically "pure" (i.e., no comorbidities) conduct disorder and ADHD samples. Groups of adolescents with noncormobid conduct disorder and with noncomorbid, combined-subtype ADHD were compared with age- and sex-matched controls using DARTEL voxel-based analysis of T1-weighted brain structure images. Analysis of variance with post hoc analyses compared whole brain grey and white matter volumes among the groups. We included 24 adolescents in each study group. There was an overall 13% reduction in grey matter volume in adolescents with conduct disorder, reflecting numerous frontal, temporal, parietal and subcortical deficits. The same grey matter regions typically were not abnormal in those with ADHD. Deficits in frontal lobe regions previously identified in studies of patients with ADHD either were not detected, or group differences from controls were not as strong as those between the conduct disorder and control groups. White matter volume measurements did not differentiate conduct disorder and ADHD. Our modest sample sizes prevented meaningful examination of individual features of ADHD or conduct disorder, such as aggression, callousness, or hyperactive versus inattentive symptom subtypes. The evidence supports theories of frontotemporal abnormalities in adolescents with conduct disorder, but raises questions about the prominence of frontal lobe and striatal structural abnormalities in those with noncomorbid, combined-subtype ADHD. The latter point is clinically important, given the widely held belief that ADHD is associated with numerous frontal lobe structural deficits, a

  16. Comparison of brain volume abnormalities between ADHD and conduct disorder in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Michael C.; Haney-Caron, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies of brain structure abnormalities in conduct disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) samples have been limited owing to cross-comorbidity, preventing clear understanding of which structural brain abnormalities might be specific to or shared by each disorder. To our knowledge, this study was the first direct comparison of grey and white matter volumes in diagnostically “pure” (i.e., no comorbidities) conduct disorder and ADHD samples. Methods Groups of adolescents with noncormobid conduct disorder and with noncomorbid, combined-subtype ADHD were compared with age- and sex-matched controls using DARTEL voxel-based analysis of T1-weighted brain structure images. Analysis of variance with post hoc analyses compared whole brain grey and white matter volumes among the groups. Results We included 24 adolescents in each study group. There was an overall 13% reduction in grey matter volume in adolescents with conduct disorder, reflecting numerous frontal, temporal, parietal and subcortical deficits. The same grey matter regions typically were not abnormal in those with ADHD. Deficits in frontal lobe regions previously identified in studies of patients with ADHD either were not detected, or group differences from controls were not as strong as those between the conduct disorder and control groups. White matter volume measurements did not differentiate conduct disorder and ADHD. Limitations Our modest sample sizes prevented meaningful examination of individual features of ADHD or conduct disorder, such as aggression, callousness, or hyperactive versus inattentive symptom subtypes. Conclusion The evidence supports theories of frontotemporal abnormalities in adolescents with conduct disorder, but raises questions about the prominence of frontal lobe and striatal structural abnormalities in those with noncomorbid, combined-subtype ADHD. The latter point is clinically important, given the widely held belief that ADHD is

  17. A comparative study of the effects of ABT-418 and methylphenidate on spatial memory in an animal model of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tianyou; Yang, Chuang; Guo, Lanting; Liu, Kezhi

    2012-10-18

    Impaired learning performance in scholastic settings is a characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Our present study compares the effect of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist, ABT-418, and methylphenidate (MPH) on spatial memory in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD. Neither chronic administration of ABT-418 nor MPH affected the learning performance during training in the Morris water maze. However, both compounds significantly improved memory. SHRs treated with a combination of the compounds did not perform better than either drug alone. Furthermore, the cortical α4 and β2 nAChR subunits and the hippocampal α4 subunit expression were significantly enhanced by ABT-418 treatments. Collectively, these results suggest that ABT-418 effectively improved spatial memory in an animal model of ADHD, providing a theoretical foundation for the use of a nAChR agonist in ADHD treatment.

