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Sample records for adhd group compared

  1. Comparative Study of Children with ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in…

  2. Comparing ADHD in Velocardiofacial Syndrome to Idiopathic ADHD: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Fremont, Wanda; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kates, Wendy R.; Doyle, Alysa; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Background: Children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a contiguous deletion syndrome, have an increased prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The authors compared youth with VCFS+ADHD (from the SUNY Upstate VCFS Research Program) to those with ADHD but not VCFS (from the Massachusetts General…

  3. Evaluation of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramham, Jessica; Young, Susan; Bickerdike, Alison; Spain, Deborah; McCartan, Denise; Xenitidis, Kiriakos

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A brief cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention was designed to treat comorbid anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem and self-efficacy in adults with ADHD. It was hypothesised that participants would gain knowledge about ADHD, experience a reduction in comorbid symptoms, and benefit from the supportive aspect of group…

  4. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Print A A A ... doesn't involve hyperactivity. Symptoms and Signs of ADHD Because ADHD covers lots of different things — attention, ...

  5. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ADHD FACT SHEET What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is sometimes referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). It ...

  6. Sport-Based Group Therapy Program for Boys with ADHD or with Other Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufi, Dubi; Parish-Plass, Jim

    2011-01-01

    A group of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was compared to children with other behavior and emotional problems. All the participants participated together in 20 weekly sessions for 1 academic year. The participants were assessed with three questionnaires on three different occasions: before the beginning of the group,…

  7. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  8. Symptoms of ADHD and Academic Concerns in College Students with and without ADHD Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence J.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Codding, Robin S.; Gordon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has found ADHD symptoms to be common in the general population but has not compared endorsement of symptoms between ADHD and non-ADHD groups. This study examines self-reported ADHD symptoms and academic complaints in college students. Method: Students without (n = 496) and with ADHD (n = 38) completed a questionnaire…

  9. Adults with ADHD Benefit from Cognitive-Behaviorally Oriented Group Rehabilitation: A Study of 29 Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virta, Maarit; Vedenpaa, Anita; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective nonpharmacological treatments of adult ADHD. The authors present results from a cognitive-behaviorally oriented psychological group rehabilitation for adult ADHD. Method: A total of 29 adults with ADHD participated. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 or 11 weekly sessions.…

  10. The Hierarchical Factor Model of ADHD: Invariant across Age and National Groupings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factor structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1,373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1,772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and…

  11. A Comparative Study of Sustained Attentional Bias on Emotional Processing in ADHD Children to Pictures with Eye-Tracking

    PubMed Central

    PISHYAREH, Ebrahim; TEHRANI-DOOST, Mehdi; MAHMOODI-GHARAIE, Javad; KHORRAMI, Anahita; RAHMDAR, Saeid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective ADHD children have anomalous and negative behavior especially in emotionally related fields when compared to other. Evidence indicates that attention has an impact on emotional processing. The present study evaluates the effect of emotional processing on the sustained attention of children with ADHD type C. Materials & Methods Sixty participants form two equal groups (each with 30 children) of normal and ADHD children) and each subject met the required selected criterion as either a normal or an ADHD child. Both groups were aged from 6–11-years-old. All pictures were chosen from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and presented paired emotional and neutral scenes in the following categories: pleasant-neutral; pleasant-unpleasant; unpleasant-neutral; and neutral–neutral. Sustained attention was evaluated based on the number and duration of total fixation and was compared between the groups with MANOVA analysis. Results The duration of sustained attention on pleasant in the pleasant-unpleasant pair was significant. Bias in duration of sustained attention on pleasant scenes in pleasant-neutral pairs is significantly different between the groups. Conclusion Such significant differences might be indicative of ADHD children deficiencies in emotional processing. It seems that the highly deep effect of emotionally unpleasant scenes to gain the focus of ADHD children’s attention is responsible for impulsiveness and abnormal processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:25767541

  12. Parental Involvement in Children's Learning: Comparing Parents of Children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Maria A.; Wiener, Judith; Marton, Imola; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined involvement in children's learning among parents of 101 children between 8 and 12 years of age (53 parents of children with ADHD, 48 parents of children without ADHD). Compared to parents of children without ADHD, parents of children with ADHD reported lower self-efficacy in their ability to help their children, felt…

  13. Smaller splenium in children with nonverbal learning disability compared to controls, high-functioning autism and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Musielak, Kayla A; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated morphological differences in the corpus callosum in children ages 8 to 18 years old with nonverbal learning disability (NLD; n = 19), high-functioning autism (HFA; n = 23), predominantly inattentive ADHD (ADHD:PI; n = 23), and combined type ADHD (ADHD:C; n = 25), as well as those demonstrating typical development (n = 57). Midsagittal area of the corpus callosum and five midsagittal anterior-to-posterior corpus callosum segments were examined using magnetic resonance imaging. Controlling for midsagittal brain area and age, no group differences were found for total corpus callosum area. This finding indicates that higher functioning children on the autistic spectrum do not have smaller corpus callosi as has been found in previous research with heterogeneous samples. Following segmentation of the corpus callosum, the NLD group was observed to have significantly smaller splenia compared to all other groups. Smaller splenia in the NLD group was associated with lower WASI PIQ scores but not WASI VIQ scores. Children with HFA were observed to have larger midbody areas than children with NLD and neurotypically developing children. Children with HFA and NLD demonstrated behavioral symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity similar to the ADHD groups indicating that corpus callosum differences seen in the NLD and HFA groups are not related to these behaviors. PMID:24215424

  14. Comparing stimulant effects in youth with ADHD symptoms and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Hsin, Olivia; Gumlak, Sarah; Kimball, Kara; Rober, Ashley; Azeem, Muhammad W; Hickory, Meredith; Mrakotsky, Christine; Torres, Alcy; Mezzacappa, Enrico; Bourgeois, Blaise; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-07-01

    To retrospectively examine response to stimulant treatment in patients with epilepsy and ADHD symptoms as predicted by seizure freedom for six months, use of methylphenidate (MPH) versus amphetamine (AMP) preparations, cognitive level, and medical records were searched for patients under the age of 18 with epilepsy and ADHD symptoms treated with MPH or AMP (n=36, age=10.4 ± 3.5; male=67%). "Responders" had a CGI-improvement score of ≤ 2 and did not stop medication because of adverse effects. "Worsened" patients discontinued medication because of agitation/emotional lability. Seizure freedom did not predict treatment response. Lower cognitive level was associated with increased rate of worsening (p=0.048). No patients who were seizure-free at the start of the medication trial experienced an increase in seizures. Of the patients having seizures at the start of trial, one patient on MPH and two patients on AMP had increased seizures during the trial. Seizures returned to baseline frequency or less after stimulant discontinuation or anticonvulsant adjustment. Methylphenidate was associated with a higher response rate, with 12 of 19 given MPH (0.62 ± 0.28 mg/kg/day) compared with 4 of 17 given AMP (0.37 ± 0.26 mg/kg/day) responding (p=0.03). Methylphenidate treatment and higher cognitive level were associated with improved treatment outcome, while seizure freedom had no clear effect. Confidence in these findings is limited by the study's small, open-label, and uncontrolled design.

  15. An Asymmetric Stroop/Reverse-Stroop Interference Phenomenon in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yongning; Hakoda, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether participants with ADHD showed a deficit in Stroop/reverse-Stroop interference by comparing them to non-ADHD participants. Method: A group with ADHD, primarily inattentive type (n = 15), and a paired non-ADHD group (n = 15) completed the group version of the Stroop/reverse-Stroop test. Results: Asymmetric interference…

  16. Associations between Family Environment, Parenting Practices, and Executive Functioning of Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationships between executive functioning, family environment, and parenting practices in children diagnosed with ADHD as compared to children without ADHD. Participants were parents (N = 134) of 6- to 12-year-old ADHD and non-ADHD-diagnosed children. Compared to the control group, parents of children diagnosed with ADHD reported…

  17. COMPARING STIMULANT EFFECTS IN YOUTH WITH ADHD SYMPTOMS AND EPILEPSY

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Hsin, Olivia; Gumlak, Sarah; Kimball, Kara; Rober, Ashley; Azeem, Muhammad W.; Hickory, Meredith; Mrakotsky, Christine; Torres, Alcy; Mezzacappa, Enrico; Bourgeois, Blaise; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    To retrospectively examine response to stimulant treatment in patients with epilepsy and ADHD symptoms as predicted by seizure freedom for six months, use of methylphenidate (MPH) versus amphetamine (AMP) preparations, and cognitive level, medical records were searched for patients under age 18 with epilepsy and ADHD symptoms treated with MPH or AMP (n = 36, age 10.4±3.5; 67% male). “Responders” had a CGI-Improvement score of ≤2 and did not stop medication due to adverse effects. “Worsened” patients discontinued medication due to agitation/emotional lability. Seizure freedom did not predict treatment response. Lower cognitive level was associated with increased rate of worsening (p=0.048). No patients who were seizure-free at start of the medication trial experienced an increase in seizures. Of the patients having seizures at the start of trial, one patient on MPH and two on AMP had increased seizures during the trial. Seizures returned to baseline frequency or less after stimulant discontinuation or anticonvulsant adjustment. MPH was associated with a higher response rate, with 12 of 19 given MPH 0.62±0.28mg/kg/day compared to 4 of 17 given AMP 0.37±0.26mg/kg/day responding (p=0.03). MPH treatment and higher cognitive level were associated with improved treatment outcome while seizure freedom had no clear effect. Confidence in these findings is limited by the study’s small, open label, and uncontrolled nature. PMID:24907495

  18. Comparing stimulant effects in youth with ADHD symptoms and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Hsin, Olivia; Gumlak, Sarah; Kimball, Kara; Rober, Ashley; Azeem, Muhammad W; Hickory, Meredith; Mrakotsky, Christine; Torres, Alcy; Mezzacappa, Enrico; Bourgeois, Blaise; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-07-01

    To retrospectively examine response to stimulant treatment in patients with epilepsy and ADHD symptoms as predicted by seizure freedom for six months, use of methylphenidate (MPH) versus amphetamine (AMP) preparations, cognitive level, and medical records were searched for patients under the age of 18 with epilepsy and ADHD symptoms treated with MPH or AMP (n=36, age=10.4 ± 3.5; male=67%). "Responders" had a CGI-improvement score of ≤ 2 and did not stop medication because of adverse effects. "Worsened" patients discontinued medication because of agitation/emotional lability. Seizure freedom did not predict treatment response. Lower cognitive level was associated with increased rate of worsening (p=0.048). No patients who were seizure-free at the start of the medication trial experienced an increase in seizures. Of the patients having seizures at the start of trial, one patient on MPH and two patients on AMP had increased seizures during the trial. Seizures returned to baseline frequency or less after stimulant discontinuation or anticonvulsant adjustment. Methylphenidate was associated with a higher response rate, with 12 of 19 given MPH (0.62 ± 0.28 mg/kg/day) compared with 4 of 17 given AMP (0.37 ± 0.26 mg/kg/day) responding (p=0.03). Methylphenidate treatment and higher cognitive level were associated with improved treatment outcome, while seizure freedom had no clear effect. Confidence in these findings is limited by the study's small, open-label, and uncontrolled design. PMID:24907495

  19. Morpho-Syntactic Load in Judging Adjective Plural Agreement: Comparing Adults with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Rachel; Ravid, Dorit; Gur, Adi

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of two grammatical factors on marking Hebrew adjectives in agreement with plural nouns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with peers without ADHD. Participants were 36 adult speakers of Hebrew, who were administered a judgment test of 144 sentences, each containing an adjective in…

  20. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ashwood, Karen L; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and ASD + ADHD (n = 38). Results demonstrated lower socialisation and composite scores and greater discrepancy between cognitive and adaptive abilities in the ASD + ADHD group compared to the ADHD-only group. Significant associations were shown between reduced adaptive functioning and autism symptoms, but not ADHD symptoms. Children with ASD + ADHD present with exacerbated impairments in adaptive functioning relative to children with ADHD, associated with ASD symptoms. Disentangling variation in adaptive skills may aid the assessment of complex cases.

  1. Sustained and Focused Attention Deficits in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetta, Natalie D. J.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the specificity of deficits in focused attention and sustained attention in adults with ADHD and to evaluate the effect of comorbidity. Method: Twenty-eight adults with ADHD without comorbidity were compared with 28 ADHD outpatients with comorbidity. Two control groups were used: 68 adults referred for ADHD but with another…

  2. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  3. Randomized Trial of Three Child/Parent Training Groups for ADHD Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda; Braunstein, Dania; Springer, Craig; Bartik, Celina; Hauch, Yvonne; Hall, Tara; Benisz, Becky; Gioia, Lauren

    The present study examined the effectiveness of a multimodal intervention for young children with ADHD. Fifty families were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions: (1) child group training only (N=18); (2) child and parent group training only (N=14); and (3) child and parent group training and parent/teacher consultation (N=18). Child,…

  4. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwood, Karen L.; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and…

  5. EEG theta and beta power spectra in adolescents with ADHD versus adolescents with ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bink, M; van Boxtel, G J M; Popma, A; Bongers, I L; Denissen, A J M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2015-08-01

    Attention problems are common in youngsters with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in adolescents with combined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. However, it is unknown whether there is psychophysiological overlap and/or a difference in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra between ADHD and comorbid ASD and ADHD (ASD + ADHD), on and off stimulant medication. To explore potential differences and overlap, measures of theta and beta power in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (n = 33) versus adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD (n = 20), categorized by stimulant medication use (57 % of the total sample), were compared. EEG measures were acquired in three conditions: (1) resting state, eyes closed (2) resting state, eyes open and (3) during an oddball task. In addition, performance on the d2 attention test was analyzed. Adolescents with ADHD displayed more absolute theta activity than adolescents with ASD + ADHD during the eyes open and task conditions, independent of stimulant medication use. In addition, only the adolescents with ADHD showed an association between diminished attention test performance and increased theta in the eyes open condition. Results of the current study suggest that although there is behavioral overlap between ADHD characteristics in adolescents with ADHD and adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD, the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms may be different. Adolescents with ASD + ADHD exhibited fewer of the EEG physiological signs usually associated with ADHD, although there was an overlap in attentional problems between the groups. This may indicate that treatments developed for ADHD work differently in some adolescents with ASD + ADHD and adolescents with ADHD only.

  6. An Investigation into the Psychosocial Functioning of Creative Children: The Impact of ADHD Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Dione; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among creativity, ADHD symptomatology, temperament, and psychosocial functioning by comparing four groups of children aged 10-12 years: (1) 29 ADHD children without creativity, (2) 16 highly creative children displaying ADHD symptomatology, (3) 18 highly creative children without ADHD symptomatology, and (4) 30…

  7. Global and local grey matter reductions in boys with ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type.

    PubMed

    Vilgis, Veronika; Sun, Li; Chen, Jian; Silk, Timothy J; Vance, Alasdair

    2016-08-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reliably been associated with global grey matter reductions but local alterations are largely inconsistent with perhaps the exception of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to examine local and global brain volume differences between typically developing children (TD) and children with a diagnosis of ADHD. We also addressed whether these parameters would differ between children with the ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and those with the ADHD-inattentive type (ADHD-I). Using an ROI approach caudate volume differences were also examined. 79 boys between the ages of 8 and 17 participated in the study. Of those 33 met diagnostic criteria for the ADHD-C and 15 for the ADHD-I subtype. 31 boys were included in the TD group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. The ADHD group had significantly lower global and local grey matter volumes within clusters in the bilateral frontal, right parietal and right temporal regions compared to TD. A significant group by age interaction was found for right caudate nucleus volume. No differences between the ADHD-C and ADHD-I groups were found. Right caudate nucleus volume and age are more strongly related in ADHD than in TD consistent with previous research.

  8. Motor regulation problems and pain in adults diagnosed with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most children who are diagnosed with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have moderate-to-severe motor problems using the Motor Function Neurological Assessment battery (MFNU). The MFNU focuses on specific muscle adjustment problems associated with ADHD, especially motor inhibition problems and high muscle tone. Here we investigated whether adults with ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) have similar motor problems. In our clinical experience, adults with ADHD often complain about back, shoulder, hip, and leg pain. We also investigate reported pain in adults with ADHD. Methods Twenty-five adult outpatients diagnosed with ADHD/HKD who were responders to methylphenidate (MPH) were compared to 23 non-ADHD controls on 16 MFNU subtests and using a ‘total score’ (‘TS’) parameter. The MFNU test leader was blinded to group identity. The two groups were also compared using the Pain Drawing and Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Results The adult ADHD group had significantly (p < .001) more motor problems (higher TS) than controls. On the muscle regulation subtests, 36–96% of the ADHD group showed ‘moderate’ to ‘severe’ problems compared to 13–52% of the control group, and 80% of the ADHD group reported widespread pain. Highly significant differences were found between the ADHD and control groups for the variables ‘pain level’ (p < .001) and ‘pain location’ (p < .001). Significant correlations were found between TS and ‘pain location’ and between TS and ‘pain level’. Conclusions These findings suggest that similar to children with ADHD, adults diagnosed with ADHD also have motor inhibition problems and heightened muscle tone. The presence of significantly higher pain levels and more widespread pain in the ADHD group compared to non-ADHD controls might indicate that pain is a long-term secondary effect of heightened muscle tone and restricted movement that can be demonstrated in children and adults by the MFNU

  9. Sensory processing abilities of children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Vitoria T.; Bueno, Orlando F. A.; Miranda, Mônica C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the sensory processing abilities of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children without disabilities, and to analyze the relationship between sensory processing difficulties and behavioural symptoms presented by children with ADHD. METHOD : Thirty-seven children with ADHD were compared with thirty-seven controls using a translated and adapted version of the "Sensory Profile" answered by the parents/caregivers. For the ADHD group, Sensory Profile scores were correlated to behavioural symptoms assessed using the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the Behavioural Teacher Rating Scale (EACI-P). The statistical analyses were conducted using the Mann Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficients. RESULTS : Children with ADHD showed significant impairments compared to the control group in sensory processing and modulation, as well as in behavioural and emotional responses as observed in 11 out of 14 sections and 6 out of 9 factors. Differences in all Sensory Profile response patterns were also observed between the two groups of children. Sensory Profile scores showed a moderately negative correlation with CBCL and EACI-P scores in the ADHD group. CONCLUSION : These results indicate that children with ADHD may present sensory processing impairments, which may contribute to the inappropriate behavioural and learning responses displayed by children with ADHD. It also suggests the importance of understanding the sensory processing difficulties and its possible contribution to the ADHD symptomatology. PMID:25076000

  10. Reading Motivational Differences among Groups: Reading Disability (RD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), RD + ADHD, and Typical Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the reading motivation of 133 students at individual grade levels (2nd-5th), who were divided in subgroups with and without reading disabilities/difficulties (RD) and with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Major findings were that students in the RD subgroup had lower reading motivation (intrinsic,…

  11. Skills training groups for men with ADHD in compulsory care due to substance use disorder: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bihlar Muld, B; Jokinen, J; Bölte, S; Hirvikoski, T

    2016-09-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)-based skills training has been developed and previously evaluated for adults with ADHD in a psychiatric outpatient context. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of DBT-based skills training as a voluntary intervention for men with ADHD in compulsory care due to severe substance abuse. Forty sufficiently detoxified men with ADHD in compulsory care due to life-threatening substance use disorder (SUD) were included in DBT-based skills training groups. Self- and staff-rating scales were administered before and after the treatment. The refusal rate was 42.9 %. Of those who started the DBT-based skills training, 70 % completed the treatment (attendance at ≥75 % of the sessions). The treatment acceptability was good. Both ADHD and psychiatric symptoms decreased from pre- to post-intervention in self-ratings, but not in staff ratings. The patients reported improved general well-being. The correlation between self- and staff ratings was poor. Motivation for voluntary nonpharmacological treatment was low in a compulsory care context. However, the results indicate that a DBT-based skills training program for adults with ADHD may be feasible for some patients with ADHD in combination with SUD in compulsory care, provided that considerable resources are allocated with adjustments to the target group and compulsory care context.

  12. INDUCED EEG GAMMA OSCILLATION ALIGNMENT IMPROVES DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN AUTISM AND ADHD GROUP RESPONSES IN A FACIAL CATEGORIZATION TASK

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Eric; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Sokhadze, Guela E.; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F.; Sokhadze, Estate M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often lack the ability to recognize and properly respond to emotional stimuli. Emotional deficits also characterize children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in addition to exhibiting limited attention span. These abnormalities may effect a difference in the induced EEG gamma wave burst (35–45 Hz) peaked approximately 300–400 milliseconds following an emotional stimulus. Because induced gamma oscillations are not fixed at a definite point in time post-stimulus, analysis of averaged EEG data with traditional methods may result in an attenuated gamma burst power. Methods We used a data alignment technique to improve the averaged data, making it a better representation of the individual induced EEG gamma oscillations. A study was designed to test the response of a subject to emotional stimuli, presented in the form of emotional facial expression images. In a four part experiment, the subjects were instructed to identify gender in the first two blocks of the test, followed by differentiating between basic emotions in the final two blocks (i.e. anger vs. disgust). EEG data was collected from ASD (n=10), ADHD (n=9), and control (n=11) subjects via a 128 channel EGI system, and processed through a continuous wavelet transform and bandpass filter to isolate the gamma frequencies. A custom MATLAB code was used to align the data from individual trials between 200–600 ms post-stimulus, EEG site, and condition by maximizing the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between trials. The gamma power for the 400 ms window of maximum induced gamma burst was then calculated and compared between subject groups. Results and Conclusion Condition (anger/disgust recognition, gender recognition) × Alignment × Group (ADHD, ASD, Controls) interaction was significant at most of parietal topographies (e.g., P3–P4, P7–P8). These interactions were better manifested in the aligned

  13. Examining Parents’ Preferences for Group and Individual Parent Training For Children with ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wymbs, Frances A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Chen, Yvonne; Rimas, Heather M.; Deal, Ken; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Parent training (PT) programs have been found to reduce some behavioral impairment associated with children’s attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as improve parenting competence, but poor uptake and participation by parents are formidable barriers that affect service effectiveness. We used a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to examine how parent preferences for treatment format (i.e. group versus individual) might influence their participation in PT. Participants were 445 parents seeking mental health services for children with elevated symptoms of ADHD in Ontario, Canada. Parents completed a discrete-choice experiment (DCE) composed of 30 choice tasks used to gauge PT format preference. Results showed that 58.7% of parents preferred individual PT; these parents were most interested in interventions that would make them feel more informed about their child’s problems and in understanding—as opposed to solving—their child’s problems. A minority of parents (19.4 %) preferred group PT; these parents were most interested in active, skill-building services that would help them solve their child’s problems. About one-fifth of parents (21.9 %) preferred the Minimal Information alternative (i.e. receiving neither individual or group PT); these parents reported the highest levels of depression and the most severe mental health problems in their child. Results highlight the importance of considering parent preferences for format, and suggest that alternative formats to standard PT should be considered for multiply stressed families. PMID:25700219

  14. Neuropsychological endophenotypes in ADHD with and without epilepsy.

    PubMed

    MacAllister, William S; Vasserman, Marsha; Vekaria, Pooja; Miles-Mason, Eavan; Hochsztein, Natanya; Bender, Heidi A

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent comorbidity in children with epilepsy. Despite similarities in behavioral manifestations of inattention and hyperactivity, it is unclear whether the neuropsychological endophenotypes of children with developmental ADHD differ from those with ADHD in the context of epilepsy. The present study compared groups of clinically referred children with both ADHD-Inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) and ADHD-Combined subtype (ADHD-C) to children with ADHD-I and ADHD-C and epilepsy on neuropsychological measures of intellectual functioning, auditory attention, working memory, and sustained attention and response inhibition. Those with ADHD and epilepsy performed more poorly on measures of intellectual function (e.g., Full-Scale IQ, Verbal IQ, Performance IQ) as well as auditory attention and working memory. Differences across the groups were also seen on a continuous performance test. Follow-up correlational analyses showed that variables such as seizure frequency and number of antiepilepsy medications predicted cognitive dysfunction in the epilepsy groups. Overall results suggest that the neuropsychological endophenotypes in developmental ADHD versus ADHD in epilepsy differ with seizure-related variables predicting cognitive dysfunction.

  15. Cognitive-Behaviorally-Oriented Group Rehabilitation of Adults with ADHD: Results of a 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salakari, Anita; Virta, Maarit; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recently, novel psychological treatments for adult ADHD have been reported with promising results. However, studies about long-term treatment effects are scanty. The authors study effects of cognitive-behaviorally-oriented group rehabilitation during a 6-month follow-up. Method: Participating in the rehabilitation were 29 adults, of…

  16. Substance use among ADHD adults: implications of late onset and subthreshold diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Stephen V; Wilens, Timothy E; Petty, Carter; Antshel, Kevin; Spencer, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosing ADHD in adults is difficult when the diagnostician cannot establish an onset prior to the DSM-IV criterion of age seven or if the number of symptoms does not achieve the DSM threshold for diagnosis. These diagnostic issues are an even larger concern for clinicians faced with adults with substance use disorders (SUD). The present study compared four groups of adults: full ADHD subjects who met all DSM-IV criteria for childhood onset ADHD, late onset ADHD subjects who met all criteria except the age at onset criterion, subthreshold ADHD subjects who did not meet full symptom criteria, and non-ADHD subjects who did not meet any of the above criteria. Diagnoses were by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and the Drug Use Severity Index (DUSI) was used for self-report of substance use. Cigarette and marijuana use was significantly greater in all ADHD groups relative to non-ADHD controls. Although usage rates of other drugs failed to reach significance, the ADHD groups were more likely to have used each drug (except alcohol) compared with the non-ADHD group. The late onset and full ADHD groups were more likely to have endorsed ever having a problem due to use of cigarettes, alcohol, or marijuana and reported more trouble resisting use of drugs or alcohol. The full ADHD group was more likely than the other groups to have reported "getting high" as their reason for using their preferred drug. Adults with ADHD have elevated rates of substance use and related impairment. Data about late onset ADHD provides further support for the idea that the DSM-IV age at onset criterion is too stringent. In contrast, subthreshold ADHD seems to be a milder form of the disorder, or perhaps a heterogeneous group of true ADHD cases and false positives.

  17. A Novel Group Therapy for Children with ADHD and Severe Mood Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxmonsky, James G.; Wymbs, Fran A.; Pariseau, Meaghan E.; Belin, Peter J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Babocsai, Lysett; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Akinnusi, Opeolowa O.; Haak, Jenifer L.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: No psychosocial treatments have been developed for children with ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD) despite the significant prevalence and morbidity of this combination. Therefore, the authors developed a novel treatment program for children with ADHD and SMD. Method: The novel therapy program integrates components of…

  18. Persistent Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants among College Students: Possible Association with ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible association between untreated ADHD symptoms (as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale) and persistent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Method: Multinomial regression modeling was used to compare ADHD symptoms among three groups of college students enrolled in a longitudinal study over 4…

  19. The Positive Illusory Bias: Does It Explain Self-Evaluations in College Students with ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley; Best, Lori; Baker, Leigh; Van Walker, Jerry; Taylor, Nicki Wright

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the positive illusory bias explains the self-evaluations of driving and work behaviors in college students with ADHD. Method: A total of 103 students with ADHD were compared to a sample of 94 students without ADHD. Both groups completed self-reports of their specific driving and work behaviors and then rated their…

  20. Short-Term Persistence of "DSM-IV" ADHD Diagnoses: Influence of Context, Age, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Chavez, Ligia; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the effect of social context and gender on persistence of "attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder" (ADHD) in children of early and middle school years. The study compared persistence of "DSM-IV" ADHD and ADHD not otherwise specified (NOS) over 2 years in two groups of Puerto Rican children. Method: A three-wave…

  1. Multitasking in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Merkt, Julia; Goossens-Merkt, Heinrich; Bodenburg, Sebastian; Wendt, Mike

    2011-09-01

    Adults with ADHD have problems in everyday multitasking situations presumably because of deficits in executive functions. The present study aims to find out (a) whether adults with ADHD show deficient multitasking performance in a standardized task, (b) how they perceive the multitasking situation, and (c) which task structure might be beneficial for them as compared with adults without ADHD. Therefore, we experimentally compared task performance, mood, and motivation in a group of 45 men with ADHD (M-age = 34.47, SD = 9.95) with a comparison group of 42 men without ADHD (M-age = 31.12, SD = 10.59) in three conditions: (a) a multitasking paradigm, (b) an interleaving condition in which tasks had to be performed without planning or monitoring, and (c) a non-interleaving condition. Our results showed no impaired multitasking performance in adults with ADHD. However, they showed better mood and more motivation in the non-interleaving condition.

  2. Family conflict tendency and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Niederhofer, H; Hackenberg, B; Lanzendörfer, K

    2004-04-01

    A lack of perseverance, poor attention, and poorly modulated behaviour are important criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Instructions often have to be repeated, sometimes even by different family members before a child with ADHD attends and complies. We hypothesised that a child with ADHD might cause less disagreement in families with almost no conflicts. Responses to the Mannheim Parents Interview and teacher's form of the Conners scale completed by families of 15 boys (ages 6 to 12 years), diagnosed with ADHD were compared with those of a matched, healthy control group of 15 boys. Parents completed a form assessing the family's cooperation and child-rearing practices. Having few family conflicts, i.e., almost no Verbal Disagreement may reduce Physical Punishment and Anger and Disregard and augment the Openness to another's needs and, for that reason, have protective effects on children's behaviour modulation.

  3. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Medicación para el tratamiento del TDAH (ADHD) Managing ADHD With Medicine Just about everyone has trouble concentrating ...

  4. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a specialist and a generic parenting programme for the treatment of preschool ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP) is a home-delivered, evidence-based parenting programme to target symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children. It has been adapted for use with ‘hard-to-reach’ or ‘difficult-to-treat’ children. This trial will compare the adapted-NFPP with a generic parenting group-based programme, Incredible Years (IY), which has been recommended for children with preschool-type ADHD symptoms. Methods/design This multicentre randomized controlled trial comprises three arms: adapted-NFPP, IY and treatment as usual (TAU). A sample of 329 parents of preschool-aged children with a research diagnosis of ADHD enriched for hard-to-reach and potentially treatment-resistant children will be allocated to the arms in the ratio 3:3:1. Participants in the adapted-NFPP and IY arms receive an induction visit followed by 12 weekly parenting sessions of 1½ hours (adapted-NFPP) or 2½ hours (IY) over 2.5 years. Adapted-NFPP will be delivered as a one-to-one home-based intervention; IY, as a group-based intervention. TAU participants are offered a parenting programme at the end of the study. The primary objective is to test whether the adapted-NFPP produces beneficial effects in terms of core ADHD symptoms. Secondary objectives include examination of the treatment impact on secondary outcomes, a study of cost-effectiveness and examination of the mediating role of treatment-induced changes in parenting behaviour and neuropsychological function. The primary outcome is change in ADHD symptoms, as measured by the parent-completed version of the SNAP-IV questionnaire, adjusted for pretreatment SNAP-IV score. Secondary outcome measures are: a validated index of behaviour during child’s solo play; teacher-reported SNAP-IV (ADHD scale); teacher and parent SNAP-IV (ODD) Scale; Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory - Oppositional Defiant Disorder scale; Revised Client Service Receipt Inventory - Health

  5. Comparing the PPAT Drawings of Boys with AD/HD and Age-Matched Controls Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Maripat

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether children with AD/HD respond differently to a specific art directive. Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale to evaluate the drawings, results indicate three elements that would most accurately predict the artists into the AD/HD group: color prominence, details of objects and environments, and line quality. (Contains 29…

  6. Classroom Behavior of Participants with ADHD Compared with Peers: Influence of Teaching Format and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…

  7. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  8. Unique white matter microstructural patterns in ADHD presentations-a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Svatkova, Alena; Nestrasil, Igor; Rudser, Kyle; Goldenring Fine, Jodene; Bledsoe, Jesse; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI) and combined (ADHD-C) presentations are likely distinct disorders that differ neuroanatomically, neurochemically, and neuropsychologically. However, to date, little is known about specific white matter (WM) regions differentiating ADHD presentations. This study examined differences in WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 20 ADHD-PI, 18 ADHD-C, and 27 typically developed children. Voxel-wise analysis of DTI measurements in major fiber bundles was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Clusters showing diffusivity abnormalities were used as regions of interest for regression analysis between fractional anisotropy (FA) and neuropsychological outcomes. Compared to neurotypicals, ADHD-PI children showed higher FA in the anterior thalamic radiations (ATR), bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and in the left corticospinal tract (CST). In contrast, the ADHD-C group exhibited higher FA in the bilateral cingulum bundle (CB). In the ADHD-PI group, differences in FA in the left ILF and ATR were accompanied by axial diffusivity (AD) abnormalities. In addition, the ADHD-PI group exhibited atypical mean diffusivity in the forceps minor (FMi) and left ATR and AD differences in right CB compared to healthy subjects. Direct comparison between ADHD presentations demonstrated radial diffusivity differences in FMi. WM clusters with FA irregularities in ADHD were associated with neurobehavioral performance across groups. In conclusion, differences in WM microstructure in ADHD presentations strengthen the theory that ADHD-PI and ADHD-C are two distinct disorders. Regions with WM irregularity seen in both ADHD presentations might serve as predictors of executive and behavioral functioning across groups. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3323-3336, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27159198

  9. Validity of proposed DSM-5 ADHD impulsivity symptoms in children.

    PubMed

    Ünsel Bolat, Gül; Ercan, Eyüp Sabri; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Bilaç, Öznur; Massuti, Rafael; Uysal Özaslan, Taciser; Bolat, Hilmi; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2016-10-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) working group on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) proposed the inclusion of four new impulsivity symptoms. However, they were not included in DSM-5 due to the lack of sufficient evidence. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of the proposed four ADHD impulsivity symptoms with respect to: (a) ADHD factor structure; (b) performance in predicting clinical impairment; (c) specificity for ADHD diagnosis and (d) best symptomatic threshold to predict clinical impairment. The sample comprised 416 children (31 ADHD subjects according to both DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5, 20 ADHD subjects according to just one diagnostic system and 365 controls) from 12 schools. Diagnoses were derived using semi-structured interviews and ADHD rating scales. Results from confirmatory factor analysis indicate that addition of the four new impulsivity items provided a slightly better factor structure if compared to models including only 18 items. Regression analyses showed that only one of the new impulsivity symptoms (impatient) was part of the list of best predictors of impairment. None of the four new impulsivity items was specifically associated with ADHD diagnosis. The best cutoff point in the hyperactivity/impulsivity dimension for predicting impairment did not change significantly. Overall, our findings suggest that the determination on how to best capture impulsivity dimension as part of the ADHD construct needs more investigation and that there is not enough evidence to include these four assessed impulsivity symptoms as part of the ADHD criteria.

