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Sample records for adhd diagnostic interview

  1. The Validity of the ADHD Section of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Ann M.; Handwerk, Michael L.; Armstrong, Kevin J.; Lucas, Cristopher P.; Friman, Patrick C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent criterion validity of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) portion of the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (NIMHDISC-IV). Fifty-seven adolescent participants were divided into three groups on the basis of whether participants met…

  2. [Clinical diagnostics of ADHD in preschool-aged children].

    PubMed

    Merkt, Julia; Petermann, Franz

    2015-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence and has many negative consequences for both the child and the family. Early identification of children with ADHD would be helpful for the prevention of long-term consequences. This review appraises questionnaires and clinical interviews that can be used for the diagnosis of ADHD in preschool-aged children (3-5 years). We compare and discuss both German and international methods. The role of questionnaires and clinical interviews in the diagnostic process of ADHD is discussed. PMID:25769765

  3. An Internet Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) : Correspondence of the ADHD Section with the Paper-and-Pencil Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Serra, Marike; Minderaa, Rudolf Boudewijn; Hartman, Catharina Annette

    2009-01-01

    The authors recently developed an Internet version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version 4 (DISC-IV), parent version (D. Shaffer, P. Fisher, C. P. Lucas, M. K. Dulcan, & M. E. Schwab-Stone, 2000), with the main purpose of using it at home without an interviewer. This offers many advantages (e.g., extended applicability, fast…

  4. The Incremental Utility of Behavioral Rating Scales and a Structured Diagnostic Interview in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Aaron J.; Hoza, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the incremental utility of rating scales, a structured diagnostic interview, and multiple informants in a comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample included 185 children with ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.22, SD = 0.95) and 82 children without ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.24, SD =…

  5. ADHD and Health Services Utilization in the National Health Interview Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; Moore, Charity G.; McKeown, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Describe the general health, comorbidities and health service use among U.S. children with ADHD. Method: The 2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) contained the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; used to determine probable ADHD), data on medical problems, overall health, and health care utilization. Results: Asthma…

  6. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Print A A A ... doesn't involve hyperactivity. Symptoms and Signs of ADHD Because ADHD covers lots of different things — attention, ...

  7. Reliability and validity of a semi-structured DSM-based diagnostic interview module for the assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adult psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Dalrymple, Kristy; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark

    2016-08-30

    Despite growing recognition that the symptoms and functional impairments of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) persist into adulthood, only a few psychometrically sound diagnostic measures have been developed for the assessment of ADHD in adults, and none have been validated for use in a broad treatment-seeking psychiatric sample. The current study presents the reliability and validity of a semi-structured DSM-based diagnostic interview module for ADHD, which was administered to 1194 adults presenting to an outpatient psychiatric practice. The module showed excellent internal consistency and interrater reliability, good convergent and discriminant validity (as indexed by relatively high correlations with self-report measures of ADHD and ADHD-related constructs and little or no correlation with other, non-ADHD symptom domains), and good construct validity (as indexed by significantly higher rates of psychosocial impairment and self-reported family history of ADHD in individuals who meet criteria for an ADHD diagnosis). This instrument is thus a reliable and valid diagnostic tool for the detection of ADHD in adults presenting for psychiatric evaluation and treatment. PMID:27259136

  8. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ADHD FACT SHEET What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is sometimes referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). It ...

  9. Comorbidity and Phenomenology of Bipolar Disorder in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Eduardo; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children with ADHD and to study the psychopathological profile of ADHD children with and without mania. Method: A total of 100 children with ADHD were assessed with a semistructured diagnostic interview and questionnaires of mania, ADHD, and general psychopathology. Results: 8% of…

  10. Psychiatric Diagnostic Interviews for Children and Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angold, Adrian; Erkanli, Alaattin; Copeland, William; Goodman, Robert; Fisher, Prudence W.; Costello, E. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare examples of three styles of psychiatric interviews for youth: the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) ("respondent-based"), the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) ("interviewer-based"), and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) ("expert judgment"). Method: Roughly equal numbers of…

  11. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study. Part 1: ADHD symptom patterns

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with the combined type of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-CT) and 1446 'unselected' siblings. The aim was to analyse the IMAGE sample with respect to demographic features (gender, age, family status, and recruiting centres) and psychopathological characteristics (diagnostic subtype, symptom frequencies, age at symptom detection, and comorbidities). A particular focus was on the effects of the study design and the diagnostic procedure on the homogeneity of the sample in terms of symptom-based behavioural data, and potential consequences for further analyses based on these data. Methods Diagnosis was based on the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS) interview and the DSM-IV items of the Conners' teacher questionnaire. Demographics of the full sample and the homogeneity of a subsample (all probands) were analysed by using robust statistical procedures which were adjusted for unequal sample sizes and skewed distributions. These procedures included multi-way analyses based on trimmed means and winsorised variances as well as bootstrapping. Results Age and proband/sibling ratios differed between participating centres. There was no significant difference in the distribution of gender between centres. There was a significant interaction between age and centre for number of inattentive, but not number of hyperactive symptoms. Higher ADHD symptom frequencies were reported by parents than teachers. The diagnostic symptoms differed from each other in their frequencies. The face-to-face interview was more sensitive than the questionnaire. The differentiation between ADHD-CT probands and unaffected siblings was mainly due to differences in hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Conclusions

  12. Bulimia nervosa patient diagnosed with previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood: clinical case report, literature review, and diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Serfontein, Jaco; Müller, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    There is increasing literature suggesting a link between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (EDs), especially bulimia nervosa. ADHD is under-diagnosed in girls and children of high intelligence are typically missed. We identified a case of a 23-year-old woman suffering from severe bulimia nervosa and previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood; we diagnosed and treated her with extended-release methylphenidate. We performed a literature review on the ADHD and bulimia nervosa comorbidity. We discuss the reasons why her ADHD remained undiagnosed and the difficulties in diagnosing ADHD in patients with EDs. We suggest that identifying comorbid ADHD is crucial for these patients and argue for the use of a structured interview, collateral history and investigation of onset of symptoms to establish a diagnosis of ADHD in adults with bulimia nervosa. Comorbidities and overlap of symptomatology need to be taken into account. PMID:24311027

  13. Use of the SADS Diagnostic Interview in Evaluating Legal Insanity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Richard; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined clinical usefulness of the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) diagnostic interview in evaluations of criminal responsibility. Findings, based on 78 evaluations from a forensic clinic, indicated that SADS successfully differentiated between sane and insane evaluatees. Differences were primarily in severity of symptoms…

  14. Assessment of clinical information: Comparison of the Validity of a Structured Clinical Interview (the SCID) and the Clinical Diagnostic Interview

    PubMed Central

    Drill, Rebecca; Nakash, Ora; DeFife, Jared A.; Westen, Drew

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive functioning is a key aspect of psychiatric diagnosis and assessment in research and practice. This study compared adaptive functioning validity ratings from Structured Clinical Interviews (SCIDs), symptom-focused structured diagnostic interviews, and Clinical Diagnostic Interviews (CDIs), systematic diagnostic interviews modeling naturalistic clinical interactions focusing on relational narratives. Two hundred forty-five patients (interviewed by two independent interviewers) and their interviewers completed the Clinical Data Form which assesses adaptive functioning and clinical information. Both interviews converged strongly with patient-reports, with no significant differences in validity of the interviews in measuring global and specific domains of adaptive functioning variables. Findings suggest that CDIs provide adaptive functioning data comparable to SCIDs (often considered “gold standard” for assessment but difficult to use in practice), and have important implications for bridging the research-practice gap. By incorporating clinicians’ everyday methods, CDIs yield information that is psychometrically sound for empirical investigation, diagnostically practical, and clinically meaningful and valid. PMID:25974055

  15. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a pyridoxine-dependent condition: urinary diagnostic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Dolina, S; Margalit, D; Malitsky, S; Rabinkov, A

    2014-01-01

    The data obtained in children with different forms of epilepsy allowed us to consider epilepsy as an inborn error of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) metabolism (Dolina et al., 2012). Mutual interconnections between ADHD and epilepsy indicate that such an approach is reasonable for ADHD. To check such an assumption we analyzed in ADHD patients the same parameters of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent tryptophan (TRP) degradation, which were analyzed in epileptic children. The level of TRP and concentrations of compounds formed or metabolized by TRP degradation, the ratios between some of them, and the level of 4-pyridoxic acid were HPLC detected in ADHD children and healthy controls. The data obtained, including low values of 4PA/TRP, IND/TRP and IND/KYN ratios, have evidenced dramatically impaired activity of pyridoxine-dependent enzymes in ADHD patients. Ritalin treatment did not change the general pattern of TRP degradation, but still created a kind of balance between some of detected metabolites. However, the 4PA/TRP, IND/TRP and IND/KYN ratios remained as low as in untreated patients, keeping the importance of diagnostic markers. Almost identical parameters of TRP degradation in untreated ADHD and epileptic patients allow to assume that inborn disorders of vitamin B6 metabolism are the common biochemical background of both diseases. The disturbed activity of PLP dependent enzymes apparently forms those profound disturbances of neurotransmitter systems, which are inherent in ADHD: low concentrations of monoamines and disordered amino acid metabolism. If vitamin B6 disorders are the core biochemical disturbances inherent in ADHD, then the long-term pyridoxine treatment is pathogenetically based replacement therapy of the disease. According to our data, multi-year pyridoxine treatment normalizes completely the pattern of ADHD behavior, without causing any serious side effects. PMID:24321736

  16. Diagnostic efficiency of the SDQ for parents to identify ADHD in the UK: a ROC analysis.

    PubMed

    Algorta, Guillermo Perez; Dodd, Alyson Lamont; Stringaris, Argyris; Youngstrom, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    Early, accurate identification of ADHD would improve outcomes while avoiding unnecessary medication exposure for non-ADHD youths, but is challenging, especially in primary care. The aim of this paper is to test the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) using a nationally representative sample to develop scoring weights for clinical use. The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey (N = 18,232 youths 5-15 years old) included semi-structured interview DSM-IV diagnoses and parent-rated SDQ scores. Areas under the curve for SDQ subscales were good (0.81) to excellent (0.96) across sex and age groups. Hyperactivity/inattention scale scores of 10+ increased odds of ADHD by 21.3×. For discriminating ADHD from other diagnoses, accuracy was fair (<0.70) to good (0.88); Hyperactivity/inattention scale scores of 10+ increased odds of ADHD by 4.47×. The SDQ is free, easy to score, and provides clinically meaningful changes in odds of ADHD that can guide clinical decision-making in an evidence-based medicine framework. PMID:26762184

  17. Antecedents of ADHD: a historical account of diagnostic concepts.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric

    2011-06-01

    The concept of ADHD has evolved gradually and still carries some traces of its origins. The idea of uncontrolled behaviour as a medical problem arose in eighteenth and nineteenth century accounts. It raised cultural issues about how far control was expected of children. This article traces the development of ideas with particular references to Hoffman's "Struwwelpeter", Frederick Still's "Disorders of Moral Control", minimal brain damage, and the hyperkinetic syndrome. PMID:21431827

  18. Bipolar disorder and ADHD: comorbidity and diagnostic distinctions.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Ciro; De Chiara, Lavinia; Faedda, Gianni L

    2015-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with onset in childhood and early adolescence, and common persistence in adulthood. Both disorders are often undiagnosed, misdiagnosed, and sometimes over diagnosed, leading to high rates of morbidity and disability. The differentiation of these conditions is based on their clinical features, comorbidity, psychiatric family history course of illness, and response to treatment. We review recent relevant findings and highlight epidemiological, clinical, family history, course, and treatment-response differences that can aid the differential diagnosis of these conditions in an outpatient pediatric setting. PMID:26084666

  19. The Structure of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: Diagnostic and Phenotypic Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Anne V.; Lecavalier, Luc; Houts, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Background: Multivariate statistics can assist in refining the nosology and diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and also contribute important information for genetic studies. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is one of the most widely used assessment instruments in the field of PDD. The current study investigated its…

  20. Association of Parental ADHD and Depression with Externalizing and Internalizing Dimensions of Child Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Mehta, Natasha; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the independent association of parental depression and ADHD on three dimensions of child psychopathology among 178 children aged 5 to 10 years. Method: Self-reported measures of parental depression and ADHD as well as rating scales and structure diagnostic interviews of child internalizing, ADHD, and externalizing problems were…

  1. Enhancing ADHD and LD Diagnostic Accuracy Using Career Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipeolu, Abiola; Hargrave, Stephanie; Storlie, Cassandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with mental health disorders may have work-related difficulties that impact functioning in all life domains. With limited research on the integration of career and mental health counseling, authors used a discriminant function analysis to assess the predictability of accurately identifying diagnostic categories among 258…

  2. ADHD and Dyscalculia: Evidence for Independent Familial Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Herzig, Kathleen; Navsaria, Neha; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The familial relationship between dyscalculia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. We conducted a familial risk analysis using probands with and without ADHD of both genders and their first-degree relatives. Participants were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and a cognitive test battery. We found elevated…

  3. Reliability and Validity of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Japanese Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Matsumoto, Kaori; Yagi, Atsuko; Inada, Naoko; Kuroda, Miho; Inokuchi, Eiko; Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Sakai, Saeko; Mohri, Ikuko; Taniike, Masako; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Ogasahara, Kei; Miyachi, Taishi; Nakajima, Shunji; Tani, Iori; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Inoue, Masahiko; Nomura, Kazuyo; Hagiwara, Taku; Uchiyama, Tokio; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Kobayashi, Shuji; Miyamoto, Ken; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Takei, Nori

    2013-01-01

    To examine the inter-rater reliability of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Japanese Version (ADI-R-JV), the authors recruited 51 individuals aged 3-19 years, interviewed by two independent raters. Subsequently, to assess the discriminant and diagnostic validity of ADI-R-JV, the authors investigated 317 individuals aged 2-19 years, who were…

  4. The Investigation of ADHD Prevalence in Kindergarten Children in Northeast Iran and a Determination of the Criterion Validity of Conners' Questionnaire via Clinical Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdekhodaie, Zahra; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmood; Gholizadeh, Mortaza

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in kindergarten children in northeast Iran was investigated, and the criterion validity of Conners' parent-teacher questionnaire was evaluated through the use of clinical interviews. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive research project with children in…

  5. The Asperger Syndrome (and High-Functioning Autism) Diagnostic Interview (ASDI): A Preliminary Study of a New Structured Clinical Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Gillberg, Carina; Rastam, Maria; Wentz, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The development of the Asperger Syndrome (and high-functioning autism) Diagnostic Interview (ASDI) is described. Preliminary data from a clinical study of 20 individuals (ages 6-55) suggest that interrater reliability and test-retest stability may be excellent, with kappas exceeding 0.90 in both instances. The validity appears to be relatively…

  6. The health preoccupation diagnostic interview: inter-rater reliability of a structured interview for diagnostic assessment of DSM-5 somatic symptom disorder and illness anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Erland; Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Wallhed Finn, Daniel; Hedman, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) and illness anxiety disorder (IAD) are two new diagnoses introduced in the DSM-5. There is a need for reliable instruments to facilitate the assessment of these disorders. We therefore developed a structured diagnostic interview, the Health Preoccupation Diagnostic Interview (HPDI), which we hypothesized would reliably differentiate between SSD, IAD, and no diagnosis. Persons with clinically significant health anxiety (n = 52) and healthy controls (n = 52) were interviewed using the HPDI. Diagnoses were then compared with those made by an independent assessor, who listened to audio recordings of the interviews. Ratings generally indicated moderate to almost perfect inter-rater agreement, as illustrated by an overall Cohen's κ of .85. Disagreements primarily concerned (a) the severity of somatic symptoms, (b) the differential diagnosis of panic disorder, and (c) SSD specifiers. We conclude that the HPDI can be used to reliably diagnose DSM-5 SSD and IAD. PMID:27096407

  7. An Interview with Medical Diagnostics Scientist Bernhard Weigl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Medical diagnostics help us evaluate a range of disorders, such as cancer and infectious diseases. In the United States and other developed countries, doctors have access to advanced equipment and laboratories that provide reliable diagnoses. As a result, when we are sick, we feel confident that we will get the treatment we need. Unfortunately,…

  8. The Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di): A Novel Computerized Assessment for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuse, David; Warrington, Richard; Bishop, Dorothy; Chowdhury, Uttom; Lau, Jennifer; Mandy, William; Place, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Autism is a diagnostic spectrum of variable severity, with significant comorbidity. No existing standardized interview measures autistic features dimensionally. The authors aimed to develop a parental autism interview that could be administered to unselected clinical and general population samples that measures both symptom intensity…

  9. The Swedish Version of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-10). Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Gudrun; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Skoglund, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Johansson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders schedule (DISCO) have only been studied in the UK. The authorised Swedish translation of the tenth version of the DISCO (DISCO-10) was used in interviews with close relatives of 91 Swedish patients referred for neuropsychiatrical assessment. Validity…

  10. ADHD and Secondary ADHD Criteria Fail to Identify Many At-Risk Survivors of Pediatric ALL and Brain Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kahalley, Lisa S.; Conklin, Heather M.; Tyc, Vida L.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Hinds, Pamela S.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Post-treatment attention problems experienced by pediatric cancer survivors have been described as similar to symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experienced in physically healthy children. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to: (a) estimate the rate of occurrence of ADHD and secondary ADHD (SADHD) in a sample of pediatric cancer survivors, (b) compare the rate of ADHD/SADHD among survivors to the prevalence of ADHD in the general population, and (c) examine clinical correlates of ADHD/SADHD in this sample. Procedure Survivors of pediatric ALL or brain tumor (n=100) participated in an assessment of attention including a computerized performance measure [Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II)], parent and self-report measures (Conners 3), and a structured diagnostic interview for ADHD and other psychological disorders [Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-IV (DICA-IV)]. Results Binomial tests revealed that the rate of ADHD/SADHD in our sample (9%) was significantly greater than the lower limits of ADHD prevalence among children in the US (3%; p<0.001), while no difference was identified compared to the upper limits of ADHD prevalence (7%; p>0.05). Many additional survivors (>25% of the sample) obtained clinical elevations on Conners 3 scales but did not meet ADHD/SADHD criteria. Conclusions Attentional deficits experienced by pediatric cancer survivors do not appear to resemble the clinical presentation of ADHD or SADHD. Many survivors with cognitive and behavioral difficulties related to attention were not identified using this diagnostic approach. Findings offer needed clarification to guide researchers and clinicians in conceptualizing, assessing, and intervening on attentional late effects. PMID:21337681

  11. Adults with ADHD. An overview.

    PubMed

    Wender, P H; Wolf, L E; Wasserstein, J

    2001-06-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common, genetically transmitted neurological disorder, with onset in childhood, probably mediated by decreased brain dopaminergic functioning. The first author was one of the earliest to describe the persistence of symptoms into adulthood. Prevalence and natural history data suggest that of the 3 to 10% of children diagnosed with ADHD, one- to two-thirds (somewhere between 1 and 6% of the general population) continue to manifest appreciable ADHD symptoms into adult life. This paper describes how ADHD in adults can be readily diagnosed and treated, despite resembling or coexisting with other psychiatric disorders. The Wender Utah diagnostic criteria address adult characteristics of the disorder. Informant and patient interviews and rating scales are used to determine the psychiatric status of the patient as a child, make a retroactive diagnosis of childhood ADHD, and establish the current diagnosis of the adult. Stringent diagnosis is key to determining effective treatment. Dopamine agonist stimulant medications appear to be the most effective in treating ADHD. About 60% of patients receiving stimulant medication showed moderate-to-marked improvement, as compared with 10% of those receiving placebo. The core symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, mood lability, temper, disorganization, stress sensitivity, and impulsivity have been shown to respond to treatment with stimulant medications. Non-dopaminergic medications, such as the tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs have generally not been useful in adults with ADHD in the absence of depression or dysthymia. Pemoline is no longer approved for use in these patients, despite early favorable reports. Appropriate management of adult patients with ADHD is multimodal. Psychoeducation, counseling, supportive problem-directed therapy, behavioral intervention, coaching, cognitive remediation, and couples and family therapy are useful adjuncts to medication management

  12. New Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers from 12 to 47 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Rutter et al. in "Autism diagnostic interview-revised." Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2003) diagnostic algorithms specific to toddlers and young preschoolers were created using 829 assessments of children aged from 12 to 47 months with ASD, nonspectrum disorders, and typical development. The…

  13. A Critical Review of ADHD Diagnostic Criteria: What to Address in the "DSM-V"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Allison S.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD is an impairing psychological disorder that predominantly affects children, but also adults to a lesser extent. As a result, a considerable amount of research has been completed in recent years to better understand the nature of the disorder to best treat individuals experiencing symptoms of ADHD. Especially with the publication of the…

  14. Is ADHD Diagnosed in Accord with Diagnostic Criteria? Overdiagnosis and Influence of Client Gender on Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruchmuller, Katrin; Margraf, Jurgen; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Unresolved questions exist concerning diagnosis of ADHD. First, some studies suggest a potential overdiagnosis. Second, compared with the male-female ratio in the general population (3:1), many more boys receive ADHD treatment compared with girls (6-9:1). We hypothesized that this occurs because therapists do not adhere to "Diagnostic…

  15. Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Rick; And Others

    1991-01-01

    In a series of interviews, Rick Turner, Dean Smith, Jack and Barbara Nicklaus, and Orel Hershiser discuss their experiences in school athletics, the relationship between athletics and academic education, and the role of athletics in the process of learning about life. (BC)

  16. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Altszuler, Amy R.; Page, Timothy F.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N=517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p<0.05) and the welfare system (p<0.01) and had lower earnings (p<0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000–$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  17. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Altszuler, Amy R; Page, Timothy F; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-08-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N = 517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p < 0.05) and the welfare system (p < 0.01) and had lower earnings (p < 0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000-$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  18. Violence and Victimization in the Refugee Patient. I. Special Issues in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Interviewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Joseph; And Others

    This paper is intended for teachers, faculty instructors, and clinical supervisors whose trainees are evaluating and treating refugee patients. It addresses special issues in the diagnostic and therapeutic interviewing of refugee patients who have experienced various types of physical violence and victimization. After a brief introduction, a…

  19. Modifying and Validating the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for Use in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Chardoul, Stephanie; Kessler, Ronald C.; Axinn, William G.; Adhikari, Bishnu P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Efforts to develop and validate fully-structured diagnostic interviews of mental disorders in non-Western countries have been largely unsuccessful. However, the principled methods of translation, harmonization, and calibration that have been developed by cross-national survey methodologists have never before been used to guide such development efforts. The current report presents the results of a rigorous program of research using these methods designed to modify and validate the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for an epidemiological survey in Nepal. Methods A five-step process of translation, harmonization, and calibration was used to modify the instrument. A blinded clinical reappraisal design was used to validate the instrument. Results Preliminary interviews with local mental health expert led to a focus on major depressive episode, mania/hypomania, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and intermittent explosive disorder. After an iterative process of multiple translations-revisions guided by the principles developed by cross-national survey methodologists, lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses based on the final Nepali CIDI had excellent concordance with diagnoses based on blinded SCID clinical reappraisal interviews. Conclusions Valid assessment of mental disorders can be achieved with fully-structured diagnostic interviews even in low-income non-Western settings with rigorous implementation of replicable developmental strategies. PMID:23494758

  20. Standardized diagnostic interviews, criteria, and algorithms for mental disorders: garbage in, garbage out.

    PubMed

    Linden, Michael; Muschalla, Beate

    2012-09-01

    There is a general consensus that diagnoses for mental disorders should be based on criteria and algorithms as given in ICD or DSM. Standardized clinical interviews are recommended as diagnostic methods. In ICD and DSM, much emphasis is put on algorithms, while the underlying criteria get much less attention. The question is how valid are the criteria that are collected by structured diagnostic interviews. 209 patients from a cardiology inpatient unit were interviewed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). 32 (15.3%) were diagnosed as suffering from a major depressive episode or dysthymia. Additionally, a thorough clinical examination was done by a psychiatric expert in 15 patients. The standardized diagnosis of present major depression was reaffirmed in one. In total, four patients were suffering from some kind of depressive disorder presently or life time. Two patients were suffering from anxiety disorders, two from adjustment disorders, and four from different types of organic brain disorders. Most important, there are 3 out of 15 who are not mentally ill. Our observations show that standardized diagnostic interviews cannot be used to make specific differential diagnoses, but rather catch unspecific syndromes. This is partly due to the fact that the wording, definition, and understanding of the underlying criteria is rather vague. This is an even greater problem if there is any somatic comorbidity. In the revision of ICD and DSM, a glossary of psychopathological terms and guidelines for the training of clinicians should be included. PMID:22274737

  1. A latent transition analysis for the assessment of structured diagnostic interviews.

    PubMed

    Scorza, Pamela; Masyn, Katherine E; Salomon, Joshua A; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2015-09-01

    Structured diagnostic interviews administered by lay people are commonly used to assess psychiatric disorders, including depression, in large epidemiologic studies. Many interviews utilize "gate" questions, such as screening questions, that allow interviewers to skip entire survey sections for a particular respondent, saving time and reducing respondent fatigue. However, most depression estimates based on these response data are predicated on the assumption that the gate questions function without measurement error or bias. The tenability of this assumption is questionable, and its violation could compromise the reliability and validity of those estimates of depression. In this study, we used a novel application of latent transition analysis to cross-sectional data, accounting for measurement error in different response pathways through the depression module in the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The analysis included data from 19,734 participants ≥18 years of age in the Comprehensive Psychiatric Epidemiologic Surveys. The latent transition analysis, allowing for measurement error in screening questions and exclusion criteria, produced a higher estimate of the lifetime probability of experiencing depression than did the algorithm based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. This illustration of latent transition analysis applied to item-level data from a complex structured diagnostic tool with gate questions demonstrates the potential utility of an analytic approach that does not automatically assume gate questions function without measurement error. This model could also be used to probe for evidence of measurement bias in the form of differential item function when using structured diagnostic tools in different cultures and languages. PMID:25894707

  2. Enterprises and challenges in diagnostics for precision medicine: an interview with Eddie Blair.

    PubMed

    Blair, Eddie; Raison, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Interview with Dr Eddie Blair, PhD, by Claire Raison (Commissioning Editor) Dr Eddie Blair is Managing Director of Integrated Medicines Ltd (Cambridge, UK), a company he formed in 2003 to enable precision medicine by combining diagnostic testing with new and existing medicines. Dr Blair has raised angel and private equity investments in excess of £12 million, has published over 40 primary peer-reviewed papers, including a series on companion diagnostic valuation, and is named inventor on at least 12 patents. Dr Blair is a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics and speaks to the Commissioning Editor here about entrepreneurship, obstacles and potential of introducing diagnostics innovations into routine clinical practice. PMID:26560159

  3. Brief Report: Telephone Administration of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised--Reliability and Suitability for Use in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-King, Jessica; Cohen, Ira L.; Penning, Henderika; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised is one of the "gold standard" diagnostic tools for autism spectrum disorders. It is traditionally administered face-to-face. Cost and geographical concerns constrain the employment of the ADI-R for large-scale research projects. The telephone interview is a reasonable alternative, but has not yet been…

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) PTSD module among female Vietnam-era veterans.

    PubMed

    Kimerling, Rachel; Serpi, Tracey; Weathers, Frank; Kilbourne, Amy M; Kang, Han; Collins, Joseph F; Cypel, Yasmin; Frayne, Susan M; Furey, Joan; Huang, Grant D; Reinhard, Matthew J; Spiro, Avron; Magruder, Kathryn

    2014-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) module is widely used in epidemiological studies of PTSD, yet relatively few data attest to the instrument's diagnostic utility. The current study evaluated the diagnostic utility of the CIDI 3.0 PTSD module with U. S. women Vietnam-era veterans. The CIDI and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) were independently administered to a stratified sample of 160 women, oversampled for current PTSD. Both lifetime PTSD and recent (past year) PTSD were assessed within a 3-week interval. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for a CAPS diagnosis of lifetime PTSD, and 21.9% of the sample met criteria for a CAPS diagnosis of past-year PTSD. Using CAPS as the diagnostic criterion, the CIDI correctly classified 78.8% of cases for lifetime PTSD (κ = .56) and 82.0% of past year PTSD cases (κ = .51). Estimates of diagnostic performance for the CIDI were sensitivity of .61 and specificity of .91 for lifetime PTSD and sensitivity of .71 and specificity of .85 for past-year PTSD. Results suggest that the CIDI has good utility for identifying PTSD, though it is a somewhat conservative indicator of lifetime PTSD as compared to the CAPS. PMID:24740869

  5. Validity of Chinese Version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-3.0 in Psychiatric Settings

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jin; Huang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Zhao-Rui; Cao, Xiao-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Composite International Diagnostic Interview-3.0 (CIDI-3.0) is a fully structured lay-administered diagnostic interview for the assessment of mental disorders according to ICD-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The aim of the study was to investigate the concurrent validity of the Chinese CIDI in diagnosing mental disorders in psychiatric settings. Methods: We recruited 208 participants, of whom 148 were patients from two psychiatric hospitals and 60 healthy people from communities. These participants were administered with CIDI by six trained lay interviewers and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I, gold standard) by two psychiatrists. Agreement between CIDI and SCID-I was assessed with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. Individual-level CIDI-SCID diagnostic concordance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve and Cohen's K. Results: Substantial to excellent CIDI to SCID concordance was found for any substance use disorder (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.926), any anxiety disorder (AUC = 0.807) and any mood disorder (AUC = 0.806). The concordance between the CIDI and the SCID for psychotic and eating disorders is moderate. However, for individual mental disorders, the CIDI-SCID concordance for bipolar disorders (AUC = 0.55) and anorexia nervosa (AUC = 0.50) was insufficient. Conclusions: Overall, the Chinese version of CIDI-3.0 has acceptable validity in diagnosing the substance use disorder, anxiety disorder and mood disorder among Chinese adult population. However, we should be cautious when using it for bipolar disorders and anorexia nervosa. PMID:26365963

  6. The Wender Utah Rating Scale: Adult ADHD Diagnostic Tool or Personality Index?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, B.D.; Pella, Russell D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Jones, Glenn N.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) is used to retroactively assess ADHD symptoms. This study sought to determine whether the WURS actually functions as an index of dysfunctional personality traits. Method: Five hundred twenty-two adult participants completed the WURS and at least one of the following measures: Wechsler Adult…

  7. Demographic Characteristics and Psychiatric Comorbidity of Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with ADHD in Specialized Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Joelsson, Petteri; Chudal, Roshan; Gyllenberg, David; Kesti, Anna-Kaisa; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Virtanen, Juha-Pekka; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Parkkola, Kai; Gissler, Mika; Sourander, Andre

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have shown an increasing incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children diagnosed in specialized services. This study aims to describe children with ADHD in Finnish specialized healthcare by reporting the demographic characteristics, time trends in diagnosis, psychiatric comorbidity, and the validity of register-based diagnoses. All the singletons born in Finland between 1991 and 2005 and diagnosed with ADHD by 2011 were identified and their psychiatric comorbidity data was obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR). Parents of 69 patients were interviewed via telephone for a diagnostic validation. A total of 10,409 children were identified with ADHD, with a male: female ratio of 5.3:1 and a psychiatric comorbidity rate of 76.7 %. Of the validation sample 88 % met the diagnostic criteria of ADHD for DSM-IV. There is an increasing trend of ADHD diagnosis among both males and females. Psychiatric comorbidity is common and includes a wide range of disorders among children with ADHD. There was an increase of ADHD diagnoses especially among boys. More attention is needed to detect ADHD among girls in health services. Diagnoses in the FHDR show diagnostic validity and their sociodemographic patterns are in line with previous studies. PMID:26399420

  8. Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines acceptable for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Klein, B; Damiani-Taraba, G; Koster, A; Campbell, J; Scholz, C

    2015-03-01

    Children involved with child protection services (CPS) are diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at higher rates than the general population. Children with maltreatment histories are much more likely to have other factors contributing to behavioural and attentional regulation difficulties that may overlap with or mimic ADHD-like symptoms, including language and learning problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment difficulties, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. A higher number of children in the child welfare system are diagnosed with ADHD and provided with psychotropic medications under a group care setting compared with family-based, foster care and kinship care settings. However, children's behavioural trajectories change over time while in care. A reassessment in the approach to ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to confirmed (or suspected) maltreatment (e.g. neglect, abuse) is required. Diagnosis should be conducted within a multidisciplinary team and practice guidelines regarding ADHD diagnostic and management practices for children in CPS care are warranted both in the USA and in Canada. Increased education for caregivers, teachers and child welfare staff on the effects of maltreatment and often perplexing relationship with ADHD-like symptoms and co-morbid disorders is also necessary. Increased partnerships are needed to ensure the mental well-being of children with child protection involvement. PMID:24942100

  9. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms in children with ADHD: A community-based study.

    PubMed

    Green, Jessica Leigh; Rinehart, Nicole; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M; Jongeling, Brad; Sciberras, Emma

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in a community-based sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD controls. We also examined the relationship between ASD symptoms and ADHD subtype, ADHD symptom severity and child gender. Participants were 6-10-year-old children (164 ADHD; 198 non-ADHD control) attending 43 schools in Melbourne, Australia, who were participating in the Children's Attention Project. ADHD was assessed in two stages using the parent and teacher Conners' 3 ADHD index and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV (DISC-IV). ASD symptoms were identified using the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression examined continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. Children with ADHD had more ASD symptoms than non-ADHD controls (adjusted mean difference=4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8; 5.3, p<0.001, effect size=0.7). Boys with ADHD had greater ASD symptom severity than girls with ADHD (adjusted mean difference=2.9, 95% CI 0.8; 5.2, p=0.01, effect size=0.4). Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with greater ASD symptom severity (regression co-efficient=1.6, 95% CI 1.2; 2.0, p<0.001). No differences were observed by ADHD subtype. Greater hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were associated with greater ASD symptoms (regression coefficient=1.0; 95% CI 0.0; 2.0, p=0.04) however, this finding attenuated in adjusted analyses (p=0.45). ASD symptoms are common in children with ADHD. It is important for clinicians to assess for ASD symptoms to ensure appropriate intervention. PMID:26433184

  10. ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587…

  11. The reliability of the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1).

    PubMed

    Quintana, M I; Andreoli, S B; Jorge, M R; Gastal, F L; Miranda, C T

    2004-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the reliability of the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (CIDI 2.1) in clinical psychiatry. The CIDI 2.1 was translated into Portuguese using WHO guidelines and reliability was studied using the inter-rater reliability method. The study sample consisted of 186 subjects from psychiatric hospitals and clinics, primary care centers and community services. The interviewers consisted of a group of 13 lay and three non-lay interviewers submitted to the CIDI training. The average interview time was 2 h and 30 min. General reliability ranged from kappa 0.50 to 1. For lifetime diagnoses the reliability ranged from kappa 0.77 (Bipolar Affective Disorder) to 1 (Substance-Related Disorder, Alcohol-Related Disorder, Eating Disorders). Previous year reliability ranged from kappa 0.66 (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder) to 1 (Dissociative Disorders, Maniac Disorders, Eating Disorders). The poorest reliability rate was found for Mild Depressive Episode (kappa = 0.50) during the previous year. Training proved to be a fundamental factor for maintaining good reliability. Technical knowledge of the questionnaire compensated for the lack of psychiatric knowledge of the lay personnel. Inter-rater reliability was good to excellent for persons in psychiatric practice. PMID:15517091

  12. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs. PMID:16417850

  13. Longitudinal Changes in Scores on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in Pre-School Children with Autism: Implications for Diagnostic Classification and Symptom Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soke, Gnakub Norbert; Philofsky, Amy; Diguiseppi, Carolyn; Lezotte, Dennis; Rogers, Sally; Hepburn, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively examined mean changes in Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Total and Domains scores and stability of the ADI-R diagnostic classification in 28 children with autism initially assessed at age 2-4 years and reassessed 2 years later. Mean Total, Social Interaction, and Communication scores decreased significantly from Time 1…

  14. Multisite Study of New Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Hyun; Thurm, Audrey; Shumway, Stacy; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Using two independent datasets provided by National Institute of Health funded consortia, the Collaborative Programs for Excellence in Autism and Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment (n = 641) and the National Institute of Mental Health (n = 167), diagnostic validity and factor structure of the new Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R)…

  15. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Medicación para el tratamiento del TDAH (ADHD) Managing ADHD With Medicine Just about everyone has trouble concentrating ...

