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Sample records for adhd conduct disorder

  1. [ADHD and conduct disorder: trends in diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Petermann, Franz; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Since 2010 trends outlined in diagnosis and therapy in the German speaking countries in the area of externalizing disorders (ADHD, conduct disorder) are presented. In particular, publications of children and adolescent psychiatry and clinical psychology have been examined. It turns out that in the German-speaking countries, the concern with conduct disorder (including psychopathy) increased compared with the discussion of the significance of ADHD. This development reflects the important therapeutic challenge of conduct disorders. PMID:23057241

  2. ADHD with Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder: Discrete or Nondistinct Disruptive Behavior Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Daniel F.; Doerfler, Leonard A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Method: Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male…

  3. The Relationships between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Problematic Drug Use (PDU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alastair

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD) and problematic drug use (PDU). The review considers the main debates around the structure and aetiology of ADHD and the main theoretical frameworks offered to explain the…

  4. [ADHD and conduct disorders - trends in the German-speaking countries].

    PubMed

    Petermann, Franz; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2011-11-01

    Since 2009 trends in research and practice have been described for externalising disorders (ADHD and conduct disorders) in the German-speaking countries. In particular, publications of children and adolescent psychiatry and clinical child psychology have been examined and scientific contributions from the 32nd Congress of the German Society for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry have been included. In the German-speaking countries studies regarding conduct disorders (including bullying and psychopathy) have noticeably increased in complexity and differentiation and caught up with the extensive discussion about ADHD. PMID:22031015

  5. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  6. [Family-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder].

    PubMed

    Vuori, Miika; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Nissinen, Heidi; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial family-based interventions--family therapy, cognitive-behavioral parent training and family-based treatment protocols--are empirically supported treatments for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Well-researched interventions such as remote and group-based parent training programs relate to improvements in parenting quality, positive parenting, and the child's decreased ADHD and conduct behavioral problems, whereas individual family-based treatments are sometimes required, depending on symptom severity. Specific family-based treatment protocols are tailored for older children and adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems. Considering the above, empirically supported programs are used more in Finland, compared to licensed Anglo-American treatment protocols. PMID:26548103

  7. [Family-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder].

    PubMed

    Vuori, Miika; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Nissinen, Heidi; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial family-based interventions--family therapy, cognitive-behavioral parent training and family-based treatment protocols--are empirically supported treatments for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Well-researched interventions such as remote and group-based parent training programs relate to improvements in parenting quality, positive parenting, and the child's decreased ADHD and conduct behavioral problems, whereas individual family-based treatments are sometimes required, depending on symptom severity. Specific family-based treatment protocols are tailored for older children and adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems. Considering the above, empirically supported programs are used more in Finland, compared to licensed Anglo-American treatment protocols.

  8. Significance of Childhood Conduct Problems to Later Development of Conduct Disorder among Children with ADHD: A Prospective Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannuzza, Salvatore; Klein, Rachel G.; Abikoff, Howard; Moulton, John L., III

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates whether low to moderate levels of childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) behaviors contribute to the development of clinically diagnosed CD in adolescence, in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 207 White boys (ages 6-12) with ADHD free of conduct…

  9. Childhood ADHD and Conduct Disorder as Independent Predictors of Male Alcohol Dependence at Age 40*

    PubMed Central

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Nickel, Elizabeth J.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Sullivan, Margaret A.; Murtaza, Syed; Jensen, Per; Manzardo, Ann M.; Gabrielli, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Danish Longitudinal Study on Alcoholism was designed to identify antecedent predictors of adult male alcoholism. The influence of premorbid behaviors consistent with childhood conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the development of alcohol misuse was examined. Method: Subjects were selected from a Danish birth cohort (9,125), which included 223 sons of alcoholic fathers (high risk) and 106 matched sons of nonalcoholic fathers (low risk). These subjects have been studied systematically over the past 40 years. They were evaluated in their teens (n = 238), later as adults at age 30 (n = 241), and more recently at age 40 (n = 202). At 19-year/20-year follow-ups, an ADHD scale was derived from teacher ratings and a CD scale was derived from a social worker interview. At 30-year and 40-year follow-ups, a psychiatrist used structured interviews and criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, to quantify lifetime alcoholism severity and to diagnose alcohol-use disorder. Of the original subjects, 110 had complete data for the two childhood measures and the adult alcoholism outcomes. Results: In this smaller subsample, paternal risk did not predict adult alcohol dependence. Subjects who were above a median split on both the ADHD and the CD scales were more than six times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than subjects who scored below the median on both. Although the two childhood measures were correlated, a multiple regression showed that each independently predicted a measure of lifetime alcoholism severity. Conclusions: ADHD comorbid with CD was the strongest predictor of later alcohol dependence. PMID:19261228

  10. Childhood Maltreatment and Conduct Disorder: Independent Predictors of Criminal Outcomes in ADHD Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Sanctis, Virginia A.; Nomura, Yoko; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk for maltreatment in childhood and criminality as they enter into adolescence and early adulthood. Here, we investigated the effect of moderate to severe childhood maltreatment on later criminality among adolescents/young adults diagnosed with ADHD in…

  11. Genetic Risk for Conduct Disorder Symptom Subtypes in an ADHD Sample: Specificity to Aggressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monuteaux, Michael C.; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2009-01-01

    Four hundred forty-four subjects aged 6-55 years were evaluated to examine the role of COMT and SLC6A4 genes in the risk for conduct disorder and its symptomatic subtypes in the context of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. No significant association is found between these genes and the risk for conduct disorder.

  12. Is ADHD a Risk Factor Independent of Conduct Disorder for Illicit Substance Use? A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra-Pinheiro, Maria Antonia; Coutinho, Evandro S. F.; Souza, Isabella S.; Pinna, Camilla; Fortes, Didia; Araujo, Catia; Szobot, Claudia M.; Rohde, Luis A.; Mattos, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate meta-analytically if the association between ADHD and illicit substance use (ISU) is maintained when controlling for conduct disorder/oppositional-defiant disorder (CD/ODD). Method: A systematic literature review was conducted through Medline from 1980 to 2008. Data extracted and selections made by one author were…

  13. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) Taking Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Into Account.

    PubMed

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common behavioural disorders in childhood and adolescence and are associated with brain abnormalities. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates structural (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) findings in individuals with ODD/CD with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Online databases were searched for controlled studies, resulting in 12 sMRI and 17 fMRI studies. In line with current models on ODD/CD, studies were classified in hot and cool executive functioning (EF). Both the meta-analytic and narrative reviews showed evidence of smaller brain structures and lower brain activity in individuals with ODD/CD in mainly hot EF-related areas: bilateral amygdala, bilateral insula, right striatum, left medial/superior frontal gyrus, and left precuneus. Evidence was present in both structural and functional studies, and irrespective of the presence of ADHD comorbidity. There is strong evidence that abnormalities in the amygdala are specific for ODD/CD as compared to ADHD, and correlational studies further support the association between abnormalities in the amygdala and ODD/CD symptoms. Besides the left precuneus, there was no evidence for abnormalities in typical cool EF related structures, such as the cerebellum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Resulting areas are associated with emotion-processing, error-monitoring, problem-solving and self-control; areas associated with neurocognitive and behavioural deficits implicated in ODD/CD. Our findings confirm the involvement of hot, and to a smaller extent cool, EF associated brain areas in ODD/CD, and support an integrated model for ODD/CD (e.g. Blair, Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 865-891, 2005).

  14. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor structure and uniform differential item functioning across gender and three racial/ethnic groups for ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Kanouse, David E; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM-IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 children from three geographical regions who took part in the Healthy Passages study (mean age = 12.60 years, SD = 0.66). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the expected 3-factor structure was tenable for the data. Multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling revealed uniform DIF for three ADHD and 9 ODD item scores, but not for any of the CD item scores. Uniform DIF was observed predominantly as a function of child race/ethnicity, but minimally as a function of child gender. On the positive side, uniform DIF had little impact on latent mean differences of ADHD, CD, and ODD symptomatology among gender and racial/ethnic groups. Implications of the findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed.

  15. [Differential Diagnosis of ADHD from Personality Disorders].

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Sadanobu

    2015-01-01

    The author discussed some points regarding the process of differentially diagnosing ADHD from antisocial personality disorder with antisocial behaviors, such as the use of amphetamines, theft, and violence, and borderline personality disorder with eating disorder, self-harming, overdose, and domestic violence. Firstly, the characteristics of ADHD are a lack of interest in criminal activity, cunning, cruelty, or coming from a broken home, which are frequently observed in cases of conduct disorder. The second point concerns the main anxieties and conflicts of those with ADHD and borderline personality disorder. ADHD patients usually do not have anxieties regarding sensitiveness in interpersonal relationships, which borderline patients are likely to have. The characteristic anxieties of ADHD patients usually involve self-reproach, self-deprecation, and self-hatred derived from various kinds of mistake associated with ADHD symptoms, such as a short attention span, restlessness, and impulsiveness. Finally, the author points out that we also have to be aware of the various kinds of identity problem, even in the case of patients with typical symptoms of ADHD.

  16. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Treatment What medicines are used to treat ADHD? Some of the medicines for ADHD are called psychostimulants. Some of these ...

  17. COMT Val[superscript 108/158] Met Gene Variant, Birth Weight, and Conduct Disorder in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta, Sarojini M.; Grizenko, Natalie; Schmitz, Norbert; Schwartz, George; Amor, Leila Ben; Bellingham, Johanne; de Guzman, Rosherrie; Polotskaia, Anna; Stepanian, Marina Ter; Thakur, Geeta; Joober, Ridha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In a recent study, Thapar and colleagues reported that COMT "gene variant and birth weight predict early-onset antisocial behavior in children" with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We have attempted to replicate these findings in a group of ADHD children using a similar research design. Method: Children (n = 191) between 6 and…

  18. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  19. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ADHD FACT SHEET What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is sometimes referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). It ...

  20. Is ADHD a "Real" Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Michael; Lynch, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In many western countries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status, such that it probably no longer requires introduction. The disorder is a global phenomenon, spreading rapidly as result of the increasing dominance internationally of US psychiatric models, the need for new markets for major pharmaceutical…

  1. Comparative Study of Children with ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in…

  2. ADHD and comorbid conduct problems among adolescents: associations with self-esteem and substance use.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Martin, Amber; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2011-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent disorder that is associated with negative outcomes (e.g., emotional and behavioral problems, substance use) and is often comorbid with Conduct Problems (CP). Research findings are mixed as to whether youth with ADHD alone or comorbid ADHD/CP suffer from low self-esteem. Research has also shown links between low self-esteem and ADHD (alone and with CP) with substance use; yet, no research has examined the links between self-esteem and substance use in adolescents with ADHD and CP. The current study examined the relation between ADHD with and without comorbid CP and self-esteem, and whether self-esteem moderated the relation between ADHD and ADHD/CP with substance use among adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescents with comorbid ADHD/CP would experience lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or with neither disorder and that self-esteem would moderate the association between ADHD, CP, and substance use. Participants were 62 adolescents who completed the laboratory-based study with a parent. Results suggested that adolescents with comorbid ADHD and CP had significantly lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or neither disorder. Self-esteem was not significantly different for adolescents with ADHD alone versus those in the control group. There was one marginally significant interaction between ADHD and self-esteem predicting substance use, such that individuals with comorbid ADHD/CP who also had low self-esteem tended to use more substances. Results have implications for treatments that target adolescents with ADHD and comorbid CP, as these adolescents are at risk for many deleterious outcomes.

  3. Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Olsen, John L.; Wender, Paul H.; Robison, Reid J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD…

  4. Learning disabilities and ADHD: overlapping spectrumn disorders.

    PubMed

    Mayes, S D; Calhoun, S L; Crowell, E W

    2000-01-01

    Clinical and psychoeducational data were analyzed for 119 children ages 8 to 16 years who were evaluated in a child diagnostic clinic. A learning disability (LD) was present in 70% of the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with a learning disability in written expression two times more common (65%) than a learning disability in reading, math, or spelling. Children with LD and ADHD had more severe learning problems than children who had LD but no ADHD, and the former also had more severe attention problems than children who had ADHD but no LD. Further, children with ADHD but no LD had some degree of learning problem, and children with LD but no ADHD had some degree of attention problem. Results suggest that learning and attention problems are on a continuum, are interrelated, and usually coexist. PMID:15495544

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background ADHD is a common and disabling disorder, with an increased risk for coexisting disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. In the present study, we aimed at exploring ADHD and criminality. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD among longer-term prison inmates, described symptoms and cognitive functioning, and compared findings with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls. Methods At Norrtälje Prison, we approached 315 male inmates for screening of childhood ADHD by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25) and for present ADHD by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Screener (ASRS-Screener). The response rate was 62%. Further, we assessed 34 inmates for ADHD and coexisting disorders. Finally, we compared findings with 20 adult males with ADHD, assessed at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and 18 healthy controls. Results The estimated prevalence of adult ADHD among longer-term inmates was 40%. Only 2 out of 30 prison inmates confirmed with ADHD had received a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood, despite most needed health services and educational support. All subjects reported lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) where amphetamine was the most common drug. Mood and anxiety disorders were present among half of subjects; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among one fourth and psychopathy among one tenth. Personality disorders were common; almost all inmates presented conduct disorder (CD) before antisocial personality disorder (APD). Prison inmates reported more ADHD symptoms during both childhood and adulthood, compared with ADHD psychiatric outpatients. Further, analysis of executive functions after controlling for IQ showed both ADHD groups performed poorer than controls on working memory tests. Besides, on a continuous performance test, the ADHD prison group displayed poorer results compared with both other groups. Conclusions This study suggested ADHD to be present among 40% of adult male longer-term prison inmates. Further, ADHD and coexisting disorders

  6. Clinical Precursors of Adolescent Conduct Disorder in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittinger, Naureen S.; Langley, Kate; Fowler, Tom A.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine precursors of adolescent conduct disorder (CD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), investigating the significance of childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and ADHD. Method: A total of 151 children with ADHD recruited from child psychiatric and pediatric clinics were assessed through…

  7. The quality of life of children and adolescents with ADHD undergoing outpatient psychiatric treatment: simple disorders of activity and attention and hyperkinetic conduct disorders in comparison with each other and with other diagnostic groups.

    PubMed

    Remschmidt, Helmut; Mattejat, Fritz

    2010-12-01

    (1) How does the quality of life of patients with ADHD treated in an ambulatory care setting compare to that of other patient groups in child and adolescent psychiatry? (2) Can differences in the quality of life be demonstrated between patients with simple disorders of activity and attention and those with hyperkinetic conduct disorders? (3) How does the quality of life in these patient groups change over one year of treatment? The Inventory for the Assessment of Life Quality in Children and Adolescents (Inventar zur Untersuchung der Lebensqualität von Kindern und Jugendlichen, ILK) was applied to a sample of 726 patients derived from nine different outpatient practices for child and adolescent psychiatry. Among them were 196 patients with a simple disorder of activity and attention and 64 with a hyperkinetic conduct disorder. A comparison between these two groups was the main aim of the study. The mean age of the patients in the sample (all diagnoses) was 8.7 ± 3 years. The two groups of hyperkinetic patients made up 35% of the overall sample, and both of them showed a marked male predominance. The hyperkinetic patients tended to have lower quality-of-life scores than patients in the other diagnostic groups. Longitudinal observation revealed improvements in the quality of life across all patient groups, but the patients with hyperkinetic disorders (both groups) improved the least. The parents of the hyperkinetic patients, too, reported suffering greater stress because of their children's condition than the parents of children with other types of disorders. The ILK instrument has test-metrical qualities that render it usable and capable of holding its own among other, comparable instruments. It can be used to assess the quality of life of children with various diagnoses. Children with ADHD tend to have the least favorable quality-of-life scores, yet they do show some degree of improvement in their quality of life after a year of treatment.

  8. AD/HD Symptoms and Conduct Problems: Similarities and Differences in Maternal Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniadaki, Katerina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Kakouros, Efthymios; Karaba, Rania

    2006-01-01

    Several theories attempt to explain the high co-occurrence of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and Conduct Problems (CP). A strong possibility is that AD/HD behaviours lead to the development of CP, due to family coercive interaction patterns, maintained through parental false beliefs regarding child problem behaviour. We compared…

  9. Comorbidity and Phenomenology of Bipolar Disorder in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Eduardo; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children with ADHD and to study the psychopathological profile of ADHD children with and without mania. Method: A total of 100 children with ADHD were assessed with a semistructured diagnostic interview and questionnaires of mania, ADHD, and general psychopathology. Results: 8% of…

  10. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  11. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  12. [Legal aspects of hyperkinetic disorders/ADHD].

    PubMed

    Hässler, F; Reis, O; Buchmann, J; Bohne-Suraj, S

    2008-07-01

    With a prevalence of 2-6%, hyperkinetic disorders (F 90, ICD-10) and disturbances of activity and attention (F 90.0, ADHD, ICD-10) are among the psychiatric disorders most commonly diagnosed in children, adolescents, and adults. Children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD suffer from hyperactivity and deficits in attention and impulse control. Adults usually have problems focusing on one goal, maintaining their attention, modulating emotions effectively, structuring their tasks, and controlling impulses and in executive functions. Legal implications derive from core symptoms and from treatment with stimulants governed by legislation on narcotics. This paper discusses juridical aspects of ADHD in connection with the administration of medication at school, trips abroad within and outside the Schengen area, driving, competitive sports, military service, the increased risk of delinquency, the individual capacity to incur criminal responsibility, developmental criteria for the ability to act responsibly, and modalities for withdrawal treatment or treatment during detention.

  13. Epigenetics in Developmental Disorder: ADHD and Endophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Trevor; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Blum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with complex interactive operations of genetic and environmental factors, is expressed in a variety of disorder manifestations: severity, co-morbidities of symptoms, and the effects of genes on phenotypes. Neurodevelopmental influences of genomic imprinting have set the stage for the structural-physiological variations that modulate the cognitive, affective, and pathophysiological domains of ADHD. The relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors provide rapidly proliferating insights into the developmental trajectory of the condition, both structurally and functionally. Parent-of-origin effects seem to support the notion that genetic risks for disease process debut often interact with the social environment, i.e., the parental environment in infants and young children. The notion of endophenotypes, markers of an underlying liability to the disorder, may facilitate detection of genetic risks relative to a complex clinical disorder. Simple genetic association has proven insufficient to explain the spectrum of ADHD. At a primary level of analysis, the consideration of epigenetic regulation of brain signalling mechanisms, dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline is examined. Neurotrophic factors that participate in the neurogenesis, survival, and functional maintenance of brain systems, are involved in neuroplasticity alterations underlying brain disorders, and are implicated in the genetic predisposition to ADHD, but not obviously, nor in a simple or straightforward fashion. In the context of intervention, genetic linkage studies of ADHD pharmacological intervention have demonstrated that associations have fitted the “drug response phenotype,” rather than the disorder diagnosis. Despite conflicting evidence for the existence, or not, of genetic associations between disorder diagnosis and genes regulating the structure and function of neurotransmitters and brain-derived neurotrophic

  14. Social Information Processing of Positive and Negative Hypothetical Events in Children with ADHD and Conduct Problems and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Brendan F.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Doucet, Amelie; King, Sara; MacKinnon, Maura; McGrath, Patrick J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Corkum, Penny

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined social information processing (SIP) of events with varied outcomes in children with ADHD and conduct problems (CPs; defined as oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD]) and controls. Method: Participants were 64 children (46 boys, 18 girls) aged 6 to 12, including 39 with ADHD and 25 controls.…

  15. Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and ADHD Neuropsychological Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyden, Agneta; Niklasson, Lena; Stahlberg, Ola; Anckarsater, Henrik; Wentz, Elisabet; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess which types of neuropsychological deficits appear to be most commonly associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. The effect of the combination of ASD with ADHD (ASD/ADHD) was also studied. One hundred and sixty-one adult individuals…

  16. [Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): current issues].

    PubMed

    Bader, M; Perroud, N

    2012-09-19

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has prevalence between 3 and 7% in childhood and adolescence. As high as 60% of childhood cases continue to have clinically significant symptoms of ADHD as adults. Psychiatric comorbidities are often found in ADHD subjects including, in childhood, emotional, behavior and learning disorders. Psychiatric comorbidities in adolescents and adults suffering from ADHD include mood and substance use disorders. Although may one fear giving psychostimulants to ADHD patients with comorbidities, recent studies have shown the benefits of such treatment not only in the clinical but also in the educational and socioprofessional point of views. Psychotherapeutic approaches should ideally accompany pharmacological treatments.

  17. Poverty and the Growth of Emotional and Conduct Problems in Children with Autism With and Without Comorbid ADHD.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Charman, Tony; Sarmadi, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the longitudinal relationship between socio-economic disadvantage (SED) and trajectories of emotional and conduct problems among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; ASD + ADHD) or not (ASD - ADHD). The sample was 209 children with ASD who took part in the UK's Millennium Cohort Study. Trajectories of problems across ages 3, 5 and 7 years were analyzed using growth curve models. The ASD - ADHD group decreased in conduct problems over time but the ASD + ADHD group continued on a high trajectory. Although SED was not a risk factor for ASD + ADHD, it was associated with elevated emotional problems among children with ASD + ADHD. This effect of SED on emotional problems was not attenuated by parenting or peer problems.

  18. Poverty and the Growth of Emotional and Conduct Problems in Children with Autism with and without Comorbid ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Charman, Tony; Sarmadi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal relationship between socio-economic disadvantage (SED) and trajectories of emotional and conduct problems among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; ASD + ADHD) or not (ASD-DHD). The sample was 209 children with ASD who took part in the UK's…

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin J.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD and epilepsy common are both common childhood disorders and both can have significant negative consequences on a child's behavioural, learning, and social development. Both conditions can co-occur and population studies suggest that the prevalence of ADHD in childhood epilepsy is between 12 and 17%. The prevalence of epilepsy in ADHD is lower…

  20. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  1. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  2. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  3. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, and criminality: a difficult problem with complex solutions.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Balanza-Martinez, Vicent

    2015-05-01

    The association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminality has been increasingly recognized as an important societal concern. Studies conducted in different settings have revealed high rates of ADHD among adolescent offenders. The risk for criminal behavior among individuals with ADHD is increased when there is psychiatric comorbidity, particularly conduct disorder and substance use disorder. In the present report, it is aimed to systematically review the literature on the epidemiological, neurobiological, and other risk factors contributing to this association, as well as the key aspects of the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD among offenders. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals. Studies conducted in various settings within the judicial system and in many different countries suggest that the rate of adolescent and adult inmates with ADHD far exceeds that reported in the general population; however, underdiagnosis is common. Similarly, follow-up studies of children with ADHD have revealed high rates of criminal behaviors, arrests, convictions, and imprisonment in adolescence and adulthood. Assessment of ADHD and comorbid condition requires an ongoing and careful process. When treating offenders or inmates with ADHD, who commonly present other comorbid psychiatric disorder complex, comprehensive and tailored interventions, combining pharmacological and psychosocial strategies are likely to be needed.

  4. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, and criminality: a difficult problem with complex solutions.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Balanza-Martinez, Vicent

    2015-05-01

    The association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminality has been increasingly recognized as an important societal concern. Studies conducted in different settings have revealed high rates of ADHD among adolescent offenders. The risk for criminal behavior among individuals with ADHD is increased when there is psychiatric comorbidity, particularly conduct disorder and substance use disorder. In the present report, it is aimed to systematically review the literature on the epidemiological, neurobiological, and other risk factors contributing to this association, as well as the key aspects of the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD among offenders. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals. Studies conducted in various settings within the judicial system and in many different countries suggest that the rate of adolescent and adult inmates with ADHD far exceeds that reported in the general population; however, underdiagnosis is common. Similarly, follow-up studies of children with ADHD have revealed high rates of criminal behaviors, arrests, convictions, and imprisonment in adolescence and adulthood. Assessment of ADHD and comorbid condition requires an ongoing and careful process. When treating offenders or inmates with ADHD, who commonly present other comorbid psychiatric disorder complex, comprehensive and tailored interventions, combining pharmacological and psychosocial strategies are likely to be needed. PMID:25411986

  5. Review of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-Like Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Brieana M.; Findling, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as subaverage intelligence, pervasive developmental disorders, and genetic syndromes are frequently associated with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-like symptoms. While there are not pharmacological cures for these developmental disorders, coinciding ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms that…

  6. Familial-Environmental Risk Factors in South African Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Leana; Springer, Priscilla; Kidd, Martin; Steyn, Nellie; Solomons, Regan; van Toorn, Ronald

    2015-09-01

    We investigated familial and environmental risk factors in a cohort of South African children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A prospective, hospital-based case control study was conducted comprising 50 children diagnosed with ADHD and 50 matched non-ADHD controls. The adjusted effect of familial-environmental risk factors on ADHD was determined by systematic assessment. Birth complications, parental psychiatric disorder, maternal ADHD, early childhood trauma, and nonmaternal child care were significant risk factors for ADHD. Prolonged breastfeeding was found to be protective. In a multivariable logistic regression model, 5 criteria (birth complications, breastfeeding <3 months, at least 1 parent with tertiary education, presence of parental psychiatric disorder, and nonmaternal primary caregiver) differentiated ADHD from non-ADHD controls with a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 86%, respectively. We found a correlation between certain familial and environmental risk factors and ADHD. A 5-criterion multivariable logistic regression model may offer clinical guidance in ADHD diagnosis.

  7. Conduct behaviors and oppositional defiant behaviors in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    There is controversy about the association among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder behaviors, and oppositional defiant behaviors. This study examines whether different subcategories of conduct behaviors co-occur in children with ADHD, and investigates the association of conduct behaviors with ADHD symptoms and oppositional defiant behavior, considering the covariant factors of parental age and educational level. A total of 441 children and adolescents with ADHD participated in this study - 342 (77.6%) boys and 99 girls (22.4%). Their mean age was 9.1 (standard deviation = 2.2) years. They came from families with 1 to 8 children. There were statistically significant correlations among different subcategories of conduct disorder (p < 0.001 for all the correlations). Oppositional behavior scores were associated with all 4 subcategories of conduct behaviors. The severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity was associated with the subcategory of "destruction of property." The inattentiveness score was associated with "aggression to people and animals." The current results do not suggest that conduct behaviors exclude oppositional defiant behaviors. The subcategories of conduct behaviors occur in a cluster rather than as a solitary behavior. Larger family size and lower educational level of the father increase the risk of aggression to people and animals in children with ADHD.

  8. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  9. Which Executive Functioning Deficits Are Associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and Comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD? (Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder)(Oppositional Defiant Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scheres, Anouk; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD…

  10. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  11. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison with Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; de Bruin, Esther I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim to identify comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (n = 40) and to compare those comorbidity rates to those in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 40). Participants were clinically referred children aged 7-18 years. DSM-IV…

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): review for primary care clinicians

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Up to 5% of primary school age children have ADHD. Both genes and environment play a role in the aetiology of ADHD. If left untreated, children with ADHD demonstrate a range of poor long-term psychosocial outcomes. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) may be used to screen children for a range of psychiatric disorders, including ADHD.1 Principal management options include medication (methylphenidate and atomoxetine are the first line), parent training programmes and school based interventions. It is important to provide a dedicated child mental health specialist service for children with ADHD. In addition to following the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines,2 the authors recommend the use of wider systemic approaches and early intervention to optimise the effectiveness of recommended treatment options. PMID:25949618

  13. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  14. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures. PMID:26893231

  15. Personality Disorders and Clinical Syndromes in ADHD Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Wells, June; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this article is to investigate the type of personality disorders and clinical syndromes (CSs) that were best related to ADHD symptoms among prisoners. Method: The authors screened for childhood and adult ADHD symptoms and administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) to 196 serving prisoners.…

  16. ADHD and Writing Learning Disabilities: Overlapping Disorders and Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Celestino; Areces, Débora; García, Trinidad; Cueli, Marisol; Loew, Stephen J.; González-Castro, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the historic evolution of ADHD research up until the present, and explain the actual theoretical models of writing in relation to ADHD and attention. Given the characterization of writing as a recursive process, and in order to show its relationship with attention disorders, examples of applicable writing models are also…

  17. Clinical observations on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Qing; Li, Fu-Hai; Zhu, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Ruo-Peng

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with frontal lobe epilepsy and related factors. The medical records of 190 children diagnosed with frontal lobe epilepsy at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively collected, and a follow-up analysis of the prevalence of ADHD in these children was conducted. Of the 161 children with an effective follow-up, 59.0% (95/161) with frontal lobe epilepsy suffered from ADHD as well. Analysis of epilepsy and ADHD-related factors indicated that the incidence of ADHD was 89.4% (76/85) in children with abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) discharges on the most recent EEG, which was significantly higher than the ADHD incidence of 25% (19/76) in children with normal readings on the most recent EEG (P < .01). Children with frontal lobe epilepsy have a high incidence of ADHD. Sustained abnormal discharge on the electroencephalogram is associated with increased comorbidity of ADHD with frontal lobe epilepsy.

  18. Evidence for Specificity of ERP Abnormalities during Response Inhibition in ADHD Children: A Comparison with Reading Disorder Children without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liotti, Mario; Pliszka, Steven R.; Higgins, Kellie; Perez, Ricardo, III; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Executive function and working memory deficits are not only present in ADHD, but also in reading disorder (RD). Here, high-density ERPs were recorded during the Stop Signal Task in 53 children and adolescents: An ADHD-combined type group, a group with RD, and a healthy control group. The ADHD-C group displayed unique abnormalities of the frontal…

  19. Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Teaching Children with ADHD: The Role of Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…

  20. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Print A A A ... doesn't involve hyperactivity. Symptoms and Signs of ADHD Because ADHD covers lots of different things — attention, ...

  1. Substance Use Disorder and ADHD: Is ADHD a Particularly "Specific" Risk Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousha, Maryam; Shahrivar, Zahra; Alaghband-rad, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the pattern of substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescents with and without history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using an Iranian sample in the context of a cultural background and drug availability is differing from Western countries. Method: In this case-control study, the participants were interviewed…

  2. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs. PMID:16417850

  3. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties. PMID:25763856

  4. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  5. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention. PMID:26429569

  6. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... on ADHD Health Capsules Genetic Sites Tied to Schizophrenia Helping Older Adults Talk With Their Doctors Featured ... and child mental health expert at NIH. “The diagnosis is made because the level of hyperactivity or ...

  7. CBCL Pediatric Bipolar Disorder Profile and ADHD: Comorbidity and Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; McCracken, James T.; Dang, Jeffery; Clark, Shaunna; Nelson, Stanley F.; Smalley, Susan L.

    2008-01-01

    The pediatric bipolar disorder profile of the Child Behavior checklist is used to differentiate patterns of comorbidity and to search for quantitative trait loci in multiple affected ADHD sibling pairs. The CBCL-PBD profiling identified 8 percent of individuals with severe psychopathology and increased rates of oppositional defiant, conduct and…

  8. Body Movements of Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during Computer Video Game Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrace-DiZinno, Anna Marie; Douglas, Graham; Houghton, Stephen; Lawrence, Vivienne; West, John; Whiting, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that recorded the type and severity of body movements of 79 boys with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and 67 non-ADHD boys while playing a computer video game. Results of multivariate analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences in body movements between ADHD and non-ADHD boys. (Author/LRW)

  9. Does ADHD Predict Substance-Use Disorders? A 10-Year Follow-up Study of Young Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Martelon, MaryKate; Joshi, Gagan; Bateman, Clancey; Fried, Ronna; Petty, Carter; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High rates of substance-use disorders (SUD) have been found in samples of adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Predictors of SUD in children with ADHD who are at risk for the development of SUDs remain understudied. The main aims of this study were to identify clinically meaningful characteristics…

  10. [Adult ADHD versus borderline personality disorder: criteria for differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Witt, O; Brücher, K; Biegel, G; Petermann, F; Schmidt, S

    2014-06-01

    The present study focuses on selected symptom criteria to distinguish between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and borderline personality disorder (BPD). A sample of n = 158 subjects was examined, consisting of BPD patients (n = 37), ADHD patients (n = 58), comorbid BPD/ADHD patients (n = 19), a clinical group of patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of a depressive disorder (DEP; n = 22) and a non-clinical control group (KG; n = 22). Selected symptom criteria were investigated by using the German scales "Skala zur Erfassung der Impulsivität und emotionalen Dysregulation der Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung" (IES-27), "ADHS-Screening für Erwachsene" (ADHS-LE), "Fragebogen zu dissoziativen Symptomen" (FDS) and a scale for the assessment of paranoid and dichotomous thinking (PADI). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that BPD patients differed significantly with respect to self-mutilating behaviour, suicidality, dissociation, paranoia and dichotomy from all other groups. The same effect was found for affect regulation. Furthermore BPD patients differed significantly from ADHD patients by a more severe impulsiveness (IES-27), but not through disturbed impulse control and disinhibition overall. Regarding mean differences between ADHD and BPD patients for attentional control, ADHD patients revealed higher scores which just missed significance. For hyperactivity no significant group differences were found which is assumed to be influenced by symptom overlap like restlessness and aversive tension. The findings suggest that BPD-specific criteria, a stronger affective dysregulation and a higher tendency for autoaggressive impulsive reactions are more selective for differential diagnosis than the core symptoms of adult ADHD. Only attentional control might be a useful criterion for differential diagnosis, which should be examined in future studies.

  11. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects children as well as adults and leads to significant impairment in educational, social and occupational functioning and has associated personal and societal costs. Whilst there are effective medications (mostly stimulants) as well as some psychobehavioural treatments that help alleviate symptoms of ADHD, there is still need to improve our understanding of its neurobiology as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short article, I will explore their potential for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well consider its as a possible treatment option.

  12. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects children as well as adults and leads to significant impairment in educational, social and occupational functioning and has associated personal and societal costs. Whilst there are effective medications (mostly stimulants) as well as some psychobehavioural treatments that help alleviate symptoms of ADHD, there is still need to improve our understanding of its neurobiology as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short article, I will explore their potential for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well consider its as a possible treatment option. PMID:26417832

  13. Classical conditioning in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders: a test of Quay's model.

    PubMed

    Pliszka, S R; Hatch, J P; Borcherding, S H; Rogeness, G A

    1993-08-01

    Quay (1988) put forward a model of childhood mental disorders based on Gray's (1982) theory that there exists within the brain a behavioral inhibition system (BIS), which processes signals related to aversive or punishing stimuli. According to this model, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show lower than optimal levels of activity in this system, which leads to less responsiveness at a physiological level to signals related to punishment. Children with ADHD and controls were compared on a classical conditioning paradigm. Skin conductance and cardiac responses were measured in response to a conditioned stimulus that had been paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus. There were no differences between the groups, suggesting that, in terms of classical conditioning, ADHD children are equally responsive to signals related to punishment as controls.

  14. Classical conditioning in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders: a test of Quay's model.

    PubMed

    Pliszka, S R; Hatch, J P; Borcherding, S H; Rogeness, G A

    1993-08-01

    Quay (1988) put forward a model of childhood mental disorders based on Gray's (1982) theory that there exists within the brain a behavioral inhibition system (BIS), which processes signals related to aversive or punishing stimuli. According to this model, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show lower than optimal levels of activity in this system, which leads to less responsiveness at a physiological level to signals related to punishment. Children with ADHD and controls were compared on a classical conditioning paradigm. Skin conductance and cardiac responses were measured in response to a conditioned stimulus that had been paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus. There were no differences between the groups, suggesting that, in terms of classical conditioning, ADHD children are equally responsive to signals related to punishment as controls. PMID:8408987

  15. The dopamine theory of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Levy, F

    1991-06-01

    Clinical, animal and neuroanatomical studies of differential isomer and dosage effects of CNS stimulant medications on behaviour are reviewed. Wender's hypothesis that an underlying biochemical abnormality and a disorder of reinforcement was the primary deficit in "MBD" children is restated in terms of a disorder of polysynaptic dopaminergic circuits, between prefrontal and striate centres. Wender's notion of a disorder of reinforcement is broadened to include a disorder of planning and correction of behaviour, including capacity for cortical control of automatic instinctual motor programmes. The dopamine hypothesis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is examined from the point of view of differential dose effects of CNS stimulant medications, and theories of neural control. Clinical, animal and neuropharmacological studies are reviewed. Implications of the findings for understanding clinical and side effects in ADHD children of stimulants are discussed.

  16. Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Distinct or Related Disorders across Measurement Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert; Walle, Johan Vande

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding differences and similarities between the inattentive (IA) and combined (C) subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in order to detail challenges concerning further conceptualization, diagnostics, and treatment. The literature on ADHD-IA and…

  17. Association of Anxiety and ODD/CD in Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Aguirre, Vincent P.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if…

  18. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). NetNews. Volume 7, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder that is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Between 3% and 7% of school-aged children are affected by ADHD. ADHD is a lifespan condition that affects children, adolescents and adults of all ages. It…

  19. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  20. Effects of Coexisting Disorders on Cognition and Behavior in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Susan G.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Dewey, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the presence of coexisting disorders affects memory, visual-motor skills, and daily functioning in children with ADHD. Method: Eighty-four boys and 18 girls (8 to 16 years old) participate in this study. Twenty children meet criteria for ADHD alone, 42 children for ADHD plus one other disorder, and 40 children for…

  1. Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Dong Woo; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Seo, Ju-Hee; Choe, Byeong Moo; Park, Jae Hong; Kang, Je-Wook; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Chueh, Hee Won; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the “traditional” pattern, the “seaweed-egg” pattern, the “traditional-healthy” pattern, and the “snack” pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12–0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD. PMID:24736898

  2. Dietary patterns in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Dong Woo; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Seo, Ju-Hee; Choe, Byeong Moo; Park, Jae Hong; Kang, Je-Wook; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Chueh, Hee Won; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-04-01

    The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the "traditional" pattern, the "seaweed-egg" pattern, the "traditional-healthy" pattern, and the "snack" pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12-0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD. PMID:24736898

  3. The Family Psychosocial Characteristics of Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Oppositional or Conduct Problems in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satake, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the correlates of family psychosocial characteristics among Japanese children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ according to the comorbid condition of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Three groups of children (12 ADHD, 15 ADHD + ODD/ CD, and 14 control) were compared on…

  4. The International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study: background, methods and study population.

    PubMed

    van de Glind, Geurt; Van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Levin, Frances R; Koeter, Maarten W J; Barta, Csaba; Kaye, Sharlene; Skutle, Arvid; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Bu, Eli-Torild; Moggi, Franz; Dom, Geert; Demetrovics, Zolt; Fatséas, Mélina; Schillinger, Arild; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Verspreet, Sofie; Seitz, Andrea; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V; Ramos-Quiroga, J Antoni; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-09-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly recognized comorbid condition in subjects with substance use disorders (SUDs). This paper describes the methods and study population of the International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study. Objectives of the IASP are to determine the prevalence of ADHD in adult treatment seeking patients with SUD in different countries and SUD populations, determine the reliability and validity of the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale V 1.1 (ASRS) as ADHD screening instrument in SUD populations, investigate the comorbidity profile of SUD patients with and without ADHD, compare risk factors and protective factors in SUD patients with and without a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, and increase our knowledge about the relationship between ADHD and the onset and course of SUD. In this cross-sectional, multi-centre two stage study, subjects were screened for ADHD with the ASRS, diagnosed with the Conner's Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID), and evaluated for SUD, major depression, bipolar disorder, anti social personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Three thousand five hundred and fifty-eight subjects from 10 countries were included. Of these 40.9% screened positive for ADHD. This is the largest international study on this population evaluating ADHD and comorbid disorders. PMID:24022983

  5. 'ADHD Does Bad Stuff to You': Young People's and Parents' Experiences and Perceptions of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travell, Chris; Visser, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the findings of a study of young people's and parents' experiences and perspectives of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from five positions: the 'symptoms' of ADHD and their consequences, the process of diagnosis and treatment, interventions, a personal diagnosis, and participation and voice. It questions the…

  6. A Genetic Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Reading Disability: Aetiological Overlaps and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence; Pieka, Jan; Hay, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occurs with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Reading Disability. Twin studies are an important approach to understanding and modelling potential causes of such comorbidity. Univariate and bivariate genetic models were fitted to maternal report data from 2040 families of…

  7. Bipolar disorder and ADHD: comorbidity and diagnostic distinctions.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Ciro; De Chiara, Lavinia; Faedda, Gianni L

    2015-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with onset in childhood and early adolescence, and common persistence in adulthood. Both disorders are often undiagnosed, misdiagnosed, and sometimes over diagnosed, leading to high rates of morbidity and disability. The differentiation of these conditions is based on their clinical features, comorbidity, psychiatric family history course of illness, and response to treatment. We review recent relevant findings and highlight epidemiological, clinical, family history, course, and treatment-response differences that can aid the differential diagnosis of these conditions in an outpatient pediatric setting. PMID:26084666

  8. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset <7 years, n=147) and late-onset ADHD (onset between 7 and 12 years, n=42). The mediation analysis was conducted to verify the mediating factors from ADHD to functional impairment and quality of life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment.