  10. Growing out of ADHD: The Relationship between Functioning and Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objective is to ascertain whether people in partial remission (IPR) or in full remission (IR) of their ADHD symptoms continue to have neuropsychological deficits and clinical and psychosocial problems. Method: IPR and IR groups are compared with fully symptomatic ADHD patients and normal controls. Results: The results show a decline…

  11. Comparing the abuse potential of methylphenidate versus other stimulants: a review of available evidence and relevance to the ADHD patient.

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H

    2003-01-01

    The use of psychostimulants to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been controversial for a number of reasons. In an effort to clarify the extent to which the psychostimulant methylphenidate has abuse potential, the existing published evidence has been reviewed and is summarized here, with an emphasis on delineating a number of related but independent issues that are often confused. Methylphenidate produces behavioral effects associated with abuse potential as assessed by traditional assays, but the relevance of this literature to the clinical use of the drug in the treatment of ADHD is ambiguous at best. Existing neuropharmacologic data suggest that methylphenidate has pharmacokinetic properties that reduce its abuse potential as compared with other stimulant drugs of abuse, such as cocaine.

  12. Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658

  13. High Loading of Polygenic Risk for ADHD in Children With Comorbid Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Hamshere, Marian L.; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna; Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Anney, Richard J.L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V.; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Neale, Benjamin M.; Franke, Barbara; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Merwood, Andrew; Kuntsi, Jonna; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Roeyers, Herbert; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; McGough, James J.; Kent, Lindsey; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael J.; Holmans, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher genetic loading and clinical severity. The authors examine whether common genetic variants considered en masse as polygenic scores for ADHD are especially enriched in children with comorbid conduct disorder. Method Polygenic scores derived from an ADHD GWAS meta-analysis were calculated in an independent ADHD sample (452 case subjects, 5,081 comparison subjects). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to compare polygenic scores in the ADHD and comparison groups and test for higher scores in ADHD case subjects with comorbid conduct disorder relative to comparison subjects and relative to those without comorbid conduct disorder. Association with symptom scores was tested using linear regression. Results Polygenic risk for ADHD, derived from the meta-analysis, was higher in the independent ADHD group than in the comparison group. Polygenic score was significantly higher in ADHD case subjects with conduct disorder relative to ADHD case subjects without conduct disorder. ADHD polygenic score showed significant association with comorbid conduct disorder symptoms. This relationship was explained by the aggression items. Conclusions Common genetic variation is relevant to ADHD, especially in individuals with comorbid aggression. The findings suggest that the previously published ADHD GWAS meta-analysis contains weak but true associations with common variants, support for which falls below genome-wide significance levels. The findings also highlight the fact that aggression in ADHD indexes genetic as well as clinical severity. PMID:23599091

  14. The Delinquency Outcomes of Boys with ADHD with and without Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Biswas, Aparajita; MacLean, Michael G.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between childhood ADHD and juvenile delinquency by examining data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of individuals diagnosed with ADHD in childhood (ages 5–12) and recontacted in adolescence and young adulthood for yearly follow-up (age at first follow-up interview M= 17.26, SD=3.17). Participants were 288 males with childhood ADHD and 209 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited into the follow-up study. Delinquency information gathered yearly during the second through eighth follow-up provided a comprehensive history of juvenile delinquency for all participants. Four childhood diagnostic groups [ADHD-only (N=47), ADHD+ODD (N=135), ADHD+CD (N=106), and comparison (N=209)] were used to examine group differences on delinquency outcomes. Analyses were conducted across three dimensions of delinquency (i.e., severity, age of initiation, and variety). Individuals with childhood ADHD+CD displayed significantly worse delinquency outcomes than the other three groups, across almost all indices of offending. When compared to comparison participants, boys with ADHD-only and ADHD+ODD in childhood displayed earlier ages of delinquency initiation, a greater variety of offending, and higher prevalence of severe delinquency. These findings suggest that although childhood ADHD+CD creates the greatest risk for delinquency, boys with ADHD-only and ADHD+ODD also appear at a higher risk for later offending. The patterns of offending that emerged from the PALS are discussed in the context of the relationship between ADHD, comorbidity, and delinquency. PMID:20697799

  15. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).

  16. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24149941

  17. Reduced Capacity in a Dichotic Memory Test for Adult Patients with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dige, Niels; Maahr, Eija; Backenroth-Ohsako, Gunnel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether a dichotic memory test would reveal deficits in short-term working-memory recall and long-term memory recall in a group of adult patients with ADHD. Methods: A dichotic memory test with ipsilateral backward speech distraction in an adult ADHD group (n = 69) and a control group (n = 66) is used to compare performance…

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background ADHD is a common and disabling disorder, with an increased risk for coexisting disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. In the present study, we aimed at exploring ADHD and criminality. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD among longer-term prison inmates, described symptoms and cognitive functioning, and compared findings with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls. Methods At Norrtälje Prison, we approached 315 male inmates for screening of childhood ADHD by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25) and for present ADHD by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Screener (ASRS-Screener). The response rate was 62%. Further, we assessed 34 inmates for ADHD and coexisting disorders. Finally, we compared findings with 20 adult males with ADHD, assessed at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and 18 healthy controls. Results The estimated prevalence of adult ADHD among longer-term inmates was 40%. Only 2 out of 30 prison inmates confirmed with ADHD had received a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood, despite most needed health services and educational support. All subjects reported lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) where amphetamine was the most common drug. Mood and anxiety disorders were present among half of subjects; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among one fourth and psychopathy among one tenth. Personality disorders were common; almost all inmates presented conduct disorder (CD) before antisocial personality disorder (APD). Prison inmates reported more ADHD symptoms during both childhood and adulthood, compared with ADHD psychiatric outpatients. Further, analysis of executive functions after controlling for IQ showed both ADHD groups performed poorer than controls on working memory tests. Besides, on a continuous performance test, the ADHD prison group displayed poorer results compared with both other groups. Conclusions This study suggested ADHD to be present among 40% of adult male longer-term prison inmates. Further, ADHD and coexisting disorders

  19. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children with ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Nicholas, Jude; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children…

  20. Sleep disturbance and neuropsychological function in young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Heather E; Lam, Janet C; Mahone, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, aged 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance--including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness--(all p ≤ .01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p < .01). Within the ADHD group, total parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p ≤ .01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p < .01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  1. Sleep Disturbance and Neuropsychological Function in Young Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Heather E.; Lam, Janet C.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, ages 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance—including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness—(all p≤0.01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p<0.01). Within the ADHD group, total parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p≤0.01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p<0.01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD, rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  2. Effect of stimulant medication use by children with ADHD on heart rate and perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Anthony D; Woodruff, Megan E; Horn, Mary P; Marjerrison, Andrea D; Cole, Andrew S

    2012-04-01

    The effect of stimulant medication use by children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-heart rate (HR) relationship was examined. Children with ADHD (n=20; 11.3±1.8 yrs) and children without ADHD (n=25; 11.2±2.1 yrs) were studied. Children with ADHD were examined while on their usual dose of medication on the day of study. HR and RPE, using the OMNI RPE scale, were assessed during a graded exercise to peak voluntary effort. The RPE-HR relationship was determined individually and the intercept and slope responses were compared between groups. The intercept was 132.4±19.5 bpm for children with ADHD and 120.6±15.7 bpm for children without ADHD. The slope was 7.3±1.9 bpm/RPE for the children with ADHD and 8.1±1.6 bpm/ RPE for the children without ADHD. For the group with ADHD the intercept and slope values fell outside of the 95% CI observed in the control group. The altered relationship between RPE and HR with stimulant medication use in children with ADHD has practical implications with respect to the use of HR and RPE to monitor exercise intensity.

  3. Childhood ADHD Predicts Risky Sexual Behavior in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Kate; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Smith, Bradley

    2006-01-01

    This study compared young adults (ages 18 to 26) with and without childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on self-reported risky sexual behaviors. Participants were 175 men with childhood ADHD and 111 demographically similar men without ADHD in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Childhood ADHD predicted earlier…

  4. The Role of Parental ADHD in Sustaining the Effects of a Family-School Intervention for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Anne E; Wymbs, Brian T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; Grades 2-6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; ages 26-59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at postassessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child's homework performance. Parents at risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms. PMID:25496523

  5. The Role of Parental ADHD in Sustaining the Effects of a Family-School Intervention for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Anne E; Wymbs, Brian T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; Grades 2-6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; ages 26-59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at postassessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child's homework performance. Parents at risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms.

  6. The Role of Parental ADHD in Sustaining the Effects of a Family-School Intervention for ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Anne E.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Power, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Method Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; grades 2–6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; aged 26–59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Results Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at post-assessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically-supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at-risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child’s homework performance. Conclusions Parents at-risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention, but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms. PMID:25496523

  7. Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition in a Group of Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair; Watson, Shaun D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factor structure for the 10 core WISC–IV subtests in a group of children (N = 812) with ADHD. Method: The study examined oblique four- and five-factor models, higher order models with one general secondary factor and four and five primary factors, and a bifactor model with a general factor and four specific factors. Results: The findings supported all models tested, with the bifactor model being the optimum model. For this model, only the general factor had high explained common variance and omega hierarchical value, and it predicted reading and arithmetic abilities. Conclusion: The findings favor the use of the FSIQ scores of the WISC-IV, but not the subscale index scores. PMID:27303319

  8. Effortful and automatic information processing in boys with ADHD and specific learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Hazell, P L; Carr, V J; Lewin, T J; Dewis, S A; Heathcote, D M; Brucki, B M

    1999-02-01

    Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, N = 50), Specific Learning Disorder (LD, N = 45), combined Specific Learning Disorder and ADHD (LD/ADHD, N = 25), and controls (N = 51) completed effortful and automatic information processing tasks based on Treisman and Gelade's (1980) "information integration theory". ADHD and LD/ADHD subjects did not differ from controls at baseline or under feedback and reward conditions, suggesting that they were investing similar levels of mental effort in the tasks. The LD group had a superior performance in the effortful task and an inferior performance in the automatic task compared with the other groups at baseline. The data suggest a potential method of distinguishing primary LD from learning difficulties that occur secondary to ADHD.

  9. Atypical EEG Beta Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD1

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Walshaw, Patricia D.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Abnormal brain laterality (ABL) is well established in ADHD. However, its clinical specificity and association to cognitive and clinical symptoms is not yet understood. Previous studies indicate increased right hemisphere (RH) contribution in both ADHD and reading impaired samples. The current study investigates whether this ABL characteristic occurs in adults with ADHD absent comorbid language impairment. Methods EEG beta asymmetry was compared in 35 adult ADHD subjects and 104 controls during rest and active cognition. Group differences in beta asymmetry were then further evaluated for association to linguistic and attentional abilities, as well as association to beta asymmetry measures across different brain regions. Results Adults with ADHD showed pronounced rightward beta asymmetry (p = .00001) in inferior parietal regions (P8-P7) during a continuous performance task (CPT) that could not be attributed to linguistic ability. Among ADHD subjects only, greater rightward beta asymmetry at this measure was correlated with better CPT performance. Furthermore, this measure showed a lack of normal association (i.e., observed in controls) to left-biased processing in temporal-parietal (TP8-TP7) brain regions important for higher order language functions. Conclusion Adult ADHD involves abnormally increased right-biased contribution to CPT processing that could not be attributed to poor language ability. This appears to also involve abnormal recruitment of LH linguistic processing regions and represents an alternative, albeit less effective, CPT processing strategy. These findings suggest different pathophysiologic mechanisms likely underlie RH biased processing in ADHD and reading impaired samples. PMID:20705076

  10. Elevated rates of ADHD in mothers of children with comorbid ADHD and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Hamoda, Hesham M; Luna, Laura; Rao, Sneha; McClendon, James; Rotella, Peter; Waber, Deborah; Boyer, Katherine; Faraone, Steven V; Whitney, Jane; Guild, Danielle; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives To describe the prevalence of ADHD in mothers of children with comorbid ADHD and epilepsy (ADHD+E) and to compare ADHD symptoms in mothers with (Fam+) and without (Fam−) additional relative(s) with epilepsy. Patients & methods Mothers (n = 16) of children with ADHD+E were assessed by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children ADHD module and the ADHD Rating Scale IV. Information was collected on the presence (Fam+) or absence (Fam−) of first- or second-degree relatives with epilepsy in the sample. Results A total of 50% of mothers met the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. ADHD was more prevalent in Fam+ mothers (80%) compared with Fam− mothers (36%; p = 0.14). Fam+ mothers had more current hyperactivity symptoms than Fam− mothers (p = 0.002), higher current ADHD severity (p = 0.02) and higher ADHD Rating Scale IV hyperactivity scores (p = 0.008). Conclusion The prevalence of ADHD in mothers of children with ADHD+E is elevated in this pilot study, suggesting that ADHD symptoms in children with epilepsy and their mothers reflects shared familial genetic or environmental risks, potentially resulting in a higher prevalence of both disorders among family members. This is a pilot study and larger controlled studies are warranted. PMID:23397446

  11. Music and Sound in Time Processing of Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Carrer, Luiz Rogério Jorgensen

    2015-01-01

    ADHD involves cognitive and behavioral aspects with impairments in many environments of children and their families’ lives. Music, with its playful, spontaneous, affective, motivational, temporal, and rhythmic dimensions can be of great help for studying the aspects of time processing in ADHD. In this article, we studied time processing with simple sounds and music in children with ADHD with the hypothesis that children with ADHD have a different performance when compared with children with normal development in tasks of time estimation and production. The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development. The study involved 36 participants of age 6–14 years, recruited at NANI-UNIFESP/SP, subdivided into three groups with 12 children in each. Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant’s performance in the tasks. Tasks were divided into sections: spontaneous time production, time estimation with simple sounds, and time estimation with music. Results: (1) performance of ADHD groups in temporal estimation of simple sounds in short time intervals (30 ms) were statistically lower than that of control group (p < 0.05); (2) in the task comparing musical excerpts of the same duration (7 s), ADHD groups considered the tracks longer when the musical notes had longer durations, while in the control group, the duration was related to the density of musical notes in the track. The positive average performance observed in the three groups in most tasks perhaps indicates the possibility that music can, in some way, positively modulate the symptoms of inattention in ADHD. PMID:26441688

  12. EEG Power Spectrum Analysis in Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Kamida, Akira; Shimabayashi, Kenta; Oguri, Masayoshi; Takamori, Toshihiro; Ueda, Naoyuki; Koyanagi, Yuki; Sannomiya, Naoko; Nagira, Haruki; Ikunishi, Saeko; Hattori, Yuiko; Sato, Kengo; Fukuda, Chisako; Hirooka, Yasuaki; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pathological condition that is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) power differences between children with ADHD and healthy control children. Methods EEGs were recorded as part of routine medical care received by 80 children with ADHD aged 4–15 years at the Department of Pediatric Neurology in Tottori University Hospital. Additionally, we recorded in 59 control children aged 4–15 years after obtaining informed consent. Specifically, awake EEG signals were recorded from each child using the international 10–20 system, and we used ten 3-s epochs on the EEG power spectrum to calculate the powers of individual EEG frequency bands. Results The powers of different EEG bands were significantly higher in the frontal brain region of those in the ADHD group compared with the control group. In addition, the power of the beta band in the ADHD group was significantly higher in all brain regions, except for the occipital region, compared with control children. With regard to developmental changes, the power of the alpha band in the occipital region showed an age-dependent decrease in both groups, with slightly lower power in the ADHD group. Additionally, the intergroup difference decreased in children aged 11 years or older. As with the alpha band in the occipital region, the beta band in the frontal region showed an age-dependent decrease in both groups. Unlike the alpha band, the power of the beta band was higher in the ADHD group than in the control group for children of all ages. Conclusion The observed intergroup differences in EEG power may provide insight into the brain function of children with ADHD. PMID:27493489

  13. Comparative efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of dexmethylphenidate versus placebo in child and adolescent ADHD: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Maneeton, Narong; Maneeton, Benchalak; Woottiluk, Pakapan; Suttajit, Sirijit; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Charnsil, Chawanun; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of dexmethylphenidate (d-MPH) has been proven in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective The aim of this systematic review is to determine the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of d-MPH in child and adolescent ADHD. Methods The searches of SCOPUS, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were performed in February 2015. All randomized controlled trials of d-MPH versus placebo that were performed in children and adolescents with ADHD up to 18 years of age were included in the study. The efficacy was measured by using the pooled mean-endpoint or mean-changed scores of ADHD rating scales and the response rate. Acceptability and tolerability were measured by using the pooled rates of overall discontinuation and discontinuation due to adverse events, respectively. Results A total of 1,124 children and adolescents diagnosed as having ADHD were included in this review. In a laboratory school setting, the pooled mean-change and mean-endpoint scores in the d-MPH-treated group were significantly greater than those of the placebo-treated group with standardized mean difference (95% confidence interval [CI]) of −1.20 (−1.73, −0.67), I2=95%. Additionally, the pooled mean-changed scores of the ADHD rating scales for teachers and parents in the d-MPH-treated group were significantly greater than that of the placebo-treated group with weighted mean difference (95% CI) of −13.01 (−15.97, −10.05), I2=0% and (95% CI) of −12.99 (−15.57, −10.42), I2=0%, respectively. The pooled response rate in the d-MPH-treated groups had a significance higher than that of the placebo-treated group. The rates of pooled overall discontinuation and discontinuation due to adverse events between the two groups were not significantly different. Conclusion Based on the findings in this review, it can be concluded that d-MPH medication is efficacious and tolerable in child and

  14. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor structure and uniform differential item functioning across gender and three racial/ethnic groups for ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Kanouse, David E; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM-IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 children from three geographical regions who took part in the Healthy Passages study (mean age = 12.60 years, SD = 0.66). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the expected 3-factor structure was tenable for the data. Multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling revealed uniform DIF for three ADHD and 9 ODD item scores, but not for any of the CD item scores. Uniform DIF was observed predominantly as a function of child race/ethnicity, but minimally as a function of child gender. On the positive side, uniform DIF had little impact on latent mean differences of ADHD, CD, and ODD symptomatology among gender and racial/ethnic groups. Implications of the findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed.

  15. Familiality of Co-existing ADHD and Tic Disorders: Evidence from a Large Sibling Study

    PubMed Central

    Roessner, Veit; Banaschewski, Tobias; Becker, Andreas; Buse, Judith; Wanderer, Sina; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Steven V.; Asherson, Philip; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) is frequent and clinically important. Very few and inconclusive attempts have been made to clarify if and how the combination of ADHD+TD runs in families. Aim: To determine the first time in a large-scale ADHD sample whether ADHD+TD increases the risk of ADHD+TD in siblings and, also the first time, if this is independent of their psychopathological vulnerability in general. Methods: The study is based on the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. The present sub-sample of 2815 individuals included ADHD-index patients with co-existing TD (ADHD+TD, n = 262) and without TD (ADHD–TD, n = 947) as well as their 1606 full siblings (n = 358 of the ADHD+TD index patients and n = 1248 of the ADHD-TD index patients). We assessed psychopathological symptoms in index patients and siblings by using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the parent and teacher Conners' long version Rating Scales (CRS). For disorder classification the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS-Interview) was applied in n = 271 children. Odds ratio with the GENMOD procedure (PROCGENMOD) was used to test if the risk for ADHD, TD, and ADHD+TD in siblings was associated with the related index patients' diagnoses. In order to get an estimate for specificity we compared the four groups for general psychopathological symptoms. Results: Co-existing ADHD+TD in index patients increased the risk of both comorbid ADHD+TD and TD in the siblings of these index patients. These effects did not extend to general psychopathology. Interpretation: Co-existence of ADHD+TD may segregate in families. The same holds true for TD (without ADHD). Hence, the segregation of TD (included in both groups) seems to be the determining factor, independent of further behavioral problems. This close relationship between ADHD and TD supports the clinical approach to carefully assess ADHD in any case

  16. The Effect of Ritalin on Response to Reward and Punishment in Children with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Peter A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Groups of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children taking a placebo, high dose, or low dose of Ritalin were compared in their responses to reward and punishment. Results suggest that Ritalin may improve the ability of ADHD children to withhold inappropriate responding by dampening their response to reward cues and, possibly, making…

  17. Effects of Hypermedia Instruction on Declarative, Conditional and Procedural Knowledge in ADHD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabio, Rosa Angela; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Two groups of students aged between 12 and 14 years--27 with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 28 with both ADHD and learning problems--were compared to a sample of 29 typically developing students in terms of the acquisition and retention of declarative, conditional and procedural knowledge either in a hypermedia learning or in…

  18. ADHD and Infant Disorganized Attachment: A Prospective Study of Children Next-Born after Stillbirth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Carmen; Turton, Penelope; Hughes, Patricia; White, Sarah; Gillberg, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether infant disorganized attachment predicts ADHD at school age. Method: A cohort of 53 children who had been identified as having significant levels of disorganized attachment in infancy is compared to a control group. Symptoms and signs of ADHD at age 7 are evaluated together with a range of relevant maternal variables.…

  19. Utility of the PASS Theory and Cognitive Assessment System for Dutch Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) theory of intelligence as measured by the "Cognitive Assessment System" (CAS) for evaluation of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The CAS scores of 51 Dutch children without ADHD were compared to the scores of a group of 20…

  20. Early Literacy and Parental Writing Mediation in Young Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Bazelet, Idit; Goldman, Hagit

    2010-01-01

    The study compared early literacy of Israeli children aged five to six years with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), contrasted parental writing mediation in the two groups and tested the relations between parents' mediation characteristics and children's early literacy skills. Each of 62 parent-child dyads (32 with ADHD)…

  1. Disturbed sleep in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a question of psychiatric comorbidity or ADHD presentation.

    PubMed

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H; Møller, Lene R; Jennum, Poul J

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with three different presentations and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Serious sleep complaints are also common, but the role of the presentations and comorbidity in sleep is under-investigated in ADHD. Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children with ADHD (n = 76) had significantly more sleep disturbances than controls (n = 25), including a larger percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more sleep cycles, as well as lower mean sleep efficiency, mean non-REM (NREM) sleep stage 1 and mean NREM sleep stage 3. No significant between-group differences were found on the multiple sleep latency test. Stratifying for comorbidity in the ADHD group did not reveal major differences between groups, but mean sleep latency was significantly longer in children with ADHD and no comorbidity compared to controls (36.1 min; SD = 30.1 versus 22.6 min; SD = 15.2). No differences were found between ADHD presentations. Our results support the presence of night-time sleep disturbances in children with ADHD. Poor sleep does not appear to be attributable to comorbidity alone, nor do sleep disturbances differ within ADHD presentations. PMID:26762193

  2. Are Teachers' Beliefs Related to Their Preferences for ADHD Interventions? Comparing Teachers in the United States and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, David F.; Hamilton, Richard J.; Moore, Dennis W.; Pisecco, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their preferences for classroom interventions for behaviours consistent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Teacher ratings of intervention acceptability, effectiveness, and rate of change were compared across United States and New Zealand samples.…

  3. Few differences in hot and cold executive functions in children and adolescents with combined and inattentive subtypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Skogli, Erik Winther; Egeland, Jens; Andersen, Per Normann; Hovik, Kjell Tore; Øie, Merete

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare executive processes with pronounced (hot) and less pronounced (cold) emotional salience in medication naïve children and adolescents with ADHD-combined (ADHD-C) and ADHD-inattentive (ADHD-I) subtypes. Thirty-six subjects with ADHD-C, 44 with ADHD-I, and 50 healthy controls between 8 and 17 years were assessed with laboratory tests and inventory-based scales assessing hot and cold executive functions (EF) (controlled attention, working memory, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, hot decision making) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The ADHD-C group displayed significantly more impairment compared to the ADHD-I group on the cold BRIEF Inhibition and Monitor scales. There were no significant differences between ADHD subtypes on cold and hot laboratory tests. The hot decision-making task did not correlate with the other cold or hot EF measures. Overall, few EF measures were shown to differentiate between ADHD subtypes nor were there any relationships between the hot decision-making task and the other EF measures, which seems to indicate separate developmental trajectories.

  4. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAVY PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ARE NOT EXACERBATED BY COMORBID ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or heavy prenatal alcohol exposure has been well documented independently. This study examined the interaction between both factors on cognitive performance in children. Method: As part of a multisite study, 344 children (8-16y, M=12.28, SD=2.52) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Four subject groups were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and ADHD (AE+, n=90), alcohol-exposed without ADHD, (AE−, n=38), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=80), and non-exposed without ADHD (CON, n=136). Results: Separate 2(AE) × 2(ADHD) MANCOVAs revealed significant main and interactive effects of ADHD and AE on overall WISC-IV, D-KEFS, and CANTAB performance. Individual ANOVAs revealed significant interactions on 2 WISC-IV indices [Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)], and four D-KEFS and CANTAB subtests [Design Fluency, Verbal Fluency, Trail Making, Spatial Working Memory]. Follow-up analyses demonstrated no difference between AE+ and AE− groups on any measures. The combined AE+/− group demonstrated more severe impairment than the ADHD group on VCI and PRI, but there were no other differences between clinical groups. Conclusions: These results support a combined AE+/− group for neuropsychological research and indicate that, in some cases, the neuropsychological effects seen in ADHD are altered by prenatal alcohol exposure. The effects of alcohol exposure on verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning were greater than those related to having ADHD without alcohol exposure, although both conditions independently resulted in cognitive impairment compared to controls. Clinically, these findings demonstrate task-dependent patterns of impairment across clinical disorders. PMID:24040921

  5. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset <7 years, n=147) and late-onset ADHD (onset between 7 and 12 years, n=42). The mediation analysis was conducted to verify the mediating factors from ADHD to functional impairment and quality of life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment.

  6. Pediatric bipolar disorder and ADHD: Family history comparison in the LAMS clinical sample

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Mount, Katherine; Frazier, Thomas; Demeter, Christine; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Fristad, Mary A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah; Findling, Robert L.; Kowatch, Robert; Axelson, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Transgenerational association of bipolar spectrum disorder (BPSD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been reported, but inconclusively. Method Children ages 6–12 were systematically recruited at first outpatient visit at 9 clinics at four universities and reliably diagnosed; 621 had elevated symptoms of mania (>12 on the Parent General Behavior Inventory 10-Item Mania Scale); 86 had scores below 12. We analyzed baseline data to test a familial association hypothesis: compared to children with neither BPSD nor ADHD, those with either BPSD or ADHD would have parents with higher rates of both bipolar and ADHD symptoms, and parents of comorbid children would have even higher rates of both. Results Of 707 children, 421 had ADHD without BPSD, 45 BPSD without ADHD, 117 comorbid ADHD+BPSD, and 124 neither. The rate of parental manic symptoms was similar for the comorbid and BPSD-alone groups, significantly greater than for ADHD alone and “neither” groups, which had similar rates. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with BPSD alone were significantly less frequent than in parents of children with ADHD (alone or comorbid), and no greater than for children with neither diagnosis. Family history of manic symptoms, but not ADHD symptoms, was associated with parent-rated child manic-symptom severity over and above child diagnosis. Limitations The sample was not epidemiologic, parent symptoms were based on family history questions, and alpha was 0.05 despite multiple tests. Conclusions These results do not support familial linkage of BPSD and ADHD; they are compatible with heritability of each disorder separately with coincidental overlap. PMID:22464937

  7. Processing Speed Weakness in Children and Adolescents with Non-Hyperactive but Inattentive ADHD (ADD)

    PubMed Central

    Goth-Owens, Timothy L.; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Martel, Michelle M.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    DSM-IV-TR defines ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive as allowing up to five symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity, while theories of the inattentive type usually assume a group that is hypoactive and characterized by processing speed and cognitive interference deficits. In a community-recruited sample of 572 children and adolescents, a pure inattentive subtype of ADHD (ADD) was defined as those who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD-PI but had two or fewer hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Processing and output speeds of those with ADD were compared to those identified with DSM-IV-TR ADHD combined type and non-ADHD controls. These results were then contrasted with those found when DSM-IV-TR defined ADHD-PI was compared with ADHD-C and controls. Processing and output speed were assessed with the Trailmaking A and B and the Stroop Naming Tests. Cognitive interference control was assessed with the interference score from the Stroop Task. Slower cognitive interference speed was found in the ADD vs. ADHD-C and controls comparisons, but not the ADHD-PI versus ADHD-C and controls comparisons. On output speed measures, ADD exhibited the slowest performance, significantly different from controls and the effect size for the set-shifting speed contrast (Trailmaking B) contrast was double that of the ADHD-PI vs. control comparison. ADHD-Inattentive type as defined by the DSM-IV-TR is a heterogeneous condition with a meaningful proportion of those affected exhibiting virtually no hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. This subgroup may represent a distinct inattentive condition characterized by poor cognitive interference control and slow processing or output speed. PMID:20560083

  8. Risky Behavior in Gambling Tasks in Individuals with ADHD – A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Evans, Ben; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. Methods PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs) in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. Results Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs), ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. Conclusion The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks are discussed

  9. Familial risk and ADHD-specific neural activity revealed by case-control, discordant twin pair design.

    PubMed

    Godinez, Detre A; Willcutt, Erik G; Burgess, Gregory C; Depue, Brendan E; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Banich, Marie T

    2015-09-30

    Individuals with ADHD, as well as their family members who do not meet clinical criteria, have shown deficits in executive function. However, it remains unclear whether underlying neural alterations are familial or ADHD-specific. To investigate this issue, neural activation underlying executive function was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of a Stroop task in three groups of individuals: 20 young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, their 20 dizygotic co-twins without ADHD in childhood, and 20 unrelated controls selected from dizygotic twin pairs in which neither twin had ADHD in childhood (total n=60). Implicating the frontoparietal network as a location of effects specific to ADHD, activation in the superior frontal (Brodmann's Area - BA 6) and parietal regions (BA 40) was significantly reduced in twins with childhood ADHD compared to both their control co-twins and unrelated control twins. Consistent with familial influences, activity in the anterior cingulate and insula was significantly reduced in both the twins with ADHD and their co-twins compared to the unrelated controls. These results show that both ADHD-specific and familial influences related to an ADHD diagnosis impact neural systems underlying executive function. PMID:26256128

  10. Flanker performance in female college students with ADHD: a diffusion model analysis.

    PubMed

    Merkt, Julia; Singmann, Henrik; Bodenburg, Sebastian; Goossens-Merkt, Heinrich; Kappes, Andreas; Wendt, Mike; Gawrilow, Caterina

    2013-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by poor adaptation to environmental demands, which leads to various everyday life problems. The present study had four aims: (1) to compare performance in a flanker task in female college students with and without ADHD (N = 39) in a classical analyses of reaction time and error rate and studying the underlying processes using a diffusion model, (2) to compare the amount of focused attention, (3) to explore the adaptation of focused attention, and (4) to relate adaptation to psychological functioning. The study followed a 2-between (group: ADHD vs. control) × 2-within (flanker conflict: incongruent vs. congruent) × 2-within (conflict frequency: 20 vs. 80 %) design. Compared to a control group, the ADHD group displayed prolonged response times accompanied by fewer errors in a flanker task. Results from the diffusion model analyses revealed that the members of the ADHD group showed deficits in non-decisional processes (i.e., higher non-decision time) and leaned more toward accuracy than participants without ADHD (i.e., setting higher boundaries). The ADHD group showed a more focused attention and less adaptation to the task conditions which is related to psychological functioning. Deficient non-decisional processes and poor adaptation are in line with theories of ADHD and presumably typical for the ADHD population, although this has not been shown using a diffusion model. However, we assume that the cautious strategy of trading speed of for accuracy is specific to the subgroup of female college students with ADHD and might be interpreted as a compensation mechanism.

  11. The impact of instructional context on classroom on-task behavior: a matched comparison of children with ADHD and non-ADHD classmates.

    PubMed

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Deboutte, Dirk; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Roeyers, Herbert

    2013-08-01

    Classroom inattentiveness is an important reason for clinical referral of children with ADHD and a strong predictor of their educational achievement. This study investigates classroom on-task behavior of Flemish children with ADHD withdrawn from medication as a function of instructional context. Thirty-one pairs of children (one with ADHD and one age- and sex-matched control; 25 boys and 6 girls 6 to 12years of age) were observed in their classroom environment during two consecutive school days. On-task behavior (time on-task and on-task span) of ADHD and non-ADHD individuals was compared in different class contexts (i.e., different class structures and academic content types). Individualized teacher supervision was simultaneously assessed. Generalized estimation equation analyses showed that children with ADHD were significantly less on-task than controls during individual work and whole class group teaching, but not during small group work, and had significantly shorter on-task span during academic tasks (mathematics, language, and sciences) and instructional transitions between tasks, but not during music and arts. These effects persisted even after controlling for the higher levels of teacher supervision observed for ADHD pupils (7%) across all contexts (vs. 4% in controls). Findings suggest that despite receiving more overall teacher supervision, children with ADHD displayed lower levels of on-task behavior in settings that place high self-regulatory, information processing, and motivational demands on them. This finding may have initial implications for classroom interventions in this population.

  12. The impact of instructional context on classroom on-task behavior: a matched comparison of children with ADHD and non-ADHD classmates.

    PubMed

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Deboutte, Dirk; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Roeyers, Herbert

    2013-08-01

    Classroom inattentiveness is an important reason for clinical referral of children with ADHD and a strong predictor of their educational achievement. This study investigates classroom on-task behavior of Flemish children with ADHD withdrawn from medication as a function of instructional context. Thirty-one pairs of children (one with ADHD and one age- and sex-matched control; 25 boys and 6 girls 6 to 12years of age) were observed in their classroom environment during two consecutive school days. On-task behavior (time on-task and on-task span) of ADHD and non-ADHD individuals was compared in different class contexts (i.e., different class structures and academic content types). Individualized teacher supervision was simultaneously assessed. Generalized estimation equation analyses showed that children with ADHD were significantly less on-task than controls during individual work and whole class group teaching, but not during small group work, and had significantly shorter on-task span during academic tasks (mathematics, language, and sciences) and instructional transitions between tasks, but not during music and arts. These effects persisted even after controlling for the higher levels of teacher supervision observed for ADHD pupils (7%) across all contexts (vs. 4% in controls). Findings suggest that despite receiving more overall teacher supervision, children with ADHD displayed lower levels of on-task behavior in settings that place high self-regulatory, information processing, and motivational demands on them. This finding may have initial implications for classroom interventions in this population. PMID:23870443

  13. Multitasking performance of Chinese children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; Guo, Miaoyan; Zou, Xiaobing; Li, Dan; Hu, Zhouyi; Yang, Binrang

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore multitasking skills in a Chinese sample of 22 children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with 22 healthy controls matched by gender, age, and IQ. All of the participants completed the children's version of the Six Elements Test (C-SET) and neuropsychological tests that captured specific domains of attention, memory, and executive function. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse than the healthy controls in all domains except the number of rules broken in the C-SET. The majority of the C-SET domain scores correlated significantly with measures of executive function. The ADHD group also demonstrated deficits in various neurocognitive test performances compared with the healthy group. This preliminary study suggests that the C-SET is sensitive to multitasking behavior in Chinese children with ADHD. The main impairments of multitasking behavior in this clinical group involve the inhibition of goal-directed planning, flexible strategy generation, and self-monitoring.