  16. ADHD: A Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Rosalyn A.

    This paper provides a brief historical outline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), its definition, its behavioral characteristics, and a guide to creating successful learning environments for these students. Diagnostic criteria for ADHD are listed and discussed, and incidence figures of 3 to 5 percent of all school-age children are…

  17. Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…

  18. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of adult ADHD symptoms in Korea: results of the Korean epidemiologic catchment area study.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng Je; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Soo; Bae, Jae Nam; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Ahn, Joon Ho; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2011-04-30

    We examined the prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of adult attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Korean community using data from the National Epidemiological Survey of Psychiatric Disorders in Korea conducted in 2006. A total of 6081 subjects aged 18 to 59 years participated in this study. Diagnostic assessments were based on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener and Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered by lay interviewers. The frequencies of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) disorders, sleep disturbances, and suicidal tendency were compared in the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. Odds ratios and significance levels were calculated. The 6 month prevalence of adult ADHD symptoms was 1.1%. Associations between ADHD symptoms and alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence, mood disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, somatoform disorder, sleep disturbances, and suicidality were overwhelmingly positive and significant (P<0.05), after controlling for gender and age. Adult ADHD symptoms are highly associated with substance abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, sleep disturbances and suicidality, suggesting that clinicians should carefully evaluate and treat such psychiatric disorders in adults with ADHD symptoms. PMID:20724004

  19. The added value of the combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: diagnostic validity in a clinical Swedish sample of toddlers and young preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Zander, Eric; Sturm, Harald; Bölte, Sven

    2015-02-01

    The diagnostic validity of the new research algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was examined in a clinical sample of children aged 18-47 months. Validity was determined for each instrument separately and their combination against a clinical consensus diagnosis. A total of N = 268 children (n = 171 with autism spectrum disorder) were assessed. The new Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised algorithms (research cutoff) gave excellent specificities (91%-96%) but low sensitivities (44%-52%). Applying adjusted cutoffs (lower than recommended based on receiver operating characteristics) yielded a better balance between sensitivity (77%-82%) and specificity (60%-62%). Findings for the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule were consistent with previous studies showing high sensitivity (94%-100%) and alongside lower specificity (52%-76%) when using the autism spectrum cutoff, but better balanced sensitivity (81%-94%) and specificity (81%-83%) when using the autism cutoff. A combination of both the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (with adjusted cutoff) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (autism spectrum cutoff) yielded balanced sensitivity (77%-80%) and specificity (87%-90%). Results favor a combined usage of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule in young children with unclear developmental problems, including suspicion of autism spectrum disorder. Evaluated separately, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (cutoff for autism) provides a better diagnostic accuracy than the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. PMID:24413849

  20. The distribution of mental illness found by DIS (Diagnostic Interview Schedule) among internal and orthopedic patients.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Y; Nishizono, M; Yamamoto, J

    1990-03-01

    In order to understand how psychiatric problems are distributed in general medical departments, we used DIS (Diagnostic Interview Schedule). The subjects are 307 inpatients and outpatients in the Departments in Internal Medicine and Orthopedics of Fukuoka University Hospital, M Hospital and N Hospital. As a result, 53.4% of all the subjects showed some psychiatric problems. These are, in a descending order, tobacco dependence (30.0%), psychosexual dysfunction (14.3%), alcohol abuse/dependence (14.0%), major depressive episode (6.5%), organic brain syndrome (4.9%), obsessive-compulsive disorder (3.9%), dysthymic disorder (2.3%), panic disorder (2.0%) and others. Also, we discussed comparison between internal patients and neurotic patients who visited psychiatrists complaining of physical symptoms, and the incidence of DIS diagnoses in individual physical diseases. PMID:2362392

  1. Annual Research Review: Reaction time variability in ADHD and autism spectrum disorders: measurement and mechanisms of a proposed trans-diagnostic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Karalunas, Sarah L.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Konrad, Kerstin; Bender, Stephan; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intraindividual variability in reaction time (RT) has received extensive discussion as an indicator of cognitive performance, a putative intermediate phenotype of many clinical disorders, and a possible trans-diagnostic phenotype that may elucidate shared risk factors for mechanisms of psychiatric illnesses. Scope and Methodology Using the examples of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we discuss RT variability. We first present a new meta-analysis of RT variability in ASD with and without comorbid ADHD. We then discuss potential mechanisms that may account for RT variability and statistical models that disentangle the cognitive processes affecting RTs. We then report a second meta-analysis comparing ADHD and non-ADHD children on diffusion model parameters. We consider how findings inform the search for neural correlates of RT variability. Findings Results suggest that RT variability is increased in ASD only when children with comorbid ADHD are included in the sample. Furthermore, RT variability in ADHD is explained by moderate to large increases (d = 0.63–0.99) in the ex-Gaussian parameter τ and the diffusion parameter drift rate, as well as by smaller differences (d = 0.32) in the diffusion parameter of nondecision time. The former may suggest problems in state regulation or arousal and difficulty detecting signal from noise, whereas the latter may reflect contributions from deficits in motor organization or output. The neuroimaging literature converges with this multicomponent interpretation and also highlights the role of top-down control circuits. Conclusion We underscore the importance of considering the interactions between top-down control, state regulation (e.g. arousal), and motor preparation when interpreting RT variability and conclude that decomposition of the RT signal provides superior interpretive power and suggests mechanisms convergent with those implicated using other cognitive

  2. The Added Value of the Combined Use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Diagnostic Validity in a Clinical Swedish Sample of Toddlers and Young Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Sturm, Harald; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic validity of the new research algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was examined in a clinical sample of children aged 18-47 months. Validity was determined for each instrument separately and their combination against a clinical consensus…

  3. Cultural Differences in the Experience of the Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment of ADHD in a Son: Interviews with Three Mexican and Three Caucasian American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavarela, Susan

    2009-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly ethnically diverse, the need for empirically sound multicultural research has come to the forefront. Based on a review of the literature, while research on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is abundant and some research on cultural issues regarding ADHD has been produced, there is relatively little…

  4. Peer dislike and victimisation in pathways from ADHD symptoms to depression.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arunima; Hartman, Catharina A; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2015-08-01

    The following hypotheses were tested in a longitudinal, population-based study: (1) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with peer dislike and victimisation; (2) Peer dislike and victimisation increase the risk for subsequent depression; and (3) The effect of ADHD symptoms on depression is partly mediated through peer dislike and victimisation. Gender differences in mediating pathways through peer dislike and victimisation to depression were additionally explored. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), Youth Self Report (YSR) and Teacher's Checklist of Pathology (TCP) assessed ADHD symptoms in 728 adolescents. Peer nominations were used to assess peer dislike and victimisation. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess depression. Effects of peer dislike, victimisation, and ADHD symptoms on depression were modelled using Cox regression. ADHD symptoms were associated with peer dislike (rs = 0.17, p < 0.001) and victimisation (rs = 0.11, p = 0.001). Dislike, victimisation, and ADHD symptoms increased risk for depression. Risk for depression associated with victimisation and ADHD symptoms reduced with time. Dislike and victimisation mediated 7 % of the effect of ADHD symptoms on depression. Pathways through dislike and victimisation were present in girls but not in boys. Peer dislike and victimisation explain, to a limited extent, the prospective association between ADHD and depression, particularly in girls. PMID:25348085

  5. Revisiting the latent structure of ADHD: is there a ‘g’ factor?

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Michelle M.; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is presumed to be heterogeneous, but the best way to describe this heterogeneity remains unclear. Considerable evidence has accrued suggesting that inattention versus hyperactivity-impulsivity symptom domains predict distinct clinical outcomes and may have partially distinct etiological influence. As a result, some conceptualizations emphasize two distinct inputs to the syndrome. Yet formal testing of models that would accommodate such assumptions using modern methods (e.g., second-order factor and bifactor models) has been largely lacking. Methods Participants were 548 children (321 boys) between the ages of 6 and 18 years. Of these 548 children, 302 children met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD, 199 were typically developing controls without ADHD, and 47 were classified as having situational or subthreshold ADHD. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parent report on a diagnostic interview and via parent and teacher report on the ADHD Rating Scale. Results A bifactor model with a general factor and specific factors of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity fit best when compared with one-, two-, and three-factor models, and a second-order factor model. Conclusions A bifactor model of ADHD latent symptom structure is superior to existing factor models of ADHD. This finding is interpreted in relation to multi-component models of ADHD development, and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:20331490

  6. Comorbidity and correlates of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in 6-8-year-old children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mulraney, Melissa; Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Hazell, Philip; Nicholson, Jan M; Anderson, Vicki; Efron, Daryl; Silk, Timothy J; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the nature and impact of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) including its co-occurrence with other comorbidities and its independent influence on daily functioning. Children with ADHD (6-8 years) were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools, using a 2-stage screening (parent and teacher Conners 3 ADHD index) and case-confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV; [DISC-IV]) procedure. Proxy DMDD diagnosis was confirmed via items from the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and major depressive disorder modules of the DISC-IV. Outcome domains included comorbid mental health disorders, academic functioning, social functioning, child and family quality of life, parent mental health, and parenting behaviors. Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to compare children with comorbid ADHD and DMDD and children with ADHD without DMDD. Thirty-nine out of 179 children (21.8 %) with ADHD had comorbid DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD had a high prevalence of ODD (89.7 %) and any anxiety disorder (41.0 %). Children with ADHD and DMDD had poorer self-control and elevated bullying behaviors than children with ADHD without DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD were similar to children with ADHD in the other domains measured when taking into account other comorbidities including ODD. One in five children with ADHD in their second year of formal schooling met criteria for DMDD. There was a very high diagnostic overlap with ODD; however, the use of a proxy DMDD diagnosis containing items from the ODD module of the DISC-IV may have artificially inflated the comorbidity rates. DMDD added to the burden of ADHD particularly in the area of social functioning. PMID:26122202

  7. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset <7 years, n=147) and late-onset ADHD (onset between 7 and 12 years, n=42). The mediation analysis was conducted to verify the mediating factors from ADHD to functional impairment and quality of life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment. PMID:26318976

  8. Variability among Research Diagnostic Interview Instruments in the Application of "DSM-IV-TR" Criteria for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Cathryn A.; Hundt, Stephanie R.; Goyal, Parag; Le, Jenna; Fisher, Prudence W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The "DSM-IV-TR "criteria for a manic episode and bipolar disorder (BD) were developed for adults but are used for children. The manner in which clinicians and researchers interpret these criteria may have contributed to the increase in BD diagnoses given to youth. Research interviews are designed to improve diagnostic reliability and…

  9. Specific Cognitive Deficits in ADHD: A Diagnostic Concern in Differential Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Rashmi; Kar, Bhoomika R.

    2010-01-01

    We present a critical account of existing tools used to diagnose children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and to make a case for the assessment of cognitive impairments as a part of diagnostic system. Surveys have shown that clinicians rely almost entirely upon subjective reports or their own clinical judgment when arriving at…

  10. Towards a Standard Psychometric Diagnostic Interview for Subjects at Ultra High Risk of Psychosis: CAARMS versus SIPS

    PubMed Central

    Fusar-Poli, P.; Cappucciati, M.; Rutigliano, G.; Lee, T. Y.; Beverly, Q.; Bonoldi, I.; Lelli, J.; Kaar, S. J.; Gago, E.; Rocchetti, M.; Patel, R.; Bhavsar, V.; Tognin, S.; Badger, S.; Calem, M.; Lim, K.; Kwon, J. S.; Perez, J.; McGuire, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several psychometric instruments are available for the diagnostic interview of subjects at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis. Their diagnostic comparability is unknown. Methods. All referrals to the OASIS (London) or CAMEO (Cambridgeshire) UHR services from May 13 to Dec 14 were interviewed for a UHR state using both the CAARMS 12/2006 and the SIPS 5.0. Percent overall agreement, kappa, the McNemar-Bowker χ2 test, equipercentile methods, and residual analyses were used to investigate diagnostic outcomes and symptoms severity or frequency. A conversion algorithm (CONVERT) was validated in an independent UHR sample from the Seoul Youth Clinic (Seoul). Results. There was overall substantial CAARMS-versus-SIPS agreement in the identification of UHR subjects (n = 212, percent overall agreement = 86%; kappa = 0.781, 95% CI from 0.684 to 0.878; McNemar-Bowker test = 0.069), with the exception of the brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS) subgroup. Equipercentile-linking table linked symptoms severity and frequency across the CAARMS and SIPS. The conversion algorithm was validated in 93 UHR subjects, showing excellent diagnostic accuracy (CAARMS to SIPS: ROC area 0.929; SIPS to CAARMS: ROC area 0.903). Conclusions. This study provides initial comparability data between CAARMS and SIPS and will inform ongoing multicentre studies and clinical guidelines for the UHR psychometric diagnostic interview. PMID:27314005

  11. Impact of ADHD symptoms on autism spectrum disorder symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Linda; Bühler, Eva; Poustka, Luise; Bach, Christiane; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Bachmann, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Despite the official exclusion criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the DSM-IV and ICD-10, patients with ASD often show ADHD symptoms. We aimed to examine the potential influence of ADHD symptoms on autistic psychopathology in a large sample of patients with ASD. We tested the hypothesis that patients with ASD and an additional ADHD (ASD+) would show a higher severity of autistic symptoms than those with ASD only (ASD-). We measured autistic symptoms using the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS-G), the autism diagnostic interview (ADI-R), and the social responsiveness scale (SRS). To measure overall psychopathology and ADHD symptoms, we used the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the ADHD rating scale (FBB-ADHS), respectively. Group differences between the ASD+ and the ASD- group (group division was conducted according to the results of the FBB-ADHS) were calculated using a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ASD+ group showed a greater severity of autistic symptoms than the ASD- group, measured by the SRS and the ADI-R. Especially in the social interaction subscale (ADI-R), a significantly higher symptom severity was found in the ASD+ group. No significant group differences were found regarding autistic symptoms measured by the ADOS-G. Patients with ASD and an additional ADHD expressed a stronger severity of autistic symptoms than patients with ASD only. According to our results, the possibility of a co-diagnosis of ADS and ADHD, as is being planned in the DSM-5, is in line with earlier studies, is highly reasonable, will simplify research, and have therapeutic implications. PMID:23973801

  12. Identifying features of 'pathological demand avoidance' using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO).

    PubMed

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Gould, Judith; Christie, Phil; Gillberg, Christopher; Viding, Essi; Happé, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    The term 'pathological demand avoidance' (PDA) was coined by Elizabeth Newson to describe children within the autism spectrum who exhibit obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests (Newson et al., Arch Dis Child 88:595-600, 2003). Clinical accounts describe avoidance strategies including apparently strategic use of distraction or socially shocking behaviour, and obsessive need for control, reflected in domineering behaviour to peers and adults. Educational and management approaches effective for PDA reportedly differ from those for 'typical' autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and include novelty, humour and flexibility. Identification of PDA in individuals with ASD may have important implications for management (Eaton and Banting, J Learn Disabil Offending Behav 3:150-157, 2012). Despite increasing interest, no clinician-rated instrument for PDA has been developed. Here, items relevant to PDA were identified from the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorder (DISCO) (Wing et al., J Child Psychol Psychiatry 43:307-325, 2002). The most PDA-specific subset of relevant DISCO items was selected, based on low endorsement in general across a sample of 153 individuals assessed for possible ASD using the DISCO. Having selected 11 DISCO PDA items for the measure, a subset of individuals with a high number of these features was identified (N = 27). Consistent with Newson's descriptions, this high scoring group was characterised by lack of co-operation, use of apparently manipulative behaviour, socially shocking behaviour, difficulties with other people, anxiety and sudden behavioural changes from loving to aggression. All but one case met criteria for an ASD. This study brings the field a step closer to a clinician-rated measure of PDA features and highlights the need for further elucidation of the PDA phenotype. PMID:26224583

  13. Third-person Diagnostic Interview on the Cognitive Insight Level of Psychotic Patients with an Insight at the Denial Level

    PubMed Central

    Mehdizadeh, Mahsa; Rezaei, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: According to the previous findings, the third-person technique improved the clinical insight of psychotic patients, therefore the present study aims to examine the effect of a third-person interview compared to a first-person interview on the level of cognitive insight of psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level. Materials and Methods: In this study, using interviews and questionnaires, a total number of 44 patients of Razi Psychiatric Educational and Treatment Center with an insight at the denial level being assessed using diagnostic interviews were divided randomly into two groups. Then, the two groups of patients' cognitive insights were evaluated using Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. Results: The findings indicated that in psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level, the third-person technique of interview compared to the first-person had little effect on the improvement of overall cognitive insight and its components, including self-reflection and self-assurance; however, this effect was not strong enough to make a significant difference between the two groups of patients. Conclusion: According to the study findings, we can conclude that the third-person interview compared to the first-person interview has no effect on the improvement of the cognitive insight of psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level. This finding is consistent with the previous studies indicating that although the theory of mind has some correlations with the clinical insight of patients, it has no effect on their cognitive insight. PMID:27335517

  14. Effects of Child Characteristics on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: Implications for Use of Scores as a Measure of ASD Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is commonly used to inform diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Considering the time dedicated to using the ADI-R, it is of interest to expand the ways in which information obtained from this interview is used. The current study examines how algorithm totals reflecting past (ADI-Diagnostic)…

  15. ADHD and behavioral disorders: Assessment, management, and an update from DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Austerman, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral disorders in pediatric patients--primarily attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--pose a clinical challenge for health care providers to accurately assess, diagnose, and treat. In 2013, updated diagnostic criteria for behavioral disorders were published, including ADHD and a new diagnostic entity: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. Revised criteria for ADHD includes oldest age for occurrence of symptoms, need for symptoms to be present in more than one setting, and requirement for number of symptoms in those aged 17 and older. Assessment of ADHD relies primarily on the clinical interview, including the medical and social history, along with the aid of objective measures. The clinical course of ADHD is chronic with symptom onset occurring well before adolescence. Most patients have symptoms that continue into adolescence, and some into adulthood. Many patients with ADHD have comorbid disorders such as depression, disruptive behavior disorders, or substance abuse, which need to be addressed first in the treatment plan. Treatment of ADHD relies on a combination of psychopharmacologic, academic, and behavioral interventions, which produce response rates up to 80%. PMID:26555810

  16. Changes in ADHD Symptom Endorsement: Preschool to School Age

    PubMed Central

    Curchack-Lichtin, Jocelyn T.; Chacko, Anil; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate endorsement patterns among the 18 DSM-IV symptoms of ADHD in a longitudinal sample of children with and without ADHD (n=144), as assessed at ages 4–5, 5–6, and 6–7 years. Method Symptom endorsements and diagnoses were determined at all time-points via K-SADS-PL interview administered to parents and supplemented by teacher questionnaires and clinician observations. Changes in endorsement patterns over time for each of the 18 DSM-IV symptoms were ascertained. Results Several symptoms, particularly those of inattention, were infrequently endorsed and of apparently limited diagnostic utility at ages 4–5; hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were more frequently endorsed among young children with ADHD than were inattentive symptoms. However, by ages 6–7, inattention items were somewhat superior at discriminating ADHD from Non-ADHD children. Conclusions Several DSM-IV and now DSM-V symptoms provide limited diagnostic differentiation prior to school-age, particularly those most commonly observed in the context of formal schooling. Consideration should be made in future iterations of the DSM that account for such developmental and contextual differences. PMID:24343794

  17. Are family variables associated with ADHD, inattentive type? A case-control study in schools.

    PubMed

    Pheula, Gabriel Ferreira; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Schmitz, Marcelo

    2011-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) seems to be associated with significant psychosocial adversity. However, few studies assessed the role of environmental, social and interpersonal factors specifically in ADHD, inattentive type (ADHD-I). Thus, this study aims to investigate whether family environment risk factors are associated with ADHD-I. In a case-control study, we assessed a non-referred sample of 100 children and adolescents with ADHD-I and 100 non-ADHD controls (6-18 years old). They were systematically evaluated through structured diagnostic interviews. The following family adversity measures were used: Rutter's family adversity index (marital discord, low social class, large family size, paternal criminality, maternal mental disorder), Family Environment Scale (FES) (subscores of cohesion, expressiveness and conflict) and Family Relationship Index (FRI) (based on the subscores above). After adjusting for confounding factors (social phobia and maternal history of ADHD), the odds ratio (OR) for ADHD-I increased as the number of Rutter's indicators increased. Families of children with lower FES cohesion subscores presented higher OR for ADHD-I (OR 1.24; 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.45). Lower levels of FRI, a general index of family relationship, were also related to higher risk of ADHD-I (OR 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.21). Our findings suggest that family adversity (in general), low family cohesion and low FRI (in particular) are associated with an increase in the risk for ADHD-I. However, the cross-sectional nature of the study limits our ability to infer causality. PMID:21290154

  18. The Diagnostic Interview of Children and Adolescents for Parents of Preschool and Young Children: psychometric properties in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; de la Osa, Núria; Granero, Roser; Domènech, Josep Maria; Reich, Wendy

    2011-11-30

    There is a need for reliable and well-validated diagnostic measures for studying psychopathology in preschool and young children. The goal is to study the psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents for Parents of Preschool and Young Children (DICA-PPYC) in the general population. A sample of 852 Spanish school children, aged 3 to 7 years, were randomly selected and screened for a double phase design. A total of 251 families were interviewed with the DICA-PPYC and 244 participated in a test-retest design. Different measures of psychopathology and functional impairment were also administered. Test-retest agreement with a mean interval of 8.8 days ranged from excellent to slight (kappa from 1 to 0.39) for DSM-IV-TR and from good to fair (kappa from 0.77 to 0.49) for Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age diagnoses. Attenuation between test and retest was not significant for the prevalence of diagnoses, although it was significant for the number of externalising and total symptoms in the interview. The diagnoses converged moderately with the CBCL and Dominic scores. The presence of diagnoses in the DICA-PPYC significantly differentiated preschoolers and young children who had used mental health services, were more impaired, and presented more severe psychopathology measured by dimensional scales. The DICA-PPYC is a reliable and valid semi-structured interview schedule for preschool and young children, and can serve to advance the knowledge and mental health care of this population. PMID:21620481

  19. Structured interview for mild traumatic brain injury after military blast: inter-rater agreement and development of diagnostic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Walker, William C; Cifu, David X; Hudak, Anne M; Goldberg, Gary; Kunz, Richard D; Sima, Adam P

    2015-04-01

    The existing gold standard for diagnosing a suspected previous mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is clinical interview. But it is prone to bias, especially for parsing the physical versus psychological effects of traumatic combat events, and its inter-rater reliability is unknown. Several standardized TBI interview instruments have been developed for research use but have similar limitations. Therefore, we developed the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) retrospective concussion diagnostic interview, blast version (VCU rCDI-B), and undertook this cross-sectional study aiming to 1) measure agreement among clinicians' mTBI diagnosis ratings, 2) using clinician consensus develop a fully structured diagnostic algorithm, and 3) assess accuracy of this algorithm in a separate sample. Two samples (n = 66; n = 37) of individuals within 2 years of experiencing blast effects during military deployment underwent semistructured interview regarding their worst blast experience. Five highly trained TBI physicians independently reviewed and interpreted the interview content and gave blinded ratings of whether or not the experience was probably an mTBI. Paired inter-rater reliability was extremely variable, with kappa ranging from 0.194 to 0.825. In sample 1, the physician consensus prevalence of probable mTBI was 84%. Using these diagnosis ratings, an algorithm was developed and refined from the fully structured portion of the VCU rCDI-B. The final algorithm considered certain symptom patterns more specific for mTBI than others. For example, an isolated symptom of "saw stars" was deemed sufficient to indicate mTBI, whereas an isolated symptom of "dazed" was not. The accuracy of this algorithm, when applied against the actual physician consensus in sample 2, was almost perfect (correctly classified = 97%; Cohen's kappa = 0.91). In conclusion, we found that highly trained clinicians often disagree on historical blast-related mTBI determinations. A fully structured interview

  20. Reliability and Validity of a Chinese version of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines-Revised (DIB-R)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lanlan; Yuan, Chenmei; Qiu, Jianying; Gunderson, John; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Kaida; Leung, Freedom; Zhong, Jie; Xiao, Zeping

    2014-01-01

    Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the most studied of the Axis II disorders. One of the most widely used diagnostic instruments is the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients - Revised (DIB-R). The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of DIB-R for use in the Chinese culture. Methods The reliability and validity of the DIB-R Chinese version were assessed in a sample of 236 outpatients with a probable BPD diagnosis. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) was used as a standard. Test/re-test reliability was tested at 6 months later with 20 patients and inter-rater reliability was tested on 32 patients. Results The Chinese version of the DIB-R showed good internal global consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.916), good test-retest reliability (Pearson correlation of 0.704), good inter-raters reliability (ICC of 0.892 and Kappa of 0.861). When compared to the DSM-IV diagnosis as measured by the SCID-II, the DIB-R showed relatively good sensitivity (0.768) and specificity (0.891) at the cutoff of 7; moderate diagnostic convergence (Kappa of 0.631), as well as good discriminating validity. Conclusion The Chinese version of the DIB-R has good psychometric properties, which renders it a valuable method for examining the presence, the severity and component phenotypes of BPD in Chinese samples. PMID:24302703

  1. Teaching about Psychological Disorders: Using a Group Interviewing and Diagnostic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomcho, Thomas J.; Wolfe, Wendy L.; Foels, Rob

    2006-01-01

    We designed a cooperative learning classroom activity to enhance students' ability to understand psychological disorders and distinguish among anxiety, mood, and psychotic disorders. We employed a group interviewing approach with the instructor (or a graduate student) serving as the pseudo-client. Students interacted with a pseudo-client to arrive…

  2. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study: Part 2: Dimensional measures of psychopathology and intelligence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with ADHD and 1446 unselected siblings. The aim was to describe and analyse questionnaire data and IQ measures from all probands and siblings. In particular, to investigate the influence of age, gender, family status (proband vs. sibling), informant, and centres on sample homogeneity in psychopathological measures. Methods Conners' Questionnaires, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires, and Wechsler Intelligence Scores were used to describe the phenotype of the sample. Data were analysed by use of robust statistical multi-way procedures. Results Besides main effects of age, gender, informant, and centre, there were considerable interaction effects on questionnaire data. The larger differences between probands and siblings at home than at school may reflect contrast effects in the parents. Furthermore, there were marked gender by status effects on the ADHD symptom ratings with girls scoring one standard deviation higher than boys in the proband sample but lower than boys in the siblings sample. The multi-centre design is another important source of heterogeneity, particularly in the interaction with the family status. To a large extent the centres differed from each other with regard to differences between proband and sibling scores. Conclusions When ADHD probands are diagnosed by use of fixed symptom counts, the severity of the disorder in the proband sample may markedly differ between boys and girls and across age, particularly in samples with a large age range. A multi-centre design carries the risk of considerable phenotypic differences between centres and, consequently, of additional heterogeneity of the sample even if standardized diagnostic procedures are used. These possible sources

  3. Concordance between Composite International Diagnostic Interview and self-reports of depressive symptoms: a re-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosenström, Tom; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Pirkola, Sami; Koskinen, Seppo; Lindfors, Olavi; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2015-09-01

    Concordance between sum scores of self-reported depressive symptoms and structured interview diagnoses has been studied extensively, but are these the best attainable self-report-based predictions for interview diagnoses? We maximized the cross-validated concordance between World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) diagnosis and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), from the viewpoint of exploratory statistics, re-analysing Health 2000 general-population sample of adults over 30 years in mainland Finland (N = 5200-5435). BDI sum-score prediction of CIDI diagnosis could be superseded by using (1) weighted sums of items, (2) classification trees constructed from items, or (3) a single item. Best solution (2) yielded cross-validated Youden's Index 0.757 [standard error (SE) = 0.001, sensitivity = 0.907, specificity = 0.851], improving the concordance to 1.07-fold (1.18-fold for 12-month diagnosis). A single-item solution was best for the GHQ. All positive predictive values remained low (0.09-0.31). Thus, CIDI-to-questionnaire concordance can be improved by using all information in the questionnaires instead of just sum scores, but latent-trait theory for questionnaires is incompatible with interview diagnoses (single item achieved better concordance than summing all). Self-reports have low predictive value for CIDI diagnoses in the general population, but better in settings with higher major depressive disorder (MDD) base rates. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26140369

  4. Impact of executive functions on school and peer functions in youths with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Huey-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2014-05-01

    Youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to have social dysfunction at school. The authors explored the role of key executive functions (EF, i.e., spatial working memory and spatial planning) on school and peer functions in 511 youths with persistent ADHD according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and 124 non-ADHD controls without any EF deficits. All the participants were assessed by a semi-structured psychiatric interview to confirm their previous and current diagnosis of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders and by the Spatial Working Memory (SWM) and Stocking of Cambridge (SOC) tasks. The participants and their parents reported the participants' school functions and peer relationships. There were three ADHD subgroups: (1) ADHD with deficits in both SWM and SOC tasks (n=121); (2) ADHD with deficit in either SWM or SOC task (n=185); (3) ADHD without deficits in SWM or SOC task (n=205). All the three ADHD groups, regardless of EF deficits, had lower school grade, poorer attitude toward school work, poorer school interactions, more behavioral problems at school, and more severe problems in peer relationships than non-ADHD controls. Multivariate analyses revealed positive associations between deficit in the SWM task and school and peer dysfunctions, and between deficits in the SOC task and impaired peer interactions. Older age and psychiatric comorbidity also contributed to increased risk of school and peer dysfunctions. Our findings suggest that deficits in EF, such as spatial working memory and planning, might be associated with school and peer dysfunctions. PMID:24636025

  5. A genome-wide association study of autism incorporating autism diagnostic interview-revised, autism diagnostic observation schedule, and social responsiveness scale.

    PubMed

    Connolly, John J; Glessner, Joseph T; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to understand the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been hampered by genetic complexity and heterogeneity among individuals. One strategy for reducing complexity is to target endophenotypes, simpler biologically based measures that may involve fewer genes and constitute a more homogenous sample. A genome-wide association study of 2,165 participants (mean age = 8.95 years) examined associations between genomic loci and individual assessment items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and Social Responsiveness Scale. Significant associations with a number of loci were identified, including KCND2 (overly serious facial expressions), NOS2A (loss of motor skills), and NELL1 (faints, fits, or blackouts). These findings may help prioritize directions for future genomic efforts. PMID:22935194

  6. Diagnostic and Prescriptive Interviews with Transfer Students in Academic Jeopardy. Research Report #16-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Vivian; And Others

    Full-time, degree-seeking students who transferred to the University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP), in fall 1983 and whose fall semester grade point average (GPA) was less than 2.0 (N=244) were invited to participate in a diagnostic and prescriptive program designed to help them figure out why their grades were low and how to prevent such…

  7. Interviewing Children Versus Tossing Coins: Accurately Assessing the Diagnosticity of Children’s Disclosures of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    LYON, THOMAS D.; AHERN, ELIZABETH C.; SCURICH, NICHOLAS

    2014-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to evaluating children’s abuse disclosures and review research demonstrating that children’s disclosure of genital touch can be highly probative of sexual abuse, with the probative value depending on disclosure spontaneity and children’s age. We discuss how some commentators understate the probative value of children’s disclosures by: confusing the probability of abuse given disclosure with the probability of disclosure given abuse, assuming that children formally questioned about sexual abuse have a low prior probability of sexual abuse, misstating the probative value of abuse disclosure, and confusing the distinction between disclosure and nondisclosure with the distinction between true and false disclosures. We review interviewing methods that increase the probative value of disclosures, including interview instructions, narrative practice, noncontingent reinforcement, and questions about perpetrator/caregiver statements and children’s reactions to the alleged abuse. PMID:22339423

  8. Factor structure and diagnostic validity of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with adult clinical inpatients: comparison to a gold-standard diagnostic interview.

    PubMed

    Subica, Andrew M; Fowler, J Christopher; Elhai, Jon D; Frueh, B Christopher; Sharp, Carla; Kelly, Erin L; Allen, Jon G

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) among adult clinical inpatients, a group at high risk for major depressive disorder (MDD). Data from 1,904 adult inpatients were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Cronbach's alpha, and Pearson's correlations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses evaluating MDD diagnostic performance were conducted with a subsample (n = 467) using a structured diagnostic interview for reference. CFA of 3 previous 2-factor oblique solutions, observed in adolescent and older adult inpatient clinical samples, and 3 corresponding bifactor solutions indicated that BDI-II common item variance was overwhelmingly accounted for by 1 general factor specified to all items, with minor additional variance contributed by 2 specific factors. Analyses revealed high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .93) and significant (p < .01) intercorrelations between the BDI-II total scale and Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale-24's Depression/Functioning (r = .79) and Overall (r = .82) subscales. ROC analyses generated low area under the curve (.695; 95% confidence interval [.637, .752]) and cutoff scores with poor sensitivity/specificity balance. BDI-II use as a screening instrument for overall depressive symptomology was supported, but MDD diagnostic performance was suboptimal. Clinicians are advised to use the BDI-II to gauge severity of depression and measure clinical changes to depressive symptomology over time but to be mindful of the limitations of the BDI-II as a diagnostic tool for adult inpatients. PMID:24932646

  9. Gambling, Delay, and Probability Discounting in Adults With and Without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhijie; Harrow, Sarah-Eve; Song, Xianwen; Rucklidge, Julia; Grace, Randolph

    2013-08-21

    Objective: We investigated the relationship between impulsivity, as measured by delay and probability discounting, and gambling-related cognitions and behavior in adults with and without ADHD. Method: Adults who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for ADHD (n = 31) and controls (n = 29) were recruited from the community. All completed an interview that included an assessment of psychiatric disorders, gambling questionnaires, and simulated gambling, delay, and probability discounting tasks. Results: The ADHD group was more likely to meet the criteria for problem gambling and was more impulsive than controls based on a composite discounting measure. ADHD symptoms were correlated with gambling-related cognitions and behavior. Probability, but not delay discounting, explained significant variance in gambling-related measures after controlling for ADHD symptoms. Discussion: Results confirm an association between adult ADHD and gambling, and suggest that the facets of impulsivity related to risk proneness may be an independent risk factor for problem gambling in this population. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:23966350

  10. Evaluation of the Criterion and Convergent Validity of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders in Young and Low-Functioning Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO; Wing, 2006) is a standardized, semi-structured and interviewer-based schedule for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the criterion and convergent validity of the DISCO-11 ICD-10 algorithm in young and low-functioning…

  11. Brain activation deficit in increased-load working memory tasks among adults with ADHD using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Chen; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Gin-Chung

    2013-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is impaired among adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate the brain activation deficit for low-level or increased-load WM among adults with ADHD. A total of 20 adults with ADHD and controls were recruited according to diagnostic interviewing by a psychiatrist. Phonological and visual-spatial 2-back and 3-back tasks were performed under functional magnetic resonance scanning. The results demonstrated that both the adults with ADHD and the controls exhibited activation of the fronto-parietal network for WM, and the intensity was greater in the adult ADHD group. The ADHD group had higher brain activation over the bilateral anterior cingulate, left inferior frontal lobe, hippocampus, and supplementary motor area (SMA) for phonological WM than the control group. When the task loading increased from 2-back to 3-back tasks, the adults with ADHD perceived greater difficulty. The control group exhibited increased brain activation over the frontal-parietal network in response to increased phonological WM load. However, the ADHD group showed decreased brain activation over the left precuneus, insula, and SMA. Further analysis demonstrated that the ADHD group exhibited a greater decrease in brain activation over the left fronto-parietal network, including the precuneus, SMA, insula/inferior frontal lobe, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, than the control group. These results suggest that adults with ADHD pay more effort to low demanding phonological WM. On the other hand, brain activation of the left fronto-parietal network is impaired when the demands of WM exceed the capacity of adults with ADHD. PMID:23645101

  12. 3D-CAM: Derivation and Validation of a 3-Minute Diagnostic Interview for CAM-defined Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long H.; O’Connor, Margaret; Jones, Richard N.; Crane, Paul K.; Metzger, Eran D.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Delirium is common, morbid, and costly, yet remains often unrecognized in most clinical settings. The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is the most widely used diagnostic algorithm, and operationalizing its features would represent a substantial advance for clinical care. Objective To derive the 3D-CAM, a new 3-minute diagnostic assessment for CAM-defined delirium, and to validate it against a clinical reference standard. Design Diagnostic test study Setting 4 general medicine units in an academic medical center Participants 201 inpatients aged ≥ 75 years old Measurements We identified 20 items that best operationalized the 4 CAM diagnostic features to create the 3D-CAM. For prospective validation, 3D-CAM assessments were administered by trained research assistants. Independently, clinicians performed an extensive assessment that included patient interviews, family interviews, and review of the medical record. These data were considered by an expert panel to determine the presence or absence of delirium and dementia (reference standard). We compared the 3D-CAM delirium determination to the reference standard in all patients and in subgroups with and without dementia. Results The 201 participants in the prospective validation study had mean age (SD) of 84 (5.5) years, and 27% had dementia. The expert panel identified delirium in 21%. Median administration time for 3D-CAM was 3 minutes (inter-quartile range: 2–5 minutes). The sensitivity [95% CI] of 3D-CAM was 95% [84%, 99%] and the specificity was 94% [90%, 97%]. The 3D-CAM performed well in patients both with dementia (sensitivity=96% [82%, 100%], specificity=86% [67%, 96%]) and without dementia (sensitivity=93% [66%, 100%], specificity=96% [91%,99%]). Limitations Limited to single center, cross-sectional, and medicine patients only Conclusion The 3D-CAM operationalizes the CAM algorithm using a 3-minute structured assessment with high sensitivity and specificity relative to a reference standard and

  13. ADHD in college: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lefler, Elizabeth K; Sacchetti, Gina M; Del Carlo, Dawn I

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects many adults and is particularly impairing for emerging adults enrolled in college. Research has shown substantial academic impairment for these individuals. However, research on ADHD impairment has largely been quantitative and focused on children. Therefore, the current study employed Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore the lived experience of college students with ADHD with the following two research questions: (1) What is it like to be a college student with ADHD? and (2) What resources are utilized by college students with ADHD? Thirty-six college students with ADHD were interviewed in focus group settings. Our participants reported a complex and mixed experience living with ADHD in college and varied use of treatments and other accommodations. Specifically, three Constructs emerged in the current study: Consequences of Diagnosis, Impairment, and Treatment Management. Implications for professionals working with these students and future directions for researchers are discussed. PMID:26825556

  14. Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic for the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Greek Sample with a Wide Range of Intellectual Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanikolaou, Katerina; Paliokosta, Elena; Houliaras, Giorgos; Vgenopoulou, Sofia; Giouroukou, Eleni; Pehlivanidis, Artemios; Tomaras, Vlassis; Tsiantis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    We studied the interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and DSM-IV clinical diagnosis, in a Greek sample of 77 children and adolescents, referred for the assessment of a possible pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and presenting a wide range of…

  15. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group. PMID:20815868

  16. Novel clustering of items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised to define phenotypes within autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Valerie W.; Steinberg, Mara E.

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneity in phenotypic presentation of ASD has been cited as one explanation for the difficulty in pinpointing specific genes involved in autism. Recent studies have attempted to reduce the “noise” in genetic and other biological data by reducing the phenotypic heterogeneity of the sample population. The current study employs multiple clustering algorithms on 123 item scores from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) diagnostic instrument of nearly 2000 autistic individuals to identify subgroups of autistic probands with clinically relevant behavioral phenotypes in order to isolate more homogeneous groups of subjects for gene expression analyses. Our combined cluster analyses suggest optimal division of the autistic probands into 4 phenotypic clusters based on similarity of symptom severity across the 123 selected item scores. One cluster is characterized by severe language deficits, while another exhibits milder symptoms across the domains. A third group possesses a higher frequency of savant skills while the fourth group exhibited intermediate severity across all domains. Grouping autistic individuals by multivariate cluster analysis of ADI-R scores reveals meaningful phenotypes of subgroups within the autistic spectrum which we show, in a related (accompanying) study, to be associated with distinct gene expression profiles. PMID:19455643

  17. [Biographical anamnesis and social amnesia. A review of medical history taking, exploration, clinical interview, biographical analysis and diagnostic-clinical consultation].