  9. Methylphenidate and Comorbid Anxiety Disorder in Children with both Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Nolan, Edith E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Method: Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial…

  10. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Parental Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Iranian Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Moini, Rozita

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the psychiatric comorbidity of a clinical sample of children with ADHD and the psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method: Structured psychiatric interviews assessing lifetime psychiatric disorders by "DSM-IV" criteria, using the Farsi version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Results: The mean age…

  11. Use and Management of Medications for Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott H.; Barkley, Russell A.; DuPaul, George J.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides information and guidelines for the effective use of medication in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Basic principles of psychopharmacology, different types of medications that have been used successfully to treat ADHD, and best practices for assessing the effects of medication in children with ADHD are…

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: Alternative Treatment Plans for School Age Children Diagnosed with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonell, Claudia L.

    This literature review of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reviews the diagnosis and treatment options for children diagnosed with ADHD. It describes the complexity of ADHD, its symptoms, treatments, and implications on a child's social and academic development as well as strategies for assisting such children. Individual sections…

  13. Developmental Differences in Structure of Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) between Childhood and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The current paper utilizes a bifactor modeling approach to evaluate the structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood and assess developmental continuity of ADHD structure between childhood and adulthood. The study compared traditional one-factor, two-factor, three-factor, and second-order factor models of ADHD with a…

  14. Family Correlates of Oppositional and Conduct Disorders in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; McBurnett, Keith; Rathouz, Paul J.; Judice, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Comorbidities among children with ADHD are key determinants of treatment response, course, and outcome. This study sought to separate family factors (parental psychopathology and parenting practices) associated with comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) from those associated with Conduct Disorder (CD) among children with Attention…

  15. Designing a decision support system for distinguishing ADHD from similar children behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Delavarian, Mona; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Dibajnia, Parvin; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a decision support system was designed to distinguish children with ADHD from other similar children behavioral disorders such as depression, anxiety, comorbid depression and anxiety and conduct disorder based on the signs and symptoms. Accuracy of classifying with Radial basis function and multilayer neural networks were compared. Finally, the average accuracy of the networks in classification reached to 95.50% and 96.62% by multilayer and radial basis function networks respectively. Our results indicate that a decision support system, especially RBF, may be a good preliminary assistant for psychiatrists in diagnosing high risk behavioral disorders of children.

  16. Pediatric Integrative Medicine Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Esparham, Anna; Evans, Randall G.; Wagner, Leigh E.; Drisko, Jeanne A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in children and is increasing in prevalence. There has also been a related increase in prescribing stimulant medication despite some controversy whether ADHD medication makes a lasting difference in school performance or achievement. Families who are apprehensive about side effects and with concerns for efficacy of medication pursue integrative medicine as an alternative or adjunct to pharmacologic and cognitive behavioral treatment approaches. Integrative medicine incorporates evidence-based medicine, both conventional and complementary and alternative therapies, to deliver personalized care to the patient, emphasizing diet, nutrients, gut health, and environmental influences as a means to decrease symptoms associated with chronic disorders. Pediatric integrative medicine practitioners are increasing in number throughout the United States because of improvement in patient health outcomes. However, limited funding and poor research design interfere with generalizable treatment approaches utilizing integrative medicine. The use of research designs originally intended for drugs and procedures are not suitable for many integrative medicine approaches. This article serves to highlight integrative medicine approaches in use today for children with ADHD, including dietary therapies, nutritional supplements, environmental hygiene, and neurofeedback. PMID:27417475

  17. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents

  18. Effects of behavioral and pharmacological therapies on peer reinforcement of deviancy in children with ADHD-only, ADHD and conduct problems, and controls

    PubMed Central

    Helseth, Sarah A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Onyango, Adia N.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances A.; Garefino, Allison; Massetti, Greta M.; Mazzant, Jessica Robb; Hoffman, Martin T.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin; Pelham, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study compared the unique and combined effects of evidence-based treatments for ADHD —stimulant medication and behavior modification—on children’s rates of reinforcement for deviant peer behavior (RDPB). Method Using a within-subjects design, 222 elementary school-age children attending a summer treatment program, including 151 children with ADHD (127 male), with and without comorbid conduct problems, and 71 control children (57 male), received varying combinations of behavior modification (no, low-intensity, and high-intensity) and methylphenidate (placebo, 0.15 mg/kg, 0.30 mg/kg, and 0.60 mg/kg). RDPB was measured through direct observation and compared across all behavior modification and medication conditions. Results Children with ADHD reinforced the deviant behavior of their peers at a significantly higher rate than control children in the absence of either intervention. However, that difference largely disappeared in the presence of both behavior modification and medication. Both low and high-intensity behavior modification, as well as medium (0.30 mg/kg) and high (0.60 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate, significantly reduced the rate of ADHD children’s RDPB to levels similar to the control group. Conclusions Results indicate that although untreated children with ADHD do engage in RDPB at a greater rate than their non-ADHD peers, existing evidence-based interventions can substantially decrease the presence of RDPB, thereby limiting potential iatrogenic effects in group-based treatment settings. Public Health Significance Statement This study found that children with behavior disorders reinforced their peers' deviant behaviors much more than typically developing children. However, behavior modification and medication treatments both reduced reinforcement rates, indicating that peer contagion can easily be managed in group-based treatments for children PMID:25495357

  19. Methylphenidate in children with oppositional defiant disorder and both comorbid chronic multiple tic disorder and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Nolan, Edith E; Sverd, Jeffrey; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne

    2008-09-01

    Our primary objective was to determine if immediate-release methylphenidate is an effective treatment for oppositional defiant disorder diagnosed from mother's report in children with both chronic multiple tic disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children (n = 31) aged 6 to 12 years received placebo and 3 doses of methylphenidate twice daily for 2 weeks each under double-blind conditions and were assessed with ratings scales and laboratory measures. Results indicated significant improvement in both oppositional and ADHD behaviors with medication; however, the magnitude of treatment effect varied considerably as a function of disorder (ADHD > Oppositional behaviors), informant (teacher > mother), assessment instrument, and specific oppositional behavior (rebellious > disobeys rules). Drug response was comparable with that in children (n = 26) who did not have diagnosed oppositional defiant disorder, but comorbidity appeared to alter the perceived benefits for ADHD according to mother's report. Methylphenidate is an effective short-term treatment for oppositional behavior in children with comorbid ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder.

  20. Attentional Functions in Children and Adolescents with ADHD, Depressive Disorders, and the Comorbid Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Thomas; Konrad, Kerstin; De Brito, Stephane A.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Vloet, Timo D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorders (DDs) often co-occur in children and adolescents, but evidence on the respective influence of these disorders on attention parameters is inconsistent. This study examines the influence of DDs on ADHD in a model-oriented approach that includes selectivity and…

  1. Substance abuse disorders in the parents of ADHD children, and parents of normal children.

    PubMed

    Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Ahmad; Rostami, Reza; Dehestani, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  2. Diagnosis of children’s attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its association with cytomegalovirus infection with ADHD: a historical review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rui; Xia, Qun; Shen, Huaiyun; Yang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yongli; Xu, Jiali

    2015-01-01

    As the most common mental disorder identified in children and teenagers, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects millions of children and their families, making it a critical health issue worldwide. This article reviewed the historical opinions about the diagnosis of ADHD and defined different subtypes of this disorder. It also summarized the current diagnostic criteria and available medications. After re-visiting the etiology of ADHD in the sense of both genetic and environment factors, it was further hypothesized that viral infection might be involved in ADHD pathogenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may be associated with ADHD, although both clinical observations and animal studies need to be performed for validation. PMID:26550354

  3. Gender and Conduct Problems Predict Peer Functioning among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Lorenzi, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have poor relationships with peers. However, research on this topic has predominantly focused on boys. This study considered child gender, ADHD status, and dimensionally assessed conduct problems as predictors of peer relationship difficulties. Participants were 125 children (ages…

  4. Executive Function in Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle; Nikolas, Molly; Nigg, Joel T.

    2007-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine the specificity of executive function weakness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during adolescence. Results suggest that executive function weakness in ADHD is specifically associated with symptoms of inattention-disorganization.

  5. Disturbed sleep in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a question of psychiatric comorbidity or ADHD presentation.

    PubMed

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H; Møller, Lene R; Jennum, Poul J

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with three different presentations and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Serious sleep complaints are also common, but the role of the presentations and comorbidity in sleep is under-investigated in ADHD. Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children with ADHD (n = 76) had significantly more sleep disturbances than controls (n = 25), including a larger percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more sleep cycles, as well as lower mean sleep efficiency, mean non-REM (NREM) sleep stage 1 and mean NREM sleep stage 3. No significant between-group differences were found on the multiple sleep latency test. Stratifying for comorbidity in the ADHD group did not reveal major differences between groups, but mean sleep latency was significantly longer in children with ADHD and no comorbidity compared to controls (36.1 min; SD = 30.1 versus 22.6 min; SD = 15.2). No differences were found between ADHD presentations. Our results support the presence of night-time sleep disturbances in children with ADHD. Poor sleep does not appear to be attributable to comorbidity alone, nor do sleep disturbances differ within ADHD presentations. PMID:26762193

  6. [Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Silva, Bianca Del Ponte da; Anselmi, Luciana; Schmidt, Vera; Santos, Iná S

    2015-04-01

    This aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review on the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. The systematic multiple-stage literature search in PubMed, LILACS, BIREME, and PsycINFO was limited to research in human subjects and published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. A total of 373 references were retrieved. Of these, only five met the study's objectives and were kept in the review. Most of the studies employed a longitudinal design, were conducted in developed countries, and were published in the last five years. Only one study found a positive association. Studies on caffeine consumption during pregnancy and ADHD are scarce, with conflicting results and several methodological difficulties such as lack of standardized outcome measures. PMID:25945978

  7. Increasing Awareness and Understanding of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Education to Promote Better Academic Outcomes for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinussen, Rhonda L.; Tannock, Rosemary; Chaban, Peter; McInnes, Alison; Ferguson, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review three areas of research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that have implications for the educational context. These areas are: (a) gender differences in ADHD, (b) inattention symptoms and academic risk, and (c) working memory and ADHD. We highlight the critical role that the school context plays in…

  8. [Female conduct disorders].

    PubMed

    Vloet, Timo D; Großheinrich, Nicola; Konrad, Kerstin; Freitag, Christine; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2014-03-01

    The last few years have seen much research on girls with conduct disorder (CD). This article summarizes the gender-specific data regarding prevalence, differences with respect to symptomatology (e.g., subtypes of aggression, callous-unemotional (cu)-traits), and it presents data on the autonomic and neuroendocrine stress system as well as genetic, neurocognitive, and neuroimaging data. Differences in the impact of environmental factors on boys and girls for the development of CD are discussed. Taken together, the data indicate that there is great overlap in symptomatology, personality traits, and neurobiological aberrations in girls and boys with CD. Since fewer girls than boys exhibit CD symptomatology, further investigations on CD in girls might help to identify resilience factors that could improve future therapeutic interventions.

  9. Pharmacogenetics of response to methylphenidate in adult patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Contini, Verônica; Rovaris, Diego L; Victor, Marcelo M; Grevet, Eugenio H; Rohde, Luis A; Bau, Claiton H D

    2013-06-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a first line option in the psychopharmacologic treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, there is a considerable proportion of adult patients who do not respond to treatment with MPH or discontinue drug therapy. Since effects of genetic variants in the response to MPH treatment might explain these negative outcomes, we conducted an electronic systematic search of MEDLINE-indexed literature looking for articles containing information about pharmacogenetics of ADHD in adults published until January, 2012. The keywords used were 'ADHD', 'Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder' and 'gene' in combination with methylphenidate, amphetamine or atomoxetine. Only 5 pharmacogenetic studies on adult ADHD met inclusion criteria. The results evidenced that most findings obtained so far are negative, and all studies focused on MPH response. There is only one positive result, for a polymorphism at the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) gene. The current state of the art in adult ADHD implies that pharmacogenetic tests are far from routine clinical practice. However, the integration of these studies with neuroimaging and neuropsychological tests may help to understand mechanisms of drug action and the pathophysiology of ADHD.

  10. Current Issues in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification. PMID:22035245

  11. Youths with ADHD with and without Tic Disorders: Comorbid Psychopathology, Executive Function and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders (TD) commonly co-occur. Clarifying the psychiatric comorbidities, executive functions and social adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents of ADHD with and without TD is informative to understand the developmental psychopathology and to identify their specific clinical…

  12. Executive Functioning Characteristics Associated with ADHD Comorbidity in Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Tom A.; Kronenberger, William G.; Wang, Yang; Dunn, David W.; Mosier, Kristine M.; Kalnin, Andrew J.; Mathews, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of executive dysfunction in youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) remains unclear, despite extensive research in samples of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine the relationship between DBD, ADHD, and executive function deficits in aggressive teens, adolescents with DBD and comorbid ADHD…

  13. Parenting Stress in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Ana; Tárraga, Raul; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla; Pastor, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 121 children from 5 to 9 years old with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), comorbid ASD+ADHD, and typical development in different domains related to child and parent characteristics using the Parenting Stress…

  14. Medicating Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and ADHD: A State Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runnheim, Veronica A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Wisconsin teachers provided information on 1,300 students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who were receiving medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ADHD/EBD students comprised approximately 26% of all EBD students. The most common medication was Ritalin, and teachers believed the medication effectively…

  15. Temporal Discounting of Monetary Rewards in Children and Adolescents with ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert; Baeyens, Dieter; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    It has been difficult to differentiate attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in terms of some aspects of their cognitive profile. While both show deficits in executive functions, it has been suggested that they may differ in their response to monetary reward. For instance, children with ADHD prefer…

  16. Effortful and automatic information processing in boys with ADHD and specific learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Hazell, P L; Carr, V J; Lewin, T J; Dewis, S A; Heathcote, D M; Brucki, B M

    1999-02-01

    Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, N = 50), Specific Learning Disorder (LD, N = 45), combined Specific Learning Disorder and ADHD (LD/ADHD, N = 25), and controls (N = 51) completed effortful and automatic information processing tasks based on Treisman and Gelade's (1980) "information integration theory". ADHD and LD/ADHD subjects did not differ from controls at baseline or under feedback and reward conditions, suggesting that they were investing similar levels of mental effort in the tasks. The LD group had a superior performance in the effortful task and an inferior performance in the automatic task compared with the other groups at baseline. The data suggest a potential method of distinguishing primary LD from learning difficulties that occur secondary to ADHD.

  17. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms in children with ADHD: A community-based study.

    PubMed

    Green, Jessica Leigh; Rinehart, Nicole; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M; Jongeling, Brad; Sciberras, Emma

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in a community-based sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD controls. We also examined the relationship between ASD symptoms and ADHD subtype, ADHD symptom severity and child gender. Participants were 6-10-year-old children (164 ADHD; 198 non-ADHD control) attending 43 schools in Melbourne, Australia, who were participating in the Children's Attention Project. ADHD was assessed in two stages using the parent and teacher Conners' 3 ADHD index and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV (DISC-IV). ASD symptoms were identified using the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression examined continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. Children with ADHD had more ASD symptoms than non-ADHD controls (adjusted mean difference=4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8; 5.3, p<0.001, effect size=0.7). Boys with ADHD had greater ASD symptom severity than girls with ADHD (adjusted mean difference=2.9, 95% CI 0.8; 5.2, p=0.01, effect size=0.4). Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with greater ASD symptom severity (regression co-efficient=1.6, 95% CI 1.2; 2.0, p<0.001). No differences were observed by ADHD subtype. Greater hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were associated with greater ASD symptoms (regression coefficient=1.0; 95% CI 0.0; 2.0, p=0.04) however, this finding attenuated in adjusted analyses (p=0.45). ASD symptoms are common in children with ADHD. It is important for clinicians to assess for ASD symptoms to ensure appropriate intervention. PMID:26433184

  18. Understanding the Covariation among Childhood Externalizing Symptoms: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Danielle M.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common childhood externalizing disorders that frequently co-occur. However, the causes of their comorbidity are not well understood. To address that question, we analyzed data from >600 Finnish twin pairs, who completed standardized…

  19. Comorbidity and continuity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adolescence in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cak, H Tuna; Dinc, Gulser Senses; Tuzun, Zeynep; Evinc, S Gulin; Cop, Esra; Cuhadaroglu Cetin, Fusun

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine clinical outcomes, psychiatric comorbidity and neuropsychological characteristics in Turkish adolescents with an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in childhood. A total of 45 children with ADHD diagnosis and 28 children with a psychiatric diagnosis other than ADHD in a 1-year cohort of 7-10-year-olds were reevaluated 6 years later using Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime version and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and Stroop Test TBAG version. This study shows that the clinical outcomes and the comorbidity patterns for ADHD from childhood to adolescence in Turkey are similar to reported rates in the Western countries. In the ADHD group, 75.6 % still has impairing ADHD symptoms and 46.6 % has comorbid psychiatric disorders. The main difference is anxiety disorders being the most common comorbid disorders (37.8 %) in Turkish ADHD youth. These findings stress the high comorbidity associated with ADHD and support the importance of assessment and treatment for ADHD and comorbidities during adolescence. PMID:23893566

  20. [Atomoxetine: a new treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Fourneret, P; Wohl, M; Rénéric, J-P

    2005-01-01

    trials, a multiple dose study, a once-daily dose study. The first two pivotal trials were carried out in ADHD children aged 7-13 years, treated with atomoxetine vs placebo for a duration of 9 weeks. Patients presenting comorbidities (ie conduct disorder, -anxiety, depression) as well as a history of previous treatment with methylphenidate were also eligible to participate. The primary outcome was the reduction of the score on the ADHD rating scale, ADHD-RS ; secondary criteria included the responder's rate (patients with an ADHD-RS score reduction of 25% or above), the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners Parent Rating Scale. With a mean dose of 1.5 mg/kg/day, atomoxetine showed a significant reduction of mean ADHD-RS scores at endpoint (ANOVA, p<0.001) (table II). Yet, the clinical significance of both studies is limited since efficacy was scored only in a social/familial setting and not in classroom conditions. In addition, intermediate results from baseline to endpoint were not presented in the publication. The multiple dose trial showed a significant reduction of the symptom score at the 1.2 and 1.8 mg/kg/day doses. The objective of the last study was to assess the efficacy of a single daily dose of atomoxetine versus placebo during a 6 week-treatment. Patients were evaluated by parents, investigators, as well as by teachers. The superiority of atomoxetine was demonstrated as compared to the placebo and the effect size of the daily dosing was similar to that reported with multiple doses. Preliminary data on ADHD patients presenting comorbidities showed that atomoxetine alone signi-ficantly reduced the symptom scores of anxiety and depression and similarly to atomoxetine associated with fluoxetine. In ADHD children with the oppositional defiant disorder, oppositional symptoms were reduced in the group receiving atomoxetine 1.8 mg/kg/day. Preliminary results in children with ADHD and chronic tics or Tourette syndrome showed a significant reduction of ADHD

  1. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Is ADHD a Vulnerability Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, L. A.; Kunz, M.; Chua, H. C.; Rotrosen, J.; Resnick, S. G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence suggesting a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study examined the association between PTSD and ADHD using retrospective and current clinical evaluations. Method: Twenty-five male veterans with PTSD and 22 male veterans with panic …

  2. The vigilance regulation model of affective disorders and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hegerl, Ulrich; Hensch, Tilman

    2014-07-01

    According to the recently proposed vigilance model of affective disorders (vigilance in the sense of "brain arousal"), manic behaviour is partly interpreted as an autoregulatory attempt to stabilise vigilance by creating a stimulating environment, and the sensation avoidance and withdrawal in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is seen as an autoregulatory reaction to tonically increased vigilance. Indeed, using a newly developed EEG-based algorithm, hyperstable vigilance was found in MDD, and the contrary, with rapid drops to sleep stages, in mania. Furthermore, destabilising vigilance (e.g. by sleep deprivation) triggers (hypo)mania and improves depression, whereas stabilising vigilance, e.g. by prolonged sleep, improves mania. ADHD and mania have common symptoms, and the unstable vigilance might be a common pathophysiology. There is even evidence that psychostimulants might ameliorate both ADHD and mania. Hyperactivity of the noradrenergic system could explain both the high vigilance level in MDD and, as recently argued, anhedonia and behavioural inhibition. Interestingly, antidepressants and electroconvulsions decrease the firing rate of neurons in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, whereas many antimanic drugs have opposite effects.

  3. Increased levels of serum neopterin in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Mehmet Fatih; Uneri, Ozden Sukran; Guney, Esra; Ergin, Merve; Alisik, Murat; Goker, Zeynep; Senses Dinc, Gulser; Karaca Kara, Fatma; Erel, Ozcan

    2014-08-15

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently occurring neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood with an etiology that is not fully understood. A number of reviews that have addressed the neurobiology of ADHD have focused on imaging and genetics. Relatively little attention has been given to factors/mechanisms involved in the brain dysfunction. We suggest that changes in cellular immunity may be involved. Neopterin is a good indicator of cellular immunity, and we evaluated serum levels of neopterin in patients with ADHD. The study group consisted of 49 patients with ADHD. An age- and gender-matched control group was composed of 31 healthy subjects. Venous blood samples were collected, and the levels of neopterin were measured. The levels of neopterin were significantly higher in ADHD than in the comparison subjects. Cellular immunity may have a role in the etiopathogenesis of ADHD.

  4. Molecular mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental disorders, ADHD and autism.

    PubMed

    Bădescu, George Mihai; Fîlfan, Mădălina; Sandu, Raluca Elena; Surugiu, Roxana; Ciobanu, Ovidiu; Popa-Wagner, Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism represent a significant economic burden, which justify vigorous research to uncover its genetics and developmental clinics for a diagnostic workup. The urgency of addressing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidities is seen in the chilling fact that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders, substance use disorders and obesity each increase the risk for mortality. However, data about comorbidity is mainly descriptive, with mechanistic studies limited to genetic epidemiological studies that document shared genetic risk factors among these conditions. Autism and intellectual disability affects 1.5 to 2% of the population in Western countries with many individuals displaying social-emotional agnosia and having difficulty in forming attachments and relationships. Underlying mechanisms include: (i) dysfunctions of neuronal miRNAs; (ii) deletions in the chromosome 21, subtelomeric deletions, duplications and a maternally inherited duplication of the chromosomal region 15q11-q13; (iii) microdeletions in on the long (q) arm of the chromosome in a region designated q21.1 increases the risk of delayed development, intellectual disability, physical abnormalities, and neurological and psychiatric problems associated with autism, schizophrenia, and epilepsy and weak muscle tone (hypotonia); (iv) interstitial duplications encompassing 16p13.11. PMID:27516006

  5. Familiality of Co-existing ADHD and Tic Disorders: Evidence from a Large Sibling Study

    PubMed Central

    Roessner, Veit; Banaschewski, Tobias; Becker, Andreas; Buse, Judith; Wanderer, Sina; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Steven V.; Asherson, Philip; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) is frequent and clinically important. Very few and inconclusive attempts have been made to clarify if and how the combination of ADHD+TD runs in families. Aim: To determine the first time in a large-scale ADHD sample whether ADHD+TD increases the risk of ADHD+TD in siblings and, also the first time, if this is independent of their psychopathological vulnerability in general. Methods: The study is based on the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. The present sub-sample of 2815 individuals included ADHD-index patients with co-existing TD (ADHD+TD, n = 262) and without TD (ADHD–TD, n = 947) as well as their 1606 full siblings (n = 358 of the ADHD+TD index patients and n = 1248 of the ADHD-TD index patients). We assessed psychopathological symptoms in index patients and siblings by using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the parent and teacher Conners' long version Rating Scales (CRS). For disorder classification the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS-Interview) was applied in n = 271 children. Odds ratio with the GENMOD procedure (PROCGENMOD) was used to test if the risk for ADHD, TD, and ADHD+TD in siblings was associated with the related index patients' diagnoses. In order to get an estimate for specificity we compared the four groups for general psychopathological symptoms. Results: Co-existing ADHD+TD in index patients increased the risk of both comorbid ADHD+TD and TD in the siblings of these index patients. These effects did not extend to general psychopathology. Interpretation: Co-existence of ADHD+TD may segregate in families. The same holds true for TD (without ADHD). Hence, the segregation of TD (included in both groups) seems to be the determining factor, independent of further behavioral problems. This close relationship between ADHD and TD supports the clinical approach to carefully assess ADHD in any case

  6. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aymamí, N.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Granero, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Claes, L.; Sauvaget, A.; Grall-Bronnec, M.; Gómez-Peña, M.; Savvidou, L. G.; Fagundo, A. B.; del Pino-Gutierrez, A.; Moragas, L.; Casas, M.; Penelo, E.; Menchón, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967

  7. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.

  8. Pediatric bipolar disorder and ADHD: Family history comparison in the LAMS clinical sample

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Mount, Katherine; Frazier, Thomas; Demeter, Christine; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Fristad, Mary A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah; Findling, Robert L.; Kowatch, Robert; Axelson, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Transgenerational association of bipolar spectrum disorder (BPSD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been reported, but inconclusively. Method Children ages 6–12 were systematically recruited at first outpatient visit at 9 clinics at four universities and reliably diagnosed; 621 had elevated symptoms of mania (>12 on the Parent General Behavior Inventory 10-Item Mania Scale); 86 had scores below 12. We analyzed baseline data to test a familial association hypothesis: compared to children with neither BPSD nor ADHD, those with either BPSD or ADHD would have parents with higher rates of both bipolar and ADHD symptoms, and parents of comorbid children would have even higher rates of both. Results Of 707 children, 421 had ADHD without BPSD, 45 BPSD without ADHD, 117 comorbid ADHD+BPSD, and 124 neither. The rate of parental manic symptoms was similar for the comorbid and BPSD-alone groups, significantly greater than for ADHD alone and “neither” groups, which had similar rates. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with BPSD alone were significantly less frequent than in parents of children with ADHD (alone or comorbid), and no greater than for children with neither diagnosis. Family history of manic symptoms, but not ADHD symptoms, was associated with parent-rated child manic-symptom severity over and above child diagnosis. Limitations The sample was not epidemiologic, parent symptoms were based on family history questions, and alpha was 0.05 despite multiple tests. Conclusions These results do not support familial linkage of BPSD and ADHD; they are compatible with heritability of each disorder separately with coincidental overlap. PMID:22464937

  9. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment. PMID:25466366

  10. Reading Motivational Differences among Groups: Reading Disability (RD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), RD + ADHD, and Typical Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the reading motivation of 133 students at individual grade levels (2nd-5th), who were divided in subgroups with and without reading disabilities/difficulties (RD) and with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Major findings were that students in the RD subgroup had lower reading motivation (intrinsic,…

  11. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2012) Detailed Information by State Top of Page Peer Relationships [ Read abstract ] Parents of children with a ... of ADHD report almost 3 times as many peer problems as those without a history of ADHD ( ...

  12. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Is it ADHD? Symptoms Checklist Fill out the symptoms checklist and ... more about other concerns and conditions . How is ADHD diagnosed? Healthcare professionals use the guidelines in the ...

  13. Intra-Individual Variability in ADHD, Autism Spectrum Disorders and Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Grasman, Raoul P. P. P.; Verte, Sylvie; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert; van Kammen, Serena M.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The potential for response variability to serve as an endophenotype for attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) rests, in part, upon the development of reliable and valid methods to decompose variability. This study investigated the specificity of intra-individual variability (IIV) in 53 children with ADHD by comparing them with 25…

  14. ADHD, Substance Use Disorders, and Psychostimulant Treatment: Current Literature and Treatment Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This review explores the relationship between ADHD and substance use disorder (SUD), factors that determine the abuse potential of psychostimulants, and strategies for identifying and treating at-risk ADHD patients. Method: This study uses a Medline review of literature. Results: Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and…

  15. Perceived Effectiveness of Classroom Management Interventions with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conforti, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Many teachers are concerned about their ability to work effectively with students who have attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to determine the perceived efficacy of common interventions used to address negative ADHD behaviors in the elementary and middle school classrooms. The…

  16. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children with ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Nicholas, Jude; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children…

  17. Emotion Regulation in Adolescent Males with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Testing the Effects of Comorbid Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Northover, Clare; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate; van Goozen, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Although attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to emotion dysregulation, few studies have experimentally investigated this whilst controlling for the effects of comorbid conduct disorder (CD). Economic decision-making games that assess how individuals respond to offers varying in fairness have been used to study emotion regulation. The present study compared adolescent boys with ADHD (n = 90), ADHD + CD (n = 94) and typical controls (n = 47) on the Ultimatum Game and examined the contribution of ADHD and CD symptom scores and callous and unemotional traits to acceptance levels of unfair offers. There were no significant differences in acceptance rates of fair and highly unfair offers between groups, and only boys with ADHD did not significantly differ from the controls. However, the subgroup of boys with ADHD and additional high levels of aggressive CD symptoms rejected significantly more ambiguous (i.e., moderately unfair) offers than any other subgroup, suggesting impaired emotion regulation in those with ADHD and aggressive CD. Correlations within the CD group showed that the rejection rate to moderately unfair offers was predicted by aggressive CD symptom severity, but not callous and unemotional traits. These findings highlight the fact that ADHD is a heterogeneous condition from an emotion regulation point of view. PMID:26371048

  18. [Mindfulness-based intervention in attention-deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Schmiedeler, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mindfulness means paying attention and being aware of the experiences occurring in the present moment, and it is usually developed by the practice of meditation. Research shows that mindfulness training is associated with improved attention systems and self-regulation, and that it therefore fosters those skills that are underdeveloped in individuals with ADHD. Although only few studies have investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness training in ADHD (many of which showing methodological limitations), the findings do suggest that mindfulness may be useful in ADHD interventions.

  19. A Systematic Evaluation of ADHD and Comorbid Psychopathology in a Population-Based Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Heather E.; Neuman, Rosalind J.; Todd, Richard D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Clinical and population samples demonstrate that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) occurs with other disorders. Comorbid disorder clustering within ADHD subtypes is not well studied. Method: Latent class analysis (LCA) examined the co-occurrence of DSM-IV ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD),…

  20. Working memory network alterations and associated symptoms in adults with ADHD and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ariel; Biederman, Joseph; Valera, Eve; Lomedico, Alexandra; Aleardi, Megan; Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Bipolar Disorder (BPD) co-occur frequently and represent a particularly morbid clinical form of both disorders, however underlying neural circuitry contributing to the comorbidity remain understudied. Our aim was to investigate functional brain circuitry during working memory in a group of participants who meet criteria for both disorders (ADHD+BPD), and to explore the relationship of symptoms of each disorder to brain function. We used fMRI to image brain activity in 18 male adults with both ADHD and BPD, and 18 healthy control participants matched one-to-one on age, sex, and handedness, while they performed a sequential letter n-back task. We investigated differences in activation between these groups, and also correlations of brain activity during the task to symptoms of ADHD and BPD independently. We found significant hypoactivity in the subjects with ADHD+BPD vs. controls across frontal and parietal regions, and further, found that BPD and ADHD symptoms related to activity in anatomically distinct regions that were respectively characterized by activation and suppression during task. We conclude that comorbid ADHD+BPD is associated with alterations across anterior and posterior nodes of the working memory network, and symptoms of each disorder are related to anatomically and functionally distinct brain regions. PMID:22272986

  1. ADHD and behavioral disorders: Assessment, management, and an update from DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Austerman, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral disorders in pediatric patients--primarily attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--pose a clinical challenge for health care providers to accurately assess, diagnose, and treat. In 2013, updated diagnostic criteria for behavioral disorders were published, including ADHD and a new diagnostic entity: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. Revised criteria for ADHD includes oldest age for occurrence of symptoms, need for symptoms to be present in more than one setting, and requirement for number of symptoms in those aged 17 and older. Assessment of ADHD relies primarily on the clinical interview, including the medical and social history, along with the aid of objective measures. The clinical course of ADHD is chronic with symptom onset occurring well before adolescence. Most patients have symptoms that continue into adolescence, and some into adulthood. Many patients with ADHD have comorbid disorders such as depression, disruptive behavior disorders, or substance abuse, which need to be addressed first in the treatment plan. Treatment of ADHD relies on a combination of psychopharmacologic, academic, and behavioral interventions, which produce response rates up to 80%. PMID:26555810

  2. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  3. Verbal fluency in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Georgia; Trott, Kate

    2013-12-01

    It has been increasingly believed that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with lifelong course associated with cognitive difficulties including among others, language production, verbal learning, and verbal fluency. However, research is limited to children and adolescents, and very few researchers have examined the impact of ADHD in adulthood on the cognitive domain. The aim of the present study is to examine the performance of adults, diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, on semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. It is hypothesized that adults with ADHD will perform worse on both tasks than matched controls. Sixty university students (30 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 30 matched controls) of mean age 20.5 participated in the study. They all completed two verbal fluency tasks. The ADHD group had statistically significant lower scores than the non-ADHD group on the phonemic, but not the semantic task. The study provides some evidence that ADHD in childhood has a negative impact on adults' phonemic verbal fluency. This finding could be probably explained by the fact that phonemic fluency is considered more cognitively demanding and impacting more on the frontal lobe functions, known to be impaired in ADHD, than semantic fluency.

  4. Cognitive Processes in ADHD and Asperger's Disorder: Overlaps and Differences in PASS Profiles.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Stefano; Contena, Bastianina

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Many studies report on the usefulness of the evaluation of Executive Functions (EF) in the assessment of participants with ADHD, while others underline how deficits of EF in these participants are not consistent and that the same executive deficits are present in many other disorders, particularly in Asperger's disorder. Using the Planning Attention Simultaneous Successive (PASS) theory, the present study explores the cognitive profiles of participants with ADHD or Asperger's disorder and compares the cognitive functioning of these two diagnostic groups. Method: Forty-four children, 24 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 20 with a diagnosis of Asperger's disorder, participated and their cognitive processes were evaluated with the Cognitive Assessment System. Results: Results underline specific cognitive profiles in ADHD and Asperger's disorder characterized by weaknesses in planning and attention, but with a diverse level of severity. Conclusion: Implications of the different cognitive profiles of these diagnostic groups are discussed. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX).

  5. Conductivity of disordered polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinh, Pham Duc

    1996-08-01

    New upper and lower bounds are constructed for the macroscopic conductivity of polycrystals with random microstructure, given the principal conductivities of the constituent crystals (and the volume fractions of phases in case of a multiphase polycrystal). The new bounds lie inside the well-known Hashin-Shtrikman ones.

  6. ADHD (ATTENTION DEFFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER)--A TROUBLING ENTITY, SOMETIMES PERPETUATING DURING ADULT LIFE.

    PubMed

    Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a neurologic development disorder resulting in impairment of attention and inhibitory control, manifested as attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsiveness; symptoms should develop between age six and twelve and have to persist for more than six months. Approximately 30-50% of the diagnosed cases are manifesting the disorder during adulthood and 2.5-5% of the adults are suffering of ADHD. Genetics are important factors in ADHD, being involved in 75% of the cases, as well in the persistence of ADHD during adult life. Three subtypes of ADHD are described--one in which is predominating the attention deficit, one with predominant hyperactivity and impulsiveness and a third combined subtype. Diagnosis criteria in ADHD are established by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM criteria) and by World Health Organization. Differential diagnosis is mainly considering bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Management of ADHD is including behavioral therapies and medication, alone or combined. Stimulant medications such as amphetamine represent the therapy of choice, being effective in 80% of the cases. New data are underlying the need for following up of the cases during adulthood, since the risk for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, as well as the suicidal behavior is higher than in the general population.

  7. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an updated review of the essential facts.

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2014-11-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder that can affect individuals across the lifespan. It is associated with substantial heterogeneity in terms of aetiology, clinical presentation and treatment outcome and is the subject of extensive research. Because of this, it can be difficult for clinicians to stay up to date with the most relevant findings and know how best to respond to parents' questions and concerns about the disorder and interventions. This is a narrative review that aims to summarize key findings from recent research into ADHD and its treatment that clinicians can share with families in order to increase their knowledge about ADHD and intervention options. ADHD develops as a result of complex interplay between interdependent genetic and non-genetic factors. The disorder is associated with substantial impairments in functioning and poor long-term outcomes. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options are available for symptom management and to improve function, but functioning outcomes often fail to normalize in children with ADHD. Despite extensive advances in understanding this complex disorder, it is clear that there is still a long way to go. In particular, we address the need for future non-pharmacological interventions to be more specifically targeted for ADHD symptoms and its commonly associated functioning deficits in order to ensure the best long-term outcomes for children with ADHD. PMID:24725022

  8. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an updated review of the essential facts.

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2014-11-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder that can affect individuals across the lifespan. It is associated with substantial heterogeneity in terms of aetiology, clinical presentation and treatment outcome and is the subject of extensive research. Because of this, it can be difficult for clinicians to stay up to date with the most relevant findings and know how best to respond to parents' questions and concerns about the disorder and interventions. This is a narrative review that aims to summarize key findings from recent research into ADHD and its treatment that clinicians can share with families in order to increase their knowledge about ADHD and intervention options. ADHD develops as a result of complex interplay between interdependent genetic and non-genetic factors. The disorder is associated with substantial impairments in functioning and poor long-term outcomes. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options are available for symptom management and to improve function, but functioning outcomes often fail to normalize in children with ADHD. Despite extensive advances in understanding this complex disorder, it is clear that there is still a long way to go. In particular, we address the need for future non-pharmacological interventions to be more specifically targeted for ADHD symptoms and its commonly associated functioning deficits in order to ensure the best long-term outcomes for children with ADHD.

  9. ADHD (ATTENTION DEFFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER)--A TROUBLING ENTITY, SOMETIMES PERPETUATING DURING ADULT LIFE.

    PubMed

    Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a neurologic development disorder resulting in impairment of attention and inhibitory control, manifested as attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsiveness; symptoms should develop between age six and twelve and have to persist for more than six months. Approximately 30-50% of the diagnosed cases are manifesting the disorder during adulthood and 2.5-5% of the adults are suffering of ADHD. Genetics are important factors in ADHD, being involved in 75% of the cases, as well in the persistence of ADHD during adult life. Three subtypes of ADHD are described--one in which is predominating the attention deficit, one with predominant hyperactivity and impulsiveness and a third combined subtype. Diagnosis criteria in ADHD are established by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM criteria) and by World Health Organization. Differential diagnosis is mainly considering bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Management of ADHD is including behavioral therapies and medication, alone or combined. Stimulant medications such as amphetamine represent the therapy of choice, being effective in 80% of the cases. New data are underlying the need for following up of the cases during adulthood, since the risk for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, as well as the suicidal behavior is higher than in the general population. PMID:27125066

  10. Association of ADHD, Tics, and Anxiety with Dopamine Transporter ("DAT1") Genotype in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Hatchwell, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with high rates of psychiatric disturbance to include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder, and anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) functional polymorphism located in the…

  11. Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines acceptable for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Klein, B; Damiani-Taraba, G; Koster, A; Campbell, J; Scholz, C

    2015-03-01

    Children involved with child protection services (CPS) are diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at higher rates than the general population. Children with maltreatment histories are much more likely to have other factors contributing to behavioural and attentional regulation difficulties that may overlap with or mimic ADHD-like symptoms, including language and learning problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment difficulties, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. A higher number of children in the child welfare system are diagnosed with ADHD and provided with psychotropic medications under a group care setting compared with family-based, foster care and kinship care settings. However, children's behavioural trajectories change over time while in care. A reassessment in the approach to ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to confirmed (or suspected) maltreatment (e.g. neglect, abuse) is required. Diagnosis should be conducted within a multidisciplinary team and practice guidelines regarding ADHD diagnostic and management practices for children in CPS care are warranted both in the USA and in Canada. Increased education for caregivers, teachers and child welfare staff on the effects of maltreatment and often perplexing relationship with ADHD-like symptoms and co-morbid disorders is also necessary. Increased partnerships are needed to ensure the mental well-being of children with child protection involvement.

  12. Is adult ADHD a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder? Evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Asherson, Philip; Belsky, Daniel W; Corcoran, David L; Hammerle, Maggie; Harrington, Honalee; Hogan, Sean; Meier, Madeline; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Caspi, Avshalom

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite a prevailing assumption that adult ADHD is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder, no prospective-longitudinal study has described the childhoods of the adult-ADHD population. We report follow-back analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in adulthood, alongside follow-forward analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in childhood, in one cohort. Method Participants belonged to a representative birth cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972-73 and followed to age 38, with 95% retention. Symptoms of ADHD, associated clinical features, comorbid disorders, neuropsychological deficits, GWAS-derived polygenic risk, and life impairment indicators were assessed. Data sources were participants, parents, teachers, informants, neuropsychological testing, and administrative records. Adult ADHD diagnoses used DSM5 criteria, apart from onset-age and cross-setting corroboration, which were study outcomes. Results As expected, the childhood-ADHD group showed 6% prevalence, male excess, childhood comorbid disorders, neurocognitive deficits, polygenic risk, and, despite having outgrown their ADHD diagnosis, residual adult life impairment. As expected, the adult-ADHD group showed 3% prevalence, gender balance, adult substance dependence, adult life impairment, and treatment contact. Unexpectedly, the childhood-ADHD and adult-ADHD groups comprised virtually non-overlapping sets; 90% of adult-ADHD cases lacked a history of childhood ADHD. Also unexpectedly, the adult-ADHD group did not show tested neuropsychological deficits in childhood or adulthood, nor did they show polygenic risk for childhood ADHD. Conclusion Findings raise the possibility that adults presenting with the ADHD symptom picture may not have a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. If this finding is replicated, then the disorder's place in the classification system must be reconsidered, and research must investigate the etiology of adult ADHD. PMID:25998281

  13. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Breaux, Rosanna P; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance.