  18. Fractionating Executive Functions of Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Viviane Freire; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Alves, Tânia Maria; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues; Pompéia, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of adults with ADHD considering the fractionation of executive functions into six different domains. Participants were adult ADHD patients who were not under the acute effects of medication ( n = 48). Their performance was compared with that of a healthy control group ( n = 20) of comparable age, education, and nonverbal intelligence quotient. The cognitive domains assessed were executive shifting, updating, inhibition of prepotent responses, dual-task performance, planning, and access to long-term memory. We also assessed the symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, anxiety, and depression by validated questionnaires. Compared with controls, patients reported more symptoms related to ADHD, anxiety and depression symptoms and were impaired in the shifting cost measure and phonemic fluency (measure of access to long-term memory). ADHD in adults selectively impaired executive shifting and access to long-term memory, domains that may alter performance in a wide range of daily tasks.

  19. Recognizing LD, ADHD and TBI in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotts, Cynthia A.

    2001-01-01

    Basic knowledge of the characteristics of learning disabilities (LD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI) can help adult educators recognize symptoms, make appropriate referrals, and individualize instruction and accommodations. (JOW)

  20. Treatment Outcomes in Anxious Youth with and without Comorbid ADHD in the CAMS.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Ollendick, Thomas H; Ginsburg, Golda; Sherrill, Joel; Kendall, Philip C; Walkup, John; Sakolsky, Dara J; Piacentini, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), independent of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), on acute treatment response, remission rates and maintenance of gains at 6-month follow-up in anxious youth (ages 7-17, 76% Caucasian, 52% female) who received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) alone, pharmacotherapy alone, the combination of CBT and pharmacotherapy or placebo pill in the Child/Adolescent Multimodal Study. Treatment response was defined as independent evaluator rated meaningful improvement in anxiety. Remission was operationalized as the absence of targeted anxiety disorders. ADHD and ODD were examined as moderators of outcomes at a diagnostic level. In the CBT group only, an ADHD diagnosis predicted poorer immediate treatment response and remission rates. However, these associations were not obtained for the pharmacotherapy groups. Participants with comorbid ODD were not less likely to achieve acute treatment response and remission rates than their counterparts across treatment conditions. Due to small sample size of the comorbid subgroups, our analyses must be considered preliminary. Nevertheless, our initial findings suggest further exploration of the separate roles of ADHD and ODD are worth pursuing, as they may be differentially associated with treatment outcomes in anxious youth treated with CBT but not youth treated with pharmacotherapy. If confirmed, findings may indicate that anxious youth with comorbid ADHD are less likely to benefit from CBT strategies alone and raise the possibility that these youth need adjunctive pharmacotherapy or psychosocial interventions.

  1. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), inhibition processes and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - an overview].

    PubMed

    Hoegl, Thomas; Bender, Stephan; Buchmann, Johannes; Kratz, Oliver; Moll, Gunther H; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2014-11-01

    Motor system excitability can be tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation CFMS). In this article, an overview of recent methodological developments and research findings related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is provided. Different TMS parameters that reflect the function of interneurons in the motor cortex may represent neurophysiological markers of inhibition in ADHD, particularly the so-called intracortical inhibition. In children with a high level of hyperactivity and impulsivity, intracortical inhibition was comparably low at rest as shortly before the execution of a movement. TMS-evoked potentials can also be measured in the EEG so that investigating processes of excitability is not restricted to motor areas in future studies. The effects of methylphenidate on motor system excitability may be interpreted in the sense of a 'fine-tuning' with these mainly dopaminergic effects also depending on genetic parameters (DAT1 transporter). A differentiated view on the organization of motor control can be achieved by a combined analysis of TMS parameters and event-related potentials. Applying this bimodal approach, strong evidence for a deviant implementation of motor control in children with ADHD and probably compensatory mechanisms (with involvement of the prefrontal cortex) was obtained. These findings, which contribute to a better understanding of hyperactivity/impulsivity, inhibitory processes and motor control in ADHD as well as the mechanisms of medication, underline the relevance of TMS as a neurophysiological method in ADHD research.