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social-Cognitive Problem Solving in Emerging Adolescents with Clinically Elevated ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Michael J.; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with ADHD given their childhood social difficulties. Although childhood ADHD has been associated with increased aggression and peer relational difficulties, relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. In addition, social-cognitive problem solving has been implicated in ADHD; however, its longitudinal impact on prosocial and aggressive behavior is unclear. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (sixth grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were compared longitudinally across sixth through eighth grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, ODD symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d= −0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d= 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group, and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in sixth grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was

  15. Interpersonal Coping among Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…

  16. Children with ADHD in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Kathryn J.; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Reid, Robert; Chmelka, Beth; Thompson, Ronald W.; Daly, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the characteristics or functioning of children with ADHD in residential care as compared to their non-ADHD peers. This study evaluated data on 538 children with (n = 125) and without (n = 413) ADHD in residential care to determine demographic, mental health, behavioral, and treatment (i.e., medication use) characteristics.…

  17. EEG correlates of visual short-term memory as neuro-cognitive endophenotypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Iris; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Kilian, Beate; Müller, Hermann J; Töllner, Thomas; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Engel, Rolf R; Finke, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently persists into adulthood. A reduction in visual short-term memory (vSTM) storage capacity was recently suggested as a potential neuro-cognitive endophenotype, i.e., a testable marker of an individual's liability for developing ADHD. This study aimed at identifying markers of the brain abnormalities underlying vSTM reductions in adult ADHD. We combined behavioral parameter-based assessment with electrophysiology in groups of adult ADHD patients and healthy age-matched controls. Amplitudes of ERP markers of vSTM storage capacity, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) and the P3b, were analyzed according to (i) differences between individuals with higher vs. lower storage capacity K and (ii) differences between ADHD patients and control participants. We replicated the finding of reduced storage capacity in adult ADHD. Across groups, individuals with higher relative to lower storage capacity showed a larger CDA and P3b. We further found differences between the patient and control groups in the ERPs: The CDA amplitude was attenuated in an early time window for ADHD patients compared to control participants, and was negatively correlated with ADHD patients' symptom severity ratings. Furthermore, the P3b was larger in ADHD patients relative to control participants. These electrophysiological findings indicate altered brain mechanisms underlying visual storage capacity in ADHD, which are characterized by deficient encoding and maintenance, and increased recruitment of control processes. Accordingly, (quantifiable) ERP markers of vSTM in adult ADHD bear candidacy as neuro-cognitive endophenotypes of the disease.

  18. EEG correlates of visual short-term memory as neuro-cognitive endophenotypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Iris; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Kilian, Beate; Müller, Hermann J; Töllner, Thomas; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Engel, Rolf R; Finke, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently persists into adulthood. A reduction in visual short-term memory (vSTM) storage capacity was recently suggested as a potential neuro-cognitive endophenotype, i.e., a testable marker of an individual's liability for developing ADHD. This study aimed at identifying markers of the brain abnormalities underlying vSTM reductions in adult ADHD. We combined behavioral parameter-based assessment with electrophysiology in groups of adult ADHD patients and healthy age-matched controls. Amplitudes of ERP markers of vSTM storage capacity, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) and the P3b, were analyzed according to (i) differences between individuals with higher vs. lower storage capacity K and (ii) differences between ADHD patients and control participants. We replicated the finding of reduced storage capacity in adult ADHD. Across groups, individuals with higher relative to lower storage capacity showed a larger CDA and P3b. We further found differences between the patient and control groups in the ERPs: The CDA amplitude was attenuated in an early time window for ADHD patients compared to control participants, and was negatively correlated with ADHD patients' symptom severity ratings. Furthermore, the P3b was larger in ADHD patients relative to control participants. These electrophysiological findings indicate altered brain mechanisms underlying visual storage capacity in ADHD, which are characterized by deficient encoding and maintenance, and increased recruitment of control processes. Accordingly, (quantifiable) ERP markers of vSTM in adult ADHD bear candidacy as neuro-cognitive endophenotypes of the disease. PMID:26972967

  19. Social Interaction Rules in Cooperative Learning Groups for Students at Risk for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuester, Deitra A.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of providing social participation rules on the performance and social behavior of a school-based sample of 10-14-year-old students at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 34) who worked cooperatively in same-gender triads with typical peers (n = 92). The design was primarily a 2 (population group)…

  20. Perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit are core symptoms in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Lopez, Régis; Vaillant, Florence; Richieri, Raphaëlle; El-Kaim, Alexandre; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Philip, Pierre; Boyer, Laurent; Lancon, Christophe

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated and compared perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit in adult patients with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (A-ADHD) and adult patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were evaluated with the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI). We compared SGI scores between patients with A-ADHD, patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. We also assessed the relationship between SGI scores and clinical symptoms, and evaluated the ability of the SGI to detect perceptual abnormalities in A-ADHD. Seventy adult patients with ADHD reported higher SGI scores than the 70 healthy subjects and the 70 patients with schizophrenia. The inattention factor of the ASRS correlated significantly with the overall SGI score. The ROC AUC for the overall SGI score in the A-ADHD group (versus the healthy group) illustrated good performance. The findings suggest that i) perceptual abnormalities are core symptoms of adult patients with ADHD and ii) the attention of patients with A-ADHD may be involuntarily drowned by many irrelevant environmental stimuli leading to their impaired attention on relevant stimuli. They also confirm that the SGI could be a useful self-report instrument to diagnose the clinical features of A-ADHD. PMID:26416589

  1. Neural correlates of inhibitory control in adult ADHD: Evidence from the Milwaukee longitudinal sample

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Richard C.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Fischer, Mariellen; Seidenberg, Michael; Rao, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Only a few studies have investigated the neural substrate of response inhibition in adult ADHD using Stop-Signal and Go/No-Go tasks. Inconsistencies and methodological limitations in the existing literature have resulted in limited conclusions regarding underlying pathophysiology. We examined the neural basis of response inhibition in a group of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and who continue to meet criteria for ADHD while addressing limitations present in earlier studies. Adults with ADHD (n=12) and controls (n=12) were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study and were matched for age, IQ, and education. Individuals with comorbid conditions were excluded. Functional MRI was used to identify and compare the brain activation patterns during correct trials of a response inhibition task (Go/No-Go). Our results showed that the control group recruited a more extensive network of brain regions than the ADHD group during correct inhibition trials. Adults with ADHD showed reduced brain activation in the right frontal eye field, pre-supplementary motor area, left precentral gyrus, and the inferior parietal lobe bilaterally. During successful inhibition of an inappropriate response, adults with ADHD display reduced activation in fronto-parietal networks previously implicated in working memory, goal-oriented attention, and response selection. This profile of brain activation may be specifically associated with ADHD in adulthood. PMID:21937201

  2. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment. PMID:25614755

  3. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales–Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment. PMID:25614755

  4. Group Assessment: Comparing Group and Individual Undergraduate Module Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a small study that analysed module marks of one cohort of science undergraduates from one academic year. It explored how group summative assessment marking affected the overall marks in comparison with individual assessment. A tutor allocated students to mixed ability project groups. Individual marks for the group work…

  5. The Academic Experience of Male High School Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Kristine M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Biswas, Aparajita; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the high school academic experience of adolescents with and without childhood ADHD using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Participants were 326 males with childhood ADHD and 213 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited at the start of the follow-up study. Data were collected yearly…

  6. Do Hyperactive Symptoms Matter in ADHD-I Restricted Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Marcelo; Ludwig, Henrique; Rohde, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a proposed restrictive inattentive type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by comparing clinical correlates among youths with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I) as a function of the number of hyperactivity symptoms presented (none vs. 3 or less) and controls (individuals without ADHD).…

  7. Dissociation in Response to Methylphenidate on Response Variability in a Group of Medication Naive Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Katherine A.; Barry, Edwina; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Cox, Marie; Kelly, Simon P.; Daibhis, Aoife; Daly, Michael; Keavey, Michelle; Watchorn, Amy; Fitzgerald, Michael; McNicholas, Fiona; Kirley, Aiveen; Robertson, Ian H.; Gill, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Increased variability in reaction time (RT) has been proposed as a cardinal feature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Increased variability during sustained attention tasks may reflect inefficient fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal circuitry; activity within these circuits is modulated by the catecholamines. A disruption to…

  8. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients.

  9. The quality of life of children and adolescents with ADHD undergoing outpatient psychiatric treatment: simple disorders of activity and attention and hyperkinetic conduct disorders in comparison with each other and with other diagnostic groups.

    PubMed

    Remschmidt, Helmut; Mattejat, Fritz

    2010-12-01

    (1) How does the quality of life of patients with ADHD treated in an ambulatory care setting compare to that of other patient groups in child and adolescent psychiatry? (2) Can differences in the quality of life be demonstrated between patients with simple disorders of activity and attention and those with hyperkinetic conduct disorders? (3) How does the quality of life in these patient groups change over one year of treatment? The Inventory for the Assessment of Life Quality in Children and Adolescents (Inventar zur Untersuchung der Lebensqualität von Kindern und Jugendlichen, ILK) was applied to a sample of 726 patients derived from nine different outpatient practices for child and adolescent psychiatry. Among them were 196 patients with a simple disorder of activity and attention and 64 with a hyperkinetic conduct disorder. A comparison between these two groups was the main aim of the study. The mean age of the patients in the sample (all diagnoses) was 8.7 ± 3 years. The two groups of hyperkinetic patients made up 35% of the overall sample, and both of them showed a marked male predominance. The hyperkinetic patients tended to have lower quality-of-life scores than patients in the other diagnostic groups. Longitudinal observation revealed improvements in the quality of life across all patient groups, but the patients with hyperkinetic disorders (both groups) improved the least. The parents of the hyperkinetic patients, too, reported suffering greater stress because of their children's condition than the parents of children with other types of disorders. The ILK instrument has test-metrical qualities that render it usable and capable of holding its own among other, comparable instruments. It can be used to assess the quality of life of children with various diagnoses. Children with ADHD tend to have the least favorable quality-of-life scores, yet they do show some degree of improvement in their quality of life after a year of treatment.

  10. Association of Anxiety and ODD/CD in Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Aguirre, Vincent P.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if…

  11. Young adult educational and vocational outcomes of children diagnosed with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, Aparajita B; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Sibley, Margaret H; Babinski, Dara E; Walther, Christine; Cheong, Jeewon; Yu, Jihnhee; Kent, Kristine M

    2013-01-01

    Decreased success at work and educational attainment by adulthood are of concern for children with ADHD given their widely documented academic difficulties; however there are few studies that have examined this empirically and even fewer that have studied predictors and individual variability of these outcomes. The current study compares young adults with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD on educational and occupational outcomes and the predictors of these outcomes. Participants were from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a prospective study with yearly data collection. Significant group differences were found for nearly all variables such that educational and occupational attainment was lower for adults with compared to adults without histories of childhood ADHD. Despite the mean difference, educational functioning was wide-ranging. High school academic achievement significantly predicted enrollment in post-high school education and academic and disciplinary problems mediated the relationship between childhood ADHD and post-high school education. Interestingly, ADHD diagnosis and disciplinary problems negatively predicted occupational status while enrollment in post-high school education was a positive predictor. Job loss was positively predicted by a higher rate of academic problems and diagnosis of ADHD. This study supports the need for interventions that target the child and adolescent predictors of later educational and occupational outcomes in addition to continuing treatment of ADHD in young adulthood targeting developmentally appropriate milestones, such as completing post-high school education and gaining and maintaining stable employment.

  12. ADHD and cannabis use in young adults examined using fMRI of a Go/NoGo task.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jerod; Casey, B J; van Erp, Theo G M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Buss, Claudia; Bjork, James M; Molina, Brooke S G; Velanova, Katerina; Mathalon, Daniel H; Somerville, Leah; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Tim; Arnold, L Eugene; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-09-01

    Children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for substance abuse. Response inhibition is a hallmark of ADHD, yet the combined effects of ADHD and regular substance use on neural networks associated with response inhibition are unknown. Task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from young adults with childhood ADHD with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) cannabis use ≥ monthly in the past year were compared with a local normative comparison group (LNCG) with (n = 11) and without (n = 12) cannabis use. Go/NoGo behavioral and fMRI data were evaluated for main and interaction effects of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use. ADHD participants made significantly more commission errors on NoGo trials than controls. ADHD participants also had less frontoparietal and frontostriatal activity, independent of cannabis use. No main effects of cannabis use on response inhibition or functional brain activation were observed. An interaction of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use was found in the right hippocampus and cerebellar vermis, with increased recruitment of these regions in cannabis-using controls during correct response inhibition. ADHD participants had impaired response inhibition combined with less fronto-parietal/striatal activity, regardless of cannabis use history. Cannabis use did not impact behavioral response inhibition. Cannabis use was associated with hippocampal and cerebellar activation, areas rich in cannabinoid receptors, in LNCG but not ADHD participants. This may reflect recruitment of compensatory circuitry in cannabis using controls but not ADHD participants. Future studies targeting hippocampal and cerebellar-dependent function in these groups may provide further insight into how this circuitry is altered by ADHD and cannabis use. PMID:26489976

  13. ADHD and cannabis use in young adults examined using fMRI of a Go/NoGo task.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jerod; Casey, B J; van Erp, Theo G M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Buss, Claudia; Bjork, James M; Molina, Brooke S G; Velanova, Katerina; Mathalon, Daniel H; Somerville, Leah; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Tim; Arnold, L Eugene; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-09-01

    Children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for substance abuse. Response inhibition is a hallmark of ADHD, yet the combined effects of ADHD and regular substance use on neural networks associated with response inhibition are unknown. Task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from young adults with childhood ADHD with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) cannabis use ≥ monthly in the past year were compared with a local normative comparison group (LNCG) with (n = 11) and without (n = 12) cannabis use. Go/NoGo behavioral and fMRI data were evaluated for main and interaction effects of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use. ADHD participants made significantly more commission errors on NoGo trials than controls. ADHD participants also had less frontoparietal and frontostriatal activity, independent of cannabis use. No main effects of cannabis use on response inhibition or functional brain activation were observed. An interaction of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use was found in the right hippocampus and cerebellar vermis, with increased recruitment of these regions in cannabis-using controls during correct response inhibition. ADHD participants had impaired response inhibition combined with less fronto-parietal/striatal activity, regardless of cannabis use history. Cannabis use did not impact behavioral response inhibition. Cannabis use was associated with hippocampal and cerebellar activation, areas rich in cannabinoid receptors, in LNCG but not ADHD participants. This may reflect recruitment of compensatory circuitry in cannabis using controls but not ADHD participants. Future studies targeting hippocampal and cerebellar-dependent function in these groups may provide further insight into how this circuitry is altered by ADHD and cannabis use.

  14. How do ADHD children perceive their cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects of anger expression in school setting?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anger is an ignored research area in children and young adolescents with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the school setting. This study compares school anger dimensions in children and young adolescents with ADHD and a control group. Methods The subjects were a clinical sample of 67 children and young adolescents with ADHD and their parents, with a sample of 91 children from the community of similar age and gender as control group. Anger was measured by the Farsi version of the Multidimensional School Anger Inventory (MSAI). Results The scores of the two components of "Hostile Outlook" and "Positive Coping" were different between the groups. The mean scores for the Anger components did not statistically differ between the children with ADHD and ODD and ADHD without ODD, boys and girls, or different types of ADHD. Conclusion Children with ADHD do not report higher rates of experience of anger and they do not apply destructive strategies more than the control group. However, children with ADHD appear to have a more hostile outlook toward school and their coping strategy is weaker than that of the control group. PMID:20205823

  15. Comparative genomics of the Campylobacter lari group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Campylobacter lari group is a phylogenetic clade within the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant campylobacters, a division within the genus that includes the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The lari group is currently composed of five validly-named sp...

  16. Evidence for Specificity of ERP Abnormalities during Response Inhibition in ADHD Children: A Comparison with Reading Disorder Children without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liotti, Mario; Pliszka, Steven R.; Higgins, Kellie; Perez, Ricardo, III; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Executive function and working memory deficits are not only present in ADHD, but also in reading disorder (RD). Here, high-density ERPs were recorded during the Stop Signal Task in 53 children and adolescents: An ADHD-combined type group, a group with RD, and a healthy control group. The ADHD-C group displayed unique abnormalities of the frontal…

  17. Comparative Genomics of the Campylobacter lari Group

    PubMed Central

    Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Chapman, Mary H.; Smith, Timothy P.L.; Bono, James L.; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T.; Vandamme, Peter; Luong, Khai; Korlach, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The Campylobacter lari group is a phylogenetic clade within the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., a division within the genus that includes the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The C. lari group is currently composed of five species (C. lari, Campylobacter insulaenigrae, Campylobacter volucris, Campylobacter subantarcticus, and Campylobacter peloridis), as well as a group of strains termed the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) and other C. lari-like strains. Here we present the complete genome sequences of 11 C. lari group strains, including the five C. lari group species, four UPTC strains, and a lari-like strain isolated in this study. The genome of C. lari subsp. lari strain RM2100 was described previously. Analysis of the C. lari group genomes indicates that this group is highly related at the genome level. Furthermore, these genomes are strongly syntenic with minor rearrangements occurring only in 4 of the 12 genomes studied. The C. lari group can be bifurcated, based on the flagella and flagellar modification genes. Genomic analysis of the UPTC strains indicated that these organisms are variable but highly similar, closely related to but distinct from C. lari. Additionally, the C. lari group contains multiple genes encoding hemagglutination domain proteins, which are either contingency genes or linked to conserved contingency genes. Many of the features identified in strain RM2100, such as major deficiencies in amino acid biosynthesis and energy metabolism, are conserved across all 12 genomes, suggesting that these common features may play a role in the association of the C. lari group with coastal environments and watersheds. PMID:25381664

  18. Is the Inattentive Subtype of ADHD Different from the Combined/Hyperactive Subtype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grizenko, Natalie; Paci, Michael; Joober, Ridha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the ADHD combined/hyperactive subtype (ADHD/CH) to the ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD/I) on the level of comorbidity, treatment response, and possible etiological factors. Method: A total of 371 clinically referred children diagnosed with ADHD aged between 6 and 12 years are recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled…

  19. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  20. Working memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an examination of central executive and storage/rehearsal processes.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Hudec, Kristen L; Patros, Connor H G; Kasper, Lisa J

    2013-05-01

    The current study was the first to use a regression approach to examine the unique contributions of central executive (CE) and storage/rehearsal processes to working memory (WM) deficits in adults with ADHD. Thirty-seven adults (ADHD = 21, HC = 16) completed phonological (PH) and visuospatial (VS) working memory tasks. While both groups performed significantly better during the PH task relative to the VS task, adults with ADHD exhibited significant deficits across both working memory modalities. Further, the ADHD group recalled disproportionately fewer PH and VS stimuli as set-size demands increased. Overall, the CE and PH storage/rehearsal processes of adults with ADHD were both significantly impaired relative to those of the healthy control adults; however, the magnitude of the CE effect size was much smaller compared to previous studies of children with the disorder. Collectively, results provide support for a lifelong trajectory of WM deficits in ADHD.

  1. Psychological and cortisol reactivity to experimentally induced stress in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Raz, Sivan; Leykin, Dmitry

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with ADHD suffer from increased vulnerability to environmental and mental stressors and may be at increased risk for chronic stress in everyday life. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical physiological system that mediates responses to stress. The present study seeks to examine test performance, test anxiety, self-reported psychological stress and cortisol reactivity to mental-cognitive stress in adults with ADHD when compared with healthy controls. Stress was induced by an arithmetic ability test. Psychological stress was assessed repeatedly throughout the experimental session. Salivary cortisol, an indicator of the HPA axis function, was evaluated immediately upon arrival, as well as 1 min and 20 min post-test completion. Results revealed higher levels of test anxiety and poorer performance on the test in the ADHD group. The ADHD and control groups showed no difference in base-line levels of subjective stress and in subjective stress levels 20 min after the test. In contrast, individuals with ADHD reported significantly higher levels of stress at the test anticipation phase and 1 min post-test completion. Cortisol response to stress differed according to group: in the ADHD group, 20 min post-test cortisol levels were significantly higher than base-line cortisol levels. This was not evident in the control group. These results suggest greater activation of the HPA axis in response to stress in adults with ADHD when compared with healthy controls. Adults with ADHD do not differ from controls in basal levels of subjective stress and cortisol, but do have stronger psychophysiological reactions in response to stressful challenges. The present findings are among the first to demonstrate significant alterations in cortisol reactivity to stress in adults with ADHD.

  2. The specificity of the Stroop interference score of errors to ADHD in boys.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L; Plessen, K J; Adolfsdottir, S; Lundervold, A J

    2014-01-01

    The Stroop Interference Test is widely used to assess the inhibition function; however, divergent results have emerged from meta-analyses in children with ADHD. This has led to conflicting results as to whether the Stroop test detects the level of inhibition in these children. We hypothesized that the general approach to include interference scores depending on response time causes conflicting results, whereas recordings of errors may prove a superior measure of the inhibition function in children with ADHD. In the present study, 39 children with an ADHD diagnosis, two subgroups with and without another comorbid mental health disorder, were compared with respect to their interference scores of response time and errors with two subgroups of children with no ADHD. The two subgroups comprised 33 children with another mental health disorder other than ADHD and 56 children with no psychiatric disorder. The between-group analyses detected a multivariate, marginal main effect of an ADHD diagnosis on the Stroop interference scores, and a univariate main effect of an ADHD diagnosis on the interference score of errors. Further, only the interference score of errors predicted significantly the parent reported scores on the Inhibit scale from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. These findings support that a Stroop interference score of errors is sensitive for inhibition problems in children with ADHD and encourages the use of Stroop versions including error recordings independent of response time.

  3. Inference generation and story comprehension among children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, Jessica; Hayden, Angela; Lorch, Elizabeth P; Milich, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Academic difficulties are well-documented among children with ADHD. Exploring these difficulties through story comprehension research has revealed deficits among children with ADHD in making causal connections between events and in using causal structure and thematic importance to guide recall of stories. Important to theories of story comprehension and implied in these deficits is the ability to make inferences. Often, characters' goals are implicit and explanations of events must be inferred. The purpose of the present study was to compare the inferences generated during story comprehension by 23 7- to 11-year-old children with ADHD (16 males) and 35 comparison peers (19 males). Children watched two televised stories, each paused at five points. In the experimental condition, at each pause children told what they were thinking about the story, whereas in the control condition no responses were made during pauses. After viewing, children recalled the story. Several types of inferences and inference plausibility were coded. Children with ADHD generated fewer of the most essential inferences, plausible explanatory inferences, than did comparison children, both during story processing and during story recall. The groups did not differ on production of other types of inferences. Group differences in generating inferences during the think-aloud task significantly mediated group differences in patterns of recall. Both groups recalled more of the most important story information after completing the think-aloud task. Generating fewer explanatory inferences has important implications for story comprehension deficits in children with ADHD.

  4. Social and academic impairment in youth with ADHD, predominately inattentive type and sluggish cognitive tempo.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stephen A; Evans, Steven W; Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Becker, Stephen P; Power, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) was originally identified as a construct that characterized the inattention problems of some children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Research has indicated that using SCT symptoms to identify a subset of youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominately inattentive type (ADHD-IT) may elucidate distinct patterns of impairment and thereby improve the external validity of ADHD subtypes. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether youth with clinically-assessed ADHD-IT and high levels of SCT exhibit unique social and academic impairments. In a clinic-referred sample of youth (N = 209; 23 % female) aged 6 to 17 years, participants who met criteria for three different groups were identified: ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-CT; n = 80), ADHD-IT with low SCT symptoms (n = 74), and ADHD-IT with high SCT symptoms (n = 55). These groups were compared on indicators of social and academic functioning while considering the effects of co-occurring internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Youth with ADHD-IT high in SCT exhibited uniquely elevated withdrawal, as well as low leadership and low peer-directed relational and overt aggression, which were not accounted for by co-occurring disorders. This high-SCT group was also the only group to have more homework problems than the ADHD-CT group, but only when other disruptive behavior disorders were absent. The distinctiveness of the high-SCT group, which was primarily evident in social as opposed to academic functioning, provides partial support for the external validity and clinical utility of SCT.

  5. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  6. Cognitive variability in adults with ADHD and AS: disentangling the roles of executive functions and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2013-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these disorders. First, the present study explored the inter-individual variability in EF and social cognition in both patient groups. Second, we compared differential characteristics and commonalities in the cognitive profiles of EF and social cognition between ADHD, AS and control adults. We assessed 22 patients with ADHD, 23 adults with AS and 21 matched typically developing subjects using different measures of EF (working memory, cognitive flexibility and multitasking) and social cognition (theory of mind and decision-making). Group comparisons and multiple case series analyses (MCSA) were conducted. The between-group comparisons showed an EF deficit in working memory in ADHD and a theory of mind (ToM) impairment in AS. The MCSA evidenced that, compared to controls, ADHD patients had a higher inter-individual variability in EF, while individuals with AS had a more heterogeneous profile in social cognition tasks compared to both groups. Finally, the AS and ADHD groups presented higher task-related variability compared to controls and shared a common heterogeneous profile in EF. This is the first study to compare variability in EF and social cognition profiles of ADHD and AS. We propose that heterogeneity in EF performance is a link between ADHD and AS which may explain the overlap of symptomatology between both diagnoses. In addition, patients with AS seem to show a unique heterogeneous profile in ToM which may explain the low probability of finding AS symptoms in patients with ADHD.

  7. Behavior ratings of executive function among preschoolers with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mahone, E Mark; Hoffman, Jennifer

    2007-07-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003) was developed to assess executive function (EF) behaviors in children aged 2 to 5 years. We compared parent ratings of 25 preschool children with ADHD to 25 age-, sex-, and SES-matched controls from the BRIEF-P standardization sample. Children with ADHD were rated significantly higher than controls (p < .01) on all five primary scales (Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Working Memory, Plan/Organize), and on all four indices (Inhibitory Self Control, Flexibility, Emerging Metacognition, General Executive Composite). The largest effect size was on the Working Memory scale. All five BRIEF-P clinical scales were significantly intercorrelated in the control group, and seven of ten scale intercorrelations were significant in the ADHD group. Within the ADHD group, the BRIEF-P Index scores were significantly correlated with ratings on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale, but only moderately correlated with an estimate of Verbal IQ. The BRIEF-P had low, non-significant correlations with performance-based measures of EF, and patterns of correlations were not significantly different than those between the BRIEF-P and non-EF measures (sensorimotor, receptive vocabulary). Similar to its predecessor, the BRIEF-P is sensitive to symptoms of ADHD, but appears to measure different elements of EF than those tapped by performance-based measures.

  8. Coaching for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin; Ratey, Nancy; Maynard, Sandy; Sussman, Susan; Wright, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite limited scientific study on ADHD coaching as an intervention for adults with ADHD, the field of ADHD coaching has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years. ADHD coaching is becoming a bona fide profession where one must advance through a rigorous training process, in order to be certified as a professional ADHD coach.…

  9. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group. PMID:20815868

  10. Forecasting Three-Month Outcomes in a Laboratory School Comparison of Mixed Amphetamine Salts Extended Release (Adderall XR) and Atomoxetine (Strattera) in School-Aged Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Wigal, Sharon B.; Hodgkins, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Compare observed and forecasted efficacy of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (MAS-XR; Adderall) with atomoxetine (Strattera) in ADHD children. Method: The authors analyze data from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group, forced-dose-escalation laboratory school study of children ages 6 to 12 with ADHD combined…

  11. Measurement of the effect of physical exercise on the concentration of individuals with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alessandro P; Prado, Sueli O S; Scardovelli, Terigi A; Boschi, Silvia R M S; Campos, Luiz C; Frère, Annie F

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run without a rest interval. The proposed physical stimulus was performed with 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE-EF) and 14 without ADHD symptoms (GC-EF). After 5 min of rest, these volunteers accessed the computer game to accomplish the tasks in the shortest time possible. The computer game was also accessed by another 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE) and 14 without these symptoms (GC). The response time to solve the tasks that require attention was recorded. The results of the four groups were analyzed using D'Agostino statistical tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance and post-hoc Dunn tests. The groups of volunteers with ADHD who performed exercise (GE-EF) showed improved performance for the tasks that require attention with a difference of 30.52% compared with the volunteers with ADHD who did not perform the exercise (GE). The (GE-EF) group showed similar performance (2.5% difference) with the volunteers in the (GC) group who have no ADHD symptoms and did not exercise. This study shows that intense exercise can improve the attention of children with ADHD and may help their school performance. PMID:25803290

  12. Measurement of the Effect of Physical Exercise on the Concentration of Individuals with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Alessandro P.; Prado, Sueli O. S.; Scardovelli, Terigi A.; Boschi, Silvia R. M. S.; Campos, Luiz C.; Frère, Annie F.

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run without a rest interval. The proposed physical stimulus was performed with 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE-EF) and 14 without ADHD symptoms (GC-EF). After 5 min of rest, these volunteers accessed the computer game to accomplish the tasks in the shortest time possible. The computer game was also accessed by another 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE) and 14 without these symptoms (GC). The response time to solve the tasks that require attention was recorded. The results of the four groups were analyzed using D'Agostino statistical tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance and post-hoc Dunn tests. The groups of volunteers with ADHD who performed exercise (GE-EF) showed improved performance for the tasks that require attention with a difference of 30.52% compared with the volunteers with ADHD who did not perform the exercise (GE). The (GE-EF) group showed similar performance (2.5% difference) with the volunteers in the (GC) group who have no ADHD symptoms and did not exercise. This study shows that intense exercise can improve the attention of children with ADHD and may help their school performance. PMID:25803290

  13. Measurement of the effect of physical exercise on the concentration of individuals with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alessandro P; Prado, Sueli O S; Scardovelli, Terigi A; Boschi, Silvia R M S; Campos, Luiz C; Frère, Annie F

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run without a rest interval. The proposed physical stimulus was performed with 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE-EF) and 14 without ADHD symptoms (GC-EF). After 5 min of rest, these volunteers accessed the computer game to accomplish the tasks in the shortest time possible. The computer game was also accessed by another 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE) and 14 without these symptoms (GC). The response time to solve the tasks that require attention was recorded. The results of the four groups were analyzed using D'Agostino statistical tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance and post-hoc Dunn tests. The groups of volunteers with ADHD who performed exercise (GE-EF) showed improved performance for the tasks that require attention with a difference of 30.52% compared with the volunteers with ADHD who did not perform the exercise (GE). The (GE-EF) group showed similar performance (2.5% difference) with the volunteers in the (GC) group who have no ADHD symptoms and did not exercise. This study shows that intense exercise can improve the attention of children with ADHD and may help their school performance.

  14. Differential effects of theta/beta and SMR neurofeedback in ADHD on sleep onset latency.

    PubMed

    Arns, Martijn; Feddema, Ilse; Kenemans, J Leon

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a role for sleep and sleep problems in the etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a recent model about the working mechanism of sensori-motor rhythm (SMR) neurofeedback, proposed that this intervention normalizes sleep and thus improves ADHD symptoms such as inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. In this study we compared adult ADHD patients (N = 19) to a control group (N = 28) and investigated if differences existed in sleep parameters such as Sleep Onset Latency (SOL), Sleep Duration (DUR) and overall reported sleep problems (PSQI) and if there is an association between sleep-parameters and ADHD symptoms. Secondly, in 37 ADHD patients we investigated the effects of SMR and Theta/Beta (TBR) neurofeedback on ADHD symptoms and sleep parameters and if these sleep parameters may mediate treatment outcome to SMR and TBR neurofeedback. In this study we found a clear continuous relationship between self-reported sleep problems (PSQI) and inattention in adults with- and without-ADHD. TBR neurofeedback resulted in a small reduction of SOL, this change in SOL did not correlate with the change in ADHD symptoms and the reduction in SOL only happened in the last half of treatment, suggesting this is an effect of symptom improvement not specifically related to TBR neurofeedback. SMR neurofeedback specifically reduced the SOL and PSQI score, and the change in SOL and change in PSQI correlated strongly with the change in inattention, and the reduction in SOL was achieved in the first half of treatment, suggesting the reduction in SOL mediated treatment response to SMR neurofeedback. Clinically, TBR and SMR neurofeedback had similar effects on symptom reduction in ADHD (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity). These results suggest differential effects and different working mechanisms for TBR and SMR neurofeedback in the treatment of ADHD. PMID:25566034

  15. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A A ... doctor can decide if ADHD medicine is needed. Medicine and the Mind There are a lot of ...

  16. College Students with ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation College Students with ADHD Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... No. 111; Updated December 2013 Many students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) attend college. College students with ADHD face ...

  17. One-week temporal stability of hyperactivity in preschoolers with ADHD during psychometric assessment

    PubMed Central

    Miyahara, Motohide; Healey, Dione M.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine the usefulness of temporal measures of motor activity during psychometric assessment on two different assessment days over a week with a scope to help identifying early onsets of hyperactivity. Methods We compared actigraph measures at the ankle and the waist on the first and the second days of psychometric assessment in a total of 169 children (93 children with ADHD and 76 children without ADHD) aged 3 years and 4 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect between group and time on the activity level at the waist. Whereas the activity levels of the waist in the children with ADHD did not significantly differ between Day 1 and Day 2, the activity levels of the children without ADHD declined significantly from Day 1 to 2. 70% of children were correctly classified into ADHD or non-ADHD groups only based on the activity data at the waist on Day 2. Conclusion These results confirm the temporal consistency of hyperactivity in young children with ADHD during psychometric assessment, and indicate that objective measures of motor activity at the waist over different days of psychometric assessment can provide additional information for the stability of hyperactivity. PMID:24552632

  18. Attention and response control in ADHD. Evaluation through integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test.

    PubMed

    Moreno-García, Inmaculada; Delgado-Pardo, Gracia; Roldán-Blasco, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses attention and response control through visual and auditory stimuli in a primary care pediatric sample. The sample consisted of 191 participants aged between 7 and 13 years old. It was divided into 2 groups: (a) 90 children with ADHD, according to diagnostic (DSM-IV-TR) (APA, 2002) and clinical (ADHD Rating Scale-IV) (DuPaul, Power, Anastopoulos, & Reid, 1998) criteria, and (b) 101 children without a history of ADHD. The aims were: (a) to determine and compare the performance of both groups in attention and response control, (b) to identify attention and response control deficits in the ADHD group. Assessments were carried out using the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA/CPT, Sandford & Turner, 2002). Results showed that the ADHD group had visual and auditory attention deficits, F(3, 170) = 14.38; p < .01, deficits in fine motor regulation (Welch´s t-test = 44.768; p < .001) and sensory/motor activity (Welch'st-test = 95.683, p < .001; Welch's t-test = 79.537, p < .001). Both groups exhibited a similar performance in response control, F(3, 170) = .93, p = .43.Children with ADHD showed inattention, mental processing speed deficits, and loss of concentration with visual stimuli. Both groups yielded a better performance in attention with auditory stimuli.