  14. The role of ASTN2 variants in childhood and adult ADHD, comorbid disorders and associated personality traits.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christine M; Lempp, Thomas; Nguyen, T Trang; Jacob, Christian P; Weissflog, Lena; Romanos, Marcel; Renner, Tobias J; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Rujescu, Dan; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Previous linkage and genome wide association (GWA) studies in ADHD indicated astrotactin 2 (ASTN2) as a candidate gene for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ASTN2 plays a key role in glial-guided neuronal migration. To investigate whether common variants in ASTN2 contribute to ADHD disorder risk, we tested 63 SNPs spanning ASTN2 for association with ADHD and specific comorbid disorders in two samples: 171 families of children with ADHD and their parents (N = 592), and an adult sample comprising 604 adult ADHD cases and 974 controls. The C-allele of rs12376789 in ASTN2 nominally increased the risk for ADHD in the trio sample (p = 0.025). This was not observed in the adult case-control sample alone, but retained in the combined sample (nominal p = 0.030). Several other SNPs showed nominally significant association with comorbid disorders, especially anxiety disorder, in the childhood and adult ADHD samples. Some ASTN2 variants were nominally associated with personality traits in the adult ADHD sample and overlapped with risk alleles for comorbid disorders in childhood. None of the findings survived correction for multiple testing, thus, results do not support a major role of common variants in ASTN2 in the pathogenesis of ADHD, its comorbid disorders or ADHD associated personality traits. PMID:27138430

  15. Psychobiological Basis of Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Steven K.; Hynd, George W.

    1993-01-01

    Examines psychobiological literature pertaining to conduct disorder (CD), with particular emphasis on how such information can increase understanding of youths representing undersocialized aggressive subtype of CD. Reviews literature from neuroanatomical, biochemical, psychophysiological, and pharmacological arenas. Outlines theoretical framework…

  16. [Awareness of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Greece].

    PubMed

    Pehlivanidis, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopment disorder of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. In adults, the clinical picture of ADHD is complex and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders is the rule. The documentation that the disorder had a childhood onset and the various comorbid symptomatologies present both in childhood and adult life represent the most influential obstacles for the accurate clinical diagnosis of the disorder. In 75% of cases with adult ADHD there is at least one coexisting comorbid disorder, with anxiety and mood disorders as well as substance abuse and impulse control disorders being the most prevalent ones. Adult psychiatrists have limited experience in the diagnosis, treatment and overall management of the disorder. Greece is a member of the European Network Adult ADHD (ENAA), founded in 2003, aiming to increase awareness of the disorder and to improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. A clinic where diagnosis as well as treatment recommendations are given after a thorough assessment of adult ADHD patients, is hosted at the First Department of Psychiatry of the Athens National and Kapodistian University. The clinic is in close collaboration with ENAA. The diagnosis of ADHD is given after a detailed evaluation of the patient, based on history taken, self-administered questionnaires and a specific psychiatric interview. The reliable trace of the symptoms' onset back in early childhood, current symptomatology, as well as its impact on at least two major areas of functioning (school, home, work or personal relationships) are pivotal for the assessment procedure. Special attention should be paid in the distinction of symptoms often coexisting with the core symptoms of the ADHD, such as emotional liability, incessant mental activity, avoidance of situations like queuing, especially when there is also frustration, from those indicating a comorbid

  17. Might the temperament be a bias in clinical study on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?: Novelty Seeking dimension as a core feature of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Di Trani, Michela; Porfirio, Maria Cristina; Giana, Grazia; Miano, Silvia; Andriola, Elda

    2015-06-30

    Some clinical studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to overlap those of studies on personality, particularly those on the Novelty Seeking trait (NS) as measured by the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of NS in clinical research on ADHD. We enroled 146 ADHD children (125 boys; mean age=9.61, S.D.=2.50) and 223 age- and gender-matched control children (178 boys; mean age=9.41, S.D.=2.30). All the parents filled in the JTCI for the evaluation of personality according to Cloninger׳s model. An exploratory factor analysis differentiated the NS items that concern "Impulsivity" (NS1) from those that concern other features (NS2). Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVAs) revealed significant differences between ADHD children and non-ADHD children in temperamental dimensions: the scores of ADHD children were higher than those of non-ADHD children in Total NS, NS1-Impulsivity and NS2. Our results show that the NS dimension of the JTCI in ADHD children is higher than in non-ADHD children, even when a correction is made for impulsivity items. This finding suggests that the NS trait plays a central role in ADHD diagnosis even when items referred to impulsivity are removed from the NS scale.

  18. Might the temperament be a bias in clinical study on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?: Novelty Seeking dimension as a core feature of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Di Trani, Michela; Porfirio, Maria Cristina; Giana, Grazia; Miano, Silvia; Andriola, Elda

    2015-06-30

    Some clinical studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to overlap those of studies on personality, particularly those on the Novelty Seeking trait (NS) as measured by the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of NS in clinical research on ADHD. We enroled 146 ADHD children (125 boys; mean age=9.61, S.D.=2.50) and 223 age- and gender-matched control children (178 boys; mean age=9.41, S.D.=2.30). All the parents filled in the JTCI for the evaluation of personality according to Cloninger׳s model. An exploratory factor analysis differentiated the NS items that concern "Impulsivity" (NS1) from those that concern other features (NS2). Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVAs) revealed significant differences between ADHD children and non-ADHD children in temperamental dimensions: the scores of ADHD children were higher than those of non-ADHD children in Total NS, NS1-Impulsivity and NS2. Our results show that the NS dimension of the JTCI in ADHD children is higher than in non-ADHD children, even when a correction is made for impulsivity items. This finding suggests that the NS trait plays a central role in ADHD diagnosis even when items referred to impulsivity are removed from the NS scale. PMID:25895488

  19. Emotional Processing in Male Adolescents with Childhood-Onset Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herpertz, Sabine C.; Huebner, Thomas; Marx, Ivo; Vloet, Timo D.; Fink, Gereon R.; Stoecker, Tony; Shah, N. Jon; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Background: Boys with early onset of conduct disorder (CD), most of whom also meet diagnostic criteria of a comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tend to exhibit high levels of aggression throughout development. While a number of functional neuroimaging studies on emotional processing have been performed in antisocial adults,…

  20. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD. PMID:24992694

  1. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD.

  2. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and with autism.

    PubMed

    Christakou, A; Murphy, C M; Chantiluke, K; Cubillo, A I; Smith, A B; Giampietro, V; Daly, E; Ecker, C; Robertson, D; Murphy, D G; Rubia, K

    2013-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often comorbid and share behavioural-cognitive abnormalities in sustained attention. A key question is whether this shared cognitive phenotype is based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies. To elucidate this question, we compared 20 boys with ADHD to 20 age and IQ matched ASD and 20 healthy boys using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a parametrically modulated vigilance task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention. ADHD and ASD boys had significantly reduced activation relative to controls in bilateral striato-thalamic regions, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal cortex. Both groups also displayed significantly increased precuneus activation relative to controls. Precuneus was negatively correlated with the DLPFC activation, and progressively more deactivated with increasing attention load in controls, but not patients, suggesting problems with deactivation of a task-related default mode network in both disorders. However, left DLPFC underactivation was significantly more pronounced in ADHD relative to ASD boys, which furthermore was associated with sustained performance measures that were only impaired in ADHD patients. ASD boys, on the other hand, had disorder-specific enhanced cerebellar activation relative to both ADHD and control boys, presumably reflecting compensation. The findings show that ADHD and ASD boys have both shared and disorder-specific abnormalities in brain function during sustained attention. Shared deficits were in fronto-striato-parietal activation and default mode suppression. Differences were a more severe DLPFC dysfunction in ADHD and a disorder-specific fronto-striato-cerebellar dysregulation in ASD.

  3. Cortisol levels at baseline and under stress in adolescent males with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, with or without comorbid conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Northover, Clare; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate; Fairchild, Graeme; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2016-08-30

    Reported findings on cortisol reactivity to stress in young people with ADHD are very variable. This inconsistency may be explained by high rates of comorbidity with Conduct Disorder (CD). The present study examined cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in a large sample of adolescent males with ADHD (n=202), with or without a comorbid diagnosis of Conduct Disorder (CD). Associations between stress reactivity and callous-unemotional traits and internalizing symptoms were also assessed. The ADHD only (n=95) and ADHD+CD (n=107) groups did not differ in baseline cortisol, but the ADHD+CD group showed significantly reduced cortisol stress reactivity relative to the ADHD only group. Regression analyses indicated that ADHD symptom severity predicted reduced baseline cortisol, whereas CD symptom severity predicted increased baseline cortisol (ADHD β=-0.24, CD β=0.16, R=0.26) and reduced cortisol stress reactivity (β=-0.17, R=0.17). Callous-unemotional traits and internalizing symptoms were not significantly related to baseline or stress-induced cortisol. Impaired cortisol reactivity is hypothesised to reflect fearlessness and is associated with deficient emotion regulation and inhibition of aggressive and antisocial behaviour. Consequently, it may partly explain the greater severity of problems seen in those with comorbid ADHD and CD. PMID:27280522

  4. Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Children with Severe Autistic Disorders and Symptoms of ADHD: An Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnsil, Chawanun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with severe autistic disorder. Method: Children with severe autistic disorder who had symptoms of ADHD were given atomoxetine for 10 weeks. The efficacy of atomoxetine was evaluated by using the…

  5. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-02-24

    Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567364

  6. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a pyridoxine-dependent condition: urinary diagnostic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Dolina, S; Margalit, D; Malitsky, S; Rabinkov, A

    2014-01-01

    The data obtained in children with different forms of epilepsy allowed us to consider epilepsy as an inborn error of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) metabolism (Dolina et al., 2012). Mutual interconnections between ADHD and epilepsy indicate that such an approach is reasonable for ADHD. To check such an assumption we analyzed in ADHD patients the same parameters of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent tryptophan (TRP) degradation, which were analyzed in epileptic children. The level of TRP and concentrations of compounds formed or metabolized by TRP degradation, the ratios between some of them, and the level of 4-pyridoxic acid were HPLC detected in ADHD children and healthy controls. The data obtained, including low values of 4PA/TRP, IND/TRP and IND/KYN ratios, have evidenced dramatically impaired activity of pyridoxine-dependent enzymes in ADHD patients. Ritalin treatment did not change the general pattern of TRP degradation, but still created a kind of balance between some of detected metabolites. However, the 4PA/TRP, IND/TRP and IND/KYN ratios remained as low as in untreated patients, keeping the importance of diagnostic markers. Almost identical parameters of TRP degradation in untreated ADHD and epileptic patients allow to assume that inborn disorders of vitamin B6 metabolism are the common biochemical background of both diseases. The disturbed activity of PLP dependent enzymes apparently forms those profound disturbances of neurotransmitter systems, which are inherent in ADHD: low concentrations of monoamines and disordered amino acid metabolism. If vitamin B6 disorders are the core biochemical disturbances inherent in ADHD, then the long-term pyridoxine treatment is pathogenetically based replacement therapy of the disease. According to our data, multi-year pyridoxine treatment normalizes completely the pattern of ADHD behavior, without causing any serious side effects. PMID:24321736

  7. Response inhibition in children with DSM-IV subtypes of AD/HD and related disruptive disorders: the role of reward.

    PubMed

    Scheres, A; Oosterlaan, J; Sergeant, J A

    2001-09-01

    The current study had four aims: (a) to replicate previous findings of slow response inhibition in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), (b) to explore whether poor response inhibition in children with AD/HD is a core problem or rather a result of an underlying problem related to reward, (c) to investigate the specificity of poor response inhibition and the role of reward in relation to AD/HD, and (d) to study whether findings would be different for three subtypes of AD/HD. In order to address these issues, a stop paradigm was administered under a reward condition and under a nonreward condition to an AD/HD group (n=24), an Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)/Conduct Disorder (CD) group (n=21), a comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD group (n=27), and a normal control (NC) group (n=41). Firstly, contrary to prediction, none of the Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD) groups differed from the NC group with respect to the speed of the inhibition process. Secondly, it was shown that children with AD/HD and children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD, but not children with ODD/CD alone, slowed down more dramatically in the reward condition than normal controls. This finding was interpreted as a strategy to increase the chance of being rewarded in children with AD/HD and children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD, but not in children with pure ODD/CD. Finally, analysis of AD/HD subtypes did not change the main findings of this study.

  8. Intra-individual variability in ADHD, autism spectrum disorders and Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Hilde M; Grasman, Raoul P P P; Verté, Sylvie; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert; van Kammen, Serena M; Sergeant, Joseph A

    2008-11-01

    The potential for response variability to serve as an endophenotype for attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) rests, in part, upon the development of reliable and valid methods to decompose variability. This study investigated the specificity of intra-individual variability (IIV) in 53 children with ADHD by comparing them with 25 children with high functioning autism (HFA), 32 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), who also were comorbid for ADHD (ASD+ADHD), 21 children with Tourette's syndrome (TS), and 85 typically developing controls (TD). In order to decompose the variability of the reaction times, we applied three distinct techniques: ex-Gaussian modeling, intra-individual variability analysis, and spectral analysis. Our data revealed that children with HFA and children with ASD+ADHD exhibited substantial IIV compared with ADHD and TD children. We argue that: (1) all three methods lead to a single consistent conclusion; (2) careful documentation of the analytic steps used in spectral analysis is mandatory for comparison between studies; (3) the presence of comorbidities may constitute an important factor in the observed response variability in previous studies of ADHD.

  9. On the link between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity: do comorbid oppositional defiant and conduct disorder matter?

    PubMed

    Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Neidhard, John; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Becker, Katja

    2014-07-01

    The link between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and elevated body weight/obesity can be regarded as well established. Because oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD) has also been found to be associated with these characteristics and ADHD and ODD/CD often occur comorbidly, we investigated whether ODD/CD and ADHD are independently linked with body weight and obesity. The clinical records of 360 children, 257 (6-12 years) with diagnoses of ADHD, ODD/CD, or comorbid ADHD and ODD/CD and 103 children with adjustment disorder (as a control group) constituted the database. All children were seen for the first time in two outpatient psychiatric clinics. Associations of the psychiatric diagnoses (ADHD present vs. not present; ODD/CD present vs. not present) with the standard deviation scores (according to German reference data) of the child's body mass index (BMI-SDS) and presence of obesity were analyzed by ANCOVA and hierarchical logistic regression analysis, respectively. Children with ODD/CD showed higher BMI-SDS (F = 7.67, p < 0.006) and rate of obesity (Wald = 4.12, p < 0.05, OR = 2.43) while controlling for ADHD comorbidity. While adjusting for ODD/CD comorbidity, the links between ADHD and BMI-SDS or obesity did not reach statistical significance. Given a cross validation of these findings, future (preferably prospective longitudinal) research should analyze the mediating mechanism between the psychiatric conditions and obesity. This knowledge could be helpful for preventive interventions.

  10. Detection of simulated ADHD and reading disorder using symptom validity measures.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Thomas W; Frazier, Allison R; Busch, Robyn M; Kerwood, Melissa A; Demaree, Heath A

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have typically focused on the ability of cognitive symptom validity tests to identify cognitive symptom exaggeration in the context of head injury or memory loss. Few published studies have examined the detection of simulated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or reading disorder (RD). The present study examined the accuracy of symptom validity measures in the detection of simulated ADHD and RD. Results indicated that several commonly used symptom validity measures show good validity for detecting simulated ADHD and RD. Total Validity Indicator Profile (VIP) scores and hard item accuracy score from the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT) were the most accurate at distinguishing simulation of ADHD and RD from adequate effort. Percentages of control participants and participants in simulation conditions scoring below a specified cut score are provided to give clinicians an estimate of the simulator (true) positive and control (false) positive rates.

  11. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat neglected in the literature and mostly omitted from reviews on ADHD. There is therefore a lack of integrative reviews on the up-to-date evidence on neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits of timing in ADHD and their significance with respect to other behavioural and cognitive deficits. The present review provides a synthetic overview of the evidence for neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits in ADHD in timing functions, and integrates this evidence with the cognitive neuroscience literature of the neural substrates of timing. The review demonstrates that ADHD patients are consistently impaired in three major timing domains, in motor timing, perceptual timing and temporal foresight, comprising several timeframes spanning milliseconds, seconds, minutes and longer intervals up to years. The most consistent impairments in ADHD are found in sensorimotor synchronisation, duration discrimination, reproduction and delay discounting. These neurocognitive findings of timing deficits in ADHD are furthermore supported by functional neuroimaging studies that show dysfunctions in the key inferior fronto-striato-cerebellar and fronto-parietal networks that mediate the timing functions. Although there is evidence that these timing functions are inter-correlated with other executive functions that are well established to be impaired in the disorder, in particular working memory, attention, and to a lesser degree inhibitory control, the key timing deficits appear to survive when these functions are controlled for, suggesting independent cognitive deficits in the temporal domain. There is furthermore strong evidence for an association between timing deficits and behavioural

  12. Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths

    PubMed Central

    Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Blum, Kenneth; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Meshkin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years supporting this statement, there are still many misconceptions about ADHD. These include believing the disorder does not exist, that all children have symptoms of ADHD, that if it does exist it is grossly over-diagnosed and over-treated, and that the treatment is dangerous and leads to a propensity to drug addiction. Since most misconceptions contain elements of truth, where does the reality lie? Results We have reviewed the literature to evaluate some of the claims and counter-claims. The evidence suggests that ADHD is primarily a polygenic disorder involving at least 50 genes, including those encoding enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. Because of its polygenic nature, ADHD is often accompanied by other behavioral abnormalities. It is present in adults as well as children, but in itself it does not necessarily impair function in adult life; associated disorders, however, may do so. A range of treatment options is reviewed and the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of standard drug treatments are considered. Conclusion The genes so far implicated in ADHD account for only part of the total picture. Identification of the remaining genes and characterization of their interactions is likely to establish ADHD firmly as a biological disorder and to lead to better methods of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:16375770

  13. Review of the possible relationship and hypothetical links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the simple sleep related movement disorders, parasomnias, hypersomnias, and circadian rhythm disorders.

    PubMed

    Walters, Arthur S; Silvestri, Rosalia; Zucconi, Marco; Chandrashekariah, Ranju; Konofal, Eric

    2008-12-15

    Recent evidence has been accumulating that the sleep of individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not only disrupted in a nonspecific way but that ADHD has an increased association with simple sleep related movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movements in sleep (RLS/PLMS), rhythmic movement disorder (body rocking and head banging), and parasomnias, such as disorders of partial arousal (sleep walking, sleep terrors, and confusional arousals). In addition increased associations have been reported between ADHD and hypersomnias such as narcolepsy and sleep apnea as well as circadian rhythm disorders, such as delayed sleep phase syndrome. These relationships are reviewed and the implications for such associations are explored. Patients with sleep disorders should be queried about the symptoms of ADHD and vice versa. PMID:19110891

  14. Use of Gilliam Asperger's disorder scale in differentiating high and low functioning autism and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L; Murray, Michael J; Morrow, Jill D; Yurich, Kirsten K L; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about the validity of Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale (GADS), although it is widely used. This study of 199 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder, 195 with low functioning autism, and 83 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed high classification accuracy (autism vs. ADHD) for clinicians' GADS Quotients (92%), and somewhat lower accuracy (77%) for parents' Quotients. Both children with high and low functioning autism had clinicians' Quotients (M=99 and 101, respectively) similar to the Asperger's Disorder mean of 100 for the GADS normative sample. Children with high functioning autism scored significantly higher on the cognitive patterns subscale than children with low functioning autism, and the latter had higher scores on the remaining subscales: social interaction, restricted patterns of behavior, and pragmatic skills. Using the clinicians' Quotient and Cognitive Patterns score, 70% of children were correctly identified as having high or low functioning autism or ADHD.

  15. Detecting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults with intellectual disability The use of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS).

    PubMed

    La Malfa, G; Lassi, S; Bertelli, M; Pallanti, S; Albertini, G

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. It is also thought that ADHD is more prevalent in the field of intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population, but there are not many experimental studies. Since ADHD diagnosis in adults is more difficult, specific rating scales correlated to the main diagnostic systems have been created but have not been applied to people with ID. This work presents an application of an ADHD screening rating scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) screening version to 46 adults with ID. The resulting prevalence of "ADHD-positive" was 19.6%. These data are in accord with results reported in the general adult literature. Our data suggest that ID and attention disorders can co-occur. Therefore, not only can ADHD be a valid psychiatric diagnosis for a child with ID but for an adult with ID as well. The CAARS can be considered a useful clinical instrument to survey ADHD in ID. PMID:17416484

  16. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schoolchildren in Athens, Greece. Association of ADHD subtypes with social and academic impairment.

    PubMed

    Skounti, M; Giannoukas, S; Dimitriou, E; Nikolopoulou, S; Linardakis, E; Philalithis, A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and academic impairment in 6- to 11-year-old children residents of Athens, Greece. We screened 603 elementary schoolchildren following grades first to sixth. A two-stage screening process was employed including a standardized ADHD test for teachers and the Teacher Report Form (TRF). Among the 603 children, 36 (6.0%) met the study criteria for ADHD. The estimated prevalence was 8% for boys and 3.8% for girls. The most prevalent subtype of ADHD was the combined type (3.8%), followed by the ADHD inattentive (1.7%) and the ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (0.5%). The ADHD-combined type was strongly associated with clinical impairment in both areas of functioning (academic and social), where the ADHD inattentive subtype was found to be strongly associated with academic problems. The ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was the less prevalent and the less impaired subtype in this study. None of the 36 children had been previously diagnosed as having ADHD or other primary disorder. In conclusion, the prevalence of ADHD among schoolchildren in Athens and the risk factors were found to be comparable to those reported in other countries worldwide. Additionally, impairment in social and academic functioning was strongly associated with the subtypes of the disorder. PMID:21432598

  17. Comorbidity and correlates of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in 6-8-year-old children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mulraney, Melissa; Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Hazell, Philip; Nicholson, Jan M; Anderson, Vicki; Efron, Daryl; Silk, Timothy J; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the nature and impact of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) including its co-occurrence with other comorbidities and its independent influence on daily functioning. Children with ADHD (6-8 years) were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools, using a 2-stage screening (parent and teacher Conners 3 ADHD index) and case-confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV; [DISC-IV]) procedure. Proxy DMDD diagnosis was confirmed via items from the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and major depressive disorder modules of the DISC-IV. Outcome domains included comorbid mental health disorders, academic functioning, social functioning, child and family quality of life, parent mental health, and parenting behaviors. Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to compare children with comorbid ADHD and DMDD and children with ADHD without DMDD. Thirty-nine out of 179 children (21.8 %) with ADHD had comorbid DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD had a high prevalence of ODD (89.7 %) and any anxiety disorder (41.0 %). Children with ADHD and DMDD had poorer self-control and elevated bullying behaviors than children with ADHD without DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD were similar to children with ADHD in the other domains measured when taking into account other comorbidities including ODD. One in five children with ADHD in their second year of formal schooling met criteria for DMDD. There was a very high diagnostic overlap with ODD; however, the use of a proxy DMDD diagnosis containing items from the ODD module of the DISC-IV may have artificially inflated the comorbidity rates. DMDD added to the burden of ADHD particularly in the area of social functioning. PMID:26122202

  18. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. Patients: One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. Interventions: The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Measurements and Results: Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for

  19. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Diagnosis: An Activation-Executive Model

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Celestino; González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Areces, Debora; González-Pienda, Julio A.

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit with, or without, hyperactivity and impulsivity (ADHD) is categorized as neuro-developmental disorder. ADHD is a common disorder in childhood and one of the most frequent conditions affecting school ages. This disorder is characterized by a persistent behavioral pattern associated with inattention, over-activity (or hyperactivity), and difficulty in controlling impulses. Current research suggests the existence of certain patterns of cortical activation and executive control, which could more objectively identify ADHD. Through the use of a risk and resilience model, this research aimed to analyze the interaction between brain activation variables (nirHEG and Q-EEG) and executive variables (Continuous performance test -CPT-) in subjects with ADHD. The study involved 499 children, 175 females (35.1%) and 324 males (64.91%); aged from 6 to 16 years (M = 11.22, SD = 1.43). Two hundred and fifty six of the children had been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and 243 were without ADHD. For the analysis of this objective, a causal model was designed to include the following different measures of task-execution: CPT TOVA (omissions, commissions, response time, variability, D prime and the ADHD Index); electrical activity (using Q-EEG); and blood-flow oxygenation activity (using nirHEG). The causal model was tested by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The model that had been constructed was based upon three general assumptions: (1) There are different causal models for children with ADHD and those without ADHD; (2) The activation measures influence students’ executive performance; and (3) There are measurable structural differences between the ADHD and control group models (executive and activation). In general, the results showed that: (a) activation measures influence executive patterns differently, (b) the relationship between activation variables (nirHEG and Q-EEG) depends on the brain zone being studied, (c

  20. Brief Report: Pervasive Developmental Disorder Can Evolve into ADHD--Case Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Deborah; Dixon, Pamela; Paul, Jennifer; Levin, Harriet

    2005-01-01

    Despite prominent attentional symptoms in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) the relationship between PDD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has received little direct examination. In addition, outcome studies of children with PDD often focus on language, educational placement, or adaptive skills, but seldom on loss of the…

  1. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV and ICD-10 Criteria for ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung I.; Schachar, Russell J.; Chen, Shirley X.; Ornstein, Tisha J.; Charach, Alice; Barr, Cathy; Ickowicz, Abel

    2008-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to compare the predictive validity of the two main diagnostic schemata for childhood hyperactivity--attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual"-IV) and hyperkinetic disorder (HKD; "International Classification of Diseases"-10th Edition). Methods: Diagnostic criteria for…

  2. Effects of Methylphenidate on Quality of Life in Children with Both Developmental Coordination Disorder and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flapper, Boudien C. T.; Schoemaker, Marina M

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) gives a more complete picture of day-to-day functioning and treatment effects than behavioural rating alone. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of the combined diagnoses of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and…

  3. Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for ADHD in Children with Comorbid Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sverd, Jeffrey; Nolan, Edith E.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (ages 6-12 years) with Tourette's syndrome (96%) or chronic motor tic disorder (4%). Method: Two cohorts of prepubertal children (N = 71) received placebo and three doses of…

  4. The Co-Occurrence of Reading Disorder and ADHD: Epidemiology, Treatment, Psychosocial Impact, and Economic Burden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Chris C.; Gelhorn, Heather L.; Bell, Jill A.; Classi, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of reading disorder (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has received increasing attention. This review summarizes the epidemiology, treatment strategies, psychosocial impact, and economic burden associated with the co-occurrence of these conditions. Common genetic and neuropsychological deficits may partially…

  5. Parental Recall of Pre-School Behavior Related to ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Eyup Sabri; Somer, Oya; Amado, Sonia; Thompson, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of Age of Onset Criterion (AOC) to the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorder. For this purpose, a 10-item Likert-type Parent Assessment of Pre-school Behavior Scale (PARPS), developed by the experimenters, was used to examine the presence…

  6. Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)☆

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Charlotte; Mash, Eric J.; Miller, Natalie; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult’s ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD — cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined. PMID:22459785

  7. Hemodynamic response of children with attention-deficit and hyperactive disorder (ADHD) to emotional facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Nakato, Emi; Kanazawa, So; Shimamura, Keiichi; Sakuta, Yuiko; Sakuta, Ryoichi; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulty recognizing facial expressions. They identify angry expressions less accurately than typically developing (TD) children, yet little is known about their atypical neural basis for the recognition of facial expressions. Here, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to examine the distinctive cerebral hemodynamics of ADHD and TD children while they viewed happy and angry expressions. We measured the hemodynamic responses of 13 ADHD boys and 13 TD boys to happy and angry expressions at their bilateral temporal areas, which are sensitive to face processing. The ADHD children showed an increased concentration of oxy-Hb for happy faces but not for angry faces, while TD children showed increased oxy-Hb for both faces. Moreover, the individual peak latency of hemodynamic response in the right temporal area showed significantly greater variance in the ADHD group than in the TD group. Such atypical brain activity observed in ADHD boys may relate to their preserved ability to recognize a happy expression and their difficulty recognizing an angry expression. We firstly demonstrated that NIRS can be used to detect atypical hemodynamic response to facial expressions in ADHD children.

  8. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Scassellati, Catia; Zanardini, Roberta; Tiberti, Alessandra; Pezzani, Marco; Valenti, Vera; Effedri, Paola; Filippini, Elena; Conte, Stefano; Ottolini, Alberto; Gennarelli, Massimo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella

    2014-03-01

    It has been proposed that the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be involved in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiopathogenesis. Alterations in BDNF serum levels have been observed in childhood/adulthood neurodevelopmental pathologies, but no evidence is available for BDNF serum concentrations in ADHD. The study includes 45 drug-naïve ADHD children and 45 age-sex matched healthy subjects. Concentration of serum BDNF was determined by the ELISA method. BDNF serum levels in patients with ADHD were not different from those of controls (mean ± SD; ADHD: 39.33 ± 10.41 ng/ml; controls: 38.82 ± 8.29 ng/ml, t = -0.26, p = 0.80). Our findings indicate no alteration of serum BDNF levels in untreated patients with ADHD. A further stratification for cognitive, neuropsychological and psychopathological assessment in a larger sample could be useful to clarify the role of BDNF in the endophenotype characterization of ADHD.

  9. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Discriminate Autism Spectrum Disorder from ADHD in Adult Patients with and without Comorbid Substance Use Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizoo, Bram B.; van den Brink, Wim; Gorissen-van Eenige, Marielle; Koeter, Maarten W.; van Wijngaarden-Cremers, Patricia J. M.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2009-01-01

    It is unknown whether the Autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) can discriminate between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with or without comorbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). ANOVA's were used to analyse the mean AQ (sub)scores of 129 adults with ASD or ADHD. We applied receiver operating…

  10. From ABCs to ADHD: The Role of Schooling in the Construction of Behaviour Disorder and Production of Disorderly Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Linda J.

    2008-01-01

    Discussion of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the media, and thus much popular discourse, typically revolves around the possible causes of disruptive behaviour and the "behaviourally disordered" child. The usual suspects--too much television and video games, food additives, bad parenting, a lack of discipline, and single…

  11. Attention Deficit Hyper Activity Disorder (ADHD) and Stress: A Mutual Relationship between Children and Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Samiei, Mercedeh; Daneshmand, Reza; Keramatfar, Rasul; Khooshabi, Katayoon; Amiri, Nasrin; Farhadi, Yadollah; Farzadfard, Seyedeh Zeinab; Kachooi, Hamid; Samadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity which may result in mothers' stress. The current study aims to compare stress among 45 mothers of ADHD children who had referred to “Rofeydeh psychiatric center” with 45 mothers of normal children. Methods: Brief demographic researcher-made questionnaire, Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF) were completed for each mother and child. Results: The results showed that except the component of acceptance, ADHD children had more problems in the field of attention compared with normal children. Mothers of ADHD children had also more stress compared with mothers of normal children. Discussion: ADHD can impair mothers' mental health by inducing stress and this issue has important clinical and treatment implications. Specific treatment programs should be designed and implemented in Iran for the mothers of ADHD children to reduce stress among them and therefore, improve their mental health status. PMID:27307956

  12. The human figure drawing as related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Perets-Dubrovsky, Sharon; Kaveh, Michelle; Deutsh-Castel, Tsofia; Cohen, Ayala; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2010-06-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of the human figure drawing test among children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or learning disability, boys (n = 136) between the ages of 8 and 10 years, with either or both ADHD and learning disability, were included. Two drawings were used: person and house, tree and person. The drawings were analyzed using the Koppitz emotional and developmental scales. Conners teacher and parent rating scales and the Matching Familiar Figure Test were administered. High intertest reliability for the emotional scale and a significant negative correlation between the 2 scales were found. The reported anxiety and learning were significantly correlated with the cognitive score. A combination of cognitive and emotional items resulted in 67% correct classification of ADHD and learning disability. This test can be used as part of the assessment of ADHD/learning disability. PMID:20332384

  13. Effective management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) through structured re-assessment: the Dundee ADHD Clinical Care Pathway.

    PubMed

    Coghill, David; Seth, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become a major aspect of the work of child and adolescent psychiatrists and paediatricians in the UK. In Scotland, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services were required to address an increase in referral rates and changes in evidence-based medicine and guidelines without additional funding. In response to this, clinicians in Dundee have, over the past 15 years, pioneered the use of integrated psychiatric, paediatric, nursing, occupational therapy, dietetic and psychological care with the development of a clearly structured, evidence-based assessment and treatment pathway to provide effective therapy for children and adolescents with ADHD. The Dundee ADHD Clinical Care Pathway (DACCP) uses standard protocols for assessment, titration and routine monitoring of clinical care and treatment outcomes, with much of the clinical work being nurse led. The DACCP has received international attention and has been used as a template for service development in many countries. This review describes the four key stages of the clinical care pathway (referral and pre-assessment; assessment, diagnosis and treatment planning; initiating treatment; and continuing care) and discusses translation of the DACCP into other healthcare systems. Tools for healthcare professionals to use or adapt according to their own clinical settings are also provided. PMID:26587055

  14. CBCL Clinical Scales Discriminate ADHD Youth with Structured-Interview Derived Diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kaiser, Roselinde; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between the clinical scales of the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in a large sample of youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The sample consisted of 101 girls and 106 boys ages 6 to 17 with ADHD. Conditional…

  15. Prevention of Serious Conduct Problems in Youth with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Villodas, Miguel T.; Pfiffner, Linda J.; McBurnett, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss issues in the prevention of serious conduct problems among children and adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We begin by reviewing research on the common genetic and environmental etiological factors, developmental trajectories, characteristics, and impairments associated with ADHD and comorbid Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders. Next, we present empirically-based models for intervention with children and adolescents with ADHD that are at risk of developing serious conduct problems and detail the evidence supporting these models. Researchers have demonstrated the utility of medication and psychosocial intervention approaches to treat youth with these problems, but current evidence appears to support the superiority of multi-modal treatments that include both approaches. Future directions for researchers are discussed. PMID:23082741

  16. College Students with ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation College Students with ADHD Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... No. 111; Updated December 2013 Many students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) attend college. College students with ADHD face ...

  17. The Comorbidity of ADHD and Eating Disorders in a Nationally Representative Sample.

    PubMed

    Bleck, Jennifer R; DeBate, Rita D; Olivardia, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests a comorbidity of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and subsequent eating disorders. However, most studies have assessed this comorbidity among patient populations as opposed to nationally representative samples and have not explored differences by subtype of each disorder. The current study aims to investigate the association between both clinical (i.e., diagnosed) and subclinical (i.e., presence of behaviors but not all diagnostic criteria) ADHD and eating disorders via a secondary data analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 12,262). Results reveal that those with clinical ADHD are more likely to experience (a) clinical eating disorder, (b) clinical-level binging and/or purging behaviors, and (c) clinical-level restrictive behaviors. Those with subclinical ADHD (both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive) were more likely to experience subclinical binging and/or purging behaviors but not subclinical restrictive behaviors. Implications of study findings pertain to both secondary/targeted prevention of eating disorders and tertiary prevention via patient-specific treatment plans. PMID:25007864

  18. Which Kindergarten Children Are at Greatest Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Conduct Disorder Symptomatology as Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Lin, Yu-chu

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify which kindergarten children are simultaneously at risk of moderate or severe symptomatology in both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) as adolescents. These risk factor estimates have not been previously available. We conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses of multiinformant…

  19. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the early years: diagnostic issues and educational relevance.

    PubMed

    Schmiedeler, Sandra; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    In this study we discuss implications of the dimensional versus categorical approach in the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and focus on the educational relevance of an early assessment. In a longitudinal study in a German community sample we investigated the development of ADHD symptoms from kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 as well as the association to pre-academic skills and later academic performance. At three time points in kindergarten, children (original sample N = 793; Mn age 4 years 10 months) were assessed in regard to school-relevant precursors of reading, spelling and mathematical abilities; ADHD symptoms were rated by parents and preschool teachers. In elementary school academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics was measured with standardized tests. Results show that stability of ADHD symptoms during preschool was high considering the dimensional approach, whereas in regard to the categorical classification many children crossing the cut-off point at one measurement point did not do so at the next assessment. Furthermore, preschool ADHD symptoms were negatively correlated with all school-relevant precursors. This was more pronounced for symptoms of inattention than for hyperactivity/impulsivity. Observing later development, preschool ADHD symptoms predicted academic achievement in mathematics and reading at the end of Grade 1 even after individual differences in nonverbal intelligence and specific precursors had been statistically controlled for. PMID:23785052

  20. The impact of distractions on young adult drivers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Fried, Ronna

    2010-05-01

    Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk for being involved in automobile crashes. Although driving simulators have been used to identify and understand underlying behaviors, prior research has focused largely on single-task, non-distracted driving. However, in-vehicle infotainment and communications systems often vie for a driver's attention, potentially increasing the risk of collision. This paper explores the impact of secondary tasks on individuals with and without ADHD, a medical condition known to affect the regulation of attention. Data are drawn from a validated driving simulation representing periods before, during, and after participation in a secondary cognitive task. A hands-free phone task was employed in a high stimulus, urban setting and a working memory task during low stimulus, highway driving. Drivers with ADHD had more difficulty on the telephone task, yet did not show an increased decrement in driving performance greater than control participants. In contrast, participants with ADHD showed a larger decline in driving performance than controls during a secondary task in a low demand setting. The results suggest that the interaction of the nature of the driving context and the secondary task has a significant influence on how drivers with ADHD allocate attention and, in-turn, on the relative impact on driving performance. Drivers with ADHD appear particularly susceptible to distraction during periods of low stimulus driving.

  1. Widespread Cortical Thinning Is a Robust Anatomical Marker for Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Narr, Katherine L; Woods, Roger P; Lin, James; Kim, John; Phillips, Owen R; Del'Homme, Melissa; Caplan, Rochelle; Toga, Arthur W; McCracken, James T; Levitt, Jennifer G

    2009-01-01

    Objective This cross-sectional study sought to confirm the presence and regional profile of previously reported changes in laminar cortical thickness in children and adolescents with Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) compared to typically developing healthy subjects. Method High-resolution MR images were obtained from 22 (19 male, 3 female; mean age: 11.7 years) children and adolescents with ADHD and 22 age and sex matched healthy control subjects (mean age: 11.7 years). Brain tissue volumes were estimated for each subject. Cortical pattern matching methods were used to sample measures of laminar thickness at high spatial frequency across homologous regions of cortex. Volume and thickness measures were compared across diagnostic groups with and without controlling for general intelligence. False discovery rate (FDR) correction confirmed regional results. Results Subjects with ADHD exhibited significant reductions in overall brain volume, gray matter volume and mean cortical thickness compared to healthy controls, while white matter volumes were significantly increased in ADHD. Highly significant cortical thinning (FDR-corrected p < .0006) was observed over large areas of frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital association cortices and aspects of motor cortex, but not within primary sensory regions. Conclusions Cortical thickness reductions present a robust neuroanatomical marker for child and adolescent ADHD. Observations of widespread cortical thinning expand upon earlier cross-sectional findings and provide further evidence to support that the neurobiological underpinnings of ADHD extend beyond prefrontal and subcortical circuits. PMID:19730275

  2. Study Urges Treatment of Parents of ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Treatment for many young children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) should also include treatment for their parents, according to new research from the University of Maryland's ADHD Program. In conducting one of the first systematic studies of pre-school children with ADHD, the research team found that parents of children with…

  3. Medications Do Not Necessarily Normalize Cognition in ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gualtieri, C. Thomas; Johnson, Lynda G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although ADHD medications are effective for the behavioral components of the disorder, little information exists concerning their effects on cognition, especially in community samples. Method: A cross-sectional study of ADHD patients treated with three different ADHD drugs was conducted. Patients' performance on a computerized…

  4. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Review.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Belen; Boes, Aaron D; Laganiere, Simon; Rotenberg, Alexander; Jeurissen, Danique; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in the pediatric population. The clinical management of ADHD is currently limited by a lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers and inadequate therapy for a minority of patients who do not respond to standard pharmacotherapy. There is optimism that noninvasive brain stimulation may help to address these limitations. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation are 2 methods of noninvasive brain stimulation that modulate cortical excitability and brain network activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used diagnostically to probe cortical neurophysiology, whereas daily use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation can induce long-lasting and potentially therapeutic changes in targeted networks. In this review, we highlight research showing the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation in pediatric ADHD. We also discuss the safety and ethics of using these tools in the pediatric population. PMID:26661481

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. The cognitive genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): sustained attention as a candidate phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bellgrove, Mark A; Hawi, Ziarih; Gill, Michael; Robertson, Ian H

    2006-08-01

    Here we describe the application of cognitive genetics to the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive genetics owes much to the pioneering work of cognitive neuropsychologists such as John Marshall, whose careful observations of cognitive dissociations between brain-lesioned patients greatly advanced the theoretical understanding of normal cognitive function. These theories have in turn helped to constrain linkages between candidate genes and cognitive processes and thus help to drive the relatively new field of cognitive genetics in a hypothesis-driven fashion. We examined the relationship between sustained attention deficits in ADHD and genetic variation in a catecholamine-related gene, dopamine beta hydroxylase (DbetaH). DBH encodes the enzyme that converts dopamine to noradrenaline and is crucial to catecholamine regulation. A polymorphism with the DBH gene has been associated with ADHD. In fifty-two children with ADHD, we examined whether variation in the Taq I DBH gene polymorphism was related to sustained attention performance. Participants performed the Sustained Attention to Response Test (SART). Performance on the SART discriminates ADHD from control children, and in imaging work, is associated with right frontoparietal activation. A significant effect of DBH genotype was found on SART performance measures. Children possessing two copies of the ADHD-associated risk allele (A2) had significantly poorer sustained attention than those ADHD children who did not possess this allele or a non-genotyped control group. The DBH gene may contribute to the susceptibility for ADHD, in part because of its varying effects on the development of brain mechanisms mediating sustained attention.