  2. The neuronal mechanisms underlying improvement of impulsivity in ADHD by theta/beta neurofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Bluschke, Annet; Broschwitz, Felicia; Kohl, Simon; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is increasingly recognized as an intervention to treat core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the large number of studies having been carried out to evaluate its effectiveness, it is widely elusive what neuronal mechanisms related to the core symptoms of ADHD are modulated by neurofeedback. 19 children with ADHD undergoing 8 weeks of theta/beta neurofeedback and 17 waiting list controls performed a Go/Nogo task in a pre-post design. We used neurophysiological measures combining high-density EEG recording with source localization analyses using sLORETA. Compared to the waiting list ADHD control group, impulsive behaviour measured was reduced after neurofeedback treatment. The effects of neurofeedback were very specific for situations requiring inhibitory control over responses. The neurophysiological data shows that processes of perceptual gating, attentional selection and resource allocation processes were not affected by neurofeedback. Rather, neurofeedback effects seem to be based on the modulation of response inhibition processes in medial frontal cortices. The study shows that specific neuronal mechanisms underlying impulsivity are modulated by theta/beta neurofeedback in ADHD. The applied neurofeedback protocol could be particularly suitable to address inhibitory control. The study validates assumed functional neuroanatomical target regions of an established neurofeedback protocol on a neurophysiological level. PMID:27514985

  3. Different Risk Factors Between Disruptive Behavior Disorders and ADHD in Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Tanja; Hurtig, Tuula; Rodriguez, Alina; Savolainen, Jukka; Rautio, Arja; Moilanen, Irma; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna

    2017-09-01

    To examine different risk factors between disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and ADHD or combined DBD and ADHD. The study population was derived from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Psychiatric diagnoses were defined from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) interview. The study sample was divided into four groups-people with DBD ( n = 44), with ADHD ( n = 91), with both ( n = 72), and without either ( n = 250)-to evaluate the different risk factors behind these disorders. After adjusting with possible confounding factors, female gender and paternal admittance to inpatient psychiatric care increased the odds that an adolescent was having DBD. Childhood hyperactivity symptoms increased the odds of having ADHD and childhood hyperactivity symptoms and scholastic impairment increased the odds of having both disorders. Our study indicates DBD and ADHD have clearly different risk factors, and the impact of the paternal factors on DBD should be noted more than has been before.

  4. Disrupted Glutamatergic Transmission in Prefrontal Cortex Contributes to Behavioral Abnormality in an Animal Model of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jia; Liu, Aiyi; Shi, Michael Y; Yan, Zhen

    2017-02-08

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are the most widely used animal model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we sought to reveal the neuronal circuits and molecular basis of ADHD and its potential treatment using SHR. Combined electrophysiological, biochemical, pharmacological, chemicogenetic and behavioral approaches were utilized. We found that AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC) was diminished in SHR, which was correlated with the decreased surface expression of AMPAR subunits. Administration of methylphenidate (a psychostimulant drug used to treat ADHD), which blocks dopamine transporters and norepinephrine transporters, ameliorated the behavioral deficits of adolescent SHR and restored AMPAR-mediated synaptic function. Activation of PFC pyramidal neurons with a CaMKII-driven Gq-coupled DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) also led to the elevation of AMPAR function and the normalization of ADHD-like behaviors in SHR. These results suggest that the disrupted function of AMPARs in PFC may underlie the behavioral deficits in adolescent SHR and enhancing PFC activity could be a treatment strategy for ADHD.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 08 February 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.30.

  5. [Diagnostic of ADHD in childhood and adolescence with the K-SADS-PL].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sören; Banaschewski, Tobias; Garbe, Edeltraut; Petermann, Franz; Petermann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit-/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence, often accompanied by comorbid disorders. A high standard of diagnostic assessment combined with a demand for valid diagnostic instruments is necessary. The K-SADS-PL is an established semi-structured interview, focusing on the categorical assessment of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the following study was to examine specific characteristics of ADHD symptomatology including functional and behavioral assessment. Therefore correlations between the result in a diagnostic interview (K-SADS-PL) and different ADHD-specific instruments were performed. Groups were formed (exposed vs. unexposed), based on the diagnostic finding in the K-SADS-PL. Group-specific test score differences were calculated and compared by multivariate analyses of covariance. Children with ADHD showed a significantly higher impact of conduct and emotional problems than the unexposed group. Health related quality of life was more impaired in children and families suffering from ADHD which refers to the relevance of family-oriented psychotherapy.