  19. EEG anomalies in adult ADHD subjects performing a working memory task.

    PubMed

    Missonnier, P; Hasler, R; Perroud, N; Herrmann, F R; Millet, P; Richiardi, J; Malafosse, A; Giannakopoulos, P; Baud, P

    2013-06-25

    Functional imaging studies have revealed differential brain activation patterns in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adult patients performing working memory (WM) tasks. The existence of alterations in WM-related cortical circuits during childhood may precede executive dysfunctions in this disorder in adults. To date, there is no study exploring the electrophysiological activation of WM-related neural networks in ADHD. To address this issue, we carried out an electroencephalographic (EEG) activation study associated with time-frequency (TF) analysis in 15 adults with ADHD and 15 controls performing two visual N-back WM tasks, as well as oddball detection and passive fixation tasks. Frontal transient (phasic) theta event-related synchronization (ERS, 0-500 msec) was significantly reduced in ADHD as compared to control subjects. Such reduction was equally present in a task-independent manner. In contrast, the power of the later sustained (∼500-1200 msec) theta ERS for all tasks was comparable in ADHD and control groups. In active WM tasks, ADHD patients displayed lower alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD, ∼200-900 msec) and higher subsequent alpha ERS (∼900-2400 msec) compared to controls. The time course of alpha ERD/ERS cycle was modified in ADHD patients compared to controls, suggesting that they are able to use late compensatory mechanisms in order to perform this WM task. These findings support the idea of an ADHD-related dysfunction of neural generators sub-serving attention directed to the incoming visual information. ADHD cases may successfully face WM needs depending on the preservation of sustained theta ERS and prolonged increase of alpha ERS at later post-stimulus time points. PMID:23518223

  20. Global and regional gray matter reductions in ADHD: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Carmona, S; Vilarroya, O; Bielsa, A; Trèmols, V; Soliva, J C; Rovira, M; Tomàs, J; Raheb, C; Gispert, J D; Batlle, S; Bulbena, A

    2005-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterized by inattentiveness, motor hyperactivity and impulsivity. According to neuroimaging data, the neural substrate underlying ADHD seems to involve fronto-striatal circuits and the cerebellum. However, there are important discrepancies between various studies, probably due to the use of different techniques. The aim of this study is to examine cerebral gray (GM) and white (WM) matter abnormalities in a group of ADHD children using a voxel-based morphometry protocol. The sample consisted of 25 children/adolescents with DSM-IV TR diagnosis of ADHD (medicated, aged 6-16 years) who were compared with 25 healthy volunteer children/adolescents. ADHD brains on an average showed a global volume decrease of 5.4% as compared to controls. Additionally, there were regionally specific effects in the left fronto-parietal areas (left motor, premotor and somatosensory cortex), left cingulate cortex (anterior/middle/posterior cingulate), parietal lobe (precuneus bilaterally), temporal cortices (right middle temporal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus), and the cerebellum (bilateral posterior). There were no differences in WM volume between ADHD children and control subjects. The results are consistent with previous studies that used different techniques, and may represent a possible neural basis for some of the motor and attentional deficits commonly found in ADHD.

  1. Body Weight and ADHD: Examining the Role of Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Zia; Sengupta, Sarojini M.; Harvey, William J.; Fortier, Marie-Ève; Schmitz, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous childhood disorder that often coexists with other psychiatric and somatic disorders. Recently, a link between ADHD and body weight dysregulation has been reported and often interpreted as impaired self-regulation that is shared between the two conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate the relation between body weight/BMI and cognitive, emotional and motor characteristics in children with ADHD. Methods 284 ADHD children were stratified by weight status/BMI according to WHO classification and compared with regard to their neurocognitive characteristics, motivational style, and motor profile as assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests. All comparisons were adjusted for demographic characteristics of relevance including, socioeconomic status (SES). Results Both Obese and overweight ADHD children exhibited significantly lower SES compared to normal weight ADHD children. No significant differences were observed between the three groups with regards to their neurocognitive, emotional and motor profile. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that differences in weight/BMI are not accounted for by cognitive, motivational and motor profiles. Socio-economic characteristics are strongly associated with overweight and obesity in ADHD children and may inform strategies aimed at promoting healthier weight. PMID:23383165

  2. The effects of a Self-Alert Training (SAT) program in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Simona; Fleming, Grainne R; Shanahan, Jacqueline M; Castorina, Marco; Bramham, Jessica; O'Connell, Redmond G; Robertson, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-pharmacological Self-Alert Training (SAT) intervention on ADHD symptom prevalence, psychological and cognitive functioning, and on everyday functional impairment in adults with ADHD. Fifty-one adult participants with a current diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to either SAT or a Control Training (CT) program. They were assessed at baseline, immediately following the 5-week training period, and after 3-months using ADHD symptoms scales, as well as a series of neuropsychological tests and psychological questionnaires. Subjective ratings of everyday life attention and memory problems were also collected. The SAT group showed significant improvements in ADHD inattentive and impulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms and in self-efficacy ratings compared to the CT group at both post-training and at the 3-month assessment. Pre-post improvements in SAT participants on untrained cognitive tasks measuring selective attention and executive functions were also observed. Finally, the SAT group reported improved subjective ratings of everyday life attention at both assessment points. This pattern of results suggests that SAT may be beneficial in treating ADHD symptoms as well as psychological and cognitive impairments in adult ADHD. A large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed. PMID:25713523

  3. The effects of a Self-Alert Training (SAT) program in adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Salomone, Simona; Fleming, Grainne R.; Shanahan, Jacqueline M.; Castorina, Marco; Bramham, Jessica; O’Connell, Redmond G.; Robertson, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-pharmacological Self-Alert Training (SAT) intervention on ADHD symptom prevalence, psychological and cognitive functioning, and on everyday functional impairment in adults with ADHD. Fifty-one adult participants with a current diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to either SAT or a Control Training (CT) program. They were assessed at baseline, immediately following the 5-week training period, and after 3-months using ADHD symptoms scales, as well as a series of neuropsychological tests and psychological questionnaires. Subjective ratings of everyday life attention and memory problems were also collected. The SAT group showed significant improvements in ADHD inattentive and impulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms and in self-efficacy ratings compared to the CT group at both post-training and at the 3-month assessment. Pre-post improvements in SAT participants on untrained cognitive tasks measuring selective attention and executive functions were also observed. Finally, the SAT group reported improved subjective ratings of everyday life attention at both assessment points. This pattern of results suggests that SAT may be beneficial in treating ADHD symptoms as well as psychological and cognitive impairments in adult ADHD. A large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed. PMID:25713523

  4. Similarities and differences between learning abilities, "pure" learning disabilities, "pure" ADHD and comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mangina, Constantine A; Beuzeron-Mangina, Helen

    2009-08-01

    This research pursues the crucial question of the differentiation of preadolescents with "Pure" ADHD, comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities, "Pure" learning disabilities and age-matched normal controls. For this purpose, Topographic Mapping of Event-Related Brain Potentials (ERPs) to a Memory Workload Paradigm with visually presented words, Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance were used. The analysis of Topographic distribution of amplitudes revealed that normal preadolescents were significantly different from "Pure" ADHD (P<0.0001), "Pure" learning disabilities (P<0.0001), and comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities (P<0.0009), by displaying enhanced prefrontal and frontal negativities (N450). In contrast, preadolescents with "Pure" ADHD and comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities have shown a marked reduction of prefrontal and frontal negativities (N450). As for the "Pure" Learning Disabled preadolescents, very small positivities (P450) in prefrontal and frontal regions were obtained as compared to the other pathological groups. Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload revealed a significant main effect for groups (P<0.00001), Left versus Right (P=0.0029) and sessions (P=0.0136). A significant main effect for the Mangina-Test performance which separated the four groups was found (P<0.000001). Overall, these data support the existence of clear differences and similarities between the pathological preadolescent groups as opposed to age-matched normal controls. The psychophysiological differentiation of these groups, provides distinct biological markers which integrate central, autonomic and neuropsychometric variables by targeting the key features of these pathologies for diagnosis and intervention strategies and by providing knowledge for the understanding of normal neurocognitive processes and functions.

  5. Aspects of language in children with ADHD: applying functional analyses to explore language use.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Margaret E

    2006-02-01

    This article reports some outcomes from an exploratory study that compares children diagnosed with ADHD and without language impairment with typically developing children for aspects of language use. Discourse analysis based on a systemic functional linguistics approach is applied to spoken and written samples from three different text types that are supplied by 11 children diagnosed with ADHD and 11 typically developing children. Comparisons of multiple variables most often show differences in use between the groups. Closer examination of these differences shows that relative to the controls, the ADHD group uses fewer strategies of textual organization and more avoidance, tangential, and unrelated meanings and more abandoned utterances and spelling and punctuation errors. Clinical implications suggest that careful linguistic analysis of spoken and written language of children with ADHD cannot only identify the linguistic resources they use within everyday contexts but may also indicate areas where intervention may be beneficial. PMID:16481669

  6. Cognitive Processes in ADHD and Asperger's Disorder: Overlaps and Differences in PASS Profiles.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Stefano; Contena, Bastianina

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Many studies report on the usefulness of the evaluation of Executive Functions (EF) in the assessment of participants with ADHD, while others underline how deficits of EF in these participants are not consistent and that the same executive deficits are present in many other disorders, particularly in Asperger's disorder. Using the Planning Attention Simultaneous Successive (PASS) theory, the present study explores the cognitive profiles of participants with ADHD or Asperger's disorder and compares the cognitive functioning of these two diagnostic groups. Method: Forty-four children, 24 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 20 with a diagnosis of Asperger's disorder, participated and their cognitive processes were evaluated with the Cognitive Assessment System. Results: Results underline specific cognitive profiles in ADHD and Asperger's disorder characterized by weaknesses in planning and attention, but with a diverse level of severity. Conclusion: Implications of the different cognitive profiles of these diagnostic groups are discussed. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX).

  7. Working memory influences processing speed and reading fluency in ADHD.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisa A; Ryan, Matthew; Martin, Rebecca B; Ewen, Joshua; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2011-01-01

    Processing-speed deficits affect reading efficiency, even among individuals who recognize and decode words accurately. Children with ADHD who decode words accurately can still have inefficient reading fluency, leading to a bottleneck in other cognitive processes. This "slowing" in ADHD is associated with deficits in fundamental components of executive function underlying processing speed, including response selection. The purpose of the present study was to deconstruct processing speed in order to determine which components of executive control best explain the "processing" speed deficits related to reading fluency in ADHD. Participants (41 ADHD, 21 controls), ages 9-14 years, screened for language disorders, word reading deficits, and psychiatric disorders, were administered measures of copying speed, processing speed, reading fluency, working memory, reaction time, inhibition, and auditory attention span. Compared to controls, children with ADHD showed reduced oral and silent reading fluency and reduced processing speed-driven primarily by deficits on WISC-IV Coding. In contrast, groups did not differ on copying speed. After controlling for copying speed, sex, severity of ADHD-related symptomatology, and GAI, slowed "processing" speed (i.e., Coding) was significantly associated with verbal span and measures of working memory but not with measures of response control/inhibition, lexical retrieval speed, reaction time, or intrasubject variability. Further, "processing" speed (i.e., Coding, residualized for copying speed) and working memory were significant predictors of oral reading fluency. Abnormalities in working memory and response selection (which are frontally mediated and enter into the output side of processing speed) may play an important role in deficits in reading fluency in ADHD, potentially more than posteriorally mediated problems with orienting of attention or perceiving the stimulus.

  8. Working Memory Influences Processing Speed and Reading Fluency in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Ryan, Matthew; Martin, Rebecca B.; Ewen, Joshua; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Processing speed deficits affect reading efficiency, even among individuals who recognize and decode words accurately. Children with ADHD who decode words accurately can still have inefficient reading fluency, leading to a bottleneck in other cognitive processes. This “slowing” in ADHD is associated with deficits in fundamental components of executive function underlying processing speed, including response selection. The purpose of the present study was to deconstruct processing speed in order to determine which components of executive control best explain the “processing” speed deficits related to reading fluency in ADHD. Participants (41 ADHD, 21 controls), ages 9-14, screened for language disorders, word reading deficits, and psychiatric disorders, were administered measures of copying speed, processing speed, reading fluency, working memory, reaction time, inhibition, and auditory attention span. Compared to controls, children with ADHD showed reduced oral and silent reading fluency, and reduced processing speed—driven primarily by deficits on WISC-IV Coding. In contrast, groups did not differ on copying speed. After controlling for copying speed, sex, severity of ADHD-related symptomatology, and GAI, slowed “processing” speed (i.e., Coding) was significantly associated with verbal span and measures of working memory, but not with measures of response control/inhibition, lexical retrieval speed, reaction time, or intra-subject variability. Further, “processing” speed (i.e., Coding, residualized for copying speed) and working memory were significant predictors of oral reading fluency. Abnormalities in working memory and response selection (which are frontally-mediated and enter into the output side of processing speed) may play an important role in deficits in reading fluency in ADHD, potentially more than posteriorally-mediated problems with orienting of attention or perceiving the stimulus. PMID:21287422

  9. Effects of smoking abstinence on reaction time variability in smokers with and without ADHD: An ex-Gaussian analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kollins, Scott H.; McClernon, F. Joseph; Epstein, Jeff N.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking abstinence differentially affects cognitive functioning in smokers with ADHD, compared to non-ADHD smokers. Alternative approaches for analyzing reaction time data from these tasks may further elucidate important group differences. Adults smoking ≥15 cigarettes with (n = 12) or without (n = 14) a diagnosis of ADHD completed a continuous performance task (CPT) during two sessions under two separate laboratory conditions—a ‘Satiated’ condition wherein participants smoked up to and during the session; and an ‘Abstinent’ condition, in which participants were abstinent overnight and during the session. Reaction time (RT) distributions from the CPT were modeled to fit an ex-Gaussian distribution. The indicator of central tendency for RT from the normal component of the RT distribution (mu) showed a main effect of Group (ADHDGroup × Session interaction (ADHD group RTs decreased when abstinent). RT standard deviation for the normal component of the distribution (sigma) showed no effects. The ex-Gaussian parameter tau, which describes the mean and standard deviation of the non-normalcomponent of thedistribution, showedsignificant effects of session (Abstinent > Satiated), Group × Session interaction (ADHD increased significantly under Abstinent condition compared to Control), and a trend toward a main effect of Group (ADHD > Control). Alternative approaches to analyzing RT data provide a more detailed description of the effects of smoking abstinence in ADHD and non-ADHD smokers and results differ from analyses using more traditional approaches. These findings have implications for understanding the neuropsychopharmacology of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal. PMID:19041198

  10. ADHD Perspectives: Medicalization and ADHD Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gloria Sunnie

    2012-01-01

    Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…

  11. ADHD and School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    A review of the research and legal literature summarizes the status of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under school law. Following a brief introduction, discussion of ADHD as a disability notes the impact of ADHD on overall functioning and provides a table of diagnostic criteria for subtypes of ADHD. The following section focuses…

  12. Efficient Allocation of Attentional Resources in Patients with ADHD: Maturational Changes from Age 10 to 29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gualtieri, C. Thomas; Johnson, Lynda G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that ADHD is an executive control disorder. Little is known however about the maturation of executive control in ADHD. Method: A cross-sectional study of ADHD patients compared to normal controls tested on a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants: 175 patients with ADHD, age 10 to 29, compared to…

  13. Subcortical Differences among Youths with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Compared to Those with Bipolar Disorder With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Emily S.; Terry, Janine E.; Breeze, Janis L.; Hodge, Steven M.; Tang, Lena; Kennedy, David N.; Moore, Constance M.; Makris, Nikos; Caviness, Verne S.; Frazier, Jean A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction A significant number of children with bipolar disorder (BP) have co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is unknown if these children have neuroimaging findings unique to their co-morbid presentation, or if their brain findings are similar to children diagnosed with BP alone. Method Fifty three children with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) BP (23 with ADHD, 30 without), 29 healthy controls (HC), and 23 children with ADHD, similar in sex and age, had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans on a 1.5T GE scanner. Volumetric assessments were performed for basal ganglia and limbic subcortical structures. Results Youths with ADHD had smaller caudate and putamen volumes compared to both BP groups and they had moderately smaller total amygdala volumes compared to the other three groups. Youths with BP + ADHD had moderately larger nucleus accumbens volumes than HC, and females in both BP groups had smaller hippocampal volumes compared to ADHD and HC. No differences were found between the BP and BP + ADHD groups. Conclusion These data suggest that morphometric subcortical volumes in youths with BP + ADHD are more similar to those in youths with BP. They do not share subcortical neuroanatomic correlates with the ADHD group. These findings suggest that BP + ADHD is a subtype of pediatric BP rather than severe ADHD. PMID:19232021

  14. Diurnal variations in arousal: a naturalistic heart rate study in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Deboutte, Dirk

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest an altered circadian regulation of arousal in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as measured by activity, circadian preference, and sleep-wake patterns. Although heart rate is an important measure to evaluate arousal profiles, to date it is unknown whether 24-h heart rate patterns differentiate between children with and without ADHD. In this study, 24-h heart rate data were collected in 30 non-medicated children with ADHD (aged 6-11) and 30 sex-, class-, and age-matched normal controls in their naturalistic home and school setting, during 5 days. Simultaneously, 24-h activity patterns were registered. Confounding effects of demographic variables (e.g., age, sex, BMI, pubertal stage) and comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems on heart rate levels were additionally assessed. Longitudinal analysis showed that heart rate levels were overall higher in the ADHD group (p < 0.01)--with the largest effects during afternoon and night--in a model controlling for age. Other factors did not significantly contribute to variations in heart rate levels. Compared to controls, children with ADHD showed higher activity levels during daytime (especially early afternoon), but not during nighttime (p < 0.05). Post hoc analyses showed that environmental effects might influence daytime variations. Findings suggest an autonomic imbalance in children with ADHD as compared to controls, with higher heart rate levels in the ADHD group. Nighttime tachycardia in this group could not be explained by nighttime activity levels or comorbid externalizing/internalizing problems. Further research on autonomic functioning in ADHD is recommended because of the major impact of higher resting heart rate on health outcomes.

  15. Symbolic dynamics of heart rate variability - a promising tool to investigate cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Farsky, Ivan; Mestanik, Michal; Visnovcova, Zuzana; Mestanikova, Andrea; Hrtanek, Igor; Ondrejka, Igor

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate complex cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by using heart rate variability (HRV) nonlinear analysis - symbolic dynamics. We examined 29 boys with untreated ADHD and 25 healthy boys (age 8-13 years). ADHD symptoms were evaluated by ADHD-RS-IV scale. ECG was recorded in 3 positions: baseline supine position, orthostasis, and clinostasis. Symbolic dynamics indices were used for the assessment of complex cardiac sympathovagal regulation: normalised complexity index (NCI), normalised unpredictability index (NUPI), and pattern classification measures (0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%). The results showed that HRV complexity was significantly reduced at rest (NUPI) and during standing position (NCI, NUPI) in ADHD group compared to controls. Cardiac-linked sympathetic index 0V% was significantly higher during all posture positions and cardiovagal index 2LV% was significantly lower to standing in boys suffering from ADHD. Importantly, ADHD symptom inattention positively correlated with 0V%, and negatively correlated with NCI, NUPI. Concluding, symbolic dynamics revealed impaired complex neurocardiac control characterised by potential cardiac beta-adrenergic overactivity and vagal deficiency at rest and to posture changes in boys suffering from ADHD that is correlated with inattention. We suggest that symbolic dynamics indices could represent promising cardiac biomarkers in ADHD.

  16. Symbolic dynamics of heart rate variability - a promising tool to investigate cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Farsky, Ivan; Mestanik, Michal; Visnovcova, Zuzana; Mestanikova, Andrea; Hrtanek, Igor; Ondrejka, Igor

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate complex cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by using heart rate variability (HRV) nonlinear analysis - symbolic dynamics. We examined 29 boys with untreated ADHD and 25 healthy boys (age 8-13 years). ADHD symptoms were evaluated by ADHD-RS-IV scale. ECG was recorded in 3 positions: baseline supine position, orthostasis, and clinostasis. Symbolic dynamics indices were used for the assessment of complex cardiac sympathovagal regulation: normalised complexity index (NCI), normalised unpredictability index (NUPI), and pattern classification measures (0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%). The results showed that HRV complexity was significantly reduced at rest (NUPI) and during standing position (NCI, NUPI) in ADHD group compared to controls. Cardiac-linked sympathetic index 0V% was significantly higher during all posture positions and cardiovagal index 2LV% was significantly lower to standing in boys suffering from ADHD. Importantly, ADHD symptom inattention positively correlated with 0V%, and negatively correlated with NCI, NUPI. Concluding, symbolic dynamics revealed impaired complex neurocardiac control characterised by potential cardiac beta-adrenergic overactivity and vagal deficiency at rest and to posture changes in boys suffering from ADHD that is correlated with inattention. We suggest that symbolic dynamics indices could represent promising cardiac biomarkers in ADHD. PMID:26963175

  17. Parent training for preschool ADHD: A randomized controlled trial of specialized and generic programs

    PubMed Central

    Abikoff, Howard B.; Thompson, Margaret; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy; Long, Nicholas; Forehand, Rex L.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Klein, Rachel G.; Reiss, Philip; Huo, Lan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Background The ‘New Forest Parenting Package’ (NFPP), an 8-week home-based intervention for parents of preschoolers with ADHD, fosters constructive parenting to target ADHD-related dysfunctions in attention and impulse control.Although NFPP has improved parent and laboratory measures of ADHD in community samples of children with ADHD-like problems, its efficacy in a clinical sample, and relative to an active treatment comparator, is unknown. The aims are to evaluate the short and long-term efficacy and generalization effects of NFPP compared to an established clinic-based parenting intervention for treating noncompliant behavior (‘Helping the Noncompliant Child’ [HNC]) in young children with ADHD. Methods A randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms was the design for this study. 164 3-4-year-olds, 73.8% male, meeting DSM-IV ADHD diagnostic criteria were randomized to NFPP (N = 67), HNC (N = 63), or wait-list control (WL, N = 34). All participants were assessed at post-treatment. NFPP and HNC participants were assessed at follow-up in the next school year. Primary outcomes were ADHD ratings by teachers blind to and uninvolved in treatment, and by parents. Secondary ADHD outcomes included clinician assessments, and laboratory measures of on-task behavior and delay of gratification. Other outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of oppositional behavior, and parenting measures. (Trial name: Home-Based Parent Training in ADHD Preschoolers; Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01320098; URL: http://www/clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01320098). Results In both treatment groups, children's ADHD and ODD behaviors, as well as aspects of parenting, were rated improved by parents at the end of treatment compared to controls. Most of these gains in the children's behavior and in some parenting practices were sustained at follow-up. However, these parent-reported improvements were not corroborated by teacher ratings or objective observations. NFPP

  18. Iranian Children With ADHD and Mental Health of Their Mothers: The Role of Stress

    PubMed Central

    Babakhanian, Mohammadreza; Sayar, Soraya; Babakhanian, Masaudeh; Mohammadi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder that can result in stress for the mother, resulting in poor health. Objectives The current study, conducted in 2012, aims to assess stress among forty-six Iranian mothers of ADHD children (Group 1) who were admitted to a psychiatric center in Tehran with forty-six Iranian mothers of normal children (Group 2) in 2012. Materials and Methods The Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4), the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the parental stress index-short form (PSI/SF) were completed. Data was analyzed using the Levene test and the independent t-test in SPSS Version 18. Results With the exception of mood, ADHD children had more problems in attention compared with normal children. As a result, mothers of ADHD children had more stress compared with the controls. Conclusions ADHD can impair a mother’s mental health by inducing stress. Specific diagnostic and treatment programs should be designed and tailored for the mothers of ADHD children in order to decrease stress. PMID:27284276

  19. Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Carolin; Zaehle, Tino; Dannhauer, Moritz; Bonath, Björn; Tegelbeckers, Jana; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13–17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD. PMID:27147964

  20. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Gómez, Dulce I.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Martínez Hernández, Mario Iván; Ramos Méndez, José; Hidalgo Tobón, Silvia; Dies Suarez, Pilar; Barragán Pérez, Eduardo; De Celis Alonso, Benito

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (p<0.0015) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done.

  1. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    SciTech Connect

    González Gómez Dulce, I. E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Moreno Barbosa, E. E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Hernández, Mario Iván Martínez E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Méndez, José Ramos E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Silvia, Hidalgo Tobón; Pilar, Dies Suarez E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx; Eduardo, Barragán Pérez E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx; Benito, De Celis Alonso

    2014-11-07

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (p<0.0015) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done.

  2. Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate with CBT in Adolescents with ADHD and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Paula D.; Winhusen, Theresa; Davies, Robert D.; Leimberger, Jeffrey D.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Klein, Constance; Macdonald, Marilyn; Lohman, Michelle; Bailey, Genie L.; Haynes, Louise; Jaffee, William B.; Hodgkins, Candace; Whitmore, Elizabeth; Trello-Rishel, Kathlene; Tamm, Leanne; Acosta, Michelle C.; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc; Holmes, Beverly W.; Kaye, Mary Elyse; Vargo, Mark A.; Woody, George E.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) compared to placebo for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and impact on substance treatment outcomes in adolescents concurrently receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders (SUD). Method 16-week randomized controlled multi-site trial of OROS-MPH + CBT versus placebo + CBT in 303 adolescents (aged 13-18), meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD and SUD. Primary outcomes: (1) ADHD- clinician-administered ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), adolescent informant; (2) Substance- adolescent reported days of use in the past 28 days. Secondary outcome measures included parent ADHD-RS and weekly urine drug screens (UDS). Results There were no group differences on reduction in ADHD-RS scores (OROS-MPH: −19.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], −17.1 to −21.2; placebo,−21.2, 95% CI, −19.1 to −23.2) or reduction in days of substance use (OROS-MPH: −5.7 days, 95% CI, 4.0-7.4; placebo: −5.2 days, 95% CI, 3.5-7.0). Some secondary outcomes favored OROS-MPH including lower parent ADHD-RS scores at 8 (mean difference [md]=4.4, 95% CI, 0.8-7.9) and 16 weeks (md=6.9; 95% CI, 2.9-10.9) and more negative UDS in OROS-MPH (mean=3.8) compared to placebo (mean=2.8; P=0.04). Conclusions OROS-MPH did not show greater efficacy than placebo for ADHD or on reduction in substance use in adolescents concurrently receiving individual CBT for co-occurring SUD. However, OROS-MPH was relatively well tolerated and was associated with modestly greater clinical improvement on some secondary ADHD and substance outcome measures. PMID:21871372

  3. Screening for ADHD in an Adult Social Phobia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…

  4. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. Patients: One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. Interventions: The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Measurements and Results: Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for

  5. Effectiveness of a focused, brief psychoeducation program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Guan-nan; Wang, Yu-feng; Yang, Li; Niu, Wen-yi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a psychoeducation program for parents of children with ADHD in enhancing adherence to pharmacological treatment and improving clinical symptoms. Methods We developed a psychoeducation program based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Eighty-nine children with ADHD were cluster randomly assigned for their families to receive 3 months of well-structured psychoeducation (intervention group, n=44) or only general clinical counseling (control group, n=45). Parents in the intervention group were given an expert lecture (with slides and a parent manual), attended two expert-guided parent group sessions, and were invited to join a professional-guided online community. Measurement of parents’ knowledge about ADHD, components of the TPB model, and child ADHD symptoms were taken before and after intervention. Medication adherence was assessed thoroughly at the end of the first and third months. Satisfaction with the psychoeducation program was assessed only in the intervention group. Two-independent-samples t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square test were employed to compare differences between groups. Results Compared to the control group, medication adherence in the intervention group was significantly higher after 1 and 3 months (97.7% intervention vs 75.6% control, P=0.002, and 86.4% intervention vs 53.3% control, P=0.001, respectively). Accordingly, the ADHD rating scale scores were lower in the intervention group than the control group after intervention (33.7±5.4 vs 45.1±7.9, P=0.008). Greater improvements in parents’ knowledge about ADHD and many components of the TPB model were observed in the intervention group, especially increased intention to adhere to medication, compared to the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion This psychoeducation program had a positive impact on both medication adherence and clinical symptoms of ADHD children. It could be considered as a potential beneficial supplement to clinical practice. PMID

  6. Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Teaching Children with ADHD: The Role of Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…

  7. Widespread Cortical Thinning Is a Robust Anatomical Marker for Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Narr, Katherine L; Woods, Roger P; Lin, James; Kim, John; Phillips, Owen R; Del'Homme, Melissa; Caplan, Rochelle; Toga, Arthur W; McCracken, James T; Levitt, Jennifer G

    2009-01-01

    Objective This cross-sectional study sought to confirm the presence and regional profile of previously reported changes in laminar cortical thickness in children and adolescents with Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) compared to typically developing healthy subjects. Method High-resolution MR images were obtained from 22 (19 male, 3 female; mean age: 11.7 years) children and adolescents with ADHD and 22 age and sex matched healthy control subjects (mean age: 11.7 years). Brain tissue volumes were estimated for each subject. Cortical pattern matching methods were used to sample measures of laminar thickness at high spatial frequency across homologous regions of cortex. Volume and thickness measures were compared across diagnostic groups with and without controlling for general intelligence. False discovery rate (FDR) correction confirmed regional results. Results Subjects with ADHD exhibited significant reductions in overall brain volume, gray matter volume and mean cortical thickness compared to healthy controls, while white matter volumes were significantly increased in ADHD. Highly significant cortical thinning (FDR-corrected p < .0006) was observed over large areas of frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital association cortices and aspects of motor cortex, but not within primary sensory regions. Conclusions Cortical thickness reductions present a robust neuroanatomical marker for child and adolescent ADHD. Observations of widespread cortical thinning expand upon earlier cross-sectional findings and provide further evidence to support that the neurobiological underpinnings of ADHD extend beyond prefrontal and subcortical circuits. PMID:19730275

  8. [Immunological and endocrinological pattern in ADHD etiopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Budziszewska, Bogusława; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Lasoń, Władysław

    2010-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder among children. There are 3 subtypes of ADHD: (1) with prevalent inattentive symptoms (2) with prevalent hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and (3) the combined subtype. It typically manifests itself before age 7 years and occurs more frequently in boys than in girls. It is diagnosed when the hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattention last long, appear at least in two environments and their intensity impairs the functioning of the child. The etiology of ADHD is not well-known but recent studies have shown that genetic factors are of big importance. Also several environmental influences that raise the risk for ADHD development have been identified. Recently, it has been postulated that the reduced activity of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems play a crucial role in ADHD pathogenesis. It is evidenced by the fact that drugs intensifying the noradrenergic and dopaminergic transmission are the most successful for ADHD treatment. At present, it has been also postulated that the disturbances in endocrine and immune systems are involved in the ADHD pathogenesis. Interconnections between functions of these systems and function of neurotransmitters are better recognized now and show that disturbances in their cooperation can be involved in some psychiatric disorders. In the case of ADHD, most data are related to disturbances in the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In particular, the lower level of cortisol in children with ADHD, especially in the hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD, the disturbance in the circadian rhythm of this steroid and the lack of its inhibition by the dexamethasone have been documented. Many clinical data indicate that in children with ADHD, the psychological stress evokes a weaker activation of the HPA axis than in the control group. Epidemiological and preclinical investigations have shown that the disturbance in

  9. Academic Behaviors in Children with Convergence Insufficiency with and without Parent-Reported ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Michael; Borsting, Eric; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Scheiman, Mitchell; Amster, Deborah; Coulter, Rachael; Fecho, Gregory; Gallaway, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine if children with symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency (CI) without the presence of parent reported Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have higher scores on the academic behavior survey (ABS). Methods The Academic Behavior Survey (ABS) is a 6-item survey that evaluates parent concern about school performance and the parents' perceptions of the frequency of problem behaviors that their child may exhibit when reading or performing schoolwork (such as: difficulty completing work, avoidance, and inattention). Each item is scored on an ordinal scale from 0 (Never) to 4 (Always) with a total score ranging from 0 to 24. The survey was administered to the parents of 212 children 9-17 years old (mean age 11.8 yrs.) with symptomatic CI prior to enrolling into the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial and to 49 children with normal binocular vision (NBV) (mean age 12.5 years). The parents reported whether the child had ADHD and this information was used to divide the symptomatic CI group into the CI with parent-report of ADHD or CI with parent-report of no ADHD groups. Results Sixteen percent of the CI group and 6% of the NBV group were classified as ADHD by parental report. An analysis of covariance showed that the total ABS score for the symptomatic CI with parent-report of ADHD group (15.6) was significantly higher than the symptomatic CI with parent-report of no ADHD group (11.7, p=0.001) and the NBV group (8.7, p<0.0001). Children with CI with parent-report of no ADHD scored significantly higher on the ABS than the NBV group (p=0.036). Conclusions Children with symptomatic CI with parent-report of no ADHD scored higher on the ABS when compared to children with NBV. Children with parent-report of ADHD or related learning problems may benefit from comprehensive vision evaluation to assess for the presence of CI. PMID:19741558

  10. What Is the Social Impact of ADHD in Girls? A Multi-Method Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the social impact of ADHD, with and without opposition-defiant behaviour [ADHD+ODD (n= 22) and ADHD-only (n= 18)], in 9- to 12- year old girls compared to girls without ADHD (n= 40). Girls played a computer game involving simulated players, and mothers and teachers completed rating scales. In general, mothers and teachers saw…

  11. The Marital and Family Functioning of Adults with ADHD and Their Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, L.; Minde, K.; Hechtman, L.; Ochs, E.; Krane, E.; Bouffard, R.; Greenfield, B.; Looper, K.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the family relationships of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the marital adjustment and family functioning of 33 married adults with ADHD and their spouses was compared to 26 non-ADHD control participants and their spouses. Results revealed that married adults with ADHD reported poorer…

  12. The Moderating Role of Sensory Overresponsivity in HPA Activity: A Pilot Study with Children Diagnosed with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Stacey; Lane, Shelly J.; Gennings, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if sensory overresponsivity (SOR) is a moderating condition impacting the activity of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) Axis in children with ADHD. Method: Participants were children with (n = 24) and without ADHD (n = 24). Children in the ADHD group were divided into SOR (ADHDs) and non-SOR (ADHDt) groups using the…

  13. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ziereis, Susanne; Jansen, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often show major deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Pharmacological treatment is commonly used to reduce ADHD symptoms. However, non-pharmacologic treatment methods would be preferred by parents, children and psychiatrists. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to improve cognitive functioning in healthy populations. It can be hypothesized that there are similar beneficial effects in children with ADHD, however, very little is known about this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PA improves cognitive performance in children with ADHD. A total of 43 children with ADHD (32 boys and 11 girls) aged between seven and 12 years took part in the study. To investigate whether potential effects on executive functioning depend on the kind of PA, two different 12-week training programs were implemented. The study-design consisted of two experimental groups (EG1, n=13; EG2, n=14) and a wait-list control group (CG, n=16). Participants in EG1 took part in a training which focused on the abilities ball handling, balance and manual dexterity. Participants in EG2 group were trained in sports without a specific focus. The children in the CG group received no intervention. Participants completed assessments of working memory (WM) and motor performance before, immediately after the first training week and one week after the last session. After the 12-week intervention period, several measures of the EG1 and EG2s significantly improved over time. Furthermore, between group comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in both EG1 and EG2 compared to the CG in variables assessing WM performance and motor performance. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term PA has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD, regardless of the specificity of the PA. The outcomes indicated that regular PA can be used as a complementary or alternative non

  14. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ziereis, Susanne; Jansen, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often show major deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Pharmacological treatment is commonly used to reduce ADHD symptoms. However, non-pharmacologic treatment methods would be preferred by parents, children and psychiatrists. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to improve cognitive functioning in healthy populations. It can be hypothesized that there are similar beneficial effects in children with ADHD, however, very little is known about this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PA improves cognitive performance in children with ADHD. A total of 43 children with ADHD (32 boys and 11 girls) aged between seven and 12 years took part in the study. To investigate whether potential effects on executive functioning depend on the kind of PA, two different 12-week training programs were implemented. The study-design consisted of two experimental groups (EG1, n=13; EG2, n=14) and a wait-list control group (CG, n=16). Participants in EG1 took part in a training which focused on the abilities ball handling, balance and manual dexterity. Participants in EG2 group were trained in sports without a specific focus. The children in the CG group received no intervention. Participants completed assessments of working memory (WM) and motor performance before, immediately after the first training week and one week after the last session. After the 12-week intervention period, several measures of the EG1 and EG2s significantly improved over time. Furthermore, between group comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in both EG1 and EG2 compared to the CG in variables assessing WM performance and motor performance. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term PA has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD, regardless of the specificity of the PA. The outcomes indicated that regular PA can be used as a complementary or alternative non

  15. Assessing multitasking in children with ADHD using a modified Six Elements Test.

    PubMed

    Siklos, Susan; Kerns, Kimberly A

    2004-04-01

    The study was designed to investigate whether children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) demonstrate a deficit in multitasking, measured by their performance on a modified Six Elements Test designed for use with children (C-SET). The C-SET was administered to 38 children, aged 7-13. The subjects comprised two groups: an ADHD sample (n = 19) and a community control sample (n = 19). The results show that the ADHD group performed significantly worse on the C-SET, in that they attempted fewer tasks than the control group. However, they did not commit more rule breaks. These findings suggest that children with ADHD did not have problems with retrospective memory, as they were as able to remember the rules as the control group. Rather, the ADHD children appeared to have a specific deficit in monitoring their ongoing behaviors and generating useful strategies for task completion, as indicated by the decreased number of tasks attempted compared to the control group. The number of tasks tried on the C-SET correlated significantly with a measure of working memory, but not with a measure of response inhibition. C-SET total tasks tried also correlated with all subscales of the Conner's Parent Rating Scale-Revised (Short Version). The C-SET appears to be a useful measure of rule-governed multitasking behavior in children.