    PubMed

    Kobbé, U

    1988-06-01

    The article describes the historical roots of the development of anamnesis including life-event-research and offers an overview of objective, subjective and situative information levels during diagnostic interviews. The author proposes as method the narrative interview completed by the so-called regressive-progressive method from Sartre. He calls special attention to the interpersonal aspect and to the therapeutic function of anamnesis as well as autobiographical writing. PMID:3062652

  18. Efficacy of Meta-Cognitive Therapy (MCT) for Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Solanto, Mary V.; Marks, David J.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Mitchell, Katherine; Abikoff, Howard; Alvir, Jose Ma. J.; Kofman, Michele D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of a 12-week manualized Meta-Cognitive Therapy (MCT) group designed to enhance time-management, organization, and planning in adults with AD/HD. Method Eighty-eight clinically referred adults who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD based on clinical and structured diagnostic interviews and standardized questionnaires were stratified vis-à-vis ADHD medication use and otherwise randomly assigned to receive MCT or supportive psychotherapy in a group modality. MCT employs cognitive-behavioral principles and methods to impart skills and strategies in time-management, organization, and planning, and target depressogenic and anxiogenic cognitions that undermine effective self-management. The Support group controlled for non-specific aspects of treatment by providing support while avoiding discussion of cognitive-behavioral strategies. MCT and Support groups were comparable in gender (29% and 39% male, respectively) and age (41±11.59 yr and 42 ± 12.09 years, respectively). Therapeutic response was assessed by an independent (blind) evaluator via structured interview pre- and post-treatment, as well as by self-report and collateral informant behavioral ratings. Results General linear models, comparing change from baseline between treatments, revealed statistically significant effects for independent evaluator, self-report, and collateral ratings of DSM-IV inattentive symptoms. Employing dichotomous indices of therapeutic response, a significantly greater proportion of MCT vs. Support group members demonstrated improvement. Logistic regression examining group differences in operationally defined response (controlling for baseline ADHD severity) revealed a robust effect of Treatment Group (odds ratio=5.41; 95%CI=1.77,16.55). Conclusion MCT (vs. Support) yielded significantly greater improvements in dimensional and categorical estimates of ADHD severity, supporting its efficacy as a viable psychosocial intervention. PMID:20231319

  19. Risk factors of abuse of parents by their ADHD children.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Peyman

    2010-01-01

    It is interesting that there is scant research of abuse of parents by their children and no study was found on the abuse of parents by their attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Seventy-four children and adolescents suffering from ADHD and their parents were interviewed. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. A questionnaire was developed to assess the children's abuse toward parents. More than half of the parents are suffering from at least one of the forms of abuse by their ADHD children. Scores of parental abuse were not related to gender. Different types of abuse correlated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), tic, and separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Fathers' and mothers' age, the level of education, and type of occupation were not risk factors of the abuse scores. ODD and mother's major depressive disorder were predictors of the abuse. There was a very disturbing high rate of abuse by children against parents. There is an interrelation of different forms of abuse. This study contributes to increasing awareness on the abuse of parents by their ADHD children. PMID:19820986

  20. Psychiatric disorders in 8-9-year-old children based on a diagnostic interview with the parents.

    PubMed

    Almqvist, F; Puura, K; Kumpulainen, K; Tuompo-Johansson, E; Henttonen, I; Huikko, E; Linna, S; Ikäheimo, K; Aronen, E; Katainen, S; Piha, J; Moilanen, I; Räsänen, E; Tamminen, T

    1999-01-01

    Using three questionnaires, the Rutter Parent Questionnaire (RA2), The Rutter Teacher Questionnaire (RB2) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), we screened 8-9-year-old children representing a total annual birth cohort (N = 60007) in Finland. In a second stage we interviewed the parents of 119 screen negative, and 316 screen positive children by using a structured parent interview. At the population level the overall prevalence rate for psychiatric disturbance was 21.8%, higher among boys (29.8%) than among girls (12.8%). Nine percent of the children were in urgent need of treatment and, in addition, 25% were in need of assessment. The prevalence of different levels of disturbance was: reactive 9.5%; neurotic 18.4%; borderline 3.1%; and other severe disorders 2.3%. The prevalence of different diagnostic groups were: anxiety disorder 5.2%; depressive disorder 6.2%; specific fears 2.4%; defiant and conduct disorder 4.7%; and attention-deficit hyperactivity-disorder 7.1%. The prevalence for the most common single first Axis-I DSM-III-R diagnoses were: attention-deficit hyperactivity-disorder 7%; dysthymia 4.6%; adjustment disorder with mixed disturbance of emotion and conduct 3.4%; oppositional defiant disorder 2.7%; specific fear 1.7%; anxiety disorder 1.5%; enuresis nocturnal 1.5%; and depression 1.4%. Only 3.1% of the children had visited health professionals for psychiatric problems during the previous three months. Only a minority of the children with psychiatric disturbances had ever consulted health professionals for their problems. Of all the children, 7.5% had a severe psychiatric disturbance that had lasted for more than 3 years. PMID:10654130

  1. Autistic Traits in a Population-Based ADHD Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiersen, Angela M.; Constantino, John N.; Volk, Heather E.; Todd, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Most diagnostic nomenclatures do not allow for the concurrent diagnosis of autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clinic-based studies suggest autistic symptoms are common in children with ADHD, but such studies are prone to referral bias. This study assesses whether children with ADHD selected from the general…

  2. Atomoxetine Treatment of ADHD in Children with Comorbid Tourette Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Sallee, F. Randy; Gilbert, Donald L.; Dunn, David W.; McCracken, James T.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Budman, Cathy L.; Ricardi, Randall K.; Leonard, Henrietta L.; Allen, Albert J.; Milton, Denai R.; Feldman, Peter D.; Kelsey, Douglas K.; Geller, Daniel A.; Linder, Steven L.; Lewis, Donald W.; Winner, Paul K.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Mintz, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examines changes in severity of tics and ADHD during atomoxetine treatment in ADHD patients with Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: Subjects (7-17 years old) with ADHD ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-IV") and TS were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with placebo (n = 56) or atomoxetine…

  3. Family conflict tendency and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Niederhofer, H; Hackenberg, B; Lanzendörfer, K

    2004-04-01

    A lack of perseverance, poor attention, and poorly modulated behaviour are important criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Instructions often have to be repeated, sometimes even by different family members before a child with ADHD attends and complies. We hypothesised that a child with ADHD might cause less disagreement in families with almost no conflicts. Responses to the Mannheim Parents Interview and teacher's form of the Conners scale completed by families of 15 boys (ages 6 to 12 years), diagnosed with ADHD were compared with those of a matched, healthy control group of 15 boys. Parents completed a form assessing the family's cooperation and child-rearing practices. Having few family conflicts, i.e., almost no Verbal Disagreement may reduce Physical Punishment and Anger and Disregard and augment the Openness to another's needs and, for that reason, have protective effects on children's behaviour modulation. PMID:15154188

  4. Global and local grey matter reductions in boys with ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type.

    PubMed

    Vilgis, Veronika; Sun, Li; Chen, Jian; Silk, Timothy J; Vance, Alasdair

    2016-08-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reliably been associated with global grey matter reductions but local alterations are largely inconsistent with perhaps the exception of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to examine local and global brain volume differences between typically developing children (TD) and children with a diagnosis of ADHD. We also addressed whether these parameters would differ between children with the ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and those with the ADHD-inattentive type (ADHD-I). Using an ROI approach caudate volume differences were also examined. 79 boys between the ages of 8 and 17 participated in the study. Of those 33 met diagnostic criteria for the ADHD-C and 15 for the ADHD-I subtype. 31 boys were included in the TD group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. The ADHD group had significantly lower global and local grey matter volumes within clusters in the bilateral frontal, right parietal and right temporal regions compared to TD. A significant group by age interaction was found for right caudate nucleus volume. No differences between the ADHD-C and ADHD-I groups were found. Right caudate nucleus volume and age are more strongly related in ADHD than in TD consistent with previous research. PMID:27399309

  5. A qualitative study of the cultural appropriateness of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Motsaathebe; Ross, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) has been designed for use by trained laypersons. It therefore shows great promise for use in developing countries such as South Africa, where there is a lack of clinically trained and skilled professionals at the primary care level. Against this background, the aim of the current study was to investigate the sociocultural appropriateness of the DISC-IV for use with Sesotho families in South Africa. Methods Qualitative methodology of expert review and contextualized content analyses were used. Ten Sesotho-speaking clinicians were recruited through a snowball sampling technique to the review the DISC through expert review reports. Results Several themes emerged, including the structure of the DISC-IV, its computerized nature, Americanisms, problems in interpretation due to the adversity children live under, language problems, the effect of rural settings and education level, and cultural norms regarding psychiatric symptoms, gender, the experience of time, the expression of emotion, and family structure. Conclusion Recommendations for the sociocultural adaptation and translation of the DISC into Sesotho are made. PMID:20526764

  6. To see or not to see: a qualitative interview study of patients’ views on their own diagnostic images

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, Leslie E; Smith, Helen E; Henwood, Flis

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain what meaning individuals attach to perceiving images of their own interior body and how the images and their meanings affect the clinical consultation. Design Face-to-face semistructured interviews. Participants 25 adult patients in southern England who, within the preceding 12 months, had been referred for diagnostic imaging. Setting Community. Results For patients, being shown their own X-rays, MRIs or CT images creates a variety of effects: (1) a sense of better understanding of the diagnosis; (2) validation of their sensory and emotional response to the illness or injury and (3) an alteration to the tenor and nature of the clinical encounter between patient and physician. In addition to meanings attached to these images, patients also impute meaning to the physician's decision not to share an image with them. The desire to see their image was greater in those patients with a skeletal injury; patients are less keen on viewing abdominal or other soft tissue images. Conclusions Viewing images of one's interior, invisible body is powerful and resonant in a number of ways. The experience of not seeing, whether through the patient's or the physician's choice, is also fraught with meaning. PMID:25082418

  7. Exploring the Relationship between K-8 Prospective Teachers' Algebraic Thinking Proficiency and the Questions They Pose during Diagnostic Algebraic Thinking Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Kieboom, Leigh A.; Magiera, Marta T.; Moyer, John C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the relationship between prospective teachers' algebraic thinking and the questions they posed during one-on-one diagnostic interviews that focused on investigating the algebraic thinking of middle school students. To do so, we evaluated prospective teachers' algebraic thinking proficiency across 125…

  8. Translation and Validation of the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di) for Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Thai Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuthapisith, Jariya; Taycharpipranai, Pasinee; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Warrington, Richard; Skuse, David

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a translated version of the short version of the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di) in discriminating children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) from typically developing children. Two groups, comprising 63 children with clinically ascertained ASDs and 67 typically…

  9. Validation of the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di) among Chinese Children in a Child Psychiatry Clinic in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Mo, Flora Y. M.; Lee, Marshall M. C.; Shea, Caroline K. S.; Chan, Grace F. C.; Che, Kiti K. I.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Mak, Arthur D. P.; Warrington, Richard; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a disorder with high levels of co-morbidities. The Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di) is a relatively new instrument designed to provide dimensional as well as categorical assessment of autistic behaviours among children with normal intelligence. Its sound psychometric properties and…

  10. Stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in referred preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bunte, Tessa L; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Matthys, Walter

    2014-10-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate both stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in children aged 3.5-5.5 years. For diagnosing these disorders, a semi-structured diagnostic parent interview, i.e., the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule (K-DBDS), was used at the first assessment and at follow-up assessments (9 and 18 months). Five diagnostic stability groups (chronic, partial remission, full remission, new onset, no diagnosis) were compared with regard to impairment and number of symptoms. Participants were referred preschool children with externalizing behavioral problems (N = 193; 83% male) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 58; 71% male). Follow-up assessments allowed to distinguish children belonging to the chronic group of ODD, CD or ADHD from those belonging to one of the remission groups. In addition, there was a substantial number of children with a new onset diagnosis. In conclusion, as a complement to studies showing stability of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis into school age, present findings point to changes of diagnosis in the preschool and early school period. Diagnostic reassessments therefore are needed in this age group. PMID:24781411

  11. Diagnostic Utility of WISC-IV General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index Difference Scores among Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devena, Sarah E.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index have been advanced as possible diagnostic markers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This hypothesis was tested with a hospital sample with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 78), a referred but nondiagnosed…

  12. Learning disabilities and ADHD: overlapping spectrumn disorders.

    PubMed

    Mayes, S D; Calhoun, S L; Crowell, E W

    2000-01-01

    Clinical and psychoeducational data were analyzed for 119 children ages 8 to 16 years who were evaluated in a child diagnostic clinic. A learning disability (LD) was present in 70% of the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with a learning disability in written expression two times more common (65%) than a learning disability in reading, math, or spelling. Children with LD and ADHD had more severe learning problems than children who had LD but no ADHD, and the former also had more severe attention problems than children who had ADHD but no LD. Further, children with ADHD but no LD had some degree of learning problem, and children with LD but no ADHD had some degree of attention problem. Results suggest that learning and attention problems are on a continuum, are interrelated, and usually coexist. PMID:15495544

  13. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. Patients: One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. Interventions: The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Measurements and Results: Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for

  14. Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus. PMID:22583562

  15. ADHD Symptoms, Autistic Traits, and Substance Use and Misuse in Adult Australian Twins

    PubMed Central

    De Alwis, Duneesha; Agrawal, Arpana; Reiersen, Angela M; Constantino, John N; Henders, Anjali; Martin, Nicholas G; Lynskey, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder frequently co-occur. Several studies show increased risk of substance use disorders in ADHD, yet there is limited information related to how ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, and their combined effects are associated with nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use and use disorders in the general population. Method: Cross-sectional interview and self-report questionnaire data from 3,080 young adult Australian twins (mean age 31.9 years) were used to assess ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, substance use, and substance use disorders. Substance use disorders—based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria—were assessed in the full sample as well as in those who reported substance use. Logistic regression analyses were used for comparing the associations between ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, substance use, and substance misuse after conduct disorder, sex, age, and zygosity were controlled for. Results: Greater ADHD symptoms and autistic traits scores were associated with elevated levels of regular smoking; cannabis use; and nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use disorders, even after conduct disorder was adjusted for. In contrast, for alcohol use, those with high autistic traits scores were less likely to report drinking to intoxication. However, upon initiation, and similar to the findings for nicotine and cannabis, they were at elevated risk for developing alcohol dependence. Conclusions: Increased liability to ADHD and elevated autistic traits scores were associated with substance use and misuse, with the exception of alcohol use. Given the social underpinnings of drinking, persons with autistic traits may be less likely to engage in it; however, upon engagement in drinking, their vulnerability to alcohol dependence is elevated. PMID:24650814

  16. Validation of a Brief Quantitative Measure of Autistic Traits: Comparison of the Social Responsiveness Scale with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, John N.; Davis, Sandra A.; Todd, Richard D.; Schindler, Matthew K.; Gross, Maggie M.; Brophy, Susan L.; Metzger, Lisa M.; Shoushtari, Christiana S.; Splinter, Reagan; Reich, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    A study compared the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in 61 children (ages 4-16) with autism. Correlations between the test scores for DSM-IV criterion sets were on the order of 0.7. SRS scores were unrelated to I.Q. and exhibited inter-rater reliability on the order of 0.8. (Contains references.)…

  17. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers: Application in a Non-US Sample of 1,104 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Zander, Eric; Bölte, Sven; Sturm, Harald; Yirmiya, Nurit; Yaari, Maya; Charman, Tony; Salomone, Erica; LeCouteur, Ann; Green, Jonathan; Bedia, Ricardo Canal; Primo, Patricia García; van Daalen, Emma; de Jonge, Maretha V.; Guðmundsdóttir, Emilía; Jóhannsdóttir, Sigurrós; Raleva, Marija; Boskovska, Meri; Rogé, Bernadette; Baduel, Sophie; Moilanen, Irma; Yliherva, Anneli; Buitelaar, Jan; Oosterling, Iris J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) algorithms for toddlers and young preschoolers (Kim and Lord, "J Autism Dev Disord" 42(1):82-93, 2012) in a non-US sample from ten sites in nine countries (n = 1,104). The construct validity indicated a good fit of the algorithms. The diagnostic…

  18. Coaching for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin; Ratey, Nancy; Maynard, Sandy; Sussman, Susan; Wright, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite limited scientific study on ADHD coaching as an intervention for adults with ADHD, the field of ADHD coaching has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years. ADHD coaching is becoming a bona fide profession where one must advance through a rigorous training process, in order to be certified as a professional ADHD coach.…

  19. Blinded, multi-center validation of EEG and rating scales in identifying ADHD within a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Steven M; Quintana, Humberto; Sexson, Sandra B; Knott, Peter; Haque, A F M; Reynolds, Donald A

    2008-06-30

    Previous validation studies of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessment by rating scales or EEG have provided Class-IV evidence per standards of the American Academy of Neurology. To investigate clinical applications, we collected Class-I evidence, namely from a blinded, prospective, multi-center study of a representative clinical sample categorized with a clinical standard. Participating males (101) and females (58) aged 6 to 18 had presented to one of four psychiatric and pediatric clinics because of the suspected presence of attention and behavior problems. DSM-IV diagnosis was performed by clinicians assisted with a semi-structured clinical interview. EEG (theta/beta ratio) and ratings scales (Conners Rating Scales-Revised and ADHD Rating Scales-IV) were collected separately in a blinded protocol. ADHD prevalence in the clinical sample was 61%, whereas the remainder had other childhood/adolescent disorders or no diagnosis. Comorbidities were observed in 66% of ADHD patients and included mood, anxiety, disruptive, and learning disorders at rates similar to previous findings. EEG identified ADHD with 87% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Rating scales provided sensitivity of 38-79% and specificity of 13-61%. While parent or teacher identification of ADHD by rating scales was reduced in accuracy when applied to a diverse clinical sample, theta/beta ratio changes remained consistent with the clinician's ADHD diagnosis. Because theta/beta ratio changes do not identify comorbidities or alternative diagnoses, the results do not support the use of EEG as a stand-alone diagnostic and should be limited to the interpretation that EEG may complement a clinical evaluation for ADHD. PMID:18423617

  20. Developing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has developed from the notion of a specific form of brain dysfunction to that of a heterogeneous set of related behaviours. The great advances in genetics, neuroimaging and neuropsychiatry have made it one of the best understood forms of complex mental…

  1. [Adaptation of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for the assessment of comorbid mental disorders in oncology patients: the CIDI-O].

    PubMed

    Hund, Bianca; Reuter, Katrin; Jacobi, Frank; Siegert, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Härter, Martin; Mehnert, Anja

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the development of an oncology-specific adaptation of the Composite Diagnostic International Interview (CIDI) for the assessment of comorbid mental disorders in cancer patients. The specific problems related to the assessment of mental disorders in cancer patients are described, in particular the overlap of somatic and mental symptoms as well as the insufficiently elaborated assessment of adjustment disorders and cancer related posttraumatic stress using structured and standardized procedures. The modification strategies that fostered the development of the CIDI-Oncology (CIDI-O) are described. Primary purpose of this adaptation is to enhance the diagnostic spectrum of the CIDI adding the diagnostic group of stress-related mental disorders. PMID:24343310

  2. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A A ... doctor can decide if ADHD medicine is needed. Medicine and the Mind There are a lot of ...

  3. College Students with ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation College Students with ADHD Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... No. 111; Updated December 2013 Many students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) attend college. College students with ADHD face ...

  4. Effects of Extended Release Methylphenidate Treatment on Ratings of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Associated Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Cynthia W.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Casat, Charles D.; Mansour, Rosleen; Lane, David M.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Jerger, Susan W.; Factor, Perry; Vanwoerden, Salome; Perez, Evelyn; Cleveland, Lynne A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH in the afternoon. Method The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys; 5 girls) who met American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and had significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This sample consisted of elementary school-age, community-based children (mean chronological age=8.8 years, SD=1.7; mean intelligence quotient [IQ]=85; SD=16.8). Effects of four dose levels of MPH on parent and teacher behavioral ratings were investigated using a within-subject, crossover, placebo-controlled design. Results MPH treatment was associated with significant declines in hyperactive and impulsive behavior at both home and school. Parents noted significant declines in inattentive and oppositional behavior, and improvements in social skills. No exacerbation of stereotypies was noted, and side effects were similar to those seen in typically developing children with ADHD. Dose response was primarily linear in the dose range studied. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that MPH formulations are efficacious and well-tolerated for children with ASD and significant ADHD symptoms. PMID:23782128

  5. Clinical reappraisal of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Screening Scales (CIDI-SC) in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Santiago, Patcho N.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Dempsey, Catherine L.; First, Michael B.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Stein, Murray B.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gruber, Michael J.; Naifeh, James A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A clinical reappraisal study was carried out in conjunction with the Army STARRS All-Army Study (AAS) to evaluate concordance of DSM-IV diagnoses based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview screening scales (CIDI-SC) and PTSD Checklist (PCL) with diagnoses based on independent clinical reappraisal interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV [SCID]). Diagnoses included: lifetime mania/hypomania, panic disorder, and intermittent explosive disorder; 6-month adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; and 30-day major depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, PTSD, and substance (alcohol or drug) use disorder (abuse or dependence). The sample (n=460) was weighted for over-sampling CIDI-SC/PCL screened positives. Diagnostic thresholds were set to equalize false positives and false negatives. Good individual-level concordance was found between CIDI-SC/PCL and SCID diagnoses at these thresholds (AUC = .69–.79). AUC was considerably higher for continuous than dichotomous screening scale scores (AUC = .80–.90), arguing for substantive analyses using not only dichotomous case designations but also continuous measures of predicted probabilities of clinical diagnoses. PMID:24318219

  6. External Validation of Bifactor Model of ADHD: Explaining Heterogeneity in Psychiatric Comorbidity, Cognitive Control, and Personality Trait Profiles within DSM-IV ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; Roberts, Bethan; Gremillion, Monica; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper provides external validation of the bifactor model of ADHD by examining associations between ADHD latent factor/profile scores and external validation indices. 548 children (321 boys; 302 with ADHD), 6 to 18 years old, recruited from the community participated in a comprehensive diagnostic procedure. Mothers completed the Child…

  7. The ADHD Concomitant Difficulties Scale (ADHD-CDS), a Brief Scale to Measure Comorbidity Associated to ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fenollar-Cortés, Javier; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although the critical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity behavior, the disorder is clinically heterogeneous, and concomitant difficulties are common. Children with ADHD are at increased risk for experiencing lifelong impairments in multiple domains of daily functioning. In the present study we aimed to build a brief ADHD impairment-related tool -ADHD concomitant difficulties scale (ADHD-CDS)- to assess the presence of some of the most important comorbidities that usually appear associated with ADHD such as emotional/motivational management, fine motor coordination, problem-solving/management of time, disruptive behavior, sleep habits, academic achievement and quality of life. The two main objectives of the study were (i) to discriminate those profiles with several and important ADHD functional difficulties and (ii) to create a brief clinical tool that fosters a comprehensive evaluation process and can be easily used by clinicians. Methods: The total sample included 399 parents of children with ADHD aged 6–18 years (M = 11.65; SD = 3.1; 280 males) and 297 parents of children without a diagnosis of ADHD (M = 10.91; SD = 3.2; 149 male). The scale construction followed an item improved sequential process. Results: Factor analysis showed a 13-item single factor model with good fit indices. Higher scores on inattention predicted higher scores on ADHD-CDS for both the clinical sample (β = 0.50; p < 0.001) and the whole sample (β = 0.85; p < 0.001). The ROC curve for the ADHD-CDS (against the ADHD diagnostic status) gave an area under the curve (AUC) of.979 (95%, CI = [0.969, 0.990]). Discussion: The ADHD-CDS has shown preliminary adequate psychometric properties, with high convergent validity and good sensitivity for different ADHD profiles, which makes it a potentially appropriate and brief instrument that may be easily used by clinicians, researchers, and

  8. Evaluation and treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Smucker, W D; Hedayat, M

    2001-09-01

    Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are present in as many as 9 percent of school-age children. ADHD-specific questionnaires can help determine whether children meet diagnostic criteria for the disorder. The recommended evaluation also includes documenting the type and severity of ADHD symptoms, verifying the presence of normal vision and hearing, screening for comorbid psychologic conditions, reviewing the child's developmental history and school performance, and applying objective measures of cognitive function. The stimulants methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine remain the pharmacologic agents of first choice for the management of ADHD. These agents are equally effective in improving the core symptoms of the disorder, but individual children may respond better to one stimulant medication than to another. Achievement of maximal benefit may require titration of the initial dosage and dosing before breakfast, before lunch and in the afternoon. The family physician should tailor the treatment plan to meet the unique needs of the child and family. Psychosocial, behavioral and educational strategies that enhance specific behaviors may improve educational and social functioning in the child with ADHD. PMID:11563573

  9. ADHD Perspectives: Medicalization and ADHD Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gloria Sunnie

    2012-01-01

    Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…

  10. The Delinquency Outcomes of Boys with ADHD with and without Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Biswas, Aparajita; MacLean, Michael G.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between childhood ADHD and juvenile delinquency by examining data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of individuals diagnosed with ADHD in childhood (ages 5-12) and recontacted in adolescence and young adulthood for yearly follow-up (age at first follow-up interview M=17.26,…

  11. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers: Application in a Non-US Sample of 1,104 Children.

    PubMed

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Zander, Eric; Bölte, Sven; Sturm, Harald; Yirmiya, Nurit; Yaari, Maya; Charman, Tony; Salomone, Erica; LeCouteur, Ann; Green, Jonathan; Bedia, Ricardo Canal; Primo, Patricia García; van Daalen, Emma; de Jonge, Maretha V; Guðmundsdóttir, Emilía; Jóhannsdóttir, Sigurrós; Raleva, Marija; Boskovska, Meri; Rogé, Bernadette; Baduel, Sophie; Moilanen, Irma; Yliherva, Anneli; Buitelaar, Jan; Oosterling, Iris J

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) algorithms for toddlers and young preschoolers (Kim and Lord, J Autism Dev Disord 42(1):82-93, 2012) in a non-US sample from ten sites in nine countries (n = 1,104). The construct validity indicated a good fit of the algorithms. The diagnostic validity was lower, with satisfactorily high specificities but moderate sensitivities. Young children with clinical ASD and lower language ability were largely in the mild-to-moderate or moderate-to-severe concern ranges of the ADI-R, nearly half of the older and phrase speech ASD-group fell into the little-to-no concern range. Although broadly the findings support the toddler algorithms, further work is required to understand why they might have different properties in different samples to further inform research and clinical use. PMID:25682078

  12. French Version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN-F) Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Robaey, Philippe; Amre, Devendra; Schachar, Russell; Simard, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate internal and external consistency of a French adaptation of the SWAN (a 7-point rating strength-based scale, from far below to far above average) and its accuracy as a diagnostic test among children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method Parents of 88 children referred for ADHD were interviewed using the SWAN-F, a structured interview (DISC-4.0) and the Conners’ Rating Scale. Internal consistency and divergent and convergent validity of the SWAN-F were examined using the DISC-4.0 and Conners’ Rating Scales as reference standards for four dimensions: Inattention, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Results The internal consistency of SWAN-F was within acceptable ranges for all dimensions (Cronbach’s alpha greater than 0.80). Scores of the SWAN-F subscales were strongly associated with the DISC-4.0 diagnostic assignments and Conners’ Rating Scales, following logical patterns of correspondence between diagnoses. Its accuracy as a diagnostic test was comparable to Conners’ Rating Scale, with a lower rate of false positives. Conclusions The information gathered with the SWAN-F is compatible with that obtained using the DISC-4.0 and Conners’ Rating Scale. Strength-based rating scales have the potential to evaluate the normal distribution of behaviors and to provide reliable cut-off defining abnormal behavior. PMID:18392156

  13. Improving Student Outcomes with mCLASS: Math, a Technology-Enhanced CBM and Diagnostic Interview Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ye; Gushta, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act resulted in increased school-level implementation of assessment-based school interventions that aim to improve student performance. Diagnostic assessments are included among these interventions, designed to help teachers use evidence about student performance to modify and differentiate instruction and improve student…

  14. The Impact of Case Definition on ADHD Prevalence Estimates in Community-Based Samples of School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Robert E.; Holbrook, Joseph R.; Danielson, Melissa L.; Cuffe, Steven P.; Wolraich, Mark L.; Visser, Susanna N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of varying ADHD diagnostic criteria, including new DSM-5 criteria, on prevalence estimates. Method Parent and teacher reports identified ADHD high and low screen children from elementary schools in two states that produced a diverse overall sample. The parent interview stage included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children – IV (DISC-IV), and up to four additional follow-up interviews. Weighted prevalence estimates, accounting for complex sampling, quantified the impact of varying ADHD criteria using baseline and the final follow-up interview data. Results At baseline 1060 caregivers were interviewed; 656 had at least one follow-up interview. Teachers and parents reported six or more ADHD symptoms for 20.5% (95% CI: 18.1%–23.2%) and 29.8% (CI: 24.5%–35.6%) of children respectively, with criteria for impairment and onset by age seven (DSM-IV) reducing these proportions to 16.3% (CI: 14.7%–18.0%) and 17.5% (CI: 13.3%–22.8%); requiring at least four teacher-reported symptoms reduced the parent-reported prevalence to 8.9% (CI: 7.4%–10.6%). Revising age of onset to 12 years per DSM-5 increased this estimate to 11.3% (CI: 9.5%–13.3%), with a similar increase seen at follow-up: 8.2% with age seven onset (CI: 5.9%–11.2%) versus 13.0% (CI: 7.6%–21.4%) with onset by age 12. Reducing the number of symptoms required for those aged 17 and older increased the estimate to 13.1% (CI: 7.7%–21.5%). Conclusion These findings quantify the impact on prevalence estimates of varying case definition criteria for ADHD. Further research of impairment ratings and data from multiple informants is required to better inform clinicians conducting diagnostic assessments. DSM-5 changes in age of onset and number of symptoms required for older adolescents appear to increase prevalence estimates, although the full impact is uncertain due to the age of our sample. PMID:25524790

  15. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV): Reliability of New Psychiatric Diagnostic Modules and Risk Factors in a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, W. June; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Smith, Sharon M.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Huang, Boji; Stinson, Frederick S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents test-retest reliability statistics and information on internal consistency for new diagnostic modules and risk factor of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric disorders the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV). Test-retest statistics were derived from a random sample of 1,899 adults selected from 34,653 respondents who participated in the 2004–2005 Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Internal consistency of continuous scales was assessed using the entire Wave 2 NESARC. Both test and retest interviews were conducted face-to-face. Test-retest and internal consistency results for diagnoses and symptom scales associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and borderline, narcissistic, and schizotypal personality disorders were predominantly good (kappa > 0.63; ICC > 0.69; alpha > 0.75) and reliability for risk factor measures fell within the good to excellent range (intraclass correlations = 0.50–0.94; alpha = 0.64–0.90). The high degree of reliability found in this study suggests that new AUDADIS-IV diagnostic measures can be useful tools in research settings. The availability of highly reliable measures of risk factors of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric disorders will contribute to the validity of conclusions drawn from future research in the domains of substance use disorder and psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:17706375

  16. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  17. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample

    PubMed Central

    Starck, Martina; Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated. Method In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children’s ADHD was tested. Results ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed. Conclusion As nearly half of the parents suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent–child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child’s therapy outcome. In the

  18. Pattern classification of response inhibition in ADHD: Toward the development of neurobiological markers for ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Heledd; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Cubillo, Ana I; Smith, Anna B; Simmons, Andrew; Brammer, Michael J; Marquand, Andre F; Rubia, Katya

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is based on subjective measures despite evidence for multisystemic structural and functional deficits. ADHD patients have consistent neurofunctional deficits in motor response inhibition. The aim of this study was to apply pattern classification to task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of inhibition, to accurately predict the diagnostic status of ADHD. Thirty adolescent ADHD and thirty age-matched healthy boys underwent fMRI while performing a Stop task. fMRI data were analyzed with Gaussian process classifiers (GPC), a machine learning approach, to predict individual ADHD diagnosis based on task-based activation patterns. Traditional univariate case-control analyses were also performed to replicate previous findings in a relatively large dataset. The pattern of brain activation correctly classified up to 90% of patients and 63% of controls, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 77%. The regions of the discriminative network most predictive of controls included later developing lateral prefrontal, striatal, and temporo-parietal areas that mediate inhibition, while regions most predictive of ADHD were in earlier developing ventromedial fronto-limbic regions, which furthermore correlated with symptom severity. Univariate analysis showed reduced activation in ADHD in bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal, striatal, and temporo-parietal regions that overlapped with areas predictive of controls, suggesting the latter are dysfunctional areas in ADHD. We show that significant individual classification of ADHD patients of 77% can be achieved using whole brain pattern analysis of task-based fMRI inhibition data, suggesting that multivariate pattern recognition analyses of inhibition networks can provide objective diagnostic neuroimaging biomarkers of ADHD. Hum Brain Mapp 35:3083–3094, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24123508

  19. Pattern classification of response inhibition in ADHD: toward the development of neurobiological markers for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hart, Heledd; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Cubillo, Ana I; Smith, Anna B; Simmons, Andrew; Brammer, Michael J; Marquand, Andre F; Rubia, Katya

    2014-07-01

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is based on subjective measures despite evidence for multisystemic structural and functional deficits. ADHD patients have consistent neurofunctional deficits in motor response inhibition. The aim of this study was to apply pattern classification to task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of inhibition, to accurately predict the diagnostic status of ADHD. Thirty adolescent ADHD and thirty age-matched healthy boys underwent fMRI while performing a Stop task. fMRI data were analyzed with Gaussian process classifiers (GPC), a machine learning approach, to predict individual ADHD diagnosis based on task-based activation patterns. Traditional univariate case-control analyses were also performed to replicate previous findings in a relatively large dataset. The pattern of brain activation correctly classified up to 90% of patients and 63% of controls, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 77%. The regions of the discriminative network most predictive of controls included later developing lateral prefrontal, striatal, and temporo-parietal areas that mediate inhibition, while regions most predictive of ADHD were in earlier developing ventromedial fronto-limbic regions, which furthermore correlated with symptom severity. Univariate analysis showed reduced activation in ADHD in bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal, striatal, and temporo-parietal regions that overlapped with areas predictive of controls, suggesting the latter are dysfunctional areas in ADHD. We show that significant individual classification of ADHD patients of 77% can be achieved using whole brain pattern analysis of task-based fMRI inhibition data, suggesting that multivariate pattern recognition analyses of inhibition networks can provide objective diagnostic neuroimaging biomarkers of ADHD. PMID:24123508

  20. Are There Executive Dysfunction Subtypes Within ADHD?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M; Nigg, Joel T

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD have heterogeneous behavioral and neuropsychological profiles. The aim of this study was to examine the possible utility of executive function (EF) subtypes within ADHD. Method: Participants were 357 children aged 6 through 13 with a diagnosis of ADHD. Children completed a brief laboratory battery measuring EF, including response inhibition, response variability, speed, and set-shifting. Children also completed standardized intelligence and achievement testing. Results: Two-way cluster analysis of EF profiles of children with ADHD produced a three-cluster solution, labeled poor inhibitory control, poor set-shifting/speed, and intact task performance. Clusters significantly differed in measures of intelligence, academic achievement, and other disruptive behavior and anxiety/mood symptoms. Conclusion: These findings further support the idea that children with ADHD have heterogeneous EF profiles and suggest that the theory of ADHD should consider these individual differences in EF profiles within the ADHD diagnostic category. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24214969

  1. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms Predict Alcohol Expectancy Development

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Brammer, Whitney A.; Ray, Lara A.; Lee, Steve S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Positive alcohol expectancies and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are independent risk factors for adolescent alcohol problems and substance use disorders. However, the association of early ADHD diagnostic status, as well as its separate dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity, with alcohol expectancies is essentially unknown. Method At baseline (i.e., Wave 1), parents of 139 6-to 9-year-old children (71% male) with (N = 77; 55%) and without (N = 62; 45%) ADHD completed structured diagnostic interviews of child psychopathology. Approximately two years later (i.e., Wave 2), children completed a Memory Model-Based Expectancy Questionnaire (MMBEQ) to ascertain their positive and negative expectancies regarding alcohol use. All children were alcohol naïve at both baseline and follow-up assessments. Results Controlling for age, sex, IQ, as well as the number of Wave 1 oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, the number of baseline hyperactivity symptoms prospectively predicted more positive arousing (i.e., MMBEQ “wild and crazy” subscale) alcohol expectancies at Wave 2. No predictive association was observed for the number of Wave 1 inattention symptoms and alcohol expectancies. Conclusions Childhood hyperactivity prospectively and positively predicted expectancies regarding the arousing properties of alcohol, independent of inattention and ODD/CD symptoms, as well as other key covariates. Even in the absence of explicit alcohol engagement, youths with elevated hyperactivity may benefit from targeted intervention given its association with more positive arousing alcohol expectancies. PMID:27110089

  2. Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised.

    PubMed

    Constantino, John N; Davis, Sandra A; Todd, Richard D; Schindler, Matthew K; Gross, Maggie M; Brophy, Susan L; Metzger, Lisa M; Shoushtari, Christiana S; Splinter, Reagan; Reich, Wendy

    2003-08-01

    Studies of the broader autism phenotype, and of subtle changes in autism symptoms over time, have been compromised by a lack of established quantitative assessment tools. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-formerly known as the Social Reciprocity Scale) is a new instrument that can be completed by parents and/or teachers in 15-20 minutes. We compared the SRS with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in 61 child psychiatric patients. Correlations between SRS scores and ADI-R algorithm scores for DSM-IV criterion sets were on the order of 0.7. SRS scores were unrelated to I.Q. and exhibited inter-rater reliability on the order of 0.8. The SRS is a valid quantitative measure of autistic traits, feasible for use in clinical settings and for large-scale research studies of autism spectrum conditions. PMID:12959421

  3. Validation of the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3Di) Among Chinese Children in a Child Psychiatry Clinic in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kelly Y C; Leung, Patrick W L; Mo, Flora Y M; Lee, Marshall M C; Shea, Caroline K S; Chan, Grace F C; Che, Kiti K I; Luk, Ernest S L; Mak, Arthur D P; Warrington, Richard; Skuse, David

    2015-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a disorder with high levels of co-morbidities. The Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3 Di) is a relatively new instrument designed to provide dimensional as well as categorical assessment of autistic behaviours among children with normal intelligence. Its sound psychometric properties and relatively short administration time make it a versatile instrument. The 3 Di was translated into Chinese (Cantonese) and its applicability among 194 clinic children was examined. Results found excellent reliability and validity, and achieved a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 77%. It was able to capture the diagnosis of ASD among children presenting with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, although the disorder of ASD is considered universal, the use of a western instrument in a Chinese context should also take note of cultural influences that may impact on the manifestation of its symptoms. PMID:25326822

  4. What Is ADHD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... school failures and social problems, and have low self-esteem . About 15% to 20% of kids with ADHD ... art, or music — can boost social skills and self-esteem. previous continue Alternative Treatments The only ADHD therapies ...

  5. Diagnosis of children’s attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its association with cytomegalovirus infection with ADHD: a historical review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rui; Xia, Qun; Shen, Huaiyun; Yang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yongli; Xu, Jiali

    2015-01-01

    As the most common mental disorder identified in children and teenagers, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects millions of children and their families, making it a critical health issue worldwide. This article reviewed the historical opinions about the diagnosis of ADHD and defined different subtypes of this disorder. It also summarized the current diagnostic criteria and available medications. After re-visiting the etiology of ADHD in the sense of both genetic and environment factors, it was further hypothesized that viral infection might be involved in ADHD pathogenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may be associated with ADHD, although both clinical observations and animal studies need to be performed for validation. PMID:26550354

  6. Patterns and predictors of ADHD persistence into adulthood: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Adler, Lenard A.; Barkley, Russell; Biederman, Joseph; Conners, C. Keith; Faraone, Stephen V.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jaeger, Savina; Secnik, Kristina; Spencer, Thomas; Üstün, T. Bedirhan; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite growing interest in adult ADHD, little is known about predictors of persistence of childhood cases into adulthood. METHODS A retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD, childhood risk factors, and a screen for adult ADHD were included in a sample of 3197 18–44 year old respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Blinded adult ADHD clinical reappraisal interviews were administered to a sub-sample of respondents. Multiple imputation (MI) was used to estimate adult persistence of childhood ADHD. Logistic regression was used to study retrospectively reported childhood predictors of persistence. Potential predictors included socio-demographics, childhood ADHD severity, childhood adversity, traumatic life experiences, and comorbid DSM-IV child-adolescent disorders (anxiety, mood, impulse-control, and substance disorders). RESULTS 36.3% of respondents with retrospectively assessed childhood ADHD were classified by blinded clinical interviews as meeting DSM-IV criteria for current ADHD. Childhood ADHD severity and childhood treatment significantly predicted persistence. Controlling for severity and excluding treatment, none of the other variables significantly predicted persistence even though they were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. CONCLUSIONS No modifiable risk factors were found for adult persistence of ADHD. Further research, ideally based on prospective general population samples, is needed to search for modifiable determinants of adult persistence of ADHD. PMID:15950019

  7. ADHD: Tips to Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD: Tips to Try Print A A A Text Size en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a medical ...

  8. ADHD in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyandt, Lisa L.; DuPaul, George

    2006-01-01

    Objective: According to the American Psychiatric Association, 3% to 7% of the school-age population has ADHD and many children continue to display significant symptoms throughout adolescences and adulthood. Relative to the childhood literature, less is known about ADHD in adults, especially college students with ADHD. The principle purpose of this…

  9. Sex- and Subtype-Related Differences in the Comorbidity of Adult ADHDs.

    PubMed

    Groß-Lesch, Silke; Dempfle, Astrid; Reichert, Susanne; Jans, Thomas; Geissler, Julia; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Reif, Andreas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Jacob, Christian Peter

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Comorbidity in adult ADHD (aADHD) has been investigated in a large number of studies using varying research approaches with divergent results. In contrast, there is limited information about sex- or subtype-related differences from studies with small sample size. Method: A large sample of 910 individuals (458 males, 452 females) affected with aADHD was recruited at a tertiary referral center. All probands underwent a four-step procedure for diagnosing aADHD, including the Structured Clinical Interview of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) Axis I disorders to assess comorbidity. This study will provide additional information regarding the co-morbidity of Axis I disorders in the currently largest clinical referral sample. However, the main objective of this study is to gain information about sex- or subtype-related differences. Results: Affected females show higher rates of mood (61% vs. 49%), anxiety (32% vs. 22%), and eating disorders (16% vs. 1%) than affected males, while substance use disorders were more frequent in affected males (45% vs. 29%), which mirrors sex differences in prevalence in the general population. There were hardly any relevant differences in comorbidities between subtypes, with the exception of the inattentive subtype having an especially low prevalence of panic disorder. Comorbidity in general and substance use disorders in particular, but not sex or subtype, were highly predictive of lower psychosocial status. Conclusion: Sex-related differences in the comorbidity of aADHD are more pronounced than subtype-related differences. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24196345

  10. The intraindividual impact of ADHD on the transition of adulthood to old age.

    PubMed

    Philipp-Wiegmann, Florence; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Retz, Wolfgang; Rösler, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore whether the individual burden of ADHD is the same in the elderly as in younger ages even though the symptomatological impact of ADHD seems to remain stable over the lifespan. To assess ADHD symptoms and ADHD-associated problems in daily life, standardised questionnaires were conducted. To assess the subjectively experienced course of disease over the lifespan, all participants were interviewed regarding symptoms of ADHD in childhood as well as before and after the fiftieth year of life. In the sample of 296 respondents with a mean age of 69.55 years, 11 fulfilled the criteria of adult ADHD. Retrospectively, the ADHD subjects reported negative impacts due to ADHD-associated behaviour over the life span. These impairments remained stable over time with 18 % of subjects reporting impairments in family life, 46 % in social relationships, 18 % in dealing with money, and 36 % in organisation of daily life in the presence. Thus, the ADHD subjects reported problems with stability over time caused by low self-confidence, being quick-tempered, and due to defiantness. Although this is pilot study, our results reflect the burden of ADHD not only in young and middle adulthood, but also in seniority. The findings indicate the lifelong impact of ADHD as the explored seniors with ADHD reported the negative impact of ADHD remaining stable over the lifespan. PMID:26438010

  11. Semantic language as a mechanism explaining the association between ADHD symptoms and reading and mathematics underachievement.