  6. How French media have portrayed ADHD to the lay public and to social workers

    PubMed Central

    Ponnou, Sébastien; Gonon, François

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) coexist: the biomedical and the psychosocial. We identified in nine French newspapers 159 articles giving facts and opinions about ADHD from 1995 to 2015. We classified them according to the model they mainly supported and on the basis of what argument. Two thirds (104/159) mainly supported the biomedical model. The others either defended the psychodynamic understanding of ADHD or voiced both models. Neurological dysfunctions and genetic risk factors were mentioned in support of the biomedical model in only 26 and eight articles, respectively. These biological arguments were less frequent in the most recent years. There were fewer articles mentioning medication other than asserting that medication must be combined with psychosocial interventions (14 versus 57 articles). Only 11/159 articles claimed that medication protects from school failure. These results were compared to those of our two previous studies. Thus, both French newspapers and the specialized press read by social workers mainly defended either the psychodynamic understanding of ADHD or a nuanced version of the biomedical model. In contrast, most French TV programmes described ADHD as an inherited neurological disease whose consequences on school failure can be counteracted by a very effective medication. PMID:28532330

  7. Preventive interventions for ADHD: a neurodevelopmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Jeffrey M; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Curchack-Lichtin, Jocelyn T

    2012-07-01

    It is proposed that the time is ripe for the development of secondary preventive interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). By targeting preschool children, a developmental stage during which ADHD symptoms first become evident in most children with the disorder, many of the adverse long-term consequences that typify the trajectory of ADHD may be avoided. A dynamic/interactive model of the biological and environmental factors that contribute to the emergence and persistence of ADHD throughout the lifespan is proposed. Based on this model, it is argued that environmental influences and physical exercise can be used to enhance neural growth and development, which in turn should have an enduring and long-term impact on the trajectory of ADHD. Central to this notion are 2 hypotheses: 1) environmental influences can facilitate structural and functional brain development, and 2) changes in brain structure and function are directly related to ADHD severity over the course of development and the degree to which the disorder persists or remits with time. We present experimental and correlational data supporting the first hypothesis and longitudinal data in individuals with ADHD supporting the second. The case is made for initiating such an intervention during the preschool years, when the brain is likely to be more "plastic" and perhaps susceptible to lasting modifications, and before complicating factors, such as comorbid psychiatric disorders, academic failure, and poor social and family relationships emerge, making successful treatment more difficult. Finally, we review recent studies in young children with ADHD that might fall under the umbrella of secondary prevention.

  8. ADHD: A Crash-Free Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gigout-Hues, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Richard Restak asserts in "The New Brain" (Rodale Books, 2003) that "ADD/ADHD isn't so much a disorder as it is a cognitive style." With this in mind, and through much trial and error, the author of this article, a second-grade teacher at Hood-Case Elementary School in Alvin, Texas, provides suggestions to keep in mind when one has ADHD children…

  9. ADHD: A Crash-Free Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gigout-Hues, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Richard Restak asserts in "The New Brain" (Rodale Books, 2003) that "ADD/ADHD isn't so much a disorder as it is a cognitive style." With this in mind, and through much trial and error, the author of this article, a second-grade teacher at Hood-Case Elementary School in Alvin, Texas, provides suggestions to keep in mind when one has ADHD children…

  10. Effects of Methylphenidate on Quality of Life in Children with Both Developmental Coordination Disorder and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flapper, Boudien C. T.; Schoemaker, Marina M

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) gives a more complete picture of day-to-day functioning and treatment effects than behavioural rating alone. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of the combined diagnoses of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and…

  11. A Comparison of Dutch and US Teachers' Perceptions of the Incidence and Management of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havey, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Dutch and US teachers were questioned about their perceptions of the incidence and causes of ADHD, as well as their views of appropriate treatments. Dutch teachers were more likely than US teachers to think the etiology of the disorder lay in biochemistry, while US teachers were more likely to believe in a combination of environmental and…

  12. Effects of Methylphenidate on Quality of Life in Children with Both Developmental Coordination Disorder and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flapper, Boudien C. T.; Schoemaker, Marina M

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) gives a more complete picture of day-to-day functioning and treatment effects than behavioural rating alone. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of the combined diagnoses of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and…

  13. A Comparison of Dutch and US Teachers' Perceptions of the Incidence and Management of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havey, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Dutch and US teachers were questioned about their perceptions of the incidence and causes of ADHD, as well as their views of appropriate treatments. Dutch teachers were more likely than US teachers to think the etiology of the disorder lay in biochemistry, while US teachers were more likely to believe in a combination of environmental and…