  16. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients. PMID:25987323

  17. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Profile Publications Donate My Cart About AACAP ADHD - A Guide for Families Skip breadcrumb navigation Getting Treatment Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Youth Resources Child and ...

  18. What Is ADHD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... school failures and social problems, and have low self-esteem . About 15% to 20% of kids with ADHD ... art, or music — can boost social skills and self-esteem. previous continue Alternative Treatments The only ADHD therapies ...

  19. Does adult ADHD interact with COMT val (158) met genotype to influence working memory performance?

    PubMed

    Biehl, Stefanie C; Gschwendtner, Kathrin M; Guhn, Anne; Müller, Laura D; Reichert, Susanne; Heupel, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J; Jacob, Christian P

    2015-03-01

    Both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype have been linked to altered dopaminergic transmission and possible impairment in frontal lobe functioning. This study offers an investigation of a possible interaction between ADHD diagnosis and COMT genotype on measures of working memory and executive function. Thirty-five adults with ADHD, who were recruited from the ADHD outpatient clinic at the Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, and thirty-five matched healthy controls completed the Digit Span test and the Stroop Color Word Test. While there were no main effects of ADHD or COMT, the two factors interacted on both Digit Span subtests with the two groups' met/met carriers showing significantly different performance on the Digit Span Forward subtest and the val/val carriers showing significantly different performance on the Digit Span Backward subtest. Findings provide preliminary support for a differential impact of COMT genotype on working memory measures in adult patients with ADHD compared to healthy controls.

  20. ADHD: Tips to Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD: Tips to Try Print A A A Text Size en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a medical ...

  1. Characterising resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Shumskaya, Elena; Mennes, Maarten; Onnink, A Marten H; Hoogman, Martine; Kan, Cornelis C; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Norris, David G

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood psychiatric disorder that often persists into adulthood. While several studies have identified altered functional connectivity in brain networks during rest in children with ADHD, few studies have been performed on adults with ADHD. Existing studies have generally investigated small samples. We therefore investigated aberrant functional connectivity in a large sample of adult patients with childhood-onset ADHD, using a data-driven, whole-brain approach. Adults with a clinical ADHD diagnosis (N=99) and healthy, adult comparison subjects (N=113) underwent a 9-minute resting-state fMRI session in a 1.5T MRI scanner. After elaborate preprocessing including a thorough head-motion correction procedure, group independent component analysis (ICA) was applied from which we identified six networks of interest: cerebellum, executive control, left and right frontoparietal and two default-mode networks. Participant-level network maps were obtained using dual-regression and tested for differences between patients with ADHD and controls using permutation testing. Patients showed significantly stronger connectivity in the anterior cingulate gyrus of the executive control network. Trends were also observed for stronger connectivity in the cerebellum network in ADHD patients compared to controls. However, there was considerable overlap in connectivity values between patients and controls, leading to relatively low effect sizes despite the large sample size. These effect sizes were slightly larger when testing for correlations between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and connectivity strength in the executive control and cerebellum networks. This study provides important insights for studies on the neurobiology of adult ADHD; it shows that resting-state functional connectivity differences between adult patients and controls exist, but have smaller effect sizes than existing literature suggested.

  2. Visual Network Asymmetry and Default Mode Network Function in ADHD: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T. Sigi; Kane, Andrea M.; Kaminsky, Olivia; Tung, Kelly L.; Wiley, Joshua F.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Kaplan, Jonas T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A growing body of research has identified abnormal visual information processing in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, slow processing speed and increased reliance on visuo-perceptual strategies have become evident. Objective: The current study used recently developed fMRI methods to replicate and further examine abnormal rightward biased visual information processing in ADHD and to further characterize the nature of this effect; we tested its association with several large-scale distributed network systems. Method: We examined fMRI BOLD response during letter and location judgment tasks, and directly assessed visual network asymmetry and its association with large-scale networks using both a voxelwise and an averaged signal approach. Results: Initial within-group analyses revealed a pattern of left-lateralized visual cortical activity in controls but right-lateralized visual cortical activity in ADHD children. Direct analyses of visual network asymmetry confirmed atypical rightward bias in ADHD children compared to controls. This ADHD characteristic was atypically associated with reduced activation across several extra-visual networks, including the default mode network (DMN). We also found atypical associations between DMN activation and ADHD subjects’ inattentive symptoms and task performance. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated rightward VNA in ADHD during a simple letter discrimination task. This result adds an important novel consideration to the growing literature identifying abnormal visual processing in ADHD. We postulate that this characteristic reflects greater perceptual engagement of task-extraneous content, and that it may be a basic feature of less efficient top-down task-directed control over visual processing. We additionally argue that abnormal DMN function may contribute to this characteristic. PMID:25076915

  3. Attentional WM is not necessarily specifically related with fluid intelligence: the case of smart children with ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Giofrè, David; Calgaro, Giovanni; Stupiggia, Chiara

    2013-07-01

    Executive functions and, in particular, Attentional (active) Working Memory (WM) have been associated with fluid intelligence. The association contrasts with the hypothesis that children with ADHD exhibit problems with WM tasks requiring controlled attention and may have a good fluid intelligence. This paper examines whether children who are intelligent but present ADHD symptoms fail in attentional WM tasks. The latter result would be problematic for theories assuming the generality of a strict relationship between intelligence and WM. To study these issues, a battery of tests was administered to a group of 58 children who all displayed symptoms of ADHD. All children were between the age of 8 and 11 years, and were described by their teachers as smart. Children were compared to a control group matched for age, schooling, and gender. The battery included a test of fluid intelligence (Raven's Coloured Matrices), and a series of visuospatial WM tasks. Results showed that children with ADHD were high in intelligence but significantly lower than the controls in WM tasks requiring high attentional control, whereas there was no difference in WM tasks requiring low attentional control. Furthermore, only high attentional control WM tasks were significantly related to Raven's performance in the control group, whereas all WM tasks were similarly related in the ADHD group. It is concluded that performance in high attentional control WM tasks may be related to fluid intelligence, but also to a specific control component that is independent of intelligence and is poor in children with ADHD.

  4. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample

    PubMed Central

    Starck, Martina; Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated. Method In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children’s ADHD was tested. Results ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed. Conclusion As nearly half of the parents suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent–child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child’s therapy outcome. In the

  5. Executive Cognitive Dysfunction and ADHD in Cocaine Dependence: Searching for a Common Cognitive Endophenotype for Addictive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Gonçalves, Priscila Dib; Ometto, Mariella; dos Santos, Bernardo; Nicastri, Sergio; Busatto, Geraldo F.; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI) present executive cognitive function (ECF) deficits, but the impact of psychiatric comorbidities such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on neuropsychological functioning is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if CDI with ADHD (CDI + ADHD) would have a distinct pattern of executive functioning when compared with CDI without ADHD (CDI). Methods: We evaluated 101 adults, including 69 cocaine-dependent subjects (divided in CDI and CDI + ADHD) and 32 controls. ECF domains were assessed with Digits Forward (DF), Digits Backward (DB), Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were used for diagnosis and previous ADHD symptoms (in the childhood) were retrospectively assessed by the Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Results: There were no significant differences between CDI + ADHD, CDI, and controls in estimated intellectual quotient (IQ), socioeconomic background, education (in years), and pre-morbid IQ (p > 0.05). SCWT and WCST scores did not differ across groups (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, CDI and CDI + ADHD performed more poorly than controls in total score of the FAB (p < 0.05). Also, CDI + ADHD did worse than CDI on DF (F = 4.756, p = 0.011), DB (F = 8.037, p = 0.001), Conceptualization/FAB (F = 4.635, p = 0.012), and Mental flexibility/FAB (F = 3.678, p = 0.029). We did not find correlations between cocaine-use variables and neuropsychological functioning, but previous ADHD symptoms assessed by WURS were negatively associated with DF (p = 0.016) and with the total score of the FAB (p = 0.017). Conclusion: CDI + ADHD presented more pronounced executive alterations than CDI and CDI exhibited poorer cognitive functioning than controls. Pre-existing ADHD symptoms may have a significant negative impact on

  6. [The comorbidity of learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms in primary-school-age children].

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Fischbach, Anne; Balke-Melcher, Christina; Mähler, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Children having difficulties in acquiring early literacy and mathematical skills often show an increased rate of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study provides data on the comorbidity rates of specific learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 273 children with learning difficulties despite an at least average IQ, 57 children with low IQ, and 270 children without learning difficulties and average IQ (comparison group). We assessed children’s IQ and school achievement using standardized achievement tests. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parents’ ratings. Our results showed that only 5 % of both the control group and the group with solely mathematical difficulties fulfilled the criteria of an ADHD subtype according to the DSM-IV based on parents’ ratings. In contrast, this was the case in even 20 % of the children with difficulties in reading/writing and of those with low IQ. Compared to girls, boys in the control group had a 150% higher risk for matching the criteria of one of the ADHD subtypes in parents’ ratings, whereas boys with learning difficulties and those with low IQ had an even 200% to 600% higher risk for it. The relationship between learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms can be found predominantly in the inattentive type. Possible reasons for the results are discussed. PMID:26098006

  7. [The comorbidity of learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms in primary-school-age children].

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Fischbach, Anne; Balke-Melcher, Christina; Mähler, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Children having difficulties in acquiring early literacy and mathematical skills often show an increased rate of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study provides data on the comorbidity rates of specific learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 273 children with learning difficulties despite an at least average IQ, 57 children with low IQ, and 270 children without learning difficulties and average IQ (comparison group). We assessed children’s IQ and school achievement using standardized achievement tests. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parents’ ratings. Our results showed that only 5 % of both the control group and the group with solely mathematical difficulties fulfilled the criteria of an ADHD subtype according to the DSM-IV based on parents’ ratings. In contrast, this was the case in even 20 % of the children with difficulties in reading/writing and of those with low IQ. Compared to girls, boys in the control group had a 150% higher risk for matching the criteria of one of the ADHD subtypes in parents’ ratings, whereas boys with learning difficulties and those with low IQ had an even 200% to 600% higher risk for it. The relationship between learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms can be found predominantly in the inattentive type. Possible reasons for the results are discussed.

  8. Clinical Inquiry: What is the long-term educational outlook for youngsters with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Payne, Jaime; Kelsberg, Gary; Safranek, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    A prospective cohort study compared educational and employment outcomes among 91 middle-class white boys, 6 to 12 years of age, with ADHD who were referred to a psychiatric clinic with outcomes for 96 matched controls. Investigators used multiple educational achievement tests to evaluate participants when they enrolled in the study, then administered educational and occupational questionnaires 16 years later. Boys with ADHD completed 2.5 fewer years of school than controls (P=.001). Although rates of employment for the 2 groups were the same at 90%, those with ADHD had a significantly poorer occupational ranking than controls using the Hollingshead and Redlich system, which rates occupations on 7-point scale, with 1 representing top-ranked occupations. Individuals with ADHD scored 4.4 points compared with 3.5 points for the control group (P<.001). However, by the end of the study, more individuals with ADHD owned and operated their own businesses compared with controls (18% vs 5%; P<.01).

  9. Prospective Study of Adolescent Drug Use among Community Samples of ADHD and Non-ADHD Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Gerald J.; Winters, Ken C.; Realmuto, George M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Botzet, Andria; Lee, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the late adolescent drug use outcomes from a relatively large, community-identified sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have been assessed longitudinally from childhood through late adolescence. Method: Adolescent drug use outcomes were compared between ADHD-only (n = 27),…

  10. Basic number processing deficits in ADHD: a broad examination of elementary and complex number processing skills in 9- to 12-year-old children with ADHD-C.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2008-09-01

    ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with ADHD-combined type and matched children without ADHD (of any type) without concomitant dyscalculia and/or dyslexia. Overall, group differences were not significant regarding overlearned and explicitly trained simple and complex calculation skills. More basic number processing skills are - for instance - the ability to compare one-digit numbers according to their magnitude (so-called magnitude comparison), to count or to transcode numbers, i.e. to write down an Arabic number '21' in verbal dictation. Significant differences favouring control children in basic number processing skills were obtained in a number comparison task and in a dot enumeration task. Importantly, our results cannot be explained by group differences regarding specific working memory and executive function components. Thus, number processing skills and in particular the processing of numerical magnitude should be investigated in children diagnosed with ADHD even when no comorbid learning disabilities are reported. PMID:18801124

  11. Somatic and endocrinological changes in non medicated ADHD children.

    PubMed

    Ptácek, R; Kuzelová, H; Paclt, I; Zukov, I; Fischer, S

    2009-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorders and it constitutes a group of developmental disorders, which are characterized by inadequate level of attention, excessive activity and impulsivity. In connection with neurological and endocrinological changes, children with ADHD can show also changes in the growth and development without consequence to the medication. Differences were found especially in higher weight and BMI. Very few studies were done on this topic and the results of the studies are very different, methods are heterogeneous and insufficient. The most serious absence is the much reduced number of anthropometrics and other characteristics and parameters. Studies usually analyse only BMI, height and weight and do not take into account socio-economic characteristics, feeding customs and other important factors. Many studies are done on changes in growth only associated with medical treatment of children ADHD. However changes in the development and growth can be a manifestation of the disorder itself. Authors of this paper review studies which monitor changes in the development of children with ADHD and compare their results.

  12. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents

  13. Neurofeedback and standard pharmacological intervention in ADHD: a randomized controlled trial with six-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Victoria; Servera, Mateu; Garcia-Banda, Gloria; Cardo, Esther; Moreno, Inmaculada

    2013-09-01

    The present study is a randomized controlled trial that aims to evaluate the efficacy of Neurofeedback compared to standard pharmacological intervention in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The final sample consisted of 23 children with ADHD (11 boys and 12 girls, 7-14 years old). Participants carried out 40 theta/beta training sessions or received methylphenidate. Behavioral rating scales were completed by fathers, mothers, and teachers at pre-, post-treatment, two-, and six-month naturalistic follow-up. In both groups, similar significant reductions were reported in ADHD functional impairment by parents; and in primary ADHD symptoms by parents and teachers. However, significant academic performance improvements were only detected in the Neurofeedback group. Our findings provide new evidence for the efficacy of Neurofeedback, and contribute to enlarge the range of non-pharmacological ADHD intervention choices. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial with a six-month follow-up that compares Neurofeedback and stimulant medication in ADHD.

  14. Neural activity associated with executive functions in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Wild-Wall, Nele; Oades, Robert D; Schmidt-Wessels, Marion; Christiansen, Hanna; Falkenstein, Michael

    2009-10-01

    This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) and flanker-task performance to compare executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, their siblings and independent healthy controls. The aim was to investigate the processing of distracting stimuli, control over inappropriate responses, and the detection of errors in the presence of incompatible and No-go stimuli (arrow-heads and a circle, respectively). Performance showed no major differences between the groups, although No-go errors were numerically increased for the patients. Adolescents with ADHD were not characterised by the absence of post-error response slowing. The ADHD group showed a generally smaller N2 and a missing amplification of the frontal P3 (P3a) in No-go vs. incompatible trials most likely reflecting impaired inhibitory processing. In response-locked potentials error-related negativity (Ne) and positivity (Pe) did not clearly differentiate between the groups. This study shows that ADHD children are more impaired in controlled than automatic response processing and inhibition. This was particularly evident in reduced frontal activity in general and especially after No-go stimuli. Deficient error processing may, however, not be a cardinal feature of adolescents with ADHD. Future work must orient towards determining if there is a subgroup for whom the inhibitory impairment is characteristic.

  15. Effects of behavioral and pharmacological therapies on peer reinforcement of deviancy in children with ADHD-only, ADHD and conduct problems, and controls

    PubMed Central

    Helseth, Sarah A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Onyango, Adia N.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances A.; Garefino, Allison; Massetti, Greta M.; Mazzant, Jessica Robb; Hoffman, Martin T.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin; Pelham, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study compared the unique and combined effects of evidence-based treatments for ADHD —stimulant medication and behavior modification—on children’s rates of reinforcement for deviant peer behavior (RDPB). Method Using a within-subjects design, 222 elementary school-age children attending a summer treatment program, including 151 children with ADHD (127 male), with and without comorbid conduct problems, and 71 control children (57 male), received varying combinations of behavior modification (no, low-intensity, and high-intensity) and methylphenidate (placebo, 0.15 mg/kg, 0.30 mg/kg, and 0.60 mg/kg). RDPB was measured through direct observation and compared across all behavior modification and medication conditions. Results Children with ADHD reinforced the deviant behavior of their peers at a significantly higher rate than control children in the absence of either intervention. However, that difference largely disappeared in the presence of both behavior modification and medication. Both low and high-intensity behavior modification, as well as medium (0.30 mg/kg) and high (0.60 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate, significantly reduced the rate of ADHD children’s RDPB to levels similar to the control group. Conclusions Results indicate that although untreated children with ADHD do engage in RDPB at a greater rate than their non-ADHD peers, existing evidence-based interventions can substantially decrease the presence of RDPB, thereby limiting potential iatrogenic effects in group-based treatment settings. Public Health Significance Statement This study found that children with behavior disorders reinforced their peers' deviant behaviors much more than typically developing children. However, behavior modification and medication treatments both reduced reinforcement rates, indicating that peer contagion can easily be managed in group-based treatments for children PMID:25495357

  16. Global consensus on ADHD/HKD.

    PubMed

    Remschmidt, Helmut

    2005-05-01

    A Global ADHD Working Group of experienced clinicians and researchers was gathered to review the latest evidence, discuss current best practice in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and make a statement based on consensus. The statement aims to re-affirm ADHD as a valid disorder that exists across different cultures, has a significant global impact, and should be diagnosed and effectively treated wherever it occurs. ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioural disorders of childhood and impacts on many aspects of development, including social, emotional and cognitive functioning, in the home and school environment. Although these findings are from developed countries, the impact in developing countries is likely to be similar. There is strong supportive evidence for the validity of ADHD as a syndrome with neurobiological aspects, and complex genetic factors are primarily implicated in the aetiology. Accurate diagnosis and measurement of impairment is important to enable appropriate and successful management of symptoms. ADHD is a persistent condition that needs to be treated and monitored over time. The evidence supporting medication-based interventions (such as methylphenidate) is strong and consensus treatment algorithms to guide the multimodal treatment of ADHD, alone and in combination with common comorbidities, are suggested. PMID:15959658

  17. pairheatmap: comparing expression profiles of gene groups in heatmaps.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyong; Li, Jun

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a new visualization software called pairheatmap, which is able to generate and compare two heatmaps so as to compare expression patterns of gene groups. It adds a conditioning variable such as time to the heatmap, and provides separate clustering for row groups in the first heatmap in order to visualize pattern changes between two heatmaps. pairheatmap is developed in R statistical environment. It provides: (1) the flexible framework for comparing two heatmaps; and (2) high-quality figures based on R package grid. The general architecture can be efficiently incorporated into bioinformatics pipeline. The package and user documentation are free to download at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/pairheatmap/index.html.

  18. College Students with and without ADHD: Comparison of Self-Report of Medication Usage, Study Habits, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advokat, Claire; Lane, Sean M.; Luo, Chunqiao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between ADHD medications, study habits, and academic achievement of ADHD-diagnosed undergraduates. Method: A total of 92 students with a self-reported ADHD diagnosis and a current prescription for ADHD medication were compared with 143 control students in a survey of academic performance. Results: Most ADHD…

  19. Atomoxetine and Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with ADHD: The Efficacy, Tolerability and Effects on Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Ozlem; Sismanlar, Sahika G.; Memik, Nursu Cakin; Karakaya, Isik; Agaoglu, Belma

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the safety, efficacy, tolerability, and the effects of atomoxetine and OROS-MPH on executive functions in children with ADHD. This study was an open-label study that only included two medication groups. Children were randomized to open-label atomoxetine or OROS-MPH for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy measures were…

  20. The role of simple emotion recognition skills among school aged boys at risk of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kats-Gold, Inna; Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz

    2007-06-01

    Poor social skills and behavioral problems are a major component of ADHD. The different explanations offered so far, such as cognitive deficits and deficient self regulation, have not been able fully to account for the various aspects of the social dysfunction, suggesting that other mechanisms might underlay this impairment. Our study sought to assess the emotion recognition of Israeli boys at risk of ADHD, and to evaluate its associations with their social skills. A group of 111 boys (grades 4 and 5) were assigned to an At-risk (n=50) and a control (n=61) group based on their scores in an ADHD symptoms questionnaire. The two groups were matched on age, socio-economic status and class and school environment. Group comparisons revealed that compared to their non-At-risk counterparts, At-risk boys have impaired emotion recognition. Finally, multiple groups Structural Equation Modeling analyses (SEM) demonstrated that emotion misrecognition plays a significant role in the At-risk children's social functioning and behavioral problems compared to its role in the social competence and behavioral problems among the comparison group. Implications for the understanding and treatment of social skills problems among children at risk of ADHD are proposed. PMID:17243015

  1. Evaluating a Comprehensive Strategy to Improve Engagement to Group-Based Behavioral Parent Training for High-Risk Families of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Chimiklis, Alyssa; Wymbs, Frances A.; Pelham, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral parent training (BPT) is an evidence-based intervention for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related disruptive behavioral disorders of childhood. Despite convincing data on effectiveness, engagement to BPT, particularly for high-risk families, has been a long standing, yet understudied, issue. Data…

  2. Could treatment of iron deficiency both improve ADHD and reduce cardiovascular risk during treatment with ADHD drugs?

    PubMed

    Parisi, Pasquale; Villa, Maria Pia; Donfrancesco, Renato; Miano, Silvia; Paolino, Maria Chiara; Cortese, Samuele

    2012-08-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood-onset neuropsychiatric conditions. Despite extensive research, the etiopathophysiological factors underlying ADHD are not completely understood. It has been suggested that iron deficiency may contribute to ADHD symptoms severity. Whereas evidence from studies based on serum ferritin measures, a marker of peripheral iron status, is somewhat mixed, preliminary recent evidence suggests a deficiency of brain iron in individuals with ADHD. Therefore, it has been proposed that either a deficiency of peripheral iron or a dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier, in the presence of normal peripheral iron levels, may contribute to low brain iron levels, which, in turn, would increase the risk for ADHD symptoms in a subgroup of individuals with this disorder. It has also been found that individuals with ADHD may be at increased risk of severe cardiovascular events during treatment with ADHD drugs, although the extent to which this occurs in ADHD patients compared to non-ADHD individuals is still matter of investigation. Since iron depletion has been recently reported as a risk factor for adverse prognosis in heart failure, iron deficiency might contribute both to ADHD symptoms severity before treatment and to increased risk of severe cardiovascular events during treatment with ADHD drugs in a selected subgroup of patients. Therefore, we hypothesize that the effective treatment of iron deficiency might lead both to improvement of ADHD symptoms severity and to a decrease of the risk of cardiovascular events during treatment with ADHD drugs. If empirical studies confirm this hypothesis, the clinician would be advised to systematically check iron status and effectively treat iron deficiency before starting a pharmacological treatment with ADHD drugs.

  3. Social Network Analysis Reveals the Negative Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Friend-Based Student Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Lee, Young Sik; Min, Kyung Joon; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Jaewon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships). Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students. Methods A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males) provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names). Their teachers rated each student’s ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale. Results The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness) used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms. PMID:26562777

  4. Biostatistics Series Module 3: Comparing Groups: Numerical Variables.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Numerical data that are normally distributed can be analyzed with parametric tests, that is, tests which are based on the parameters that define a normal distribution curve. If the distribution is uncertain, the data can be plotted as a normal probability plot and visually inspected, or tested for normality using one of a number of goodness of fit tests, such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The widely used Student's t-test has three variants. The one-sample t-test is used to assess if a sample mean (as an estimate of the population mean) differs significantly from a given population mean. The means of two independent samples may be compared for a statistically significant difference by the unpaired or independent samples t-test. If the data sets are related in some way, their means may be compared by the paired or dependent samples t-test. The t-test should not be used to compare the means of more than two groups. Although it is possible to compare groups in pairs, when there are more than two groups, this will increase the probability of a Type I error. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to compare the means of three or more independent data sets that are normally distributed. Multiple measurements from the same set of subjects cannot be treated as separate, unrelated data sets. Comparison of means in such a situation requires repeated measures ANOVA. It is to be noted that while a multiple group comparison test such as ANOVA can point to a significant difference, it does not identify exactly between which two groups the difference lies. To do this, multiple group comparison needs to be followed up by an appropriate post hoc test. An example is the Tukey's honestly significant difference test following ANOVA. If the assumptions for parametric tests are not met, there are nonparametric alternatives for comparing data sets. These include Mann-Whitney U-test as the nonparametric counterpart of the unpaired Student's t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test

  5. Biostatistics Series Module 3: Comparing Groups: Numerical Variables

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Numerical data that are normally distributed can be analyzed with parametric tests, that is, tests which are based on the parameters that define a normal distribution curve. If the distribution is uncertain, the data can be plotted as a normal probability plot and visually inspected, or tested for normality using one of a number of goodness of fit tests, such as the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. The widely used Student's t-test has three variants. The one-sample t-test is used to assess if a sample mean (as an estimate of the population mean) differs significantly from a given population mean. The means of two independent samples may be compared for a statistically significant difference by the unpaired or independent samples t-test. If the data sets are related in some way, their means may be compared by the paired or dependent samples t-test. The t-test should not be used to compare the means of more than two groups. Although it is possible to compare groups in pairs, when there are more than two groups, this will increase the probability of a Type I error. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to compare the means of three or more independent data sets that are normally distributed. Multiple measurements from the same set of subjects cannot be treated as separate, unrelated data sets. Comparison of means in such a situation requires repeated measures ANOVA. It is to be noted that while a multiple group comparison test such as ANOVA can point to a significant difference, it does not identify exactly between which two groups the difference lies. To do this, multiple group comparison needs to be followed up by an appropriate post hoc test. An example is the Tukey's honestly significant difference test following ANOVA. If the assumptions for parametric tests are not met, there are nonparametric alternatives for comparing data sets. These include Mann–Whitney U-test as the nonparametric counterpart of the unpaired Student's t-test, Wilcoxon signed

  6. The consolidation of a motor skill in young adults with ADHD: Shorter practice can be better.

    PubMed

    Fox, Orly; Karni, Avi; Adi-Japha, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Practice on a given sequence of movements can lead to robust procedural memory (skill). In young adults, in addition to gains in performance accrued during practice, speed and accuracy can further improve overnight; the latter, delayed, 'offline', gains are thought to emerge when procedural memory consolidation processes are completed. A recent study suggested that female college students with ADHD show an atypical procedural memory consolidation phase, specifically, gaining speed but losing accuracy, overnight. Here, to test if this accuracy loss reflected a cost of overlong training in adults with ADHD, we compared the performance of female college students with (N=16) and without (N=16) ADHD, both groups given a shorter training protocol (80 rather than the standard 160 task repetitions). Speed and accuracy were recorded before training, immediately after, and at 24-h and 2 weeks post-training. The shortened practice session resulted in as robust within-session gains and additional overnight gains in speed at no costs in accuracy, in both groups. Moreover, individuals with ADHD showed as robust speed gains and retention as in the longer training session, but the costs in accuracy incurred in the latter were eliminated. The shortening of practice sessions may benefit motor skill acquisition in ADHD. PMID:26826465

  7. Work Performance Differences between College Students with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifrin, Joshua G.; Proctor, Briley E.; Prevatt, Frances F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the difference between college students with and without Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in regard to their work performance. Method: A series of ANOVAs analyzed group differences in symptoms experienced at work. The independent variable was group (i.e., ADHD, Controls). The dependent variables…

  8. Utility of an abbreviated questionnaire to identify individuals with ADHD at risk for functional impairments

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter R.; Fried, Ronna; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; Aleardi, Megan; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Seidman, Larry J.; Spencer, Thomas; Faneuil, Alicia R.; Holmes, Lauren; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To discern whether a subset of items from the 99-item Current Behavior Scale (CBS) of behaviorally defined executive function deficits (EFDs) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can identify a group at risk for poor outcome. Methods Subjects were 200 adults with ADHD participating in a family study of ADHD in adults. Factor analysis was used to reduce the number of items in the 99-item CBS. Results The one factor solution provided 8 items with factor loadings above 0.70. This abbreviated set of items was highly correlated with the 99-item CBS (0.91) and was similarly related to functional outcomes compared to the 99-item CBS (average correlation of 0.30 versus 0.32). Conclusion For adults with ADHD, a set of 8 empirically derived from the CBS similarly correlated with negative outcomes compared to the 99-item CBS, raising the possibility of utilization as a mechanism for identification of EFDs in adults with ADHD. PMID:17335849

  9. Parents, ADHD and the internet.

    PubMed

    Terbeck, Sylvia; Chesterman, L Paul

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the potential impact of using the internet on medical consultations by analysing the attitudes, attributions, and emotional responses of parents who have been informed by specialists that their child does not have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine the nature of the feedback they obtained from members of online internet support groups. Over 40,000 messages from the five most popular international internet forums discussing children with ADHD were analysed. Messages from parents who reported that they had seen at least one specialist (e.g. paediatrician, psychiatrist or psychologist) because of their concerns that their child had ADHD were identified. The children included boys and girls with an age range from 2 to 16 years. Of these, we analysed messages where the parents additionally reported that the specialist had excluded a diagnosis of ADHD. Using these criteria, 91 messages from parents who had consulted over 200 different specialists and 398 replies to these messages were identified for content analysis. The replies to concerned parents were analysed to determine whether they were offered impartial advice. A majority of the parents reported that they did not believe the specialist and were unhappy about their child not being diagnosed with ADHD. They expressed dissatisfaction with the professional's opinions and the implication that their child's conduct was caused by their poor parenting skills. Importantly, 87.6 % of the responses that these parents received, from other members of online forums, reinforced the parent's negative attitude towards the professional's judgement. It was generally suggested that the parents should not believe the expert and should seek a further opinion. The use of the internet may encourage "doctor shopping" and mistrust in health services. Medical professionals and others may need to be aware of this, and parents may need more support than is generally

  10. Effects of norepinephrine transporter gene variants on NET binding in ADHD and healthy controls investigated by PET

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdardottir, Helen L.; Kranz, Georg S.; Rami‐Mark, Christina; James, Gregory M.; Vanicek, Thomas; Gryglewski, Gregor; Kautzky, Alexander; Hienert, Marius; Traub‐Weidinger, Tatjana; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Hacker, Marcus; Rujescu, Dan; Kasper, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder with a strong genetic component. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) is a key target for ADHD treatment and the NET gene has been of high interest as a possible modulator of ADHD pathophysiology. Therefore, we conducted an imaging genetics study to examine possible effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the NET gene on NET nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) in patients with ADHD and healthy controls (HCs). Twenty adult patients with ADHD and 20 HCs underwent (S,S)‐[18F]FMeNER‐D2 positron emission tomography (PET) and were genotyped on a MassARRAY MALDI‐TOF platform using the Sequenom iPLEX assay. Linear mixed models analyses revealed a genotype‐dependent difference in NET BPND between groups in the thalamus and cerebellum. In the thalamus, a functional promoter SNP (−3081 A/T) and a 5′‐untranslated region (5′UTR) SNP (−182 T/C), showed higher binding in ADHD patients compared to HCs depending on the major allele. Furthermore, we detected an effect of genotype in HCs, with major allele carriers having lower binding. In contrast, for two 3′UTR SNPs (*269 T/C, *417 A/T), ADHD subjects had lower binding in the cerebellum compared to HCs depending on the major allele. Additionally, symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity correlated with NET BPND in the cerebellum depending on genotype. Symptoms correlated positively with cerebellar NET BPND for the major allele, while symptoms correlated negatively to NET BPND in minor allele carriers. Our findings support the role of genetic influence of the NE system on NET binding to be pertubated in ADHD. Hum Brain Mapp 37:884–895, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26678348

  11. Effects of norepinephrine transporter gene variants on NET binding in ADHD and healthy controls investigated by PET.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, Helen L; Kranz, Georg S; Rami-Mark, Christina; James, Gregory M; Vanicek, Thomas; Gryglewski, Gregor; Kautzky, Alexander; Hienert, Marius; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Hacker, Marcus; Rujescu, Dan; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder with a strong genetic component. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) is a key target for ADHD treatment and the NET gene has been of high interest as a possible modulator of ADHD pathophysiology. Therefore, we conducted an imaging genetics study to examine possible effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the NET gene on NET nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND ) in patients with ADHD and healthy controls (HCs). Twenty adult patients with ADHD and 20 HCs underwent (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 positron emission tomography (PET) and were genotyped on a MassARRAY MALDI-TOF platform using the Sequenom iPLEX assay. Linear mixed models analyses revealed a genotype-dependent difference in NET BPND between groups in the thalamus and cerebellum. In the thalamus, a functional promoter SNP (-3081 A/T) and a 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) SNP (-182 T/C), showed higher binding in ADHD patients compared to HCs depending on the major allele. Furthermore, we detected an effect of genotype in HCs, with major allele carriers having lower binding. In contrast, for two 3'UTR SNPs (*269 T/C, *417 A/T), ADHD subjects had lower binding in the cerebellum compared to HCs depending on the major allele. Additionally, symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity correlated with NET BPND in the cerebellum depending on genotype. Symptoms correlated positively with cerebellar NET BPND for the major allele, while symptoms correlated negatively to NET BPND in minor allele carriers. Our findings support the role of genetic influence of the NE system on NET binding to be pertubated in ADHD.