    PubMed

    Gremillion, Monica L; Martel, Michelle M

    2012-11-01

    ADHD is associated with academic underachievement, but it remains unclear what mechanism accounts for this association. Semantic language is an underexplored mechanism that provides a developmental explanation for this association. The present study will examine whether semantic language deficits explain the association between ADHD and reading and mathematics underachievement, taking into account alternative explanations for associations, including verbal working memory (WM) impairments, as well as specificity of effects to inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptom domains. Participants in this cross-sectional study were 546 children (54 % male) ages six to twelve (M = 9.77, SD = 1.49). ADHD symptoms were measured via maternal and teacher report during structured interviews and on standardized rating forms. Children completed standardized semantic language, verbal WM, and academic testing. Semantic language fully mediated the ADHD-reading achievement association and partially mediated the ADHD-mathematics achievement association. Verbal WM also partially mediated the ADHD-mathematics association but did not mediate the ADHD-reading achievement association. Results generalized across inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptom domains. Semantic language explained the association between ADHD and reading underachievement and partially explained the association between ADHD and mathematics underachievement. Together, language impairment and WM fully explained the association between ADHD and reading underachievement, in line with developmental models suggesting that language and WM conjointly influence the development of attention and subsequent academic achievement. This work has implication for the development of tailored interventions for academic underachievement in children with ADHD. PMID:22661106

  12. Pharmacotherapy of inattention and ADHD in adolescents.

    PubMed

    McBurnett, Keith; Swetye, Michael; Muhr, Heather; Hendren, Robert L

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the current use of stimulants in adolescents. The evidence base for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents is meager compared with that of ADHD in children, and much recent research of older populations with ADHD has been directed toward adults rather than adolescents. The structure of psychosocial treatment of ADHD differs across developmental ranges. For example, in children, treatment of ADHD uses direct behavior modification via parents and teachers. Treatment approaches then change toward contracting in adolescents (acknowledging the emerging independence common at this age) and toward self-management and coaching in adults. Medication for ADHD, however, does not substantially differ across developmental epochs. In supplementation of data, specifically on adolescence, much of our understanding of treating adolescents comes from upward or downward extension of the child and adult data. Symptomatic treatment (treatment for inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsive behavior) has always been a parallel approach to diagnostic and developmentally specific selection of treatment based on an incomplete literature. In recognition, this article assumes that inference from children or adults to adolescents, in the absence of adolescent-specific data, is commonplace and often confirmed with clinical experience. Such inferences, in the face of literature gaps, in no way obviate the need for continued research focused on adolescence. PMID:24298754

  13. ADHD-200 Global Competition: diagnosing ADHD using personal characteristic data can outperform resting state fMRI measurements.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew R G; Sidhu, Gagan S; Greiner, Russell; Asgarian, Nasimeh; Bastani, Meysam; Silverstone, Peter H; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Dursun, Serdar M

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging-based diagnostics could potentially assist clinicians to make more accurate diagnoses resulting in faster, more effective treatment. We participated in the 2011 ADHD-200 Global Competition which involved analyzing a large dataset of 973 participants including Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and healthy controls. Each participant's data included a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as well as personal characteristic and diagnostic data. The goal was to learn a machine learning classifier that used a participant's resting state fMRI scan to diagnose (classify) that individual into one of three categories: healthy control, ADHD combined (ADHD-C) type, or ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I) type. We used participants' personal characteristic data (site of data collection, age, gender, handedness, performance IQ, verbal IQ, and full scale IQ), without any fMRI data, as input to a logistic classifier to generate diagnostic predictions. Surprisingly, this approach achieved the highest diagnostic accuracy (62.52%) as well as the highest score (124 of 195) of any of the 21 teams participating in the competition. These results demonstrate the importance of accounting for differences in age, gender, and other personal characteristics in imaging diagnostics research. We discuss further implications of these results for fMRI-based diagnosis as well as fMRI-based clinical research. We also document our tests with a variety of imaging-based diagnostic methods, none of which performed as well as the logistic classifier using only personal characteristic data. PMID:23060754

  14. Conceptual Structure of the Symptoms of Adult ADHD According to the "DSM-IV" and Retrospective Wender-Utah Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glockner-Rist, Angelika; Pedersen, Anya; Rist, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Adult "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") and retrospective childhood Wender-Utah ADHD criteria are implemented in self-report measures to assess adult ADHD and its required onset in childhood. Yet their dimensional structure and relationship to adult ADHD depressivity is still…

  15. Shared Genetic Influences Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Traits in Children and Clinical ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Stergiakouli, Evie; Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L.; Langley, Kate; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Owen, Michael J.; O'Donovan, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Davey Smith, George

    2015-01-01

    Objective Twin studies and genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) are not in agreement regarding heritability estimates for behavioral traits in children from the general population. This has sparked a debate on the possible difference in genetic architecture between behavioral traits and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we test whether polygenic risk scores associated with variation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) trait levels in children from the general population predict ADHD diagnostic status and severity in an independent clinical sample. Method Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p < .5 from a genome-wide association study of ADHD traits in 4,546 children (mean age, 7 years 7 months) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; general population sample) were selected to calculate polygenic risk scores in 508 children with an ADHD diagnosis (independent clinical sample) and 5,081 control participants. Polygenic scores were tested for association with case-control status and severity of disorder in the clinical sample. Results Increased polygenic score for ADHD traits predicted ADHD case-control status (odds ratio = 1.17 [95% CI = 1.08–1.28], p = .0003), higher ADHD symptom severity (β = 0.29 [95% CI = 0.04–0.54], p = 0.02), and symptom domain severity in the clinical sample. Conclusion This study highlights the relevance of additive genetic variance in ADHD, and provides evidence that shared genetic factors contribute to both behavioral traits in the general population and psychiatric disorders at least in the case of ADHD. PMID:25791149

  16. Brief Report: Excellent Agreement between Two Brief Autism Scales (Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Responsiveness Scale) Completed Independently by Parents and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Michael J.; Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Smith, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Agreement between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and two brief scales completed by parents was 93.1% for the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder (CASD) and 89.7% for the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a sample of adolescents with suspected autism spectrum disorders. Our study is consistent with others showing that brief…

  17. Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658

  18. Pharmacotherapy for adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved 3 medications, atomoxetine and the extended-release formulations of amphetamine salts and dexmethylphenidate, for the treatment of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Different formulations of the same drugs, as well as other agents and cognitive-behavioral therapy, have been tested to determine efficacy in ADHD alone and in ADHD with comorbid substance use disorders, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders. A deficit in research exists in regard to these comorbidities in adults with ADHD. PMID:19552859

  19. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  20. The epidemiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a public health view.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Andrew S; Lesesne, Catherine A; Abramowitz, Ann J

    2002-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. However, basic information about how the prevalence of ADHD varies by race/ethnicity, sex, age, and socio-economic status remains poorly described. One reason is that difficulties in the diagnosis of ADHD have translated into difficulties developing an adequate case definition for epidemiologic studies. Diagnosis depends heavily on parent and teacher reports; no laboratory tests reliably predict ADHD. Prevalence estimates of ADHD are sensitive to who is asked what, and how information is combined. Consequently, recent systematic reviews report ADHD prevalence estimates as wide as 2%-18%. The diagnosis of ADHD is complicated by the frequent occurrence of comorbid conditions such as learning disability, conduct disorder, and anxiety disorder. Symptoms of these conditions may also mimic ADHD. Nevertheless, we suggest that developing an adequate epidemiologic case definition based on current diagnostic criteria is possible and is a prerequisite for further developing the epidemiology of ADHD. The etiology of ADHD is not known but recent studies suggest both a strong genetic link as well as environmental factors such as history of preterm delivery and perhaps, maternal smoking during pregnancy. Children and teenagers with ADHD use health and mental health services more often than their peers and engage in more health threatening behaviors such as smoking, and alcohol and substance abuse. Better methods are needed for monitoring the prevalence and understanding the public health implications of ADHD. Stimulant medication is the treatment of choice for treating ADHD but psychosocial interventions may also be warranted if comordid disorders are present. The treatment of ADHD is controversial because of the high prevalence of medication treatment. Epidemiologic studies could clarify whether the patterns of ADHD diagnosis and treatment in community settings is

  1. Role of genetic factors in depression based on studies of Tourette syndrome and ADHD probands and their relatives

    SciTech Connect

    Comings, D.E.

    1995-04-24

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common, neuropsychiatric disorder which has many similarities to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). TS probands have a high frequency of a variety of behavioral disorders including depression. The depression may be due to a pleiotropic effect of the Gts genes, proband ascertainment bias, or a result of coping with the chronic tics. To distinguish between these hypotheses we examined the responses to 17 Diagnostic Interview Schedule questions to evaluate the 9 DSM-III-R criteria for major depressive episode in 1,080 adults consisting of TS and ADHD probands, their relatives and controls. Using a Bonferonni corrected p there was a significant progressive increase in 16 of 17 depressive symptoms and for a life time history of a major depressive episode in groups with increased genetic loading for Gts genes. Similar trends were seen in the small number of ADHD probands and their relatives. There was also a significant increase for these variables in non-proband TS relatives versus non-TS relatives, indicating the association of depression with Gts genes was not due to ascertainment bias or the inappropriate choice of controls. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that obsessive-compulsive behaviors, sex, ADHD, drug abuse, and age all showed a more significant effect on depressive symptoms than the number of tics. The presence or absence of TS in the relatives had a much greater effect on risk for depression than the presence or absence of an episode of major depression in the proband. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Gts and ADHD genes play a major role in depression. 69 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. The School Neuropsychology of ADHD: Theory, Assessment, and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sam; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Although the five-part diagnostic criteria of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision" (DSM-IV-TR) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are behavioral and descriptive in nature, this condition has increasingly been defined as a disorder resulting from impaired behavioral inhibition…

  3. ADHD and Reading Disability in Male Adults: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, S.; Lundberg, I.; Herkner, B.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disability (RD) in male adults. Participants were 120 men, of whom 24 were classified as having ADHD. The basis for the diagnosis was two self-report scales validated by interviews and background data. An extensive battery was used to…

  4. Drug and Alcohol Use in College Students with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Leigh; Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines differences in reported levels of drug and alcohol use between college students with and without ADHD. Method: The Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) and several self-report and interview questions, developed by Barkley, were used to examine the drug and alcohol use of college students with and without ADHD.…

  5. Parental Self-Confidence, Parenting Styles, and Corporal Punishment in Families of ADHD Children in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Applequist, Kimberly F.; Coolidge, Frederick L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between parental self-confidence, warmth, and involvement, and corporal punishment in families of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The diagnosis of ADHD was established through clinical interviews with the parents, children, and teachers, according the criteria…

  6. Hyperactivity persists in male and female adults with ADHD and remains a highly discriminative feature of the disorder: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptoms of hyperactivity are believed to fade with age leaving ADHD adults mostly inattentive and impulsive. Our aim was to test this assertion using objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Method Participants were 40 subjects with ADHD (23M/17F; 35±10 yrs) and 60 healthy adults (28M/32F; 29±9 yrs) blindly assessed using Wender-Reimherr interview ratings, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and DSM-IV criteria. Infrared motion capture systems tracked head and leg movements during performance of a No-4’s cognitive control task. Subjects also completed the Conners’ CPT-II. Results ADHD and controls differed significantly in activity and attention. Effect sizes for activity measures (d’ = 0.7–1.6) were, on average, two-fold larger than differences in attention or impulsivity, correlated more strongly with executive function ratings and were more discriminatory (ROC area = 0.83 for activity composite, 0.65 for No-4’s distraction composite, 0.63 for Conners’ CPT-II confidence index, 0.96 for the combined activity and attention diagnostic index). This finding was true for subjects with the predominantly inattentive subtype as well as subjects with combined or predominantly hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Males and females with ADHD were equally active. The superior accuracy of activity measures was confirmed using Random Forest and predictive modeling techniques. Conclusions Objectively measured hyperactivity persists in adults with ADHD and is a more discriminative feature of the disorder than computerized measures of inattention or impulsivity. This finding supports the hypothesis that a deficient ability to sit still remains a defining feature of the disorder in adults when it is measured objectively. PMID:23134619

  7. Narrative interviewing.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews. PMID:26613739

  8. Which DSM-IV-TR criteria best differentiate high-functioning autism spectrum disorder from ADHD and anxiety disorders in older children?

    PubMed Central

    HARTLEY, SIGAN L.; SIKORA, DARRYN M.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often delayed in high-functioning children with milder and more varied forms of ASD. The substantial overlap between ASD and other psychiatric disorders is thought to contribute to this delay. This study examined the endorsement of DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for ASD based on semi-structured parent interviews across three groups of older children referred to an ASD clinic: 55 children diagnosed with high-functioning ASD, 27 children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 23 children diagnosed with anxiety disorder. Results indicate that the criteria within the domains of communication and social relatedness were largely able to discriminate the high-functioning ASD group from the ADHD and anxiety disorder groups, but criteria within the domain of restricted/repetitive/stereotyped patterns were not. PMID:19759063

  9. Validating a Self-Report Screen for ADHD in Early Adulthood Using Childhood Parent and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E. B.; Lazare, Kim; Beitchman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article evaluates the diagnostic utility of a self-report screening tool for adults based on "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") ADHD criteria. Method: Children with speech/language (S/L) impairment and typically developing controls had ADHD symptoms rated by parents and teachers at ages 5…

  10. The Unstructured Clinical Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2010-01-01

    In mental health, family, and community counseling settings, master's-level counselors engage in unstructured clinical interviewing to develop diagnoses based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although counselors receive education about…

  11. Animal models of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bari, A; Robbins, T W

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present clear inherent advantages over human studies. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of underlying neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic alterations that cause ADHD, because they allow relatively fast, rigorous hypothesis testing and invasive manipulations as well as selective breeding. Moreover, especially for ADHD, animal models with good predictive validity would allow the assessment of potential new therapeutics. In this chapter, we describe and comment on the most frequently used animal models of ADHD that have been created by genetic, neurochemical and physical alterations in rodents. We then discuss that an emerging and promising direction of the field is the analysis of individual behavioural differences among a normal population of animals. Subjects presenting extreme characteristics related to ADHD can be studied, thereby avoiding some of the problems that are found in other models, such as functional recovery and unnecessary assumptions about aetiology. This approach is justified by the theoretical need to consider human ADHD as the extreme part of a spectrum of characteristics that are distributed normally in the general population, as opposed to the predominant view of ADHD as a separate pathological category. PMID:21287324

  12. ADHD in context: Young adults' reports of the impact of occupational environment on the manifestation of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Arielle K; Weisner, Thomas S; Jensen, Peter S; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L Eugene; W Murray, Desiree; Swanson, James M

    2016-07-01

    Does changing context play a role in the decline in ADHD symptoms in adulthood? Insufficient research has explored the functioning of adults with ADHD. As adults, individuals with ADHD have significantly more latitude to control aspects of their day-to-day environments. Do the new contexts young adults find themselves in alter their experience of ADHD? Are there particular occupational or educational contexts in which young adults report functioning better than others? To examine this issue, we conducted semi-structured interviews at four North American sites in 2010-11 with 125 young adults, originally diagnosed with ADHD as children, regarding their work and post-secondary educational environments. Many subjects describe their symptoms as context-dependent. In some contexts, participants report feeling better able to focus; in others, their symptoms-such as high energy levels-become strengths rather than liabilities. Modal descriptions included tasks that were stressful and challenging, novel and required multitasking, busy and fast-paced, physically demanding or hands-on, and/or intrinsically interesting. Consistent with a developmental psychopathology framework, ADHD is experienced as arising from an interaction between our subjects and their environments. These findings demonstrate the need to account for the role of context in our understanding of ADHD as a psychiatric disorder, especially as it manifests in young adulthood. PMID:27299978

  13. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E.

    While it is acknowledged that there is no flawless measure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood, a review of the literature reveals significant agreement in recommended assessment procedures. An overview of these procedures is presented in this paper. It begins with the diagnostic criteria for ADHD, such as symptom…

  14. Evaluating the Utility of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Discriminating among "DSM-IV" ADHD Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Kelly M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate how the inclusion of 3 Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnostic criteria influences the external validity of the ADHD subtypes. The sample comprised 228 children (166 boys, 62 girls) ranging in age from 5-18 years who were referred to…

  15. Examining the Validity of ADHD as a Diagnosis for Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities: Clinical Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neece, Cameron L.; Baker, Bruce L.; Crnic, Keith; Blacher, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at heightened risk for mental disorders. Using current diagnostic criteria, disruptive behavior disorders, specifically Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), appear to be the most prevalent co-occurring disorders. However, the validity of ADHD as a diagnosis for children and…

  16. Are There Sex Differences in the Predictive Validity of DSM-IV ADHD among Younger Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Loney, Jan; Pelham, William E.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Lee, Steve S.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the predictive validity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 20 girls and 98 boys who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for ADHD at 4 to 6 years of age compared to 24 female and 102 male comparison children. Over the next 8 years,…

  17. Are Maternal Smoking and Stress during Pregnancy Related to ADHD Symptoms in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2005-01-01

    Background: There are some indications that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy (smoking and stress) contributes to symptoms of ADHD in children. We prospectively studied whether prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and/or stress is associated with ADHD symptoms and diagnostic criteria (according to DSM-IV) in 7-year-olds. Methods: Nulliparous…

  18. Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Distinct or Related Disorders across Measurement Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert; Walle, Johan Vande

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding differences and similarities between the inattentive (IA) and combined (C) subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in order to detail challenges concerning further conceptualization, diagnostics, and treatment. The literature on ADHD-IA and…

  19. A One Year Trial of Methylphenidate in the Treatment of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Paul H.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Sanford, Mary Eve; Czajkowski, Laura A.; Tomb, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment on symptom severity and social adjustment in adult ADHD. Method: Adults (n = 116) meeting operational diagnostic criteria for ADHD (the "Utah Criteria") entered a randomized double-blind crossover trial of methylphenidate and placebo. Participants who improved on…

  20. Factor Structure of the Restricted Academic Situation Scale: Implications for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karama, Sherif; Amor, Leila Ben; Grizenko, Natalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Lageix, Philippe; Baron, Chantal; Schwartz, George; Joober, Ridha

    2009-01-01

    Background: To study the factor structure of the Restricted Academic Situation Scale (RASS), a psychometric tool used to assess behavior in children with ADHD, 117 boys and 21 girls meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") criteria for ADHD and aged between 6 and 12 years were recruited. Assessments were…

  1. The Relationship between Satisfaction with Life, ADHD Symptoms, and Associated Problems among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Eyjolfsdottir, Gudrun Agusta; Smari, Jakob; Young, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether ADHD symptoms, and associated problems, are negatively related to subjective well-being. Method: The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was completed by 369 university students, along with the Reasoning & Rehabilitation (R&R) ADHD Training Evaluation (RATE), the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

  2. Medicines for ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007592.htm Medicines for ADHD To use the sharing features on ... that the treatment plan is successful. TYPES OF MEDICINES Stimulants are the most commonly used type of ...

  3. ADHD & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... at an accredited sleep center. What Types of Communication Difficulties Can Look Like ADHD? People with Down ... Down syndrome have a wide range of learning styles. A child's educational team may need to try ...

  4. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... several areas, including speaking, reading, writing, and doing math. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a ... Dyscalculia makes it hard for people to understand math. They may also have problems telling time and ...

  5. Diagnosis and management of ADHD in children.

    PubMed

    Felt, Barbara T; Biermann, Bernard; Christner, Jennifer G; Kochhar, Param; Harrison, Richard Van

    2014-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder in children, and the prevalence is increasing. Physicians should evaluate for ADHD in children with behavioral concerns (e.g., inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, oppositionality) or poor academic progress using validated assessment tools with observers from several settings (home, school, community) and self-observation, if possible. Physicians who inherit a patient with a previous ADHD diagnosis should review the diagnostic process, and current symptoms and treatment needs. Coexisting conditions (e.g., anxiety, learning, mood, or sleep disorders) should be identified and treated. Behavioral treatments are recommended for preschool-aged children and may be helpful at older ages. Effective behavioral therapies include parent training, classroom management, and peer interventions. Medications are recommended as first-line therapy for older children. Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, are most effective for the treatment of core ADHD symptoms and have generally acceptable adverse effect profiles. There are fewer supporting studies for atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine, and they are less effective than the psychostimulants. Height, weight, heart rate, blood pressure, symptoms, mood, and treatment adherence should be recorded at follow-up visits. PMID:25369623

  6. Prevalence of adult ADHD in an all-female prison unit.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Romana; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Keoghan, Sue; Adamou, Marios

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting a link between ADHD and criminality, including a strong association between ADHD symptoms and the likelihood of being on probation or in prison. Most studies investigating the prevalence of ADHD in prison populations have focused on adult male offenders. In the current study, 69 female prisoners were screened for both childhood and adult ADHD symptoms using the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV. The results indicate that 41 % of the prisoners met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and continued to meet criteria for ADHD as adults. More importantly, young female prisoners (aged 18-25) were significantly more likely to report symptoms of ADHD than older prisoners. Prisoners who reported symptoms of ADHD also reported high levels of impairment associated with these symptoms. A better understanding of the prevalence of ADHD in female prison units can highlight specific areas for intervention during rehabilitation, as well as the management of serious incidents within prison. PMID:26650925

  7. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  8. Women and Girls (With ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medication and Pregnancy ADHD and Driving Organization and Time Management Managing Money Relationships & Social Skills Marriage and Partnerships ... For more information on organization, see Organizing and Time Management . 5. Career guidance . Just as women with ADHD ...

  9. ADHD in American Early Schooling: From a Cultural Psychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyunghwa

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I present a study conducted with 10 Southeastern US early childhood teachers on their views concerning problem behaviour, in general, and the practice of diagnosis and pharmaceutical treatment for Attention/Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), in particular. Themes that emerged from the interview data included: (1) teachers'…

  10. Physical Activity Experiences of Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, William J.; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.; Staples, Kerri; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity experiences of 12 age-matched boys with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were explored by converging information from Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessments and semistructured interviews. The knowledge-based approach and the inhibitory model of executive functions, a combined theoretical lens,…

  11. Interviews with Students of High Confidence and Low Achievement. Mathematics Education Diagnostic and Instructional Centre (MEDIC) Report No. 5-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feghali, Issa

    A previous study had confirmed that a substantial number of low achievers in grades 5 through 8 had high algorithmic confidence in each of the four arithmetic operations with whole numbers. The purpose of the present study was to follow up the results through interviewing low achievement-high confidence students in order to ascertain if they…

  12. Familiality of Co-existing ADHD and Tic Disorders: Evidence from a Large Sibling Study

    PubMed Central

    Roessner, Veit; Banaschewski, Tobias; Becker, Andreas; Buse, Judith; Wanderer, Sina; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Steven V.; Asherson, Philip; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) is frequent and clinically important. Very few and inconclusive attempts have been made to clarify if and how the combination of ADHD+TD runs in families. Aim: To determine the first time in a large-scale ADHD sample whether ADHD+TD increases the risk of ADHD+TD in siblings and, also the first time, if this is independent of their psychopathological vulnerability in general. Methods: The study is based on the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. The present sub-sample of 2815 individuals included ADHD-index patients with co-existing TD (ADHD+TD, n = 262) and without TD (ADHD–TD, n = 947) as well as their 1606 full siblings (n = 358 of the ADHD+TD index patients and n = 1248 of the ADHD-TD index patients). We assessed psychopathological symptoms in index patients and siblings by using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the parent and teacher Conners' long version Rating Scales (CRS). For disorder classification the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS-Interview) was applied in n = 271 children. Odds ratio with the GENMOD procedure (PROCGENMOD) was used to test if the risk for ADHD, TD, and ADHD+TD in siblings was associated with the related index patients' diagnoses. In order to get an estimate for specificity we compared the four groups for general psychopathological symptoms. Results: Co-existing ADHD+TD in index patients increased the risk of both comorbid ADHD+TD and TD in the siblings of these index patients. These effects did not extend to general psychopathology. Interpretation: Co-existence of ADHD+TD may segregate in families. The same holds true for TD (without ADHD). Hence, the segregation of TD (included in both groups) seems to be the determining factor, independent of further behavioral problems. This close relationship between ADHD and TD supports the clinical approach to carefully assess ADHD in any case

  13. Language Deficits in ADHD Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agapitou, Paraskevi; Andreou, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of preschool ADHD on linguistic and metalinguistic awareness and mental ability. Eight subscales of the Athina Test were administered to ADHD preschoolers and a control group. Results showed that ADHD preschoolers performed significantly lower than the control group in all tasks. The greatest difficulty for…

  14. Putting Families in the Center: Family Perspectives on Decision Making and ADHD and Implications for ADHD Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Catherine C.; Claudius, Milena; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Wong, John B.; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine components of family-centered care in families' stories about treatment decision making for their child with ADHD. Method: Twenty-eight families participated in qualitative interviews that addressed families' perspectives on (a) the treatment decision-making process, (b) the cause and impact of their child's symptoms, and (c)…

  15. Classification of ADHD children through multimodal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dai, Dai; Wang, Jieqiong; Hua, Jing; He, Huiguang

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common diseases in school-age children. To date, the diagnosis of ADHD is mainly subjective and studies of objective diagnostic method are of great importance. Although many efforts have been made recently to investigate the use of structural and functional brain images for the diagnosis purpose, few of them are related to ADHD. In this paper, we introduce an automatic classification framework based on brain imaging features of ADHD patients and present in detail the feature extraction, feature selection, and classifier training methods. The effects of using different features are compared against each other. In addition, we integrate multimodal image features using multi-kernel learning (MKL). The performance of our framework has been validated in the ADHD-200 Global Competition, which is a world-wide classification contest on the ADHD-200 datasets. In this competition, our classification framework using features of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) was ranked the 6th out of 21 participants under the competition scoring policy and performed the best in terms of sensitivity and J-statistic. PMID:22969710

  16. Mapping the academic problem behaviors of adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M

    2014-12-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a sample of 324 adolescents with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosed ADHD (age M = 13.07, SD = 1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, interrater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  17. External validation of bifactor model of ADHD: explaining heterogeneity in psychiatric comorbidity, cognitive control, and personality trait profiles within DSM-IV ADHD.

    PubMed

    Martel, Michelle M; Roberts, Bethan; Gremillion, Monica; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T

    2011-11-01

    The current paper provides external validation of the bifactor model of ADHD by examining associations between ADHD latent factor/profile scores and external validation indices. 548 children (321 boys; 302 with ADHD), 6 to 18 years old, recruited from the community participated in a comprehensive diagnostic procedure. Mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire, and California Q-Sort. Children completed the Stop and Trail-Making Task. Specific inattention was associated with depression/withdrawal, slower cognitive task performance, introversion, agreeableness, and high reactive control; specific hyperactivity-impulsivity was associated with rule-breaking/aggressive behavior, social problems, errors during set-shifting, extraversion, disagreeableness, and low reactive control. It is concluded that the bifactor model provides better explanation of heterogeneity within ADHD than DSM-IV ADHD symptom counts or subtypes. PMID:21735050

  18. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV and ICD-10 Criteria for ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung I.; Schachar, Russell J.; Chen, Shirley X.; Ornstein, Tisha J.; Charach, Alice; Barr, Cathy; Ickowicz, Abel

    2008-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to compare the predictive validity of the two main diagnostic schemata for childhood hyperactivity--attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual"-IV) and hyperkinetic disorder (HKD; "International Classification of Diseases"-10th Edition). Methods: Diagnostic criteria for…

  19. ADHD stigma among college students.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amanda Chi; Lefler, Elizabeth K

    2016-03-01

    The current study examined ADHD stigma within a college-enrolled young adult population, including the debate regarding the cause of stigma: label or behavior. In Phase 1, 135 college students rated stigma toward one of the four fictitious partners described as having either: the label of ADHD alone, the behaviors associated with ADHD alone, the label of ADHD and a set of behaviors associated with ADHD, or neither the label nor behaviors. In Phase 2, 48 college students rated stigma toward one of the two assigned fictitious partners described as having either: the label of ADHD and a set of behaviors associated with ADHD, or the label of Depression and a set of behaviors associated with Depression. It was hypothesized that the interaction between the label and the behaviors would cause the highest levels of ADHD stigma and that ADHD would elicit more stigma than Depression. In Phase 1, stigma was associated with the behaviors of ADHD, but not the label. In Phase 2, ADHD and Depression were found to be equally stigmatized. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed. PMID:26135022

  20. Treatment of comorbidity in conduct disorder with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Turgay, Atilla

    2005-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. It is characterized by a variety of chronic antisocial behaviors, a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others, major age-appropriate societal norms, or both. Aggressive behavior, lying, stealing, fire-setting, and running away from home and school are the most frequent manifestations of CD and are often accompanied by hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, explosiveness, cognitive and learning problems, and poor social skills. The rate of comorbidity is high, with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) being the most common; comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders are also seen, especially in adolescents. The diagnostic process should include the use of structured interviews, and scores from reliable and valid rating scales that cover all psychiatric disorders must be considered in the differential diagnosis, because CD alone is an extreme rarity and multiple disorders are almost always the rule rather than exception. Treatment should include parenting skills training combined with training of the child to improve his or her relationships with peers, academic performance, and compliance with legitimate demands of authority figures. The appropriate use of medications and integration of patient/parent education and support, as well as individual, group, family, residential, and inpatient treatment may be beneficial for patients with CD and ADHD. The article describes a number of psychopharmacological agents that are used in patients with CD with ADHD and other comorbid disorders. Drugs that may be useful include psychostimulants; atomoxetine (Strattera); antidepressants (imipramine [Tofranil], desipramine [Norpramin]); Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs); atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone (Risperdal); or mood regulators including lithium (Eskalith). PMID

  1. The hierarchical factor model of ADHD: Invariant across age and national groupings?

    PubMed Central

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the factor structure of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and sibling samples, across three different instruments and across parent and teacher informants. Specific consideration was given to factorial invariance analyses across different ages and different countries in the ADHD sample. Method A sample of children and adolescents between 5 and 17 years of age with ADHD and their unselected siblings was assessed. Participants were recruited from seven European countries and Israel. ADHD symptom data came from a clinical interview with parents (PACS) and questionnaires from parents and teachers (Conners Parent and Teacher). Results A hierarchical general factor model with two specific factors best represented the structure of ADHD in both the ADHD and unselected sibling groups, and across informants and instruments. The model was robust and invariant with regard to age differences in the ADHD sample. The model was not strongly invariant across different national groups in the ADHD sample, likely reflecting severity differences across the different centers and not any substantial difference in the clinical presentation of ADHD. Conclusions The results replicate previous studies of a model with a unitary ADHD component and separable specific traits of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The unique contribution of this study was finding support for this model across a large developmental and multinational/multicultural sample and its invariance across ages. PMID:22084976

  2. Treating AD/HD with Hypnosis and Neurotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    Presents details of Instant Alert Hypnosis procedure as an adjunct to neurotherapy in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Discusses AD/HD diagnostic issues, demographics, traditional treatments, neurological basis, EEG assessment, implications for the use of hypnosis, and the efficacy and promise of neurotherapy with and…

  3. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  4. Longitudinal changes in individual symptoms across the preschool years in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I; Breaux, Rosanna P

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of individual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) across the preschool years in children with ADHD. It also evaluated whether preschool symptoms vary in their ability to discriminate children who later meet criteria for ADHD from typically developing children. ADHD and ODD symptoms were assessed annually in 75 ethnically diverse children (46 boys) who presented with behavior problems at age 3 and met criteria for ADHD 3 years later, and in 51 typically developing children (26 boys). Children with ADHD generally exhibited stable levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity but increases in several symptoms of inattention. Most ADHD symptoms showed at least fair utility in discriminating children with and without ADHD; however, 3 symptoms of inattention (carelessness, losing things, and forgetfulness) and 1 symptom of hyperactivity/impulsivity (blurting out answers) had relatively poor utility. These symptoms demonstrated only somewhat greater utility at age 4, but by the age of 5 were better able to classify children. Children with ADHD exhibited increases in several ODD symptoms, including symptoms related to negative affect. Although most symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity appear to extend well down to age 3, more developmentally appropriate symptoms of inattention may be required to develop more sensitive assessments for 3- and 4-year-old children. PMID:24697647

  5. Examination of the Role of Expectancies on Task Performance in College Students Concerned about ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wei, Christina; Suhr, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown that performance on cognitive tasks can be influenced by expectations (Smith & Sullivan, 2003 ; Suhr & Gunstad, 2002 , 2005 ). The current study examined whether cuing a belief about the diagnostic saliency of a cognitive task among young adults who expressed concern about having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) influenced task performance. Participants were randomly assigned to either receive neutral directions or be cued to a belief that the task had diagnostic saliency prior to completing a working-memory task. Supporting our hypothesis, college students with higher prestudy report of ADHD symptoms who were cued with a belief about the diagnostic saliency of the task performed worse compared with students who received neutral instructions. As many researchers and clinicians currently rely exclusively on self-reported symptoms and neuropsychological tests to diagnose ADHD, our findings highlight the importance of comprehensive assessment for provision of appropriate clinical services to adults presenting with ADHD concerns. PMID:25255846

  6. Treating ADHD with Agomelatine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Agomelatine is a relatively new antidepressant, with affinities to MT1 and MT2 (responsible for the circadian rhythm) as well as to 5-HT2C receptors. Since antidepressants have demonstrated some benefit in the treatment of ADH and because of the fact, that ADHD is often associated with sleep disorders, we assumed, that it might be a…

  7. Colour Perception in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  8. ADHD, Culture and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ilina

    2008-01-01

    This article is a socio-historical account of the development of the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and methylphenidate treatment in America, attending particularly to the political and institutional contexts that have supported this development. Historical developments in early-mid-twentieth-century America frame a…

  9. How to Know if Your Child Has ADHD or Learning Differences: The Importance of an Accurate Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Parents often are left wondering how to determine if their child's behaviors are "normal" or possibly diagnostic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or other problems. This article presents a list of general guidelines that allow parents to determine the possibility of whether their children are experiencing either ADHD or a…

  10. Implications of Extending the ADHD Age-of-Onset Criterion to Age 12: Results from a Prospectively Studied Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Kollins, Scott H.; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether including children with onset of symptoms between ages 7 and 12 years in the ADHD diagnostic category would: (a) increase the prevalence of the disorder at age 12, and (b) change the clinical and cognitive features, impairment profile, and risk factors for ADHD compared with findings in the literature based on the…

  11. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  12. Comments on Mika's Critique of Hartnett, Nelson, and Rinn's Article, "Gifted or ADHD? The Possibilities of Misdiagnosis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerss, Jean; Amend, Edward R.; Webb, James T.; Webb, Nadia; Beljan, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The Hartnett, Nelson, and Rinn 2004 study indicates that diagnostic confusion between ADD/ADHD and giftedness exists, and that research on medication practices is warranted. Mika disagrees, saying that there is no empirical evidence of misdiagnosis of gifted children as having ADD/ADHD. We disagree with Mika's logic, and describe evidence that…

  13. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Treatment What medicines are used to treat ADHD? Some of the medicines for ADHD are called psychostimulants. Some of these ...

  14. Personality Traits and Comorbidity in Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Instanes, Johanne Telnes; Haavik, Jan; Halmøy, Anne

    2013-11-22

    Objective: To assess personality traits using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in a group of 63 previously diagnosed ADHD patients and 68 population controls and investigate the impact of common comorbid psychiatric disorders on these personality measures. Method: Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus and personality traits by the TCI. Results: The patient group had significantly higher scores on the TCI dimensions Harm avoidance and Novelty seeking compared with the control group. However, when adjusting for comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder, the ADHD group no longer showed higher Harm avoidance than the control group. The difference in Novelty seeking between the patient and control groups was correlated with lifetime diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Conclusion: It is important to take comorbid psychiatric disorders into account while investigating personality traits in ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24271945

  15. ADHD Medication Use in a Population-Based Sample of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Wendy; Huang, Hongyan; Todd, Richard D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine treatment patterns for youth attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a general population sample of 1,610 twins. Method: Twin pairs ages 7 to 17 years and parents ascertained from birth records in the state of Missouri were interviewed using the Missouri Assessment of Genetics Interview for Children…

  16. ADHD: does parenting style matter?

    PubMed

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Danforth, Jeffrey S; Brooks, Donna

    2008-11-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition typically arising in childhood, which untreated, can have consequences reaching into adolescence and beyond. Effective pharmacological treatment is available and has become widespread in the West. Outcomes for both the child with ADHD and the parent may be influenced by the nature of interaction between them. The authors of this article aim to review published research examining the interaction between parents and their children with ADHD. A PubMed search was conducted of studies written in English between 2000 and 2007 with the keywords ADHD and parenting. Child ADHD elicits high levels of parental stress and maladaptive parenting. The presence of parental psychopathology is common and influences the parent's response to the child's ADHD symptoms. Optimizing parent-child interaction and parental psychiatric status may improve outcomes for both parent and child. PMID:18559885

  17. The impending globalization of ADHD: notes on the expansion and growth of a medicalized disorder.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Peter; Bergey, Meredith R

    2014-12-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been medicalized in the United States since the 1960s. Primarily used in North America until the 1990s, ADHD diagnosis and treatment have increasingly been applied internationally. After documenting the expansion of ADHD in a global context, this paper presents five brief international examples examining ADHD usage and expansion: the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy and Brazil. We then identify and describe several vehicles that facilitate the migration of the ADHD diagnosis: the transnational pharmaceutical industry; the influence of western psychiatry; moving from ICD to DSM diagnostic criteria; the role of the Internet including the related advent of easily accessible online screening checklists; and advocacy groups. Finally, we discuss what this globalization of a diagnosis reflects about the potential global medicalization of other conditions. PMID:25441315

  18. Childhood ADHD and Risk for Substance Dependence in Adulthood: A Longitudinal, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sharon; Katusic, Slavica K.; Colligan, Robert C.; Weaver, Amy L.; Killian, Jill M.; Voigt, Robert G.; Barbaresi, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to be at significantly greater risk for the development of substance use disorders (SUD) compared to peers. Impulsivity, which could lead to higher levels of drug use, is a known symptom of ADHD and likely accounts, in part, for this relationship. Other factors, such as a biologically increased susceptibility to substance dependence (addiction), may also play a role. Objective This report further examines the relationships between childhood ADHD, adolescent- onset SUD, and substance abuse and substance dependence in adulthood. Method Individuals with childhood ADHD and non-ADHD controls from the same population-based birth cohort were invited to participate in a prospective outcome study. Participants completed a structured neuropsychiatric interview with modules for SUD and a psychosocial questionnaire. Information on adolescent SUD was obtained retrospectively, in a previous study, from medical and school records. Associations were summarized using odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs estimated from logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender. Results A total of 232 ADHD cases and 335 non-ADHD controls participated (mean age, 27.0 and 28.6 years, respectively). ADHD cases were more likely than controls to have a SUD diagnosed in adolescence and were more likely to have alcohol (adjusted OR 14.38, 95% CI 1.49–138.88) and drug (adjusted OR 3.48, 95% CI 1.38–8.79) dependence in adulthood. The subgroup of participating ADHD cases who did not have SUD during adolescence were no more likely than controls to develop new onset alcohol dependence as adults, although they were significantly more likely to develop new onset drug dependence. Conclusions Our study found preliminary evidence that adults with childhood ADHD are more susceptible than peers to developing drug dependence, a disorder associated with neurological changes in the brain. The relationship between ADHD and

  19. Does IQ influence Associations between ADHD Symptoms and other Cognitive Functions in young Preschoolers?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Working memory, inhibition, and expressive language are often impaired in ADHD and many children with ADHD have lower IQ-scores than typically developing children. The aim of this study was to test whether IQ-score influences associations between ADHD symptoms and verbal and nonverbal working memory, inhibition, and expressive language, respectively, in a nonclinical sample of preschool children. Methods In all, 1181 children recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were clinically assessed at the age of 36 to 46 months. IQ-score and working memory were assessed with subtasks from the Stanford Binet test battery, expressive language was reported by preschool teachers (Child Development Inventory), response inhibition was assessed with a subtask from the NEPSY test, and ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent interview (Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment). Results The results showed an interaction between ADHD symptoms and IQ-score on teacher-reported expressive language. In children with below median IQ-score, a larger number of ADHD symptoms were more likely to be accompanied by reports of lower expressive language skills, while the level of ADHD symptoms exerted a smaller effect on reported language skills in children with above median IQ-score. The associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were not influenced by IQ-score. Conclusions Level of IQ-score affected the relation between ADHD symptoms and teacher-reported expressive language, whereas associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were significant and of similar sizes regardless of IQ-score. Thus, in preschoolers, working memory and response inhibition should be considered during an ADHD assessment regardless of IQ-score, while language skills of young children are especially important to consider when IQ-scores are average or low. PMID:24884579

  20. Effects of diagnostic comorbidity and dimensional symptoms of attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder in men with antisocial personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Basoglu, Cengiz; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim M.; Ates, Alpay; Algul, Ayhan; Ebrinc, Servet; Cetin, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Objective Although children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for later onset of antisocial personality disorder (APD) as adults, the utility of ADHD as either a comorbid diagnosis (ADHDc) or dimensional symptoms (ADHDd) in predicting behaviour and substance use problems in APD subjects has not been examined. Method A total of 105 adult male offenders with Structured Clinical Interview for Axis II Disorders (SCID-II)-based DSM-III-R APD were studied in terms of: (i) psychopathy scores on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R); (ii) ADHDc diagnostic comorbidity on clinically administered DSM-IV questionnaire; and (iii) ADHDd dimensional symptoms by means of Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) during a 12 month study period (May 2005–May 2006). Results Sixty five per cent of APD subjects met criteria for ADHDc diagnostic comorbidity with significantly increased rates of childhood neglect, parental divorce and suicide attempt, but not of psychopathy. APD subjects with ADHDd symptoms were noted to have earlier onset and increased rate of self-injurious behaviour (SIB), suicide attempt, and psychopathy. The psychopathy scores, in turn, were predictive of earlier onset of SIB and behavioural problems. Conclusion Both ADHDc diagnostic comorbidity and ADHDd symptoms need to be assessed in APD subjects and the dimensional measures may be better in detecting earlier onset SIB, suicide attempt and other behavioural problems. PMID:18473259