  14. ADHD, Temperament, and Parental Style as Predictors of the Child's Attachment Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Manor, Iris; Tyano, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of temperament and parenting styles on attachment patterns in children with ADHD. The study included 65 children aged 7-15 and their parents. Children diagnosed as Combined or Predominantly Hyperactive Impulsive Type had significantly higher scores than those diagnosed as Predominantly Inattentive Type in anxious…

  15. Neural Correlates of Aggression in Medication-Naive Children with ADHD: Multivariate Analysis of Morphometry and Tractography.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jiook; Fekete, Tomer; Siciliano, Francesco; Biezonski, Dominik; Greenhill, Laurence; Pliszka, Steven R; Blader, Joseph C; Roy, Amy Krain; Leibenluft, Ellen; Posner, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Aggression is widely observed in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has been frequently linked to frustration or the unsatisfied anticipation of reward. Although animal studies and human functional neuroimaging implicate altered reward processing in aggressive behaviors, no previous studies have documented the relationship between fronto-accumbal circuitry-a critical cortical pathway to subcortical limbic regions-and aggression in medication-naive children with ADHD. To address this, we collected behavioral measures and parental reports of aggression and impulsivity, as well as structural and diffusion MRI, from 30 children with ADHD and 31 healthy controls (HC) (mean age, 10±2.1 SD). Using grey matter morphometry and probabilistic tractography combined with multivariate statistical modeling (partial least squares regression and support vector regression), we identified anomalies within the fronto-accumbal circuit in childhood ADHD, which were associated with increased aggression. More specifically, children with ADHD showed reduced right accumbal volumes and frontal-accumbal white matter connectivity compared with HC. The magnitude of the accumbal volume reductions within the ADHD group was significantly correlated with increased aggression, an effect mediated by the relationship between the accumbal volume and impulsivity. Furthermore, aggression, but not impulsivity, was significantly explained by multivariate measures of fronto-accumbal white matter connectivity and cortical thickness within the orbitofrontal cortex. Our multi-modal imaging, combined with multivariate statistical modeling, indicates that the fronto-accumbal circuit is an important substrate of aggression in children with ADHD. These findings suggest that strategies aimed at probing the fronto-accumbal circuit may be beneficial for the treatment of aggressive behaviors in childhood ADHD.

  16. Discriminating between ADHD adults and controls using independent ERP components and a support vector machine: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Andreas; Candrian, Gian; Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Kropotov, Juri D; Ponomarev, Valery A; Baschera, Gian-Marco

    2011-07-19

    There are numerous event-related potential (ERP) studies in relation to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and a substantial number of ERP correlates of the disorder have been identified. However, most of the studies are limited to group differences in children. Independent component analysis (ICA) separates a set of mixed event-related potentials into a corresponding set of statistically independent source signals, which are likely to represent different functional processes. Using a support vector machine (SVM), a classification method originating from machine learning, this study aimed at investigating the use of such independent ERP components in differentiating adult ADHD patients from non-clinical controls by selecting a most informative feature set. A second aim was to validate the predictive power of the SVM classifier by means of an independent ADHD sample recruited at a different laboratory. Two groups of age-matched adults (75 ADHD, 75 controls) performed a visual two stimulus go/no-go task. ERP responses were decomposed into independent components, and a selected set of independent ERP component features was used for SVM classification. Using a 10-fold cross-validation approach, classification accuracy was 91%. Predictive power of the SVM classifier was verified on the basis of the independent ADHD sample (17 ADHD patients), resulting in a classification accuracy of 94%. The latency and amplitude measures which in combination differentiated best between ADHD patients and non-clinical subjects primarily originated from independent components associated with inhibitory and other executive operations. This study shows that ERPs can substantially contribute to the diagnosis of ADHD when combined with up-to-date methods.

  17. Inter-hemispherical asymmetry in default-mode functional connectivity and BAIAP2 gene are associated with anger expression in ADHD adults.