  12. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  13. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Frank; Eickhoff, Malin; Forslund, Anders H; Isaksson, Johan; Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-04-30

    Reports of hypocortisolism and overweight in pediatric ADHD motivate an investigation of blood glucose regulation in this group. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were investigated in 10 children (10-15 years) with ADHD and 22 comparisons. Fasting blood glucose was similar in both groups. HbA1c values were higher in the ADHD-group. BMI-SDS was also higher in the ADHD-group but did not predict HbA1c. The results suggest an association between ADHD and an altered blood glucose homeostasis.

  14. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Frank; Eickhoff, Malin; Forslund, Anders H; Isaksson, Johan; Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-04-30

    Reports of hypocortisolism and overweight in pediatric ADHD motivate an investigation of blood glucose regulation in this group. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were investigated in 10 children (10-15 years) with ADHD and 22 comparisons. Fasting blood glucose was similar in both groups. HbA1c values were higher in the ADHD-group. BMI-SDS was also higher in the ADHD-group but did not predict HbA1c. The results suggest an association between ADHD and an altered blood glucose homeostasis. PMID:25747679

  15. Exploring the dynamics of design fluency in children with and without ADHD using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Bruno; Parent, Véronique; Lageix, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The neuropsychology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been extensively studied, with a general focus on global performance measures of executive function. In this study, we compared how global (i.e., endpoint) versus process (i.e., dynamic) measures of performance may help characterize children with and without ADHD using a design fluency task as a case study. The secondary goal was to compare the sensitivity of standard versus connectionist statistical models to group differences in cognitive data. Thirty-four children diagnosed with ADHD and 37 children without ADHD aged 8-11 years old were tested on the Five-Point Test. The continuous process measure of performance, indexed as the number of produced designs at each consecutive 1 minute interval during 5 minutes, was analyzed against the discrete process measure, that is, the number of designs between first and last intervals and the standard global performance measure of total number of produced designs. Results show that the continuous process measure distinguished the two groups better than the two other measures. The detailed observation of production patterns revealed a decreasing linear trajectory in children without ADHD that contrasts with the flat, but fluctuating productivity pattern of children with ADHD. With regards to the second goal, results show that the connectionist and standard methods are equally sensitive to group differences for the three types of measures. This illustrates the utility of quantitative process measures together with the connectionist method in neuropsychological research and suggests great potential for a dynamical approach to cognition.

  16. Comparing the executive attention of adult females with ADHD to that of females with sensory modulation disorder (SMD) under aversive and non-aversive auditory conditions.

    PubMed

    Mazor-Karsenty, Tal; Parush, Shula; Bonneh, Yoram; Shalev, Lilach

    2015-02-01

    Certain behavioral expressions of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) such as distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are often similar to those of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in pediatric and adult populations. There is also a high comorbidity rate between these two diagnoses and absence of research regarding the objective neuropsychological differentiation between them. In the present study we employed a factorial design which enabled us to: (a) systematically examine the effects of SMD and ADHD on executive attention in a sample of adult females using a Stroop-like task, and (b) measure the effect of aversive conditions (sounds) on executive attention. The experimental measures used were the Stroop-like Location-Direction Task (SLDT) to assess executive attention and the battery of aversiveness to sounds (BAS), a standardized measure of aversive sounds that was developed for this study and enabled individual customization of aversive auditory sounds. Results revealed, as expected, a specific core deficit in executive attention for the ADHD factor. In addition to that, the present study provides an important, pioneering finding of SMD impairment in a unique combination of a cognitively demanding task with aversive sounds, providing preliminary objective evidence differentiating SMD from ADHD.

  17. Comorbidity between ADHD and obesity: exploring shared mechanisms and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Samuele; Morcillo Peñalver, Carmen

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies suggest an association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. In this article, we systematically review and critically discuss evidence on the prevalence of ADHD in obese patients as well as the weight status of individuals with ADHD. Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, PsychInfo, and ISI Web of Science (January 1980 to June 2010). We found that current evidence indicates a high prevalence of ADHD in clinical samples of patients seeking treatment for their obesity. Moreover, available studies show that individuals with ADHD have higher-than-average body mass index z scores and/or a significantly higher prevalence of obesity compared with subjects without ADHD. Three mechanisms underlying the association between ADHD and obesity have been proposed: 1) it is possible that obesity and/or factors associated with it (such as sleep-disordered breathing) manifest as ADHD-like symptoms; 2) ADHD and obesity share common biological dysfunctions; and 3) ADHD contributes to obesity. With regards to the possible clinical implications, our findings suggest that it is noteworthy to screen for ADHD in patients with obesity and to look for abnormal eating behaviors as possible contributing factors of obesity in patients with ADHD. Based on preliminary findings, appropriate treatment of ADHD may improve the weight status of individuals with both obesity and ADHD.

  18. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  19. The Reliability and Validity of Self- and Investigator Ratings of ADHD in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Michelson, David; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Little information is available comparing self- versus investigator ratings of symptoms in adult ADHD. The authors compared the reliability, validity, and utility in a sample of adults with ADHD and also as an index of clinical improvement during treatment of self- and investigator ratings of ADHD symptoms via the Conners Adult ADHD…

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for ADHD in Adolescents: Clinical Considerations and a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Sprich, Susan E.; Burbridge, Jennifer; Lerner, Jonathan A.; Safren, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Although ADHD in adolescents is an impairing and prevalent condition, with community prevalence estimates between 2% and 6%, psychosocial treatments for adolescents compared to younger children are relatively understudied. Our group has successfully developed an evidence base for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for ADHD in medication-treated adults with ADHD with clinically significant symptoms. In the current paper, we describe an adaptation of this treatment to adolescents, and provide case reports on 3 adolescents who participated in an open pilot trial. The results suggest that the treatment approach was well tolerated by the adolescents and that they experienced clinical benefit. This early report of the approach in adolescents is promising and requires further efficacy testing. PMID:27616874

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for ADHD in Adolescents: Clinical Considerations and a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Sprich, Susan E.; Burbridge, Jennifer; Lerner, Jonathan A.; Safren, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Although ADHD in adolescents is an impairing and prevalent condition, with community prevalence estimates between 2% and 6%, psychosocial treatments for adolescents compared to younger children are relatively understudied. Our group has successfully developed an evidence base for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for ADHD in medication-treated adults with ADHD with clinically significant symptoms. In the current paper, we describe an adaptation of this treatment to adolescents, and provide case reports on 3 adolescents who participated in an open pilot trial. The results suggest that the treatment approach was well tolerated by the adolescents and that they experienced clinical benefit. This early report of the approach in adolescents is promising and requires further efficacy testing.

  2. Differential effect of cognitive training on executive functions and reading abilities in children with ADHD and in children with ADHD comorbid with reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi

    2015-06-01

    The comorbidity of ADHD and reading difficulties (ADHD + RD) is believed to be a disability distinct from ADHD alone, with unique challenges faced by individuals suffering from one disability versus the other. We aimed to examine the differential effect of 8 weeks of cognitive training on reading abilities and on executive functions, through use of the Wisconsin task, in children with ADHD and in children with ADHD + RD. Greater impairments in reading and executive functions, especially in speed of processing, were found in the comorbid group at baseline. The comorbid group showed greater improvements in most measures after training as well. We propose that the cognitive training used in the present study affected not only the immediate abilities of executive functioning but also the secondary ability of reading, especially in the comorbid group, by improving in particular, speed of processing. We suggest that a differential approach should be taken when treating children with ADHD + RD versus treating ADHD children.

  3. The neuronal mechanisms underlying improvement of impulsivity in ADHD by theta/beta neurofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Bluschke, Annet; Broschwitz, Felicia; Kohl, Simon; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is increasingly recognized as an intervention to treat core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the large number of studies having been carried out to evaluate its effectiveness, it is widely elusive what neuronal mechanisms related to the core symptoms of ADHD are modulated by neurofeedback. 19 children with ADHD undergoing 8 weeks of theta/beta neurofeedback and 17 waiting list controls performed a Go/Nogo task in a pre-post design. We used neurophysiological measures combining high-density EEG recording with source localization analyses using sLORETA. Compared to the waiting list ADHD control group, impulsive behaviour measured was reduced after neurofeedback treatment. The effects of neurofeedback were very specific for situations requiring inhibitory control over responses. The neurophysiological data shows that processes of perceptual gating, attentional selection and resource allocation processes were not affected by neurofeedback. Rather, neurofeedback effects seem to be based on the modulation of response inhibition processes in medial frontal cortices. The study shows that specific neuronal mechanisms underlying impulsivity are modulated by theta/beta neurofeedback in ADHD. The applied neurofeedback protocol could be particularly suitable to address inhibitory control. The study validates assumed functional neuroanatomical target regions of an established neurofeedback protocol on a neurophysiological level. PMID:27514985

  4. Attenuated Readiness Potential in the Absence of Executive Dysfunction in Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Seo, Bo-Kyung; Sartory, Gudrun; Kis, Bernhard; Scherbaum, Norbert; Müller, Bernhard W

    2013-10-25

    Objective: Patients with ADHD display a decreased contingent negative variation in Go/NoGo tasks. It is unclear whether the attenuation is due to deficits of executive function or to disorder of motor planning. The readiness potential (RP) recorded during self-initiated movements could cast light on this question. Method: RP was recorded in 25 stably medicated adult ADHD patients and 21 healthy controls matched for age, education, and verbal IQ. Participants also completed neuropsychological tests of executive function. Results: Compared with healthy controls, ADHD patients showed significantly diminished RP peaks and also decreased negativity in preparation of the movement at frontal locations. There were no significant group differences with regard to tests of executive function. Conclusion: In adults with ADHD, deficits of motor organization are also manifest in situations not involving external stimulus processing. The attenuated RP occurred in the absence of executive dysfunction. Results are consistent with partial independence between motor and executive dysfunction in ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).

  5. The neuronal mechanisms underlying improvement of impulsivity in ADHD by theta/beta neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Bluschke, Annet; Broschwitz, Felicia; Kohl, Simon; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2016-08-12

    Neurofeedback is increasingly recognized as an intervention to treat core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the large number of studies having been carried out to evaluate its effectiveness, it is widely elusive what neuronal mechanisms related to the core symptoms of ADHD are modulated by neurofeedback. 19 children with ADHD undergoing 8 weeks of theta/beta neurofeedback and 17 waiting list controls performed a Go/Nogo task in a pre-post design. We used neurophysiological measures combining high-density EEG recording with source localization analyses using sLORETA. Compared to the waiting list ADHD control group, impulsive behaviour measured was reduced after neurofeedback treatment. The effects of neurofeedback were very specific for situations requiring inhibitory control over responses. The neurophysiological data shows that processes of perceptual gating, attentional selection and resource allocation processes were not affected by neurofeedback. Rather, neurofeedback effects seem to be based on the modulation of response inhibition processes in medial frontal cortices. The study shows that specific neuronal mechanisms underlying impulsivity are modulated by theta/beta neurofeedback in ADHD. The applied neurofeedback protocol could be particularly suitable to address inhibitory control. The study validates assumed functional neuroanatomical target regions of an established neurofeedback protocol on a neurophysiological level.

  6. The neuronal mechanisms underlying improvement of impulsivity in ADHD by theta/beta neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Bluschke, Annet; Broschwitz, Felicia; Kohl, Simon; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is increasingly recognized as an intervention to treat core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the large number of studies having been carried out to evaluate its effectiveness, it is widely elusive what neuronal mechanisms related to the core symptoms of ADHD are modulated by neurofeedback. 19 children with ADHD undergoing 8 weeks of theta/beta neurofeedback and 17 waiting list controls performed a Go/Nogo task in a pre-post design. We used neurophysiological measures combining high-density EEG recording with source localization analyses using sLORETA. Compared to the waiting list ADHD control group, impulsive behaviour measured was reduced after neurofeedback treatment. The effects of neurofeedback were very specific for situations requiring inhibitory control over responses. The neurophysiological data shows that processes of perceptual gating, attentional selection and resource allocation processes were not affected by neurofeedback. Rather, neurofeedback effects seem to be based on the modulation of response inhibition processes in medial frontal cortices. The study shows that specific neuronal mechanisms underlying impulsivity are modulated by theta/beta neurofeedback in ADHD. The applied neurofeedback protocol could be particularly suitable to address inhibitory control. The study validates assumed functional neuroanatomical target regions of an established neurofeedback protocol on a neurophysiological level. PMID:27514985

  7. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and with autism.

    PubMed

    Christakou, A; Murphy, C M; Chantiluke, K; Cubillo, A I; Smith, A B; Giampietro, V; Daly, E; Ecker, C; Robertson, D; Murphy, D G; Rubia, K

    2013-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often comorbid and share behavioural-cognitive abnormalities in sustained attention. A key question is whether this shared cognitive phenotype is based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies. To elucidate this question, we compared 20 boys with ADHD to 20 age and IQ matched ASD and 20 healthy boys using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a parametrically modulated vigilance task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention. ADHD and ASD boys had significantly reduced activation relative to controls in bilateral striato-thalamic regions, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal cortex. Both groups also displayed significantly increased precuneus activation relative to controls. Precuneus was negatively correlated with the DLPFC activation, and progressively more deactivated with increasing attention load in controls, but not patients, suggesting problems with deactivation of a task-related default mode network in both disorders. However, left DLPFC underactivation was significantly more pronounced in ADHD relative to ASD boys, which furthermore was associated with sustained performance measures that were only impaired in ADHD patients. ASD boys, on the other hand, had disorder-specific enhanced cerebellar activation relative to both ADHD and control boys, presumably reflecting compensation. The findings show that ADHD and ASD boys have both shared and disorder-specific abnormalities in brain function during sustained attention. Shared deficits were in fronto-striato-parietal activation and default mode suppression. Differences were a more severe DLPFC dysfunction in ADHD and a disorder-specific fronto-striato-cerebellar dysregulation in ASD.

  8. Increased Delay Discounting on a Novel Real-Time Task among Girls, but not Boys, with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Rosch, Keri S; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine delay discounting in girls and boys with ADHD-Combined type (ADHD-C) relative to typically developing (TD) children on two tasks that differ in the extent to which the rewards and delays were experienced by participants. Children ages 8-12 years with ADHD-C (n=65; 19 girls) and TD controls (n=55; 15 girls) completed two delay discounting tasks involving a series of choices between smaller, immediate and larger, delayed rewards. The classic delay discounting task involved choices about money at delays of 1-90 days and only some of the outcomes were actually experienced by the participants. The novel real-time discounting task involved choices about an immediately consumable reward (playing a preferred game) at delays of 25-100 s, all of which were actually experienced by participants. Participants also provided subjective ratings of how much they liked playing the game and waiting to play. Girls with ADHD-C displayed greater delay discounting compared to boys with ADHD-C and TD girls and boys on the real-time discounting task. Diagnostic group differences were not evident on the classic discounting task. In addition, children with ADHD-C reported wanting to play the game more and liking waiting to play the game less than TD children. This novel demonstration of greater delay discounting among girls with ADHD-C on a discounting task in which the rewards are immediately consumable and the delays are experienced in real-time informs our understanding of sex differences and motivational processes in children with ADHD. (JINS, 2016, 22, 12-23).

  9. Neural Correlates of Aggression in Medication-Naive Children with ADHD: Multivariate Analysis of Morphometry and Tractography.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jiook; Fekete, Tomer; Siciliano, Francesco; Biezonski, Dominik; Greenhill, Laurence; Pliszka, Steven R; Blader, Joseph C; Roy, Amy Krain; Leibenluft, Ellen; Posner, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Aggression is widely observed in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has been frequently linked to frustration or the unsatisfied anticipation of reward. Although animal studies and human functional neuroimaging implicate altered reward processing in aggressive behaviors, no previous studies have documented the relationship between fronto-accumbal circuitry-a critical cortical pathway to subcortical limbic regions-and aggression in medication-naive children with ADHD. To address this, we collected behavioral measures and parental reports of aggression and impulsivity, as well as structural and diffusion MRI, from 30 children with ADHD and 31 healthy controls (HC) (mean age, 10±2.1 SD). Using grey matter morphometry and probabilistic tractography combined with multivariate statistical modeling (partial least squares regression and support vector regression), we identified anomalies within the fronto-accumbal circuit in childhood ADHD, which were associated with increased aggression. More specifically, children with ADHD showed reduced right accumbal volumes and frontal-accumbal white matter connectivity compared with HC. The magnitude of the accumbal volume reductions within the ADHD group was significantly correlated with increased aggression, an effect mediated by the relationship between the accumbal volume and impulsivity. Furthermore, aggression, but not impulsivity, was significantly explained by multivariate measures of fronto-accumbal white matter connectivity and cortical thickness within the orbitofrontal cortex. Our multi-modal imaging, combined with multivariate statistical modeling, indicates that the fronto-accumbal circuit is an important substrate of aggression in children with ADHD. These findings suggest that strategies aimed at probing the fronto-accumbal circuit may be beneficial for the treatment of aggressive behaviors in childhood ADHD.

  10. Increased Delay Discounting on a Novel Real-Time Task among Girls, but not Boys, with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Rosch, Keri S.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine delay discounting in girls and boys with ADHD-Combined type (ADHD-C) relative to typically developing (TD) children on two tasks that differ in the extent to which the rewards and delays were experienced by participants. Children ages 8–12 years with ADHD-C (n = 65; 19 girls) and TD controls (n = 55; 15 girls) completed two delay discounting tasks involving a series of choices between smaller, immediate and larger, delayed rewards. The classic delay discounting task involved choices about money at delays of 1–90 days and only some of the outcomes were actually experienced by the participants. The novel real-time discounting task involved choices about an immediately consumable reward (playing a preferred game) at delays of 25–100 s, all of which were actually experienced by participants. Participants also provided subjective ratings of how much they liked playing the game and waiting to play. Girls with ADHD-C displayed greater delay discounting compared to boys with ADHD-C and TD girls and boys on the real-time discounting task. Diagnostic group differences were not evident on the classic discounting task. In addition, children with ADHD-C reported wanting to play the game more and liking waiting to play the game less than TD children. This novel demonstration of greater delay discounting among girls with ADHD-C on a discounting task in which the rewards are immediately consumable and the delays are experienced in real-time informs our understanding of sex differences and motivational processes in children with ADHD. PMID:26549118

  11. ADHD and executive functioning deficits in OCD youths who hoard.

    PubMed

    Park, Jennifer M; Samuels, Jack F; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Goes, Fernando S; Cullen, Bernadette; Wang, Ying; Krasnow, Janice; Murphy, Dennis L; Rasmussen, Steven A; McLaughlin, Nicole C; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Stewart, S Evelyn; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E; Knowles, James A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Nestadt, Gerald; Geller, Daniel A

    2016-11-01

    Hoarding is common among youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), with up to 26% of OCD youth exhibiting hoarding symptoms. Recent evidence from adult hoarding and OCD cohorts suggests that hoarding symptoms are associated with executive functioning deficits similar to those observed in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, while hoarding behavior often onsets during childhood, there is little information about executive function deficits and ADHD in affected children and adolescents. The study sample included 431 youths (ages 6-17 years) diagnosed with OCD who participated in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study and the OCD Collaborative Genetics Association Study and completed a series of clinician-administered and parent report assessments, including diagnostic interviews and measures of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning; BRIEF) and hoarding severity (Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview; HRS-I). 113 youths (26%) had clinically significant levels of hoarding compulsions. Youths with and without hoarding differed significantly on most executive functioning subdomains and composite indices as measured by the parent-rated BRIEF. Groups did not differ in the frequency of full DSM-IV ADHD diagnoses; however, the hoarding group had significantly greater number of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms compared to the non-hoarding group. In multivariate models, we found that overall BRIEF scores were related to hoarding severity, adjusting for age, gender and ADHD symptoms. These findings suggest an association between hoarding and executive functioning deficits in youths with OCD, and assessing executive functioning may be important for investigating the etiology and treatment of children and adolescents with hoarding and OCD.

  12. ADHD and executive functioning deficits in OCD youths who hoard.

    PubMed

    Park, Jennifer M; Samuels, Jack F; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Goes, Fernando S; Cullen, Bernadette; Wang, Ying; Krasnow, Janice; Murphy, Dennis L; Rasmussen, Steven A; McLaughlin, Nicole C; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Stewart, S Evelyn; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E; Knowles, James A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Nestadt, Gerald; Geller, Daniel A

    2016-11-01

    Hoarding is common among youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), with up to 26% of OCD youth exhibiting hoarding symptoms. Recent evidence from adult hoarding and OCD cohorts suggests that hoarding symptoms are associated with executive functioning deficits similar to those observed in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, while hoarding behavior often onsets during childhood, there is little information about executive function deficits and ADHD in affected children and adolescents. The study sample included 431 youths (ages 6-17 years) diagnosed with OCD who participated in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study and the OCD Collaborative Genetics Association Study and completed a series of clinician-administered and parent report assessments, including diagnostic interviews and measures of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning; BRIEF) and hoarding severity (Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview; HRS-I). 113 youths (26%) had clinically significant levels of hoarding compulsions. Youths with and without hoarding differed significantly on most executive functioning subdomains and composite indices as measured by the parent-rated BRIEF. Groups did not differ in the frequency of full DSM-IV ADHD diagnoses; however, the hoarding group had significantly greater number of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms compared to the non-hoarding group. In multivariate models, we found that overall BRIEF scores were related to hoarding severity, adjusting for age, gender and ADHD symptoms. These findings suggest an association between hoarding and executive functioning deficits in youths with OCD, and assessing executive functioning may be important for investigating the etiology and treatment of children and adolescents with hoarding and OCD. PMID:27501140

  13. Online Story Comprehension among Children with ADHD: Which Core Deficits Are Involved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Kate; Milich, Richard; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Hayden, Angela N.; Strange, Chandra; Welsh, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Children with ADHD have difficulty understanding causal connections and goal plans within stories. This study examined mediators of group differences in story narrations between children ages 7-9 with and without ADHD, including as potential mediators both the core deficits of ADHD (i.e., inattention, disinhibition, planning/working memory) as…

  14. ADHD Treatment Patterns of Youth Served in Public Sectors in San Diego and Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Laurel K.; Canino, Glorisa; Landsverk, John; Wood, Patricia A.; Chavez, Ligia; Hough, Richard L.; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Ramirez, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates geographic variation in stimulant medication use by youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) served by public mental health and/or drug and alcohol programs in San Diego (n = 790) during 1997-1998 and in Puerto Rico (n = 726) during 1998. Youth were stratified into four groups: (a) ADHD, (b) ADHD--not…

  15. Behavior and Peer Status in Children with ADHD: Continuity and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Hoza, Betsy; Pelham, William E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Greiner, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD experience peer problems that may place them at risk for adverse outcomes. Using a short-term longitudinal design, this study links specific behaviors to peer functioning in groups of previously unfamiliar children with ADHD. Method: The participants were 268 children with ADHD who took part in an intensive summer…

  16. Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…

  17. ADHD: A Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Rosalyn A.

    This paper provides a brief historical outline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), its definition, its behavioral characteristics, and a guide to creating successful learning environments for these students. Diagnostic criteria for ADHD are listed and discussed, and incidence figures of 3 to 5 percent of all school-age children are…

  18. ADHD in Adults. [DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2006-01-01

    From leading ADHD authority Dr. Russell A. Barkley, this instructive program integrates information about ADHD with the experiences of adults from different walks of life who suffer from the disorder. Including interviews with these individuals, their family members, and the clinicians who treat them, the program addresses such important topics as…

  19. Planning deficit in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a neurocognitive trait independent from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Galasso, Cinzia; Lo-Castro, Adriana; Di Carlo, Loredana; Pitzianti, Maria Bernarda; D'Agati, Elisa; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is associated with executive dysfunctions and comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 30% to 50% of children. This study was designed to clarify the neurocognitive phenotype observed in neurofibromatosis type 1 by testing the hypothesis that children with neurofibromatosis type 1 have specific planning deficits independently from intellectual level and ADHD comorbidity. Eighteen children with neurofibromatosis type 1 were pair-matched to 18 children with ADHD and 18 healthy controls. All groups were assessed on the presence of ADHD symptoms (Conners Scales) and planning deficits (Tower of London). Compared with control group, groups with neurofibromatosis type 1 and ADHD demonstrated significant impairment of planning and problem solving. The lack of correlation between Tower of London results and Conners subscale scores in neurofibromatosis type 1 group confirmed that the planning and problem-solving deficit is not directly related to inattention level. These findings suggested that the executive impairment probably represents a peculiar trait of neurofibromatosis type 1 neurocognitive phenotype.

  20. Development of a New Psychosocial Treatment for Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Marks, David J.; Mitchell, Katherine J.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Kofman, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a new manualized group Meta-Cognitive Therapy (MCT) for adults with ADHD that extends the principles and practices of cognitive-behavioral therapy to the development of executive self-management skills. Method: Thirty adults diagnosed with ADHD completed an 8- or 12-week…

  1. ADHD in the Context of Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honkasilta, J.; Sandberg, E.; Närhi, V.; Jahnukainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a growing group served under special education services in many western societies. This article describes the history and current state of the services, as well as the assessment procedure. Our conclusion is that the status of students with ADHD in Finnish basic education (Grades 1…

  2. Neuropsychological Correlates of Written Expression in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Harder, Lana

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine written expression and the executive function skills (working memory, verbal fluency, and planning and organization) involved in written expression in college-aged students with ADHD. Method: Two groups of undergraduate students, aged 19 to 28 years, (ADHD, n = 31; control, n = 27) are evaluated on selected measures of…

  3. Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were…

  4. Do motivational incentives reduce the inhibition deficit in ADHD?

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Michelle A; Pennington, Bruce F; Willcutt, Erik W

    2008-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to test three competing theories of ADHD: the inhibition theory, the motivational theory, and a dual deficit theory. Previous studies have produced conflicting findings about the effects of incentives on executive processes in ADHD. In the present study of 25 children with ADHD and 30 typically developing controls, motivation was manipulated within the Stop Task. Stop signal reaction time was examined, as well as reaction time, its variability, and the number of errors in the primary choice reaction time task. Overall, the pattern of results supported the inhibition theory over the motivational or dual deficit hypotheses, as main effects of group were found for most key variables (ADHD group was worse), whereas the group by reward interaction predicted by the motivational and dual deficit accounts was not found. Hence, as predicted by the inhibition theory, children with ADHD performed worse than controls irrespective of incentives.

  5. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Altszuler, Amy R.; Page, Timothy F.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N=517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p<0.05) and the welfare system (p<0.01) and had lower earnings (p<0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000–$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  6. [Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Treatment of ADHD in Adults].

    PubMed

    Auclair, Vickie; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background The international prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated at 2.5%. ADHD is associated with serious impairment in academic, occupational, social and emotional functioning. Despite the debilitating nature of this disorder, few individuals with ADHD receive appropriate help. Further, although psychopharmacology is considered the first-line treatment of adults with ADHD, it is now recognized that medication alone may be insufficient. Thus, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising approach.Objectives This study aimed to review literature and investigate the efficacy of CBT, in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions such anxiety and depression for adults with ADHD, by several studies through a meta-analysis.Methods We searched the literature from 1946 through 2015 using especially MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. We used a random-effects model, Odds Ratios (OR) and Hedge's g.Results Data from 12 randomized controlled studies were included, totaling 575 subjects. The results showed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms (Hedge's g = 0.95) and comorbid anxiety (Hedge's g = 0.39) and depression (Hedge's g = 0.30) for the CBT group in comparison with controls. Following the end of treatment, ADHD symptoms continue to improve, but not the comorbid conditions.Conclusion In summary, in adults with ADHD, CBT appears to be a promising treatment. PMID:27570962

  7. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Altszuler, Amy R; Page, Timothy F; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-08-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N = 517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p < 0.05) and the welfare system (p < 0.01) and had lower earnings (p < 0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000-$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  8. Reduced error signalling in medication-naive children with ADHD: associations with behavioural variability and post-error adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Plessen, Kerstin J.; Allen, Elena A.; Eichele, Heike; van Wageningen, Heidi; Høvik, Marie Farstad; Sørensen, Lin; Worren, Marius Kalsås; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Eichele, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the blood-oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) activation in brain regions that signal errors and their association with intraindividual behavioural variability and adaptation to errors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods We acquired functional MRI data during a Flanker task in medication-naive children with ADHD and healthy controls aged 8–12 years and analyzed the data using independent component analysis. For components corresponding to performance monitoring networks, we compared activations across groups and conditions and correlated them with reaction times (RT). Additionally, we analyzed post-error adaptations in behaviour and motor component activations. Results We included 25 children with ADHD and 29 controls in our analysis. Children with ADHD displayed reduced activation to errors in cingulo-opercular regions and higher RT variability, but no differences of interference control. Larger BOLD amplitude to error trials significantly predicted reduced RT variability across all participants. Neither group showed evidence of post-error response slowing; however, post-error adaptation in motor networks was significantly reduced in children with ADHD. This adaptation was inversely related to activation of the right-lateralized ventral attention network (VAN) on error trials and to task-driven connectivity between the cingulo-opercular system and the VAN. Limitations Our study was limited by the modest sample size and imperfect matching across groups. Conclusion Our findings show a deficit in cingulo-opercular activation in children with ADHD that could relate to reduced signalling for errors. Moreover, the reduced orienting of the VAN signal may mediate deficient post-error motor adaptions. Pinpointing general performance monitoring problems to specific brain regions and operations in error processing may help to guide the targets of future treatments for ADHD. PMID:26441332

  9. ADHD and comorbid conduct problems among adolescents: associations with self-esteem and substance use.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Martin, Amber; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2011-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent disorder that is associated with negative outcomes (e.g., emotional and behavioral problems, substance use) and is often comorbid with Conduct Problems (CP). Research findings are mixed as to whether youth with ADHD alone or comorbid ADHD/CP suffer from low self-esteem. Research has also shown links between low self-esteem and ADHD (alone and with CP) with substance use; yet, no research has examined the links between self-esteem and substance use in adolescents with ADHD and CP. The current study examined the relation between ADHD with and without comorbid CP and self-esteem, and whether self-esteem moderated the relation between ADHD and ADHD/CP with substance use among adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescents with comorbid ADHD/CP would experience lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or with neither disorder and that self-esteem would moderate the association between ADHD, CP, and substance use. Participants were 62 adolescents who completed the laboratory-based study with a parent. Results suggested that adolescents with comorbid ADHD and CP had significantly lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or neither disorder. Self-esteem was not significantly different for adolescents with ADHD alone versus those in the control group. There was one marginally significant interaction between ADHD and self-esteem predicting substance use, such that individuals with comorbid ADHD/CP who also had low self-esteem tended to use more substances. Results have implications for treatments that target adolescents with ADHD and comorbid CP, as these adolescents are at risk for many deleterious outcomes.

  10. Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD: implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Hvolby, Allan

    2015-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals with ADHD with typically developing controls is most concordant for associations of ADHD with: hypopnea/apnea and peripheral limb movements in sleep or nocturnal motricity in polysomnographic studies; increased sleep onset latency and shorter sleep time in actigraphic studies; and bedtime resistance, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian-rhythm sleep disorders). Psychostimulant medications are associated with disrupted or disturbed sleep, but also 'paradoxically' calm some patients with ADHD for sleep by alleviating their symptoms. Long-acting formulations may have insufficient duration of action, leading to symptom rebound at bedtime. Current guidelines recommend assessment of sleep disturbance during evaluation of ADHD, and before initiation of pharmacotherapy, with healthy sleep practices the first-line option for addressing sleep problems. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the relationships between ADHD and sleep, and presents a conceptual model of the modes of interaction: ADHD may cause sleep problems as an intrinsic feature of the disorder; sleep problems may cause or mimic ADHD; ADHD and sleep problems may interact, with reciprocal causation and possible involvement of comorbidity; and ADHD and sleep problems may share a common underlying neurological etiology. PMID:25127644

  11. Learning and Motivational Characteristics of Boys with AD/HD and/or Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Moon, Sidney M.; Hall, Arlene M.; Grskovic, Janice A.