  1. Assessment of the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions and adult ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, Craig W; Rosenfield, Brad; DiTomasso, Robert A; Ramsay, J Russell

    2016-04-30

    The current chart review study examined the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and co-occurring symptoms of depression and anxiety in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD. Thirty subjects completed inventories measuring cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness as part of the standard diagnostic evaluation protocol used in a university-based outpatient clinic specializing in adult ADHD. A series of correlational analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. Results indicated a significant, positive correlation between self-reported cognitive distortions and ADHD. Responses to individual items on the measure of cognitive distortions were tabulated to identify the prevalence of specific cognitive distortion categories, with Perfectionism emerging as the most frequently endorsed. Further clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27086226

  2. Brief report: excellent agreement between two brief autism scales (Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Responsiveness Scale) completed independently by parents and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael J; Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Smith, Laura A

    2011-11-01

    Agreement between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and two brief scales completed by parents was 93.1% for the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder (CASD) and 89.7% for the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a sample of adolescents with suspected autism spectrum disorders. Our study is consistent with others showing that brief scales like the CASD and SRS have strong psychometric support and compare favorably with the ADI-R. The CASD and SRS are each completed and scored in 15 min, whereas the ADI-R takes over 2 h to administer and score. The CASD and SRS offer a valid and cost effective alternative to lengthy and expensive measures and, by virtue of their brevity and simplicity, could facilitate diagnosis, access to treatment, and research. PMID:21301946

  3. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8–12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Method Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8–12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Results Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. Conclusions These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD. PMID:25610784

  4. Effect of cognitive intervention on children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gharebaghy, Soraya; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Cameron, Debra

    2015-02-01

    Although not considered a diagnostic criterion in DSM-IV, motor difficulties in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are commonly reported. Prevalence of co-morbidity of ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder is as high as 50%. Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is a problem-solving approach originally developed for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. In this approach, therapists support children to use cognitive strategies in a process of guided discovery to solve occupational performance problems. A single case experimental design (multiple baselines) was used to examine the influence of a 12-week intervention using CO-OP with six children with ADHD. Outcome measures included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Goal Attainment Scaling and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and Performance (BOTMP). The results of this study demonstrated improvements in both goals and motor performance in the participants due to the intervention. These results provide some support for the use of CO-OP with children with ADHD. Further research into the application of CO-OP with children with ADHD is warranted based on these preliminary positive findings regarding the efficacy of this intervention to address motor-based performance difficulties. PMID:25246134

  5. Recent developments in the psychosocial treatment of adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Sprich, Susan; Safren, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly recognized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV psychiatric disorder associated with significant functional impairment in multiple domains. Although stimulant and other pharmacotherapy regimens have the most empirical support as treatments for ADHD in adults, many adults with the disorder continue to experience significant residual symptoms. In the present manuscript, we review the published studies examining group and individual psychosocial treatments for adult ADHD. We include a discussion of coaching interventions and how they differ from cognitive–behavioral therapy. We conclude that the available data support the use of structured, skills-based psychosocial interventions as a viable treatment for adults with residual symptoms of ADHD. Common elements across the various treatment packages include psychoeducation, training in concrete skills (e.g., organization and planning strategies) and emphasis on outside practice and maintenance of these strategies in daily life. These treatments, however, require further study for replication, extension and refinement. Finally, we suggest future directions for the application of psychosocial treatments to the problems of adults with ADHD. PMID:18928346

  6. Cognitive Processes in ADHD and Asperger's Disorder: Overlaps and Differences in PASS Profiles.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Stefano; Contena, Bastianina

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Many studies report on the usefulness of the evaluation of Executive Functions (EF) in the assessment of participants with ADHD, while others underline how deficits of EF in these participants are not consistent and that the same executive deficits are present in many other disorders, particularly in Asperger's disorder. Using the Planning Attention Simultaneous Successive (PASS) theory, the present study explores the cognitive profiles of participants with ADHD or Asperger's disorder and compares the cognitive functioning of these two diagnostic groups. Method: Forty-four children, 24 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 20 with a diagnosis of Asperger's disorder, participated and their cognitive processes were evaluated with the Cognitive Assessment System. Results: Results underline specific cognitive profiles in ADHD and Asperger's disorder characterized by weaknesses in planning and attention, but with a diverse level of severity. Conclusion: Implications of the different cognitive profiles of these diagnostic groups are discussed. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:24196344

  7. Development, reliability and factor analysis of a self-administered questionnaire which originates from the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview – Short Form (CIDI-SF) for assessing mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The Composite International Diagnostic Interview – Short Form consists of short form scales for evaluating psychiatric disorders. Also for this version training of the interviewer is required. Moreover, the confidentiality could be not adequately protected. This study focuses on the preliminary validation of a brief self-completed questionnaire which originates from the CIDI-SF. Sampling and Methods A preliminary version was assessed for content and face validity. An intermediate version was evaluated for test-retest reliability. The final version of the questionnaire was evaluated for factor exploratory analysis, and internal consistency. Results After the modifications by the focus groups, the questionnaire included 29 initial probe questions and 56 secondary questions. The test retest reliability weighted Kappas were acceptable to excellent for the vast majority of questions. Factor analysis revealed six factors explaining 53.6% of total variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 for the questionnaire and 0.89, 0.67, 0.71, 0.71, 0.49, and 0.67, for the six factors respectively. Conclusion The questionnaire has satisfactory reliability, and internal consistency, and might be efficient for using in community research and clinical practice. In the future, the questionnaire could be further validated (i.e., concurrent validity, discriminant validity). PMID:18402667

  8. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-02-24

    Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567364

  9. Adaptations for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrady, Mart

    2005-01-01

    ADHD is a neurobiological-based brain disorder, most often hereditary, affecting nearly one in twenty students. The ADHD brain functions differently because the area between the frontal lobe and rear lobe is having short-circuit problems and is not transmitting necessary information. The technical part of the disorder does not engage us as…

  10. ADHD: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscome, Jennifer; Cunningham, Teddi; Kelley, Heather; Brown, Caitlyn

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of ADHD and to provide evidence-based training interventions for school counselors. An overview of basic information about ADHD will be provided, including diagnosis, presentation, causes, prevalence, and common misconceptions. Evidence-based training…

  11. Understanding ADHD: Our Personal Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blahy, Tammy Lynn

    2004-01-01

    No good time exists to face the realities of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children across the United States and Canada are accompanied to clinics and schools by frightened, worried parents. In the book, In Understanding ADHD (2001), Ken and Andrea McCluskey bring to life the realities of the everyday journey of coping with…

  12. Attention, Task Difficulty, and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2005-01-01

    Comments on analysis of attention tasks in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) provided by Wilding (2005)points out that whereas many regulatory functions, including alertness or arousal, appear to be impaired in ADHD, demonstrating basic attention deficits in selection or orienting functions in the disorder has proven difficult. Yet…

  13. ADHD: From Intervention to Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaban, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a chronic neurological disorder, is not formally recognized in the educational systems across Canada. As a result, there is little opportunity for collaboration or sharing of information between the medical/research community and the educational system. Because ADHD is not formally identified,…

  14. Contemporary Trends in ADHD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    With many children and adults affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, researchers strive to understand the underpinnings of ADHD and associated factors on both a basic and applied level. The goal of this volume is to explore some of the broad array of research in the field of ADHD. The 12 chapters cover a variety of topics as varied…

  15. [Pediatric ADHD: what does the otolaryngologist need to know?].

    PubMed

    Gehrmann, J; Brandl, A

    2013-07-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects around 5% of all children and adolescents worldwide. The causes of ADHD are multifactorial, with a large genetic influence but also involvement of exogenic and psychosocial factors. Its core symptoms consist of attention deficits, hyperactivity and disruption of impulse control. It is important that symptoms appear before the age of six and are evident in multiple different situations, such as in familial and school environments. ADHD is a dimensional disorder, which means that the diagnostic process is time consuming, comprising a physical and neurological examination, behavioral observations and differentiated psychological assessments. In the field of otolaryngology, ADHD represents one of the important differential diagnoses to an auditory processing disorder (APD), alongside reading- and writing impairments and delayed speech development. In the instance of additional behavioral problems or more severe symptoms, it is advisable to transfer the patient to a specialized pediatrician or child and adolescent psychiatrist for appropriate counseling and treatment where required. PMID:23842699

  16. Confronting ADHD in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Patience

    2009-01-01

    Tell-tale signs of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) ADHD and its relative ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) include an inability to maintain attention, impulsive behaviors, and/or motor restlessness. There are three subcategories of ADHD; for the purpose of this article, the blanket term ADHD applies to all three. A crucial first step…

  17. [Alternative agents used in ADHD].

    PubMed

    Hässler, Frank; Dück, Alexander; Reis, Olaf; Buchmann, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is, with a prevalence of 2% to 6%, one of the most common neurobehavioral disorder affecting children and adolescents, persisting into adulthood. Comorbidity and psychosocial circumstances enter into the choice of intervention strategies. Several agents have been demonstrated effective in treating individuals with ADHD. Direct or indirect attenuation of dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmission appears closely related to both the stimulant and nonstimulant medications efficacious in ADHD. However, important differences concerning efficacy and side effects exist both between and with the specific classes of agents like neuroleptics, antidepressants, antiepileptics, alpha-agonists, beta-blockers, buspiron, l-dopa, melatonin, pycnogenol, zinc, magnesium, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and homeopathy. Elucidating the various mechanisms of action of ADHD medications may lead to better choices in matching potential responses to the characteristics of individuals. We review the purported mechanism of action and available evidence for selected complementary and alternative medicine therapies for ADHD in childhood and adolescence. PMID:19105161

  18. Symptoms of autism and ADHD: a Swedish twin study examining their overlap.

    PubMed

    Ronald, Angelica; Larsson, Henrik; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show high comorbidity. The following questions were addressed regarding their specific symptoms: What is the factor structure of ASD and ADHD symptoms, to what degree do different symptom domains cluster together, to what extent are these domains caused by the same genetic and environmental influences, and what is the best model of their co-occurrence? A population-based twin cohort of over 17,000 9- and 12-year-olds were assessed using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD, and other Comorbidities parental interview inventory. Principal component analyses were conducted, and symptom domain clustering was assessed. Four multivariate twin models were compared. Factors split into three ASD (social impairments, communication impairments, and restricted repetitive behaviors and interests), and three ADHD (inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) symptom domains. Some ASD-ADHD symptom domain combinations clustered together often, although others not at all. A two-factor common pathway model fit the data, suggesting that ASD and ADHD symptom domains tap into separate "ASD" and "ADHD" latent factors that showed high genetic overlap. All subdomains also showed significant specific genetic and environmental influences, reflecting the etiological heterogeneity both within and between ASD and ADHD. These findings support the conceptual distinction of ASD and ADHD, and demonstrate the considerable natural co-occurrence of particular ASD/ADHD symptom domains. The results imply that more children with 1 condition show features of the other condition than show complete comorbidity. Emphasis on symptom co-occurrence, rather than complete comorbidity between disorders, may help focus clinical approaches and advance molecular genetic research. PMID:24731073

  19. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in Childhood: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E.; Clinton, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    This article examines recent literature related to the diagnosis of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in childhood. First, the article discusses diagnostic criteria presented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Next, it explores the diagnostic procedures for AD/HD…

  20. Kernel Principal Component Analysis for dimensionality reduction in fMRI-based diagnosis of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Gagan S; Asgarian, Nasimeh; Greiner, Russell; Brown, Matthew R G

    2012-01-01

    This study explored various feature extraction methods for use in automated diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from functional Magnetic Resonance Image (fMRI) data. Each participant's data consisted of a resting state fMRI scan as well as phenotypic data (age, gender, handedness, IQ, and site of scanning) from the ADHD-200 dataset. We used machine learning techniques to produce support vector machine (SVM) classifiers that attempted to differentiate between (1) all ADHD patients vs. healthy controls and (2) ADHD combined (ADHD-c) type vs. ADHD inattentive (ADHD-i) type vs. controls. In different tests, we used only the phenotypic data, only the imaging data, or else both the phenotypic and imaging data. For feature extraction on fMRI data, we tested the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), different variants of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and combinations of FFT and PCA. PCA variants included PCA over time (PCA-t), PCA over space and time (PCA-st), and kernelized PCA (kPCA-st). Baseline chance accuracy was 64.2% produced by guessing healthy control (the majority class) for all participants. Using only phenotypic data produced 72.9% accuracy on two class diagnosis and 66.8% on three class diagnosis. Diagnosis using only imaging data did not perform as well as phenotypic-only approaches. Using both phenotypic and imaging data with combined FFT and kPCA-st feature extraction yielded accuracies of 76.0% on two class diagnosis and 68.6% on three class diagnosis-better than phenotypic-only approaches. Our results demonstrate the potential of using FFT and kPCA-st with resting-state fMRI data as well as phenotypic data for automated diagnosis of ADHD. These results are encouraging given known challenges of learning ADHD diagnostic classifiers using the ADHD-200 dataset (see Brown et al., 2012). PMID:23162439

  1. Brain structural deficits and working memory fMRI dysfunction in young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Lindholm, Päivi; Moilanen, Irma; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Miettunen, Jouko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Mäki, Pirjo; Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Barnett, Jennifer H; Nikkinen, Juha; Suckling, John; Jones, Peter B; Veijola, Juha; Murray, Graham K

    2016-05-01

    When adolescents with ADHD enter adulthood, some no longer meet disorder diagnostic criteria but it is unknown if biological and cognitive abnorma lities persist. We tested the hypothesis that people diagnosed with ADHD during adolescence present residual brain abnormalities both in brain structure and in working memory brain function. 83 young adults (aged 20-24 years) from the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort were classified as diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence (adolescence ADHD, n = 49) or a control group (n = 34). Only one patient had received medication for ADHD. T1-weighted brain scans were acquired and processed in a voxel-based analysis using permutation-based statistics. A sub-sample of both groups (ADHD, n = 21; controls n = 23) also performed a Sternberg working memory task whilst acquiring fMRI data. Areas of structural difference were used as a region of interest to evaluate the implications that structural abnormalities found in the ADHD group might have on working memory function. There was lower grey matter volume bilaterally in adolescence ADHD participants in the caudate (p < 0.05 FWE corrected across the whole brain) at age 20-24. Working memory was poorer in adolescence ADHD participants, with associated failure to show normal load-dependent caudate activation. Young adults diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence have structural and functional deficits in the caudate associated with abnormal working memory function. These findings are not secondary to stimulant treatment, and emphasise the importance of taking a wider perspective on ADHD outcomes than simply whether or not a particular patient meets diagnostic criteria at any given point in time. PMID:26307356

  2. Saccadic movement deficiencies in adults with ADHD tendencies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sangil; Chang, Munseon; Kwak, Ho-Wan

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore deficits in gaze detection and emotional value judgment during a saccadic eye movement task in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tendencies. Thirty-two participants, consisting of 16 ADHD tendencies and 16 controls, were recruited from a pool of 243 university students. Among the many problems in adults with ADHDs, our research focused on the deficits in the processing of nonverbal cues, such as gaze direction and the emotional value of others' faces. In Experiment 1, a cue display containing a face with emotional value and gaze direction was followed by a target display containing two faces located on the left and right side of the display. The participant's task was to make an anti-saccade opposite to the gaze direction if the cue face was not emotionally neutral. ADHD tendencies showed more overall errors than controls in making anti-saccades. Based on the hypothesis that the exposure duration of the cue display in Experiment 1 may have been too long, we presented the cue and target display simultaneously to prevent participants from preparing saccades in advance. Participants in Experiment 2 were asked to make either a pro-saccade or an anti-saccade depending on the emotional value of the central cue face. Interestingly, significant group differences were observed for errors of omission and commission. In addition, a significant three-way interaction among groups, cue emotion, and target gaze direction suggests that the emotional recognition and gaze control systems might somehow be interconnected. The result also shows that ADHDs are more easily distracted by a task-irrelevant gaze direction. Taken together, these results suggest that tasks requiring both response inhibition (anti-saccade) and gaze-emotion recognition might be useful in developing a diagnostic test for discriminating adults with ADHDs from healthy adults. PMID:25993912

  3. Self-pathologizing, self-condemning, self-liberating: Youths' accounts of their ADHD-related behavior.

    PubMed

    Honkasilta, Juho; Vehmas, Simo; Vehkakoski, Tanja

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzes the discursive construction of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and self in relation to a socioculturally shared understanding of moral norms. Thirteen Finnish youth aged 11 to 16 diagnosed with ADHD were interviewed during this discourse analysis study. The youth accounted for their culturally undesirable behavior, performance and traits through three different types of accounts: (1) externalizing personal responsibility due to a compelling medical condition, (2) internalizing personal responsibility through moral self-condemnation, and (3) distancing oneself from the socially imposed stereotypes and stigmas related to ADHD. This study challenges dominant understanding of young people with a diagnosis of ADHD and contributes to our understanding of how ADHD is constructed in their lives. PMID:26774711

  4. Methylphenidate Ameliorates Depressive Comorbidity in ADHD Children without any Modification on Differences in Serum Melatonin Concentration between ADHD Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Cubero-Millán, Isabel; Molina-Carballo, Antonio; Machado-Casas, Irene; Fernández-López, Luisa; Martínez-Serrano, Sylvia; Tortosa-Pinto, Pilar; Ruiz-López, Aida; Luna-del-Castillo, Juan-de-Dios; Uberos, José; Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients have other associated pathologies, with depressive symptoms as one of the most prevalent. Among the mediators that may participate in ADHD, melatonin is thought to regulate circadian rhythms, neurological function and stress response. To determine (1) the serum baseline daily variations and nocturnal excretion of melatonin in ADHD subtypes and (2) the effect of chronic administration of methylphenidate, as well as the effects on symptomatology, 136 children with ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR criteria) were divided into subgroups using the “Children’s Depression Inventory” (CDI). Blood samples were drawn at 20:00 and 09:00 h, and urine was collected between 21:00 and 09:00 h, at inclusion and after 4.61 ± 2.29 months of treatment. Melatonin and its urine metabolite were measured by radioimmunoassay RIA. Factorial analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Melatonin was higher predominantly in hyperactive-impulsive/conduct disordered children (PHI/CD) of the ADHD subtype, without the influence of comorbid depressive symptoms. Methylphenidate ameliorated this comorbidity without induction of any changes in the serum melatonin profile, but treatment with it was associated with a decrease in 6-s-melatonin excretion in both ADHD subtypes. Conclusions: In untreated children, partial homeostatic restoration of disrupted neuroendocrine equilibrium most likely led to an increased serum melatonin in PHI/CD children. A differential cerebral melatonin metabolization after methylphenidate may underlie some of the clinical benefit. PMID:25257531

  5. Exploring stimulant treatment in ADHD: narratives of young adolescents and their parents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adolescents’ and their parents’ experiences with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its treatment were explored to investigate beliefs and attitudes regarding use of stimulant medication, and their influence on treatment decisions. Methods Using in-depth qualitative interviews, 12 adolescents with ADHD aged 12 – 15 years, and their parents described their experiences of ADHD and its treatment. Twenty four interviews, 12 with adolescents and 12 with their parents elicited detailed descriptions of beliefs about ADHD, attitudes about stimulant use and the circumstances surrounding treatment decisions. Verbatim transcripts were iteratively analyzed by a team of researchers following an interpretive interactionist framework. Results Young people offered three themes describing ADHD: 1) personality trait, 2) physical condition or disorder, and 3) minor issue or concern. Regarding medication use, youth described 1) benefits, 2) changes in sense of self, 3) adverse effects, and 4) desire to discontinue use. Parents’ beliefs were more homogeneous than youth beliefs, describing ADHD as a disorder requiring treatment. Most parents noted benefits from stimulant use. Themes were 1) medication as a last resort, 2) allowing the child to reach his or her potential; and 3) concerns about adverse and long-term effects. Families described how responsibility for treatment decisions is transferred from parent to adolescent over time. Conclusions Young adolescents can have different beliefs about ADHD and attitudes about medication use from their parents. These beliefs and attitudes influence treatment adherence. Incorporating input from young adolescents when making clinical decisions could potentially improve continuity of treatment for youth with ADHD. PMID:24725829

  6. ADHD, Methylphenidate, and Childhood Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Plioplys, Sigita

    2016-06-01

    Investigators from the Department of Functional Neurology, Epileptology and Epilepsy Institute (IDEE), and the Lyon's University Hospital examined the clinical determinants of ADHD severity in children with epilepsy (CWE) along with the response to treatment with methylphenidate (MPH). PMID:27617408

  7. Child maltreatment and ADHD symptoms in a sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sanderud, Karoline; Murphy, Siobhan; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, sexual, overall abuse, and no abuse) and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adulthood. Method Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. A sample of 4,718 young adults (24 years of age) were randomly selected using the total birth cohort of children born in 1984. Structured interviews were conducted with a response rate of 63%, equating to a total sample size of 2,980 participants. Results Chi-square analyses revealed significant relationships between child maltreatment groups and a probable diagnosis of ADHD using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the overall abuse class was more strongly associated with probable ADHD (OR=5.08), followed by emotional abuse (OR=3.09) and sexual abuse (OR=2.07). Conclusions The results showed that childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms in young adulthood. The findings of this study are discussed within the existing literature and suggestions for future research are outlined in order to replicate these findings in other adult populations. Highlights of the article Child maltreatment is associated with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in a nationally representative sample of young Danish adults. Co-occurring (multiple) types of maltreatment display stronger associations with ADHD symptoms with attenuated effects for sexual abuse. Males confer stronger associations with ADHD symptoms than females. Findings underscore the importance of exploring the role of childhood trauma in young adults with ADHD symptoms. PMID:27306866

  8. PCBs and ADHD in Mohawk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, Joan; Behforooz, Bita; Khuzwayo, Amy G; Gallo, Mia V; Schell, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between the levels of persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adolescents' blood serum and concurrent measures of their ADHD-like behavior derived from ratings provided by parents and teachers. Two measures with demonstrated diagnostic validity, the Conners and ADDES scales, are used. The study was conducted in partnership with the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne where the St. Lawrence River and surrounding waterways have been contaminated with PCBs that have entered the food chain. This study examines a subset of the data derived from the Mohawk Adolescent Well-Being Study (MAWBS), which was designed to investigate psychosocial and health related outcomes of 271 adolescents aged 10 years to 17 years and whose mothers were likely to have consumed PCB-contaminated fish and wild game before and during their pregnancy. No evidence of negative effects of adolescent blood PCB levels on ADHD-like behavior was found, and indeed occasional findings were in the unexpected direction. The possibility of negative confounding by SES and breastfeeding history was examined but dismissed. PMID:24462617

  9. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274. PMID:19761584

  10. PCBs and ADHD in Mohawk adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Joan; Behforooz, Bita; Khuzwayo, Amy G.; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between the levels of persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adolescents’ blood serum and concurrent measures of their ADHD-like behavior derived from ratings provided by parents and teachers. Two measures with demonstrated diagnostic validity, the Conners and ADDES scales, are used. The study was conducted in partnership with the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne where the St. Lawrence River and surrounding waterways have been contaminated with PCBs that have entered the food chain. This study examines a subset of the data derived from the Mohawk Adolescent Well-Being Study (MAWBS), which was designed to investigate psychosocial and health related outcomes of 271 adolescents aged 10 years to 17 years and whose mothers were likely to have consumed PCB-contaminated fish and wild game before and during their pregnancy. No evidence of negative effects of adolescent blood PCB levels on ADHD-like behavior was found, and indeed occasional findings were in the unexpected direction. The possibility of negative confounding by SES and breast-feeding history was examined but dismissed. PMID:24462617

  11. [ADHD should be given more attention--early interventions prevents unnecessary suffering].

    PubMed

    Fernell, Elisabeth; Nylander, Lena; Kadesjö, Björn; Gillberg, Christopher

    ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental/neuropsychiatric disorder affecting about 5 percent of children. About 2-3 percent meet diagnostic criteria in adulthood as well. The core symptoms include inattention with or without hyperactivity/restlessness and impulsivity. The main cognitive deficit involves executive functions, probably related to a weak reward system. Symptoms will affect daily functioning at home, among friends and at school/work. In girls and women particularly, a correct diagnosis of ADHD is often late, or is not at all appropriately considered. Co-existing disorders are common; dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder, emotional lability, conduct disorder, autistic symptoms, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, Tourette syndrome, eating disorder, sleeping disorder, and substance abuse. Extensive research in ADHD has increased knowledge in genetics, neurobiology, neuropsychology, intervention, and treatment. Despite this, many individuals with ADHD are not offered a correct assessment, and accordingly, not given appropriate support and treatment. PMID:25253607

  12. The clinical presentation of attention deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joanna; Thapar, Anita; Owen, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although attention deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in children with 22q11.2DS, it remains unclear whether its clinical presentation is similar to that in children with idiopathic ADHD. The aim of this study is to compare the ADHD phenotype in children with and without 22q11.2DS by examining ADHD symptom scores, patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, IQ and gender distribution. Methods: Forty‐four children with 22q11.2DS and ADHD (mean age = 9.6), 600 clinic children (mean age = 10.8) and 77 children with ADHD from a population cohort (mean age = 10.8) participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed using parent‐report research diagnostic instruments. Results: There was a higher proportion of females in the 22q11.2DS ADHD sample in relation to the clinical sample (χ2 = 18.2, P < 0.001). The 22q11.2DS group showed a higher rate of ADHD inattentive subtype (χ2 = 114.76, P < 0.001), and fewer hyperactive‐impulsive symptoms compared to the clinical group (z = 8.43, P < 0.001). The 22q11.2DS ADHD group parents reported fewer oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms (z = 6.33, P < 0.001) and a higher rate of generalized anxiety disorder (χ2 = 4.56, P = 0.03) in relation to the clinical group. Two percent of the 22q11.2 DS ADHD sample had received ADHD treatment. The results were similar when the 22q11.2 ADHD group was compared to the population cohort ADHD group. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of ADHD and patterns of co‐morbidity in 22q11.2DS is different from that in idiopathic ADHD. This could lead to clinical under‐recognition of ADHD in this group. Examining psychopathology in 22q11.2DS can provide insights into the genetic origins of psychiatric problems with implications beyond the 22q11.2DS population. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley

  13. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Breaux, Rosanna P; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance. PMID:26854502

  14. Comparative Study of Children with ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in…

  15. Processing Patterns of ADHD, ADHD-I, and ADHD/LD Children on the LET-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Raymond E.

    This paper discusses the findings from a study that investigated the information processing characteristics of 93 children (ages 8-16) who have been diagnosed as having either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, ADHD-Predominately Inattentive Type, and combined ADHD and learning disabilities (LD). Thirty-nine average students,…

  16. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful. PMID:26529403

  17. Do ADHD Medicines Boost Substance Abuse Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159904.html Do ADHD Medicines Boost Substance Abuse Risk? Chances were actually ... that their children who take stimulants to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at higher risk for substance ...

  18. ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160571.html ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids Study found ... percentage of black children show the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than white kids, they are less likely ...

  19. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  20. Teaching Effective Employment Interviewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, S. Michael

    1988-01-01

    Outlines an assignment for teaching job search skills, including writing a cover letter, resume, and interview follow-up letter. Proposes that the instructor act as interviewer, video tape each interview, and analyze each student's performance. (JAD)

  1. Speeding through the Frat House: A Qualitative Exploration of Nonmedical ADHD Stimulant Use in Fraternities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSantis, Alan; Noar, Seth M.; Webb, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative methods were used to investigate the use of nonmedical Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) stimulants by fraternity members. The primary goal of the study was to determine students' levels of understanding and motivations for use of these Schedule II controlled substances. Seventy-nine in-depth interviews were conducted.…

  2. Self-Control in Postsecondary Settings: Students' Perceptions of ADHD College Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, David R.; Hoffman, Sharon Field; Sawilowsky, Shlomo; Rolands, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to identify undergraduates' perceptions of the impact of ADHD coaching on their academic success and broader life functioning. Method: One-on-one interviews were conducted with 19 students on 10 different U.S. campuses who comprised a purposive sample of gender, cumulative grade point average, and…

  3. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Parental Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Iranian Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Moini, Rozita

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the psychiatric comorbidity of a clinical sample of children with ADHD and the psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method: Structured psychiatric interviews assessing lifetime psychiatric disorders by "DSM-IV" criteria, using the Farsi version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Results: The mean age…

  4. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  5. The Energetic Brain: Understanding and Managing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Harrison, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    ADHD affects millions of people-some 3 to 5% of the general population. Written by a neuroscientist who has studied ADHD, a clinician who has diagnosed and treated it for 30 years, and a special educator who sees it daily, "The Energetic Brain" provides the latest information from neuroscience on how the ADHD brain works and shows how to harness…

  6. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2008-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…

  7. Interpersonal Coping among Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…

  8. Children with ADHD in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Kathryn J.; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Reid, Robert; Chmelka, Beth; Thompson, Ronald W.; Daly, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the characteristics or functioning of children with ADHD in residential care as compared to their non-ADHD peers. This study evaluated data on 538 children with (n = 125) and without (n = 413) ADHD in residential care to determine demographic, mental health, behavioral, and treatment (i.e., medication use) characteristics.…

  9. Gifted Children with AD/HD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovecky, Deirdre V.

    This brief paper on gifted children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) focuses on the special educational needs of this population. Emphasis is on four major conclusions: (1) gifted children with AD/HD differ from average children with AD/HD in cognitive, social, and emotional variables (e.g., the gifted child is likely to show…

  10. Parent training for preschool ADHD: A randomized controlled trial of specialized and generic programs

    PubMed Central

    Abikoff, Howard B.; Thompson, Margaret; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy; Long, Nicholas; Forehand, Rex L.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Klein, Rachel G.; Reiss, Philip; Huo, Lan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Background The ‘New Forest Parenting Package’ (NFPP), an 8-week home-based intervention for parents of preschoolers with ADHD, fosters constructive parenting to target ADHD-related dysfunctions in attention and impulse control.Although NFPP has improved parent and laboratory measures of ADHD in community samples of children with ADHD-like problems, its efficacy in a clinical sample, and relative to an active treatment comparator, is unknown. The aims are to evaluate the short and long-term efficacy and generalization effects of NFPP compared to an established clinic-based parenting intervention for treating noncompliant behavior (‘Helping the Noncompliant Child’ [HNC]) in young children with ADHD. Methods A randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms was the design for this study. 164 3-4-year-olds, 73.8% male, meeting DSM-IV ADHD diagnostic criteria were randomized to NFPP (N = 67), HNC (N = 63), or wait-list control (WL, N = 34). All participants were assessed at post-treatment. NFPP and HNC participants were assessed at follow-up in the next school year. Primary outcomes were ADHD ratings by teachers blind to and uninvolved in treatment, and by parents. Secondary ADHD outcomes included clinician assessments, and laboratory measures of on-task behavior and delay of gratification. Other outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of oppositional behavior, and parenting measures. (Trial name: Home-Based Parent Training in ADHD Preschoolers; Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01320098; URL: http://www/clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01320098). Results In both treatment groups, children's ADHD and ODD behaviors, as well as aspects of parenting, were rated improved by parents at the end of treatment compared to controls. Most of these gains in the children's behavior and in some parenting practices were sustained at follow-up. However, these parent-reported improvements were not corroborated by teacher ratings or objective observations. NFPP

  11. Commentary: Objective aids for the assessment of ADHD - further clarification of what FDA approval for marketing means and why NEBA might help clinicians. A response to Arns et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    Stein, Mark A; Snyder, Steven M; Rugino, Thomas A; Hornig, Mady

    2016-06-01

    Neuropsychiatric EEG-Based ADHD Assessment Aid (NEBA) is an EEG-based device designed to aid in the diagnostic process for ADHD by identifying individuals less likely to have ADHD by virtue of a lower theta/beta ratio. In using NEBA as an example, the Arns et al. commentary misstates the purpose of NEBA, which is to widen the differential rather than to make the diagnosis. Arns et al. caution about missing an ADHD diagnosis, but fail to mention the impact of overdiagnosis. If we are to advance our knowledge of the etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD, as well as develop tailored treatments and ultimately improve outcomes for ADHD, then biomarkers and objective assessment aids such as NEBA are needed to improve and refine diagnostic accuracy beyond symptom description and clinical history. PMID:27192956

  12. Discriminating among ADHD alone, ADHD with a comorbid psychological disorder, and feigned ADHD in a college sample.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kimberly D; Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Mason, Lisa H; Edmundson, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 2000s concern has increased that college students might feign ADHD in pursuit of academic accommodations and stimulant medication. In response, several studies have validated tests for use in differentiating feigned from genuine ADHD. Although results have generally been positive, relatively few publications have addressed the possible impact of the presence of psychological disorders comorbid with ADHD. Because ADHD is thought to have accompanying conditions at rates of 50% and higher, it is important to determine if the additional psychological disorders might compromise the accuracy of feigning detection measures. The present study extended the findings of Jasinski et al. (2011) to examine the efficacy of various measures in the context of feigned versus genuine ADHD with comorbid psychological disorders in undergraduate students. Two clinical groups (ADHD only and ADHD + comorbid psychological disorder) were contrasted with two non-clinical groups (normal controls answering honestly and normal participants feigning ADHD). Extending previous research to individuals with ADHD and either an anxiety or learning disorder, performance validity tests such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), the Letter Memory Test (LMT), and the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT) were effective in differentiating both ADHD groups from normal participants feigning ADHD. However, the Digit Memory Test (DMT) underperformed in this study, as did embedded validity indices from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) and Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-III (WJ-III). PMID:25225947

  13. Whiffing the Airport Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David

    2008-01-01

    An airport interview is an initial interview for a senior administrative position conducted at an airport hotel not too far from the campus in question. Meeting at an airport enables a search committee to interview a large number of candidates in a short period of time with a degree of confidentiality. At the conclusion of the airport interviews,…

  14. Attention and response control in ADHD. Evaluation through integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test.

    PubMed

    Moreno-García, Inmaculada; Delgado-Pardo, Gracia; Roldán-Blasco, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses attention and response control through visual and auditory stimuli in a primary care pediatric sample. The sample consisted of 191 participants aged between 7 and 13 years old. It was divided into 2 groups: (a) 90 children with ADHD, according to diagnostic (DSM-IV-TR) (APA, 2002) and clinical (ADHD Rating Scale-IV) (DuPaul, Power, Anastopoulos, & Reid, 1998) criteria, and (b) 101 children without a history of ADHD. The aims were: (a) to determine and compare the performance of both groups in attention and response control, (b) to identify attention and response control deficits in the ADHD group. Assessments were carried out using the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA/CPT, Sandford & Turner, 2002). Results showed that the ADHD group had visual and auditory attention deficits, F(3, 170) = 14.38; p < .01, deficits in fine motor regulation (Welch´s t-test = 44.768; p < .001) and sensory/motor activity (Welch'st-test = 95.683, p < .001; Welch's t-test = 79.537, p < .001). Both groups exhibited a similar performance in response control, F(3, 170) = .93, p = .43.Children with ADHD showed inattention, mental processing speed deficits, and loss of concentration with visual stimuli. Both groups yielded a better performance in attention with auditory stimuli. PMID:25734571

  15. Iranian Children With ADHD and Mental Health of Their Mothers: The Role of Stress

    PubMed Central

    Babakhanian, Mohammadreza; Sayar, Soraya; Babakhanian, Masaudeh; Mohammadi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder that can result in stress for the mother, resulting in poor health. Objectives The current study, conducted in 2012, aims to assess stress among forty-six Iranian mothers of ADHD children (Group 1) who were admitted to a psychiatric center in Tehran with forty-six Iranian mothers of normal children (Group 2) in 2012. Materials and Methods The Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4), the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the parental stress index-short form (PSI/SF) were completed. Data was analyzed using the Levene test and the independent t-test in SPSS Version 18. Results With the exception of mood, ADHD children had more problems in attention compared with normal children. As a result, mothers of ADHD children had more stress compared with the controls. Conclusions ADHD can impair a mother’s mental health by inducing stress. Specific diagnostic and treatment programs should be designed and tailored for the mothers of ADHD children in order to decrease stress. PMID:27284276

  16. Nutritional supplements for the treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Michael H; Mulqueen, Jilian

    2014-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation appears to have modest benefit for improving ADHD symptoms. Melatonin appears to be effective in treating chronic insomnia in children with ADHD but appears to have minimal effects in reducing core ADHD symptoms. Many other natural supplements are widely used in the United States despite minimal evidence of efficacy and possible side effects. This review synthesizes and evaluates the scientific evidence regarding the potential efficacy and side effects of natural supplements and herbal remedies for ADHD. We provide clinicians with recommendations regarding their potential use and role in overall ADHD treatment. PMID:25220092

  17. Examining autistic traits in children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2010-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated ratings of core ASD traits (ADHD+) not accounted for by ADHD or behavioral symptoms. Further, analyses revealed greater oppositional behaviors, but not ADHD severity or anxiety, in the ADHD+ subgroup compared to those with ADHD only. These results highlight the importance of specifically examining autistic traits in children with ADHD for better characterization in studies of the underlying physiopathology and treatment. PMID:21108041

  18. Impaired visuomotor adaptation in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kurdziel, Laura B F; Dempsey, Katherine; Zahara, Mackenzie; Valera, Eve; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children that often continues into adulthood. It has been suggested that motor impairments in ADHD are associated with underlying cerebellar pathology. If such is the case, individuals with ADHD should be impaired on motor tasks requiring healthy cerebellar function. To test this, we compared performance of individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms with non-ADHD controls on a visuomotor adaptation task known to be impaired following cerebellar lesions. Participants adapted reaching movements to a visual representation that was rotated by 30°. Individuals with ADHD and those with ADHD-like symptoms took longer to correct the angle of movement once the rotation was applied relative to controls. However, post-adaptation residual effect did not differ for individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms compared to the control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that mild cerebellar deficits are evident in the motor performance of adults with ADHD. PMID:25567090

  19. Impaired visuomotor adaptation in adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Dempsey, Katherine; Zahara, Mackenzie; Valera, Eve; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children that often continues into adulthood. It has been suggested that motor impairments in ADHD are associated with underlying cerebellar pathology. If such is the case, individuals with ADHD should be impaired on motor tasks requiring healthy cerebellar function. To test this, we compared performance of individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms with non-ADHD controls on a visuomotor adaptation task known to be impaired following cerebellar lesions. Participants adapted reaching movements to a visual representation that was rotated by 30°. Individuals with ADHD and those with ADHD-like symptoms took longer to correct the angle of movement once the rotation was applied relative to controls. However, post-adaptation residual effect did not differ for individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms compared to the control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that mild cerebellar deficits are evident in the motor performance of adults with ADHD. PMID:25567090

  20. EEG theta and beta power spectra in adolescents with ADHD versus adolescents with ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bink, M; van Boxtel, G J M; Popma, A; Bongers, I L; Denissen, A J M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2015-08-01

    Attention problems are common in youngsters with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in adolescents with combined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. However, it is unknown whether there is psychophysiological overlap and/or a difference in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra between ADHD and comorbid ASD and ADHD (ASD + ADHD), on and off stimulant medication. To explore potential differences and overlap, measures of theta and beta power in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (n = 33) versus adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD (n = 20), categorized by stimulant medication use (57 % of the total sample), were compared. EEG measures were acquired in three conditions: (1) resting state, eyes closed (2) resting state, eyes open and (3) during an oddball task. In addition, performance on the d2 attention test was analyzed. Adolescents with ADHD displayed more absolute theta activity than adolescents with ASD + ADHD during the eyes open and task conditions, independent of stimulant medication use. In addition, only the adolescents with ADHD showed an association between diminished attention test performance and increased theta in the eyes open condition. Results of the current study suggest that although there is behavioral overlap between ADHD characteristics in adolescents with ADHD and adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD, the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms may be different. Adolescents with ASD + ADHD exhibited fewer of the EEG physiological signs usually associated with ADHD, although there was an overlap in attentional problems between the groups. This may indicate that treatments developed for ADHD work differently in some adolescents with ASD + ADHD and adolescents with ADHD only. PMID:25374034

  1. Cultural Proficiency: A Hispanic Woman with ADHD--A Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Roberta; Ramsay, J. Russell

    2010-01-01

    Background: Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD have been drawn from research focused primarily on Caucasian males generating, in part, the need to redress health disparities. Diagnostic criteria may therefore be limited, especially regarding gender differences and other associated cultural, familial, socio-environmental,…

  2. Quantifying ADHD Classroom Inattentiveness, Its Moderators, and Variability: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofler, Michael J.; Rapport, Mark D.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2008-01-01