  7. Interactions among attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and problem gambling in a probabilistic reward-learning task.

    PubMed

    Abouzari, Mehdi; Oberg, Scott; Gruber, Aaron; Tata, Matthew

    2015-09-15

    Problem gambling is thought to be highly comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that the neurobiological pathologies underlying problem gambling overlap with those in ADHD. In this study, we used a simplified computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess differences in reinforcement-driven choice adaptation among participants with pathological gambling and/or ADHD. The task contained two choice options with different net payouts over the session; a good bet that resulted in a win of +50 points on 60% of trials (and -50 points on 40%), and a bad bet that resulted in +100 points on 40% of the trials (and -100 points on 60%). We quantified participants' preference for the good bet over the session and their sensitivity to reinforcement. Both the control subjects and medicated ADHD nongamblers significantly increased the proportion of good bets over the 400-trial session. Subjects with problem gambling performed worse than controls and ADHD nongamblers, but better than our limited sample of unmedicated ADHD gamblers. Control subjects, medicated ADHD nongamblers, and unmedicated ADHD nongamblers tended to tolerate losses following good bets, whereas unmedicated ADHD gamblers tended to tolerate losses following bad bets. These data reveal that ADHD, particularly when treated with medication, is not associated with poor choices on the IGT, but may exacerbate pathological choices in problem gamblers. It seems that stabilization of dopamine signaling that occurs when ADHD is treated is itself also a treatment for certain forms of problem gambling.

  8. Counseling the Conduct-Disordered Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Cindy

    Conduct disorder (CD), primarily a childhood disorder, is associated with oppositional defiance disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Differentiating between the disorders requires a preview of the intensity of the disorder. There are many approaches to treating CD. The traditional approach has been psychoanalytically oriented…

  9. Temporal Stability of ADHD in the High-IQ Population: Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Maglione, Katherine; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Seidman, Larry; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder and high-IQ children and whether ADHD has a high predictive value among youths with high-IQ. Results further supported the hypothesis for the predictive validity of ADHD in high-IQ youths.

  10. SPOCK3, a risk gene for adult ADHD and personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Weber, Heike; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Jacob, Christian P; Heupel, Julia; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Erhardt, Angelika; Hempel, Susanne; Schmidt, Brigitte; Kiel, Tilman; Gessner, Alexandra; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent psychiatric disorder in children, where it displays a global prevalence of 5 %. In up to 50 % of the cases, ADHD may persist into adulthood (aADHD), where it is often comorbid with personality disorders. Due to a potentially heritable nature of this comorbidity, we hypothesized that their genetic framework may contain common risk-modifying genes. SPOCK3, a poorly characterized, putatively Ca(2+)-binding extracellular heparan/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan gene encoded by the human chromosomal region 4q32.3, was found to be associated with polymorphisms among the top ranks in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on ADHD and a pooled GWAS on personality disorder (PD). We therefore genotyped 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representative of the SPOCK3 gene region in 1,790 individuals (n aADHD = 624, n PD = 630, n controls = 536). In this analysis, we found two SNPs to be nominally associated with aADHD (rs7689440, rs897511) and four PD-associated SNPs (rs7689440, rs897511, rs17052671 and rs1485318); the latter even reached marginal significance after rigorous Bonferroni correction. Bioinformatics tools predicted a possible influence of rs1485318 on transcription factor binding, whereas the other candidate SNPs may have effects on alternative splicing. Our results suggest that SPOCK3 may modify the genetic risk for ADHD and PD; further studies are, however, needed to identify the underlying mechanisms. PMID:24292267

  11. Response to methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD: does comorbid anxiety disorders matters?

    PubMed

    Garcia, Sheila P; Guimarães, Julia; Zampieri, Juliana F; Martinez, Ana Luiza; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2009-05-01

    There are controversial evidence in the literature on the role of comorbid anxiety disorders (ANX) in the improvement of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms with methylphenidate (MPH) treatment. Our main objective was to assess differences in the response to MPH treatment in children and adolescents with ADHD with and without comorbid ANX. We extensively evaluated response to MPH in a naturalistic study of 280 children and adolescent with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria. Psychiatric diagnoses (ADHD, ANX, and other comorbidities) were assessed by semi-structured interviews (K-SADS-E). Response to MPH was assessed by means of total score in the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Scale-version IV (SNAP-IV) after 1 month of treatment. There was no significant between-group difference in the response to treatment with MPH after 1 month either when SNAP-IV scores were assessed dimensionally or categorically (moderate response) (P > 0.05). Our findings suggest that comorbid ANX do not interfere in the response to MPH on core ADHD symptoms.

  12. Ramelteon for Insomnia Related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Fargason, Rachel E.; Gamble, Karen; Avis, Kristin T.; Besing, Rachel C.; Jackson, Cherry W.; Cates, Marshall E.; May, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the efficacy of ramelteon for insomnia in adult subjects with ADHD. Experimental Design For this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 8 mg of ramelteon was given nightly, within three hours of bedtime, to ADHD-insomnia subjects confirmed by DSM-IV-TR, ADHD-RS, MINI, and clinical interview. All subjects underwent two weeks each of ramelteon and placebo. Objective sleep measures were obtained by actigraphy. Subjective measures included: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and ADHD-RS. Principal observations Of 36 subjects entering the study, 58% met criteria for circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD), delayed sleep phase type. During ramelteon period, mid-sleep time, an indicator of circadian phase, occurred significantly earlier, by ~45 minutes compared to placebo period. An association was noted between the magnitude of the sleep phase advance and the timing of ramelteon administration in relationship to sleep start time, but did not reach statistical significance; maximal efficacy was noted 1.5 hours before bedtime. Paradoxically, ramelteon marginally, but significantly increased sleep fragmentation and ESS scores compared to the placebo state. Conclusions Ramelteon is efficacious in maintaining an earlier sleep/wake cycle in adults with ADHD and CRSD but can have paradoxical fragmenting effects on sleep and exacerbate daytime sleepiness. In the presence of a circadian rhythm disorder, the usual dosing and timing parameters for ramelteon need to be carefully considered.

  13. Pre-Service and In-Service Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge about Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Limeng; Gao, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed-method inquiry into pre-service and in-service secondary school teachers' knowledge about Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward students with this disorder in Hong Kong. The inquiry revealed no differences between pre-service and in-service secondary school teachers concerning their…

  14. Comorbidity of ADHD and Substance Use Disorder (SUD): A Neuroimaging Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frodl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: ADHD has a high comorbidity with substance use disorders (SUD). Both diseases have profound social, psychological, and economic consequences and are therefore highly relevant for health systems. The high comorbidity indicates some shared underlying neurobiological substrates. Knowing these substrates may increase the understanding of…

  15. Beyond ADHD: A Consideration of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Pedagogy in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Brenton J.

    2008-01-01

    A psycho-medical discourse that explains behavioural dysfunction through neurological deficit has dominated debate about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, if only medical questions are asked, only medical answers will be found, resulting in more or less drug treatment. When behavioural dysfunction results in impairment…

  16. The Neural Correlates of Deficient Error Awareness in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Redmond G.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Dockree, Paul M.; Lau, Adam; Hester, Robert; Garavan, Hugh; Fitzgerald, Michael; Foxe, John J.; Robertson, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to detect and correct errors is critical to adaptive control of behaviour and represents a discrete neuropsychological function. A number of studies have highlighted that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with abnormalities in behavioural and neural responsiveness to performance errors. One limitation of…

  17. Electrophysiological Indices of Abnormal Error-Processing in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Cahill, John D.; Bates, Alan T.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Calton, Timothy G.; Liddle, Peter F.; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been frequently observed in children and young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and might underlie the excessive hyperactivity and impulsivity in this population. We investigated behavioural and electrophysiological indices relevant to one domain of cognitive control; namely…

  18. The STARS Program: Social Empowerment Training for Preadolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), there has been a dramatic increase in the number of children being diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the last several years. School nursing interventions need to be developed, implemented, and evaluated to address complexities experienced by this population. The…

  19. Sport-Based Group Therapy Program for Boys with ADHD or with Other Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufi, Dubi; Parish-Plass, Jim

    2011-01-01

    A group of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was compared to children with other behavior and emotional problems. All the participants participated together in 20 weekly sessions for 1 academic year. The participants were assessed with three questionnaires on three different occasions: before the beginning of the group,…

  20. Emotion Regulation via the Autonomic Nervous System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Backs, Richard W.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffery R.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac…

  1. 32 CFR 234.7 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 234.7 Section 234.7 National... CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.7 Disorderly conduct. A person commits disorderly conduct when... threatening, or in violent behavior. (b) Uses language, an utterance, or gesture, or engages in a display...

  2. 32 CFR 234.7 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 234.7 Section 234.7 National... CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.7 Disorderly conduct. A person commits disorderly conduct when... threatening, or in violent behavior. (b) Uses language, an utterance, or gesture, or engages in a display...

  3. 32 CFR 234.7 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 234.7 Section 234.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.7 Disorderly conduct. A person commits disorderly conduct...

  4. 32 CFR 234.7 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 234.7 Section 234.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.7 Disorderly conduct. A person commits disorderly conduct...

  5. 32 CFR 234.7 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 234.7 Section 234.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.7 Disorderly conduct. A person commits disorderly conduct...

  6. 32 CFR 1903.14 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 1903.14 Section 1903.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.14 Disorderly conduct. A person commits disorderly conduct when, with...

  7. Parental efficacy and child behavior in a community sample of children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Hendricks, Kristy M; Longacre, Meghan R; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Weiss, Julia E; Titus, Linda J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A

    2012-12-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youth have obtained data from the perspective of either children or parents, but not both simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent perspectives on parenting in a large community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. We identified children in grades 4-6 and their parents through surveys administered to a random sample of public schools. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent associations between child and parent characteristics and the presence of ADHD while controlling for covariates and clustering by school. Sufficient data were achieved for 2,509 child/parent dyads. Ten percent of youths (n = 240) had been diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with those without ADHD, those with ADHD were more commonly male (67.9 vs. 48.0 %, p < .001) and age 12 or over (16.3 vs. 10.3 %). After adjusting for covariates and clustering, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD were significantly more likely to report lower self-regulation (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI = 0.53, 0.88) and higher levels of rebelliousness (OR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.52, 2.69). Compared with parents whose children did not have ADHD, parents of children with ADHD rated their overall parental efficacy substantially lower (OR = 0.23, 95 % CI = 0.15, 0.33). However, child assessment of parenting style was similar by ADHD. Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children. Feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes.

  8. Canadian Guidelines on Pharmacotherapy for Disruptive and Aggressive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, or Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Daniel A; Gardner, David M; Murphy, Andrea L; Feldman, Mark; Bélanger, Stacey A; Steele, Margaret M; Boylan, Khrista; Cochrane-Brink, Kate; Goldade, Roxanne; Soper, Paul R; Ustina, Judy; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop evidence-based guidelines on pharmacotherapy for severe disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD). The guidelines assume that psychosocial interventions have been pursued but did not achieve sufficient improvement. Method: A multidisciplinary consensus group used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach for rating evidence quality and for grading recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of medications studied in placebo-controlled trials for treating disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with ADHD, ODD, or CD. We followed consensus procedures to make 1 of 4 recommendations for each medication: strong, in favour (↑↑); conditional, in favour (↑?); conditional, against (↓?); and strong, against (↓↓). Results: For children and adolescents with disruptive or aggressive behaviour associated with ADHD, psychostimulants received a strong recommendation in favour of use, while atomoxetine and alpha-2 agonists received a conditional recommendation in favour of use. If these patients do poorly with ADHD medications, the medication with the most evidence is risperidone. Risperidone also has the most evidence for treating disruptive or aggressive behaviour in the absence of ADHD. However, given risperidone’s major adverse effects, it received only a conditional recommendation in favour of use. We recommended against using quetiapine, haloperidol, lithium, or carbamazepine because of the poor quality of evidence and their major adverse effects. Conclusion: When severe disruptive or aggressive behaviour occurs with ADHD, medications for ADHD should be used first. Other medications have major adverse effects and, with the exception of risperidone, very limited evidence to support their use. PMID:25886657

  9. The Increased Risk of Road Crashes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Adult Drivers: Driven by Distraction? Results from a Responsibility Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    El Farouki, Kamal; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Orriols, Ludivine; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Contrand, Benjamin; Galéra, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Both distractions (external and internal) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition) modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards) on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility. Methods A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD. Results A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR)  = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06–2.05]), distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50–3.77]) and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22–3.88]). The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06–16.32]). Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%. Discussion Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also

  10. Comorbidity of Conduct Problems and ADHD: Identification of "Fledgling Psychopaths".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lambros, Katina M.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the characteristics of children who exhibit a behavior pattern characterized by hyperactivity-impulsivity-inattention coupled with conduct problems such as fighting, stealing, truancy, noncompliance, and arguing. Procedures for early identification of these so-called "fledgling psychopaths" are described and discussed.…

  11. Symptoms of Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Callous-Unemotional Traits as Unique Predictors of Psychosocial Maladjustment in Boys: Advancing an Evidence Base for DSM-V

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Fite, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The incremental utility of symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits for predicting psychosocial outcomes across multiple domains was examined in a community sample of 1,517 boys. Method: Several outcomes were assessed…

  12. Functional Genomics of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Risk Alleles on Dopamine Transporter Binding in ADHD and Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Madras, Bertha K.; Bonab, Ali A.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Batchelder, Holly; Clarke, Allison; Fischman, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the striatum in individuals with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), attending to the 3′-untranslated region of the gene (3′-UTR) and intron8 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms of the DAT (SLC6A3) gene. Methods Subjects consisted of 68 psychotropic (including stimulant)-naïve and smoking-naïve volunteers between 18 and 55 years of age (ADHD n = 34; control subjects n = 34). Striatal DAT binding was measured with positron emission tomography with 11C altropane. Genotyping of the two DAT (SLC6A3) 3′-UTR and intron8 VNTRs used standard protocols. Results The gene frequencies of each of the gene polymorphisms assessed did not differ between the ADHD and control groups. The ADHD status (t = 2.99; p < .004) and 3′-UTR of SLC6A3 9 repeat carrier status (t = 2.74; p < .008) were independently and additively associated with increased DAT binding in the caudate. The ADHD status was associated with increased striatal (caudate) DAT binding regardless of 3′-UTR genotype, and 3′-UTR genotype was associated with increased striatal (caudate) DAT binding regardless of ADHD status. In contrast, there were no significant associations between polymorphisms of DAT intron8 or the 3′-UTR-intron8 haplotype with DAT binding. Conclusions The 3′-UTR but not intron8 VNTR genotypes were associated with increased DAT binding in both ADHD patients and healthy control subjects. Both ADHD status and the 3′-UTR polymorphism status had an additive effect on DAT binding. Our findings suggest that an ADHD risk polymorphism (3′-UTR) of SLC6A3 has functional consequences on central nervous system DAT binding in humans. PMID:23273726

  13. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  14. Adults with ADHD and Sleep Complaints: A Pilot Study Identifying Sleep-Disordered Breathing Using Polysomnography and Sleep Quality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surman, Craig B. H.; Thomas, Robert J.; Aleardi, Megan; Pagano, Christine; Biederman, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: ADHD and sleep-disordered breathing are both prevalent in adulthood. Because both conditions may be responsible for similar symptoms of cognitive impairment, the authors investigate whether their presentation may overlap in adults diagnosed with ADHD. Method: Data are collected from six adults with sleep complaints who were diagnosed…

  15. ADHD: A Scientific Fact or a Factual Opinion? A Critique of the Veracity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, John; Jehan, Zenib

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the debate on the phenomenon of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It explores how and why the discourses surrounding the aetiology and interventions are dominated by a bio-medical understanding of ADHD. Competing discourses are examined, particularly those marginalised because they do not support the…

  16. Impairment in Children with and without ADHD: Contributions from Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammer, Whitney A.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the association of childhood ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) on functional impairment and to test the moderating influence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Method: Ethnically diverse 6- to 9-year-old children with (n = 59) and without (n = 47) ADHD were ascertained using multiple methods (i.e., rating scales…

  17. Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…

  18. Emotional Lability in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Clinical Correlates and Familial Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobanski, Esther; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Chen, Wai; Franke, Barbara; Holtmann, Martin; Krumm, Bertram; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Stringaris, Argyris; Taylor, Eric; Anney, Richard; Ebstein, Richard P.; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence, severity and clinical correlates of emotional lability (EL) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to examine factors contributing to EL and familiality of EL in youth with ADHD. Methods: One thousand, one hundred and eighty-six children with ADHD…

  19. Prospective observational study protocol to investigate long-term adverse effects of methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD: the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) study

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, S K; Carucci, S; Garas, P; Häge, A; Banaschewski, T; Buitelaar, J K; Dittmann, R W; Falissard, B; Hollis, C; Kovshoff, H; Liddle, E; McCarthy, S; Nagy, P; Neubert, A; Rosenthal, E; Sonuga-Barke, E; Wong, I; Zuddas, A; Coghill, D C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. Following concerns about its safety, the European Commission called for research into the long-term effects of methylphenidate on children and adolescents with ADHD. The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) research programme was designed to address this call. At the heart of this programme is a 2-year longitudinal naturalistic pharmacovigilance study being conducted in 27 European sites. Methods and analysis 3 cohorts of children and adolescents (aged 6–17) living in the UK, Germany, Italy and Hungary are being recruited: Group 1 (Medicated ADHD): 800 ADHD medication-naive children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD about to start methylphenidate treatment for the first time. Group 2 (Unmedicated ADHD): 400 children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD who have never been treated with ADHD medication and have no intention of beginning medication. Group 3 (Non-ADHD): 400 children and adolescents without ADHD who are siblings of individuals in either group 1 or 2. All participants will be assessed 5 times during their 2-year follow-up period for growth and development, psychiatric, neurological and cardiovascular health. The primary outcome measure will be the height velocity SD score. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for the study has been granted by the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service. Following this approval, patient information leaflets and consent forms were translated as necessary and submissions made by lead sites in each of the other 3 countries to their own ethics committees. Following ethical approval in each country, local ethical permissions at each site were sought and obtained as needed. The study's website (http://www.adhd-adduce.org/page/view/2/Home) provides information for researchers, participants and the general

  20. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stimulant medications as cognitive enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Advokat, Claire; Scheithauer, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses, and the escalation of stimulant prescriptions, has raised concern about diversion and abuse of stimulants, as well as the ethics of using these drugs as “cognitive enhancers.”Such concern appears misplaced in the face of substantial evidence that stimulant drugs do not improve the academic performance of ADHD-diagnosed students. Moreover, numerous studies have found little or no benefit of stimulants on neuropsychological tests of ADHD-diagnosed as well as normal, individuals. This paper examines the apparent paradox: why don't drugs that improve “attention,” produce better academic outcomes in ADHD-diagnosed students? We found that stimulant drugs significantly improved impairment of episodic memory in ADHD-diagnosed undergraduate students. Nevertheless, we also found consistent academic deficits between ADHD students and their non-ADHD counterparts, regardless of whether or not they used stimulant medications. We reviewed the current literature on the behavioral effects of stimulants, to try to find an explanation for these conflicting phenomena. Across a variety of behavioral tasks, stimulants have been shown to reduce emotional reactions to frustration, improve the ability to detect errors, and increase effortful behavior. However, all of these effects would presumably enhance academic performance. On the other hand, the drugs were also found to promote “risky behavior” and to increase susceptibility to environmental distraction. Such negative effects, including the use of drugs to promote wakefulness for last minute study, might explain the lack of academic benefit in the “real world,” despite their cognitive potential. Like many drugs, stimulants influence behavior in multiple ways, depending on the environmental contingencies. Depending on the circumstances, stimulants may, or may not, enhance cognition. PMID:23754970

  1. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stimulant medications as cognitive enhancers.

    PubMed

    Advokat, Claire; Scheithauer, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses, and the escalation of stimulant prescriptions, has raised concern about diversion and abuse of stimulants, as well as the ethics of using these drugs as "cognitive enhancers."Such concern appears misplaced in the face of substantial evidence that stimulant drugs do not improve the academic performance of ADHD-diagnosed students. Moreover, numerous studies have found little or no benefit of stimulants on neuropsychological tests of ADHD-diagnosed as well as normal, individuals. This paper examines the apparent paradox: why don't drugs that improve "attention," produce better academic outcomes in ADHD-diagnosed students? We found that stimulant drugs significantly improved impairment of episodic memory in ADHD-diagnosed undergraduate students. Nevertheless, we also found consistent academic deficits between ADHD students and their non-ADHD counterparts, regardless of whether or not they used stimulant medications. We reviewed the current literature on the behavioral effects of stimulants, to try to find an explanation for these conflicting phenomena. Across a variety of behavioral tasks, stimulants have been shown to reduce emotional reactions to frustration, improve the ability to detect errors, and increase effortful behavior. However, all of these effects would presumably enhance academic performance. On the other hand, the drugs were also found to promote "risky behavior" and to increase susceptibility to environmental distraction. Such negative effects, including the use of drugs to promote wakefulness for last minute study, might explain the lack of academic benefit in the "real world," despite their cognitive potential. Like many drugs, stimulants influence behavior in multiple ways, depending on the environmental contingencies. Depending on the circumstances, stimulants may, or may not, enhance cognition. PMID:23754970

  2. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. PMID:22766012

  3. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), inhibition processes and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - an overview].

    PubMed

    Hoegl, Thomas; Bender, Stephan; Buchmann, Johannes; Kratz, Oliver; Moll, Gunther H; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2014-11-01

    Motor system excitability can be tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation CFMS). In this article, an overview of recent methodological developments and research findings related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is provided. Different TMS parameters that reflect the function of interneurons in the motor cortex may represent neurophysiological markers of inhibition in ADHD, particularly the so-called intracortical inhibition. In children with a high level of hyperactivity and impulsivity, intracortical inhibition was comparably low at rest as shortly before the execution of a movement. TMS-evoked potentials can also be measured in the EEG so that investigating processes of excitability is not restricted to motor areas in future studies. The effects of methylphenidate on motor system excitability may be interpreted in the sense of a 'fine-tuning' with these mainly dopaminergic effects also depending on genetic parameters (DAT1 transporter). A differentiated view on the organization of motor control can be achieved by a combined analysis of TMS parameters and event-related potentials. Applying this bimodal approach, strong evidence for a deviant implementation of motor control in children with ADHD and probably compensatory mechanisms (with involvement of the prefrontal cortex) was obtained. These findings, which contribute to a better understanding of hyperactivity/impulsivity, inhibitory processes and motor control in ADHD as well as the mechanisms of medication, underline the relevance of TMS as a neurophysiological method in ADHD research.

  4. Regulation of sadness via acceptance or suppression in adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra; Lackner, Helmut Karl; Sadohara, Chiharu; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2014-12-15

    Emotion dysregulation is a recognized symptom of adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study is to induce sadness in adults suffering from ADHD and to investigate the impact of emotion regulation strategies on sadness intensity, and psychophysiological measures. Thirty-six adults diagnosed with ADHD were randomly assigned to either expressive suppression (SUPP) or acceptance (ACC) of emotion. Sadness was induced using a film clip. Participants estimated the intensity of sadness and the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion before (T1), immediately after (T2) and 2 min after the film (T3). Physiological measures were obtained. Sadness induction was effective in both conditions. The perception of being overwhelmed with emotion increased between T1 and T2 in both conditions, but persisted until T3 only in the expressive suppression condition whereas a decrease was observed in the acceptance condition. In ADHD expressive suppression of sadness seems to be associated to a prolonged recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. Emotion-regulation via acceptance in contrast appears to allow faster recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify suppression as a critical mediator between an induced emotion and delayed recovery from emotional reactions in adult ADHD.

  5. Quality of life and psychomotor profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Goulardins, Juliana Barbosa; Marques, Juliana Cristina Fernandes Bilhar; Casella, Erasmo Barbante

    2011-08-01

    The knowledge of psychomotor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may help in defining therapeutic approaches in order to minimize losses in their quality of life. The study objectives were to evaluate the quality of life and psychomotor profile of children with ADHD and check your correlation. Fourteen children, from seven to ten years, with ADHD combined type were evaluate using the scales PedsQL™ and Motor Development Scale. Results showed adverse effects of ADHD on quality of life and a deficit in motor skills. Nine participants (64.2%) were classified in motor development as "Normal Medium", followed by the classification "Normal Low" in four (28.5%) and "Low" in one subject (7.1%). We observed a positive correlation between quality of life and psychomotor development of children with ADHD, especially in areas: fine motor and spatial organization with social and psychosocial aspects, gross motor control with the emotional and temporal organization with the emotional, psychosocial and overall quality of life.

  6. 25 CFR 11.441 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disorderly conduct. 11.441 Section 11.441 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.441 Disorderly conduct. (a) A person is guilty of disorderly conduct... thereof, he or she: (1) Engages in fighting or threatening, or in violent or tumultuous behavior;...

  7. 25 CFR 11.441 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disorderly conduct. 11.441 Section 11.441 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.441 Disorderly conduct. (a) A person is guilty of disorderly conduct... thereof, he or she: (1) Engages in fighting or threatening, or in violent or tumultuous behavior;...

  8. Which kindergarten children are at greatest risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity and conduct disorder symptomatology as adolescents?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Lin, Yu-chu

    2016-03-01

    We sought to identify which kindergarten children are simultaneously at risk of moderate or severe symptomatology in both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) as adolescents. These risk factor estimates have not been previously available. We conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses of multiinformant ratings by the end of middle school of a population-based, longitudinal sample of children followed from kindergarten to eighth grade (N = 7,456). Kindergarten children from low SES households, those raised by mothers with depressive symptoms or experiencing emotional problems or substance abuse, or those who were punished by spanking were significantly more likely to later display severe levels of ADHD-CD symptomatology in eighth grade. Kindergarten children frequently engaging in ADHD-CD-type behaviors were more likely to later experience both moderate (covariate adjusted OR = 2.37) and severe (covariate adjusted OR = 3.63) ADHD-CD symptomatology. Low academic achievement uniquely increased the risk of both moderate and severe symptomatology (adjusted OR range = 1.7 to 2.24). The results should guide early screening and school-based intervention efforts for ADHD-CD. Reducing children's risk for adolescent ADHD-CD symptomatology may require remediating low behavioral and academic functioning by the end of kindergarten. When these 2 modifiable factors occur together they increase kindergarten children's odds of experiencing severe ADHD-CD symptomatology in eighth grade by a multiplicative factor of 8.1.

  9. Mis-Diagnosis and Dual Diagnosis of Gifted Children: Gifted and LD, ADHD, OCD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, James T.

    Many gifted and talented children are often misdiagnosed by psychologists and other health professionals as having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Disorder (OD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), or another of the mood disorders. The misdiagnosis can stem from mistaken assumptions being made about the social and…

  10. Comparison between the efficacies of Risperidone with Haloperidol in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among preschoolers: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Forough; Tashakori, Ashraf; Abdi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disease with a worldwide pooled prevalence of 5.29%. Objective To compare the efficacy of Risperidone with Haloperidol in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among 3- to 6-year-old children. Methods In a 6-week double-blind clinical trial, the efficacy of Risperidone 0.5–2 mg with a dose of maximum Haloperidol 0.075 mg/kg was assessed in 39 children aged 3–6 years. This study was conducted at the Golestan Psychiatric Clinic (Ahvaz, Iran). Measurement tools included the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48), Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, and Fisher’s exact tests in the SPSS 19. Results During the 6 weeks, the decline in points was seen in Conner’s rating scale and in ADHD-RS score in Risperidone and Haloperidol groups (p<0.001). On the CGAS scale, an increase of performance in both groups for six weeks was statistically significant (p<0.001). In the scales of ADHD-RS and CPRS-48, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two treatment groups; i.e., in terms of reducing the rate during weeks of two, four, and six (p>0.05). Conclusions Haloperidol and Risperidone possibly can be an acceptable treatment choice in the ADHD treatment of 3- to 6-year-old children. Trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015082623766N1. Funding This work was financially supported by grant (ref. no.: U-93130) from the vice chancellor for Research Affairs of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27790334

  11. Non-pharmacological interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) delivered in school settings: systematic reviews of quantitative and qualitative research.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Michelle; Moore, Darren A; Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Rogers, Morwenna; Whear, Rebecca; Newlove-Delgado, Tamsin V; Logan, Stuart; Morris, Christopher; Taylor, Eric; Cooper, Paul; Stein, Ken; Garside, Ruth; Ford, Tamsin J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by age-inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. School can be particularly challenging for children with ADHD. Few reviews have considered non-pharmacological interventions in school settings. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions delivered in school settings for pupils with, or at risk of, ADHD and to explore the factors that may enhance, or limit, their delivery. DATA SOURCES Twenty electronic databases (including PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Education Resources Information Centre, The Cochrane Library and Education Research Complete) were searched from 1980 to February-August 2013. Three separate searches were conducted for four systematic reviews; they were supplemented with forward and backwards citation chasing, website searching, author recommendations and hand-searches of key journals. REVIEW METHODS The systematic reviews focused on (1) the effectiveness of school-based interventions for children with or at risk of ADHD; (2) quantitative research that explores attitudes towards school-based non-pharmacological interventions for pupils with ADHD; (3) qualitative research investigating the attitudes and experiences of children, teachers, parents and others using ADHD interventions in school settings; and (4) qualitative research exploring the experience of ADHD in school among pupils, their parents and teachers more generally. Methods of synthesis included a random-effects meta-analysis, meta-regression and narrative synthesis for review 1, narrative synthesis for review 2 and meta-ethnography and thematic analysis for reviews 3 and 4. RESULTS For review 1, 54 controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. For the 36 meta-analysed randomised controlled trials, beneficial effects (p < 0.05) were observed for several symptom and scholastic outcomes. Mean weighted effect sizes ranged from

  12. Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

  13. Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ASD and ADHD): DSM-5, ICD-10, and ICD-11.

    PubMed

    Doernberg, Ellen; Hollander, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, specifically autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have undergone considerable diagnostic evolution in the past decade. In the United States, the current system in place is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), whereas worldwide, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) serves as a general medical system. This review will examine the differences in neurodevelopmental disorders between these two systems. First, we will review the important revisions made from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) to the DSM-5, with respect to ASD and ADHD. Next, we will cover the similarities and differences between ASD and ADHD classification in the DSM-5 and the ICD-10, and how these differences may have an effect on neurodevelopmental disorder diagnostics and classification. By examining the changes made for the DSM-5 in 2013, and critiquing the current ICD-10 system, we can help to anticipate and advise on the upcoming ICD-11, due to come online in 2017. Overall, this review serves to highlight the importance of progress towards complementary diagnostic classification systems, keeping in mind the difference in tradition and purpose of the DSM and the ICD, and that these systems are dynamic and changing as more is learned about neurodevelopmental disorders and their underlying etiology. Finally this review will discuss alternative diagnostic approaches, such as the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative, which links symptom domains to underlying biological and neurological mechanisms. The incorporation of new diagnostic directions could have a great effect on treatment development and insurance coverage for neurodevelopmental disorders worldwide. PMID:27364515

  14. Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ASD and ADHD): DSM-5, ICD-10, and ICD-11.

    PubMed

    Doernberg, Ellen; Hollander, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, specifically autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have undergone considerable diagnostic evolution in the past decade. In the United States, the current system in place is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), whereas worldwide, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) serves as a general medical system. This review will examine the differences in neurodevelopmental disorders between these two systems. First, we will review the important revisions made from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) to the DSM-5, with respect to ASD and ADHD. Next, we will cover the similarities and differences between ASD and ADHD classification in the DSM-5 and the ICD-10, and how these differences may have an effect on neurodevelopmental disorder diagnostics and classification. By examining the changes made for the DSM-5 in 2013, and critiquing the current ICD-10 system, we can help to anticipate and advise on the upcoming ICD-11, due to come online in 2017. Overall, this review serves to highlight the importance of progress towards complementary diagnostic classification systems, keeping in mind the difference in tradition and purpose of the DSM and the ICD, and that these systems are dynamic and changing as more is learned about neurodevelopmental disorders and their underlying etiology. Finally this review will discuss alternative diagnostic approaches, such as the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative, which links symptom domains to underlying biological and neurological mechanisms. The incorporation of new diagnostic directions could have a great effect on treatment development and insurance coverage for neurodevelopmental disorders worldwide.

  15. High Loading of Polygenic Risk for ADHD in Children With Comorbid Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Hamshere, Marian L.; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna; Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Anney, Richard J.L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V.; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Neale, Benjamin M.; Franke, Barbara; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Merwood, Andrew; Kuntsi, Jonna; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Roeyers, Herbert; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; McGough, James J.; Kent, Lindsey; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael J.; Holmans, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher genetic loading and clinical severity. The authors examine whether common genetic variants considered en masse as polygenic scores for ADHD are especially enriched in children with comorbid conduct disorder. Method Polygenic scores derived from an ADHD GWAS meta-analysis were calculated in an independent ADHD sample (452 case subjects, 5,081 comparison subjects). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to compare polygenic scores in the ADHD and comparison groups and test for higher scores in ADHD case subjects with comorbid conduct disorder relative to comparison subjects and relative to those without comorbid conduct disorder. Association with symptom scores was tested using linear regression. Results Polygenic risk for ADHD, derived from the meta-analysis, was higher in the independent ADHD group than in the comparison group. Polygenic score was significantly higher in ADHD case subjects with conduct disorder relative to ADHD case subjects without conduct disorder. ADHD polygenic score showed significant association with comorbid conduct disorder symptoms. This relationship was explained by the aggression items. Conclusions Common genetic variation is relevant to ADHD, especially in individuals with comorbid aggression. The findings suggest that the previously published ADHD GWAS meta-analysis contains weak but true associations with common variants, support for which falls below genome-wide significance levels. The findings also highlight the fact that aggression in ADHD indexes genetic as well as clinical severity. PMID:23599091

  16. Differential associations of early callous-unemotional, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors: multiple domains within early-starting conduct problems?

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Hyde, Luke W.; Grabell, Adam S.; Alves, Martha L.; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early-starting child conduct problems (CP) are linked to the development of persistent antisocial behavior. Researchers have theorized multiple pathways to CP and that CP comprise separable domains, marked by callous unemotional (CU) behavior, oppositional behavior, or ADHD symptoms. However, a lack of empirical evidence exists from studies that have examined whether there are unique correlates of these domains. Methods We examined differential correlates of CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors during the preschool years to test their potentially distinct nomological networks. Multi-method data, including parent and teacher reports and observations of child behavior, were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of children assessed at age 3 and age 6 (N=240; 48% female). Results Dimensions of CU, oppositional and ADHD behaviors were separable within Confirmatory Factor Analyses across mother and father reports. There were differential associations between CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors and socioemotional, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes: CU behavior was uniquely related to lower moral regulation, guilt, and empathy. ADHD was uniquely related to lower attentional focusing and observed effortful control. Finally, CU behavior uniquely predicted increases in teacher-reported externalizing from ages 3–6 over and above covariates, and ADHD and oppositional behavior. Conclusions Consistent with theory, dimensions of CU, ADHD, and oppositional behavior demonstrated separable nomological networks representing separable facets within early-starting CP. PMID:25251938

  17. Confirmation and Extension of Association of Blood Lead with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD Symptom Domains at Population-Typical Exposure Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Nikolas, Molly; Mark Knottnerus, G.; Cavanagh, Kevin; Friderici, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its symptom domains are related to blood lead level, even at background exposure levels typical in western countries. However, recent studies disagreed as to whether lead was related to inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity within the ADHD…

  18. ADHD and School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    A review of the research and legal literature summarizes the status of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under school law. Following a brief introduction, discussion of ADHD as a disability notes the impact of ADHD on overall functioning and provides a table of diagnostic criteria for subtypes of ADHD. The following section focuses…

  19. Understanding the Psycho-Social and Cultural Factors That Influence the Experience of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Chinese American College Students: A Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Edmund Wong Din-Mond

    2012-01-01

    A review of the extant research literature reveals limited data on college students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Even less information is known in regards to minority populations living with ADHD, specifically Asian American college student. This research project was focused on Chinese American college students with ADHD.…

  20. A Neurophysiological Marker of Impaired Preparation in an 11-Year Follow-Up Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doehnert, Mirko; Brandeis, Daniel; Schneider, Gudrun; Drechsler, Renate; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal electrophysiological study investigated the course of multiple impaired cognitive brain functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood by comparing developmental trajectories of individuals with ADHD and typically developing controls. Methods: Subjects with ADHD ("N"…

  1. Successful treatment of bipolar disorder II and ADHD with a micronutrient formula: a case study.

    PubMed

    Rucklidge, Julia J; Harrison, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    Bipolar disorder with co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a challenge to treat. Ten previous reports have shown potential benefit of a micronutrient treatment (consisting mainly of vitamins and minerals) for various psychiatric symptoms, including mood and ADHD. This case study aimed to investigate the longer term impact of the micronutrients on both psychiatric and neurocognitive functioning in an off-on-off-on (ABAB) design with 1 year follow-up. A 21-year-old female with bipolar II disorder, ADHD, social anxiety, and panic disorder entered an open-label trial using a nutritional treatment following a documented 8 year history of on-going psychiatric symptoms not well managed by medications. After 8 weeks on the formula she showed significant improvements in mood, anxiety, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Blood test results remained normal after 8 weeks on the formula. She did not report any adverse side effects associated with the treatment. She then chose to come off the formula; after 8 weeks her depression scores returned to baseline, and anxiety and ADHD symptoms worsened. The formula was reintroduced, showing gradual improvement in all psychiatric symptoms. This case represents a naturalistic ABAB design showing on-off control of symptoms. After 1 year, the patient is now in remission from all mental illness. Neurocognitive changes mirrored behavioral changes, showing improved processing speed, consistency in response speed, and verbal memory. A placebo response and expectancy effects cannot be ruled out although previous poor response to treatment and the duration of the current positive response decrease the likelihood that other factors better explain change. These consistently positive outcomes alongside an absence of side effects indicate that further research, particularly larger and more controlled trials, is warranted using this multinutrient approach. PMID:20448519

  2. 32 CFR 1903.14 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.14 Disorderly conduct. A person commits disorderly conduct when, with intent... by employees, officers, contractors or visitors on an Agency installation or obstructs the use...

  3. 32 CFR 1903.14 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.14 Disorderly conduct. A person commits disorderly conduct when, with intent... by employees, officers, contractors or visitors on an Agency installation or obstructs the use...

  4. 32 CFR 1903.14 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.14 Disorderly conduct. A person commits disorderly conduct when, with intent... by employees, officers, contractors or visitors on an Agency installation or obstructs the use...

  5. 32 CFR 1903.14 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.14 Disorderly conduct. A person commits disorderly conduct when, with intent... by employees, officers, contractors or visitors on an Agency installation or obstructs the use...

  6. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults With ADHD and Adults With Other Psychiatric Disorders: The Issue of Specificity.

    PubMed

    Holst, Ylva; Thorell, Lisa B

    2013-10-17

    Objective: The aim was to investigate how well neuropsychological measures can discriminate between adults with ADHD and those with other psychiatric disorders. Method: Adults with ADHD and a clinical control group (n = 110) were included. Neuropsychological functioning was investigated using measures of inhibition, working memory, set shifting, planning, fluency, reaction-time variability, and delay aversion. Results: Adults with ADHD performed more poorly compared with clinical controls with regard to all constructs. The effects of verbal memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, and delay aversion remained significant when controlling for IQ. However, when controlling for basic cognitive functions, only the effects of inhibition, fluency, and delay aversion were significant. Sensitivity ranged between 64% and 75%, and specificity between 66% and 81%. Conclusion: Neuropsychological tests have a relatively poor ability to discriminate between adults with ADHD and clinical controls, but they may be used to identify individuals at particularly high risk for poor daily functioning. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24134875

  7. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD): adolescents perspective.