    PubMed

    Hasler, R; Preti, M G; Meskaldji, D E; Prados, J; Adouan, W; Rodriguez, C; Toma, S; Hiller, N; Ismaili, T; Hofmeister, J; Sinanaj, I; Baud, P; Haller, S; Giannakopoulos, P; Schwartz, S; Perroud, N; Van De Ville, D

    2017-11-30

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by resting-state alterations, including abnormal activity, connectivity and asymmetry of the default-mode network (DMN). Concurrently, recent studies suggested a link between ADHD and the presence of polymorphisms within the gene BAIAP2 (i.e., brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2), known to be differentially expressed in brain hemispheres. The clinical and neuroimaging correlates of this polymorphism are still unknown. We investigated the association between BAIAP2 polymorphisms and DMN functional connectivity (FC) asymmetry as well as behavioral measures in ADHD adults. Resting-state fMRI was acquired from 30 ADHD and 15 healthy adults. For each subject, rs7210438 and rs8079626 within the gene BAIAP2 were genotyped. ADHD severity, impulsiveness and anger were assessed for the ADHD group. Using multivariate analysis of variance, we found that genetic features do have an impact on DMN FC asymmetry. In particular, polymorphism rs8079626 affects medial frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule connectivity asymmetry, lower for AA than AG/GG carriers. Further, when combining FC asymmetry and the presence of the rs8079626 variant, we successfully predicted increased externalization of anger in ADHD. In conclusion, a complex interplay between genetic vulnerability and inter-hemispherical DMN FC asymmetry plays a role in emotion regulation in adult ADHD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, L Cinnamon; McClernon, F Joseph; Kollins, Scott H

    2011-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple cognition-related phenotypic features in both children and adults. This review aims to clarify the role of cognition in ADHD and how prevailing treatments, which are often highly effective at reducing the clinical symptoms of the disorder, fare in modulating ADHD-related cognitive processes. First, we consider how the broad construct of cognition can be conceptualized in the context of ADHD. Second, we review the available evidence for how a range of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have fared with respect to enhancing cognition in individuals affected by this pervasive disorder. Findings from the literature suggest that the effects across a broad range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions on the characteristic symptoms of ADHD can be distinguished from their effects on cognitive impairments. As such the direct clinical relevance of cognition enhancing effects of different interventions is somewhat limited. Recommendations for future research are discussed, including the identification of cognition-related endophenotypes, the refinement of the ADHD clinical phenotype, and studying the difference between acute and chronic treatment regimens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; McClernon, F. Joseph; Kollins, Scott H.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple cognition-related phenotypic features in both children and adults. This review aims to clarify the role of cognition in ADHD and how prevailing treatments, which are often highly effective at reducing the clinical symptoms of the disorder, fare in modulating ADHD-related cognitive processes. First, we consider how the broad construct of cognition can be conceptualized in the context of ADHD. Second, we review the available evidence for how a range of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have fared with respect to enhancing cognition in individuals affected by this pervasive disorder. Findings from the literature suggest that the effects across a broad range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions on the characteristic symptoms of ADHD can be distinguished from their effects on cognitive impairments. As such the direct clinical relevance of cognition enhancing effects of different interventions is somewhat limited. Recommendations for future research are discussed, including the identification of cognition-related end ophenotypes, the refinement of the ADHD clinical phenotype, and studying the difference between acute and chronic treatment regimens. PMID:21596055

  20. Evidence for deficient motor planning in ADHD.

    PubMed

    Anat, Dahan; Miriam, Reiner

    2017-08-29

    We compare motor planning mechanisms of ADHD and control subjects based on their effect on later observed kinematic characteristics. We monitor hand movement following planning conditions that differ in preparation time, and evaluate the differences across conditions and participants with/without ADHD. Our findings show that when there is sufficient planning time, people without ADHD seem to have a motor plan ready, and immediately initiate a planned movement after a 'GO' cue, with a bell shaped velocity profile. When planning time is not sufficient, they start the movement in a delayed time, possibly indicating that they needed to complete a movement plan. However, people with ADHD, did not start movement immediately after the cue, even when provided with a long preparation time, possibly indicating that even for this planning interval they did not have a motion plan ready. The movement was not only delayed, its velocity profile was not bell shaped and had several peaks. We further found differences between control and ADHD participants in the velocity profile, variability and jitter of movements. Our results suggest that ADHD motion characteristics, are associated with an immature motor plan. Based on the results we propose a paradigm to evaluate deficiencies in motor planning.