    Background: Most classroom observation studies have documented significant deficiencies in the classroom attention of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to their typically developing peers. The magnitude of these differences, however, varies considerably and may be influenced by contextual, sampling, diagnostic,…

  3. Examining the Dimensionality of ADHD Symptomatology in Young Adults Using Factor Analysis and Outcome Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Tara E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Current diagnostic criteria specify that ADHD involves difficulties with inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Researchers using factor analysis have consistently found support for an inattention factor in both children and adults. Findings have been mixed regarding whether hyperactivity and impulsivity reflect one or two…

  4. Dose Response Effects of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Treatment in Adults with ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Kollins, Scott H.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Goodman, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore dose-response effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) treatment for ADHD. Method: This was a 4-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, forced-dose titration study in adult participants, aged 18 to 55 years, meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.)…

  5. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for ADHD: A Conceptual Overview and Critical Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stephanie M.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a chronic disorder beginning in childhood, is identifiable and diagnostically valid during the preschool years. Compared to school-aged children, preschoolers have not received as much attention in the literature. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an empirically-supported parent training…

  6. WISC-IV Profiles Are Associated with Differences in Symptomatology and Outcome in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Nicholas S.; Bello, Danielle T.; Etcoff, Lewis M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) cluster profiles of children with ADHD to examine the association between IQ profiles and diagnostic frequency, symptomatology, and outcome in this population. Method: Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on 189 children with a…

  7. EEG Neurofeedback for ADHD: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  8. Untreated ADHD in Adults: Are There Sex Differences in Symptoms, Comorbidity, and Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Levander, Sten

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze sex differences among adult, never-treated patients referred for central stimulant treatment of ADHD. Method: Data for 600 consecutive patients from northern Norway referred for evaluation by an expert team during 7 years were analyzed. General background information, diagnostic and social history, and symptom profiles were…

  9. Co-Occurrence of ADHD and High IQ: A Case Series Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordeiro, Mara L.; Farias, Antonio C.; Cunha, Alexandre; Benko, Cassia R.; Farias, Lucilene G.; Costa, Maria T.; Martins, Leandra F.; McCracken, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The validity of a diagnosis of ADHD in children with a high intelligence quotient (IQ) remains controversial. Using a multidisciplinary approach, rigorous diagnostic criteria, and worldwide-validated psychometric instruments, we identified a group of children attending public schools in southern Brazil for co-occurrence of high IQ and…

  10. Is hyperactivity ubiquitous in ADHD or dependent on environmental demands? Evidence from meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Sarver, Dustin E; Wells, Erica L; Soto, Elia F

    2016-06-01

    Hyperactivity, or excess gross motor activity, is considered a core and ubiquitous characteristic of ADHD. Alternate models question this premise, and propose that hyperactive behavior reflects, to a large extent, purposeful behavior to cope with environmental demands that interact with underlying neurobiological vulnerabilities. The present review critically evaluates the ubiquity and environmental modifiability of hyperactivity in ADHD through meta-analysis of 63 studies of mechanically measured activity level in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD relative to typically developing groups. Random effects models corrected for publication bias confirmed elevated gross motor activity in ADHD (d=0.86); surprisingly, neither participant age (child vs. adult) nor the proportion of each ADHD sample diagnosed with the inattentive subtype/presentation moderated this effect. In contrast, activity level assessed during high cognitive load conditions in general (d=1.14) and high executive functioning demands in particular (d=1.39) revealed significantly higher effect sizes than activity level during low cognitive load (d=0.36) and in-class schoolwork (d=0.50) settings. Low stimulation environments, more rigorous diagnostic practices, actigraph measurement of movement frequency and intensity, and ADHD samples that included fewer females were also associated with larger effects. Overall, the results are inconsistent with DSM-5 and ADHD models that a) describe hyperactivity as ubiquitous behavior, b) predict a developmental decline in hyperactivity, or c) differentiate subtypes/presentations according to perceived differences in hyperactive behavior. Instead, results suggest that the presence and magnitude of hyperactive behavior in ADHD may be influenced to a considerable extent by environmental factors in general, and cognitive/executive functioning demands in particular. PMID:27131918

  11. Gene × environment interactions for ADHD: synergistic effect of 5HTTLPR genotype and youth appraisals of inter-parental conflict

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Serotonin genes have been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); prior work suggests that serotonin may interact with psychosocial stressors in ADHD, perhaps via mechanisms involved in emotional dysregulation. Because the development of behavioral and emotional regulation depends heavily both on the child's experience within the family context and the child's construals of that experience, children's appraisals of inter-parental conflict are a compelling candidate potentiator of the effects of variation within the serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) on liability for ADHD. Method 304 youth from the local community underwent a multi-informant diagnostic assessment procedure to identify ADHD cases and non-ADHD controls. Youth also completed the Children's Perception of Inter-Parental Conflict (CPIC) scale to assess appraisals of self-blame in relation to their parents' marital disputes. The trialleic configuration of 5HTTLPR (long/short polymorphism with A> G substitution) was genotyped and participants were assigned as having high (La/La N = 78), intermediate (La/Lg, La/short, N = 137), or low (Lg/Lg, Lg/short, short/short, N = 89) serotonin transporter activity genotypes. Teacher reported behavior problems were examined as the target outcome to avoid informant overlap for moderator and outcome measures. Results Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated significant 5HTTLPR × self-blame interactions for ADHD symptoms. Examination of the interactions indicated positive relations between reports of self-blame and ADHD symptoms for those with the high and low serotonin activity genotypes. There was no relation between self-blame and ADHD for those with intermediate activity 5HTTLPR genotypes. Conclusion Both high and low serotonergic activity may exert risk for ADHD when coupled with psychosocial distress such as children's self-blame in relation to inter-parental conflict

  12. Enlarged striatal volume in adults with ADHD carrying the 9-6 haplotype of the dopamine transporter gene DAT1.

    PubMed

    Onnink, A Marten H; Franke, Barbara; van Hulzen, Kimm; Zwiers, Marcel P; Mostert, Jeanette C; Schene, Aart H; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hartman, Catharina A; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Kan, Cornelis C; Buitelaar, Jan; Hoogman, Martine

    2016-08-01

    The dopamine transporter gene, DAT1 (SLC6A3), has been studied extensively as a candidate gene for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Different alleles of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) in this gene have been associated with childhood ADHD (10/10 genotype and haplotype 10-6) and adult ADHD (haplotype 9-6). This suggests a differential association depending on age, and a role of DAT1 in modulating the ADHD phenotype over the lifespan. The DAT1 gene may mediate susceptibility to ADHD through effects on striatal volumes, where it is most highly expressed. In an attempt to clarify its mode of action, we examined the effect of three DAT1 alleles (10/10 genotype, and the haplotypes 10-6 and 9-6) on bilateral striatal volumes (nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen) derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans using automated tissue segmentation. Analyses were performed separately in three cohorts with cross-sectional MRI data, a childhood/adolescent sample (NeuroIMAGE, 301 patients with ADHD and 186 healthy participants) and two adult samples (IMpACT, 118 patients with ADHD and 111 healthy participants; BIG, 1718 healthy participants). Regression analyses revealed that in the IMpACT cohort, and not in the other cohorts, carriers of the DAT1 adult ADHD risk haplotype 9-6 had 5.9 % larger striatum volume relative to participants not carrying this haplotype. This effect varied by diagnostic status, with the risk haplotype affecting striatal volumes only in patients with ADHD. An explorative analysis in the cohorts combined (N = 2434) showed a significant gene-by-diagnosis-by-age interaction suggesting that carriership of the 9-6 haplotype predisposes to a slower age-related decay of striatal volume specific to the patient group. This study emphasizes the need of a lifespan approach in genetic studies of ADHD. PMID:26935821

  13. Dynamics of ADHD in familial contexts: perspectives from children and parents and implications for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hui Mei; Goh, Esther C L

    2014-01-01

    This article provides in-depth insights on the bidirectional dynamics between parents and their children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Five family units (8 parents, 5 children, N = 13) participated in this study. Parents and their child with ADHD were interviewed individually in their homes. Stressful moments of parent-child dynamics revolved around managing their child's behavior and doing homework. Findings highlight the child's agency and power of influence, and the possible recovery of negative dynamics. It is recommended that practitioners adopt the strengths perspective in working with these families and incorporate child's agency and bidirectional dynamics in interventions. PMID:25133296

  14. Diagnostic Efficiency among Psychiatric Outpatients of a Self-Report Version of a Subset of Screen Items of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders (SCID-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germans, Sara; Van Heck, Guus L.; Masthoff, Erik D.; Trompenaars, Fons J. W. M.; Hodiamont, Paul P. G.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the identification of a 10-item set of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) items, which proved to be effective as a self-report assessment instrument in screening personality disorders. The item selection was based on the retrospective analyses of 495 SCID-II interviews. The…

  15. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593

  16. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  17. Exercise: Applications to Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Emmerson, Natasha; Gehricke, Jean-G.; Galassetti, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, presenting with pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, or a combination. The leading hypothesis of the underlying physiology of this disorder of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity is based on catecholamine dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy…

  18. Is ADHD a "Real" Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Michael; Lynch, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In many western countries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status, such that it probably no longer requires introduction. The disorder is a global phenomenon, spreading rapidly as result of the increasing dominance internationally of US psychiatric models, the need for new markets for major pharmaceutical…

  19. Are ADHD Kids More Creative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugate, C. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Unfortunately, there are many students that feel "stupid" in classrooms all around the country. They know they are gifted, but their ADHD and co-occurring conditions can make them feel isolated and alone. This is hard not only for the children, but for the parents who may feel powerless in helping their child know how special he or she…

  20. ADHD Psychosocial Treatments: Generalization Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral interventions have demonstrated clinical utility in improving the behavior of children with ADHD, especially in specialized therapeutic milieus (Pelham et al., 2000). Improvements in children's target behaviors often occur in the treatment settings where contingencies are in place and delivered consistently. However, generalization of…

  1. Comorbidity of Migraine with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how often drugs used to treat migraine and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients to assess, indirectly, the comorbidity of these disorders. Method: We used data from the Norwegian prescription database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (N = 4,640,219). Results:…

  2. Comorbidity of Asthma with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Eagan, Tomas Mikal; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess how frequently drugs used to treat asthma and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients. Method: The authors used data from the Norwegian Prescription Database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (n = 4,640,219). Results: Anti-asthma drugs were prescribed to 350,894 persons (7.56 % of the population), anti-ADHD…

  3. Auditory Conflict Processing in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Mourik, Rosa; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Konig, Claudia; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was conducted to gain insight into conflict processing…

  4. Parents, ADHD and the internet.

    PubMed

    Terbeck, Sylvia; Chesterman, L Paul

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the potential impact of using the internet on medical consultations by analysing the attitudes, attributions, and emotional responses of parents who have been informed by specialists that their child does not have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine the nature of the feedback they obtained from members of online internet support groups. Over 40,000 messages from the five most popular international internet forums discussing children with ADHD were analysed. Messages from parents who reported that they had seen at least one specialist (e.g. paediatrician, psychiatrist or psychologist) because of their concerns that their child had ADHD were identified. The children included boys and girls with an age range from 2 to 16 years. Of these, we analysed messages where the parents additionally reported that the specialist had excluded a diagnosis of ADHD. Using these criteria, 91 messages from parents who had consulted over 200 different specialists and 398 replies to these messages were identified for content analysis. The replies to concerned parents were analysed to determine whether they were offered impartial advice. A majority of the parents reported that they did not believe the specialist and were unhappy about their child not being diagnosed with ADHD. They expressed dissatisfaction with the professional's opinions and the implication that their child's conduct was caused by their poor parenting skills. Importantly, 87.6 % of the responses that these parents received, from other members of online forums, reinforced the parent's negative attitude towards the professional's judgement. It was generally suggested that the parents should not believe the expert and should seek a further opinion. The use of the internet may encourage "doctor shopping" and mistrust in health services. Medical professionals and others may need to be aware of this, and parents may need more support than is generally

  5. Interview with Sandra Thompson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiung-chih

    1994-01-01

    Presents an interview of Sandra Thompson on various topics relating to the Chinese language. The interview touches on conversational data on Chinese, the lack of morphological complexity in Mandarin Chinese, and the development of Chinese functionalism. (12 references) (CK)

  6. Causes of ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Causes of ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Scientists ... research discounts this theory than supports it. Diagnosing ADHD Children mature at different rates and have different ...

  7. Adults with ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Adults with ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Some ... as clear cut as symptoms seen in children. ADHD Research The expansion of knowledge in genetics, brain ...

  8. Treating ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Treating ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Currently available treatments aim at reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Treatments include medication, various types ...

  9. Causes of ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes ADHD, although many studies suggest that genes play a large role. Like many other illnesses, ADHD ... percentage of children with ADHD have suffered a traumatic brain injury. Sugar. The idea that refined sugar ...

  10. ADHD Symptoms and Subtypes: Relationship between Childhood and Adolescent Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Moilanen, Irma K.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in childhood and adolescence. The results conclude the persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence with specific symptoms contributing to persistent ADHD.

  11. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children: Predictors of Diagnostic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Prock, Lisa Albers; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study were (1) to provide estimates of diagnostic stability for a sample of young children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after undergoing comprehensive multidisciplinary assessments and (2) to identify baseline child and family characteristics that predict diagnostic stability over time. METHODS: Children aged 3 to 6 years, 11 months consecutively diagnosed with ADHD after multidisciplinary consultations at a tertiary care clinic between 2003 and 2008 were recontacted in 2012 and 2013 (N = 120). At follow-up, the primary outcome was the proportion of children who continued to meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD. To identify predictors of diagnostic stability, logistic regression models were used. In addition, a latent class model was used to independently classify subjects into distinct clusters. RESULTS: In this cohort, 70.4% of the children contacted at follow-up continued to meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Predictors of diagnostic stability included externalizing and internalizing symptoms at baseline, parental history of psychopathology, and family socioeconomic status. The latent class model independently identified 3 distinct profiles: (1) children who no longer met ADHD criteria; (2) children with persistent ADHD and high parental psychopathology; and (3) children with persistent ADHD and low family socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Young children who underwent comprehensive developmental and psychological assessments before receiving an ADHD diagnosis, had higher rates of diagnostic stability than in previous studies of community samples. Child and family factors that predict diagnostic stability have the potential to guide treatment planning for children diagnosed with ADHD before 7 years of age. PMID:24639272

  12. Leading by Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    While the interview remains the most relevant process by which information about an applicant can be obtained, the effective school administrator must recognize that the interview process is much more than exploring an applicant's qualifications, skills, and experiences. The interview must also be utilized as a means of leading. In other words,…

  13. Teaching Effective Interviewing Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Frankie

    Through careful preparation and followup, students can insure successful job interviews. If they evaluate their own skills and expectations and assess employer characteristics before interviews, they can increase their credibility with interviewers and make more effective job decisions. If they anticipate irrelevant or illegal questions on such…

  14. The Craft of Interviewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, John

    This book provides discussion and advice concerning the process of interviewing for publication. Chapters analyze getting interviews, doing research, relating to the interviewee, questioning techniques, persisting in a line of questioning, and dealing with off-the-record comments. Notetaking, tape recording, difficult subjects, interviews by…

  15. Dispositional Trait Types of ADHD in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated a novel person-centered approach to parsing ADHD heterogeneity using dispositional traits. Method Participants were one hundred nine 3- to 6-year-olds, and their primary caregivers and day care providers/teachers who completed a multi-informant diagnostic procedure with longitudinal follow-up. Results Based on latent profile analysis, young children with ADHD could be divided into low control, high surgency, and high negative affect subgroups. The low control and high surgency groups exhibited increased parent- and teacher-rated hyperactive-impulsive and oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms. Although the low control group exhibited the worst response inhibition, the high surgency group exhibited the worst working memory. Furthermore, the high surgency group exhibited high aggression and increasing levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity and ODD symptoms over time. Conclusion A subgroup of young children with ADHD with high surgency may be at particular risk for comorbid psychopathology and longitudinal worsening of symptoms. PMID:23239785

  16. Distinct neuropsychological subgroups in typically developing youth inform heterogeneity in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fair, Damien A; Bathula, Deepti; Nikolas, Molly A; Nigg, Joel T

    2012-04-24

    Research and clinical investigations in psychiatry largely rely on the de facto assumption that the diagnostic categories identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) represent homogeneous syndromes. However, the mechanistic heterogeneity that potentially underlies the existing classification scheme might limit discovery of etiology for most developmental psychiatric disorders. Another, perhaps less palpable, reality may also be interfering with progress-heterogeneity in typically developing populations. In this report we attempt to clarify neuropsychological heterogeneity in a large dataset of typically developing youth and youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), using graph theory and community detection. We sought to determine whether data-driven neuropsychological subtypes could be discerned in children with and without the disorder. Because individual classification is the sine qua non for eventual clinical translation, we also apply support vector machine-based multivariate pattern analysis to identify how well ADHD status in individual children can be identified as defined by the community detection delineated subtypes. The analysis yielded several unique, but similar subtypes across both populations. Just as importantly, comparing typically developing children with ADHD children within each of these distinct subgroups increased diagnostic accuracy. Two important principles were identified that have the potential to advance our understanding of typical development and developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. The first tenet suggests that typically developing children can be classified into distinct neuropsychological subgroups with high precision. The second tenet proposes that some of the heterogeneity in individuals with ADHD might be "nested" in this normal variation. PMID:22474392

  17. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwood, Karen L.; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and…

  18. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  19. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…

  20. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  1. Comparing ADHD in Velocardiofacial Syndrome to Idiopathic ADHD: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Fremont, Wanda; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kates, Wendy R.; Doyle, Alysa; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Background: Children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a contiguous deletion syndrome, have an increased prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The authors compared youth with VCFS+ADHD (from the SUNY Upstate VCFS Research Program) to those with ADHD but not VCFS (from the Massachusetts General…

  2. Teachers' Knowledge of ADHD, Treatments for ADHD, and Treatment Acceptability: An Initial Investigation. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vereb, Rebecca L.; DiPerna, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to begin to explore the relationship among teachers' knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), knowledge of common treatments for ADHD, and acceptability of different approaches to treatment for ADHD (medication and behavior management). Relationships also were explored between these variables and…

  3. Dietary patterns in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Dong Woo; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Seo, Ju-Hee; Choe, Byeong Moo; Park, Jae Hong; Kang, Je-Wook; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Chueh, Hee Won; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-04-01

    The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the "traditional" pattern, the "seaweed-egg" pattern, the "traditional-healthy" pattern, and the "snack" pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12-0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD. PMID:24736898

  4. How can Continuous Performance Test help to assess inattention when mood and ADHD symptoms coexist?

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Cintia; Nazar, Bruno P; Pinna, Camilla M S; Rabelo, Beatriz; Serra-Pinheiro, Maria Antonia; Sergeant, Joseph; Mattos, Paulo

    2016-09-30

    Depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prevalent, and often comorbid, disorders, with varying severity levels among patients. Inattention is a symptom present in both disorders, which often makes their differential diagnosis difficult in clinical practice (depression only versus comorbidity). This study aimed to investigate the influence of depressive symptoms on attention performance using one of the most common tasks in clinical practice, the continuous performance test (CPT). Ninety-three college students (60 men, 33 women) with a mean age of 24 years old were investigated with self-reports and semi-structured interviews for ADHD; the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used for depression ratings. Attention measures were derived from the CPT. There was no correlation between depression and ADHD symptoms; in addition, depression was not correlated with any of the CPT scores; ADHD symptomatology was the only predictor of changes in those CPT variables (commission and omission errors and d prime). ADHD-associated impairment on the CPT was not augmented by the presence of depressive symptoms, making neuropsychological results on this test helpful for the differential diagnosis. When attention deficits are observed in individuals with mild or moderate depression, they are most likely not attributed to depression. PMID:27434202

  5. Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Dong Woo; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Seo, Ju-Hee; Choe, Byeong Moo; Park, Jae Hong; Kang, Je-Wook; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Chueh, Hee Won; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the “traditional” pattern, the “seaweed-egg” pattern, the “traditional-healthy” pattern, and the “snack” pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12–0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD. PMID:24736898

  6. Change over time in adolescent and friend alcohol use: Differential associations for youth with and without childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Belendiuk, Katherine A; Pedersen, Sarah L; King, Kevin M; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems by adulthood. However, few studies have examined contextual factors that may contribute to this risk. The current study examined 1 widely investigated social-contextual risk factor, friend alcohol use, in a sample of adolescents with and without a history of ADHD. One hundred and 59 adolescents (14-17 years old) with childhood ADHD and 117 demographically similar youth without ADHD were interviewed annually in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study. Adolescents reported the frequency of their own alcohol use in the prior 12 months and the number of friends who used alcohol regularly or occasionally (perceived friend alcohol use). Multiple-group parallel process models indicated that increases in friend alcohol use were more strongly associated with increases in adolescent alcohol use over time for individuals with ADHD (r = .15, SE = 0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.08, 0.22]) than for those without ADHD (r = .06, SE = 0.03; 95% CI [0.00, 0.11]). These results suggest that social factors are an important part of escalating alcohol use among adolescents with ADHD histories, and they highlight the possibility that interventions focused on the peer context could be important for these at-risk youth. Additional social network research on adolescent alcohol use within the larger context of other relationships (e.g., family and romantic relationships) is indicated. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26437359

  7. Comorbidity of ADHD and incontinence in children.

    PubMed

    von Gontard, Alexander; Equit, Monika

    2015-02-01

    ADHD and incontinence are common childhood disorders which co-occur at much higher rates than expected by chance. The aim of this review was to provide an overview both of the comorbidity of nocturnal enuresis (NE), daytime urinary incontinence (DUI) and faecal incontinence (FI) in children with ADHD; and, vice versa, of the co-occurrence of ADHD in children with NE, DUI and FI. Most clinical studies have focussed on the association of ADHD and NE. Population-based studies have shown that children with DUI have an even greater risk for ADHD than those with NE. While children with FI have the highest overall comorbidity rates of psychological disorders, these are heterogeneous with a wide range of internalising and externalising disorders--not necessarily of ADHD. Genetic studies indicate that ADHD and NE, DUI and FI do not share the same genetic basis. The comorbidity is conferred by non-genetic factors. Possible aetiological and pathogenetic links between ADHD and incontinence are provided by neurophysiological, imaging and pharmacological studies. The co-occurrence has clinical implications: children with ADHD and NE, DUI and FI are more difficult to treat, show lower compliance and have less favourable treatment outcomes for incontinence. Therefore, both groups of disorders have to be assessed and treated specifically. PMID:24980793

  8. ADHD and growth: questions still unanswered.

    PubMed

    Ptacek, Radek; Kuzelova, Hana; Stefano, George B; Raboch, Jirí; Kream, Richard M; Goetz, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorders. It is manifested in every part of an affected child's behavior, with multiple symptomatology and heterogenous etiology. Published studies report that ADHD children may show changes in growth and development. Most of the studies on ADHD have been focused on connections between medication and growth changes and describe growth delays associated with medication. However, recent research results point to the low significance of the changes accompanying pharmacological treatment. Changes in growth may not only be a secondary effect of the treatment, but may also be specific characteristics of ADHD. PMID:24625909

  9. [Immunological and endocrinological pattern in ADHD etiopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Budziszewska, Bogusława; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Lasoń, Władysław

    2010-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder among children. There are 3 subtypes of ADHD: (1) with prevalent inattentive symptoms (2) with prevalent hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and (3) the combined subtype. It typically manifests itself before age 7 years and occurs more frequently in boys than in girls. It is diagnosed when the hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattention last long, appear at least in two environments and their intensity impairs the functioning of the child. The etiology of ADHD is not well-known but recent studies have shown that genetic factors are of big importance. Also several environmental influences that raise the risk for ADHD development have been identified. Recently, it has been postulated that the reduced activity of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems play a crucial role in ADHD pathogenesis. It is evidenced by the fact that drugs intensifying the noradrenergic and dopaminergic transmission are the most successful for ADHD treatment. At present, it has been also postulated that the disturbances in endocrine and immune systems are involved in the ADHD pathogenesis. Interconnections between functions of these systems and function of neurotransmitters are better recognized now and show that disturbances in their cooperation can be involved in some psychiatric disorders. In the case of ADHD, most data are related to disturbances in the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In particular, the lower level of cortisol in children with ADHD, especially in the hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD, the disturbance in the circadian rhythm of this steroid and the lack of its inhibition by the dexamethasone have been documented. Many clinical data indicate that in children with ADHD, the psychological stress evokes a weaker activation of the HPA axis than in the control group. Epidemiological and preclinical investigations have shown that the disturbance in

  10. Gender differences in the effects of oppositional behavior on teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, David A; King, Alan R

    2004-04-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child exhibiting unremarkable behavior) suggested that oppositional tendencies inflated teacher ratings of ADHD for boys. The term "halo effect" has been used in the literature to refer to the impact of one class of behavior on the perception of another. This study replicated this procedure using identical scripts with both male and female child models. Oppositional behavior was associated with higher teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattentiveness. Portrayals of behavior associated with ADHD generated higher teacher ratings of oppositional conduct. This bidirectional effect differed in magnitude as a function of child gender. The boy actor exhibiting oppositional behavior received teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattention that were roughly half of those elicited by his portrayal of ADHD itself. The girl actor portraying ADHD generated oppositional defiant ratings that were roughly two thirds of those elicited from her performance as a child with ODD. These teacher rating tendencies could contribute to higher diagnostic rates of ADHD among boys and ODD among girls. Available epidemiologic data indicate a much higher rate of ADHD among boys and prevalence differentials for ODD (girls initially lower) that disappear by adolescence. Future research will be required to determine the extent to which these teacher response sets generalize to other evaluators such as parents, physicians and mental health professionals. PMID:15164862

  11. Combination pharmacotherapy for adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A; Reingold, Lisa S; Morrill, Melinda S; Wilens, Timothy E

    2006-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders of adulthood. Although clinical guidelines recommend monotherapy with stimulants or atomoxetine, combination pharmacotherapy is a common practice among clinicians. There are four main situations in which combination medications may be necessary: partial response, dose-limiting side effects, associated disorders, and comorbid diagnoses. We present data from two chart reviews that support existing research on combination pharmacotherapy. Adjunct treatment of d-methylphenidate to stimulant medications extended the duration of therapeutic effect. Adjunct treatment of mirtazapine to stimulant medications reduced associated insomnia. These data support previous research that validates the use of combination pharmacotherapy for adults with ADHD. PMID:16968624

  12. Are all the 18 DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria equally useful for diagnosing ADHD and predicting comorbid conduct problems?

    PubMed

    Garcia Rosales, Alexandra; Vitoratou, Silia; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Oades, Robert D; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V; Chen, Wai

    2015-11-01

    In view of ICD-11 revision, we evaluate whether the 18 DSM-IV diagnostic items retained by DSM-5 could be further improved (i) in predicting ADHD 'caseness' and 'impairment' and (ii) discriminating ADHD without CD (ADHD - CD) cases from ADHD with CD (ADHD + CD) cases. In a multi-centre study sample consisting of 1497 ADHD probands and 291 unaffected subjects, 18 diagnostic items were examined for redundancy; then each item was evaluated for association with caseness, impairment and CD status using Classical Test Theory, Item-Response Theory and logistic regression methods. First, all 18 DSM-IV items contributed significantly and independently to the clinical diagnosis of ADHD. Second, not all the DSM-IV items carried equal weighting. "Often loses things", "forgetfulness" and "difficulty sustaining attention" mark severity for Inattentiveness (IA) items and "often unduly noisy", "exhibits a persistent pattern of restlessness", "leaves seat in class" and "often blurts out answers" for Hyperactivity/Impulsivity (HI) items. "Easily distracted", "inattentive to careless mistakes", "often interrupts" and "often fidgets" are associated with milder presentations. In the IA domain, "distracted" yields most information in the low-severity range of the latent trait, "careless" in the mid-severity range and "loses" in the high-severity range. In the HI domains, "interrupts" yields most information in the low-severity range and "motor" in the high-severity range. Third, all 18 items predicted impairment. Fourth, specific ADHD items are associated with ADHD + CD status. The DSM-IV diagnostic items were valid and not redundant; however, some carried more weight than others. All items were associated with impairment. PMID:25743746

  13. Using Stimulant Medication for Children with ADHD: What Do Parents Say? A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Charach, Alice; Skyba, Anna; Cook, Lisa; Antle, Beverley J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Long-term adherence to stimulant treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is frequently poor. Since parents are the key decision makers regarding their child’s health care, their thoughts regarding medication use are crucial to whether children take prescribed stimulants. To develop an understanding of what parents think about using stimulants to treat their children’s ADHD symptoms we consulted groups of parents about their experiences. Methods Using qualitative methods informed by phenomenology, three focus groups of parents were asked to describe their experiences parenting a child with ADHD and using stimulant medications for treatment. Participants were 17 mothers and fathers of 14 children with ADHD, ages 7–14 years, who had received detailed diagnostic assessments and had used stimulants. Focus group dialogue was recorded and transcribed. Using established methods of data analysis, themes were identified and explored. Results Accepting that one’s child has ADHD and needs treatment is a difficult and lengthy process, often accompanied by confusion and self-doubt. Parents find the choice to use stimulant treatment particularly challenging given the conflicting opinions they hear from family, friends and professionals. Conclusions Universally, parents want to do what is best for their child. Adverse effects, concerns about stigmatization, and the child’s dislike of taking pills, all contribute to parents’ decisions to discontinue medication even when the child shows symptomatic benefit. PMID:18392197

  14. [Motivational interview: supporting change].

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume; Ducasse, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    The motivational interview aims to help patients to resolve their ambivalence regarding problematic behaviors and to guide them into change. It differs from other therapeutic approaches mainly through the attitude of the therapist. In motivational interviewing, the therapist defends the statu quo. By reactance, the patient defends the change and enhance her/his motivation. This article provides a summary of the other concepts of motivational interviewing and its applications in the psychiatric daily practice. PMID:26143220

  15. Optimal management of ADHD in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Torgersen, Terje; Gjervan, Bjorn; Lensing, Michael B; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background The manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among older adults has become an interesting topic of interest due to an increasing number of adults aged 50 years and older (≥50 years) seeking assessment for ADHD. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on ADHD in older adults, and until recently only a few case reports existed. Method A systematic search was conducted in the databases Medline/PubMed and PsycINFO in order to identify studies regarding ADHD in adults ≥50 years. Results ADHD persists into older ages in many patients, but the prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis at age ≥50 years is still unknown. It is reason to believe that the prevalence is falling gradually with age, and that the ADHD symptom level is significantly lower in the age group 70–80 years than the group 50–60 years. There is a lack of controlled studies of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years, but this review suggests that many patients aged ≥50 years experience beneficial effects of pharmacological treatment. The problem with side effects and somatic complications may rise to a level that makes pharmacotherapy for ADHD difficult after the age of 65 years. Physical assessment prior to initiation of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years should include a thorough clinical examination, and medication should be titrated with low doses initially and with a slow increase. In motivated patients, different psychological therapies alone or in addition to pharmacotherapy should be considered. Conclusion It is essential when treating older adult patients with ADHD to provide good support based on knowledge and understanding of how ADHD symptoms have affected health, quality of life, and function through the life span. Individualized therapy for each elderly patient should be recommended to balance risk–benefit ratio when pharmacotherapy is considered to be a possible treatment. PMID:26811680

  16. Agreement Rates between Parent and Self-Report on Past ADHD Symptoms in an Adult Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Gabriela; Mattos, Paulo; Coutinho, Gabriel; Segenreich, Daniel; Saboya, Eloisa; Ayrao, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate agreement rates between parent and self-report on childhood symptoms of ADHD. Method: Sixty-eight self-referred treatment-naive adults (33 men, 35 women) were interviewed with a modified version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E) and asked about past ADHD…

  17. [Awareness of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Greece].

    PubMed

    Pehlivanidis, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopment disorder of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. In adults, the clinical picture of ADHD is complex and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders is the rule. The documentation that the disorder had a childhood onset and the various comorbid symptomatologies present both in childhood and adult life represent the most influential obstacles for the accurate clinical diagnosis of the disorder. In 75% of cases with adult ADHD there is at least one coexisting comorbid disorder, with anxiety and mood disorders as well as substance abuse and impulse control disorders being the most prevalent ones. Adult psychiatrists have limited experience in the diagnosis, treatment and overall management of the disorder. Greece is a member of the European Network Adult ADHD (ENAA), founded in 2003, aiming to increase awareness of the disorder and to improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. A clinic where diagnosis as well as treatment recommendations are given after a thorough assessment of adult ADHD patients, is hosted at the First Department of Psychiatry of the Athens National and Kapodistian University. The clinic is in close collaboration with ENAA. The diagnosis of ADHD is given after a detailed evaluation of the patient, based on history taken, self-administered questionnaires and a specific psychiatric interview. The reliable trace of the symptoms' onset back in early childhood, current symptomatology, as well as its impact on at least two major areas of functioning (school, home, work or personal relationships) are pivotal for the assessment procedure. Special attention should be paid in the distinction of symptoms often coexisting with the core symptoms of the ADHD, such as emotional liability, incessant mental activity, avoidance of situations like queuing, especially when there is also frustration, from those indicating a comorbid

  18. The relationship between ADHD symptomatology and self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicidal behaviours in adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mairin R; Boden, Joseph M; Rucklidge, Julia J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of harm over the lifespan due to increased rates of self-harm, suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviour, and whether this association is mediated by psychosocial factors. Sixty-six adults (43 men, 23 women; 18-65 years) participated in this study involving clinical interview and retrospective self-report measures of ADHD symptoms, self-harm/suicidal behaviour, mental health disorders, and coping style measures. Significant associations were found between ADHD symptom severity and self-reported histories of self-harm behaviour, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (all p values<.05). These relationships between self-destructive behaviours and ADHD symptom severity were found to be significantly and differentially mediated by psychosocial variables (all p values<.05) including comorbidity (mood, anxiety, drug, and alcohol abuse disorders) and emotion-focussed coping style. This study suggests that linkages between self-injurious behaviour and ADHD symptomatology may be due primarily to comorbid mental health disorders and emotion-focussed coping. The identification of these mediating factors and processes may potential pathways for intervention in reducing suicide and self-harm risk amongst those with ADHD symptoms. PMID:24807794

  19. ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

  20. What Parents Should Know about ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2016-01-01

    Some gifted children suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's functioning. For a diagnosis of ADHD, children under the age of 17 must display at least six symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity in at least two different settings (school and home, for example),…

  1. Decision Making in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…

  2. An ADHD Primer. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyandt, Lisa L.

    2007-01-01

    Filled with current, practical, and useful information for professionals and individuals, this second edition summarizes the literature concerning ADHD across the lifespan. It offers a better understanding of the disorder by addressing the potential causes of ADHD, the developmental course, and numerous treatment approaches. The author delivers…

  3. Classroom Management and the ADHD Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colberg, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the academic needs of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be taxing on teachers and students. This research highlights classroom management strategies that general education teachers might include in their teaching to support the academic growth students with ADHD, while continuing to support all students in…

  4. Rethinking a Right Hemisphere Deficit in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Loo, Sandra K.; Zaidel, Eran; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; Smalley, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Early observations from lesion studies suggested right hemisphere (RH) dysfunction in ADHD. However, a strictly right-lateralized deficit has not been well supported. An alternatively view suggests increased R greater than L asymmetry of brain function and abnormal interhemispheric interaction. If true, RH pathology in ADHD should…

  5. Agomelatine Treatment with Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Antidepressants, in particular Atomextine, along with stimulants have demonstrated benefit in the treatment of ADHD. Agomelatine is a new antidepressant with additional affinities to the melatonergic system. As ADHD has been associated with sleep disorders, it is assumed that Agomelatiine might serve as a therapeutic alternative to…

  6. Intervention Strategies for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; White, George P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe three types of ADHD behavior that affect from 3 percent to 7 percent of elementary school children, mostly boys. They recommend supplementing stimulant medication with behavior modification strategies, at home and school, to improve ADHD students' social skills and school performance.