    PubMed

    Brook, Uzi; Boaz, Mona

    2005-08-01

    Three hundred and eight pupils in the age group 12-18 years were interviewed and examined. They had been diagnosed as having attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD), and were attending a high school devoted to special education. Their classification into subgroups was as follows: ADHD - inattentive (I) = 22.1%, ADHD - hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) = 12.3% and combined = 42.2%. Only 25% of them were treated by methylphenidate (Ritalin). Ninety-four percent of them were diagnosed with comorbidity of 'learning disabilities'. Thirty-four percent of them reported being severely stressed when going to school and sitting in class. Their complaints were: tiredness and excessive needs to sleep, frequent quarrelling with close friends, feeling different from other classmates and having low self-esteem (SE). They complaint that their parents don't understand them. Things that irritated them the most were being lied to and coercion by others. The authors suggest to consider ADHD/LD as neurobehavioral disability. It is mandatory to prepare them for adult life with proper social skills and a suitable occupation. PMID:16009295

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate with CBT in Adolescents with ADHD and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Paula D.; Winhusen, Theresa; Davies, Robert D.; Leimberger, Jeffrey D.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Klein, Constance; Macdonald, Marilyn; Lohman, Michelle; Bailey, Genie L.; Haynes, Louise; Jaffee, William B.; Hodgkins, Candace; Whitmore, Elizabeth; Trello-Rishel, Kathlene; Tamm, Leanne; Acosta, Michelle C.; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc; Holmes, Beverly W.; Kaye, Mary Elyse; Vargo, Mark A.; Woody, George E.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) compared to placebo for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and impact on substance treatment outcomes in adolescents concurrently receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders (SUD). Method 16-week randomized controlled multi-site trial of OROS-MPH + CBT versus placebo + CBT in 303 adolescents (aged 13-18), meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD and SUD. Primary outcomes: (1) ADHD- clinician-administered ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), adolescent informant; (2) Substance- adolescent reported days of use in the past 28 days. Secondary outcome measures included parent ADHD-RS and weekly urine drug screens (UDS). Results There were no group differences on reduction in ADHD-RS scores (OROS-MPH: −19.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], −17.1 to −21.2; placebo,−21.2, 95% CI, −19.1 to −23.2) or reduction in days of substance use (OROS-MPH: −5.7 days, 95% CI, 4.0-7.4; placebo: −5.2 days, 95% CI, 3.5-7.0). Some secondary outcomes favored OROS-MPH including lower parent ADHD-RS scores at 8 (mean difference [md]=4.4, 95% CI, 0.8-7.9) and 16 weeks (md=6.9; 95% CI, 2.9-10.9) and more negative UDS in OROS-MPH (mean=3.8) compared to placebo (mean=2.8; P=0.04). Conclusions OROS-MPH did not show greater efficacy than placebo for ADHD or on reduction in substance use in adolescents concurrently receiving individual CBT for co-occurring SUD. However, OROS-MPH was relatively well tolerated and was associated with modestly greater clinical improvement on some secondary ADHD and substance outcome measures. PMID:21871372

  9. Classifying adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on functional and structural imaging.

    PubMed

    Iannaccone, Reto; Hauser, Tobias U; Ball, Juliane; Brandeis, Daniel; Walitza, Susanne; Brem, Silvia

    2015-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disabling psychiatric disorder associated with consistent deficits in error processing, inhibition and regionally decreased grey matter volumes. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, interviews and questionnaires, which are to some degree subjective and would benefit from verification through biomarkers. Here, pattern recognition of multiple discriminative functional and structural brain patterns was applied to classify adolescents with ADHD and controls. Functional activation features in a Flanker/NoGo task probing error processing and inhibition along with structural magnetic resonance imaging data served to predict group membership using support vector machines (SVMs). The SVM pattern recognition algorithm correctly classified 77.78% of the subjects with a sensitivity and specificity of 77.78% based on error processing. Predictive regions for controls were mainly detected in core areas for error processing and attention such as the medial and dorsolateral frontal areas reflecting deficient processing in ADHD (Hart et al., in Hum Brain Mapp 35:3083-3094, 2014), and overlapped with decreased activations in patients in conventional group comparisons. Regions more predictive for ADHD patients were identified in the posterior cingulate, temporal and occipital cortex. Interestingly despite pronounced univariate group differences in inhibition-related activation and grey matter volumes the corresponding classifiers failed or only yielded a poor discrimination. The present study corroborates the potential of task-related brain activation for classification shown in previous studies. It remains to be clarified whether error processing, which performed best here, also contributes to the discrimination of useful dimensions and subtypes, different psychiatric disorders, and prediction of treatment success across studies and sites.

  10. A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on ADHD and Comorbid Conditions: The Role of Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Elizabeth A; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2015-12-01

    Research investigating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and co-occurring disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety, and depression has surged in popularity; however, the developmental relations between ADHD and these comorbid conditions remain poorly understood. The current paper uses a developmental psychopathology perspective to examine conditions commonly comorbid with ADHD during late childhood through adolescence. First, we present evidence for ADHD and comorbid disorders. Next, we discuss emotion regulation and its associations with ADHD. The role of parenting behaviors in the development and maintenance of emotion regulation difficulties and comorbid disorders among children with ADHD is explored. An illustrative example of emotion regulation and parenting over the course of development is provided to demonstrate bidirectional relations among these constructs. We then present an integrated conceptual model of emotion regulation as a shared risk process that may lead to different comorbid conditions among children with ADHD. Implications and directions for future research are presented.

  11. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593

  12. 36 CFR 261.4 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 261.4 Section 261.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.4 Disorderly conduct. The following are prohibited: (a) Engaging in...

  13. 36 CFR 2.34 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 2.34 Section 2.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.34 Disorderly conduct. (a) A person commits...

  14. 36 CFR 2.34 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 2.34 Section 2.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.34 Disorderly conduct. (a) A person commits...

  15. 36 CFR 2.34 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 2.34 Section 2.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.34 Disorderly conduct. (a) A person commits...

  16. 36 CFR 2.34 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 2.34 Section 2.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.34 Disorderly conduct. (a) A person commits...

  17. 36 CFR 2.34 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 2.34 Section 2.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.34 Disorderly conduct. (a) A person commits...

  18. "Cool" inferior frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus "hot" ventromedial orbitofrontal-limbic dysfunction in conduct disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Rubia, Katya

    2011-06-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder overlap behaviorally, clinically, and cognitively. An important question of potential future clinical relevance is whether these two overlapping disorders are mediated by similar or distinct underlying brain substrates. This article reviews the modern neuroimaging literature on brain structure, function, and connectivity in both disorders, shaping out commonalities and differences. Findings show that ADHD is characterized predominantly by abnormalities in inferior frontal, striatal, parietotemporal, and cerebellar regions and networks that mediate "cool"-cognitive, i.e., inhibitory, attention and timing functions associated with the disorder. Conduct disorder, by contrast, has consistently been associated with abnormalities of the "hot" paralimbic system that regulates motivation and affect, comprising lateral orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, superior temporal lobes, and underlying limbic structures, most prominently the amygdala. Direct comparisons in functional imaging show that these associations of cool inferior fronto-striato-cerebellar dysfunction in ADHD and of hot orbitofrontal-paralimbic dysfunction in conduct disorder are disorder-specific. There is, hence, evidence for dissociated underlying pathophysiologies for these two disorders that may have implications for future anatomy-based differential diagnosis and prevention and intervention.

  19. [Effectiveness of an Educator Training about the Attention-Deficit-/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Both, Franziska; Schmiedeler, Sandra; Abelein, Philipp; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of a workshop for teachers focussing on ADHD. A total of 44 educators answered a short version of the Knowledge of Attention Deficit Disorders Scale (KADDS) and self-report questions before, shortly after, and three month subsequent (follow-up) to a 2.5 hour long workshop. Results showed a significant increase in the educators’ knowledge at post-test, which remained stable in the follow-up. Whereas uncertainties (“don’t-know”-answers) decreased, heterogeneous results were found concerning the number of misconceptions. Educators upgraded their knowledge perception as well as their certainty in dealing with an affected child at post-test. The results show that even a relatively short workshop had a positive and persistent impact on educators’ ADHD expertise, which illustrates the potential of such workshops.

  20. Pain Sensitivity in Adolescent Males with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Testing for Associations with Conduct Disorder and Callous and Unemotional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Northover, Clare; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate; van Goozen, Stephanie HM

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced processing and experience of aversive emotional cues is a common component of theories on the development and persistence of aggression and antisocial behaviour. Yet physical pain, arguably the most basic aversive cue, has attracted comparatively little attention. Methods This study measured pain sensitivity and physiological response to painful stimuli (skin conductance level, SCL) in adolescent boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 183), who are at high risk for antisocial behaviour. We compared boys with ADHD with and without a comorbid diagnosis of Conduct Disorder (CD) on pain sensitivity, and examined patterns of association between pain measures, on the one hand, and problem severity and callous and unemotional (CU) traits, on the other. Results Boys with comorbid CD exhibited a higher pain threshold and tolerance than boys with ADHD alone, but the groups did not differ in physiology at the time the pain threshold and tolerance were reported. Regression analyses showed that ADHD problem severity positively predicted pain sensitivity, whereas levels of CU traits negatively predicted pain sensitivity. Conclusions These findings on physical pain processing extend evidence of impairments in aversive cue processing among those at risk of antisocial behaviour. The study highlights the importance of considering comorbidity and heterogeneity of disorders when developing interventions. The current findings could be used to identify subgroups within those with ADHD who might be less responsive to interventions that use corrective feedback to obtain behaviour change. PMID:26225935

  1. Executive Cognitive Dysfunction and ADHD in Cocaine Dependence: Searching for a Common Cognitive Endophenotype for Addictive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Gonçalves, Priscila Dib; Ometto, Mariella; dos Santos, Bernardo; Nicastri, Sergio; Busatto, Geraldo F.; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI) present executive cognitive function (ECF) deficits, but the impact of psychiatric comorbidities such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on neuropsychological functioning is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if CDI with ADHD (CDI + ADHD) would have a distinct pattern of executive functioning when compared with CDI without ADHD (CDI). Methods: We evaluated 101 adults, including 69 cocaine-dependent subjects (divided in CDI and CDI + ADHD) and 32 controls. ECF domains were assessed with Digits Forward (DF), Digits Backward (DB), Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were used for diagnosis and previous ADHD symptoms (in the childhood) were retrospectively assessed by the Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Results: There were no significant differences between CDI + ADHD, CDI, and controls in estimated intellectual quotient (IQ), socioeconomic background, education (in years), and pre-morbid IQ (p > 0.05). SCWT and WCST scores did not differ across groups (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, CDI and CDI + ADHD performed more poorly than controls in total score of the FAB (p < 0.05). Also, CDI + ADHD did worse than CDI on DF (F = 4.756, p = 0.011), DB (F = 8.037, p = 0.001), Conceptualization/FAB (F = 4.635, p = 0.012), and Mental flexibility/FAB (F = 3.678, p = 0.029). We did not find correlations between cocaine-use variables and neuropsychological functioning, but previous ADHD symptoms assessed by WURS were negatively associated with DF (p = 0.016) and with the total score of the FAB (p = 0.017). Conclusion: CDI + ADHD presented more pronounced executive alterations than CDI and CDI exhibited poorer cognitive functioning than controls. Pre-existing ADHD symptoms may have a significant negative impact on

  2. Does diagnosis affect the predictive accuracy of risk assessment tools for juvenile offenders: Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Dinesh; Shaw, Jenny; Dolan, Mairead; Lennox, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Studies have suggested an increased risk of criminality in juveniles if they suffer from co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) along with Conduct Disorder. The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), the Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL:YV), and Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) have been shown to be good predictors of violent and non-violent re-offending. The aim was to compare the accuracy of these tools to predict violent and non-violent re-offending in young people with co-morbid ADHD and Conduct Disorder and Conduct Disorder only. The sample included 109 White-British adolescent males in secure settings. Results revealed no significant differences between the groups for re-offending. SAVRY factors had better predictive values than PCL:YV or YLS/CMI. Tools generally had better predictive values for the Conduct Disorder only group than the co-morbid group. Possible reasons for these findings have been discussed along with limitations of the study. PMID:25173178

  3. Overt versus covert conduct disorder symptoms and the prospective prediction of antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Le Corff, Yann; Toupin, Jean

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown strong continuity between conduct disorder (CD) in adolescence and antisocial personality disorder (APD) in adulthood. Researchers have been trying to explain why some adolescents with CD persist into adult APD and others do not. A few studies reported that overt and covert CD symptoms have a differential predictive power for APD, with mixed results. The present study aimed to evaluate the prospective association of overt and covert CD symptoms with APD in a sample of male adolescents with CD (N = 128, mean age = 15.6, SD = 1.6). Participants were recruited at intake in Quebec Youth Centers and reassessed 3 years later (n = 73). CD and ADHD symptoms were assessed at intake with the DISC-R while APD was assessed 3 years later with the SCID-II. Logistic regression results showed that, contrary to previous prospective studies (Lahey, Loeber, Burke, & Applegate, 2005; Washburn et al., 2007), overt (OR = 2.12, 95% CI [1.29, 3.50]) but not covert (OR = 1.04, 95% CI [0.69, 1.56]) symptoms predicted later APD, controlling for ADHD symptoms and socioeconomic status. It is hypothesized that the divergence with previous studies may be explained by the higher mean number and wider range of overt CD symptoms in our sample.

  4. Stability of Motor Problems in Young Children with or at Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders, ADHD, and or Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Waelvelde, Hilde; Oostra, Ann; DeWitte, Griet; van den Broeck, Christine; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of motor problems in a clinically referred sample of children with, or at risk of, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and/or developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: Participants were 49 children (39 males, 10 females; mean age 5y…

  5. Personal FM Systems for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and/or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Initial Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Erin C.; Mathews, Lauren; Mehta, Smita; Hill, Margaret; Munoz, Ashley; Bishop, Rachel; Moloney, Molly

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this initial investigation was to examine the potential benefit of a frequency modulation (FM) system for 11 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or both disorders through measures of speech recognition performance in noise, observed classroom behavior, and…

  6. Autism Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Familial Trait which Correlates with Conduct, Oppositional Defiant, Language and Motor Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Anney, Richard J. L; O'Regan, Myra; Chen, Wai; Butler, Louise; Fitzgerald, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Rothenberger, Aribert; Minderaa, Ruud; Nijmeijer, Judith; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Buschgens, Cathelijne; Christiansen, Hanna; Franke, Barbara; Gabriels, Isabel; Hartman, Catharina; Kuntsi, Jonna; Marco, Rafaela; Meidad, Sheera; Mueller, Ueli; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Rommelse, Nanda; Thompson, Margaret; Uebel, Henrik; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Phil; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gill, Michael

    2009-01-01

    It is hypothesised that autism symptoms are present in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are familial and index subtypes of ADHD. Autism symptoms were compared in 821 ADHD probands, 1050 siblings and 149 controls. Shared familiality of autism symptoms and ADHD was calculated using DeFries-Fulker analysis. Autism symptoms were higher…

  7. Risperidone Added to Parent Training and Stimulant Medication: Effects on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Peer Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Findling, Robert L.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Brown, Nicole V.; McNamara, Nora K.; Rundberg-Rivera, E. Victoria; Li, Xiaobai; Kipp, Heidi; Schneider, Jayne; Farmer, Cristan A.; Baker, Jennifer; Sprafkin, Joyce; Rice, Robert R.; Bangalore, Srihari S.; Butter, Eric M.; Buchan-Page, Kristin A.; Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Austin, Adrienne B.; Grondhuis, Sabrina N.; Aman, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed to expand on our prior research into the relative efficacy of combining parent training, stimulant medication and placebo (Basic) versus parent training, stimulant, and risperidone (Augmented) therapy by examining treatment effects for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and peer aggression, symptom-induced—impairment, and informant discrepancy. Method Children (6-12 years; N=168) with severe physical aggression, ADHD, and co-occurring ODD/CD received an open trial of parent training and stimulant medication for 3 weeks. Participants failing to show optimal clinical response were randomly assigned to Basic or Augmented therapy for an additional 6 weeks. Results Compared with Basic therapy, children receiving Augmented therapy experienced greater reduction in parent-rated ODD severity (p=.02, Cohen's d=0.27) and peer aggression (p=.02, Cohen's d=0.32), but not ADHD or CD symptoms. Fewer children receiving Augmented (16%) than Basic (40%) therapy were rated by their parents as impaired by ODD symptoms at Week 9/endpoint (p=.008). Teacher ratings indicated greater reduction in ADHD severity (p=.02, Cohen's d =0.61) with Augmented therapy, but not for ODD or CD symptoms or peer aggression. Although both interventions were associated with marked symptom reduction, a relatively large percentage of children were rated impaired for at least one targeted disorder at Week 9/endpoint by parents (Basic 47%; Augmented 27%) and teachers (Basic 48%; Augmented 38%). Conclusion Augmented was superior to Basic therapy in reducing severity of ADHD and ODD symptoms, peer aggression, and symptom-induced impairment, but clinical improvement was generally context-specific, and effect sizes ranged from small to moderate. PMID:25151418

  8. The heterogeneity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems: Cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms. PMID:26895773

  9. The heterogeneity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems: Cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms.

  10. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients.

  11. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members. PMID:23564208

  12. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  13. ADHD with Comorbid Disorders: Clinical Assessment and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliszka, Steven R.; Carlson, Caryn L.; Swanson, James M.

    This book is designed to help clinicians assess and treat children or adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder who also present other disabilities. Major comorbidities are described in depth and empirically grounded guidelines are presented for evaluation and treatment. Part 1 provides an overview of issues in comorbidity,…

  14. Methodological Issues in the Assessment of Medication Effects in Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in school-aged children and is usually treated with stimulant medications, including methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin[R], Ritalin-LA[R], Concerta[R], Metadate[R], or Focalin[R]) and other drug compounds (e.g., Adderall[R], Adderall-XR[R], or Dexedrine).…

  15. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in Childhood: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E.; Clinton, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    This article examines recent literature related to the diagnosis of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in childhood. First, the article discusses diagnostic criteria presented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Next, it explores the diagnostic procedures for AD/HD…

  16. Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Finding an Answer to ADHD as an Adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... education, social and family situations and relationships, employment, self-esteem, and emotional health. It is never too late ... tasks. It can also address feelings of low self-esteem and help adults with ADHD gain confidence, as ...

  17. Examining Executive Functioning in Boys with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Lewandowski, Lawrence; Gordon, Michael

    This study examined executive functioning (EF) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) boys ages 6-12 on a parent-report measure from Barkley's model. Mothers of 40 boys (20 with ADHD-HI or ADHD-C, and 20 without ADHD) completed the ADHD Symptom Checklist (ADHD-SC4), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-P), School-Home Information Profile…

  18. Therapeutic Eurythmy-movement therapy for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Majorek, Magdalena; Tüchelmann, Tobias; Heusser, Peter

    2004-02-01

    This paper considers Therapeutic Eurythmy (TE) as a possible therapy for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).ADHD manifests as a complex psychological disturbance in which deficit of attention such as forgetfulness or distraction is the main symptom. It would seem that a growing number of children seem to be affected by this syndrome and an increasing number of alternative approaches to treatment are being sought. Therapeutic Eurythmy is a movement Therapy in the context of anthroposophical medicine. As a holistic therapy TE affects both physical and spiritual aspects of illness. TE entails the practice of movement exercises learned from a trained therapist. In this exploratory study, the effects of TE on behavioural functioning were examined.This paper addresses five single cases where the therapy induced positive changes to client's attention span, concentration, tempo of work and motor skills such as coordination, dexterity and social behaviour. Standard psychological tests parameters for movement, and for attention were used to assess aspects of performance.A positive shift was observed with reference to concentration and development of movement skills. Results were less pronounced but showed positive improvements on working speed and social behaviour problems. Hyperactivity also diminished to some extent. Generally, children were considered to be more mature in their development after therapy. The results of these case studies suggest that TE may be helpful for children with ADHD. However, more systematic research is warranted.

  19. The use of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for the treatment of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Roncero, Carlos; Álvarez, F Javier

    2014-08-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a long-acting oral prodrug stimulant. It is inactive until enzymatically hydrolyzed in the blood to active D-amphetamine. The pharmacological action of this compound involves blocking norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine reuptake into presynaptic neurons and promoting the release of NE and dopamine into the extraneuronal space. LDX has been approved for treating ADHD, which is the most common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Also, LDX has been proposed for other psychiatric conditions related with dopaminergic and NE CNS. LDX is the first long-acting oral prodrug indicated for the treatment of ADHD in children (6-12 years), adolescents (13-17 years) and in adults in the USA and Canada, whereas, in Europe, LDX is licensed in several countries for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD who have had a clinically inadequate response to methylphenidate. This article covers the most important pharmacological aspects of LDX as well as data on the efficacy, tolerability and safety of this long-acting amphetamine prodrug collected from clinical studies recently published in the literature. PMID:24948428

  20. Prospective Association of Childhood Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Substance Use and Abuse/Dependence: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Steve S.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Flory, Kate; Liu, Rebecca; Glass, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    Given the clinical and public health significance of substance disorders and the need to identify their early risk factors, we examined the association of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with substance use (e.g., nicotine, alcohol) and abuse/dependence outcomes (nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, other). To strengthen a potential causal inference, we meta-analyzed longitudinal studies that prospectively followed children with and without ADHD into adolescence or adulthood. Children with ADHD were significantly more likely to have ever used nicotine and other substances, but not alcohol. Children with ADHD were also more likely to develop disorders of abuse/dependence for nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and other substances (i.e., unspecified). Sex, age, race, publication year, sample source, and version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) used to diagnose ADHD did not significantly moderate the associations with substance outcomes that yielded heterogeneous effect sizes. These findings suggest that children with ADHD are significantly more likely to develop substance use disorders than children without ADHD and that this increased risk is robust to demographic and methodological differences that varied across the studies. Finally, few studies addressed ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), thus preventing a formal meta-analytic review. However, we qualitatively summarize the results of these studies and conclude that comorbid DBD complicates inferences about the specificity of ADHD effects on substance use outcomes. PMID:21382538

  1. Cognitive Improvement of Attention and Inhibition in the Late Afternoon in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treated With Osmotic-Release Oral System Methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Slama, Hichem; Fery, Patrick; Verheulpen, Denis; Vanzeveren, Nathalie; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Long-acting medications have been developed and approved for use in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These compounds are intended to optimize and maintain symptoms control throughout the day. We tested prolonged effects of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate on both attention and inhibition, in the late afternoon. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 36 boys (7-12 years) with ADHD and 40 typically developing children. The ADHD children received an individualized dose of placebo or osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate. They were tested about 8 hours after taking with 2 continuous performance tests (continuous performance test-X [CPT-X] and continuous performance test-AX [CPT-AX]) and a counting Stroop. A positive effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate was present in CPT-AX with faster and less variable reaction times under osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate than under placebo, and no difference with typically developing children. In the counting Stroop, we found a decreased interference with osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate but no difference between children with ADHD under placebo and typically developing children.

  2. Decreased binding capacity (Bmax) of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in fibroblasts from boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jessica; Landgren, Magnus; Fernell, Elisabeth; Lewander, Tommy; Venizelos, Nikolaos

    2013-09-01

    Monoaminergic dysregulation is implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate and amphetamines are the most frequently prescribed pharmacological agents for treating ADHD. However, it has recently been proposed that the core symptoms of the disorder might be due to an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic systems. In this study, we used fibroblast cell homogenates from boys with and without ADHD as an extraneural cell model to examine the cholinergic receptor density, that is, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). We found that the binding capacity (Bmax) of [³H] Quinuclidinyl benzilate (³H-QNB) to mAChRs was decreased by almost 50 % in the children with ADHD (mean = 30.6 fmol/mg protein, SD = 25.6) in comparison with controls [mean = 63.1 fmol/mg protein, SD = 20.5, p ≤ 0.01 (Student's unpaired t test)]. The decreased Bmax indicates a reduced cholinergic receptor density, which might constitute a biomarker for ADHD. However, these preliminary findings need to be replicated in larger ADHD and comparison cohorts.

  3. A Systematic Review of Parenting in Relation to the Development of Comorbidities and Functional Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deault, Louise C.

    2010-01-01

    This review synthesizes recent research evidence regarding the parenting characteristics associated with families with children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder with a range of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its behavioral expression and different developmental…

  4. The Impact of Teacher Factors on Achievement and Behavioural Outcomes of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jody; Rasmussen, Carmen; Baydala, Lola

    2008-01-01

    Background: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder known to be associated with behavioural and academic difficulties. Several treatment options are available for children with ADHD, such as medication and behavioural therapy. Although researchers have examined the efficacy of these approaches, much less is understood…

  5. Childhood ADHD Is Strongly Associated with a Broad Range of Psychiatric Disorders during Adolescence: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J.; Colligan, Robert C.; Voigt, Robert G.; Killian, Jill M.; Weaver, Amy L.; Katusic, Slavica K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders using research-identified incident cases of ADHD and population-based controls. Methods: Subjects included a birth cohort of all children born 1976-1982 remaining in Rochester, MN after age five (n = 5,718). Among them we…

  6. Commonalities in EEG Spectral Power Abnormalities Between Women With ADHD and Women With Bipolar Disorder During Rest and Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Rommel, Anna-Sophie; Kitsune, Glenn L.; Michelini, Giorgia; Hosang, Georgina M.; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Brandeis, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    While attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) denote distinct psychiatric conditions, diagnostic delineation is impeded by considerable symptomatic overlap. Direct comparisons across ADHD and BD on neurophysiological measures are limited. They could inform us on impairments that are specific to or shared between the disorders and, therefore, potential biomarkers that may aid in the identification of the diagnostic boundaries. Our aim was to test whether quantitative EEG (QEEG) identifies differences or similarities between women with ADHD and women with BD during resting-state and task conditions. QEEG activity was directly compared between 20 ADHD, 20 BD and 20 control women during an eyes-open resting-state condition (EO) and a cued continuous performance task (CPT-OX). Both ADHD (t38 = 2.50, p = 0.017) and BD (t38 = 2.54, p = 0.018) participants showed higher absolute theta power during EO than controls. No significant differences emerged between the two clinical groups. While control participants showed a task-related increase in absolute theta power from EO to CPT-OX (t19 = −3.77, p = 0.001), no such change in absolute theta power was observed in the ADHD (t19 = −0.605, p = 0.553) or BD (t19 = 1.82, p = 0.084) groups. Our results provide evidence for commonalities in brain dysfunction between ADHD and BD. Absolute theta power may play a role as a marker of neurobiological processes in both disorders. PMID:27464584

  7. Influence of Disorder on DNA Conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adessi, Christophe; Anantram, M. P.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Disorder along a DNA strand due to non uniformity associated with the counter ion type and location, and in rise and twist are investigated using density functional theory. We then model the conductance through a poly(G) DNA strand by including the influence of disorder. We show that the conductance drops by a few orders of magnitude between typical lengths of 10 and 100 nm. Such a decrease occurs with on-site potential disorder that is larger than 100 meV.

  8. The utility of IFS (INECO Frontal Screening) for the detection of executive dysfunction in adults with bipolar disorder and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Baez, Sandra; Ibanez, Agustin; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Perez, Ana; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo; Torralva, Teresa

    2014-05-15

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults share clinical symptoms. Both disorders present with executive functioning impairment. The detection of executive dysfunction usually requires the administration of an extensive neuropsychological battery. The Institute of Cognitive Neurology (INECO) Frontal Screening (IFS) is an efficient tool, which has been demonstrated to be useful for the detection of executive deficits in other diseases involving the prefrontal cortex. This study assessed the usefulness of the IFS in detecting the executive dysfunction of BD and ADHD adults, by means of a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis and a multigroup discriminant function analysis. Twenty-four BD, 25 ADHD patients and 25 controls were assessed with a battery that included the IFS and other measures of executive functioning. Our results showed that both patient groups performed significantly lower than controls on the IFS total score. Using a 27.5 point cut-off score, the IFS showed good sensitivity and acceptable specificity to detect executive impairments in BD and ADHD patients. The IFS discriminated between controls and each patient group more reliably than other executive functions measures. Our results suggest that this tool could be a useful instrument to assess executive functions in BD and ADHD patients.

  9. Perspectives on Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Psychopathic Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a few perspectives on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and early forms of psychopathy. The developmental changes and stability of each, and the interrelationship between the three conditions are reviewed, and correlates and predictors are highlighted. The paper also examines effective interventions…

  10. The Co-Occurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Parents of Children with ASD or ASD with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Richards, Jennifer S.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; de Ruiter, Saskia W.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan. K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the co-occurrence may be (cross-)assortative mating, e.g.,…

  11. Further Evidence that Pediatric-Onset Bipolar Disorder Comorbid with ADHD Represents a Distinct Subtype: Results from a Large Controlled Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Petty, Carter; Martelon, MaryKate; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Wozniak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    We used familial risk analysis to clarify the diagnostic comorbidity between pediatric BP-I disorder and ADHD, testing the hypothesis that pediatric BP-I disorder comorbid with ADHD represents a distinct subtype. Structured diagnostic interviews were used to obtain DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses on first-degree relatives (n=726) of referred children and adolescents satisfying diagnostic criteria for BP-I disorder (n=239). For comparison, diagnostic information on the first-degree relatives (N=511) of non-bipolar ADHD children (N=162) and the first degree relatives (N=411) of control children (N=136) with neither ADHD nor BP-I disorder were examined. BP-I disorder and ADHD in probands bred true irrespective of the comorbidity with the other disorder. We also found that the comorbid condition of BP-I disorder plus ADHD also bred true in families, and the two disorders co-segregated among relatives. This large familial risk analysis provides compelling evidence that pediatric BP-I disorder comorbid with ADHD represents a distinct familial subtype. PMID:22979994

  12. Executive Function Deficits in Preschool Children with ADHD and DBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impairments in executive functions (EF) are consistently associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to a lesser extent, with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), that is, oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in school-aged children. Recently, larger numbers of children with these disorders are…

  13. ADHD symptoms and attachment representations: considering the role of conduct problems, cognitive deficits and narrative responses in non-attachment-related story stems.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, Sara; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Bohlin, Gunilla; Thorell, Lisa B

    2014-08-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to investigate ADHD symptoms in relation to attachment representations. We used both attachment- and non-attachment-related story stems, which allowed us to investigate whether problems with narrative production can explain the relation between ADHD symptoms and attachment representations. We also investigated the role of cognitive deficits and conduct problems in these relations. The sample consisted of 89 children (27 % girls) between 6 and 10 years old, with an oversampling of children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms and conduct problems were rated by parents and teachers. Cognitive functioning was investigated using laboratory tests of inhibition, working memory and sustained attention. Attachment representations were coded as secure, organized insecure and disorganized categories. Narrative responses to non-attachment-related story stems were coded for incoherence and negative content. Results showed that children in the disorganized attachment category had significantly higher levels of ADHD symptoms compared to those in the secure category. Both ADHD symptoms and disorganized attachment were related to incoherence and negative content. Attachment representations were not associated with ADHD symptoms when controlling for negative content in response to non-attachment-related story stems. These results suggest that the associations between attachment security and ADHD are yet to be fully understood. Importantly, a propensity to envisage negative events seems to characterize children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. PMID:24562639

  14. Union and separation in the therapy of pervasive developmental disorders and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshio

    2009-11-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of psychotherapy for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) in the context of the curative effects of the movement of images. The 'autistic spectrum' is widened here and includes not only PDD, but also ADHD. The main common characteristic in these two sets of disorders seems to be the lack of a subject, which manifests itself as the absence of awareness of otherness and difficulties with boundaries and language. In these cases a normal psychotherapy is ineffective as it presupposes an established subject. However a psychotherapeutic approach with these patients can contribute to the emergence of a subject. In severe cases the process of union and separation which is enacted either in the therapeutic relationship or in symbolic play leads to the birth of a subject, and of language. In milder cases, such as ADHD, the moments of separation and confrontation with the therapist suffice. I will discuss a case of my own with Asperger's syndrome in which union and separation in the play therapy occurred simultaneously. This indicates that union and separation are not a consecutive process, but are simultaneous and lead to dialectical movement. However, in neurotic cases with an established subjectivity the symbolic meaning of image plays a central role. This corresponds to Jung's understanding of image in alchemy. PMID:19840158

  15. [Proposals for social policies to improve the quality of life in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD

    PubMed

    Cid Foix, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effects of pre and postnatal stress on the cerebral morphological findings described as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. [ADHD]. The consequences of ADHD cause social problems because these children have difficulties with family, school and social integration. Previous treatments are reviewed up to the present day. The drug that has been used most frequently is Metilphenidate, a psychostimulant, and recently, a new drug, Atomoxetine, a non psychostimulant was introduced. The therapy is combined with physiological training. These drugs give relief to the symptoms but their long term side-effects are unknown. Recent investigations have shown that children with ADHD who are receiving either cognitive or control training have increased cerebral activity without previous medication. With these facts in mind the European ADHD Guidelines group suggests a new focus of attention on the children and adults with this problem with the aim of modifying the treatment followed until now. The ethical motives for this review are: a) to make society more aware of the problems of ADHD with the aim of taking measures to avoid the possible causes of the illness; b) to take into account that the effects of long term psychostimulant drugs on the developing mind are unknown; c) to gather information that supports the view that diagnosis of ADHD has increased. PMID:22040136

  16. [Proposals for social policies to improve the quality of life in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD

    PubMed

    Cid Foix, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effects of pre and postnatal stress on the cerebral morphological findings described as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. [ADHD]. The consequences of ADHD cause social problems because these children have difficulties with family, school and social integration. Previous treatments are reviewed up to the present day. The drug that has been used most frequently is Metilphenidate, a psychostimulant, and recently, a new drug, Atomoxetine, a non psychostimulant was introduced. The therapy is combined with physiological training. These drugs give relief to the symptoms but their long term side-effects are unknown. Recent investigations have shown that children with ADHD who are receiving either cognitive or control training have increased cerebral activity without previous medication. With these facts in mind the European ADHD Guidelines group suggests a new focus of attention on the children and adults with this problem with the aim of modifying the treatment followed until now. The ethical motives for this review are: a) to make society more aware of the problems of ADHD with the aim of taking measures to avoid the possible causes of the illness; b) to take into account that the effects of long term psychostimulant drugs on the developing mind are unknown; c) to gather information that supports the view that diagnosis of ADHD has increased.

  17. Skills training groups for men with ADHD in compulsory care due to substance use disorder: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bihlar Muld, B; Jokinen, J; Bölte, S; Hirvikoski, T

    2016-09-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)-based skills training has been developed and previously evaluated for adults with ADHD in a psychiatric outpatient context. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of DBT-based skills training as a voluntary intervention for men with ADHD in compulsory care due to severe substance abuse. Forty sufficiently detoxified men with ADHD in compulsory care due to life-threatening substance use disorder (SUD) were included in DBT-based skills training groups. Self- and staff-rating scales were administered before and after the treatment. The refusal rate was 42.9 %. Of those who started the DBT-based skills training, 70 % completed the treatment (attendance at ≥75 % of the sessions). The treatment acceptability was good. Both ADHD and psychiatric symptoms decreased from pre- to post-intervention in self-ratings, but not in staff ratings. The patients reported improved general well-being. The correlation between self- and staff ratings was poor. Motivation for voluntary nonpharmacological treatment was low in a compulsory care context. However, the results indicate that a DBT-based skills training program for adults with ADHD may be feasible for some patients with ADHD in combination with SUD in compulsory care, provided that considerable resources are allocated with adjustments to the target group and compulsory care context.

  18. Influence of methylphenidate on spatial attention asymmetry in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Silk, Timothy J; Newman, Daniel P; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Atypical asymmetries of spatial attention have been reported in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and may be exacerbated by non-spatial factors such as attentional capacity. Although preliminary evidence suggests that asymmetries of attention in ADHD may be modifiable by the psychostimulant, methylphenidate, further placebo-controlled studies are required. This study first aimed to confirm recent evidence that increasing non-spatial processing load at fixation can unmask a spatial gradient of target detection in children with ADHD but not Controls. Second, we used placebo-controlled randomised trial methodology to ask whether 20mg of methylphenidate (MPH) could remediate any load-dependent asymmetry of spatial attention in adolescents with ADHD. Twelve male adolescents with ADHD were assessed twice in a double-blind, randomized design, under either placebo or an acute dose of methylphenidate. Thirteen typically developing adolescent Controls completed a single session under placebo. Participants completed a computer-based task in which they monitored a centrally presented rapid serial visual presentation stream for a probe stimulus, while also responding to brief peripheral events. The attentional load of the central task was manipulated by varying the target instructions but not the physical stimuli or the frequency of targets. Between-group analyses under placebo conditions indicated that increased attentional load induced a spatial gradient for target detection in the ADHD but not Controls, such that load slowed response times for left, but not, right hemi-field targets. This load-dependent spatial asymmetry in the adolescents with ADHD was abolished by administration of methylphenidate. Methylphenidate may "normalise" target detection between the hemi-fields in ADHD via enhancement of the right-lateralised ventral attention networks that support non-spatial attention.

  19. Family correlates of oppositional and conduct disorders in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Pfiffner, Linda J; McBurnett, Keith; Rathouz, Paul J; Judice, Samuel

    2005-10-01

    Comorbidities among children with ADHD are key determinants of treatment response, course, and outcome. This study sought to separate family factors (parental psychopathology and parenting practices) associated with comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) from those associated with Conduct Disorder (CD) among children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Clinic-referred families (n = 149) were diagnosed using DSM-IV criteria. Parents completed measures of parenting practices. Comorbid ODD and CD were significantly associated with maternal negative/ineffective discipline. Comorbid CD, but not ODD, was significantly associated with lack of maternal warmth and involvement, paternal negative/ineffective discipline, and with paternal Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD). However, the risk of CD posed by parenting appeared concentrated among children without a father having APD. While consistent discipline appears important for addressing comorbid ODD and CD, paternal psychopathology and the quality of the relationship between mother and child may pose risk specifically for comorbid CD. Efforts to prevent and/or treat CD should consider not only provision of structure and prudent discipline, but also the affective qualities of the relationship between the primary caretaker and child.

  20. Conductance quantization in strongly disordered graphene ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihnatsenka, S.; Kirczenow, G.

    2009-11-01

    We present numerical studies of conduction in graphene nanoribbons with different types of disorder. We find that even when defect scattering depresses the conductance to values two orders of magnitude lower than 2e2/h , equally spaced conductance plateaus occur at moderately low temperatures due to enhanced electron backscattering near subband edge energies if bulk vacancies are present in the ribbon. This work accounts quantitatively for the surprising conductance quantization observed by Lin [Phys. Rev. B 78, 161409(R) (2008)] in ribbons with such low conductances.

  1. ADHD: Tips to Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD: Tips to Try Print A A A Text Size en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a medical ...

  2. ADHD and Dyscalculia: Evidence for Independent Familial Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Herzig, Kathleen; Navsaria, Neha; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The familial relationship between dyscalculia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. We conducted a familial risk analysis using probands with and without ADHD of both genders and their first-degree relatives. Participants were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and a cognitive test battery. We found elevated…

  3. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  4. [Evolutionary issues in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); from risk factors to comorbidity and social and academic impact].

    PubMed

    Quintero, Javier; Loro, Mercedes; Jiménez, Belén; García Campos, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and at least one-third to one-half will continue through adolescence and adulthood. Moreover it is important the high comorbidity not only in children, but in adolescents and adults. Therefore ADHD becomes especially important when we observe it as a risk factor for the development of another psychopathology that add more complexity to the diagnosis of children and adolescents and also adults, and confers an evolutionary risk throughout the lifetime of the person who suffers from it. A correlational study with a sample of 378 patients diagnosed with ADHD in the childhood between 1988 and 2000 who had initiated treatment after been diagnosed was carried out. 88 patients were evaluated years after (2006) with ages between 18 and 33 years old. 85% of the patients in this study had had combined treatment. The data found in this study show lower comorbidity than other published studies (36.4%), as well as a lower persistence of the complete diagnosis of ADHD in the adulthood (15%). This is a treated population; the results may lead to a possible protector role of the early treatment of ADHD.

  5. Sensory processing abilities of children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Vitoria T.; Bueno, Orlando F. A.; Miranda, Mônica C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the sensory processing abilities of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children without disabilities, and to analyze the relationship between sensory processing difficulties and behavioural symptoms presented by children with ADHD. METHOD : Thirty-seven children with ADHD were compared with thirty-seven controls using a translated and adapted version of the "Sensory Profile" answered by the parents/caregivers. For the ADHD group, Sensory Profile scores were correlated to behavioural symptoms assessed using the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the Behavioural Teacher Rating Scale (EACI-P). The statistical analyses were conducted using the Mann Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficients. RESULTS : Children with ADHD showed significant impairments compared to the control group in sensory processing and modulation, as well as in behavioural and emotional responses as observed in 11 out of 14 sections and 6 out of 9 factors. Differences in all Sensory Profile response patterns were also observed between the two groups of children. Sensory Profile scores showed a moderately negative correlation with CBCL and EACI-P scores in the ADHD group. CONCLUSION : These results indicate that children with ADHD may present sensory processing impairments, which may contribute to the inappropriate behavioural and learning responses displayed by children with ADHD. It also suggests the importance of understanding the sensory processing difficulties and its possible contribution to the ADHD symptomatology. PMID:25076000

  6. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities.