    2001-01-01

    A study compared the academic and learning characteristics of three students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD), three gifted students, and three gifted students with AD/HD. Giftedness conferred benefits related to specific talents but did not offer protection from the negative outcomes of AD/HD, such as inattention and…

  12. Impaired Behavior Regulation under Conditions of Concurrent Variable Schedules of Reinforcement in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, David; Lincoln, Alan J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To bridge theory of response inhibition and learning in children with ADHD. Method: Thirty ADHD and 30 non-ADHD children (ages 9-12) were compared under concurrent variable interval (VI-15 sec., VI-30 sec. and VI- 45 sec.) reinforcement schedules that required the child to switch between the three schedules under conditions of…

  13. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…

  14. Gender Differences among Children with ADHD on Continuous Performance Tests: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Ramzi; Fine, Jodene Goldenring

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Gender differences among children with ADHD are not well understood. The continuous performance test (CPT) is the most frequently used direct measure of inattention and impulsivity. This meta-analysis compared CPT performance between boys and girls with and without ADHD. Method: All peer-reviewed ADHD studies published between 1980 and…

  15. The SWAN Captures Variance at the Negative and Positive Ends of the ADHD Symptom Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Anne B.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Friend, Angela; Willcutt, Erik G.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior (SWAN) Rating Scale differs from previous parent reports of ADHD in that it was designed to also measure variability at the positive end of the symptom spectrum. Method: The psychometric properties of the SWAN were tested and compared with an established measure of ADHD,…

  16. Children with ADHD and Depression: A Multisource, Multimethod Assessment of Clinical, Social, and Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Gabrielle L.; Ostrander, Rick; Herman, Keith C.

    2005-01-01

    Although ADHD and depression are common comorbidities in youth, few studies have examined this particular clinical presentation. To address method bias limitations of previous research, this study uses multiple informants to compare the academic, social, and clinical functioning of children with ADHD, children with ADHD and depression, and…

  17. Developmental Differences in Structure of Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) between Childhood and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The current paper utilizes a bifactor modeling approach to evaluate the structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood and assess developmental continuity of ADHD structure between childhood and adulthood. The study compared traditional one-factor, two-factor, three-factor, and second-order factor models of ADHD with a…

  18. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Problem Solving in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Sontag, Thomas A.; Stasik, Dorota; Laufkotter, Rainer; Lange, Klaus W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Two studies were performed to assess both divergent and convergent thinking in adults with ADHD. Method: The first study compared the problem-solving abilities of healthy participants (N = 144) and unmedicated adults with ADHD (N = 144). In the second study, problem-solving abilities of adults with diagnosed ADHD (N = 22) were examined…

  19. Validating Neuropsychological Subtypes of ADHD: How Do Children "with" and "without" an Executive Function Deficit Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study investigates behavioural, academic, cognitive, and motivational aspects of functioning in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without an executive function deficit (EFD). Method: Children with ADHD - EFD (n = 22) and children with ADHD + EFD (n = 26) were compared on aspects of…

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Health-Related Quality of Life and Family Impact between Children with ADHD Treated in a General Pediatric Clinic and a Psychiatric Clinic Utilizing the PedsQL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbers, Christine A.; Ripperger-Suhler, Jane; Boutton, Kelly; Ransom, Daniel; Varni, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) from the perspective of children with ADHD and their parents being seen in a Pediatric Clinic in comparison to healthy children and children with ADHD being seen in a Psychiatric Clinic. Method: Participants were children with a physician diagnosis of ADHD ages 5-18 years and their…

  1. Cross-cultural comparison of ADHD symptoms among Japanese and US university students.

    PubMed

    Davis, J Mark; Takahashi, Tomone; Shinoda, Haruo; Gregg, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to attention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness are known to impact social, academic, and vocational success. When the problems begin in childhood and lead to impaired functioning, the syndrome is identified as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Symptoms of the syndrome persist into adolescence and adulthood for many individuals, but less is known about characteristics of adults compared to children, especially adults attending university. Furthermore, there is little cross-national and cross-cultural research. This study compared DSM-IV-TR ADHD symptoms of US university students (N=271) to Japanese peers (N=712). Comparison of group means on a DSM-IV-TR-based checklist indicated that Japanese students reported more problems with inattention (and overall ADHD symptoms) but not hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. Although differences were statistically significant, effect sizes were small, indicating that for practical purposes, the students reported similar levels of symptoms. Japanese students reported higher rates of meeting or exceeding symptom counts that comprise diagnostic criteria for ADHD, but differences were quite small. Using DSM-IV-TR thresholds, 5.70% of US students and 6.27% of Japanese students reported enough symptoms to meet the cut-off for inattentive, hyperactive/impulsive, or combined type during childhood. With regard to recent problems, 2.66% of US students and 4.52% of Japanese students reported enough symptoms to meet the cut-off for one of the three subtypes. Comparisons using other methods of calculating rates are also provided. This research adds to the limited knowledge of ADHD symptoms in university students across countries and it supports the view that ADHD is not merely a cultural construct. This study is among the first to identify potential attention problems in Japanese university students. PMID:22081862

  2. Physical fatty acid deficiency signs in children with ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sinn, N

    2007-08-01

    Fatty acid deficiency symptoms (FADS) of dry hair and skin, frequent thirst and urination have been observed to be higher in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Two studies investigated FADS in 7-12-year-old children; Study 1 in a general population (N=347) and Study 2 in children with ADHD symptoms (N=104). Correlations between FADS and ADHD-related symptoms were found at baseline in Study 1 but not Study 2. FADS did not improve after supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) versus placebo after 15 weeks in Study 2, and were not related to improvements in ADHD symptoms in the PUFA groups. However, FADS did improve in all groups, possibly attributable to the linoleic acid present in both the PUFA and placebo (palm oil) supplements. FADS are not a reliable selection criterion for children with ADHD who might benefit from omega-3 PUFA supplementation.

  3. Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Adler, Lenard A.; Qiao, Meihua; Saylor, Keith E.; Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James A.; Schuh, Kory J.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) that measures aspects of ADHD in adults. Method: Psychometric properties of the AISRS total and AISRS subscales are analyzed and compared to the Conners' Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV)…

  4. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  5. Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette’s Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype—A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hovik, Kjell Tore; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Skogli, Erik Winther; Andersen, Per Normann; Øie, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Objective This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior) in children and adolescents with Tourette’s Syndrome (TS) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). Method 19 children with TS, 33 with ADHD-C, and 50 typically developing children (TDC) were examined with a battery of psychometric measures and rating forms at baseline and two-years later. Results All three groups improved likewise in measures of cognitive control over time, whereas only the TDC improved in focused attention. The group of children with TS with comorbidities performed more similar to the children with ADHD-C in cognitive control at T1 and T2, whereas the children with TS without comorbidities performed more similar to the TDC in cognitive control at T1 and T2. In the decision-making task, the children with TS (with or without comorbidities) preferred a safer strategy in selecting advantageous choices than the children with ADHD-C and the TDC at T2. Children with TS and children with ADHD-C showed higher symptoms of anxiety and depression and more problems with emotional control compared with TDC at both time points. Finally, children with ADHD-C self-reported more depression symptoms than those with TS at both assessments. For the TS group, safer decision-making was related to better emotional control, and this relationship was stronger for the TS subgroup without comorbidities. Conclusion This study emphasizes the importance of addressing symptoms of anxiety and depression in children with TS or ADHD-C, identifying the effect of comorbidities in children with TS, and that children with TS or ADHD-C likely differ in their sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies. PMID:26673612

  6. Biostatistics Series Module 4: Comparing Groups – Categorical Variables

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Categorical variables are commonly represented as counts or frequencies. For analysis, such data are conveniently arranged in contingency tables. Conventionally, such tables are designated as r × c tables, with r denoting number of rows and c denoting number of columns. The Chi-square (χ2) probability distribution is particularly useful in analyzing categorical variables. A number of tests yield test statistics that fit, at least approximately, a χ2 distribution and hence are referred to as χ2 tests. Examples include Pearson's χ2 test (or simply the χ2 test), McNemar's χ2 test, Mantel–Haenszel χ2 test and others. The Pearson's χ2 test is the most commonly used test for assessing difference in distribution of a categorical variable between two or more independent groups. If the groups are ordered in some manner, the χ2 test for trend should be used. The Fisher's exact probability test is a test of the independence between two dichotomous categorical variables. It provides a better alternative to the χ2 statistic to assess the difference between two independent proportions when numbers are small, but cannot be applied to a contingency table larger than a two-dimensional one. The McNemar's χ2 test assesses the difference between paired proportions. It is used when the frequencies in a 2 × 2 table represent paired samples or observations. The Cochran's Q test is a generalization of the McNemar's test that compares more than two related proportions. The P value from the χ2 test or its counterparts does not indicate the strength of the difference or association between the categorical variables involved. This information can be obtained from the relative risk or the odds ratio statistic which is measures of dichotomous association obtained from 2 × 2 tables. PMID:27512183

  7. Biostatistics Series Module 4: Comparing Groups - Categorical Variables.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Categorical variables are commonly represented as counts or frequencies. For analysis, such data are conveniently arranged in contingency tables. Conventionally, such tables are designated as r × c tables, with r denoting number of rows and c denoting number of columns. The Chi-square (χ(2)) probability distribution is particularly useful in analyzing categorical variables. A number of tests yield test statistics that fit, at least approximately, a χ(2) distribution and hence are referred to as χ(2) tests. Examples include Pearson's χ(2) test (or simply the χ(2) test), McNemar's χ(2) test, Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) test and others. The Pearson's χ(2) test is the most commonly used test for assessing difference in distribution of a categorical variable between two or more independent groups. If the groups are ordered in some manner, the χ(2) test for trend should be used. The Fisher's exact probability test is a test of the independence between two dichotomous categorical variables. It provides a better alternative to the χ(2) statistic to assess the difference between two independent proportions when numbers are small, but cannot be applied to a contingency table larger than a two-dimensional one. The McNemar's χ(2) test assesses the difference between paired proportions. It is used when the frequencies in a 2 × 2 table represent paired samples or observations. The Cochran's Q test is a generalization of the McNemar's test that compares more than two related proportions. The P value from the χ(2) test or its counterparts does not indicate the strength of the difference or association between the categorical variables involved. This information can be obtained from the relative risk or the odds ratio statistic which is measures of dichotomous association obtained from 2 × 2 tables. PMID:27512183

  8. Biostatistics Series Module 4: Comparing Groups - Categorical Variables.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Categorical variables are commonly represented as counts or frequencies. For analysis, such data are conveniently arranged in contingency tables. Conventionally, such tables are designated as r × c tables, with r denoting number of rows and c denoting number of columns. The Chi-square (χ(2)) probability distribution is particularly useful in analyzing categorical variables. A number of tests yield test statistics that fit, at least approximately, a χ(2) distribution and hence are referred to as χ(2) tests. Examples include Pearson's χ(2) test (or simply the χ(2) test), McNemar's χ(2) test, Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) test and others. The Pearson's χ(2) test is the most commonly used test for assessing difference in distribution of a categorical variable between two or more independent groups. If the groups are ordered in some manner, the χ(2) test for trend should be used. The Fisher's exact probability test is a test of the independence between two dichotomous categorical variables. It provides a better alternative to the χ(2) statistic to assess the difference between two independent proportions when numbers are small, but cannot be applied to a contingency table larger than a two-dimensional one. The McNemar's χ(2) test assesses the difference between paired proportions. It is used when the frequencies in a 2 × 2 table represent paired samples or observations. The Cochran's Q test is a generalization of the McNemar's test that compares more than two related proportions. The P value from the χ(2) test or its counterparts does not indicate the strength of the difference or association between the categorical variables involved. This information can be obtained from the relative risk or the odds ratio statistic which is measures of dichotomous association obtained from 2 × 2 tables.

  9. Commonalities in EEG Spectral Power Abnormalities Between Women With ADHD and Women With Bipolar Disorder During Rest and Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Rommel, Anna-Sophie; Kitsune, Glenn L.; Michelini, Giorgia; Hosang, Georgina M.; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Brandeis, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    While attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) denote distinct psychiatric conditions, diagnostic delineation is impeded by considerable symptomatic overlap. Direct comparisons across ADHD and BD on neurophysiological measures are limited. They could inform us on impairments that are specific to or shared between the disorders and, therefore, potential biomarkers that may aid in the identification of the diagnostic boundaries. Our aim was to test whether quantitative EEG (QEEG) identifies differences or similarities between women with ADHD and women with BD during resting-state and task conditions. QEEG activity was directly compared between 20 ADHD, 20 BD and 20 control women during an eyes-open resting-state condition (EO) and a cued continuous performance task (CPT-OX). Both ADHD (t38 = 2.50, p = 0.017) and BD (t38 = 2.54, p = 0.018) participants showed higher absolute theta power during EO than controls. No significant differences emerged between the two clinical groups. While control participants showed a task-related increase in absolute theta power from EO to CPT-OX (t19 = −3.77, p = 0.001), no such change in absolute theta power was observed in the ADHD (t19 = −0.605, p = 0.553) or BD (t19 = 1.82, p = 0.084) groups. Our results provide evidence for commonalities in brain dysfunction between ADHD and BD. Absolute theta power may play a role as a marker of neurobiological processes in both disorders. PMID:27464584

  10. Exercise impact on sustained attention of ADHD children, methylphenidate effects.

    PubMed

    Medina, José A; Netto, Turibio L B; Muszkat, Mauro; Medina, Afonso C; Botter, Denise; Orbetelli, Rogério; Scaramuzza, Luzia F C; Sinnes, Elaine G; Vilela, Márcio; Miranda, Mônica C

    2010-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to a deficiency of central catecholamines (CA) in cognitive, biochemical, and physical tests, and pharmaceutical intervention may have no effect if it is not accompanied by changes in the environment. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that central CA are responsible for the increase in speed reaction seen after physical activity (PA) and to measure the impact of high intensity PA on the sustained attention of 25 children diagnosed with ADHD consistent with the Disease Statistical Mental-IV (DSM-IV) criteria. It is possible that practicing sports assists in the management of the disorder. The children were divided between users (US) and non-users (NUS) of methylphenidate (MTP), and the groups were compared to evaluate the effect of the drug on cognition after PA. Post-exercise performance on Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT) was not affected by MTP, we observed significant improvements in response time, and we saw normalization in the impulsivity and vigilance measures. These results suggest that the improvements in cognition after physical effort are not CA dependent. Additionally, our results suggest that children's attention deficits can be minimized through PA irrespective of treatment with MTP. Additional studies are necessary to confirm that exercise mitigates the harmful symptoms of ADHD.

  11. Event rate and reaction time performance in ADHD: Testing predictions from the state regulation deficit hypothesis using an ex-Gaussian model.

    PubMed

    Metin, Baris; Wiersema, Jan R; Verguts, Tom; Gasthuys, Roos; van Der Meere, Jacob J; Roeyers, Herbert; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    According to the state regulation deficit (SRD) account, ADHD is associated with a problem using effort to maintain an optimal activation state under demanding task settings such as very fast or very slow event rates. This leads to a prediction of disrupted performance at event rate extremes reflected in higher Gaussian response variability that is a putative marker of activation during motor preparation. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis using ex-Gaussian modeling, which distinguishes Gaussian from non-Gaussian variability. Twenty-five children with ADHD and 29 typically developing controls performed a simple Go/No-Go task under four different event-rate conditions. There was an accentuated quadratic relationship between event rate and Gaussian variability in the ADHD group compared to the controls. The children with ADHD had greater Gaussian variability at very fast and very slow event rates but not at moderate event rates. The results provide evidence for the SRD account of ADHD. However, given that this effect did not explain all group differences (some of which were independent of event rate) other cognitive and/or motivational processes are also likely implicated in ADHD performance deficits. PMID:26835532

  12. Event rate and reaction time performance in ADHD: Testing predictions from the state regulation deficit hypothesis using an ex-Gaussian model.

    PubMed

    Metin, Baris; Wiersema, Jan R; Verguts, Tom; Gasthuys, Roos; van Der Meere, Jacob J; Roeyers, Herbert; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    According to the state regulation deficit (SRD) account, ADHD is associated with a problem using effort to maintain an optimal activation state under demanding task settings such as very fast or very slow event rates. This leads to a prediction of disrupted performance at event rate extremes reflected in higher Gaussian response variability that is a putative marker of activation during motor preparation. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis using ex-Gaussian modeling, which distinguishes Gaussian from non-Gaussian variability. Twenty-five children with ADHD and 29 typically developing controls performed a simple Go/No-Go task under four different event-rate conditions. There was an accentuated quadratic relationship between event rate and Gaussian variability in the ADHD group compared to the controls. The children with ADHD had greater Gaussian variability at very fast and very slow event rates but not at moderate event rates. The results provide evidence for the SRD account of ADHD. However, given that this effect did not explain all group differences (some of which were independent of event rate) other cognitive and/or motivational processes are also likely implicated in ADHD performance deficits.

  13. Event rate and reaction time performance in ADHD: Testing predictions from the state regulation deficit hypothesis using an ex-Gaussian model.

    PubMed

    Metin, Baris; Wiersema, Jan R; Verguts, Tom; Gasthuys, Roos; van Der Meere, Jacob J; Roeyers, Herbert; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2014-12-01

    According to the state regulation deficit (SRD) account, ADHD is associated with a problem using effort to maintain an optimal activation state under demanding task settings such as very fast or very slow event rates. This leads to a prediction of disrupted performance at event rate extremes reflected in higher Gaussian response variability that is a putative marker of activation during motor preparation. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis using ex-Gaussian modeling, which distinguishes Gaussian from non-Gaussian variability. Twenty-five children with ADHD and 29 typically developing controls performed a simple Go/No-Go task under four different event-rate conditions. There was an accentuated quadratic relationship between event rate and Gaussian variability in the ADHD group compared to the controls. The children with ADHD had greater Gaussian variability at very fast and very slow event rates but not at moderate event rates. The results provide evidence for the SRD account of ADHD. However, given that this effect did not explain all group differences (some of which were independent of event rate) other cognitive and/or motivational processes are also likely implicated in ADHD performance deficits.

  14. Renormalization Group (RG) in Turbulence: Historical and Comparative Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Ye; McComb, W. David; Vahala, George

    1997-01-01

    The term renormalization and renormalization group are explained by reference to various physical systems. The extension of renormalization group to turbulence is then discussed; first as a comprehensive review and second concentrating on the technical details of a few selected approaches. We conclude with a discussion of the relevance and application of renormalization group to turbulence modelling.

  15. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs. PMID:16417850

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... the family develop a plan to improve a child’s behavior. For example, parents can learn to use point ... also help parents find opportunities to praise their child for appropriate behavior. Talk therapy can help children with ADHD feel ...

  17. ADHD: 10 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Philip

    2013-09-01

    Estimates of children struggling with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) vary, but the Centers for Disease Control puts the number at a stunningly high 25 percent. Whatever the number, ADHD affects too many children at school, at home, and with their peers, and often persists into adulthood. The cause is as yet unknown, although genetic factors and their interaction with the environment are known to be pivotal. Ten years ago a landmark study showed that the structure of the brains of children with ADHD differs from that of unaffected children. Since that study, enhancements in imaging have given researchers a better look at key hubs in the brain and how they network-advances that could prove useful in the control and treatment of ADHD in both children and adults.

  18. ADHD & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... at an accredited sleep center. What Types of Communication Difficulties Can Look Like ADHD? People with Down ... Down syndrome have a wide range of learning styles. A child's educational team may need to try ...

  19. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... several areas, including speaking, reading, writing, and doing math. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a ... Dyscalculia makes it hard for people to understand math. They may also have problems telling time and ...

  20. Examining Executive Functioning in Boys with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Lewandowski, Lawrence; Gordon, Michael

    This study examined executive functioning (EF) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) boys ages 6-12 on a parent-report measure from Barkley's model. Mothers of 40 boys (20 with ADHD-HI or ADHD-C, and 20 without ADHD) completed the ADHD Symptom Checklist (ADHD-SC4), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-P), School-Home Information Profile…

  1. Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?

    PubMed

    Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Friedman, Lauren M

    2015-10-01

    Excess gross motor activity (hyperactivity) is considered a core diagnostic feature of childhood ADHD that impedes learning. This view has been challenged, however, by recent models that conceptualize excess motor activity as a compensatory mechanism that facilitates neurocognitive functioning in children with ADHD. The current study investigated competing model predictions regarding activity level's relation with working memory (WM) performance and attention in boys aged 8-12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.26) with ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing children (TD; n = 23). Children's phonological WM and attentive behavior were objectively assessed during four counterbalanced WM tasks administered across four separate sessions. These data were then sequenced hierarchically based on behavioral observations of each child's gross motor activity during each task. Analysis of the relations among intra-individual changes in observed activity level, attention, and performance revealed that higher rates of activity level predicted significantly better, but not normalized WM performance for children with ADHD. Conversely, higher rates of activity level predicted somewhat lower WM performance for TD children. Variations in movement did not predict changes in attention for either group. At the individual level, children with ADHD and TD children were more likely to be classified as reliably Improved and Deteriorated, respectively, when comparing their WM performance at their highest versus lowest observed activity level. These findings appear most consistent with models ascribing a functional role to hyperactivity in ADHD, with implications for selecting behavioral treatment targets to avoid overcorrecting gross motor activity during academic tasks that rely on phonological WM.

  2. Stimulant Treatment of ADHD and Cigarette Smoking: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a significantly higher risk of cigarette smoking. The nature of the relationship between smoking and psychostimulant medications commonly used to treat ADHD is controversial. Our objective was to examine the relationship between stimulant treatment of ADHD and cigarette smoking by using meta-analysis, and to identify study and sample characteristics that moderate this relationship. METHODS: Literature searches on PubMed and PsycInfo databases identified published studies for inclusion. Included studies compared cigarette smoking outcomes for stimulant-treated and untreated ADHD individuals. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, and 14 (total n = 2360) contained sufficient statistical information for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Two authors extracted odds ratios or frequencies of smokers in the treatment or nontreatment groups, and coded study characteristics including sample source, percentage of male participants, follow-up length, treatment consistency, type of smoking measure, prospective study, and controlling for comorbidities. RESULTS: Meta-analysis revealed a significant association between stimulant treatment and lower smoking rates. Meta-regression indicated that effect sizes were larger for studies that used clinical samples, included more women, measured smoking in adolescence rather than adulthood, conceptualized stimulant treatment as consistent over time, and accounted for comorbid conduct disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly all studies were naturalistic, precluding causal inferences. Available data were insufficient to examine additional influences of patient demographics, treatment effectiveness, or other comorbidities. Consistent stimulant treatment of ADHD may reduce smoking risk; the effect was larger in samples with more severe psychopathology. Implications for further research, treatment of ADHD, and smoking prevention are discussed. PMID:24819571

  3. Is adult ADHD a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder? Evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Asherson, Philip; Belsky, Daniel W; Corcoran, David L; Hammerle, Maggie; Harrington, Honalee; Hogan, Sean; Meier, Madeline; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Caspi, Avshalom

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite a prevailing assumption that adult ADHD is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder, no prospective-longitudinal study has described the childhoods of the adult-ADHD population. We report follow-back analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in adulthood, alongside follow-forward analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in childhood, in one cohort. Method Participants belonged to a representative birth cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972-73 and followed to age 38, with 95% retention. Symptoms of ADHD, associated clinical features, comorbid disorders, neuropsychological deficits, GWAS-derived polygenic risk, and life impairment indicators were assessed. Data sources were participants, parents, teachers, informants, neuropsychological testing, and administrative records. Adult ADHD diagnoses used DSM5 criteria, apart from onset-age and cross-setting corroboration, which were study outcomes. Results As expected, the childhood-ADHD group showed 6% prevalence, male excess, childhood comorbid disorders, neurocognitive deficits, polygenic risk, and, despite having outgrown their ADHD diagnosis, residual adult life impairment. As expected, the adult-ADHD group showed 3% prevalence, gender balance, adult substance dependence, adult life impairment, and treatment contact. Unexpectedly, the childhood-ADHD and adult-ADHD groups comprised virtually non-overlapping sets; 90% of adult-ADHD cases lacked a history of childhood ADHD. Also unexpectedly, the adult-ADHD group did not show tested neuropsychological deficits in childhood or adulthood, nor did they show polygenic risk for childhood ADHD. Conclusion Findings raise the possibility that adults presenting with the ADHD symptom picture may not have a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. If this finding is replicated, then the disorder's place in the classification system must be reconsidered, and research must investigate the etiology of adult ADHD. PMID:25998281

  4. Pharmacotherapy of ADHD in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder common throughout childhood, with recognizable symptoms as early as preschool in many cases. ADHD is often treated in young children by simply implementing strategies proven efficacious and safe in older children and adolescents, as limited data is available in children younger than age six. Research has been extended into this age group by the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) and other recent trials, providing clinically relevant data on differences in tolerability and efficacy of ADHD pharmacotherapies, primarily methylphenidate. No published data is yet available on the use of atomoxetine in children under age six. Growth is an area of particular interest and concern in the pediatric population, with data demonstrating variability in the long-term rates of growth in height as well as weight. While pharmacotherapy holds the potential for significant benefit in young children with ADHD, concerns with variation in response and tolerability highlight the need for careful evaluation, close monitoring, and an ongoing risk/benefit analysis throughout the implementation and use of medication. PMID:20963194

  5. Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hatfield, Bradley D; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD. PMID:24695590

  6. Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hatfield, Bradley D; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD.

  7. The International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study: background, methods and study population.

    PubMed

    van de Glind, Geurt; Van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Levin, Frances R; Koeter, Maarten W J; Barta, Csaba; Kaye, Sharlene; Skutle, Arvid; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Bu, Eli-Torild; Moggi, Franz; Dom, Geert; Demetrovics, Zolt; Fatséas, Mélina; Schillinger, Arild; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Verspreet, Sofie; Seitz, Andrea; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V; Ramos-Quiroga, J Antoni; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-09-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly recognized comorbid condition in subjects with substance use disorders (SUDs). This paper describes the methods and study population of the International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study. Objectives of the IASP are to determine the prevalence of ADHD in adult treatment seeking patients with SUD in different countries and SUD populations, determine the reliability and validity of the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale V 1.1 (ASRS) as ADHD screening instrument in SUD populations, investigate the comorbidity profile of SUD patients with and without ADHD, compare risk factors and protective factors in SUD patients with and without a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, and increase our knowledge about the relationship between ADHD and the onset and course of SUD. In this cross-sectional, multi-centre two stage study, subjects were screened for ADHD with the ASRS, diagnosed with the Conner's Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID), and evaluated for SUD, major depression, bipolar disorder, anti social personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Three thousand five hundred and fifty-eight subjects from 10 countries were included. Of these 40.9% screened positive for ADHD. This is the largest international study on this population evaluating ADHD and comorbid disorders. PMID:24022983

  8. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N

    2014-08-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766

  9. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N

    2014-08-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD.

  10. Effects of a Summer Treatment Program on Functional Sports Outcomes in Young Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Belin, Peter J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Roemmich, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children’s sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766

  11. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and the risk of ADHD, depression, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Hailer, Yasmin D; Nilsson, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Hyperactive behavior pattern (such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) is proposed to be present in individuals with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD). We investigated whether individuals with LCPD have a higher risk of ADHD, depression, and mortality. Subjects and methods We identified 4,057 individuals with LCPD in Sweden during the period 1964–2011. 40,570 individuals without LCPD were randomly selected from the Swedish general population and matched by year of birth, sex, and region (control group). We used Cox proportional hazard regression to estimate the relative risks. Results Compared to the control group, individuals with LCPD had a raised hazard ratio (HR) of 1.5 (95% CI: 1.2–1.9) for ADHD. The risks were higher for female individuals (HR = 2.1, CI: 1.3–3.5) than for male individuals (HR = 1.4, CI: 1.1–1.8). Individuals with LCPD had a modestly higher hazard ratio for depression (HR = 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.5) than the control group. Furthermore, individuals with LCPD had a slightly higher mortality risk than the control group (HR = 1.2, CI: 1.0–1.4) Interpretation Individuals with LCPD have a higher risk of ADHD. Hyperactivity could expose the femoral head to higher mechanical stress and contribute to the etiology of LCPD. The higher risk of depression may be due to the burden of LCPD itself or could reflect neurobehavioral aspects of ADHD changing into depression later in life. Individuals with LCPD have a higher mortality risk, with higher risk of suicide and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25036717

  12. EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL STUDY OF ATTENTION REGULATION DURING ILLUSORY FIGURE CATEGORIZATION TASK IN ADHD, AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER, AND TYPICAL CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Sokhadze, Estate M.; Baruth, Joshua M.; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Guela E.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Williams, Emily; Klapheke, Robert; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are very common developmental disorders which share some similar symptoms of social, emotional, and attentional deficits. This study is aimed to help understand the differences and similarities of these deficits using analysis of dense-array event-related potentials (ERP) during an illusory figure recognition task. Although ADHD and ASD seem very distinct, they have been shown to share some similarities in their symptoms. Our hypothesis was that children with ASD will show less pronounced differences in ERP responses to target and non-target stimuli as compared to typical children, and to a lesser extent, ADHD. Participants were children with ASD (N=16), ADHD (N=16), and controls (N=16). EEG was collected using a 128 channel EEG system. The task involved the recognition of a specific illusory shape, in this case a square or triangle, created by three or four inducer disks. There were no between group differences in reaction time (RT) to target stimuli, but both ASD and ADHD committed more errors, specifically the ASD group had statistically higher commission error rate than controls. Post-error RT in ASD group was exhibited in a post-error speeding rather than corrective RT slowing typical for the controls. The ASD group also demonstrated an attenuated error-related negativity (ERN) as compared to ADHD and controls. The fronto-central P200, N200, and P300 were enhanced and less differentiated in response to target and non-target figures in the ASD group. The same ERP components were marked by more prolonged latencies in the ADHD group as compared to both ASD and typical controls. The findings are interpreted according to the “minicolumnar” hypothesis proposing existence of neuropathological differences in ASD and ADHD, specifically minicolumnar number/width morphometry spectrum differences. In autism, a model of local hyperconnectivity and long-range hypoconnectivity explains

  13. The Influence of Feedback of Diagnosis and Executive Function Skills on Rates of False Positive and False Negative Outcomes for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Stacy L.; Privitera, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive function (EF) skills and self-reported symptoms of ADHD. EF skills were measured to determine whether skills were different between groups that reported clinical levels of ADHD symptoms (clinical group) and nonclinical levels of ADHD symptoms (nonclinical group). EF skills in the nonclinical group were also…

  14. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, O.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts) and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD. PMID:27579185

  15. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A; Lewis, O; Kumar, R; Yeruva, S L H; Curry, B H

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts) and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD. PMID:27579185

  16. Comparing Amino Acid Abundances and Distributions Across Carbonaceous Chondrite Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Meteorites are grouped according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, CV and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight groups, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between meteorites from the different chondrite groups. Because meteorites may have been an important source of amino acids to the prebiotic Earth and these organic compounds are essential for life as we know it, the observed variations of these molecules may have been important for the origins of life.

  17. Women and Girls (With ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medication and Pregnancy ADHD and Driving Organization and Time Management Managing Money Relationships & Social Skills Marriage and Partnerships ... For more information on organization, see Organizing and Time Management . 5. Career guidance . Just as women with ADHD ...

  18. Assessing the Working Memory Abilities of ADHD Children Using the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marusiak, Christopher W.; Janzen, Henry L.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the working memory abilities of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as measured by the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SBV). In a retrospective causal-comparative design, the archival data of 46 ADHD children were compared to 59 nondiagnosed children. The ADHD children…

  19. Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines acceptable for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Klein, B; Damiani-Taraba, G; Koster, A; Campbell, J; Scholz, C

    2015-03-01

    Children involved with child protection services (CPS) are diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at higher rates than the general population. Children with maltreatment histories are much more likely to have other factors contributing to behavioural and attentional regulation difficulties that may overlap with or mimic ADHD-like symptoms, including language and learning problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment difficulties, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. A higher number of children in the child welfare system are diagnosed with ADHD and provided with psychotropic medications under a group care setting compared with family-based, foster care and kinship care settings. However, children's behavioural trajectories change over time while in care. A reassessment in the approach to ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to confirmed (or suspected) maltreatment (e.g. neglect, abuse) is required. Diagnosis should be conducted within a multidisciplinary team and practice guidelines regarding ADHD diagnostic and management practices for children in CPS care are warranted both in the USA and in Canada. Increased education for caregivers, teachers and child welfare staff on the effects of maltreatment and often perplexing relationship with ADHD-like symptoms and co-morbid disorders is also necessary. Increased partnerships are needed to ensure the mental well-being of children with child protection involvement.

  20. Classical conditioning in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders: a test of Quay's model.

    PubMed

    Pliszka, S R; Hatch, J P; Borcherding, S H; Rogeness, G A

    1993-08-01

    Quay (1988) put forward a model of childhood mental disorders based on Gray's (1982) theory that there exists within the brain a behavioral inhibition system (BIS), which processes signals related to aversive or punishing stimuli. According to this model, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show lower than optimal levels of activity in this system, which leads to less responsiveness at a physiological level to signals related to punishment. Children with ADHD and controls were compared on a classical conditioning paradigm. Skin conductance and cardiac responses were measured in response to a conditioned stimulus that had been paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus. There were no differences between the groups, suggesting that, in terms of classical conditioning, ADHD children are equally responsive to signals related to punishment as controls.

  1. Classical conditioning in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders: a test of Quay's model.

    PubMed

    Pliszka, S R; Hatch, J P; Borcherding, S H; Rogeness, G A

    1993-08-01

    Quay (1988) put forward a model of childhood mental disorders based on Gray's (1982) theory that there exists within the brain a behavioral inhibition system (BIS), which processes signals related to aversive or punishing stimuli. According to this model, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show lower than optimal levels of activity in this system, which leads to less responsiveness at a physiological level to signals related to punishment. Children with ADHD and controls were compared on a classical conditioning paradigm. Skin conductance and cardiac responses were measured in response to a conditioned stimulus that had been paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus. There were no differences between the groups, suggesting that, in terms of classical conditioning, ADHD children are equally responsive to signals related to punishment as controls. PMID:8408987

  2. Corpus Callosum Segment Circumference Is Associated With Response Control in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Melanie A.; Crocetti, Deana; Mahone, E. Mark; Denckla, Martha B.; Suskauer, Stacy J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Response control is impaired in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given the corpus callosum's role in response control, we compared callosal morphology in 64 children with ADHD and 64 typically developing children, aged 7 to 13 years, and investigated the relationships between callosal morphology and response control. Area and circumference of 5 callosal segments (genu, rostral body, midbody, isthmus, and splenium) were normalized for cerebral volume and examined for correlation with mean reaction time, intrasubject variability, and/or commission error rate from a go/no-go task. There were no between-group differences in segment areas or circumferences. Reaction time correlated with midbody circumference for boys with ADHD and isthmus circumference for girls with ADHD. For the entire cohort, rostral body circumference correlated with intra-subject variability. Impaired response control in ADHD is associated with anomalies in frontal interhemispheric connections. Future studies examining callosal shape will illuminate the anatomic basis of correlations between callosal segment circumference and response control. PMID:20139403

  3. Diagnostic and Demographic Differences Between Incarcerated and Nonincarcerated Youth (Ages 6-15) With ADHD in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Samuel L; Probst, Janice; Xirasagar, Sudha; Martin, Amy B; Smith, Bradley H

    2013-10-16

    Objective: Analyze diagnostic and demographic factors to identify predictors of delinquency resulting in incarceration within a group of children/adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. Method: The study followed a cohort of 15,472 Medicaid covered children/adolescents with ADHD, ages 6 to 15 inclusive, between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2006. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev. [DSM-IV-TR]), 2000 Codes were used for qualifying diagnosis codes. Available demographic characteristics included race, sex, and residence. The outcome was incarceration at the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice during 2005-2006. Results: Among youth with ADHD, incarceration was more likely among black, male, and urban youth. Children/adolescents with comorbid ODD and/or CD were at greater risk compared with those with ADHD alone. Conclusion: Within ADHD-diagnosed youth, comorbid conditions and demographic characteristics increase the risk of incarceration. Intervention and treatment strategies that address behavior among youth with these characteristics are needed to reduce incarceration.