  7. Language Characteristics of Children with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Okmi H.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2000-01-01

    Language characteristics of 11 children (ages 6-8) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 11 typically developing children were compared for semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic language skills. Findings indicated no differences on receptive vocabulary, but children with ADHD performed worse on tests of expressive speech and…

  8. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2012-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and neurobiological basis of these deficits is less consistently observed. There is growing evidence that boys’ and girls’ brains develop and mature at different rates, suggesting that the trajectory of early anomalous brain development in ADHD may also be sex-specific. It remains unclear, however, whether earlier brain maturation observed in girls with ADHD is protective. In this review, we outline the current theory and research findings that seek to establish a unique neurobiological profile of girls with ADHD, highlighting sex differences in typical brain development and among children with ADHD. The review highlights findings from neurological, neurocognitive, and behavioral studies. Future research directions are suggested, including the need for longitudinal neuroimaging and neurobehavioral investigation beginning as early as the preschool years, and continuing through adolescence and adulthood, with consideration of identified sex differences in the development of ADHD. PMID:19072756

  9. Characterizing the ADHD Phenotype for Genetic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; Asherson, Phil; Hay, David; Levy, Florence; Swanson, Jim; Thapar, Anita; Willcutt, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The genetic study of ADHD has made considerable progress. Further developments in the field will be reliant in part on identifying the most appropriate phenotypes for genetic analysis. The use of both categorical and dimensional measures of symptoms related to ADHD has been productive. The use of multiple reporters is a valuable feature of the…

  10. Heart Rate and Reinforcement Sensitivity in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hyde, Christopher; van Meel, Catharina S.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Both theoretical and clinical accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) implicate a dysfunctional reinforcement system. This study investigated heart rate parameters in response to feedback associated with reward and response cost in ADHD children and controls aged 8 to 12. Methods: Heart rate responses (HRRs)…

  11. Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Olsen, John L.; Wender, Paul H.; Robison, Reid J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD…

  12. The Relationship between ADHD and Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orendorff, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder that is often identified when a child first enters school. About 2% of boys and girls in our population are diagnosed with the disorder (Kaufmann, 2000). Although ADHD is the most frequent reason that children are referred to a mental health professional, the diagnosis of ADHD…

  13. Nursing Applicant Interview Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Suzanne

    This manual is a tool for use in an interview for nursing student selection that will assist in sizing up the fitness or suitability of the candidate for nursing. It also includes tools and methods that could be used in the initial interview to assess what factors will predict those students most likely to stay in an Associate Degree nursing…

  14. Interview with Ron Wasserstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossmann, Allan; Wasserstein, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Ron Wasserstein is Executive Director of the American Statistical Association (ASA). He previously served as Vice-President for Academic Affairs and Professor of Statistics at Washburn University. This interview took place via email on January 21- February 24, 2014. Topics covered in this interview are as follows: 1) Beginnings, 2) Teaching…

  15. Interview with Mark Ashwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark Ashwill, Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam in Ha Noi, Vietnam, a branch of the Institute of International Education (IIE). In this interview, Ashwill talks about his work as Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam, the role that communications technology…

  16. Dietary Interviewing by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Warner V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A computer based dietary interviewing program enhanced self awareness for overweight participants. In a three part interview designed for direct interaction between patient and computer, questions dealt with general dietary behavior and details of food intake. The computer assisted the patient in planning a weight reducing diet of approximately…

  17. Interview with Peggy Papp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Peggy Papp, a faculty member at the Ackerman Institute for the Family, where she is director of the Depression in Context Project. The Interview focuses on Papp's journey to becoming a marriage and family therapist and her role as a leader in field of feminist therapy. (GCP)

  18. Presterilization Interviewing: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Raymond G.

    1976-01-01

    The role of interviewing in diffusing possible harmful side effects of sterilization operations was evaluated in an acute general hospital. Two simultaneous field experiments were conducted with 50 vasectomy couples and 50 tubal-ligation couples. There were no significant differences between the interview and control groups. (Author)

  19. Literacy and Informational Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decarie, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Informational interviews are valuable tools for improving writing, editing, and interviewing skills, and they are also extremely valuable in improving the soft skills that are valued by employers, such as confidence, adaptability, the ability to set and keep deadlines, the ability to manage risk, and so on. These soft skills, this article argues,…

  20. Teaching and Evaluating Interviewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The results of the Physician-Patient Situation Test given before and after an interviewing course taught at the University of Texas at Houston in 1977 are reported. It is suggested that medical students can increase receptivity to patients and that an interviewing course can foster the acquisition of empathic skills. (LBH)

  1. The Dyadic Interview Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sincoff, Michael Z.

    2004-01-01

    Interviewing skills are essential for managers and would-be managers. In the interview assignment described in this article, students develop such skills as they also learn communication theories, test those theories in practical applications, think critically, relate new to old information, and have fun. In this assignment, students are required…

  2. Childhood executive function inventory (CHEXI): a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Thorell, Lisa B; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to discriminate very well between children fulfilling the criteria for ADHD and normally developing children, also when controlling for the effect of IQ and socioeconomic status (SES). Both sensitivity and specificity of the two CHEXI subscales were shown to be high using either parent or teacher ratings. The highest overall classification rate was found for parent ratings on the inhibition subscale, with sensitivity and specificity reaching 93.3. To summarize, the CHEXI should be considered a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD, although it is for future research to determine whether the CHEXI can be successfully used to also discriminate between different psychopathological groups. PMID:19381995

  3. Reexamining the Familial Association between Asthma and ADHD in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerness, Paul; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gallo, Lauren; Murphy, Heather; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to further evaluate the association between asthma and ADHD, addressing issues of familiality in female probands. A case control study of referred ADHD proband girls, controls, and relatives are used. Participants include 140 ADHD proband girls and 122 non-ADHD comparisons, with 417 and 369 first-degree biological…

  4. Giftedness and ADHD: Identification, Misdiagnosis, and Dual Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2015-01-01

    Many gifted characteristics overlap the symptoms of attention deficity-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The potential for the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD exists, but so does the potential for a dual diagnosis of giftedness and ADHD. A decade after the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD was first investigated we examine lessons learned…

  5. ADHD Symptomology and Impairment: Relevance to Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Joy

    2010-01-01

    ADHD is a pervasive and persistent condition which continues into adulthood with a prevalence rate of 5%. Research demonstrates that 2% to 4% of the college learner population is affected by ADHD and, interestingly enough, ADHD symptomology prevalence rates have been shown to be higher than expected within the general college population. ADHD is a…

  6. Alerting, Orienting, and Executive Attention in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Corkum, Penny V.; Klein, Raymond M.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth N.; Lawrence, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the alerting, orienting, and executive attention abilities of children with ADHD and their typically developing (TD) peers using a modified version of the adult attention network test (ANT-I). Method: A total of 25 children with ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-C, mean age = 9.20 years), 20 children with ADHD,…

  7. The Academic Experience of Male High School Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Kristine M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Biswas, Aparajita; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the high school academic experience of adolescents with and without childhood ADHD using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Participants were 326 males with childhood ADHD and 213 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited at the start of the follow-up study. Data were collected yearly…

  8. Retrospective Reports of Childhood Trauma in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia J.; Brown, Deborah L.; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although studies have documented higher prevalence of abuse in children with ADHD, no studies have investigated childhood reports of abuse in individuals identified with ADHD in adulthood. Method: Forty ADHD women, 17 ADHD males, 17 female controls, and 40 male controls complete the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and other measures of…

  9. An Asymmetric Stroop/Reverse-Stroop Interference Phenomenon in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yongning; Hakoda, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether participants with ADHD showed a deficit in Stroop/reverse-Stroop interference by comparing them to non-ADHD participants. Method: A group with ADHD, primarily inattentive type (n = 15), and a paired non-ADHD group (n = 15) completed the group version of the Stroop/reverse-Stroop test. Results: Asymmetric interference…

  10. Sustained and Focused Attention Deficits in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetta, Natalie D. J.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the specificity of deficits in focused attention and sustained attention in adults with ADHD and to evaluate the effect of comorbidity. Method: Twenty-eight adults with ADHD without comorbidity were compared with 28 ADHD outpatients with comorbidity. Two control groups were used: 68 adults referred for ADHD but with another…

  11. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  12. Do Hyperactive Symptoms Matter in ADHD-I Restricted Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Marcelo; Ludwig, Henrique; Rohde, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a proposed restrictive inattentive type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by comparing clinical correlates among youths with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I) as a function of the number of hyperactivity symptoms presented (none vs. 3 or less) and controls (individuals without ADHD).…

  13. Integration of an EEG biomarker with a clinician's ADHD evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Steven M; Rugino, Thomas A; Hornig, Mady; Stein, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    clinician's ADHD evaluation could help improve diagnostic accuracy from 61% to 88%. Conclusions The EEG-based assessment aid may help improve accuracy of ADHD diagnosis by supporting greater criterion E certainty. PMID:25798338

  14. Two novel CBTs for adolescents with ADHD: the value of planning skills.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Bianca E; Geurts, Hilde M; Prins, Pier J M; Van der Oord, Saskia

    2015-09-01

    Adolescents with ADHD have planning problems, often affecting school- and social functioning. Evidence-based treatments for adolescents with ADHD are scarce and treatment drop-out rates are substantial. The effectiveness of two new, individual, short-term cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) was investigated: One with an aim on improving planning skills and one solution-focused treatment (SFT) without such an aim. Motivational Interviewing elements were added to both treatments to enhance treatment compliance. In a multi-center randomized clinical trial, 159 adolescents (12-17 years) with ADHD were randomly assigned to one of both treatments. Pre-, post- and 3-month follow-up data were gathered on five domains: Parent-rated ADHD, planning problems and executive functioning (primary outcomes), neuropsychological measures of planning, comorbid symptoms, general functioning, and teacher measures. Attrition was low in both treatments (5%). Adolescents improved significantly between pre- and post-test with large effect sizes on all domains. Improvements remained stable or continued to improve from post-test to follow-up, also when controlling for medication use. Marginally significant differences were found in favor of the planning-focused treatment: parents and therapists evaluated this treatment more positively than SFT and the planning-focused treatment showed more reduction of parent-rated planning problems. Two new CBTs with integrated motivational components were feasible and attrition was low. ADHD symptoms and co-existing problems of the adolescents improved from pre-test to 3 months after treatment. As the planning-focused treatment was evaluated more positive and had marginal additional beneficial effects to SFT, especially planning-focused CBT seems promising to fill the gap in available treatments for adolescents with ADHD. PMID:25549767

  15. Non-negative Matrix Factorization of Multimodal MRI, fMRI and Phenotypic Data reveals Differential Changes in Default Mode Subnetworks in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ariana; Douglas, Pamela K.; Kerr, Wesley T.; Haynes, Virginia S.; Yuille, Alan L.; Xie, Jianwen; Wu, Ying Nian; Brown, Jesse A.; Cohen, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    In the multimodal neuroimaging framework, data on a single subject are collected from inherently different sources such as functional MRI, structural MRI, behavioral and/or phenotypic information. The information each source provides is not independent; a subset of features from each modality maps to one or more common latent dimensions, which can be interpreted using generative models. These latent dimensions, or “topics,” provide a sparse summary of the generative process behind the features for each individual. Topic modeling, an unsupervised generative model, has been used to map seemingly disparate features to a common domain. We use Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) to infer the latent structure of multimodal ADHD data containing fMRI, MRI, phenotypic and behavioral measurements. We compare four different NMF algorithms and find the sparsest decomposition is also the most differentiating between ADHD and healthy patients. We identify dimensions that map to interpretable, recognizable dimensions such as motion, default mode network activity, and other such features of the input data. For example, structural and functional graph theory features related to default mode subnetworks clustered with the ADHD inattentive diagnosis. Structural measurements of the default mode network (DMN) regions such as the posterior cingulate, precuneus, and parahippocampal regions were all related to the ADHD-Inattentive diagnosis. Ventral DMN subnetworks may have more functional connections in ADHD-I, while dorsal DMN may have less. We also find that ADHD topics may be dependent upon diagnostic site, raising the possibility of the diagnostic differences across geographic locations. We assess our findings in light of the ADHD-200 classification competition, and contrast our unsupervised, nominated topics with previously published supervised learning methods. Finally, we demonstrate the validity of these latent variables as biomarkers by using them for classification of

  16. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  17. ADHD Symptoms Moderate the Relation between ASD Status and Internalizing Symptoms in 3-6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Manangan, Christen N.; Dauterman, Hayley A.; Davis, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to understand the relation between diagnostic status (autism spectrum disorders [ASD] versus typically developing) and internalizing problems in children with and without co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Participants were 88 children, ages 3:0-6:11, their parents and teachers. Findings…

  18. Differentiating Co-Occurring Behavior Problems in Children with ADHD: Patterns of Emotional Reactivity and Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P.; Geffken, Gary R.; Reid, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This study examined whether "top-down" and "bottom-up" control processes can differentiate children with ADHD who exhibit co-occurring aggression and/or internalizing symptoms. Method: Participants included 74 children ("M" age = 10.7 years) with a "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

  19. Increased Delay Discounting on a Novel Real-Time Task among Girls, but not Boys, with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Rosch, Keri S.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine delay discounting in girls and boys with ADHD-Combined type (ADHD-C) relative to typically developing (TD) children on two tasks that differ in the extent to which the rewards and delays were experienced by participants. Children ages 8–12 years with ADHD-C (n = 65; 19 girls) and TD controls (n = 55; 15 girls) completed two delay discounting tasks involving a series of choices between smaller, immediate and larger, delayed rewards. The classic delay discounting task involved choices about money at delays of 1–90 days and only some of the outcomes were actually experienced by the participants. The novel real-time discounting task involved choices about an immediately consumable reward (playing a preferred game) at delays of 25–100 s, all of which were actually experienced by participants. Participants also provided subjective ratings of how much they liked playing the game and waiting to play. Girls with ADHD-C displayed greater delay discounting compared to boys with ADHD-C and TD girls and boys on the real-time discounting task. Diagnostic group differences were not evident on the classic discounting task. In addition, children with ADHD-C reported wanting to play the game more and liking waiting to play the game less than TD children. This novel demonstration of greater delay discounting among girls with ADHD-C on a discounting task in which the rewards are immediately consumable and the delays are experienced in real-time informs our understanding of sex differences and motivational processes in children with ADHD. PMID:26549118

  20. What can ADHD without comorbidity teach us about comorbidity?

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ambrosini, Paul J; deBerardinis, Rachel; Elia, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric comorbidity in ADHD is frequent, impairing and poorly understood. In this report, characteristics of comorbid and comorbid-free ADHD subjects are investigated in an attempt to identify differences that could potentially advance our understanding of risk factors. In a clinically-referred ADHD cohort of 449 youths (ages 6-18), age, gender, IQ, SES and ADHD symptoms were compared among ADHD comorbid free subjects and ADHD with internalizing and externalizing disorders. Logistic regression analyses were also carried out to investigate the relationship between comorbidity and parental psychiatric status. Age range was younger in the ADHD without comorbidity and older in ADHD+internalizing disorders. No significant difference in IQ or SES was found among ADHD comorbid and comorbid-free groups. ADHD with internalizing disorder has a significantly greater association with paternal psychiatric conditions. After matching by age, gender, IQ and SES, ADHD with externalizing disorders had significantly higher total ADHD, hyperactivity/impulsivity score and single item score of difficulty awaiting turn than ADHD without comorbidity and ADHD with internalizing disorders. Older age ranges, ADHD symptom severity and parental psychopathology may be risk factors for comorbidity. PMID:22119689

  1. Interview: interview with P Jeffrey Conn. Interview by Hannah Coaker.

    PubMed

    Conn, P Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    Dr Conn is the Lee E Limbird Professor of Pharmacology at Vanderbilt University and Director of the Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery (VCNDD). Dr Conn received a PhD in Pharmacology from Vanderbilt in 1986 and pursued postdoctoral studies at Yale University. He served as a professor of Pharmacology at Emory University from 1988 to 2000, before moving to Merck and Co. (PA, USA) as head of the Department of Neuroscience. Dr Conn moved to Vanderbilt University in 2003 where he is the founding director of the VCNDD, with a primary mission of facilitating translation of recent advances in basic science to novel therapeutics. The VCNDD consists of approximately 100 full-time scientists and has advanced novel molecules from four major programs as development candidates for clinical testing with industry partners. Dr Conn has served in editorial positions with multiple international journals and has served the scientific advisory boards of multiple foundations and companies. He has received numerous awards based on the impact of his basic and translational research. Dr Conn's current research is focused on development of novel treatment strategies for schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and other serious brain disorders. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor. PMID:24024942

  2. Interviews with Allstate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGaetani, John

    1982-01-01

    Provides transcripts of interviews with various administrators at an insurance company that take into account management problems, needed communication skills, the use of role playing in business communication courses, and the reading/information needs of managers. (HOD)

  3. Interview With Leland Melvin

    NASA Video Gallery

    Middle school student Molly Moore interviews NASA's Associate Administrator for Education, Leland Melvin. She asks about his career as an engineer and astronaut and what it was like to live and wor...

  4. Inflammation: good or bad for ADHD?

    PubMed

    Donev, Rossen; Thome, Johannes

    2010-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by the typical behavioural core symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. ADHD is a usually chronic health conditions, mostly diagnosed in childhood, creating a significant challenge for youth, their families and professionals who treat it. This disorder requires long-term treatments, including psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions, which in some cases may lead to adverse effects. Understanding the mechanism by which ADHD risk factors affect the biochemical processes in the human brain and consequentially the behaviour will help to identify novel targets for the development of therapeutics with less adverse results and better efficacy including higher responder rates. Although inflammatory responses in the brain have been recognised for years as critical in neurodegeneration and behaviour in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, their role for the development, treatment and prevention of ADHD has been so far largely overlooked, although historically, ADHD symptoms were initially observed in patients who survived an ONJ infection, i.e. inflammation. In this review, we discuss the interrelationship between different ADHD risk factors and inflammation with respect to the triggered molecular mechanisms and the contribution they are likely to have to this disorder. This paper provides a rationale for future studies on ADHD with an intent to inspiring the development of new agents for a more efficient management of this disorder. PMID:21432611

  5. Global consensus on ADHD/HKD.

    PubMed

    Remschmidt, Helmut

    2005-05-01

    A Global ADHD Working Group of experienced clinicians and researchers was gathered to review the latest evidence, discuss current best practice in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and make a statement based on consensus. The statement aims to re-affirm ADHD as a valid disorder that exists across different cultures, has a significant global impact, and should be diagnosed and effectively treated wherever it occurs. ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioural disorders of childhood and impacts on many aspects of development, including social, emotional and cognitive functioning, in the home and school environment. Although these findings are from developed countries, the impact in developing countries is likely to be similar. There is strong supportive evidence for the validity of ADHD as a syndrome with neurobiological aspects, and complex genetic factors are primarily implicated in the aetiology. Accurate diagnosis and measurement of impairment is important to enable appropriate and successful management of symptoms. ADHD is a persistent condition that needs to be treated and monitored over time. The evidence supporting medication-based interventions (such as methylphenidate) is strong and consensus treatment algorithms to guide the multimodal treatment of ADHD, alone and in combination with common comorbidities, are suggested. PMID:15959658

  6. [Differential Diagnosis of ADHD from Personality Disorders].

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Sadanobu

    2015-01-01

    The author discussed some points regarding the process of differentially diagnosing ADHD from antisocial personality disorder with antisocial behaviors, such as the use of amphetamines, theft, and violence, and borderline personality disorder with eating disorder, self-harming, overdose, and domestic violence. Firstly, the characteristics of ADHD are a lack of interest in criminal activity, cunning, cruelty, or coming from a broken home, which are frequently observed in cases of conduct disorder. The second point concerns the main anxieties and conflicts of those with ADHD and borderline personality disorder. ADHD patients usually do not have anxieties regarding sensitiveness in interpersonal relationships, which borderline patients are likely to have. The characteristic anxieties of ADHD patients usually involve self-reproach, self-deprecation, and self-hatred derived from various kinds of mistake associated with ADHD symptoms, such as a short attention span, restlessness, and impulsiveness. Finally, the author points out that we also have to be aware of the various kinds of identity problem, even in the case of patients with typical symptoms of ADHD. PMID:26721071

  7. The psychiatric interview: validity, structure, and subjectivity.

    PubMed

    Nordgaard, Julie; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2013-06-01

    There is a glaring gap in the psychiatric literature concerning the nature of psychiatric symptoms and signs, and a corresponding lack of epistemological discussion of psycho-diagnostic interviewing. Contemporary clinical neuroscience heavily relies on the use of fully structured interviews that are historically rooted in logical positivism and behaviorism. These theoretical approaches marked decisively the so-called "operational revolution in psychiatry" leading to the creation of DSM-III. This paper attempts to examine the theoretical assumptions that underlie the use of a fully structured psychiatric interview. We address the ontological status of pathological experience, the notions of symptom, sign, prototype and Gestalt, and the necessary second-person processes which are involved in converting the patient's experience (originally lived in the first-person perspective) into an "objective" (third person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform faithful distinctions in this particular domain, we need a more adequate approach, that is, an approach that is guided by phenomenologically informed considerations. Our theoretical discussion draws upon clinical examples derived from structured and semi-structured interviews. We conclude that fully structured interview is neither theoretically adequate nor practically valid in obtaining psycho-diagnostic information. Failure to address these basic issues may have contributed to the current state of malaise in the study of psychopathology. PMID:23001456

  8. Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ASD and ADHD): DSM-5, ICD-10, and ICD-11.

    PubMed

    Doernberg, Ellen; Hollander, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, specifically autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have undergone considerable diagnostic evolution in the past decade. In the United States, the current system in place is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), whereas worldwide, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) serves as a general medical system. This review will examine the differences in neurodevelopmental disorders between these two systems. First, we will review the important revisions made from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) to the DSM-5, with respect to ASD and ADHD. Next, we will cover the similarities and differences between ASD and ADHD classification in the DSM-5 and the ICD-10, and how these differences may have an effect on neurodevelopmental disorder diagnostics and classification. By examining the changes made for the DSM-5 in 2013, and critiquing the current ICD-10 system, we can help to anticipate and advise on the upcoming ICD-11, due to come online in 2017. Overall, this review serves to highlight the importance of progress towards complementary diagnostic classification systems, keeping in mind the difference in tradition and purpose of the DSM and the ICD, and that these systems are dynamic and changing as more is learned about neurodevelopmental disorders and their underlying etiology. Finally this review will discuss alternative diagnostic approaches, such as the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative, which links symptom domains to underlying biological and neurological mechanisms. The incorporation of new diagnostic directions could have a great effect on treatment development and insurance coverage for neurodevelopmental disorders worldwide. PMID:27364515

  9. Summer treatment programs for youth with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fabiano, Gregory A; Schatz, Nicole K; Pelham, William E

    2014-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) require intensive treatments to remediate functional impairments and promote the development of adaptive skills. The summer treatment program (STP) is an exemplar of intensive treatment of ADHD. STP intervention components include a reward and response-cost point system, time-out, use of antecedent control (clear commands, establishment of rules and routines), and liberal praise and rewards for appropriate behavior. Parents also participate in parent management training programming to learn how to implement similar procedures within the home setting. There is strong evidence supporting the efficacy of the STP as an intervention for ADHD. PMID:25220085

  10. [Importance of countertransference in the initial psychoanalytic interview].

    PubMed

    Wegner, P

    1992-03-01

    The author points out the responsibilities and difficulties an interviewer faces in the initial psychoanalytic interview and discusses different theoretical positions in dealing with countertransference. Apart from "free floating attention" and "free floating responsiveness" he emphasizes the important diagnostic and therapeutic factor of "free floating introspectiveness". Finally, with a clinical example, he demonstrates that countertransference should already be taking place at the beginning stage of an interview. PMID:1581702

  11. Effects of essential fatty acids in iron deficient and sleep-disturbed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children.

    PubMed

    Yehuda, S; Rabinovitz-Shenkar, S; Carasso, R L

    2011-10-01

    Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity constitute the core diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Patients generally suffer from sleep disturbance and malnutrition that can account for tiredness during the day, poor concentration, poor eating and depressed mood, along with anemia and an n-3 polyunsaturated acid deficiency. The change of ADHD behavior in children (9-12) was studied, following 10 weeks of treatment with a polyunsaturated acid mixture on six variables: cooperation, mood, concentration, homework preparation, fatigue and sleep quality. Iron status was also examined. Polyunsaturated acid administration was associated with significant improvement in quality of life, ability to concentrate, sleep quality and hemoglobin levels. PMID:21587279

  12. Toward More Effective Admissions Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maly, Nancy J.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests ways to improve college admissions interviews. Discusses the purpose, format, technique, and content, of the interview as well as selling the college, concluding the interview, and writing the final interview report. Emphasizes the benefits of good interviewing skills to admissions officers. (WAS)

  13. Basic Considerations in Interviewing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Rick L.

    This manual summarizes and highlights basic considerations in interviewing children. The relationship between interviewing for data collection and interviewing within the counseling or psychotherapeutic context is discussed. The Interviewer's Functional Checklist is presented to provide a method for self-evaluating interviewer behavior, and for…

  14. Managing the risks of ADHD treatments.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin N; Enenbach, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacotherapy of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well-established and effective treatment modality. However, ADHD medications are not without side effects. Understanding the prevalence of adverse events and effective management of risks associated with stimulants and other medications used to treat ADHD is central to broad applicability and effective treatment. This review discusses the literature on the prevalence of adverse events and management strategies employed. We searched online MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane databases for articles using several keywords relating to adverse events associated with ADHD medication management. We discuss the relevant data on the significance and prevalence of side effects and adverse events, highlight recent updates in the field, and suggest approaches to clinical management. PMID:25135779

  15. Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the development of ADHD. Second, neurobiological findings will have limited impact if not examined in the context of significant race and cultural variation in ADHD-related developmental processes, and in the context of rapidly changing social and technological contexts of children’s development worldwide. Third, further examination of the phenotype and characterization of its dimensional and categorical structure remains a major need. Overall, the coming decades of etiology research on ADHD will be expected to capitalize on new scientific tools. The hope in the field is that new insights into fundamental prevention can emerge. PMID:22642834

  16. Risk of Tics with Psychostimulants for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Investigators at Yale University, New Haven, CT, conducted a meta-analysis to examine the risk of new onset or worsening of tics caused by psychostimulants used in the treatment of children with ADHD. PMID:26933551

  17. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... on ADHD Health Capsules Genetic Sites Tied to Schizophrenia Helping Older Adults Talk With Their Doctors Featured ... and child mental health expert at NIH. “The diagnosis is made because the level of hyperactivity or ...

  18. Interjections in interviews.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine; Ageneau, Carie

    2005-03-01

    A psycholinguistic hypothesis regarding the use of interjections in spoken utterances, originally formulated by Ameka (1992b, 1994) for the English language, but not confirmed in the German-language research of Kowal and O'Connell (2004 a & c), was tested: The local syntactic isolation of interjections is paralleled by their articulatory isolation in spoken utterances i.e., by their occurrence between a preceding and a following pause. The corpus consisted of four TV and two radio interviews of Hillary Clinton that had coincided with the publication of her book Living History (2003) and one TV interview of Robin Williams by James Lipton. No evidence was found for articulatory isolation of English-language interjections. In the Hillary Clinton interviews and Robin Williams interviews, respectively, 71% and 73% of all interjections occurred initially, i.e., at the onset of various units of spoken discourse: at the beginning of turns; at the beginning of articulatory phrases within turns, i.e., after a preceding pause; and at the beginning of a citation within a turn (either Direct Reported Speech [DRS] or what we have designated Hypothetical Speaker Formulation [HSF]. One conventional interjection (OH) occurred most frequently. The Robin Williams interview had a much higher occurrence of interjections, especially nonconventional ones, than the Hillary Clinton interviews had. It is suggested that the onset or initializing role of interjections reflects the temporal priority of the affective and the intuitive over the analytic, grammatical, and cognitive in speech production. Both this temporal priority and the spontaneous and emotional use of interjections are consonant with Wundt's (1900) characterization of the primary interjection as psychologically primitive. The interjection is indeed the purest verbal implementation of conceptual orality. PMID:15991877

  19. The effects of ADHD in adult substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Moura, Helena Ferreira; Faller, Sibele; Benzano, Daniela; Szobot, Cláudia; von Diemen, Lisia; Stolf, Anderson Ravy; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia; Cruz, Marcelo Santos; Brasiliano, Sílvia; Pechansky, Flavio; Kessler, Felix Henrique Paim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychiatric comorbidities and different areas of life functioning in substance abusers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. A cross-sectional, multi-center study involving 285 adult substance abusers from outpatient and inpatient clinics was performed. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview were used for data collection. Individuals with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders showed increased addiction severity when compared with individuals without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (53.3 ± 7.3 vs. 48.4 ± 8.4, respectively). Our results suggest that comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders is associated with a more severe course of substance use and with social and psychiatric impairment. PMID:24074191

  20. Functional MRI in ADHD: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Mehta, Mitul A; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip

    2007-10-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) research in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a fast developing and very complex field. Every study appears to show differences in patterns of brain activation between cases and controls, but the interpretation of such differences is not as straightforward as it may seem. We present here a systematic review of the fMRI literature in ADHD; areas covered include executive functions, reward processing, the effects of methylphenidate, comorbidity and spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. To facilitate the interpretation of research in this area, we discuss important conceptual issues, such as the need to take group differences in performance into account or to consider the role of errors. We present common themes that emerge from these studies and we discuss possible reasons for the many discrepancies that were observed. Finally, based on existing literature and current advancements in fMRI research, we discuss the role that fMRI could play in the future as a diagnostic tool or in treatment outcome predictions, and we make predictions for the future directions of research in this field. PMID:17939771

  1. ADHD: A Crash-Free Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gigout-Hues, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Richard Restak asserts in "The New Brain" (Rodale Books, 2003) that "ADD/ADHD isn't so much a disorder as it is a cognitive style." With this in mind, and through much trial and error, the author of this article, a second-grade teacher at Hood-Case Elementary School in Alvin, Texas, provides suggestions to keep in mind when one has ADHD children…

  2. Patterns and Predictors of Adolescent Academic Achievement and Performance in a Sample of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    Examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mage=16.8 yr) who met diagnostic criteria for ADHD-Combined type in early childhood (Mage = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also tested to determine whether ADHD medication use, receipt of special education, classroom performance, homework completion, or homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of ADHD and academic outcomes. Childhood predictors of adolescent achievement differed from those for performance. Classroom performance and homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of inattention and academic outcomes. Implications for understanding the relationship between symptoms of ADHD and academic functioning are discussed. PMID:21722025

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pubmed/22003063 . American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Prince JB, Wilens TE, Spencer TJ, Biederman ...

  4. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Peugh, James L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Hughes, Carroll W

    2013-04-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n=54) or to a waitlist control group (n=51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation. Results showed significant treatment effects for parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, child self-report of ability to focus, and parent ratings of executive functioning. Child performance on neuropsychological tests showed significant treatment-related improvement on strategic planning efficiency, but no treatment effects were observed on other neuropsychological outcomes. Treatment effects were also not observed for teacher ratings of ADHD. These data add to a growing body of literature supporting effects of cognitive training on attention and behavior, however, additional research is warranted. PMID:23219490

  5. The relation of ADHD and violent aggression: What can we learn from epidemiological and genetic studies?

    PubMed

    Retz, Wolfgang; Rösler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Disruptive behavior includes psychopathological and behavioral constructs like aggression, impulsivity, violence, antisociality and psychopathy and is often closely related with diagnostic categories like conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit disorder (ADHD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASP). There is now clear evidence that neurobiological and environmental factors contribute to these phenotypes. A mounting body of evidence also suggests interactive effects of genetic and environmental risks. In this selective review we give an overview over epidemiological aspects of the relation between ADHD and antisocial behavior, including violent aggression and psychopathy. Moreover, we summarize recent findings from molecular genetic studies and particularly discuss pleiotropic effects of a functional polymorphism of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5HTTLPR) and childhood adversity on ADHD and violent behavior. The reported gene-environment interactions are not only informative for understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of disruptive behavior, but also throw some light on the relation between ADHD and violent behavior from a genetic perspective. The impact of genetic research on forensic psychiatry and future directions of neurobiological research are discussed. PMID:19411109

  6. Longitudinal Mental Health Service and Medication Use for ADHD Among Puerto Rican Youth in Two Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Bauermeister, José J.; Canino, Glorisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective The study describes prevalence and rates of service and medication use and associated factors over time among Puerto Rican youth with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods Longitudinal data are obtained on Puerto Rican children aged 5 through 13 years in the South Bronx (SB) in New York (n=1,138) and two Metropolitan Areas in Puerto Rico (PR) (n=1,353). The DISC-4 is the diagnostic tool. Five composite measures of risk factors: negative family influences, ineffective structuring, environmental risks, child risks, and maternal acceptance are constructed to relate service patterns and medication use to demographic and risk variables. Results ADHD prevalence is similar in PR and SB. Overall mental health service, medication and psychostimulant use are lower in PR across three time points. The vast majority of the participants never received treatment at any time point. More environmental risks, negative child traits and lack of maternal warmth are associated with more service, even after adjusting for comorbidity. When risk variables are controlled, the effects of ADHD on service use decrease. Previous treatment is a strong predictor of subsequent treatment. Conclusions Rates of service and medication use are lower in PR. Context seems to be more important than ethnicity in predicting mental health service and medication use among Puerto Rican children with ADHD. Other psychiatric diagnoses and general risk variables are important correlates of services and medication use. PMID:18596555

  7. ADHD and delinquency--a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    von Polier, G G; Vloet, T D; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence. Until now, it has been unclear whether ADHD by itself constitutes a risk factor for later delinquency or does so only in combination with other disruptive symptoms. This article seeks to give a comprehensive account of the literature to shed light on the developmental pathway from childhood ADHD to adult criminality. Comorbid ADHD and conduct disorder (CD) are significantly related to a range of biological and environmental risk factors such as neurocognitive impairment, high parental psychopathology, poor social functioning, and other comorbid mental disorders, particularly substance abuse, that are described in this review. In addition, the results of treatment studies are presented, with a special focus on the results of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). Although treatment programs, including medication and psychosocial treatment, can be very effective in improving the functioning of children with ADHD in the social and academic domains in the short term, there is no conclusive evidence that such treatments lower the risk for developing delinquency in adulthood. PMID:22371085

  8. Increased ongoing neural variability in ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gonen-Yaacovi, Gil; Arazi, Ayelet; Shahar, Nitzan; Karmon, Anat; Haar, Shlomi; Meiran, Nachshon; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-08-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been described as a disorder where frequent lapses of attention impair the ability of an individual to focus/attend in a sustained manner, thereby generating abnormally large intra-individual behavioral variability across trials. Indeed, increased reaction time (RT) variability is a fundamental behavioral characteristic of individuals with ADHD found across a large number of cognitive tasks. But what is the underlying neurophysiology that might generate such behavioral instability? Here, we examined trial-by-trial EEG response variability to visual and auditory stimuli while subjects' attention was diverted to an unrelated task at the fixation cross. Comparisons between adult ADHD and control participants revealed that neural response variability was significantly larger in the ADHD group as compared with the control group in both sensory modalities. Importantly, larger trial-by-trial variability in ADHD was apparent before and after stimulus presentation as well as in trials where the stimulus was omitted, suggesting that ongoing (rather than stimulus-evoked) neural activity is continuously more variable (noisier) in ADHD. While the patho-physiological mechanisms causing this increased neural variability remain unknown, they appear to act continuously rather than being tied to a specific sensory or cognitive process. PMID:27179150

  9. Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; McClernon, F. Joseph; Kollins, Scott H.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple cognition-related phenotypic features in both children and adults. This review aims to clarify the role of cognition in ADHD and how prevailing treatments, which are often highly effective at reducing the clinical symptoms of the disorder, fare in modulating ADHD-related cognitive processes. First, we consider how the broad construct of cognition can be conceptualized in the context of ADHD. Second, we review the available evidence for how a range of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have fared with respect to enhancing cognition in individuals affected by this pervasive disorder. Findings from the literature suggest that the effects across a broad range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions on the characteristic symptoms of ADHD can be distinguished from their effects on cognitive impairments. As such the direct clinical relevance of cognition enhancing effects of different interventions is somewhat limited. Recommendations for future research are discussed, including the identification of cognition-related end ophenotypes, the refinement of the ADHD clinical phenotype, and studying the difference between acute and chronic treatment regimens. PMID:21596055

  10. Overcoming barriers to effective early parenting interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): parent and practitioner views

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E; Koerting, J; Latter, S; Knowles, M M; McCann, D C; Thompson, M; Sonuga-Barke, E J

    2015-01-01

    Background The importance of early intervention approaches for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been increasingly acknowledged. Parenting programmes (PPs) are recommended for use with preschool children with ADHD. However, low ‘take-up’ and high ‘drop-out’ rates compromise the effectiveness of such programmes within the community. Methods This qualitative study examined the views of 25 parents and 18 practitioners regarding currently available PPs for preschool children with ADHD-type problems in the UK. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to identify both barriers and facilitators associated with programme access, programme effectiveness, and continued engagement. Results and conclusions Many of the themes mirrored previous accounts relating to generic PPs for disruptive behaviour problems. There were also a number of ADHD-specific themes. Enhancing parental motivation to change parenting practice and providing an intervention that addresses the parents' own needs (e.g. in relation to self-confidence, depression or parental ADHD), in addition to those of the child, were considered of particular importance. Comparisons between the views of parents and practitioners highlighted a need to increase awareness of parental psychological barriers among practitioners and for better programme advertising generally. Clinical implications and specific recommendations drawn from these findings are discussed and presented. PMID:24814640

  11. Your Interview Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Beverly Irby; Brown, Genevieve

    1992-01-01

    Prospective superintendents desiring successful interviews can improve their chances by getting to know the community, watching what they wear, arriving on time, paying attention to the all-important first impression, listening attentively, using jargon judiciously, positioning themselves well, and leaving a good impression. (MLH)

  12. Interview: Jonathan Kozol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raney, Mardell

    1998-01-01

    A passionate and persistent advocate for American inner-city children, Jonathan Kozol has spent most of his adult life teaching, speaking, and writing about the conditions and problems of urban youth. In this interview, Kozol discusses his commitment to children who live in the poorest inner-city neighborhoods. (Author/AEF)

  13. A General Interview Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, Edward D.

    This guide is divided into 11 sections, each containing a number of questions and suggestions for conducting successful folklore and oral history interviews. Section 1, "Settlement and Dwellings," deals with the physical environment, local inhabitants, houses and outbuildings, and public buildings. Section 2, "Livelihood and Household Support,"…

  14. Parent Interview Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    This 116-item interview schedule designed for parents who failed to respond to the Questionnaire for Parents, is individually administered to the mother of the child of elementary school age. It consists of scales measuring 14 parent variables plus a section devoted to demographic variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the child, (2)…

  15. Milton Friedman: "TECHNOS" Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TECHNOS, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This interview with Milton Friedman addresses his economic policies and how they might improve American public education. Highlights include teachers' unions and their negative impact on education, private schools and tax relief, the Edison Project, privatization of educational services, special needs students, California's Educational Freedom…

  16. Interviewing Children: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Interviewing children is a critical element of the education reporter's daily work. However, practices for gaining access and avoiding harm and embarrassment vary widely depending on the news organization and individual reporter in question. This document aims to provide journalists with broad guidelines, but it stops short of advocating for the…

  17. Interview with Louise Lonabocker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Munkwitz-Smith, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This issue of "College and University" marks a transition in the Editor-in-Chief Position, with the interview of Louise Lonabocker, who has served in this capacity for the past ten years. She has also served as President of AACRAO, and in both positions, Lonabocker has been a role model for many AACRAO leaders. Lonabocker describes the…

  18. An Interview with...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Mary T.; Walther-Thomas, Chriss

    2000-01-01

    This interview with Dr. Michael Pressley discusses the hurdles that struggling readers confront when comprehending text, teaching methods that can be used for improving reading comprehension, the role of special educators and reading specialists in the education of struggling readers, and the need for teachers to teach reading comprehension…

  19. TECHNOS Interview: Esther Dyson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raney, Mardell

    1997-01-01

    This interview with Esther Dyson, who is president and owner of EDventure Holdings which focuses on emerging information technology worldwide, discusses personal responsibility for technology; government's role; content ownership and intellectual property; Internet development; education and computers; parents' role in education; teacher…

  20. Interview: G. Kip Bollinger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronin, Miriam; McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with G. Kip Bollinger. G. Kip Bollinger currently works as a consultant for Intermediate Units, school districts, professional science societies, and science text and kit producers. He performs curriculum alignment, does assessment training, coaches science teachers, trains teachers in the use of specific…

  1. Interview with Christine Franklin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Allan; Franklin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Chris Franklin is Senior Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, and Lothar Tresp Honoratus Honors Professor of Statistics at the University of Georgia. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013. This interview took place via email on August 16, 2013-October 9, 2013. Franklin…

  2. The Role of ADHD in Academic Adversity: Disentangling ADHD Effects from Other Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates.…

  3. Reconstituting the ADHD Girl: Accomplishing Exclusion and Solidifying a Biomedical Identity in an ADHD Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjörne, Eva; Evaldsson, Ann-Carita

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore what happens to young people labelled as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after they have been excluded from mainstream class and placed in a special class. More specifically, we focus on how a specific disability identity is locally accomplished and ascribed to a girl placed in an ADHD class…

  4. The role of ADHD in academic adversity: disentangling ADHD effects from other personal and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates. Responses from 136 students with ADHD and 3,779 non-ADHD peers from 9 high schools were analyzed using logistic regression. Dependent measures included academic failure, grade repetition, school refusal, changing classes and school, school exclusion, and schoolwork noncompletion. Covariates comprised personal (e.g., sociodemographics, personality, prior achievement, specific learning disabilities, motivation) and contextual (e.g., school size, school socioeconomic status, school average achievement) factors. Findings indicated that, after accounting for personal and contextual covariates, ADHD explained significant variance in numerous adversities (schoolwork noncompletion, school suspension, school expulsion, changing schools, grade repetition). Thus, beyond the effects of numerous personal and contextual covariates, ADHD has a distinct presence in students' academic adversity. Also interesting, after accounting for other personal and contextual factors, was academic adversity with which ADHD was not associated. Findings provide direction for educational intervention targeting ADHD and associated factors found to be significant in the study. PMID:24820011

  5. Toward a better understanding of ADHD: LPHN3 gene variants and the susceptibility to develop ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    During the past 15 years, an impressive amount of genetic information has become available in the research field of psychiatry, particularly as it relates to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the classical clinical approach to ADHD has minimally affected and not significantly been improved by this genetic revolution. It is difficult to predict how long it will take for genetic findings to alter the way clinicians treat patients with ADHD. New medications or treatment protocols may take years to become routine clinical practice. However, when taken together, recent successes in genomics, pharmacogenomics, and genetic epidemiology have the potential (1) to prevent comorbid consequences of ADHD, (2) to individualize therapies for patients with ADHD, and (3) to define new epidemiological policies to aid with the impact of ADHD on society. Here, we present an overview of how genetic research may affect and improve the quality of life of patients with ADHD: as an example, we use the discovery of LPHN3, a new gene in which variants have recently been shown to be associated with ADHD. PMID:21432600

  6. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and ADHD on Adaptive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. The present study examined the interaction between these two factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. Methods As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8–16y, M=12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with (AE+, n = 82) and without ADHD (AE−, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects ANCOVAs. Results There were significant main effects of AE (p < .001) and ADHD (p < .001) on all VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication [F (1, 308) = 7.49, p = .007, partial η2 =.024], but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > .27). Follow up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE−) and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE− vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. ADHD). Conclusion As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these two factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broadens our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population

  7. Interaction of recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing behavior with current attachment and emotional dysfunction in adult offspring with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Edel, Marc-Andreas; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2010-06-30

    Research into attachment and emotion regulation has shown that children with ADHD are at risk of developing attachment disorders and emotion regulation disturbances, which in part may be due to the rearing style of their parents. No such data exists for adults with persistent ADHD. We hypothesized that current attachment style and emotion processing of adult patients with ADHD may be influenced by the presence of parental ADHD symptoms when the now adult patients were children, assuming that ADHD symptoms of parents have an impact on their parenting style. We examined recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing style as well as current attachment and emotion regulation abilities in a sample of 73 adults with ADHD using several self-rating instruments. Recalled prevalence of ADHD symptoms in the mother, and less so in the father, of adult patients with ADHD was significantly associated with partly adverse parental rearing styles, current attachment problems in romantic partnerships and emotion regulation disturbances compared with adult ADHD patients without possibly affected parent. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with ADHD may present a risk factor for attachment problems and poor emotion regulation when ADHD children are grown. PMID:20452044

  8. Which aspects of ADHD are associated with tobacco use in early adolescence?

    PubMed

    Burke, J D; Loeber, R; Lahey, B B

    2001-05-01

    Several studies have found a relationship between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use, primarily in the context of co-occurring conduct disorder (CD). However, very few have examined the associations between the individual dimensions of ADHD (hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention) and substance use, even though these dimensions reflect distinct symptom groupings, both by clinical definition (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and through empirical demonstration (Lahey et al., 1988: McBurnett et al., 1999). This longitudinal study examines the relationship between dimensions of ADHD (as described by DSM) and substance use, accounting for other psychopathology and factors potentially related to substance use. Participants were 177 clinic-referred boys (initially between ages 7 and 12) followed up over nine annual phases until all participants had reached age 15. Annual assessment included structured clinical interviews with parent and child and self-report questionnaires of substance use, as well as questionnaires related to family factors and parenting behaviors. Seventy-eight per cent of participants reported use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, or other illicit drugs during adolescence, with 51% reporting any tobacco use. The inclusion of CD rendered all bivariate relationships with the full diagnosis of ADHD nonsignificant. However, adolescent inattention, considered independently, was associated with a 2.2 times greater risk for concurrent tobacco use, even after controlling for CD. Even when other factors, selected based on their associations with tobacco use in adolescence, were included in a regression model (concurrent adolescent CD odds ratio [OR] = 6.08), duration of tobacco use by age 12 (OR = 5.11), poor parental communication in childhood (OR = 2.9), African-American ethnicity (inversely predictive; OR = 0.15), inattention (OR = 2.3) remained significantly associated with tobacco use in early adolescence

  9. Adolescent ADHD and Adult Physical and Mental Health, Work Performance, and Financial Stress

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Zhang, Chenshu; Seltzer, Nathan; Finch, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is a scarcity of longitudinal studies of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) followed until adulthood. We studied the relationship between ADHD in adolescence and impaired general physical health, impaired general mental health, antisocial personality disorder, impaired work performance, and high financial stress in adulthood. METHODS: A prospective design incorporated 6 assessments of participants spanning mean ages from 14 to 37 years. Two baseline assessments were taken between ages 14 and 16 years, and 5 outcome assessments were taken at mean age 37 years. Participants were assessed with structured interviews and questionnaires. The participants were from a community sample of individuals initially drawn in 1975 and followed to a mean age of 37 years in 2009. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ADHD in adolescence as related to internal stress in adulthood were 1.82 (95% CI = 1.01–3.25; P < .05) for impaired general physical health, 2.36 (95% CI = 1.23–4.51; P < .01) for impaired general mental health, and 3.28 (95% CI = 1.51–7.13; P < .01) for antisocial personality disorder. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs for ADHD in adolescence as related to external stress were 2.46 (95% CI = 1.37–4.43; P < .01) for impaired work performance and 3.33 (95% CI = 1.70–6.55; P < .001) for high financial stress. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should focus on early diagnosis and treatment of adolescent ADHD because it is a major predictor of an array of physical, mental, work, and financial problems in adulthood. PMID:23230074

  10. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2012) Detailed Information by State Top of Page Peer Relationships [ Read abstract ] Parents of children with a ... of ADHD report almost 3 times as many peer problems as those without a history of ADHD ( ...