  7. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities. PMID:26365689

  8. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Well-Being: Is Social Impairment an Issue for College Students with ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the psychological well-being of college students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was analyzed. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of undergraduates aged 18-25 at a Southern university (N = 317). Well-being was measured using Ryff's (1989) 6 likert scales of psychological well-being. Students with…

  9. The Cognitive Abilities and Skills of Children Who Suffer from Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Kuwait State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Ali Mohammed Haidar

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to identify the level of cognitive skills and abilities of children who suffer from the Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the differences in the level of cognitive skills and abilities according to the age group and the level of academic achievement. To achieve the objective of the study, a…

  10. Hyperactivity in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Ubiquitous Core Symptom or Manifestation of Working Memory Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2009-01-01

    Hyperactivity is currently considered a core and ubiquitous feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, an alternative model challenges this premise and hypothesizes a functional relationship between working memory (WM) and activity level. The current study investigated whether children's activity level is functionally…

  11. Knowledge and Misconceptions about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Comparison of Greek General and Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Antonopoulou, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    School teachers play an important role in the identification and assessment of pupils' difficulties, and have been considered one of the most valuable sources of information with regard to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses. The study examines and compares general and special education teachers' knowledge and misconceptions…

  12. Larger Deficits in Brain Networks for Response Inhibition than for Visual Selective Attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, James R.; Burman, Douglas D.; Meyer, Joel R.; Lei, Zhang; Trommer, Barbara L.; Davenport, Nicholas D.; Li, Wei; Parrish, Todd B.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Mesulam, M. Marsel

    2005-01-01

    Background: Brain activation differences between 12 control and 12 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children (9- to 12-year-olds) were examined on two cognitive tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Visual selective attention was measured with the visual search of a conjunction target (red triangle) in a…

  13. A Clinical Study of ADHD Symptoms with Relation to Symptoms of Learning Disorders in Schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talero-Gutierrez, Claudia; Van Meerbeke, Alberto Velez; Reyes, Rodrigo Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible relationships between symptoms of ADHD and of learning disorder (LD) in a population geographically, culturally, and linguistically distinct from previous studies. Method: The authors evaluated a cross section of 834 Colombian schoolchildren for childhood neurological pathologies on the basis of a medical…

  14. Donepezil in the Treatment of ADHD-Like Symptoms in Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorder: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert L.; Frazier, Jean; Spencer, Thomas J.; Geller, Daniel; Biederman, Joseph; Wilens, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent studies reported ADHD-like symptoms and cognitive deficits in pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Because work in dementia documents improvement in executive function deficits with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, the authors reason that similar benefits could be obtained in PDD. Method: The authors describe…

  15. Auditory Conflict Processing in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Mourik, Rosa; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Konig, Claudia; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was conducted to gain insight into conflict processing…

  16. ADHD and academic performance: why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom?

    PubMed

    Daley, D; Birchwood, J

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and academic performance. First, the relationship at different developmental stages is examined, focusing on pre-schoolers, children, adolescents and adults. Second, the review examines the factors underpinning the relationship between ADHD and academic underperformance: the literature suggests that it is the symptoms of ADHD and underlying cognitive deficits not co-morbid conduct problems that are at the root of academic impairment. The review concludes with an overview of the literature examining strategies that are directed towards remediating the academic impairment of individuals with ADHD. PMID:20074251

  17. Isochromosome 13 in a patient with childhood-onset schizophrenia, ADHD, and motor tic disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A small percentage of all cases of schizophrenia have a childhood onset. The impact on the individual and family can be devastating. We report the results of genetic analyses from a patient with onset of visual hallucinations at 5 years, and a subsequent diagnosis at 9 years of schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity and impulsivity, and chronic motor tic disorder. Results Karyotypic analysis found 45,XX,i(13)(q10) in all cells examined. Alpha satellite FISH of isochromosome 13 revealed a large unsplit centromeric region, interpreted as two centromeres separated by minimal or undetectable short-arm material or as a single monocentric centromere, indicating that the isochromosome likely formed post-zygotically by a short arm U-type or centromeric exchange. Characterization of chromosome 13 simple tandem repeats and Affymetrix whole-genome 6.0 SNP array hybridization found homozygosity for all markers, and the presence of only a single paternal allele in informative markers, consistent with an isodisomic isochromosome of paternal origin. Analysis of two chromosome 13 schizophrenia candidate genes, D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2A (5-HTR2A), failed to identify non-synonymous coding mutations but did identify homozygous risk polymorphisms. Conclusions We report a female patient with childhood-onset schizophrenia, ADHD, and motor tic disorder associated with an isodisomic isochromosome 13 of paternal origin and a 45,XX,i(13)(q10q10) karyotype. We examined two potential mechanisms to explain chromosome 13 involvement in the patient's pathology, including reduction to homozygosity of a paternal mutation and reduction to homozygosity of a paternal copy number variation, but were unable to identify any overtly pathogenic abnormality. Future studies may consider whether epigenetic mechanisms resulting from uniparental disomy (UPD) and the lack of chromosome 13 maternal

  18. Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder a Valid Diagnosis in the Presence of High IQ? Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Stallone, Kimberly; Nave, Andrea; Kaufmann, Felice A.; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Seidman, Larry; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the validity of diagnosing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in high IQ children and to further characterize the clinical features associated with their ADHD. Methods: We operationalized giftedness/high IQ as having a full scale IQ greater than or equal to 120. We identified 92 children…

  19. An Analysis of the Discourses on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in US Special Education Textbooks, with Implications for Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the discourses on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found in textbooks used in pre-service special education programmes in the USA. Five textbooks are examined with the intent of discovering how ADHD is portrayed to future teachers. A discourse analysis framework is utilised, revealing five…

  20. 36 CFR 1002.34 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 1002.34 Section 1002.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND... public alarm, nuisance, jeopardy or violence, or knowingly or recklessly creating a risk thereof,...

  1. 36 CFR 1002.34 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 1002.34 Section 1002.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND... public alarm, nuisance, jeopardy or violence, or knowingly or recklessly creating a risk thereof,...

  2. 36 CFR 261.4 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 261.4 Section 261.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS... present when such communication has a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person to...

  3. 36 CFR 261.4 - Disorderly conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disorderly conduct. 261.4 Section 261.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS... present when such communication has a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person to...

  4. Questioning the Specificity of ASRS-v1.1 to Accurately Detect ADHD in Substance Abusing Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiasson, Jean-Pierre; Stavro, Katherine; Rizkallah, Elie; Lapierre, Luc; Dussault, Maxime; Legault, Louis; Potvin, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the specificity of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) in detecting ADHD among individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs). Method: A chart review of 183 SUD patients was conducted. Patients were screened for ADHD with the ASRS-v1.1 and were later assessed by a psychiatrist specialized in ADHD. Results: Among SUD…

  5. The association between youth violence exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of fifth-graders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Terri; Schwebel, David C; Elliott, Marc N; Visser, Susanna N; Toomey, Sara L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Cuccaro, Paula; Tortolero Emery, Susan; Banspach, Stephen W; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided information about exposure to violence. Results indicated that youth who reported both witnessing and victimization had more parent-reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to meet predictive criteria for ADHD. Among those with both exposures, girls exhibited a steeper increase in ADHD symptoms and higher probability of meeting predictive criteria than did boys. Findings indicate that being both victim-of and witness-to violence is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms particularly among girls.

  6. Working memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an examination of central executive and storage/rehearsal processes.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Hudec, Kristen L; Patros, Connor H G; Kasper, Lisa J

    2013-05-01

    The current study was the first to use a regression approach to examine the unique contributions of central executive (CE) and storage/rehearsal processes to working memory (WM) deficits in adults with ADHD. Thirty-seven adults (ADHD = 21, HC = 16) completed phonological (PH) and visuospatial (VS) working memory tasks. While both groups performed significantly better during the PH task relative to the VS task, adults with ADHD exhibited significant deficits across both working memory modalities. Further, the ADHD group recalled disproportionately fewer PH and VS stimuli as set-size demands increased. Overall, the CE and PH storage/rehearsal processes of adults with ADHD were both significantly impaired relative to those of the healthy control adults; however, the magnitude of the CE effect size was much smaller compared to previous studies of children with the disorder. Collectively, results provide support for a lifelong trajectory of WM deficits in ADHD.

  7. The Association Between Youth Violence Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in a Sample of Fifth-Graders

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Terri; Elliott, Marc N.; Toomey, Sara L.; Cuccaro, Paula; Emery, Susan Tortolero; Schwebel, David C.; Visser, Susanna N.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided information about exposure to violence. Results indicated that youth who reported both witnessing and victimization had more parent-reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to meet predictive criteria for ADHD. Among those with both exposures, girls exhibited a steeper increase in ADHD symptoms and higher probability of meeting predictive criteria than did boys. Findings indicate that being both victim-of and witness-to violence is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms particularly among girls. PMID:26460708

  8. Corpus Callosum Segment Circumference Is Associated With Response Control in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Melanie A.; Crocetti, Deana; Mahone, E. Mark; Denckla, Martha B.; Suskauer, Stacy J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Response control is impaired in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given the corpus callosum's role in response control, we compared callosal morphology in 64 children with ADHD and 64 typically developing children, aged 7 to 13 years, and investigated the relationships between callosal morphology and response control. Area and circumference of 5 callosal segments (genu, rostral body, midbody, isthmus, and splenium) were normalized for cerebral volume and examined for correlation with mean reaction time, intrasubject variability, and/or commission error rate from a go/no-go task. There were no between-group differences in segment areas or circumferences. Reaction time correlated with midbody circumference for boys with ADHD and isthmus circumference for girls with ADHD. For the entire cohort, rostral body circumference correlated with intra-subject variability. Impaired response control in ADHD is associated with anomalies in frontal interhemispheric connections. Future studies examining callosal shape will illuminate the anatomic basis of correlations between callosal segment circumference and response control. PMID:20139403

  9. Planning deficit in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a neurocognitive trait independent from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Galasso, Cinzia; Lo-Castro, Adriana; Di Carlo, Loredana; Pitzianti, Maria Bernarda; D'Agati, Elisa; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is associated with executive dysfunctions and comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 30% to 50% of children. This study was designed to clarify the neurocognitive phenotype observed in neurofibromatosis type 1 by testing the hypothesis that children with neurofibromatosis type 1 have specific planning deficits independently from intellectual level and ADHD comorbidity. Eighteen children with neurofibromatosis type 1 were pair-matched to 18 children with ADHD and 18 healthy controls. All groups were assessed on the presence of ADHD symptoms (Conners Scales) and planning deficits (Tower of London). Compared with control group, groups with neurofibromatosis type 1 and ADHD demonstrated significant impairment of planning and problem solving. The lack of correlation between Tower of London results and Conners subscale scores in neurofibromatosis type 1 group confirmed that the planning and problem-solving deficit is not directly related to inattention level. These findings suggested that the executive impairment probably represents a peculiar trait of neurofibromatosis type 1 neurocognitive phenotype.

  10. Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O.; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6–13 years of age. Methods: We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children’s ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Results: Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. Conclusions: In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Citation: Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a

  11. Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, SoYean; Burns, G Leonard; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Assessment of the QT interval in the electroencephalography (EEG) of children with syncope, epilepsy, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Jha, Om P; Khurana, Divya S; Carvalho, Karen S; Melvin, Joseph J; Legido, Agustin; O'Riordan, Anna C; Valencia, Ignacio

    2010-03-01

    The interpretation of QT interval is often neglected during electroencephalography (EEG) reading. We compared the incidence of prolonged QT interval, as seen in the electrocardiography (ECG) recording lead of the EEG, in children presenting with seizure, syncope, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Abnormal QT was defined as >460 ms. The incidence of prolonged QT in the seizure, syncope, and ADHD groups was 1/50 (2%), 7/50 (14%), and 2/50 (4%), respectively (P = .036, chi-square). The mean +/- SD of QT were 405 +/- 34, 424 +/- 39, and 414 +/- 36, respectively (P = .035, analysis of variance [ANOVA], syncope group, compared with seizure group). The incidence of prolonged QT as measured in the EEG was unexpectedly high in children presenting with seizure, syncope, or ADHD. These data support the concept that QT evaluation should be emphasized during routine EEG reading, as it may aid in identifying cases of undiagnosed cardiac conduction abnormalities. Prospective studies comparing EEG-ECG tracings with 12-lead ECG are warranted.

  13. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful.

  14. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful. PMID:26529403

  15. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients. PMID:25987323

  16. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Guimarães, Rachel Silvany Quadros; Jagersbacher, João Gabriel; Barretto, Thiago Lima; de Jesus-Silva, Jéssica Regina; Santos, Samantha Nunes; Argollo, Nayara; Lucena, Rita

    2016-06-01

    Studies investigating the possible benefits of transcranial direct current stimulation on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been performed. This study assesses the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD on neuropsychological tests of visual attention, visual and verbal working memory, and inhibitory control. An auto-matched clinical trial was performed involving transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD, using SNAP-IV and subtests Vocabulary and Cubes of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III). Subjects were assessed before and after transcranial direct current stimulation sessions with the Digit Span subtest of the WISC-III, inhibitory control subtest of the NEPSY-II, Corsi cubes, and the Visual Attention Test (TAVIS-3). There were 9 individuals with ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) criteria. There was statistically significant difference in some aspects of TAVIS-3 tests and the inhibitory control subtest of NEPSY-II. Transcranial direct current stimulation can be related to a more efficient processing speed, improved detection of stimuli, and improved ability to switch between an ongoing activity and a new one.

  17. Identification of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder in Mexican children by the scale for evaluation of deficit of attention and hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Zambrano-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Martínez-Cortés, José A; Del Rió-Carlos, Yolanda; Martínez-Wbaldo, Ma Del Consuelo; Poblano, Adrián

    2011-05-30

    The objective was weighing the usefulness of a Spanish-language Scale for the evaluation of deficit of attention and hyperactivity (EDAH) to identify children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (AD-HD) and conduct disorder (CD) in a sample of school-aged children. We studied 132 children from a government-run public elementary school previously selected by teachers as having learning and attention disorders. We screened children of the sample with parents' and teachers' EDAH and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) questionnaires, and performed an interdisciplinary clinical examination for the final diagnosis. We found 81 children with AD-HD and 51 children without AD-HD. AD-HD was classified as follows: AD-HD-combined (-C), n=32; AD-HD-inattentive (-I), n=17 and AD-HD-hyperactive (-H), n=32. Cronbach's alpha calculation for the EDAH parents' questionnaire was 0.76, and for teachers, 0.80. Sensitivity of the teachers' EDAH questionnaire was 0.94, and specificity, 0.91. Sensitivity of the parents' EDAH questionnaire was 0.91, while specificity was 0.87. The data of EDAH parents' and teachers' questionnaires have a concordance of 93.1% and 80%, respectively. The correlation of scores among parents' and teachers' EDAH scales was significant. The correlation between results from parents' and teachers' DSM-IV-TR and EDAH questionnaires was also significant. Our results partially support the use of EDAH questionnaires for AD-HD and CD screening in Spanish-speaking populations. PMID:20934222

  18. Symbolic dynamics of heart rate variability - a promising tool to investigate cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Farsky, Ivan; Mestanik, Michal; Visnovcova, Zuzana; Mestanikova, Andrea; Hrtanek, Igor; Ondrejka, Igor

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate complex cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by using heart rate variability (HRV) nonlinear analysis - symbolic dynamics. We examined 29 boys with untreated ADHD and 25 healthy boys (age 8-13 years). ADHD symptoms were evaluated by ADHD-RS-IV scale. ECG was recorded in 3 positions: baseline supine position, orthostasis, and clinostasis. Symbolic dynamics indices were used for the assessment of complex cardiac sympathovagal regulation: normalised complexity index (NCI), normalised unpredictability index (NUPI), and pattern classification measures (0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%). The results showed that HRV complexity was significantly reduced at rest (NUPI) and during standing position (NCI, NUPI) in ADHD group compared to controls. Cardiac-linked sympathetic index 0V% was significantly higher during all posture positions and cardiovagal index 2LV% was significantly lower to standing in boys suffering from ADHD. Importantly, ADHD symptom inattention positively correlated with 0V%, and negatively correlated with NCI, NUPI. Concluding, symbolic dynamics revealed impaired complex neurocardiac control characterised by potential cardiac beta-adrenergic overactivity and vagal deficiency at rest and to posture changes in boys suffering from ADHD that is correlated with inattention. We suggest that symbolic dynamics indices could represent promising cardiac biomarkers in ADHD.

  19. Symbolic dynamics of heart rate variability - a promising tool to investigate cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Farsky, Ivan; Mestanik, Michal; Visnovcova, Zuzana; Mestanikova, Andrea; Hrtanek, Igor; Ondrejka, Igor

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate complex cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by using heart rate variability (HRV) nonlinear analysis - symbolic dynamics. We examined 29 boys with untreated ADHD and 25 healthy boys (age 8-13 years). ADHD symptoms were evaluated by ADHD-RS-IV scale. ECG was recorded in 3 positions: baseline supine position, orthostasis, and clinostasis. Symbolic dynamics indices were used for the assessment of complex cardiac sympathovagal regulation: normalised complexity index (NCI), normalised unpredictability index (NUPI), and pattern classification measures (0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%). The results showed that HRV complexity was significantly reduced at rest (NUPI) and during standing position (NCI, NUPI) in ADHD group compared to controls. Cardiac-linked sympathetic index 0V% was significantly higher during all posture positions and cardiovagal index 2LV% was significantly lower to standing in boys suffering from ADHD. Importantly, ADHD symptom inattention positively correlated with 0V%, and negatively correlated with NCI, NUPI. Concluding, symbolic dynamics revealed impaired complex neurocardiac control characterised by potential cardiac beta-adrenergic overactivity and vagal deficiency at rest and to posture changes in boys suffering from ADHD that is correlated with inattention. We suggest that symbolic dynamics indices could represent promising cardiac biomarkers in ADHD. PMID:26963175

  20. Beyond symptom control for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): what can parents do to improve outcomes?

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its associated behavioural manifestations develop and progress as the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Parents exert a substantial influence and play a major role in their child's social environment. Despite this, recent evidence has suggested that adapting the child's environment via parenting interventions has minimal effects on child ADHD symptoms when analysing data from informants who are probably blind to treatment allocation. However, adverse parenting and family environments may act as a source of environmental risk for a number of child outcomes beyond ADHD symptoms. This is a narrative review that critically discusses whether parenting interventions are beneficial for alternative functioning outcomes in ADHD including neuropsychological, academic and social functioning and disruptive behaviour and how parenting and familial environments may be associated with these outcomes. In addition, the review explores how parental depression and parenting efficacy impact on capacity for optimal parenting and whether parenting interventions benefit parents too. A review of the evidence suggests that with modification, parenting interventions are beneficial for a number of outcomes other than ADHD symptom reduction. Improving the parent-child relationship may have indirect benefits for disruptive behaviour. Furthermore, parenting behaviours may directly benefit child neuropsychological, academic and social functioning. Parenting interventions can have therapeutic benefits for parents as well as children, which is important as parent and child well-being is likely to have a transactional relationship. Evaluation of the clinical success of parenting interventions should focus on a wider range of outcomes in order to aid understanding of the multifaceted benefits that they may be able to offer. Parenting interventions should not be seen as a redundant adjunct to medication in multi-modal treatment

  1. Beyond symptom control for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): what can parents do to improve outcomes?

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its associated behavioural manifestations develop and progress as the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Parents exert a substantial influence and play a major role in their child's social environment. Despite this, recent evidence has suggested that adapting the child's environment via parenting interventions has minimal effects on child ADHD symptoms when analysing data from informants who are probably blind to treatment allocation. However, adverse parenting and family environments may act as a source of environmental risk for a number of child outcomes beyond ADHD symptoms. This is a narrative review that critically discusses whether parenting interventions are beneficial for alternative functioning outcomes in ADHD including neuropsychological, academic and social functioning and disruptive behaviour and how parenting and familial environments may be associated with these outcomes. In addition, the review explores how parental depression and parenting efficacy impact on capacity for optimal parenting and whether parenting interventions benefit parents too. A review of the evidence suggests that with modification, parenting interventions are beneficial for a number of outcomes other than ADHD symptom reduction. Improving the parent-child relationship may have indirect benefits for disruptive behaviour. Furthermore, parenting behaviours may directly benefit child neuropsychological, academic and social functioning. Parenting interventions can have therapeutic benefits for parents as well as children, which is important as parent and child well-being is likely to have a transactional relationship. Evaluation of the clinical success of parenting interventions should focus on a wider range of outcomes in order to aid understanding of the multifaceted benefits that they may be able to offer. Parenting interventions should not be seen as a redundant adjunct to medication in multi-modal treatment

  2. ADHD and delinquency--a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    von Polier, G G; Vloet, T D; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence. Until now, it has been unclear whether ADHD by itself constitutes a risk factor for later delinquency or does so only in combination with other disruptive symptoms. This article seeks to give a comprehensive account of the literature to shed light on the developmental pathway from childhood ADHD to adult criminality. Comorbid ADHD and conduct disorder (CD) are significantly related to a range of biological and environmental risk factors such as neurocognitive impairment, high parental psychopathology, poor social functioning, and other comorbid mental disorders, particularly substance abuse, that are described in this review. In addition, the results of treatment studies are presented, with a special focus on the results of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). Although treatment programs, including medication and psychosocial treatment, can be very effective in improving the functioning of children with ADHD in the social and academic domains in the short term, there is no conclusive evidence that such treatments lower the risk for developing delinquency in adulthood. PMID:22371085

  3. On the Temporal Characteristics of Performance Variability in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Feige, Bernd; Biscaldi, Monica; Saville, Christopher W. N.; Kluckert, Christian; Bender, Stephan; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Hennighausen, Klaus; Rauh, Reinhold; Fleischhaker, Christian; Klein, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Increased intra-subject variability of reaction times (ISV-RT) is one of the most consistent findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the nature of this phenomenon is still unclear, it has been hypothesised to reflect interference from the Default Mode Network (DMN). So far, ISV-RT has been operationally defined either as a frequency spectrum of the underlying RT time series, or as a measure of dispersion of the RT scores distribution. Here, we use a novel RT analysis framework to link these hitherto unconnected facets of ISV-RT by determining the sensitivity of different measures of RT dispersion to the frequency content of the underlying RT time series. N=27 patients with ADHD and N=26 healthy controls performed several visual N-back tasks. Different measures of RT dispersion were repeatedly modelled after individual frequency bands of the underlying RT time series had been either extracted or suppressed using frequency-domain filtering. We found that the intra-subject standard deviation of RT preserves the “1/f noise” characteristic typical of human RT data. Furthermore and most importantly, we found that the ex-Gaussian parameter τ is rather exclusively sensitive to frequencies below 0.025 Hz in the underlying RT time series and that the particularly slow RTs, which nourish τ, occur regularly as part of an quasi-periodic, ultra-slow RT fluctuation. Overall, our results are compatible with the idea that ISV-RT is modulated by an endogenous, slowly fluctuating process that may reflect DMN interference. PMID:24204553

  4. Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence and its Implications for Clinical Care.

    PubMed

    Goodman, David W; Mitchell, Sara; Rhodewalt, Lauren; Surman, Craig B H

    2016-01-01

    Although previously considered a disorder of childhood, studies in the last decade have demonstrated that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continues to impair function into adulthood and responds to pharmacotherapy. Due to age-specific changes in roles and challenges, it is possible that presentation and response to intervention may differ between older and younger adults. A literature search for papers that identified older adults with ADHD, including papers describing its epidemiology, manifestation, and treatment, was the basis for this paper. There is a paucity of data on ADHD in older adults; however, small observational studies have characterized the presence, impact, and treatment of ADHD in adults over the age of 50 years, and larger epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that ADHD symptoms exist in older adulthood. Optimal criteria for diagnosis of ADHD and methods of treating ADHD in older individuals have not been systematically explored. In light of the limited data, this review discusses considerations for differential diagnosis and safe pharmacotherapy of ADHD in older adults.

  5. The prevalence and effects of Adult Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on the performance of workers: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Ron; Kessler, Ronald C.; Fayyad, John; ten Have, Margreet; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Demyttenaere, Koen; Gasquet, Isabelle; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and workplace consequences of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Ann ADHD screen was administered to 18–44 year-old respondents in ten national surveys in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative (n = 7075 in paid or self employment; response rate 45.9–87.7% across countries). Blinded clinical reappraisal interviews were administered in the US to calibrate the screen. Days out of role were measured in the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS). Questions were also asked about ADHD treatment. Results An average of 3.5% of workers in the ten countries was estimated to meet DSM-IV criteria for adult ADHD (inter-quartile range: 1.3–4.9%). ADHD was more common among males than females and less common among professionals than other workers. ADHD was associated with a statistically significant 22.1 annual days of excess lost role performance compared to otherwise similar respondents without ADHD. No difference in the magnitude of this effect was found by occupation, education, age, gender, or partner status. This effect was most pronounced in Colombia, Italy, Lebanon, and the US. Although only a small minority of workers with ADHD ever received treatment for this condition, higher proportions were treated for comorbid mental-substance disorders. Conclusions ADHD is a relatively common condition among working people in the countries studied and is associated with high work impairment in these countries. This impairment, in conjunction with the low treatment rate and the availability of cost-effective therapies, suggests that ADHD would be a good candidate for targeted workplace screening and treatment programs. Main messages A high proportion of childhood ADHD persists into adulthood. An average of 3.5% of workers in nationally representative surveys carried out in 10 countries met criteria for current DSM-IV adult ADHD. Workers with ADHD have an average 8.4 excess sickness absence

  6. A randomised controlled trial of the Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) for childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Karpouzis, Fay; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Background An abundance of literature is dedicated to research for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most, is in the area of pharmacological therapies with less emphasis in psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions and even less in the area of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The use of CAM has increased over the years, especially for developmental and behavioral disorders, such as ADHD. 60–65% of parents with children with ADHD have used CAM. Medical evidence supports a multidisciplinary approach (i.e. pharmacological and psychosocial) for the best clinical outcomes. The Neuro Emotional Technique (NET), a branch of Chiropractic, was designed to address the biopsychosocial aspects of acute and chronic conditions including non-musculoskeletal conditions. Anecdotally, it has been suggested that ADHD may be managed effectively by NET. Design/methods A placebo controlled, double blind randomised clinical trial was designed to assess the effectiveness of NET on a cohort of children with medically diagnosed ADHD. Children aged 5–12 years who met the inclusion criteria were randomised to one of three groups. The control group continued on their existing medical regimen and the intervention and placebo groups had the addition of the NET and sham NET protocols added to their regimen respectively. These two groups attended a clinical facility twice a week for the first month and then once a month for six months. The Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales (CRS) were used at the start of the study to establish baseline data and then in one month and in seven months time, at the conclusion of the study. The primary outcome measures chosen were the Conners' ADHD Index and Conners' Global Index. The secondary outcome measures chosen were the DSM-IV: Inattentive, the DSM-IV:Hyperactive-Impulsive, and the DSM-IV:Total subscales from the Conners' Rating Scales, monitoring changes in inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity

  7. Reduced short interval cortical inhibition correlates with atomoxetine response in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Chen, Tina H; Wu, Steve W; Welge, Jeffrey A; Dixon, Stephan G; Shahana, Nasrin; Huddleston, David A; Sarvis, Adam R; Sallee, Floyd R; Gilbert, Donald L

    2014-12-01

    Clinical trials in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show variability in behavioral responses to the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. The objective of this study was to determine whether transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked short interval cortical inhibition might be a biomarker predicting, or correlating with, clinical atomoxetine response. At baseline and after 4 weeks of atomoxetine treatment in 7- to 12-year-old children with ADHD, transcranial magnetic stimulation short interval cortical inhibition was measured, blinded to clinical improvement. Primary analysis was by multivariate analysis of covariance. Baseline short interval cortical inhibition did not predict clinical responses. However, paradoxically, after 4 weeks of atomoxetine, mean short interval cortical inhibition was reduced 31.9% in responders and increased 6.1% in nonresponders (analysis of covariance t 41 = 2.88; P = .0063). Percentage reductions in short interval cortical inhibition correlated with reductions in the ADHD Rating Scale (r = 0.50; P = .0005). In children ages 7 to 12 years with ADHD treated with atomoxetine, improvements in clinical symptoms are correlated with reductions in motor cortex short interval cortical inhibition.

  8. Nicotine-induced place conditioning and locomotor activity in an adolescent animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Daniels, Carter W; Watterson, Lucas R; Mazur, Gabriel J; Brackney, Ryan J; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2015-09-15

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for tobacco use and dependence. This study examines the responsiveness to nicotine of an adolescent model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). The conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure was used to assess nicotine-induced locomotion and conditioned reward in SHR and the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) control strain over a range of nicotine doses (0.0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg). Prior to conditioning, SHRs were more active and less biased toward one side of the CPP chamber than WKY rats. Following conditioning, SHRs developed CPP to the highest dose of nicotine (0.6 mg/kg), whereas WKYs did not develop CPP to any nicotine dose tested. During conditioning, SHRs displayed greater locomotor activity in the nicotine-paired compartment than in the saline-paired compartment across conditioning trials. SHRs that received nicotine (0.1, 0.3, 0.6 mg/kg) in the nicotine-paired compartment showed an increase in locomotor activity between conditioning trials. Nicotine did not significantly affect WKY locomotor activity. These findings suggest that the SHR strain is a suitable model for studying ADHD-related nicotine use and dependence, but highlights potential limitations of the WKY control strain and the CPP procedure for modeling ADHD-related nicotine reward.

  9. Dopamine and Serotonin Transporter Genotypes Moderate Sensitivity to Maternal Expressed Emotion: The Case of Conduct and Emotional Problems in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Oades, Robert D.; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Chen, Wai; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard P.; Gil, Michael; Anney, Richard; Miranda, Ana; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Steinhausen, Hans Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mothers' positive emotions expressed about their children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with a reduced likelihood of comorbid conduct problems (CP). We examined whether this association with CP, and one with emotional problems (EMO), is moderated by variants within three genes, previously reported…

  10. Role of Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS & rTMS) in investigation and possible treatment of Impulsivity in neuropsychiatric disorders with ADHD and BPD as examples.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rashid

    2014-11-01

    Pathological Impulsivity is a crucial component of several neuropsychiatric disorders and is cause of significant observed distress and morbidity. Here I will take ADHD and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) as examples neuropsychiatric disorders with pathological impulsivity as an important component to describe the usefulness of TMS and repetitive TMS (rTMS) as an investigative tool as well as a potential therapeutic tool.

  11. Objectively-Measured Impulsivity and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Testing Competing Predictions from the Working Memory and Behavioral Inhibition Models of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiker, Joseph S.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.

    2012-01-01

    Impulsivity is a hallmark of two of the three DSM-IV ADHD subtypes and is associated with myriad adverse outcomes. Limited research, however, is available concerning the mechanisms and processes that contribute to impulsive responding by children with ADHD. The current study tested predictions from two competing models of ADHD--working memory (WM)…

  12. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  13. Mediating and Moderating Role of Depression, Conduct Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Developing Adolescent Substance Use Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J.; Colligan, Robert C.; Voigt, Robert G.; Weaver, Amy L.; Katusic, Slavica K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the mediating/moderating effects of common internalizing /externalizing disorders on the association between ADHD and adolescent substance use disorders (SUD) in a population-based birth cohort. Methods Among 5718 children in the birth cohort, 343 ADHD incident cases and 712 matched controls were identified. Psychiatric diagnoses prior to age 19 were classified into DSM-IV categories. The association between ADHD and SUD was summarized (hazard ratios (HR), 95% CI). The effect of depression, CD/ODD, anxiety was evaluated separately. Results Assessment of the joint effects of ADHD and each psychiatric disorder did not support a moderating effect of these disorders on SUD on additive scale. However, the association between ADHD and SUD was partially explained by a mediating role of these psychiatric disorders. Conclusion For clinicians our results emphasize that depression (or CD/ODD) confers greater risk for SUD than ADHD alone. Early detection/treatment of SUD among adolescents with depression (or CD/ODD) is crucial regardless of ADHD. PMID:27294778

  14. Comparison of scores on the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale for children with low functioning autism, high functioning autism, Asperger's disorder, ADHD, and typical development.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L; Murray, Michael J; Morrow, Jill D; Yurich, Kirsten K L; Mahr, Fauzia; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N; Petersen, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    Reliability and validity for three autism instruments were compared for 190 children with low functioning autism (LFA), 190 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (HFA), 76 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 64 typical children. The instruments were the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder (designed for children with LFA and HFA), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for children with LFA, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale (GADS). For children with LFA or ADHD, classification accuracy was 100% for the Checklist and 98% for the CARS clinician scores. For children with HFA or ADHD, classification accuracy was 99% for the Checklist and 93% for the GADS clinician scores. Clinician-parent diagnostic agreement was high (90% Checklist, 90% CARS, and 84% GADS).

  15. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Medicación para el tratamiento del TDAH (ADHD) Managing ADHD With Medicine Just about everyone has trouble concentrating ...

  16. Comparison of Scores on the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale for Children with Low Functioning Autism, High Functioning Autism, Asperger's Disorder, ADHD, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Mahr, Fauzia; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and validity for three autism instruments were compared for 190 children with low functioning autism (LFA), 190 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (HFA), 76 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 64 typical children. The instruments were the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder…

  17. Examination of spatial working memory performance in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT) and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Vance, Alasdair; Ferrin, Maite; Winther, Jo; Gomez, Rapson

    2013-08-01

    Spatial working memory (SWM) is known to be impaired in children with ADHD-CT, whether anxiety is present or not. Yet, it remains unclear whether anxiety disorders add to the SWM impairments evident in ADHD-CT and whether these findings extend into adolescents with ADHD-CT and anxiety. Further, it is not yet known whether children and adolescents with carefully defined anxiety disorders alone, demonstrate SWM deficits. This study explored the association of SWM and its strategy and spatial span components in carefully defined children and adolescents (age 6-16 years) with ADHD-CT alone (N = 163; 14 % female), ADHD-CT and anxiety (N = 243; 23 % female), anxiety disorders alone (N = 69; 25 % female) compared to age- and gender-matched healthy control participants (N = 116; 19 % female). The relationship between SWM and its strategy and span components and core ADHD-CT symptoms and anxiety symptoms were also examined. There was no evidence of an additive effect of ADHD and anxiety on SWM, strategy and spatial span deficits. But, anxiety disorders alone were associated with impaired SWM and span performance compared to healthy control participants. In contrast, strategy did not differ between children and adolescents with anxiety disorders alone and healthy control participants, suggesting that with anxiety span is the most affected component. Further, these findings were age-independent. This study concurs with and extends current influential models about the cognitive effects of anxiety on performance in the setting of ADHD-CT. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  18. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah; Woltering, Steven; Mawjee, Karizma; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1), in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD. Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males) with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students' self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1-2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ) and executive functioning (BDEFS). Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47), and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66). The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63) and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74). Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores. Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current symptoms of

  19. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  20. TEMPORAL DISCOUNTING AND CONDUCT DISORDER IN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    White, Stuart F.; Clanton, Roberta; Brislin, Sarah J.; Meffert, Harma; Hwang, Soonjo; Sinclair, Stephen; Blair, R. James R.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined temporal discounting (the decrease in subjective reward value as a function of increasing delay) in youths with conduct disorder (CD) and the extent to which this was modulated by level of psychopathic traits. In the temporal discounting task, participants were asked to choose between immediate rewards of varying values and a larger reward, held at a constant value ($10), whose receipt was delayed by different time intervals across trials (e.g., 7 days, 360 days). The level of immediate reward necessary for selection over the larger, delayed reward is the measure of temporal discounting. Forty-six youths (21 with CD and 25 healthy youths) participated in this study. Compared with healthy youths, youths with CD chose significantly smaller amounts of immediate reward rather than the larger future rewards. This was the case even in youths with CD without comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, level of psychopathic traits did not modulate temporal discounting in this sample. These results are discussed in terms of neurobiological models of CD and psychopathic traits. PMID:24344883

  1. Diagnostic Bias and Conduct Disorder: Improving Culturally Sensitive Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizock, Lauren; Harkins, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Disproportionately high rates of Conduct Disorder are diagnosed in African American and Latino youth of color. Diagnostic bias contributes to overdiagnosis of Conduct Disorder in these adolescents of color. Following a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder, adolescents of color face poorer outcomes than their White counterparts. These negative outcomes…

  2. Epistatic and gene wide effects in YWHA and aromatic amino hydroxylase genes across ADHD and other common neuropsychiatric disorders: Association with YWHAE

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Kaya K.; Kleppe, Rune; Johansson, Stefan; Zayats, Tetyana

    2015-01-01

    Monoamines critically modulate neurophysiological functions affected in several neuropsychiatric disorders. We therefore examined genes encoding key enzymes of catecholamine and serotonin biosynthesis (tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases—TH and TPH1/2) as well as their regulatory 14‐3‐3 proteins (encoded by YWHA‐genes). Previous studies have focused mainly on the individual genes, but no analysis spanning this regulatory network has been reported. We explored interactions between these genes in Norwegian patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (aADHD), followed by gene‐complex association tests in four major neuropsychiatric conditions; childhood ADHD (cADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder. For interaction analyses, we evaluated 55 SNPs across these genes in a sample of 583 aADHD patients and 637 controls. For the gene‐complex tests, we utilized the data from large‐scale studies of The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). The four major neuropsychiatric disorders were examined for association with each of the genes individually as well as in three complexes as follows: (1) TPH1 and YWHA‐genes; (2) TH, TPH2 and YWHA‐genes; and (3) all genes together. The results show suggestive epistasis between YWHAE and two other 14‐3‐3‐genes ‐ YWHAZ, YWHAQ ‐ in aADHD (nominal P‐value of 0.0005 and 0.0008, respectively). In PGC data, association between YWHAE and schizophrenia was noted (P = 1.00E‐05), whereas the combination of TPH1 and YWHA‐genes revealed signs of association in cADHD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. In conclusion, polymorphisms in the YWHA‐genes and their targets may exert a cumulative effect in ADHD and related neuropsychiatric conditions, warranting the need for further investigation of these gene‐complexes. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26172220

  3. Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Brooke S.G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Pelham, William E.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Wells, Karen C.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D.; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R.; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n=436); to test whether (a) medication at follow-up, (b) cumulative psychostimulant treatment over time, or (c) both relate to substance use/SUD; to compare substance use/SUD in the ADHD sample to the non-ADHD childhood classmate comparison group (n=261). Method Mixed-effects regression models with planned contrasts were used for all tests except the important cumulative stimulant treatment question, for which propensity score matching analysis was used. Results The originally randomized treatment groups did not differ significantly on substance use/SUD by the 8 year follow-up or earlier (M age = 17 years). Neither medication at follow-up (mostly stimulants) nor cumulative stimulant treatment was associated with adolescent substance use/SUD. Substance use at all time points, including use of two or more substances and SUD, were each greater in the ADHD than non-ADHD samples, regardless of sex. Conclusions Medication for ADHD did not protect from, nor contribute to, visible risk of substance use or SUD by adolescence, whether analyzed as randomized treatment assignment in childhood, as medication at follow-up, or as cumulative stimulant treatment over an 8 year follow-up from childhood. These results suggest the need to identify alternative or adjunctive adolescent-focused approaches to substance abuse prevention and treatment for boys and girls with ADHD, especially given their increased risk for use and abuse of multiple substances that is not improved with stimulant medication. Clinical trial registration information—Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://clinical trials.gov/; NCT00000388. PMID:23452682

  4. Predicting Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder from Preschool Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Thakar, Dhara A.; Errazuriz, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the power of measures of early preschool behavior to predict later diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 168 children with behavior problems at age 3 who underwent a multimethod assessment of ADHD and ODD symptoms and…

  5. Oppositional defiant- and conduct disorder-like problems: neurodevelopmental predictors and genetic background in boys and girls, in a nationwide twin study.

    PubMed

    Kerekes, Nóra; Lundström, Sebastian; Chang, Zheng; Tajnia, Armin; Jern, Patrick; Lichtenstein, Paul; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background. Previous research has supported gender-specific aetiological factors in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The aims of this study were to identify gender-specific associations between the behavioural problems-ODD/CD-like problems-and the neurodevelopmental disorders-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-and to investigate underlying genetic effects. Methods. 17,220 twins aged 9 or 12 were screened using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory. The main covariates of ODD- and CD-like problems were investigated, and the relative importance of unique versus shared hereditary and environmental effects was estimated using twin model fitting. Results. Social interaction problems (one of the ASD subdomains) was the strongest neurodevelopmental covariate of the behavioural problems in both genders, while ADHD-related hyperactivity/impulsiveness in boys and inattention in girls stood out as important covariates of CD-like problems. Genetic effects accounted for 50%-62% of the variance in behavioural problems, except in CD-like problems in girls (26%). Genetic and environmental effects linked to ADHD and ASD also influenced ODD-like problems in both genders and, to a lesser extent, CD-like problems in boys, but not in girls. Conclusions. The gender-specific patterns should be considered in the assessment and treatment, especially of CD.

  6. Classroom Behavior of Participants with ADHD Compared with Peers: Influence of Teaching Format and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…

  7. Peer Relationship Problems of Children with AD/HD: Risk Factors and New Directions in Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2009-01-01

    This review integrates and evaluates research conducted on possible contributing factors to peer relationship problems of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). Substantial evidence suggests that children with AD/HD have serious problems in multiple aspects of their relationships with peers. Difficulties resulting from…

  8. A Mixture-Model Approach to Linking ADHD to Adolescent Onset of Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Patrick S.; Van Eck, Kathryn; Flory, Kate; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research findings have been mixed as to whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to illicit drug use independent of conduct problems (CP). With the current study, the authors add to this literature by investigating the association between trajectories of ADHD symptoms across childhood and adolescence and onset of…

  9. Self-Esteem and Self-Concept Examination among Gifted Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Rickels, Heather; Assouline, Susan G.; Richards, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Intellectually gifted students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) face unique academic and social challenges, yet little research has been conducted with this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-esteem and self-concept of intellectually gifted children with and without a coexisting diagnosis of ADHD.…

  10. Literature Review: Update on Amphetamine Neurotoxicity and Its Relevance to the Treatment of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advokat, Claire

    2007-01-01

    Objective: A review of amphetamine treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was conducted, to obtain information on the long-term neurological consequences of this therapy. Method: Several databases were accessed for research articles on the effects of amphetamine in the brain of laboratory animals and ADHD diagnosed…

  11. Treatment Response in CP/ADHD Children with Callous/Unemotional Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Sarah M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.; King, Sara; Andrade, Brendan F.; Carrey, Normand J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines the role of callous/unemotional (CU) traits in response to treatment among children with conduct problems (CP) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty-four children with CP/ADHD and 16 controls (age = 9.48, SD = 1.58) took part in a summer treatment and research program. Simple correlations showed that…

  12. A Systematic Review of Global Publication Trends Regarding Long-Term Outcomes of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkins, Paul; Arnold, L. Eugene; Shaw, Monica; Caci, Hervé; Kahle, Jennifer; Woods, Alisa G; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    There is increased global recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a serious medical condition with long-term consequences. Although originally conceived of as a childhood disorder, ADHD is being increasingly recognized in adults. Individual geographic regions may have specific interests and objectives for the study of ADHD. A systematic review of long-term outcomes (LTOs) in ADHD was conducted to evaluate research on ADHD LTOs on a global scale. Studies that were at least 2 years in duration were examined. A total of 351 studies were identified in the final analysis. We identified nine outcomes of interest and classified studies by specific geographical regions, age groups studied and study design by region and over time. Published studies of LTOs in ADHD have increased in all geographical regions over the past three decades, with a peak number of 42 publications in 2008. This rise in publications on ADHD LTOs may reflect a rise in global interest and recognition of consequences and impairment associated with ADHD. Although many world regions have published on ADHD LTOs, the majority of studies have emerged from the US and Canada, followed by Europe. While investigators in the US and Canada were predominantly interested in drug addiction as a LTO, European researchers were more interested in antisocial behavior, and Eastern Asian investigators focused on both of these LTOs as well as self-esteem. Geographical differences in the focus of ADHD LTO studies may reflect regional variations in cultural values. Proportionally fewer prospective longitudinal studies and proportionally more retrospective and cross-sectional studies have been published in more recent decades. Finally, more studies focusing on ADHD in adolescents and adults have been conducted in recent years, and particularly adolescents in Eastern Asia. These changes in basic study design may reflect an increase in the recognition that ADHD is a lifetime chronic disorder. This

  13. A systematic review of global publication trends regarding long-term outcomes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, Paul; Arnold, L Eugene; Shaw, Monica; Caci, Hervé; Kahle, Jennifer; Woods, Alisa G; Young, Susan

    2011-01-01

    There is increased global recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a serious medical condition with long-term consequences. Although originally conceived of as a childhood disorder, ADHD is being increasingly recognized in adults. Individual geographic regions may have specific interests and objectives for the study of ADHD. A systematic review of long-term outcomes (LTOs) in ADHD was conducted to evaluate research on ADHD LTOs on a global scale. Studies that were at least 2 years in duration were examined. A total of 351 studies were identified in the final analysis. We identified nine outcomes of interest and classified studies by specific geographical regions, age groups studied and study design by region and over time. Published studies of LTOs in ADHD have increased in all geographical regions over the past three decades, with a peak number of 42 publications in 2008. This rise in publications on ADHD LTOs may reflect a rise in global interest and recognition of consequences and impairment associated with ADHD. Although many world regions have published on ADHD LTOs, the majority of studies have emerged from the US and Canada, followed by Europe. While investigators in the US and Canada were predominantly interested in drug addiction as a LTO, European researchers were more interested in antisocial behavior, and Eastern Asian investigators focused on both of these LTOs as well as self-esteem. Geographical differences in the focus of ADHD LTO studies may reflect regional variations in cultural values. Proportionally fewer prospective longitudinal studies and proportionally more retrospective and cross-sectional studies have been published in more recent decades. Finally, more studies focusing on ADHD in adolescents and adults have been conducted in recent years, and particularly adolescents in Eastern Asia. These changes in basic study design may reflect an increase in the recognition that ADHD is a lifetime chronic disorder. This

  14. A systematic review of global publication trends regarding long-term outcomes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, Paul; Arnold, L Eugene; Shaw, Monica; Caci, Hervé; Kahle, Jennifer; Woods, Alisa G; Young, Susan

    2011-01-01

    There is increased global recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a serious medical condition with long-term consequences. Although originally conceived of as a childhood disorder, ADHD is being increasingly recognized in adults. Individual geographic regions may have specific interests and objectives for the study of ADHD. A systematic review of long-term outcomes (LTOs) in ADHD was conducted to evaluate research on ADHD LTOs on a global scale. Studies that were at least 2 years in duration were examined. A total of 351 studies were identified in the final analysis. We identified nine outcomes of interest and classified studies by specific geographical regions, age groups studied and study design by region and over time. Published studies of LTOs in ADHD have increased in all geographical regions over the past three decades, with a peak number of 42 publications in 2008. This rise in publications on ADHD LTOs may reflect a rise in global interest and recognition of consequences and impairment associated with ADHD. Although many world regions have published on ADHD LTOs, the majority of studies have emerged from the US and Canada, followed by Europe. While investigators in the US and Canada were predominantly interested in drug addiction as a LTO, European researchers were more interested in antisocial behavior, and Eastern Asian investigators focused on both of these LTOs as well as self-esteem. Geographical differences in the focus of ADHD LTO studies may reflect regional variations in cultural values. Proportionally fewer prospective longitudinal studies and proportionally more retrospective and cross-sectional studies have been published in more recent decades. Finally, more studies focusing on ADHD in adolescents and adults have been conducted in recent years, and particularly adolescents in Eastern Asia. These changes in basic study design may reflect an increase in the recognition that ADHD is a lifetime chronic disorder. This

  15. Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…

  16. ADHD: A Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Rosalyn A.

    This paper provides a brief historical outline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), its definition, its behavioral characteristics, and a guide to creating successful learning environments for these students. Diagnostic criteria for ADHD are listed and discussed, and incidence figures of 3 to 5 percent of all school-age children are…

  17. ADHD in Adults. [DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2006-01-01

    From leading ADHD authority Dr. Russell A. Barkley, this instructive program integrates information about ADHD with the experiences of adults from different walks of life who suffer from the disorder. Including interviews with these individuals, their family members, and the clinicians who treat them, the program addresses such important topics as…

  18. Pre- and Peri-Natal Environmental Risks for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Potential Role of Epigenetic Processes in Mediating Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, Jonathan; Petronis, Arturas

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neurobehavioural disorder defined by symptoms of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. As is the norm for most psychiatric phenotypes, traditional aetiological studies have focused primarily on the interplay between genetic and environmental…

  19. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Efficacy of Physical Exercise Interventions on Cognition in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Beron W. Z.; Pooley, Julie A.; Speelman, Craig P.

    2016-01-01

    This review evaluates the efficacy of using physical exercise interventions on improving cognitive functions in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review includes a meta-analysis based on a random-effects model of data reported in 22 studies with 579 participants aged…

  20. Parent Training Interventions for Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children Aged 5 to 18 Years. Campbell Systematic Reviews. 2012:2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwi, Morris; Jones, Hannah; Thorgaard, Camilla; York, Ann; Dennis, Jane A.

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that are present before the age of seven years, seen in a range of situations, inconsistent with the child's developmental level and causing social or academic impairment. Parent training…

  1. Methylphenidate does not influence smoking-reinforced responding or attentional performance in adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin; English, Joseph S; McClernon, F Joseph; Dew, Rachel E; Lane, Scott D

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at rates higher than the general population and questions have been raised about how stimulant drugs-the frontline pharmacological treatment for ADHD-influence smoking risk and behavior in those with ADHD. In the present study adult regular smokers with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) ADHD participated in 3 experimental sessions in which they completed a Progressive Ratio (PR) task to measure the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking and money after oral administration of placebo and 2 active doses of methylphenidate (10 mg and 40 mg). We also measured attention and inhibitory control via a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Methylphenidate had no effect on smoking-reinforced responding, attention, or inhibitory control in either group. Attention and inhibitory control were associated with smoking-reinforced responding, but unsystematically and only in the non-ADHD group. Several design features, such as the value of the monetary response option, the PR schedule, and the potential effects of smoking on attention and inhibitory control, could have contributed to the negative findings and are discussed as such. Although inconsistent with some previous human laboratory studies of stimulant drugs and smoking, results are consistent with recent trials of stimulant drugs as adjuncts for smoking cessation in adult smokers with ADHD. In general, methylphenidate at mild and moderate doses did not influence the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in adults with and without ADHD.

  2. EXAMINING THE NATURE OF THE COMORBIDITY BETWEEN PEDIATRIC ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER AND POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter R.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Bhide, Pradeep; Zhu, Jinmin; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study sought to address the link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in youth by providing a comprehensive comparison of clinical correlates of ADHD subjects with and without PTSD across multiple non-overlapping domains of functioning and familial patterns of transmission. Method Participants were 271 youth with ADHD and 230 controls without ADHD of both sexes along with their siblings. Participants completed a large battery of measures designed to assess psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial, educational, and cognitive parameters. Results PTSD was significantly higher in ADHD probands vs. controls (5.2% vs. 1.7%, χ2(1)=4.36, p=0.04). Irrespective of the comorbidity with PTSD, ADHD subjects had similar ages at onset of ADHD, similar type and mean number of ADHD symptoms, and similar ADHD-associated impairments. PTSD in ADHD probands was significantly associated with a higher risk of psychiatric hospitalization, school impairment, poorer social functioning and higher prevalences of mood, conduct disorder, and anxiety disorders. The mean onset of PTSD (12.6 years) was significantly later than that of ADHD and comorbid disorders (all p<0.05). Siblings of ADHD and ADHD+PTSD probands had higher prevalences of ADHD vs. siblings of controls (35% vs. 18%, z=4.00, p<0.001 and 67% vs. 18%, z=4.02, p<0.001, respectively) and siblings of ADHD+PTSD probands had a significantly higher prevalence of PTSD compared to the siblings of ADHD and control probands (20% vs. 3% and 3%, z=2.99, p=0.003 and z=2.07, p=0.04, respectively). Conclusion Findings indicate that the comorbidity with PTSD in ADHD leads to greater clinical severity as regards psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial dysfunction. ADHD is equally familial in the presence of PTSD in the proband indicating that their co-occurrence is not due to diagnostic error. PMID:22985097

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the behavior of "Che" Guevara.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Zavala, Jorge A; Munhoz, Renato P; Lara, Diogo R; Lima, Pedro; Palmini, André

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is related to several co-morbidities, such as opposition defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disturbances, as well as tics and Tourette's syndrome. The objective of this report is to shed an alternative light on the personality of Ernesto "Che" Guevara, discussing whether he might have had ADHD. Several published biographies of Che Guevara were reviewed. Established ADHD criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), were used as a framework to evaluate Che's behaviour. In addition, we compared the main features of Che's reported behaviour to the set of abnormalities leading to the diagnosis of ADHD in adults proposed by Wender and colleagues and known as the UTAH ADHD criteria. Analysis of the most renowned biographies of Ernesto "Che" Guevara suggests that he may have had ADHD. PMID:19497749

  4. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD.

  5. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD. PMID:27363925

  6. Expert recommendation: contributions to clinical practice of the new prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Alda, José A; Soutullo, César; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Quintero, Javier; Hervás, Amaia; Hernández-Otero, Isabel; Sans-Fitó, Anna; Cardo-Jalón, Esther Cardo-Jalón; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Fernández-Pérez, Maximino; Hidalgo-Vicario, M Inés; Eddy-Ives, Lefa S; Sánchez, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobiological disorders in childhood, and is characterized by inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsiveness, with an estimated prevalence of 5.29%. ADHD can have a negative impact upon all areas of the life of the patient. The main clinical guides accept multimodal treatment, involving both pharmacological and psychological measures, as the best management approach in ADHD (psychoeducational, behavioural and academic). Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a new drug for the treatment of ADHD. A multidiscipline expert document has been developed, compiling the scientific evidence referred to this new molecule. The study also addresses the existing shortcomings in current drug therapy for ADHD and the contributions of LDX to routine clinical practice, in an attempt to help and guide physicians in the use of this new treatment. This document is endorsed by the ADHD and Psychoeducational Development task Group of the Spanish Society of Primary Care Pediatrics (Grupo de TDAH y Desarrollo Psicoeducativo de la Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria, AEPap), the Spanish Society of Pediatric Neurology (Sociedad Española de Neurología Pediátrica, SENEP) and the Spanish Society of Out-hospital Pediatrics and Primary Care (Sociedad Española de Pediatría Extrahospitalaria y Atención Primaria, SEPEAP).

  7. Expert recommendation: contributions to clinical practice of the new prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Alda, José A; Soutullo, César; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Quintero, Javier; Hervás, Amaia; Hernández-Otero, Isabel; Sans-Fitó, Anna; Cardo-Jalón, Esther Cardo-Jalón; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Fernández-Pérez, Maximino; Hidalgo-Vicario, M Inés; Eddy-Ives, Lefa S; Sánchez, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobiological disorders in childhood, and is characterized by inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsiveness, with an estimated prevalence of 5.29%. ADHD can have a negative impact upon all areas of the life of the patient. The main clinical guides accept multimodal treatment, involving both pharmacological and psychological measures, as the best management approach in ADHD (psychoeducational, behavioural and academic). Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a new drug for the treatment of ADHD. A multidiscipline expert document has been developed, compiling the scientific evidence referred to this new molecule. The study also addresses the existing shortcomings in current drug therapy for ADHD and the contributions of LDX to routine clinical practice, in an attempt to help and guide physicians in the use of this new treatment. This document is endorsed by the ADHD and Psychoeducational Development task Group of the Spanish Society of Primary Care Pediatrics (Grupo de TDAH y Desarrollo Psicoeducativo de la Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria, AEPap), the Spanish Society of Pediatric Neurology (Sociedad Española de Neurología Pediátrica, SENEP) and the Spanish Society of Out-hospital Pediatrics and Primary Care (Sociedad Española de Pediatría Extrahospitalaria y Atención Primaria, SEPEAP). PMID:25644658

  8. Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in relation to psychopathic traits and aggression among psychiatrically hospitalized children: ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is associated with elevated rates of psychopathic traits and aggression. However, it remains unclear if attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms exacerbate these relations, particularly in samples of children who are severely clinically distressed. The purpose of the present study was to test ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator of the relations of ODD symptoms to psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional [CU] traits, narcissism) and to aggressive subtypes (i.e., proactive, reactive aggression) in a large sample of children in an acute psychiatric inpatient facility (n = 699; ages 6-12). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for child demographic variables, ADHD symptoms marginally exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and CU traits. Both ODD and ADHD symptoms had an additive, but not a multiplicative effect, in predicting narcissism. In addition, for a subset of the full sample for whom data were available (n =351), ADHD symptoms exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and both reactive and proactive aggression. These results suggest that ADHD symptoms tend to have a negative effect on the relation between ODD symptoms and markers of antisociality among children receiving acute psychiatric care.

  9. Disrupted response inhibition toward facial anger cues in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Köchel, Angelika; Leutgeb, Verena; Schienle, Anne

    2014-04-01

    This event-related potential study focused on neural correlates of inhibitory affective control in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sixteen boys with ADHD and 16 healthy boys underwent an emotional Go/NoGo task with pictures of facial expressions from the categories anger, sadness, happiness, and neutral. The participants were instructed to execute or withhold a motor response to specific emotions. Patients relative to controls displayed a severe impairment in response inhibition toward anger cues, which was accompanied by a reduced P300 amplitude (positive voltage deflection about 300 ms after picture onset). The control group showed a P300 differentiation of the affective categories that was absent in the ADHD group. The pronounced anger-processing deficit in ADHD patients might be linked to their interpersonal difficulties and should be addressed in psychotherapy.

  10. Slower extinction of responses maintained by intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Sagvolden, Terje

    2005-07-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show performance deficits and excessive motor activity during extinction and in situations where no reinforcer can be identified, suggesting an extinction deficit in ADHD possibly linked to dopamine dysfunction. The present study examined extinction of responding previously maintained by intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of ADHD using three different extinction procedures. Delivery of electrical pulses were terminated altogether or presented independently of responding using two different current intensities. The results showed that more responses were retained in the SHR, especially during the initial transition from ICSS-maintained responding to response-independent delivery of electrical pulses with current reduced relative to that given during reinforcement. Slower extinction of previously reinforced behavior is suggested as an alternative explanation for the frequently observed increased behavioral output that has previously been interpreted as "disinhibition" of behavior in ADHD.

  11. Facing the Challenge--Conduct Disorders and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arllen, Nancy L.; Gable, Robert A.

    This paper examines the nature of student conduct disorders, including both the origin and treatment of such disorders. In Part I, distinguishing characteristics of the syndrome are discussed and issues related to philosophy, definition, and delivery of services are considered. Two major subcategories of conduct disorder, socialized and…

  12. Subclinical bulimia predicts conduct disorder in middle adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Viinamäki, Anni; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the comorbidity and longitudinal associations between self-reported conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia in a community-based sample of Finnish adolescents in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. There are 2070 adolescents who participated in the survey as ninth graders (mean age 15.5) and followed-up 2 years later. The Youth Self-Report Externalizing scale was used to measure conduct disorder and DSM-IV-based questionnaire to measure bulimia. Co-occurrence of female conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia was found at ages 15 and 17. Subclinical bulimia among girls at age 15 was a risk factor for conduct disorder at age 17, but conduct disorder at age 15 was not predictive of subclinical bulimia at age 17. The pathway from bulimia to conduct disorder may be suggestive of an association with future borderline personality disorder among girls.

  13. Neural activity associated with executive functions in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Wild-Wall, Nele; Oades, Robert D; Schmidt-Wessels, Marion; Christiansen, Hanna; Falkenstein, Michael

    2009-10-01

    This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) and flanker-task performance to compare executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, their siblings and independent healthy controls. The aim was to investigate the processing of distracting stimuli, control over inappropriate responses, and the detection of errors in the presence of incompatible and No-go stimuli (arrow-heads and a circle, respectively). Performance showed no major differences between the groups, although No-go errors were numerically increased for the patients. Adolescents with ADHD were not characterised by the absence of post-error response slowing. The ADHD group showed a generally smaller N2 and a missing amplification of the frontal P3 (P3a) in No-go vs. incompatible trials most likely reflecting impaired inhibitory processing. In response-locked potentials error-related negativity (Ne) and positivity (Pe) did not clearly differentiate between the groups. This study shows that ADHD children are more impaired in controlled than automatic response processing and inhibition. This was particularly evident in reduced frontal activity in general and especially after No-go stimuli. Deficient error processing may, however, not be a cardinal feature of adolescents with ADHD. Future work must orient towards determining if there is a subgroup for whom the inhibitory impairment is characteristic.

  14. Parental Involvement in Children's Learning: Comparing Parents of Children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Maria A.; Wiener, Judith; Marton, Imola; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined involvement in children's learning among parents of 101 children between 8 and 12 years of age (53 parents of children with ADHD, 48 parents of children without ADHD). Compared to parents of children without ADHD, parents of children with ADHD reported lower self-efficacy in their ability to help their children, felt…

  15. ADHD Symptoms and Subtypes: Relationship between Childhood and Adolescent Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Moilanen, Irma K.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in childhood and adolescence. The results conclude the persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence with specific symptoms contributing to persistent ADHD.

  16. Decreased Serum Cu/Zn SOD Associated with High Copper in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Russo, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To assess serum Cu/Zn SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) concentration in children with ADHD and evaluate its possible relationship to Cu and Zn levels. Subjects and methods Serum from 22 children with ADHD and 20 healthy control children without ADHD and 19 autistic children without ADHD were tested for Cu/Zn SOD using ELISAs and levels of serum Cu and Zn using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results Serum Cu/Zn SOD levels of ADHD children were significantly lower than age and gender matched healthy non-ADHD controls (P < 0.001). Serum Cu/Zn SOD of ADHD children was significantly lower in individuals with high serum copper (P = 0.024). There was no significant correlation between Cu/Zn SOD levels and Zinc or Cu/Zn in ADHD individuals. Discussion These results suggest an association between Cu/Zn SOD serum levels and ADHD, particularly ADHD children with high serum copper. PMID:23861627

  17. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... several areas, including speaking, reading, writing, and doing math. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a ... Dyscalculia makes it hard for people to understand math. They may also have problems telling time and ...

  18. Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?

    PubMed

    Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Friedman, Lauren M

    2015-10-01

    Excess gross motor activity (hyperactivity) is considered a core diagnostic feature of childhood ADHD that impedes learning. This view has been challenged, however, by recent models that conceptualize excess motor activity as a compensatory mechanism that facilitates neurocognitive functioning in children with ADHD. The current study investigated competing model predictions regarding activity level's relation with working memory (WM) performance and attention in boys aged 8-12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.26) with ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing children (TD; n = 23). Children's phonological WM and attentive behavior were objectively assessed during four counterbalanced WM tasks administered across four separate sessions. These data were then sequenced hierarchically based on behavioral observations of each child's gross motor activity during each task. Analysis of the relations among intra-individual changes in observed activity level, attention, and performance revealed that higher rates of activity level predicted significantly better, but not normalized WM performance for children with ADHD. Conversely, higher rates of activity level predicted somewhat lower WM performance for TD children. Variations in movement did not predict changes in attention for either group. At the individual level, children with ADHD and TD children were more likely to be classified as reliably Improved and Deteriorated, respectively, when comparing their WM performance at their highest versus lowest observed activity level. These findings appear most consistent with models ascribing a functional role to hyperactivity in ADHD, with implications for selecting behavioral treatment targets to avoid overcorrecting gross motor activity during academic tasks that rely on phonological WM.

  19. The “Younger-Sibling-at-Risk Design”: a Pilot Study of Adolescents with ADHD and an Older Sibling with Substance Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Stephen J.; Levin, Frances R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This article introduces a “younger at-risk sibling” design to study progression from other psychopathologies to their substance use disorder (SUD) complications. The design selects not-yet-SUD adolescents with high-risk-for-SUD psychopathology only if an older sibling has SUD. This “proof of concept” pilot study examines the design’s feasibility if the younger sibling has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method Subjects were recruited from families at substance abuse treatment centers that had a non-SUD younger child with ADHD, from families at behavior disorder clinics that had a younger child with ADHD and SUD older child, and through general advertisements. Subjects were seen weekly for at least 3 months and monthly thereafter for 3 months. All were treated with open-label lisdexamfetamine dimesylate 30–70 mg per day. Outcomes explored were recruitment, compliance, diversion, ADHD improvement, and substance use interest. Results 25 families were screened, 13 evaluated, and 8 began medication. ADHD Rating Scale-IV scores obtained by parent adolescent consensus improved as expected with a stimulant. Rating forms could quantify substance use interest in subjects with some drug culture exposure but encountered a floor effect in those without. The design’s complexity and implicit commentary on family dynamics complicated recruitment but may have facilitated retention. Conclusion Sibling pairs in which the older sibling has substance use and the younger sibling has ADHD exist. Such younger siblings can be recruited into a treatment study. The design may shed light on the pathogenesis and prevention of SUD complications from ADHD and theoretically other SUD comorbidities. PMID:21517711

  20. Gender differences in a sample of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Biederman, J; Faraone, S V; Spencer, T; Wilens, T; Mick, E; Lapey, K A

    1994-07-01

    Although originally conceptualized as a childhood disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also be an adult disorder. However, despite increasing media attention to adult ADHD, its validity has only recently been studied in a systematic fashion. The overrepresentation of females in adult samples in comparison to pediatric samples of ADHD raises additional questions about the validity of this disorder in adults. The goal of this article is to explore whether ADHD is a valid clinical entity in female subjects and whether it is expressed differently in male and female adults. To this end, we examined the clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics of 128 referred adult ADHD cases of both sexes. Each subject had a clinical diagnosis of childhood-onset ADHD confirmed by structured interview. The male and female ADHD adults were similar to one another but more disturbed and impaired than non-ADHD adult control subjects. Compared with normal control females, ADHD women had higher rates of major depression, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder; and more evidence of school failure and cognitive impairment. The consistency of these findings in both genders further supports the validity of the diagnosis of ADHD in adults. Our results stress the viability and importance of identification of female subjects with ADHD. The underidentification and undertreatment of females with ADHD may have substantial mental health and educational implications, suggesting that research is needed to develop a better understanding of clinical indicators of ADHD in females.

  1. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD. PMID:24116285

  2. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD.

  3. A dynamic developmental theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly hyperactive/impulsive and combined subtypes.

    PubMed

    Sagvolden, Terje; Johansen, Espen Borgå; Aase, Heidi; Russell, Vivienne Ann

    2005-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Inattentiveness, overactivity, and impulsiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. The dynamic developmental behavioral theory is based on the hypothesis that altered dopaminergic function plays a pivotal role by failing to modulate nondopaminergic (primarily glutamate and GABA) signal transmission appropriately. A hypofunctioning mesolimbic dopamine branch produces altered reinforcement of behavior and deficient extinction of previously reinforced behavior. This gives rise to delay aversion, development of hyperactivity in novel situations, impulsiveness, deficient sustained attention, increased behavioral variability, and failure to "inhibit" responses ("disinhibition"). A hypofunctioning mesocortical dopamine branch will cause attention response deficiencies (deficient orienting responses, impaired saccadic eye movements, and poorer attention responses toward a target) and poor behavioral planning (poor executive functions). A hypofunctioning nigrostriatal dopamine branch will cause impaired modulation of motor functions and deficient nondeclarative habit learning and memory. These impairments will give rise to apparent developmental delay, clumsiness, neurological "soft signs," and a "failure to inhibit" responses when quick reactions are required. Hypofunctioning dopamine branches represent the main individual predispositions in the present theory. The theory predicts that behavior and symptoms in ADHD result from the interplay between individual predispositions and the surroundings. The exact ADHD symptoms at a particular time in life will vary and be influenced by factors having positive or negative effects on symptom development. Altered or deficient learning and motor functions will produce special needs for optimal parenting and societal styles. Medication will to some degree

  4. Childhood ADHD Predicts Risky Sexual Behavior in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Kate; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Smith, Bradley

    2006-01-01

    This study compared young adults (ages 18 to 26) with and without childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on self-reported risky sexual behaviors. Participants were 175 men with childhood ADHD and 111 demographically similar men without ADHD in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Childhood ADHD predicted earlier…

  5. RE-EXAMINING THE RISK FOR SWITCH FROM UNIPOLAR TO BIPOLAR MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER IN YOUTH WITH ADHD: A LONG TERM PROSPECTIVE LONGITUDINAL CONTROLLED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Wozniak, Janet; Tarko, Laura; Serra, Giulia; Hernandez, Mariely; McDermott, Katie; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Uchida, Mai; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have identified subthreshold forms of bipolar (BP)-I disorder and deficits in emotional regulation as risk factors for bipolar disorder in youth. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether emotional dysregulation and subthreshold forms of BP-I disorder increase the risk for BP switches in ADHD youth with non-bipolar MDD. Methods We used data from two large controlled longitudinal family studies of boys and girls with and without ADHD. Subjects (N=522) were followed prospectively and blindly over an average follow up period of 11.4 years. Comparisons were made between ADHD youth with unipolar major depression (MDD) who did (N=24) and did not (N=79) switch to BP-I disorder at follow-up. Results The rate of conversion to BP-I disorder at follow up was higher in MDD subjects with subthreshold BP-I disorder at baseline compared to those without (57% vs. 21%; OR=9.57, 95%CI=1.62–56.56, p=0.013) and in MDD subjects with deficient emotional self regulation (OR=3.54, 95%CI=1.08–11.60, p=0.037). Limitations The sample was largely Caucasian, so these results may not generalize to minority groups. The sample of youth with SED was small, which limited the statistical power for some analyses. Conclusions Switches from unipolar MDD to BP-I disorder in children with ADHD and MDD were predicted by baseline subthreshold BP-I disorder symptoms and baseline deficits in emotional regulation. More work is needed to assess whether these risk factors are operant outside the context of ADHD. PMID:24144583

  6. Combining Parent and Child Training for Young Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…

  7. Risky Behavior in Gambling Tasks in Individuals with ADHD – A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Evans, Ben; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. Methods PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs) in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. Results Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs), ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. Conclusion The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks are discussed

  8. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  9. Guanfacine Use in Children With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) With Disruptive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Capone, George T; Brecher, Liza; Bay, Mihee

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize children with Down syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with disruptive behaviors using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and to measure the treatment effects of guanfacine on maladaptive behaviors. Subjects were enrolled from a group of outpatients who visited our clinic between 2002 and 2007. Subjects (N = 23) were children with Down syndrome ages 4 to 12 years (mean 7.4 ± 4.1), who met criteria for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition The Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability and Hyperactivity subscales each showed a significant decrease (P < .0001) at follow-up. The mean decline on Hyperactivity was 25% (-7.8 points), and for Irritability, 25% (-3.5 points). The mean composite score also declined by 24% (-12 points). Effect size differences on Irritability were moderate, whereas differences on Hyperactivity and composite score appeared large. Clinically important target behaviors were reduced. Medication was generally well tolerated and the incidence of treatment emergent side effects remained low.

  10. Guanfacine Use in Children With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) With Disruptive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Capone, George T; Brecher, Liza; Bay, Mihee

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize children with Down syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with disruptive behaviors using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and to measure the treatment effects of guanfacine on maladaptive behaviors. Subjects were enrolled from a group of outpatients who visited our clinic between 2002 and 2007. Subjects (N = 23) were children with Down syndrome ages 4 to 12 years (mean 7.4 ± 4.1), who met criteria for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition The Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability and Hyperactivity subscales each showed a significant decrease (P < .0001) at follow-up. The mean decline on Hyperactivity was 25% (-7.8 points), and for Irritability, 25% (-3.5 points). The mean composite score also declined by 24% (-12 points). Effect size differences on Irritability were moderate, whereas differences on Hyperactivity and composite score appeared large. Clinically important target behaviors were reduced. Medication was generally well tolerated and the incidence of treatment emergent side effects remained low. PMID:26936058

  11. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies. PMID:27449004

  12. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies.

  13. Executive functions: performance-based measures and the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; Bucciarelli, Stefania M; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Performance-based measures and ratings of executive functions were examined in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison controls. Performance-based measures of executive function included inhibition, working memory, set shifting, and planning, and ratings of these same executive functions were completed by parents and teachers. Adolescents with ADHD demonstrated lower executive function performance than controls and displayed elevated ratings on the executive function ratings by parents and teachers. Significant associations were obtained between the performance-based measures and the parent and teacher ratings, but each measure was not uniquely associated with its respective scale on the rating scales. When performance-based measures and ratings were examined as predictors of ADHD status, the parent and teacher ratings entered as significant predictors of ADHD status. Further commonality analyses indicated that performance-based measures accounted for little unique variance in predicting ADHD status and also displayed little overlap with the behavioral ratings. These findings highlight the diagnostic utility of behavioral ratings of executive function in predicting ADHD status; however, behavioral ratings should not be assumed to be a proxy for performance on measures of executive function in clinical practice.

  14. A New Approach to Attention Deficit Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    A recent study conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control estimated that approximately 7.8 percent of U.S. children ages 4-17 are currently diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). For decades, most educators, physicians, psychologists, and parents have thought of ADD/ADHD as…

  15. Assessment and Intervention Practices for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A National Survey of School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borick, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined school psychologists' assessment and intervention practices regarding ADHD. Five hundred school psychologists who practiced in a school setting and were regular members of the National Association of School Psychologists were randomly selected to complete and return a questionnaire titled Assessment and Intervention Practices…

  16. Issues in Medication Compliance among Children and Families Affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terneus, Sandra K.; Wheeler, John J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of medication therapy for the treatment of ADHD in children has been cited as the most frequent course of treatment for children diagnosed with this condition with an estimated 3% of school-aged children being prescribed stimulant medication (Kirk, 1999). One issue that is frequently cited when using medication to treat this condition is…

  17. Intervention Types and the Perceptions of Academic Success of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hukriede, Justine; Miernicki, Sonia L.

    2006-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions regarding the effectiveness of ADHD interventions were investigated. The different forms of interventions that were focused on included: stimulant medication, classroom/parent environmental interventions, a combination of stimulant medication and classroom/parent environmental interventions, and counseling. Elementary and…

  18. Exploring the Gender Gap in Referrals for Children with ADHD and Other Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Erika K.; Slavec, Janine; Bernstein, Melissa; Baroni, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the impact of the gender of children with ADHD on teachers' perceptions toward inattentive, hyperactive, or oppositional behaviors, and how these perceptions relate to teachers' ratings of children's impairment and referral recommendations. Method: Teachers read eight vignettes depicting boys and girls with…

  19. Motor preparation, motor execution, attention, and executive functions in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Klimkeit, Ester I; Mattingley, Jason B; Sheppard, Dianne M; Lee, Paul; Bradshaw, John L

    2005-04-01

    Attention and executive functions were investigated in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD combined type using a novel selective reaching task. This task involved responding as rapidly as possible to a target while at times having to ignore a distractor. Results indicated that unmedicated children with ADHD showed slow and inaccurate responding. Slow responding reflected problems at the stage of movement preparation but not movement execution. An attentional impairment, rather than a motor planning problem per se, appeared to underlie the slow movement preparation. Inaccurate responding reflected problems with response inhibition and selective attention, impulsivity, set-shifting, and difficulties in maintaining vigilance. Although medicated children with ADHD did not show slow movement preparation, they did show some response inaccuracy, resulting especially from impulsive responding. These findings suggest that ADHD is characterized by slow motor preparation (but not motor execution), and deficits in selective attention, vigilance, and executive functions. Preliminary results suggest that stimulant medication may resolve some of these motor, attentional and executive function deficits.

  20. EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL STUDY OF ATTENTION REGULATION DURING ILLUSORY FIGURE CATEGORIZATION TASK IN ADHD, AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER, AND TYPICAL CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Sokhadze, Estate M.; Baruth, Joshua M.; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Guela E.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Williams, Emily; Klapheke, Robert; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are very common developmental disorders which share some similar symptoms of social, emotional, and attentional deficits. This study is aimed to help understand the differences and similarities of these deficits using analysis of dense-array event-related potentials (ERP) during an illusory figure recognition task. Although ADHD and ASD seem very distinct, they have been shown to share some similarities in their symptoms. Our hypothesis was that children with ASD will show less pronounced differences in ERP responses to target and non-target stimuli as compared to typical children, and to a lesser extent, ADHD. Participants were children with ASD (N=16), ADHD (N=16), and controls (N=16). EEG was collected using a 128 channel EEG system. The task involved the recognition of a specific illusory shape, in this case a square or triangle, created by three or four inducer disks. There were no between group differences in reaction time (RT) to target stimuli, but both ASD and ADHD committed more errors, specifically the ASD group had statistically higher commission error rate than controls. Post-error RT in ASD group was exhibited in a post-error speeding rather than corrective RT slowing typical for the controls. The ASD group also demonstrated an attenuated error-related negativity (ERN) as compared to ADHD and controls. The fronto-central P200, N200, and P300 were enhanced and less differentiated in response to target and non-target figures in the ASD group. The same ERP components were marked by more prolonged latencies in the ADHD group as compared to both ASD and typical controls. The findings are interpreted according to the “minicolumnar” hypothesis proposing existence of neuropathological differences in ASD and ADHD, specifically minicolumnar number/width morphometry spectrum differences. In autism, a model of local hyperconnectivity and long-range hypoconnectivity explains

  1. Facts, values, and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): an update on the controversies

    PubMed Central

    Parens, Erik; Johnston, Josephine

    2009-01-01

    The Hastings Center, a bioethics research institute, is holding a series of 5 workshops to examine the controversies surrounding the use of medication to treat emotional and behavioral disturbances in children. These workshops bring together clinicians, researchers, scholars, and advocates with diverse perspectives and from diverse fields. Our first commentary in CAPMH, which grew out of our first workshop, explained our method and explored the controversies in general. This commentary, which grows out of our second workshop, explains why informed people can disagree about ADHD diagnosis and treatment. Based on what workshop participants said and our understanding of the literature, we make 8 points. (1) The ADHD label is based on the interpretation of a heterogeneous set of symptoms that cause impairment. (2) Because symptoms and impairments are dimensional, there is an inevitable "zone of ambiguity," which reasonable people will interpret differently. (3) Many other variables, from different systems and tools of diagnosis to different parenting styles and expectations, also help explain why behaviors associated with ADHD can be interpreted differently. (4) Because people hold competing views about the proper goals of psychiatry and parenting, some people will be more, and others less, concerned about treating children in the zone of ambiguity. (5) To recognize that nature has written no bright line between impaired and unimpaired children, and that it is the responsibility of humans to choose who should receive a diagnosis, does not diminish the significance of ADHD. (6) Once ADHD is diagnosed, the facts surrounding the most effective treatment are complicated and incomplete; contrary to some popular wisdom, behavioral treatments, alone or in combination with low doses of medication, can be effective in the long-term reduction of core ADHD symptoms and at improving many aspects of overall functioning. (7) Especially when a child occupies the zone of ambiguity

  2. Annual Research Review: Reaction time variability in ADHD and autism spectrum disorders: measurement and mechanisms of a proposed trans-diagnostic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Karalunas, Sarah L.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Konrad, Kerstin; Bender, Stephan; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intraindividual variability in reaction time (RT) has received extensive discussion as an indicator of cognitive performance, a putative intermediate phenotype of many clinical disorders, and a possible trans-diagnostic phenotype that may elucidate shared risk factors for mechanisms of psychiatric illnesses. Scope and Methodology Using the examples of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we discuss RT variability. We first present a new meta-analysis of RT variability in ASD with and without comorbid ADHD. We then discuss potential mechanisms that may account for RT variability and statistical models that disentangle the cognitive processes affecting RTs. We then report a second meta-analysis comparing ADHD and non-ADHD children on diffusion model parameters. We consider how findings inform the search for neural correlates of RT variability. Findings Results suggest that RT variability is increased in ASD only when children with comorbid ADHD are included in the sample. Furthermore, RT variability in ADHD is explained by moderate to large increases (d = 0.63–0.99) in the ex-Gaussian parameter τ and the diffusion parameter drift rate, as well as by smaller differences (d = 0.32) in the diffusion parameter of nondecision time. The former may suggest problems in state regulation or arousal and difficulty detecting signal from noise, whereas the latter may reflect contributions from deficits in motor organization or output. The neuroimaging literature converges with this multicomponent interpretation and also highlights the role of top-down control circuits. Conclusion We underscore the importance of considering the interactions between top-down control, state regulation (e.g. arousal), and motor preparation when interpreting RT variability and conclude that decomposition of the RT signal provides superior interpretive power and suggests mechanisms convergent with those implicated using other cognitive

  3. Cadherin-13, a risk gene for ADHD and comorbid disorders, impacts GABAergic function in hippocampus and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Rivero, O; Selten, M M; Sich, S; Popp, S; Bacmeister, L; Amendola, E; Negwer, M; Schubert, D; Proft, F; Kiser, D; Schmitt, A G; Gross, C; Kolk, S M; Strekalova, T; van den Hove, D; Resink, T J; Nadif Kasri, N; Lesch, K P

    2015-01-01

    Cadherin-13 (CDH13), a unique glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules, has been identified as a risk gene for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and various comorbid neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, including depression, substance abuse, autism spectrum disorder and violent behavior, while the mechanism whereby CDH13 dysfunction influences pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders remains elusive. Here we explored the potential role of CDH13 in the inhibitory modulation of brain activity by investigating synaptic function of GABAergic interneurons. Cellular and subcellular distribution of CDH13 was analyzed in the murine hippocampus and a mouse model with a targeted inactivation of Cdh13 was generated to evaluate how CDH13 modulates synaptic activity of hippocampal interneurons and behavioral domains related to psychopathologic (endo)phenotypes. We show that CDH13 expression in the cornu ammonis (CA) region of the hippocampus is confined to distinct classes of interneurons. Specifically, CDH13 is expressed by numerous parvalbumin and somatostatin-expressing interneurons located in the stratum oriens, where it localizes to both the soma and the presynaptic compartment. Cdh13−/− mice show an increase in basal inhibitory, but not excitatory, synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Associated with these alterations in hippocampal function, Cdh13−/− mice display deficits in learning and memory. Taken together, our results indicate that CDH13 is a negative regulator of inhibitory synapses in the hippocampus, and provide insights into how CDH13 dysfunction may contribute to the excitatory/inhibitory imbalance observed in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as ADHD and autism. PMID:26460479

  4. Building an Evidence Base for DSM–5 Conceptualizations of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Introduction to the Special Section

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Frick, Paul J.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    The DSM–5 ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Work Group recently outlined a research agenda designed to support possible revisions to the diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Some of the areas in need of further investigation include (a) examining the clinical utility of the current diagnostic system in girls, (b) further clarifying the developmental progression from ODD to CD, (c) determining whether facets of ODD symptoms can help explain heterotypic continuity and enhance predictive validity, (d) evaluating the clinical utility of a new subtyping scheme for CD on the basis of the presence of callous– unemotional traits, and (e) comparing the clinical utility of dimensional versus categorical conceptualizations of ODD and CD. This special section was organized in an attempt to provide data on these issues using a diverse array of longitudinal data sets consisting of both epidemiological and clinic-based samples that collectively cover a large developmental span ranging from childhood through early adulthood. PMID:21090874

  5. [GEITDAH consensus on conduct disorders in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Sasot-Llevadot, Jordi; Ibáñez-Bordas, Rosa M; Soto-López, Antonio; Montañés-Rada, Francisco; Gastaminza-Pérez, Xavier; Alda-Díez, José A; Cantó-Díez, Tomás; Catalá, Miguel A; Ferrin-Erdozáin, Maite; García-Giral, Marta; Graell-Bernal, Montserrat; Granada-Jiménez, Olvido; Herreros-Rodríguez, Óscar; Mardomingo-Sanz, María J; Mojarro-Práxedes, Dolores; Morey-Canyelles, Jaume; Ortiz-Guerra, Juan; Pàmies-Massana, Montserrat; Rey-Sánchez, Francisco; Romera-Torrens, María; Rubio-Morell, Belén; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pedro M; Ruiz-Sanz, Francisco

    2015-08-16

    In this paper, the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (GEITDAH, from its name in Spanish) presents a consensus reached by experts from all over Spain on conduct disorders in children and adolescents. Following the initial work by the team at the Pedopsychiatry Unit at the Quiron-Teknon Hospital in Barcelona, agreements have been reached on a number of basic aspects that could be the starting point for future consensuses. A top priority aim of the work was also to update the criteria in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition, for conduct disorders in children and adolescents, together with their comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  6. Antisocial personality disorder with and without antecedent childhood conduct disorder: does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Knight, Raymond A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether prior conduct disorder increased deviance in persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. One hundred and three male inmates satisfying adult antisocial and conduct disorder criteria for antisocial personality disorder achieved significantly higher scores on self-report measures of criminal thinking and antisocial attitudes than 137 male inmates satisfying only the adult criteria for antisocial personality disorder and 87 male nonantisocial inmates. Inmates satisfying adult antisocial and conduct disorder criteria for antisocial personality disorder were also more likely to receive disciplinary infractions for misconduct than inmates in the other two conditions. The theoretical, diagnostic, and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  7. Co-Occurrence of Motor Problems and Autistic Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiersen, Angela M.; Constantino, John N.; Todd, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the concurrence between parent-reported motor problems and clinical autistic symptoms in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results suggest that children with ADHD and parent-reported motor problems are likely to have more severe autistic symptoms than those with ADHD alone.