  11. ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157591.html ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children on medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have lower bone density than their ...

  12. Most Teens Who Abuse ADHD Meds Get Them from Others

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157662.html Most Teens Who Abuse ADHD Meds Get Them From Others Study finds 54 ... TUESDAY, March 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Abuse of ADHD stimulant drugs such Ritalin or Adderall is on ...

  13. Sound Sleep Elusive for Many Kids with ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159266.html Sound Sleep Elusive for Many Kids With ADHD Those with the attention disorder sleep ... made about children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder -- kids with ADHD don't sleep as well as ...

  14. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Is it ADHD? Symptoms Checklist Fill out the symptoms checklist and ... more about other concerns and conditions . How is ADHD diagnosed? Healthcare professionals use the guidelines in the ...

  15. Acetaminophen During Pregnancy May Up Risk of ADHD in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Acetaminophen During Pregnancy May Up Risk of ADHD in Kids But only association found, and researchers ... their child will develop behavioral problems such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new study suggests. Acetaminophen is generally ...

  16. ADHD Common Among College Students Who Misuse Stimulant Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160405.html ADHD Common Among College Students Who Misuse Stimulant Drugs ... misuse stimulant drugs are more likely to have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or other psychiatric problems, a new study ...

  17. ADHD Can First Appear in Young Adulthood for Some

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158907.html ADHD Can First Appear in Young Adulthood for Some, ... British study suggests that attention-deficient hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may often develop in the young adult years. ...

  18. ADHD among adolescents with intellectual disabilities: Pre-pathway influences

    PubMed Central

    Neece, Cameron; Baker, Bruce; Lee, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at heightened risk for developing ADHD. However, the validity of ADHD as a diagnosis for youth with ID remains controversial. To advance research on validity, the present study examined the hypothesized precursors to ADHD in typically developing adolescents (TD) and adolescents with ID, specifically with regard to family history of ADHD, molecular genetics, and neuropsychological functioning. Results indicated that youth ADHD symptoms were related to parental ADHD symptoms regardless of the adolescent’s cognitive functioning. Additionally, findings suggested that the DRD4 genetic variant and adolescent set-shifting abilities were related to adolescent ADHD symptoms independent of cognitive functioning. This study provides an initial investigation of the biological correlates of ADHD among youth with ID. PMID:23665431

  19. For ADHD, Start with Behavior Therapy, Not Drugs: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of psychological services, which might have included parent training. The number of children with ADHD receiving psychological services has not changed over time, the agency said. "Parents aren't the cause of their child's ADHD, ...

  20. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder/learning disabilities (ADHD/LD): parental characterization and perception.

    PubMed

    Brook, Uzi; Boaz, Mona

    2005-04-01

    Sixty-six parents of adolescents (mean age, 14.8 years), who attended special education classes and who were diagnosed as having attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder/learning disabilities (ADHD/LD), were interviewed. The comorbidity of the ADHD group included emotional lability and/or depression, 70%; oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), 67%; obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 44%; addiction to buying, 44%; and aggressiveness, 62%. Twenty-one percent were either involved in the past or presently using drugs. Nine percent had attempted suicide. According to their parents, the main characteristic of these adolescents was low self-image. Parents enumerated five negative characteristics: impulsiveness; nervousness; angered easily ('short fused'); aggressiveness with cursing and outbursts; and impaired sociability with impoliteness. PMID:15797157

  1. Lisdexamfetamine: A Review in ADHD in Adults.

    PubMed

    Frampton, James E

    2016-04-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (lisdexamfetamine) is a long-acting amfetamine prodrug with a convenient once-daily oral regimen that offers the potential for improved adherence and reduced abuse compared with short-acting preparations of amfetamines. Lisdexamfetamine (as Elvanse Adult(®); Tyvense Adult™) has been approved for use in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under the EU decentralization procedure, with the first approvals in the UK, Sweden and Denmark. This approval reflects the results of three short-term trials in adults with ADHD in which fixed- or flexible-dose lisdexamfetamine produced significantly greater improvements than placebo in ADHD symptoms, overall functioning, executive functioning (including in patients with significant pre-existing impairment) and quality of life. Of note, a post hoc analysis of one of these studies suggested that the response to lisdexamfetamine was generally similar in treatment-naïve patients and those who had already received-and not responded satisfactorily to-previous ADHD therapies, including methylphenidate (MPH). Two further studies demonstrated the longer-term effectiveness of flexible-dose lisdexamfetamine in reducing ADHD symptoms, albeit maintenance of efficacy required ongoing treatment with the drug. Lisdexamfetamine was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with an adverse event profile typical of that reported for other long-acting stimulants. Head-to-head comparisons with other long-acting agents, notably MPH and atomoxetine, are lacking. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available data, lisdexamfetamine provides a useful alternative option for the treatment of adults with ADHD, including those who have not responded adequately to previous ADHD therapies, including MPH. PMID:27048350

  2. The Problem with ADHD: Researchers' Constructions and Parents' Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajo, Bora; Cohen, David

    2013-01-01

    An enduring controversy over the nature of ADHD complicates parents' decisions regarding children likely to be diagnosed with the condition. Using a fallibilist perspective, this review examines how researchers construe ADHD and acknowledge the controversy. From a systematic literature search of empirical reports using parents of ADHD-diagnosed…

  3. Variability of Attention Processes in ADHD: Observations from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Alderson, R. Matt; Timko, Thomas M., Jr.; DuPaul, George J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Classroom- and laboratory-based efforts to study the attentional problems of children with ADHD are incongruent in elucidating attentional deficits; however, none have explored within- or between-minute variability in the classroom attentional processing in children with ADHD. Method: High and low attention groups of ADHD children…

  4. Impulsivity in College Students with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Impulsivity is the cardinal symptom of ADHD. It is estimated that ADHD is present in eighteen percent of children and in four percent of adults. The present study repeats and extends a previous study (Gray, Breier, Foorman, & Fletcher, 2002) that measured impulsivity in adolescents with and without ADHD, which found higher false alarm rates…

  5. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  6. Gifted Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neihart, Maureen

    This digest summarizes what is known about gifted children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It identifies three subtypes of ADHD, noting both criteria for diagnosis and the subjective determination of what constitutes significant impairment. Discussion of differences in gifted and non-gifted children with ADHD reports findings…

  7. Time out of Mind: Temporal Perspective in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carelli, Maria G.; Wiberg, Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is often associated with difficulties in planning and time management. In this study, the authors examined the hypothesis that these functional problems in ADHD reflect systematic biases in temporal orientation. Method: To test this hypothesis, adults with ADHD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 60) completed the Swedish version of…

  8. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…

  9. Screening for ADHD in an Adult Social Phobia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…

  10. Assessing the Concordance of Measures Used to Diagnose Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Raggi, Veronica L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Recent evidence suggests that ADHD persists into adulthood, but the best means of diagnosis and the concordance of measures used to diagnose adult ADHD are unknown. Method: The current study explores the relationships of these measures in a sample of 69 mothers of children with ADHD. Results: This study determines the concordance of (a)…

  11. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  12. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin J.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD and epilepsy common are both common childhood disorders and both can have significant negative consequences on a child's behavioural, learning, and social development. Both conditions can co-occur and population studies suggest that the prevalence of ADHD in childhood epilepsy is between 12 and 17%. The prevalence of epilepsy in ADHD is lower…

  14. Memory for Object Locations in Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.; Landau, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether 7- to 12-year-old boys with ADHD, relative to non-ADHD age-mates, exhibit greater difficulty learning and remembering object locations. The second purpose was to examine the functional utility of mnemonic strategies, specifically speech-to-self, used by boys with and without ADHD. Method: Boys with and without ADHD…

  15. ADHD in Indian Elementary Classrooms: Understanding Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Neena

    2013-01-01

    ADHD in India is culturally viewed as a school specific condition. Parents perceive accessing child psychiatric services as stigmatizing and prefer educational interventions for ADHD. There is a crucial need for research that restructures information and intervention paradigms about ADHD within a school context. The objectives of the present study…

  16. Obsessive-compulsive adults with and without childhood ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Oguz; Metin, Baris; Metin, Sinem

    2016-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently coexist. To understand whether childhood ADHD can increase the risk of OCD in adulthood and whether it influences the phenomenology of OCD, we investigated the symptoms of ADHD during childhood in obsessive-compulsive adults who had never been diagnosed as ADHD. Adults with OCD (n = 83) were given the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS-17) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The prevalence of childhood ADHD symptoms was 40.9 % (n = 34) and that of adult ADHD was 16.9 % (n = 14). Patients with childhood ADHD symptoms had an earlier onset of OCD, higher scores of the BAI and BIS-11. The scores of the Y-BOCS and HDRS-17 did not differ between those having and not having childhood ADHD symptoms. Childhood history of ADHD symptoms is common in adult OCD patients who have never been diagnosed as ADHD. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with an earlier age of OCD, more severe anxiety and higher impulsiveness. Even remitted ADHD may be a risk factor for OCD in later life. PMID:27056070

  17. Medications Do Not Necessarily Normalize Cognition in ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gualtieri, C. Thomas; Johnson, Lynda G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although ADHD medications are effective for the behavioral components of the disorder, little information exists concerning their effects on cognition, especially in community samples. Method: A cross-sectional study of ADHD patients treated with three different ADHD drugs was conducted. Patients' performance on a computerized…

  18. What Can ADHD without Comorbidity Teach Us about Comorbidity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ambrosini, Paul J.; deBerardinis, Rachel; Elia, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric comorbidity in ADHD is frequent, impairing and poorly understood. In this report, characteristics of comorbid and comorbid-free ADHD subjects are investigated in an attempt to identify differences that could potentially advance our understanding of risk factors. In a clinically-referred ADHD cohort of 449 youths (ages 6-18), age,…

  19. ADHD with Comorbid Anxiety: A Review of the Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, David Beck; Rostain, Anthony L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective/Method: ADHD is often comorbid with anxiety disorders, with rates approaching 25% in many samples. This current review's goal is to examine the literature on ADHD with comorbid anxiety from 1998 to the present. Results: Recent studies indicate that anxiety in ADHD may a) partially inhibit the impulsivity and response inhibition deficits,…

  20. Vigilance and Sustained Attention in Children and Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Walitza, Susanne; Sontag, Thomas A.; Laufkotter, Rainer; Linder, Martin; Lange, Klaus W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present article tests the hypothesis of a sustained attention deficit in children and adults suffering from ADHD. Method: Vigilance and sustained attention of 52 children with ADHD and 38 adults with ADHD were assessed using a computerized vigilance task. Furthermore, the attentional performance of healthy children (N = 52) and…

  1. Cognitive Deficits in Adults with ADHD Go beyond Comorbidity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Katiane L.; Guimaraes-da-Silva, Paula O.; Grevet, Eugenio H.; Victor, Marcelo M.; Salgado, Carlos A. I.; Vitola, Eduardo S.; Mota, Nina R.; Fischer, Aline G.; Contini, Veronica; Picon, Felipe A.; Karam, Rafael G.; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Rohde, Luis A.; Bau, Claiton H. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses if deficits in cognitive, attention, and inhibitory control performance in adults with ADHD are better explained by the disorder itself or by comorbid conditions. Method Adult patients with ADHD ("n" = 352) and controls ("n" = 94) were evaluated in the ADHD program of a tertiary hospital. The…

  2. ADHD: Misconceptions and the Four Rules of Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutscher, Martin L.

    2008-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not just about hyperactive people who have short attention spans. ADHD is a disorder that involves difficult problems on a wide range of "executive dysfunction," a wide range of co-occuring conditions, and family problems. People need to recognize that ADHD is not just…

  3. Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

  4. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

  5. ADHD classification by a texture analysis of anatomical brain MRI data.

    PubMed

    Chang, Che-Wei; Ho, Chien-Chang; Chen, Jyh-Horng

    2012-01-01

    The ADHD-200 Global Competition provides an excellent opportunity for building diagnostic classifiers of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and structural MRI data. Here, we introduce a simple method to classify ADHD based on morphological information without using functional data. Our test results show that the accuracy of this approach is competitive with methods based on rs-fMRI data. We used isotropic local binary patterns on three orthogonal planes (LBP-TOP) to extract features from MR brain images. Subsequently, support vector machines (SVM) were used to develop classification models based on the extracted features. In this study, a total of 436 male subjects (210 with ADHD and 226 controls) were analyzed to show the discriminative power of the method. To analyze the properties of this approach, we tested disparate LBP-TOP features from various parcellations and different image resolutions. Additionally, morphological information using a single brain tissue type (i.e., gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and CSF) was tested. The highest accuracy we achieved was 0.6995. The LBP-TOP was found to provide better discriminative power using whole-brain data as the input. Datasets with higher resolution can train models with increased accuracy. The information from GM plays a more important role than that of other tissue types. These results and the properties of LBP-TOP suggest that most of the disparate feature distribution comes from different patterns of cortical folding. Using LBP-TOP, we provide an ADHD classification model based only on anatomical information, which is easier to obtain in the clinical environment and which is simpler to preprocess compared with rs-fMRI data. PMID:23024630

  6. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, O.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts) and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD. PMID:27579185

  7. Story comprehension in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lorch, E P; Milich, R; Sanchez, R P

    1998-09-01

    A wealth of research is available examining children's story comprehension. However, little attention has been directed toward understanding the story comprehension of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present paper attempts to integrate the developmental literature on children's story comprehension with the little that is known about the story comprehension processes of children with ADHD. This review is guided by a network model of story representation that emphasizes the structure of causal and enabling relations between story events. Examination of the available studies indicates that children with ADHD lag behind their peers in their understanding of causal relations, and that their attentional problems may contribute to difficulties in understanding factual information in the preschool years and causally related information in the elementary years. Some evidence also is presented suggesting that children with ADHD are less effective in taking advantage of story structure features in guiding their recall of story events. Suggestions for future research are offered that would elaborate our knowledge of the developmental progression in the processing of complex information by children with ADHD. PMID:11324305

  8. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A; Lewis, O; Kumar, R; Yeruva, S L H; Curry, B H

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts) and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD. PMID:27579185

  9. Transition to adult mental health services for young people with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a qualitative analysis of their experiences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is little research on the process of transition between child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) and adult mental health services (AMHS). More recently, there is growing recognition that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may persist into adulthood requiring services beyond age 18. However, despite National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Guidance which recommends specialist services for adults with ADHD, there is currently a lack of such services in the UK. The aim of the current study is to explore the experiences of young people with ADHD during transition from CAMHS to AMHS. Method Semi-structured qualitative interviews with ADHD patients accessing CAMHS clinics in Nottinghamshire were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Ten semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analysed. We found that patients’ relationships with their clinician were a key factor in both their reported experience of CAMHS and the transition process. Perceived responsibility of care was also pivotal in how the transition process was viewed. Nature and severity of problems and patients expectations of adult services were also contributing factors in the transition process. The need for continued parental support was openly accepted and thought to be required by the majority of young people with ADHD during transition. Conclusions Timely preparation, joint working, good clinician relationships and parental support serve to facilitate the process of transition for young people with ADHD. Nature and severity of problems are perceived to impede or facilitate transition, with predominantly more ‘complex presentations’ with associated mental health problems more familiar to AMHS (e.g. self-harm, depression) making for smoother transitions to adult services. Transitions to AMHS were more difficult when ADHD was viewed as the main or sole clinical problem. Further exploration of young people’s experiences of transition

  10. Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Teaching Children with ADHD: The Role of Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…

  11. Depression and Anxiety among Transitioning Adolescents and College Students with ADHD, Dyslexia, or Comorbid ADHD/Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Gregg, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate depressive and anxious symptomatology among transitioning adolescents and college students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia. Method: Transitioning adolescents and college students with these disorders along with a non-ADHD/dyslexia college sample completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety.…

  12. Temporal Stability of ADHD in the High-IQ Population: Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Maglione, Katherine; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Seidman, Larry; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder and high-IQ children and whether ADHD has a high predictive value among youths with high-IQ. Results further supported the hypothesis for the predictive validity of ADHD in high-IQ youths.

  13. Dysfunctional cortical inhibition in adult ADHD: neural correlates in auditory event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Schubert, J K; Gonzalez-Trejo, E; Retz, W; Rösler, M; Corona-Strauss, F I; Steidl, G; Teuber, T; Strauss, D J

    2014-09-30

    In recent times, the relevance of an accurate diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has been the focus of several studies. No longer considered a pathology exclusive to children and adolescents, and taking into account its social implications, developing enhanced support tools for the current diagnostic procedure becomes a priority. Here we present a method for the objective assessment of ADHD in adults using chirp-evoked, paired auditory late responses (ALRs) combined with a two-dimensional ALR denoising scheme to extract correlates of intracortical inhibition. Our method allows for an effective single-sweep denoising, thus requiring less trials to obtain recognizable physiological features, useful as pointers of cortical impairment. Results allow an optimized diagnosis, reduction of data loss and acquisition time; moreover, they do not account exclusively for critical elements within clinical evaluations, but also allow studying the pathophysiology of the condition by providing objective information regarding impaired cortical functions. PMID:25033725

  14. Clinical trials of fatty acid treatment in ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and the autistic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Richardson, A J

    2004-04-01

    Considerable clinical and experimental evidence now supports the idea that deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to a range of common developmental disorders including ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Definitive evidence of a causal contribution, however, can only come from intervention studies in the form of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Published studies of this kind are still fairly few in number, and mainly involve the diagnostic categories of ADHD and dyslexia, although other trials involving individuals with dyspraxia or ASD are in progress. The main findings to date from such studies are reviewed and evaluated here with the primary aim of guiding future research, although given that fatty acid supplementation for these conditions is already being adopted in many quarters, it is hoped that some of the information provided may also help to inform clinical practice. PMID:15041031

  15. Motor regulation problems and pain in adults diagnosed with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most children who are diagnosed with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have moderate-to-severe motor problems using the Motor Function Neurological Assessment battery (MFNU). The MFNU focuses on specific muscle adjustment problems associated with ADHD, especially motor inhibition problems and high muscle tone. Here we investigated whether adults with ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) have similar motor problems. In our clinical experience, adults with ADHD often complain about back, shoulder, hip, and leg pain. We also investigate reported pain in adults with ADHD. Methods Twenty-five adult outpatients diagnosed with ADHD/HKD who were responders to methylphenidate (MPH) were compared to 23 non-ADHD controls on 16 MFNU subtests and using a ‘total score’ (‘TS’) parameter. The MFNU test leader was blinded to group identity. The two groups were also compared using the Pain Drawing and Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Results The adult ADHD group had significantly (p < .001) more motor problems (higher TS) than controls. On the muscle regulation subtests, 36–96% of the ADHD group showed ‘moderate’ to ‘severe’ problems compared to 13–52% of the control group, and 80% of the ADHD group reported widespread pain. Highly significant differences were found between the ADHD and control groups for the variables ‘pain level’ (p < .001) and ‘pain location’ (p < .001). Significant correlations were found between TS and ‘pain location’ and between TS and ‘pain level’. Conclusions These findings suggest that similar to children with ADHD, adults diagnosed with ADHD also have motor inhibition problems and heightened muscle tone. The presence of significantly higher pain levels and more widespread pain in the ADHD group compared to non-ADHD controls might indicate that pain is a long-term secondary effect of heightened muscle tone and restricted movement that can be demonstrated in children and adults by the MFNU

  16. Intersubjectivity in video interview.

    PubMed

    Haddouk, Lise

    2014-01-01

    The concept of relationship has rapidly evolved over the past few years, since the emergence of the internet network and the development of remote communication and exchanges. The emergence of cyberculture with the development of the internet has led to a new representation of the social link, in which communication never stops. In this context, computer mediated intersubjective relationships represent a main line of thinking and research. Thus, can we consider for example that relationship is only composed of an informational exchange? Would there be other dimensions possibly missing in computer mediated relationships? In this case, how could we re-introduce these aspects, "re-humanize" the remote relationships? New practices in psychology emerge with the ICT usage, both in the fields of research and for therapeutic purposes. Some fields like medicine already use remote health platforms that have proven useful in certain situations. In the field of remote clinical psychology, different media are used that contribute to the framework definition of the remote clinical interview, where the concept of relation holds a central place. Videoconference enables the introduction of an important element from the point of view of sensoriality: the body image, which engages the subjects' interaction in a different way than in a written or verbal exchange. But is the use of videoconference sufficient to establish a clinical framework comparable to the traditional one? How can the computer-mediated relationship enable and establish a potential object relation, rather than a mirrored one? Thinking through an online adaptation of the clinical interview framework led to the elaboration of a specific tool dedicated to this purpose and to research into the access to intersubjectivity in clinical video interview. This study's encouraging results have fostered the pursuit of this experience in the form of a platform dedicated to the conduction of clinical interviews through

  17. Interviews with Mexican midwives.

    PubMed

    Bortin, S

    1993-01-01

    Mexican society contains a variety of indigenous cultures as well as European influences. Most babies in rural areas are delivered by midwives. Traditional midwives, government-trained and empirical midwives, nurse-midwives, and foreign-trained midwives all practice in Mexico. Nurse-midwives in one project are demonstrating their ability to meet the needs of urban childbearing women. A midwifery organization is developing under the leadership of midwives influenced by the contemporary midwifery movement in the United States. In this article, some traditional Mexican midwifery practices are discussed and interviews with several different Mexican midwives from a variety of backgrounds are presented. PMID:8331429

  18. Advances in understanding and treating ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurocognitive behavioral developmental disorder most commonly seen in childhood and adolescence, which often extends to the adult years. Relative to a decade ago, there has been extensive research into understanding the factors underlying ADHD, leading to far more treatment options available for both adolescents and adults with this disorder. Novel stimulant formulations have made it possible to tailor treatment to the duration of efficacy required by patients, and to help mitigate the potential for abuse, misuse and diversion. Several new non-stimulant options have also emerged in the past few years. Among these, cognitive behavioral interventions have proven popular in the treatment of adult ADHD, especially within the adult population who cannot or will not use medications, along with the many medication-treated patients who continue to show residual disability. PMID:21658285

  19. Interview With Jean Laplanche.

    PubMed

    Laplanche, Jean; Danon, Gisèle; Lauru, Didier

    2015-10-01

    The starting point for this interview with Jean Laplanche is a question regarding the place of infantile sexuality within psychoanalysis today. Laplanche begins by underscoring the audaciousness of Freud's characterization of infantile sexuality and the significance of the expansion of the field of "the sexual" that this characterization entails. He goes on to outline his celebrated "general theory of seduction." In doing so he explains key terms associated with it, such as the "enigmatic message" and the "fundamental anthropological situation," and clarifies how the theory seeks to account for sexuality in the expanded sense. In particular, Laplanche stresses the intersubjective origins of "drive" sexuality in infancy, its chaotic evolution, its unique economic mode of functioning, and its subsequent conflict with innate "instinctual" sexual impulses that surge forth at puberty. He also positions the general theory of seduction in relation to the important advances made by attachment theory in the field of the adult-child relationship. Throughout the interview, the discussion touches on social contexts, and at points Laplanche outlines positions on topical concerns connected to education, media, and the law, and the importance of rethinking certain psychoanalytic paradigms in an age of new family structures that do not correspond to the nuclear unit. PMID:26485488

  20. The screens culture: impact on ADHD.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Margaret D; Baer, Susan; Allan, Blake A; Saran, Kelly; Schibuk, Heidi

    2011-12-01

    Children's use of electronic media, including Internet and video gaming, has increased dramatically to an average in the general population of roughly 3 h per day. Some children cannot control their Internet use leading to increasing research on "internet addiction." The objective of this article is to review the research on ADHD as a risk factor for Internet addiction and gaming, its complications, and what research and methodological questions remain to be addressed. The literature search was done in PubMed and Psychinfo, as well as by hand. Previous research has demonstrated rates of Internet addiction as high as 25% in the population and that it is addiction more than time of use that is best correlated with psychopathology. Various studies confirm that psychiatric disorders, and ADHD in particular, are associated with overuse, with severity of ADHD specifically correlated with the amount of use. ADHD children may be vulnerable since these games operate in brief segments that are not attention demanding. In addition, they offer immediate rewards with a strong incentive to increase the reward by trying the next level. The time spent on these games may also exacerbate ADHD symptoms, if not directly then through the loss of time spent on more developmentally challenging tasks. While this is a major issue for many parents, there is no empirical research on effective treatment. Internet and off-line gaming overuse and addiction are serious concerns for ADHD youth. Research is limited by the lack of measures for youth or parents, studies of children at risk, and studies of impact and treatment. PMID:21948003

  1. Occupational issues of adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that persists into adulthood. Its symptoms cause impairments in a number of social domains, one of which is employment. We wish to produce a consensus statement on how ADHD affects employment. Methods This consensus development conference statement was developed as a result of a joint international meeting held in July 2010. The consensus committee was international in scope (United Kingdom, mainland Europe, United Arab Emirates) and consisted of individuals from a broad range of backgrounds (Psychiatry, Occupational Medicine, Health Economists, Disability Advisors). The objectives of the conference were to discuss some of the occupational impairments adults with ADHD may face and how to address these problems from an inclusive perspective. Furthermore the conference looked at influencing policy and decision making at a political level to address impaired occupational functioning in adults with ADHD and fears around employing people with disabilities in general. Results The consensus was that there were clear weaknesses in the current arrangements in the UK and internationally to address occupational difficulties. More so, Occupational Health was not wholly integrated and used as a means of making positive changes to the workplace, but rather as a superfluous last resort that employers tried to avoid. Furthermore the lack of cross professional collaboration on occupational functioning in adults with ADHD was a significant problem. Conclusions Future research needs to concentrate on further investigating occupational functioning in adults with ADHD and pilot exploratory initiatives and tools, leading to a better and more informed understanding of possible barriers to employment and potential schemes to put in place to address these problems. PMID:23414364

  2. How 'core' are motor timing difficulties in ADHD? A latent class comparison of pure and comorbid ADHD classes.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Jolanda M J; Hartman, Catharina A; Thissen, Andrieke J A M; Oerlemans, Anoek M; Luman, Marjolein; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2016-04-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have motor timing difficulties. This study examined whether affected motor timing accuracy and variability are specific for ADHD, or that comorbidity with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) contributes to these motor timing difficulties. An 80-trial motor timing task measuring accuracy (μ), variability (σ) and infrequent long response times (τ) in estimating a 1-s interval was administered to 283 children and adolescents (8-17 years) from both a clinic and population based sample. They were divided into four latent classes based on the SCQ and CPRS-R:L data. These classes were: without behavioral problems 'Normal-class' (n = 154), with only ADHD symptoms 'ADHD-class' (n = 49), and two classes with both ASD and ADHD symptoms; ADHD(+ASD)-class (n = 39) and ASD(+ADHD)-class (n = 41). The pure ADHD-class did not deviate from the Normal class on any of the motor timing measures (mean RTs 916 and 925 ms, respectively). The comorbid ADHD(+ASD) and ASD(+ADHD) classes were significantly less accurate (more time underestimations) compared to the Normal class (mean RTs 847 and 870 ms, respectively). Variability in motor timing was reduced in the younger children in the ADHD(+ASD) class, which may reflect a tendency to rush the tedious task. Only patients with more severe behavioral symptoms show motor timing deficiencies. This cannot merely be explained by high ADHD severity with ASD playing no role, as ADHD symptom severity in the pure ADHD-class and the ASD(+ADHD) class was highly similar, with the former class showing no motor timing deficits. PMID:26154019

  3. Examining Manual and Visual Response Inhibition among ADHD Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared inhibitory functioning among ADHD subtype groups on manual and visual versions of the stop task. Seventy-six children, identified as ADHD/I (n = 17), ADHD/C (n =43), and comparison (n = 20) completed both tasks. Results indicated that both ADHD groups were slower to inhibit responses than the comparison group on both tasks. Comparison children were faster to inhibit than activate responses on both tasks. Children in the ADHD groups also demonstrated this robust pattern on the manual task. However, on the visual task, the ADHD groups evidenced slowed inhibition comparable to the time required to activate responding. This implies that the visual task is more sensitive than the manual task to inhibitory deficits associated with ADHD. The ADHD/I and the ADHD/C groups did not differ on most measures, suggesting that neither stop task is effective in differentiating the subtypes. These findings extend work highlighting the role of disinhibition in ADHD, and contrast recent work suggesting divergence between ADHD subtypes. PMID:20449644

  4. ADHD matures: time for practitioners to do the same?

    PubMed

    Bolea, B; Adamou, M; Arif, M; Asherson, P; Gudjonsson, G; Müller, U; Nutt, D J; Pitts, M; Thome, J; Young, S

    2012-06-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not restricted to children. Abundant evidence from follow-up studies accumulated since the 1970s supports the concept of ADHD in adulthood. Genetic research points to a heritability of 76%, and neuroimaging studies have reported structural and functional brain abnormalities in patients with ADHD. Contrary to popular belief, ADHD is not a culturally bound disorder and has been described worldwide. ADHD has a cost for society, as adults with this disorder suffer from increased rates of unemployment and psychiatric comorbidity, including substance use disorders. Studies undertaken in forensic populations describe high rates of ADHD in these groups, particularly amongst young offenders. One of the main issues in the diagnosis of ADHD in the adult is the fact that most clinicians have not been educated to diagnose and treat ADHD. Effective pharmacological treatments for ADHD are available and should be prescribed for these patients. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the British Association for Psychopharmacology (BAP) guidelines established a benchmark for service development required to treat ADHD adequately in the adult population. However, the implementation of new services has been slow. More resources are needed to effectively assess and treat ADHD in the adult. PMID:21890596

  5. Variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Duda, Thomas A; Casey, Joseph E; McNevin, Nancy

    2014-12-01

    Although graphomotor differences and variability of performance have been observed in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), no study has investigated whether this variability manifests in the kinematic graphomotor domain in adults with ADHD. Fourteen ADHD and 20 control participants wrote a novel grapheme and common word on a digitizing tablet 30 times each, with ADHD participants counterbalanced on and off stimulant medication. Variability of graphomotor fluency was significantly greater in ADHD versus control participants only in the novel writing task, both on, F(1,31)=5.988, p=.020, and off stimulant medication, F(1,32)=8.789, p=.006. Results suggest that motor control differences in ADHD are not limited to childhood and extend into adulthood. Given sufficient additional research, variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency may increase the sensitivity/specificity of differential diagnoses and/or represent a biomarker for ADHD. PMID:25457429

  6. Sleep patterns and the risk for ADHD: a review

    PubMed Central

    Cassoff, Jamie; Wiebe, Sabrina T; Gruber, Reut

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with comorbid sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances may be a risk factor for development of the disorder, a symptom of the disorder, or a comorbid condition affected by a similar psychopathology. Various studies have examined the impact of sleep deprivation on the presence/exacerbation of ADHD symptomology, as well as longitudinal and concurrent associations between different sleep disturbances and ADHD, yet the notion of sleep disturbances as a predecessor to ADHD remains unclear. As such, this review examines the evidence for sleep disturbances as a risk factor for the development of ADHD, as well as the mechanisms underlying the association between sleep patterns and ADHD. Additionally, clinical implications regarding the comorbid nature of sleep disturbances and ADHD will be considered. PMID:23620680

  7. Examination of Neurological Subtle Signs in ADHD as a Clinical Tool for the Diagnosis and Their Relationship to Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrin, Maite; Vance, Alasdair

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neurological subtle signs (NSS) are minor neurological abnormalities that have been shown to be increased in a number of neurodevelopmental conditions. For attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it remains unclear whether NSS may aid the clinical diagnostic process. Methods: This study explored the association of total and…

  8. The clinical utility of the continuous performance test and objective measures of activity for diagnosing and monitoring ADHD in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charlotte L; Valentine, Althea Z; Groom, Madeleine J; Walker, Gemma M; Sayal, Kapil; Daley, David; Hollis, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically diagnosed using clinical observation and subjective informant reports. Once children commence ADHD medication, robust monitoring is required to detect partial or non-responses. The extent to which neuropsychological continuous performance tests (CPTs) and objective measures of activity can clinically aid the assessment and titration process in ADHD is not fully understood. This review describes the current evidence base for the use of CPTs and objectively measured activity to support the diagnostic procedure and medication management for children with ADHD. Four databases (PsycINFO, Medline, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), and PsycARTICLES) were systematically searched to understand the current evidence base for (1) the use of CPTs to aid clinical assessment of ADHD; (2) the use of CPTs to aid medication management; and (3) the clinical utility of objective measures of activity in ADHD. Sixty relevant articles were identified. The search revealed six commercially available CPTs that had been reported on for their clinical use. There were mixed findings with regard to the use of CPTs to assess and manage medication, with contrasting evidence on their ability to support clinical decision-making. There was a strong evidence base for the use of objective measures of activity to aid ADHD/non-ADHD group differentiation, which appears sensitive to medication effects and would also benefit from further research on their clinical utility. The findings suggest that combining CPTs and an objective measure of activity may be particularly useful as a clinical tool and worthy of further pursuit. PMID:26620873

  9. Rejection Sensitivity and Social Outcomes of Young Adult Men with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been consistently linked to social maladjustment. This study investigated whether elevated rejection sensitivity (RS) could contribute to the relational problems that adults with ADHD encounter. Method: Undergraduate men in ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C; n = 31), ADHD-Primarily…

  10. Is the Inattentive Subtype of ADHD Different from the Combined/Hyperactive Subtype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grizenko, Natalie; Paci, Michael; Joober, Ridha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the ADHD combined/hyperactive subtype (ADHD/CH) to the ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD/I) on the level of comorbidity, treatment response, and possible etiological factors. Method: A total of 371 clinically referred children diagnosed with ADHD aged between 6 and 12 years are recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled…

  11. Ability of College Students to Simulate ADHD on Objective Measures of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booksh, Randee Lee; Pella, Russell D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Gouvier, William Drew

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the ability of college students to simulate ADHD symptoms on objective and self-report measures and the relationship between knowledge of ADHD and ability to simulate ADHD. Method: Undergraduate students were assigned to a control or a simulated ADHD malingering condition and compared with a clinical AD/HD group.…

  12. The Art of the Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rhonda

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the qualities it takes for journalism students to be good interviewers and outlines several guidelines to follow. Lists seven "Boy Scout rules of interviewing." Gives a list of eight points on how to "punctuate what people say." (SC)

  13. Motivational Interviewing and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilallo, John J.; Weiss, Gony

    2009-01-01

    The use of motivational interviewing strategies in the practice of adolescent psychopharmacology is described. Motivational interviewing is an efficient and collaborative style of clinical interaction and this helps adolescent patients to integrate their psychiatric difficulties into a more resilient identity.

  14. Job Interviewing? Try the Telephone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Paul L.

    1979-01-01

    Telephone interviews can save college and candidates time and money while precluding the judging of job candidates by extraneous factors. A format for a successful telephone interview is suggested. (Author/MLF)

  15. Delivering Evidence-Based Treatments for Child Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the Context of Parental ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Christine H.; Mazursky-Horowitz, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral parent training (BPT) and stimulant medications are efficacious treatments for child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, there is some evidence to suggest that parental ADHD may reduce the effectiveness of both treatment modalities. This review paper summarizes the literature related to the evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatment of child ADHD in the context of parental ADHD. We also review the literature on the effects of treating parents’ ADHD symptoms on parenting and child behavior outcomes. Although the literature is small and inconsistent, studies suggest that medicating parents’ ADHD symptoms may or may not be sufficient in demonstrating desired improvements in parenting and child behavioral outcomes. Therefore, interventions targeting both parent and child ADHD, when both are present, are likely needed to improve parent-child interactions and family functioning. Ongoing studies using a multimodal approach are discussed. PMID:25135774

  16. [Psychoanalytic initial interview and OPD-CA interview--no balancing act!].

    PubMed

    Diederichs-Paeschke, Veronika; Forkel, Christine; Held, Ulrike; Jaletzke, Cordula; Stafski, Bruno; Bilke-Hentsch, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    The application of the OPD-CA (Operationalised Psychodynamic Diagnostics in Childhood and Adolescence) for diagnostic purposes during the initial interview is no abdication of a psychoanalytic attitude. The study group OPD (2006, p. 289) proposed a "moderate structured action" for the investigation of the axes "interpersonal relations", "conflicts", "psychic structure", and "preconditions for treatment". But this is not a schematic checking. Space should be provided explicitly to a scenic development of the relationship-dynamics. In this article, the intersubjective character and the uniqueness of the conversation are underlined. Thus, the resulting diagnosis cannot be seen independently of the inner attitude and the concrete intervention of the interviewer. Certain phases of the interview that regularly ensue on the basis of the inherent dynamics and the "choreography" of a first meeting with a patient, are described in regard to the dynamic aspects and their significance in the OPD-Diagnostics. They are balanced with scenic points of view. Possible difficulties and suggestions for the practical handling are discussed on the basis of a case vignette. PMID:21381385

  17. Preparing for Your Principal Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanneut, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Being invited to the initial round of interviews for a principal opening is an opportunity; preparing for it is an investment. A successful interview requires that you create a detailed plan and take specific steps. This article provides tips on how to prepare yourself for a principal interview. Before you focus on what to do during your…

  18. An Interview with Ralph Tyler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Jeri Ridings

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Ralph Tyler. This interview will be of interest to those entering the field of education as well as for those who have made their home within the field for some time now. In the interview, Dr. Tyler discusses work in education and educational evaluation that spans over a half a century. He describes issues…

  19. Demographic, developmental and psychosocial predictors of the development of anxiety in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Katie; Bramham, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate potential demographic, developmental and psychosocial predictors of anxiety in the context of ADHD. Participants included 267 adults with a diagnosis of ADHD (168 males:99 females) and an age range of 18-70 years (M = 31 years; SD = 10.03 years). A background interview, parent questionnaire and rating scales were used to gather participant information. Correlations, independent t tests and one-way analysis of variances were used to identify variables associated with anxiety, and a stepwise multiple regression was used to identify potential predictors of anxiety. Variables associated with anxiety included childhood aggression, employment status, difficulties making friends, number of children and caffeine intake. Childhood aggression and caffeine intake were the potential predictors. Clinicians should be aware of these potential predictors of anxiety in the context of ADHD in order to minimise the likelihood of the development or maintenance of comorbid anxiety. Future research is needed in order to draw any conclusions on cause and effect. PMID:26487156

  20. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…