  8. Are Some Individuals Diagnosed with ADHD Prone to Alcohol Abuse?: Consideration of Two Possible Mediating Factors for this Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Some studies conducted on ADHD have found a statistically significant relationship between those diagnosed with the disorder and a higher susceptibility to abuse alcohol. However, other studies have found no such correlation, or have found this to be true of only a nonstatistically significant subset of the population of individuals with ADHD.…

  9. EXPERIMENTAL STRATEGIES FOR INVESTIGATING PSYCHOSTIMULANT DRUG ACTIONS AND PREFRONTAL CORTICAL FUNCTON IN ADHD AND RELATED ATTENTION DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Agster, K. L.; Clark, B. D.; Gao, W-J.; Shumsky, J. S.; Wang, H-X.; Berridge, C. W.; Waterhouse, B. D.

    2011-01-01

    Amphetamine-like psychostimulant drugs have been used for decades to treat a variety of clinical conditions. Methylphenidate (MPH) - RitalinR, a compound that blocks reuptake of synaptically released norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in the brain, has been used for more than 30 years in low dose, long-term regimens to treat attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in juveniles, adolescents, and adults. These agents are now also becoming increasingly popular among healthy individuals from all walks of life (e.g. military, students) and age groups (teenagers thru senior citizens) to promote wakefulness and improve attention. While there is agreement regarding the primary biochemical action of MPH, the physiological basis for its efficacy in normal individuals and ADHD patients is lacking. Study of the behavioral and physiological actions of clinically and behaviorally relevant doses of MPH in normal animals provides an opportunity to explore the role of catecholamine transmitters in prefrontal cortical function and attentional processes as they relate to normal operation of brain circuits and ADHD pathology. The goal of ongoing studies has been to: 1) assess the effects of low dose MPH on rodent performance in a well characterized sensory-guided sustained attention task, 2) examine the effects of the same low-dose chronic MPH administration on task-related discharge of prefrontal cortical (PFC) neurons and 3) investigate the effects of NE and DA on membrane response properties and synaptic transmission in identified subsets of PFC neurons. Combinations of these approaches can be used in adolescent, adult and aged animals to identify the parameters of cell and neural circuit function that are regulated by MPH and to establish an overarching explanation of how MPH impacts PFC operations from cellular through behavioral functional domains. PMID:21901844

  10. Association of COMT (Val158Met) and BDNF (Val66Met) Gene Polymorphisms with Anxiety, ADHD and Tics in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; Devincent, Carla J.; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine rs4680 ("COMT") and rs6265 ("BDNF") as genetic markers of anxiety, ADHD, and tics. Parents and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for a total sample of 67 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both "COMT" (p = 0.06) and "BDNF" (p = 0.07) genotypes were marginally significant for teacher…

  11. Does Maternal Warmth Moderate the Effects of Birth Weight on Twins' Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms and Low IQ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Lucy A.; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The moderating effect of maternal warmth on the association between low birth weight and children's attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and low IQ was studied in 2,232 twins. Half of 5-year-old children had low birth weights, below 2,500 g. Maternal warmth, a component of expressed emotion, was coded from mothers' audiotaped…

  12. ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587…

  13. Efficacy of Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD Symptoms in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Jaen, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Daniel Martin; Calleja-Perez, Beatriz; Munoz-Jareno, Nuria; Campos Diaz, Maria del Rosario; Lopez-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine's tolerance and efficacy were studied in 24 patients with pervasive developmental disorder and symptoms of ADHD. Method: Prospective, open-label, 16-week study was performed, using the variables of the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners' Scale, among others. Results: A significant difference was found…

  14. Domain-General and Domain-Specific Aspects of Temporal Discounting in Children with ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): A Proof of Concept Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert; Baeyens, Dieter; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that delayed consumable rewards are discounted to a higher degree than money, which has been referred to as the "domain effect". Until now the effects of reward type on temporal discounting (TD) have mainly been studied in adults. Although there is evidence that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend…

  15. Adaptations for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrady, Mart

    2005-01-01

    ADHD is a neurobiological-based brain disorder, most often hereditary, affecting nearly one in twenty students. The ADHD brain functions differently because the area between the frontal lobe and rear lobe is having short-circuit problems and is not transmitting necessary information. The technical part of the disorder does not engage us as…

  16. ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160571.html ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids Study found ... percentage of black children show the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than white kids, they are less likely ...

  17. Elevated rates of ADHD in mothers of children with comorbid ADHD and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Hamoda, Hesham M; Luna, Laura; Rao, Sneha; McClendon, James; Rotella, Peter; Waber, Deborah; Boyer, Katherine; Faraone, Steven V; Whitney, Jane; Guild, Danielle; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives To describe the prevalence of ADHD in mothers of children with comorbid ADHD and epilepsy (ADHD+E) and to compare ADHD symptoms in mothers with (Fam+) and without (Fam−) additional relative(s) with epilepsy. Patients & methods Mothers (n = 16) of children with ADHD+E were assessed by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children ADHD module and the ADHD Rating Scale IV. Information was collected on the presence (Fam+) or absence (Fam−) of first- or second-degree relatives with epilepsy in the sample. Results A total of 50% of mothers met the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. ADHD was more prevalent in Fam+ mothers (80%) compared with Fam− mothers (36%; p = 0.14). Fam+ mothers had more current hyperactivity symptoms than Fam− mothers (p = 0.002), higher current ADHD severity (p = 0.02) and higher ADHD Rating Scale IV hyperactivity scores (p = 0.008). Conclusion The prevalence of ADHD in mothers of children with ADHD+E is elevated in this pilot study, suggesting that ADHD symptoms in children with epilepsy and their mothers reflects shared familial genetic or environmental risks, potentially resulting in a higher prevalence of both disorders among family members. This is a pilot study and larger controlled studies are warranted. PMID:23397446

  18. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children. PMID:27338457

  19. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6-14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children. PMID:27338457

  20. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Meyer, Johanna; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Gary, Faye A.; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents’ psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Results: Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Conclusions: Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care. PMID:26402692

  1. Parental Involvement Moderates Etiological Influences on Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Behaviors in Child Twins

    PubMed Central

    Nikolas, Molly A; Klump, Kelly; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Although few would now contest the presence of gene x environment (GxE) effects in the development of child psychopathology, it remains unclear how these effects manifest themselves. Alternative GxE models have been proposed (i.e., diathesis-stress, differential susceptibility, bio-ecological), each of which has notably different implications for etiology. Child twin studies present a powerful tool for discriminating between these models. The current study examined whether and how parental involvement moderated etiological influences on ADHD within 500 twin pairs aged 6–11 years. Results indicated moderation of genetic and non-shared environmental contributions to ADHD by parental involvement, and moreover, suggested both differential susceptibility and bio-ecological models of GxE. Results highlight the utility of child twin samples in testing different manifestations of GxE effects. PMID:25263271

  2. Basic reading skills in Swedish children with late developing language and with or without autism spectrum disorder or ADHD.

    PubMed

    Miniscalco, Carmela; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika

    2010-01-01

    Reading skills at age 7-8 years were examined in a community-representative sample of 21 screened and clinically examined children with language delay (LD) followed prospectively from 2.5 years of age. The present study aimed to (1) determine whether these children with a history of LD had deficits in basic reading skills, i.e. decoding and comprehension, compared to the age norms of standardized tests, (2) analyze if there was a relationship between reading outcome and neuropsychiatric diagnosis by comparing three subgroups of children, LD pure, LD+ASD (autism spectrum disorder) and LD+ADHD, and, (3) determine what language measures at age 6 years were associated with the 7-8-year reading outcome. Both decoding and comprehension of single word reading were significantly below the norm for the whole LD group, where children with LD+ASD scored lowest, and children with LD highest. However, the differences between the three groups did not reach significance. Two reader groups were identified according to the results of word decoding and comprehension, respectively, resulting in the same 7 children. ANOVA revealed that the only differences on the 6-year language tests between the two groups were found on color naming and word memory. This study has shown that children with LD and subsequently identified neurodevelopmental problems such as ASD and ADHD experience continued deficits, demonstrated also in reading skills and that the picture of the reading problems seemed to resemble those of typically developing children.

  3. Early Identification and Systemic Educational Intervention for Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandau, Hannes; Pretis, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the international experience with early identification and intervention for children with AD/HD. Much less is known about AD/HD in two- to five-year-old preschool children than is known for older school-aged youngsters. Despite this lack of knowledge, AD/HD is increasingly recognized in this population and stimulant…

  4. Depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and quality of life in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during three-month methylphenidate treatment.

    PubMed

    Gürkan, Kagan; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoglu, Serhat; Kiliç, Birim G; Aysev, Ayla; Uslu, Runa

    2010-12-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the changes that occur in depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and health-related quality of life during methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty-five treatment naive children with ADHD, aged 8-14, were assessed based on self, parent and teacher reports at the baseline and at the end of the first and third month of MPH treatment regarding changes in inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Changes in the quality of life were also noted. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests with Bonferroni corrections were conducted in order to evaluate the data. Symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity were significantly reduced (p < 0.017) following a three-month MPH treatment. There were significant decreases in depression (p = 0.004), trait anxiety (p = 0.000) and checking compulsion symptom scores (p = 0.001). Moreover, parents reported significant improvements in psychosocial (p = 0.001) and total scores (p = 0.009) of quality of life, despite no change in physical health scores (p > 0.05). Children's ratings of quality of life measures showed no significant changes in physical health and psychosocial scores (p > 0.05), while total scores significantly improved (p = 0.001) after the treatment. Over a three-month MPH treatment, depression, trait anxiety and checking compulsion symptoms decreased and quality of life seemed to improve along with those of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.

  5. Gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Ho, Chung-Han

    2016-10-30

    To verify the hypothesis that there is different gender ratio of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting among Asian population. The nationwide population-based database containing data on enrollees in the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan during 2000-2007 was used in this study, and we investigated the lifetime gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence in healthcare-seeking ADHD patients (n=228,029). The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of child/adolescent ADHD (age <20 years) ranged from 3.39 to 4.07 and 3.87-4.31, respectively. The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of ADHD in the adult group (age 20-65 years) ranged from 0.24 to 0.76 and 0.35-0.98, respectively. In conclusion, there was substantially increased female-to-male ratio in adults ADHD compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting. Further researches on the management and mechanism are needed. PMID:27525828

  6. Gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Ho, Chung-Han

    2016-10-30

    To verify the hypothesis that there is different gender ratio of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting among Asian population. The nationwide population-based database containing data on enrollees in the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan during 2000-2007 was used in this study, and we investigated the lifetime gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence in healthcare-seeking ADHD patients (n=228,029). The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of child/adolescent ADHD (age <20 years) ranged from 3.39 to 4.07 and 3.87-4.31, respectively. The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of ADHD in the adult group (age 20-65 years) ranged from 0.24 to 0.76 and 0.35-0.98, respectively. In conclusion, there was substantially increased female-to-male ratio in adults ADHD compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting. Further researches on the management and mechanism are needed.

  7. Influence of a latrophilin 3 (LPHN3) risk haplotype on event-related potential measures of cognitive response control in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Dresler, Thomas; Reif, Andreas; Jacob, Christian P; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Muenke, Maximilian; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current research strategies have made great efforts to further elucidate the complex genetic architecture of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study examined the impact of an LPHN3 haplotype that has recently been associated with ADHD (Arcos-Burgos et al., 2010) on neural activity in a visual Go-NoGo task. Two hundred sixteen adult ADHD patients completed a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) while the ongoing EEG was simultaneously recorded. Results showed that patients carrying two copies of the LPHN3 risk haplotype (n=114) made more omission errors and had a more anterior Go-centroid of the P300 than patients carrying at least one LPHN3 non-risk haplotype (n=102). Accordingly, the NoGo-Anteriorization (NGA; topographical ERP difference of the Go- and NoGo-condition), a neurophysiological marker of prefrontal functioning, was reduced in the LPHN3 high risk group. However, in the NoGo-condition itself no marked differences attributable to the LPHN3 haplotype could be found. Our findings indicate that, within a sample of ADHD patients, the LPHN3 gene impacts behavioral and neurophysiological measures of cognitive response control. The results of our study further strengthen the concept of an LPHN3 risk haplotype for ADHD and support the usefulness of the endophenotype approach in psychiatric and psychological research.

  8. Working memory deficits in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): An examination of orthographic coding and episodic buffer processes.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Patros, Connor H G; Hudec, Kristen L; Tarle, Stephanie J; Lea, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    The episodic buffer component of working memory was examined in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing peers (TD). Thirty-two children (ADHD = 16, TD = 16) completed three versions of a phonological working memory task that varied with regard to stimulus presentation modality (auditory, visual, or dual auditory and visual), as well as a visuospatial task. Children with ADHD experienced the largest magnitude working memory deficits when phonological stimuli were presented via a unimodal, auditory format. Their performance improved during visual and dual modality conditions but remained significantly below the performance of children in the TD group. In contrast, the TD group did not exhibit performance differences between the auditory- and visual-phonological conditions but recalled significantly more stimuli during the dual-phonological condition. Furthermore, relative to TD children, children with ADHD recalled disproportionately fewer phonological stimuli as set sizes increased, regardless of presentation modality. Finally, an examination of working memory components indicated that the largest magnitude between-group difference was associated with the central executive. Collectively, these findings suggest that ADHD-related working memory deficits reflect a combination of impaired central executive and phonological storage/rehearsal processes, as well as an impaired ability to benefit from bound multimodal information processed by the episodic buffer.

  9. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Charmaine B.; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n = 7024) were included in the analysis. Parents/guardians reported the presence of a bedroom TV and average weekday TV screen time. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models assessed the effects of a bedroom on screen time. Results Youth with ADD/ADHD engaged in screen time with an average of 149.1 min/weekday and 59% had a TV in their bedroom. Adjusting for child and family characteristics, having a TV in the bedroom was associated with 25 minute higher daily screen time (95% CI: 12.8–37.4 min/day). A bedroom TV was associated with 32% higher odds of engaging in screen time for over 2 h/day (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0–1.7). Conclusion Future research should explore whether removing TVs from bedrooms reduces screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. PMID:25599016

  10. A Distributed Effects Perspective of Dimensionally Defined Psychiatric Disorders: And Convergent Versus Core Deficit Effects in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T. Sigi

    2014-01-01

    The focus of psychiatric and psychological research has arguably shifted from brain damage and psychosis to more common forms of psychopathology that reflect extremes variants of otherwise normal cognitive and behavioral characteristics. Now, in addition to trying to understand overtly damaged brain-function (flat tire effects), we are also seeking to understand liabilities associated with non-optimized, but otherwise intact, cognitive and behavioral abilities (poor tuning effects). This shift has pushed us to evolve our investigational strategies to more broadly consider whole-brain integrated brain systems, as well as seek to develop more specific quantifiable indicators of impoverished brain function and behavior. This paper discusses such challenges in relation to dimensionally defined psychiatric disorders and presents a novel whole-brain integrated perspective of ADHD brain function pathology. PMID:24926271

  11. Defense mechanisms in adolescent conduct disorder and adjustment reaction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe; Kelly, Francis D

    2004-02-01

    The use of defense mechanisms by male and female adolescents with a diagnosis of conduct disorder was compared with the defense use of adolescents with a diagnosis of adjustment reaction. Because conduct disorder has been shown to be associated with a developmental lag in several areas of psychological functioning, we expected that these adolescents would show immaturity in the use of defenses. This expectation was confirmed. As compared with adjustment reaction, conduct disordered youths were more likely to use the immature defense of denial and less likely to use the mature defense of identification.

  12. The Complicated Relationship Between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zulauf, Courtney A.; Sprich, Susan E.; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults with substance use disorders (SUD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasingly presenting in clinical practice. The overlap and role of treatment for these co-occurring disorders remains unclear. A review of the literature was conducted to highlight and update recent evidence on the overlap of ADHD and SUD, the role of ADHD medication on later SUD, and the treatment of ADHD and SUD in adolescents and young adults. Recent work continues to highlight the high risk for comorbid ADHD in patients with SUD; and conversely, the high risk for SUD developing in ADHD across the lifespan, particularly in the context of comorbid conduct disorder. Although the data remains discordant, it appears that ADHD pharmacotherapy does not increase the risk for SUD. Medication treatment alone does not appear to be particularly effective in treating SUD in currently active substance abusing individuals with ADHD. Structured therapies may be effective in treating adolescents and young adults with ADHD and SUD. Further controlled trials evaluating the sequence and effect of structured psychotherapies and/or ADHD pharmacotherapy on SUD relapse in these groups are warranted. PMID:24526271

  13. The complicated relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Zulauf, Courtney A; Sprich, Susan E; Safren, Steven A; Wilens, Timothy E

    2014-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults with substance use disorders (SUD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasingly presenting in clinical practice. The overlap and role of treatment for these co-occurring disorders remains unclear. A review of the literature was conducted to highlight and update recent evidence on the overlap of ADHD and SUD, the role of ADHD medication on later SUD, and the treatment of ADHD and SUD in adolescents and young adults. Recent work continues to highlight the high risk for comorbid ADHD in patients with SUD; and conversely, the high risk for SUD developing in ADHD across the lifespan, particularly in the context of comorbid conduct disorder. Although the data remains discordant, it appears that ADHD pharmacotherapy does not increase the risk for SUD. Medication treatment alone does not appear to be particularly effective in treating SUD in currently active substance abusing individuals with ADHD. Structured therapies may be effective in treating adolescents and young adults with ADHD and SUD. Further controlled trials evaluating the sequence and effect of structured psychotherapies and/or ADHD pharmacotherapy on SUD relapse in these groups are warranted. PMID:24526271

  14. Thermal conductivity at a disordered quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Ramirez, David M.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-04-01

    Strongly disordered and strongly interacting quantum critical points are difficult to access with conventional field theoretic methods. They are, however, both experimentally important and theoretically interesting. In particular, they are expected to realize universal incoherent transport. Such disordered quantum critical theories have recently been constructed holographically by deforming a CFT by marginally relevant disorder. In this paper we find additional disordered fixed points via relevant disordered deformations of a holographic CFT. Using recently developed methods in holographic transport, we characterize the thermal conductivity in both sets of theories in 1+1 dimensions. The thermal conductivity is found to tend to a constant at low temperatures in one class of fixed points, and to scale as T 0.3 in the other. Furthermore, in all cases the thermal conductivity exhibits discrete scale invariance, with logarithmic in temperature oscillations superimposed on the low temperature scaling behavior. At no point do we use the replica trick.

  15. Parents, ADHD and the internet.

    PubMed

    Terbeck, Sylvia; Chesterman, L Paul

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the potential impact of using the internet on medical consultations by analysing the attitudes, attributions, and emotional responses of parents who have been informed by specialists that their child does not have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine the nature of the feedback they obtained from members of online internet support groups. Over 40,000 messages from the five most popular international internet forums discussing children with ADHD were analysed. Messages from parents who reported that they had seen at least one specialist (e.g. paediatrician, psychiatrist or psychologist) because of their concerns that their child had ADHD were identified. The children included boys and girls with an age range from 2 to 16 years. Of these, we analysed messages where the parents additionally reported that the specialist had excluded a diagnosis of ADHD. Using these criteria, 91 messages from parents who had consulted over 200 different specialists and 398 replies to these messages were identified for content analysis. The replies to concerned parents were analysed to determine whether they were offered impartial advice. A majority of the parents reported that they did not believe the specialist and were unhappy about their child not being diagnosed with ADHD. They expressed dissatisfaction with the professional's opinions and the implication that their child's conduct was caused by their poor parenting skills. Importantly, 87.6 % of the responses that these parents received, from other members of online forums, reinforced the parent's negative attitude towards the professional's judgement. It was generally suggested that the parents should not believe the expert and should seek a further opinion. The use of the internet may encourage "doctor shopping" and mistrust in health services. Medical professionals and others may need to be aware of this, and parents may need more support than is generally

  16. Treatment of Conduct Disorder with a Multisystemic and Multimodal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubinger, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a childhood disorder that is often resistant to treatment. Current treatment methods often focus on separate interventions for each environment that the child or adolescent is exhibiting antisocial behavior. Additionally the focus is on the behavior of the child and often does not focus on the family unit or the biology behind…

  17. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  18. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  19. Alternative treatments for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Arnold, L E

    2001-06-01

    A previous review of alternative treatments (Tx) of ADHD--those other than psychoactive medication and behavioral/psychosocial Tx--was supplemented with an additional literature search focused on adults with ADHD. Twenty-four alternative Tx were identified, ranging in scientific documentation from discrediting controlled studies through mere hypotheses to positive controlled double-blind clinical trials. Many of them are applicable only to a specific subgroup. Although oligoantigenic (few-foods) diets have convincing double-blind evidence of efficacy for a properly selected subgroup of children, they do not appear promising for adults. Enzyme-potentiated desensitization, relaxation/EMG biofeedback, and deleading also have controlled evidence of efficacy. Iron supplementation, magnesium supplementation, Chinese herbals, EEG biofeedback, massage, meditation, mirror feedback, channel-specific perceptual training, and vestibular stimulation all have promising prospective pilot data, many of these tests reasonably controlled. Single-vitamin megadosage has some intriguing pilot trial data. Zinc supplementation is hypothetically supported by systematic case-control data, but no systematic clinical trial. Laser acupuncture has promising unpublished pilot data and may be more applicable to adults than children. Essential fatty acid supplementation has promising systematic case-control data, but clinical trials are equivocal. RDA vitamin supplementation, non-Chinese herbals, homeopathic remedies, and antifungal therapy have no systematic data in ADHD. Megadose multivitamin combinations are probably ineffective for most patients and are possibly dangerous. Simple sugar restriction seems ineffective. Amino acid supplementation is mildly effective in the short term, but not beyond 2-3 months. Thyroid treatment is effective in the presence of documented thyroid abnormality. Some alternative Tx of ADHD are effective or probably effective, but mainly for certain patients. In some

  20. Parental Efficacy and Child Behavior in a Community Sample of Children with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Hendricks, Kristy M.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Weiss, Julia E.; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most studies of ADHD youth have obtained data from the perspective of either children or parents, but not both simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent perspectives on parenting in a large community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. Methods We identified children in grades 4-6 and their parents through surveys administered to a random sample of public schools. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent associations between child and parent characteristics and presence of ADHD while controlling for covariates and clustering by school. Results Sufficient data were achieved for 2509 child/parent dyads. Ten percent of youths (n=240) had been diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with those without ADHD, those with ADHD were more commonly male (67.9% vs. 48.0%, P<.001) and age 12 or over (16.3% vs. 10.3%). After adjusting for covariates and clustering, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD were significantly more likely to report lower self-regulation (OR= 0.68, 95% CI=0.53, 0.88) and higher levels of rebelliousness (OR= 2.00, 95% CI=1.52, 2.69). Compared with parents whose children did not have ADHD, parents of children with ADHD rated their overall parental efficacy substantially lower (OR=0.23, 95% CI=0.15, 0.33). However, child assessment of parenting style was similar by ADHD. Conclusions Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children. Feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes. PMID:22886756

  1. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwood, Karen L.; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and…

  2. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  3. The relationship between tics, OC, ADHD and autism symptoms: A cross- disorder symptom analysis in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome patients and family-members.

    PubMed

    Huisman-van Dijk, Hilde M; Schoot, Rens van de; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Mathews, Carol A; Cath, Daniëlle C

    2016-03-30

    Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) is a disorder in which obsessive-compulsive (OC), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism symptoms occur in up to 60% of patients, suggesting shared etiology. We explored the phenotypic structure of tic, OC, ADHD, and autism symptoms as measured by the YGTSS,Y-BOCS,CAARS and AQ, in 225 GTS patients and 371 family members. First, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were performed on the symptom structure of each separate symptom scale. Second, the symptom dimensions derived from each scale were combined in one model, and correlations between them were calculated. Using the correlation matrix, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) were performed on the symptom dimensions across the scales. EFA revealed a five factor structure: tic/aggression/symmetry; OC symptoms/compulsive tics/ numbers and patterns; ADHD symptoms; autism symptoms; and hoarding/inattention symptoms. The results are partly in line with the traditional categorical boundaries of the symptom scales used, and partly reveal a symptom structure that cuts through the diagnostic categories. This phenotypic structure might more closely reflect underlying etiologies than a structure that classically describes GTS patients according to absence or presence of comorbid OCD, ADHD and autism, and might inform both future genetic and treatment studies.

  4. Comparing the executive attention of adult females with ADHD to that of females with sensory modulation disorder (SMD) under aversive and non-aversive auditory conditions.

    PubMed

    Mazor-Karsenty, Tal; Parush, Shula; Bonneh, Yoram; Shalev, Lilach

    2015-02-01

    Certain behavioral expressions of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) such as distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are often similar to those of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in pediatric and adult populations. There is also a high comorbidity rate between these two diagnoses and absence of research regarding the objective neuropsychological differentiation between them. In the present study we employed a factorial design which enabled us to: (a) systematically examine the effects of SMD and ADHD on executive attention in a sample of adult females using a Stroop-like task, and (b) measure the effect of aversive conditions (sounds) on executive attention. The experimental measures used were the Stroop-like Location-Direction Task (SLDT) to assess executive attention and the battery of aversiveness to sounds (BAS), a standardized measure of aversive sounds that was developed for this study and enabled individual customization of aversive auditory sounds. Results revealed, as expected, a specific core deficit in executive attention for the ADHD factor. In addition to that, the present study provides an important, pioneering finding of SMD impairment in a unique combination of a cognitively demanding task with aversive sounds, providing preliminary objective evidence differentiating SMD from ADHD.

  5. Hyperactivity persists in male and female adults with ADHD and remains a highly discriminative feature of the disorder: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptoms of hyperactivity are believed to fade with age leaving ADHD adults mostly inattentive and impulsive. Our aim was to test this assertion using objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Method Participants were 40 subjects with ADHD (23M/17F; 35±10 yrs) and 60 healthy adults (28M/32F; 29±9 yrs) blindly assessed using Wender-Reimherr interview ratings, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and DSM-IV criteria. Infrared motion capture systems tracked head and leg movements during performance of a No-4’s cognitive control task. Subjects also completed the Conners’ CPT-II. Results ADHD and controls differed significantly in activity and attention. Effect sizes for activity measures (d’ = 0.7–1.6) were, on average, two-fold larger than differences in attention or impulsivity, correlated more strongly with executive function ratings and were more discriminatory (ROC area = 0.83 for activity composite, 0.65 for No-4’s distraction composite, 0.63 for Conners’ CPT-II confidence index, 0.96 for the combined activity and attention diagnostic index). This finding was true for subjects with the predominantly inattentive subtype as well as subjects with combined or predominantly hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Males and females with ADHD were equally active. The superior accuracy of activity measures was confirmed using Random Forest and predictive modeling techniques. Conclusions Objectively measured hyperactivity persists in adults with ADHD and is a more discriminative feature of the disorder than computerized measures of inattention or impulsivity. This finding supports the hypothesis that a deficient ability to sit still remains a defining feature of the disorder in adults when it is measured objectively. PMID:23134619

  6. Living in Chaos and Striving for Control: How Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Deal with Their Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Michele; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Houghton, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a Grounded Theory of "Living in Chaos and Striving for Control" developed in response to the central research question of how adults diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) deal with their disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 males diagnosed with ADHD in adulthood. "Chaos" emerged…

  7. Retrospective Ratings of ADHD Symptoms Made at Young Adulthood by Clinic-Referred Boys with ADHD-Related Problems, Their Brothers without ADHD, and Control Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Jan; Ledolter, Johannes; Kramer, John R.; Volpe, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Retrospective childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are required to diagnosis adult ADHD, but the validity of self-rated symptoms across time is questionable. Here, boys with ADHD-related problems, their brothers without ADHD, and former schoolmates rated themselves during young adulthood for ages 9, 14, and 19.…

  8. Unveiling conducting pathways embedded in strongly disordered graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei-Yuan; Wu, Bi-Yi; Shih, Cheng-Jung; Lo, Shun-Tsung; Lee, Hsin-Yen; Chen, T.-M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, Y. F.; Liang, Chi-Te

    2016-11-01

    Graphene shows very different electrical properties under the influence of electrical environments. For example, pristine graphene can show either insulating or normally metallic behavior when supported by different substrates. Here we study charge transport in disordered graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition with varying channel widths. We demonstrate that at high temperatures homogeneous hopping governs the electrical characteristics, whereas at low enough temperatures where charge hopping is frozen out carriers through the embedded weakly disordered conducting pathways contribute a finite conductance instead of being strongly insulating. Our work not only reveals their inhomogeneous features but also provides a new approach for characterizing the surface disorder in large-area graphene systems.

  9. Alternative pharmacological strategies for adult ADHD treatment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Cahn, Wiepke

    2016-01-01

    Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition associated with high disability and frequent comorbidity. Current standard pharmacotherapy (methylphenidate and atomoxetine) improves ADHD symptoms in the short-term, but poor data were published about long-term treatment. In addition a number of patients present partial or no response to methylphenidate and atomoxetine. Research into the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of alternative pharmacological approaches in adult ADHD patients. Among alternative compounds, amphetamines (mixed amphetamine salts and lisdexamfetamine) have the most robust evidence of efficacy, but they may be associated with serious side effects (e.g. psychotic symptoms or hypertension). Antidepressants, particularly those acting as noradrenaline or dopamine enhancers, have evidence of efficacy, but they should be avoided in patients with comorbid bipolar disorder. Finally metadoxine and lithium may be particularly suitable in case of comorbid alcohol misuse or bipolar disorder. PMID:26693882

  10. [GEITDAH consensus on conduct disorders in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Sasot-Llevadot, Jordi; Ibáñez-Bordas, Rosa M; Soto-López, Antonio; Montañés-Rada, Francisco; Gastaminza-Pérez, Xavier; Alda-Díez, José A; Cantó-Díez, Tomás; Catalá, Miguel A; Ferrin-Erdozáin, Maite; García-Giral, Marta; Graell-Bernal, Montserrat; Granada-Jiménez, Olvido; Herreros-Rodríguez, Óscar; Mardomingo-Sanz, María J; Mojarro-Práxedes, Dolores; Morey-Canyelles, Jaume; Ortiz-Guerra, Juan; Pàmies-Massana, Montserrat; Rey-Sánchez, Francisco; Romera-Torrens, María; Rubio-Morell, Belén; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pedro M; Ruiz-Sanz, Francisco

    2015-08-16

    In this paper, the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (GEITDAH, from its name in Spanish) presents a consensus reached by experts from all over Spain on conduct disorders in children and adolescents. Following the initial work by the team at the Pedopsychiatry Unit at the Quiron-Teknon Hospital in Barcelona, agreements have been reached on a number of basic aspects that could be the starting point for future consensuses. A top priority aim of the work was also to update the criteria in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition, for conduct disorders in children and adolescents, together with their comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:26204088

  11. ADHD in context: Young adults' reports of the impact of occupational environment on the manifestation of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Arielle K; Weisner, Thomas S; Jensen, Peter S; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L Eugene; W Murray, Desiree; Swanson, James M

    2016-07-01

    Does changing context play a role in the decline in ADHD symptoms in adulthood? Insufficient research has explored the functioning of adults with ADHD. As adults, individuals with ADHD have significantly more latitude to control aspects of their day-to-day environments. Do the new contexts young adults find themselves in alter their experience of ADHD? Are there particular occupational or educational contexts in which young adults report functioning better than others? To examine this issue, we conducted semi-structured interviews at four North American sites in 2010-11 with 125 young adults, originally diagnosed with ADHD as children, regarding their work and post-secondary educational environments. Many subjects describe their symptoms as context-dependent. In some contexts, participants report feeling better able to focus; in others, their symptoms-such as high energy levels-become strengths rather than liabilities. Modal descriptions included tasks that were stressful and challenging, novel and required multitasking, busy and fast-paced, physically demanding or hands-on, and/or intrinsically interesting. Consistent with a developmental psychopathology framework, ADHD is experienced as arising from an interaction between our subjects and their environments. These findings demonstrate the need to account for the role of context in our understanding of ADHD as a psychiatric disorder, especially as it manifests in young adulthood.

  12. ADHD in context: Young adults' reports of the impact of occupational environment on the manifestation of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Arielle K; Weisner, Thomas S; Jensen, Peter S; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L Eugene; W Murray, Desiree; Swanson, James M

    2016-07-01

    Does changing context play a role in the decline in ADHD symptoms in adulthood? Insufficient research has explored the functioning of adults with ADHD. As adults, individuals with ADHD have significantly more latitude to control aspects of their day-to-day environments. Do the new contexts young adults find themselves in alter their experience of ADHD? Are there particular occupational or educational contexts in which young adults report functioning better than others? To examine this issue, we conducted semi-structured interviews at four North American sites in 2010-11 with 125 young adults, originally diagnosed with ADHD as children, regarding their work and post-secondary educational environments. Many subjects describe their symptoms as context-dependent. In some contexts, participants report feeling better able to focus; in others, their symptoms-such as high energy levels-become strengths rather than liabilities. Modal descriptions included tasks that were stressful and challenging, novel and required multitasking, busy and fast-paced, physically demanding or hands-on, and/or intrinsically interesting. Consistent with a developmental psychopathology framework, ADHD is experienced as arising from an interaction between our subjects and their environments. These findings demonstrate the need to account for the role of context in our understanding of ADHD as a psychiatric disorder, especially as it manifests in young adulthood. PMID:27299978

  13. The influence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder on white matter microstructure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    van Ewijk, Hanneke; Noordermeer, Siri D S; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Luman, Marjolein; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Faraone, Stephen V; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Oosterlaan, J

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are highly comorbid disorders. ADHD has been associated with altered white matter (WM) microstructure, though the literature is inconsistent, which may be due to differences in the in- or exclusion of participants with comorbid ODD. WM abnormalities in ODD are still poorly understood, and it is unclear whether comorbid ODD in ADHD may have confounded the current ADHD literature. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between ADHD patients with (n = 42) and without (n = 117) comorbid ODD. All participants were between 8-25 years and groups did not differ in mean age or gender. Follow-up analyses were conducted to examine the role of antisocial behaviour (conduct problems) on FA and MD values in both groups. Comorbid ODD in ADHD was associated with lower FA in left frontotemporal WM, which appeared independent of ADHD symptoms. FA was negatively associated with antisocial behaviour in ADHD + ODD, but not in ADHD-only. Comorbid ODD is associated with WM abnormalities in individuals with ADHD, which appears to be independent of ADHD symptoms. Altered WM microstructure in comorbid ODD may play a role in inconsistencies in the current DTI literature in ADHD. Altered development of these tracts may contribute to social-emotional and cognitive problems in children with oppositional and antisocial behaviour. PMID:26507746

  14. The influence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder on white matter microstructure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    van Ewijk, Hanneke; Noordermeer, Siri D S; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Luman, Marjolein; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Faraone, Stephen V; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Oosterlaan, J

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are highly comorbid disorders. ADHD has been associated with altered white matter (WM) microstructure, though the literature is inconsistent, which may be due to differences in the in- or exclusion of participants with comorbid ODD. WM abnormalities in ODD are still poorly understood, and it is unclear whether comorbid ODD in ADHD may have confounded the current ADHD literature. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between ADHD patients with (n = 42) and without (n = 117) comorbid ODD. All participants were between 8-25 years and groups did not differ in mean age or gender. Follow-up analyses were conducted to examine the role of antisocial behaviour (conduct problems) on FA and MD values in both groups. Comorbid ODD in ADHD was associated with lower FA in left frontotemporal WM, which appeared independent of ADHD symptoms. FA was negatively associated with antisocial behaviour in ADHD + ODD, but not in ADHD-only. Comorbid ODD is associated with WM abnormalities in individuals with ADHD, which appears to be independent of ADHD symptoms. Altered WM microstructure in comorbid ODD may play a role in inconsistencies in the current DTI literature in ADHD. Altered development of these tracts may contribute to social-emotional and cognitive problems in children with oppositional and antisocial behaviour.

  15. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2008-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…

  16. ADHD--Building Academic Success. Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    This policy brief discusses students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their school performance. Reasons are presented to explain why children with ADHD fail. The three main characteristics of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity) and their interference with academic performance are discussed. The brief…

  17. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ashwood, Karen L; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and ASD + ADHD (n = 38). Results demonstrated lower socialisation and composite scores and greater discrepancy between cognitive and adaptive abilities in the ASD + ADHD group compared to the ADHD-only group. Significant associations were shown between reduced adaptive functioning and autism symptoms, but not ADHD symptoms. Children with ASD + ADHD present with exacerbated impairments in adaptive functioning relative to children with ADHD, associated with ASD symptoms. Disentangling variation in adaptive skills may aid the assessment of complex cases.

  18. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment. PMID:25614755

  19. Assessment of the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions and adult ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, Craig W; Rosenfield, Brad; DiTomasso, Robert A; Ramsay, J Russell

    2016-04-30

    The current chart review study examined the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and co-occurring symptoms of depression and anxiety in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD. Thirty subjects completed inventories measuring cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness as part of the standard diagnostic evaluation protocol used in a university-based outpatient clinic specializing in adult ADHD. A series of correlational analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. Results indicated a significant, positive correlation between self-reported cognitive distortions and ADHD. Responses to individual items on the measure of cognitive distortions were tabulated to identify the prevalence of specific cognitive distortion categories, with Perfectionism emerging as the most frequently endorsed. Further clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27086226

  20. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales–Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment. PMID:25614755