  4. ADHD treatment and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Besag, Frank M C

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing recognition that ADHD is a common condition, not only in children and teenagers but also in adults. This has led to a rapid rise in the number of women of childbearing age who are being treated for this condition. Against the background of concerns about the use of medication of any kind during pregnancy and breastfeeding, it is remarkable that there is so little information available on the effects of ADHD medication on the fetus and newborn. The impulsivity associated with ADHD might lead to an increased rate of unplanned pregnancy. Although treating ADHD during pregnancy and lactation might have negative effects on the baby, suspension of treatment or inadequate treatment could also place both mother and baby at risk. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy could affect both the efficacy and the concentration of medication. Again, there is almost no guidance available. The US Food and Drug Administration has classified ADHD medications as being "pregnancy category C", implying that there is insufficient information to confirm either harm or lack of harm. From the limited information that has been published, it would appear that the risk of fetal malformation, at least with methylphenidate, is very low and that the amounts of medication excreted in breast milk and consumed by the infant are very small. Three questions that both clinicians and patients are likely to ask are the following. Should ADHD medication be stopped before, during or after pregnancy, or should it be continued throughout? Should ADHD medication doses be adjusted during the course of the pregnancy or after delivery? Should breastfeeding be encouraged or discouraged? Discontinuing ADHD treatment could put both mother and baby at risk. This has to be balanced against the possible risks to the baby of continuing treatment. Although the data remain inadequate, the risk of the latter appears to be quite small, at least for methylphenidate. However, there is

  5. Executive functions in preschoolers with ADHD, ODD, and comorbid ADHD-ODD: Evidence from ecological and performance-based measures.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser

    2015-09-01

    Executive functioning in 3-year-old preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), comorbid ADHD+ODD, and children without any of these conditions (control group) was examined. A community sample including 622 children was diagnosed using a diagnostic interview following DSM-IV criteria, and assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool version (BRIEF-P) and the Kiddie-Conners' Continuous Performance Test. The children diagnosed with ADHD showed the poorest executive function (EF) profile in comparison with controls, and were closely followed up in this respect by the comorbid ADHD+ODD children. The ADHD and comorbid groups presented similar executive difficulties. The ODD group obtained mean scores statistically equal to those of controls in EF. These findings suggest that, in preschoolers, executive functioning deficits assessed with a performance-based measure or with behavioural descriptions are specific to children with ADHD, in comparison with those with ODD. This study contributes knowledge about EFs in two prevalent and comorbid disorders in preschool children, ADHD and ODD, knowledge that can help our understanding of specific deficits and the design of specific early intervention initiatives.

  6. Increased performance uncertainty in children with ADHD? - Elevated post-imperative negative variation (PINV) over the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the influences of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on response evaluation, as reflected by the postimperative negative variation (PINV), a slow event-related potential. Methods We investigated PINV as an indicator of performance uncertainty in an audio-visual contingent negative variation (CNV) paradigm with an interstimulus interval of 3 seconds. A constant, unilateral, quick motor reaction with either the right or the left thumb was required after an auditory forewarned (S1) visual imperative stimulus (S2). We examined 18 ADHD patients (combined or hyperactive-impulsive subtype) aged between 8 and 14 years and an age-, sex and IQ-matched control group of 19 healthy subjects using 64-channel high-density EEG. A first run was recorded drug-free, a second one under methylphenidate (MPH) medication in the ADHD group. Results We found a significantly increased negativity of the PINV-component over the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in ADHD children compared to the healthy control group. PINV amplitude was influenced by movement side, most likely due to the slightly more difficult task when left hand responses were required. After the intake of MPH, PINV amplitudes of ADHD children normalized. Conclusions We conclude that children with ADHD are likely to be more uncertain about the correctness of their performance and interpret the increased PINV as a hint towards compensatory mechanisms for a deficit in the evaluation of contingencies. Further studies are needed to assess the exact extent to which remainders of eye-movement related potentials contribute to PINV amplitude despite the correction for eye-artifacts. PMID:21867487

  7. Group and Family Day Care: A Comparative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth

    The point is made that studies of day-care use consistently confirm that the most common form of day care is in-home day care by a relative or another person. Group care as it now functions is most practical for a mother who works regular daytime hours and lives within manageable commuting distance of a center. The yearly costs per child reported…

  8. Undergraduates with Employer-Sponsored Aid: Comparing Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulk, Dagney G.; Wang, Zhenlei

    2014-01-01

    Tuition assistance offered by employers is an understudied area of financial aid research. The purpose of this study is to compare the demographic, socioeconomic, academic and financial aid characteristics of college students who receive employer-sponsored financial aid with students who receive traditional financial aid (institutional, state, or…

  9. Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…

  10. The aetiological association between the dynamics of cortisol productivity and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rebecca; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, indexed by salivary cortisol. The phenotypic and aetiological association of cortisol productivity with ADHD was investigated. A selected twin design using 68 male twin-pairs aged 12-15, concordant or discordant for high ADHD symptom scores, or control twin-pairs with low ADHD symptoms, based on developmentally stable parental ADHD ratings. A genetic growth curve model was applied to cortisol samples obtained across three points during a cognitive-electroencephalography assessment, to examine the aetiological overlap of ADHD affection status (high versus low ADHD symptom scores) with latent intercept and slope factors. A significant phenotypic correlation emerged between ADHD and the slope factor, with cortisol levels dropping faster for the group with high ADHD symptom scores. The analyses further suggested this overlap was mostly driven by correlated genetic effects. We identified change in cortisol activity over time as significantly associated with ADHD affection status, primarily explained by shared genetic effects, suggesting that blunted cortisol productivity can be a marker of genetic risk in ADHD. PMID:27106905

  11. Fading Memories: Retrospective Recall Inaccuracies in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study examines the recall accuracy of childhood ADHD symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood by youth and their parents, compared with reports obtained during childhood. Method: Participants (N = 94) are initially evaluated when they are aged between 7 and 11 and reassessed when they are aged between 16 and 22…

  12. Increased Sleep Disturbances in Thai Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Compared With Typically Developing Children.

    PubMed

    Chiraphadhanakul, Kobrat; Jaimchariyatam, Nattapong; Pruksananonda, Chandhita; Chonchaiya, Weerasak

    2016-01-01

    This study compares sleep disturbances in Thai children aged 5-12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing children using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ)-Thai version. Fifty-five children with ADHD and 110 typically developing children were enrolled. Their parents completed the CSHQ, the ADHD rating scales, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Children with ADHD had significantly higher scores in all subscales of the CSHQ compared to controls. Among children with ADHD, children with higher SDQ scores (> 15) appeared to have more sleep disturbances than those with relatively lower SDQ scores. Moreover, fewer sleep-related behavioral problems were observed in the medication treated group, which is particularly new to the field and for some perhaps not unexpected clinically. PMID:26629892

  13. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults With ADHD and Adults With Other Psychiatric Disorders: The Issue of Specificity.

    PubMed

    Holst, Ylva; Thorell, Lisa B

    2013-10-17

    Objective: The aim was to investigate how well neuropsychological measures can discriminate between adults with ADHD and those with other psychiatric disorders. Method: Adults with ADHD and a clinical control group (n = 110) were included. Neuropsychological functioning was investigated using measures of inhibition, working memory, set shifting, planning, fluency, reaction-time variability, and delay aversion. Results: Adults with ADHD performed more poorly compared with clinical controls with regard to all constructs. The effects of verbal memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, and delay aversion remained significant when controlling for IQ. However, when controlling for basic cognitive functions, only the effects of inhibition, fluency, and delay aversion were significant. Sensitivity ranged between 64% and 75%, and specificity between 66% and 81%. Conclusion: Neuropsychological tests have a relatively poor ability to discriminate between adults with ADHD and clinical controls, but they may be used to identify individuals at particularly high risk for poor daily functioning. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24134875

  14. Prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome in Adult ADHD and Its Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Snitselaar, Mark A; Smits, Marcel G; Spijker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this observational cross-sectional study, 49 subjects were assessed for sleep disorders and for ADHD symptoms. Thirty-six received an ADHD diagnosis (29: combined type (ADHD-C); 7: inattentive type). An RLS and RLS symptoms prevalence of 34.5% was found, with a higher prevalence rate in the ADHD-C subgroup, although not significantly (p = 0.066). RLS symptoms were correlated with particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity (ρ = 0.742; p: 0.000). ADHD patients with positive RLS scores reported higher scores on the ADHD-Rating scale compared with patients with negative RLS scores (Z: -2.968, p = 0.003), mainly due to higher hyperactivity-impulsivity scores (Z: -3.145; p = 0.002). Our findings show that clinicians need to be aware of RLS among adult ADHD patients, particularly those with severe hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. PMID:26418664

  15. Reduced intrasubject variability with reinforcement in boys, but not girls, with ADHD: Associations with prefrontal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Rosch, Keri S; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the impact of motivational contingencies (reinforcement and punishment) on go/no-go (GNG) task performance in girls and boys with ADHD relative to typically developing (TD) children and associations with prefrontal anatomy. Children ages 8-12 with ADHD (n=107, 36 girls) and TD controls (n=95, 34 girls) completed a standard and a motivational GNG task and associations with prefrontal cortex (PFC) surface area were examined. Intrasubject variability (ISV) was lower during the motivational compared to the standard GNG among TD girls and boys, and boys with ADHD, but not among girls with ADHD. A greater reduction in ISV was associated with greater PFC surface area among children with ADHD. This novel demonstration of improvement in ISV with motivational contingencies for boys, but not girls, with ADHD and associations with PFC anatomy informs our understanding of sex differences and motivational factors contributing to ISV in children with ADHD.

  16. Feedback May Harm: Role of Feedback in Probabilistic Decision Making of Adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Yehuda; Shoham, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Inept probabilistic decision making is commonly associated with ADHD. In experimental designs aimed to model probabilistic decision making in ADHD, feedback following each choice was, in the majority of studies, part of the paradigm. This study examined whether feedback processing plays a role in the maladaptive choice behavior of subjects with ADHD by comparing feedback and no-feedback conditions. Sixty adolescents (49 males), ages 13-18, with and without ADHD, performed a descriptive probabilistic choice task in which outcomes and probabilities were explicitly provided. Subjects performed the task either with or without feedback. Under the no-feedback condition, adolescents with ADHD and controls performed similarly, whereas under the feedback condition, subjects with ADHD chose the unfavorable outcomes more frequently and risked smaller sums than controls. These finding demonstrate the crucial role of feedback in the decision making of adolescents with ADHD.

  17. Reduced intrasubject variability with reinforcement in boys, but not girls, with ADHD: Associations with prefrontal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Rosch, Keri S.; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of motivational contingencies (reinforcement and punishment) on Go/No-Go (GNG) task performance in girls and boys with ADHD relative to typically developing (TD) children and associations with prefrontal anatomy. Children ages 8–12 with ADHD (n=107, 36 girls) and TD controls (n=95, 34 girls) completed a standard and a motivational GNG task and associations with prefrontal cortex (PFC) surface area were examined. Intrasubject variability (ISV) was lower during the motivational compared to the standard GNG among TD girls and boys, and boys with ADHD, but not among girls with ADHD. A greater reduction in ISV was associated with greater PFC surface area among children with ADHD. This novel demonstration of improvement in ISV with motivational contingencies for boys, but not girls, with ADHD and associations with PFC anatomy informs our understanding of sex differences and motivational factors contributing to ISV in children with ADHD. PMID:26141238

  18. Reduced intrasubject variability with reinforcement in boys, but not girls, with ADHD: Associations with prefrontal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Rosch, Keri S; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the impact of motivational contingencies (reinforcement and punishment) on go/no-go (GNG) task performance in girls and boys with ADHD relative to typically developing (TD) children and associations with prefrontal anatomy. Children ages 8-12 with ADHD (n=107, 36 girls) and TD controls (n=95, 34 girls) completed a standard and a motivational GNG task and associations with prefrontal cortex (PFC) surface area were examined. Intrasubject variability (ISV) was lower during the motivational compared to the standard GNG among TD girls and boys, and boys with ADHD, but not among girls with ADHD. A greater reduction in ISV was associated with greater PFC surface area among children with ADHD. This novel demonstration of improvement in ISV with motivational contingencies for boys, but not girls, with ADHD and associations with PFC anatomy informs our understanding of sex differences and motivational factors contributing to ISV in children with ADHD. PMID:26141238

  19. Event-related fMRI of inhibitory control in the Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Subtypes of AD/HD

    PubMed Central

    Solanto, Mary V.; Schulz, Kurt P.; Fan, Jin; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose To examine the neurophysiological basis for the pronounced differences in hyperactivity and impulsiveness that distinguish the Predominantly Inattentive type of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-PI) from the combined type of the disorder (ADHD-C). Methods Event-related brain responses to a go/no-go test of inhibitory control were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 11 children with ADHD-C and nine children with ADHD-PI, aged 7 to 13 years, who were matched for age, sex, and intelligence. Results There were no significant group differences in task performance. Children with ADHD-C and ADHD-PI activated overlapping regions of right inferior frontal gyrus, right superior temporal lobe, and left inferior parietal lobe during inhibitory control. However, the magnitude of the activation in the temporal and parietal regions, as well as in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, was greater in children with ADHD-PI than those with ADHD-C. Conversely, children with ADHD-C activated bilateral medial occipital lobe to a greater extent than children with ADHD-PI. Conclusions The results provide preliminary evidence that phenotypic differences between the ADHD-C and ADHD-PI subtypes are associated with differential activation of regions that have previously been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD and are thought to mediate executive and attentional processes. PMID:19594667

  20. Unveiling the mystery about adult ADHD: one woman's journey.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta; Ivey, Nicole

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurobiological disorder, affects millions of individuals and can significantly impact an individual's life course. Research guidelines used in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment have focused primarily on Caucasian males generating, in part, the need to redress how gender and other contextual factors are considered. Consequently many women and persons from diverse cultural groups can be ignored or misdiagnosed. Undiagnosed and untreated women with ADHD are therefore limited in their potential to flourish socially, academically, interpersonally, and in their family roles. This case example of a 38-year-old African American woman illustrates how her life journey was affected by undiagnosed ADHD. PMID:19657868

  1. Comparative Genomics of the Staphylococcus intermedius Group of Animal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Beatson, Scott A.; van den Broek, Adri H. M.; Thoday, Keith L.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2012-01-01

    The Staphylococcus intermedius group consists of three closely related coagulase-positive bacterial species including S. intermedius, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, and Staphylococcus delphini. S. pseudintermedius is a major skin pathogen of dogs, which occasionally causes severe zoonotic infections of humans. S. delphini has been isolated from an array of different animals including horses, mink, and pigeons, whereas S. intermedius has been isolated only from pigeons to date. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the S. pseudintermedius whole genome sequence in comparison to high quality draft S. intermedius and S. delphini genomes, and to other sequenced staphylococcal species. The core genome of the SIG was highly conserved with average nucleotide identity (ANI) between the three species of 93.61%, which is very close to the threshold of species delineation (95% ANI), highlighting the close-relatedness of the SIG species. However, considerable variation was identified in the content of mobile genetic elements, cell wall-associated proteins, and iron and sugar transporters, reflecting the distinct ecological niches inhabited. Of note, S. pseudintermedius ED99 contained a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat locus of the Nmeni subtype and S. intermedius contained both Nmeni and Mtube subtypes. In contrast to S. intermedius and S. delphini and most other staphylococci examined to date, S. pseudintermedius contained at least nine predicted reverse transcriptase Group II introns. Furthermore, S. pseudintermedius ED99 encoded several transposons which were largely responsible for its multi-resistant phenotype. Overall, the study highlights extensive differences in accessory genome content between closely related staphylococcal species inhabiting distinct host niches, providing new avenues for research into pathogenesis and bacterial host-adaptation. PMID:22919635

  2. Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Brooke S.G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Pelham, William E.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Wells, Karen C.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D.; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R.; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n=436); to test whether (a) medication at follow-up, (b) cumulative psychostimulant treatment over time, or (c) both relate to substance use/SUD; to compare substance use/SUD in the ADHD sample to the non-ADHD childhood classmate comparison group (n=261). Method Mixed-effects regression models with planned contrasts were used for all tests except the important cumulative stimulant treatment question, for which propensity score matching analysis was used. Results The originally randomized treatment groups did not differ significantly on substance use/SUD by the 8 year follow-up or earlier (M age = 17 years). Neither medication at follow-up (mostly stimulants) nor cumulative stimulant treatment was associated with adolescent substance use/SUD. Substance use at all time points, including use of two or more substances and SUD, were each greater in the ADHD than non-ADHD samples, regardless of sex. Conclusions Medication for ADHD did not protect from, nor contribute to, visible risk of substance use or SUD by adolescence, whether analyzed as randomized treatment assignment in childhood, as medication at follow-up, or as cumulative stimulant treatment over an 8 year follow-up from childhood. These results suggest the need to identify alternative or adjunctive adolescent-focused approaches to substance abuse prevention and treatment for boys and girls with ADHD, especially given their increased risk for use and abuse of multiple substances that is not improved with stimulant medication. Clinical trial registration information—Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://clinical trials.gov/; NCT00000388. PMID:23452682

  3. Private Speech in Children with ADHD and Their Typically Developing Peers during Problem-Solving and Inhibition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkum, Penny; Humphries, Kelly; Mullane, Jennifer C.; Theriault, France

    2008-01-01

    This study compared private speech of children with ADHD and normal controls during problem solving and inhibition tasks. Thirty-two children (16 children with ADHD and 16 matched controls) aged 6-11 years participated. Consistent with previous studies, children with ADHD produced more task-irrelevant and task-relevant external private speech than…

  4. A Comparison of Problem Behavior Profiles in Turkish Children with AD/HD and Non-AD/HD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: There is an increasing number of studies describing the symptoms of ADHD among school-age children in western cultures. Yet, studies on children with ADHD living in non-western cultures are limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare problem behavior profiles of Turkish children with AD/HD and non-AD/HD children. Method:…

  5. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  6. [Analyze and compare metabolic pathways of Bacillus cereus group].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Cheng-Chen; He, Jin; Zhang, Qing-Ye; Yu, Zi-Niu

    2011-10-01

    A large number of data and information was obtained from genome sequencing and high-throughput genomic studies, use of the information to study metabolic networks become a new hotspot in biological research. This article compared different methods to reconstruct metabolic networks and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of each methods, and then introduced some researches about carbohydrate metabolism pathways, amino acid metabolic pathways, and energy metabolism pathways of 9 strains of Bacillus cereus, 6 strains of B. anthracis,,6 strain of B. thuringiensis, and finds out their similarities and characteristics. These three strains have some necessary metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, tri-carboxylic acid cycle, alanine metabolism, histidine metabolism, and energy metabolism, but they may have some specific pathways. B cereus has higher efficiency in utilizing monosaccharide, B. anthracis is rich in degradation and transport pathways of amino acids. A glutamate metabolic bypass way exists in B. thuringiensis. Analysis of metabolic pathways provides a new way to study and use food toxin, anthrax toxin, and insecticidal toxin of these strains in future.

  7. Collaborative Group Learning Approaches for Teaching Comparative Planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    Modern science education reform documents propose that the teaching of contemporary students should focus on doing science, rather than simply memorizing science. Duschl, Schweingruber, and Shouse (2007) eloquently argue for four science proficiencies for students. Students should: (i) Know, use, and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world; (ii) Generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations; (iii) Understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge; and (iv) Participate productively in scientific practices and discourse. In response, scholars with the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are creating and field-tested two separate instructional approaches. The first of these is a series of computer-mediated, inquiry learning experiences for non-science majoring undergraduates based upon an inquiry-oriented teaching approach framed by the notions of backwards faded-scaffolding as an overarching theme for instruction. Backwards faded-scaffolding is a strategy where the conventional and rigidly linear scientific method is turned on its head and students are first taught how to create conclusions based on evidence, then how experimental design creates evidence, and only at the end introduces students to the most challenging part of inquiry - inventing scientifically appropriate questions. Planetary science databases and virtual environments used by students to conduct scientific investigations include the NASA and JPL Solar System Simulator and Eyes on the Solar System as well as the USGS Moon and Mars Global GIS Viewers. The second of these is known widely as a Lecture-Tutorial approach. Lecture-Tutorials are self-contained, collaborative group activities. The materials are designed specifically to be easily integrated into the lecture course and directly address the needs of busy and heavily-loaded teaching faculty for effective, student-centered, classroom-ready materials that do not require a drastic course

  8. Executive Functions in Girls with ADHD Followed Prospectively into Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Meghan; Ho, Jennifer; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Overview We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with ADHD (n = 140) and a matched comparison group (n = 88) into young adulthood (Mage = 19.6), 10 years after childhood initial assessments, to evaluate neuropsychological functioning. We hypothesized that neuropsychological deficits would persist through young adulthood for those with ADHD, and that those with continuing ADHD symptomatology in young adulthood would show the largest impairments. Method Neuropsychological measures at follow-up emphasized executive functions (EF) including planning, organization, inhibitory control, sustained attention, working memory, and set shifting. Results Parallel to findings from childhood and adolescence, the girls with childhood-diagnosed ADHD displayed medium to large deficits in EF relative to comparisons at follow-up, even with statistical control of baseline demographic and comorbidity variables. The addition of IQ as a covariate attenuated differences but several remained significant. Comparisons between the inattentive and combined subtypes of ADHD yielded nonsignificant results with small effect sizes. EF impairments were evident in both participants whose ADHD diagnoses persisted and in those whose ADHD symptoms had remitted to a non-diagnosable level; both subgroups had more EF deficits than those who did not meet criteria for ADHD in either childhood or young adulthood. Conclusions Those in both the persistent and remitted ADHD groups showed impairments in EF relative to comparisons and generally did not differ from each other. Overall, childhood ADHD in girls portends neuropsychological/EF deficits that persist for at least 10 years. PMID:22468822

  9. Expressive writing difficulties in children described as exhibiting ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Re, Anna Maria; Pedron, Martina; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2007-01-01

    Three groups of children of different ages who were considered by their teachers as showing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls were tested in a series of expressive writing tasks, derived from a standardized writing test. In the first study, 24 sixth- and seventh-grade children with ADHD symptoms wrote a description of an image. The ADHD group's expressive writing was worse than that of the control group and associated with a higher number of errors, mainly concerning accents and geminates. The second study showed the generality of the effect by testing younger groups of children with ADHD symptoms and controls with another description task where a verbal description was substituted for the picture stimulus. The third study extended the previous observations with another type of writing task, the request of writing a narrative text. In all the three studies, children with ADHD symptoms scored lower than controls on four qualitative parameters (adequacy, structure, grammar, and lexicon), produced shorter texts, and made more errors. These studies show that children with ADHD symptoms have school difficulties also in writing-both in spelling and expression-and that these difficulties are extended to different tasks and ages.

  10. ADHD, Culture and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ilina

    2008-01-01

    This article is a socio-historical account of the development of the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and methylphenidate treatment in America, attending particularly to the political and institutional contexts that have supported this development. Historical developments in early-mid-twentieth-century America frame a…

  11. Treating ADHD with Agomelatine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Agomelatine is a relatively new antidepressant, with affinities to MT1 and MT2 (responsible for the circadian rhythm) as well as to 5-HT2C receptors. Since antidepressants have demonstrated some benefit in the treatment of ADH and because of the fact, that ADHD is often associated with sleep disorders, we assumed, that it might be a…

  12. Colour Perception in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  13. Institutional care and iron deficiency increase ADHD symptomology and lower IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption.

    PubMed

    Doom, Jenalee R; Georgieff, Michael K; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-05-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar, Stellern, Schaefer, Carlson & Gunnar, 2012; Kreppner, O'Connor & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt brain development (Fuglestad, Rao & Georgieff, 2008b). In this study, IA children were compared to children raised in their biological families to examine differences in ADHD symptomology and IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption and to assess the contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation to these cognitive outcomes. ADHD symptoms (parent- and experimenter-reported) and IQ were evaluated in 88 IA (M = 62.1 months, SD = 2.4) and 35 non-adopted children (M = 61.4 months, SD = 1.6). IA children were assessed 29-64 months post-adoption (M = 41.9 months, SD = 10.2). ID was assessed during the initial post-adoption medical visit in 69 children, and children were classified into four groups by iron status, ranging from normal to ID anemia (most severe). IA children had greater ADHD symptomology, p < .01, and lower IQ, p = .001, than non-adopted children. Within the IA group, children with more severe ID at adoption had greater ADHD symptomology, r(69) = 0.40, p = .001, and lower IQ, r(68) = -0.28, p < .05. Duration of institutional care was positively correlated with ADHD symptoms, r(86) = .28, p < .01, but not IQ, r(85) = -.08, p = .52. Longitudinal results indicate improvement in IQ from 12 months post-adoption to age 5 for children with greater ID severity at adoption and longer duration of institutional care but no improvement in ADHD symptoms. These results signify continuing effects of early deprivation and ID on ADHD symptoms and IQ years after adoption. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUFDAS3DD1c.

  14. Institutional care and iron deficiency increase ADHD symptomology and lower IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption.

    PubMed

    Doom, Jenalee R; Georgieff, Michael K; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-05-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar, Stellern, Schaefer, Carlson & Gunnar, 2012; Kreppner, O'Connor & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt brain development (Fuglestad, Rao & Georgieff, 2008b). In this study, IA children were compared to children raised in their biological families to examine differences in ADHD symptomology and IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption and to assess the contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation to these cognitive outcomes. ADHD symptoms (parent- and experimenter-reported) and IQ were evaluated in 88 IA (M = 62.1 months, SD = 2.4) and 35 non-adopted children (M = 61.4 months, SD = 1.6). IA children were assessed 29-64 months post-adoption (M = 41.9 months, SD = 10.2). ID was assessed during the initial post-adoption medical visit in 69 children, and children were classified into four groups by iron status, ranging from normal to ID anemia (most severe). IA children had greater ADHD symptomology, p < .01, and lower IQ, p = .001, than non-adopted children. Within the IA group, children with more severe ID at adoption had greater ADHD symptomology, r(69) = 0.40, p = .001, and lower IQ, r(68) = -0.28, p < .05. Duration of institutional care was positively correlated with ADHD symptoms, r(86) = .28, p < .01, but not IQ, r(85) = -.08, p = .52. Longitudinal results indicate improvement in IQ from 12 months post-adoption to age 5 for children with greater ID severity at adoption and longer duration of institutional care but no improvement in ADHD symptoms. These results signify continuing effects of early deprivation and ID on ADHD symptoms and IQ years after adoption. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUFDAS3DD1c. PMID:25070881

  15. The prevalence of ADHD in a population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Andrew S.; Skipper, Betty J.; Umbach, David M.; Rabiner, David L.; Campbell, Richard A.; Naftel, A. Jack; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Few studies of ADHD prevalence have used population-based samples, multiple informants, and DSM-IV criteria. In addition, children who are asymptomatic while receiving ADHD mediction often have been misclassified. Therefore, we conducted a population-based study to estimate the prevalence of ADHD in elementary school children using DSM-IV critera. Methods We screened 7587 children for ADHD. Teachers of 81% of the children completed a DSM-IV checklist. We then interviewed parents using a structured interview (DISC). Of these, 72% participated. Parent and teacher ratings were combined to determine ADHD status. We also estimated the proportion of cases attributable to other conditions. Results Overall, 15.5% of our sample (95% confidence interval (C.I.) 14.6%-16.4%) met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD. Over 40% of cases reported no previous diagnosis. With additional information, other conditions explained about 9% of cases. Conclusions The prevalence of ADHD in this population-based sample was higher than the 3-7% commonly reported. To compare study results, the methods used to implement the DSM criteria need to be standardized. PMID:24336124

  16. Gait abnormalities, ADHD, and environmental exposure to nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Keith

    2016-08-30

    Papadopoulos et al. (2014) investigated gait profiles of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type (ADHD-CT) compared to typical developing (TD) controls. The authors reported differences in the gait profile of ADHD-CT in the self-selected fast speed category. Additionally, others have proposed a maturational delay hypothesis in gait, demonstrating that gait variability decreases with age in ADHD children. It has been previously suggested that the cognitive impairment seen in conditions like ADHD may result from chronic, environmental exposure to the air pollutant, nitrous oxide (N2O). Exposure to N2O is thought to exert its antinociceptive properties by stimulating release of dynorphin peptides in the central nervous system which act upon kappa opioid receptors (KOR). Opioid-mediated gait abnormalities in ADHD are supported with evidence that prodynorphin mutations in mice lead to cytotoxic levels of dynorphin A (DYN A) and contribute to abnormal gait profiles and gradual loss of motor coordination. Interestingly, constitutive activity of the KOR receptor in rat brain has been recently shown to undergo maturational alterations, suggesting that while altered gait profiles in ADHD may be a function of the enhanced opioidergic activity attributable to chronic exposure to the environmental air pollutant, N2O, age-attenuated constitutive activity of KOR in brain may explain the normalization of these altered gait profiles in older ADHD subjects. PMID:27285951

  17. 1H MRSI of middle frontal gyrus in pediatric ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tafazoli, Sharwin; O'Neill, Joseph; Bejjani, Anthony; Ly, Ronald; Salamon, Noriko; McCracken, James T; Alger, Jeffry R; Levitt, Jennifer G

    2013-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies in multiple modalities have implicated the left or right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (here, middle frontal gyrus) in attentional functions, in ADHD, and in dopamine agonist treatment of ADHD. The far lateral location of this cortex in the brain, however, has made it difficult to study with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We used the smaller voxel sizes of the magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) variant of MRS, acquired at a steep coronal-oblique angle to sample bilateral middle frontal gyrus in 13 children and adolescents with ADHD and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Within a subsample of the ADHD patients, aspects of attention were also assessed with the Trail Making Task. In right middle frontal gyrus only, mean levels of N-acetyl-aspartate + N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (tNAA), creatine + phosphocreatine (Cr), choline-compounds (Cho), and myo-inositol (mI) were significantly lower in the ADHD than in the control sample. In the ADHD patients, lower right middle frontal Cr was associated with worse performance on Trails A and B (focused attention, concentration, set-shifting), while the opposite relationship held true for the control group on Trails B. These findings add to evidence implicating right middle frontal cortex in ADHD. Lower levels of these multiple species may reflect osmotic adjustment to elevated prefrontal cortical perfusion in ADHD and/or a previously hypothesized defect in astrocytic production of lactate in ADHD resulting in decelerated energetic metabolism (Cr), membrane synthesis (Cho, mI), and acetyl-CoA substrate for NAA synthesis. Lower Cr levels may indicate attentional or executive impairments. PMID:23273650

  18. Increased levels of serum neopterin in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Mehmet Fatih; Uneri, Ozden Sukran; Guney, Esra; Ergin, Merve; Alisik, Murat; Goker, Zeynep; Senses Dinc, Gulser; Karaca Kara, Fatma; Erel, Ozcan

    2014-08-15

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently occurring neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood with an etiology that is not fully understood. A number of reviews that have addressed the neurobiology of ADHD have focused on imaging and genetics. Relatively little attention has been given to factors/mechanisms involved in the brain dysfunction. We suggest that changes in cellular immunity may be involved. Neopterin is a good indicator of cellular immunity, and we evaluated serum levels of neopterin in patients with ADHD. The study group consisted of 49 patients with ADHD. An age- and gender-matched control group was composed of 31 healthy subjects. Venous blood samples were collected, and the levels of neopterin were measured. The levels of neopterin were significantly higher in ADHD than in the comparison subjects. Cellular immunity may have a role in the etiopathogenesis of ADHD.

  19. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Treatment What medicines are used to treat ADHD? Some of the medicines for ADHD are called psychostimulants. Some of these ...

  20. The Integration of the Neurosciences, Child Public Health, and Education Practice: Hemisphere-Specific Remediation Strategies as a Discipline Partnered Rehabilitation Tool in ADD/ADHD.

    PubMed

    Leisman, Gerry; Mualem, Raed; Machado, Calixto

    2013-01-01

    displayed a significant improvement in behavior with a reduction in Brown scale behavioral scores. Non-treated control participants did not exhibit significant differences during the same 12 week period in academic measurements. Controls were significantly different from treatment participants in all domains after a 12-week period. The non-treatment group also demonstrated an increase in behavioral scores and increased symptoms of ADD/ADHD over the same time period when compared to the treated group. Results are discussed in the context of the concept of functional disconnectivity in ADD/ADHD children. PMID:24350191

  1. Outcomes of Group Care for Youth: A Review of Comparative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bethany R.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Svoboda, Deborah V.; Fakunmoju, Sunday; Barth, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review empirical evidence of the effects of placement in group care compared to other interventions. Method: Two-group empirical studies were identified and effect sizes for all reported outcomes were calculated. Results: Nineteen two-group studies were found that compared group care with family foster…

  2. [Atomoxetine: a new treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Fourneret, P; Wohl, M; Rénéric, J-P

    2005-01-01

    trials, a multiple dose study, a once-daily dose study. The first two pivotal trials were carried out in ADHD children aged 7-13 years, treated with atomoxetine vs placebo for a duration of 9 weeks. Patients presenting comorbidities (ie conduct disorder, -anxiety, depression) as well as a history of previous treatment with methylphenidate were also eligible to participate. The primary outcome was the reduction of the score on the ADHD rating scale, ADHD-RS ; secondary criteria included the responder's rate (patients with an ADHD-RS score reduction of 25% or above), the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners Parent Rating Scale. With a mean dose of 1.5 mg/kg/day, atomoxetine showed a significant reduction of mean ADHD-RS scores at endpoint (ANOVA, p<0.001) (table II). Yet, the clinical significance of both studies is limited since efficacy was scored only in a social/familial setting and not in classroom conditions. In addition, intermediate results from baseline to endpoint were not presented in the publication. The multiple dose trial showed a significant reduction of the symptom score at the 1.2 and 1.8 mg/kg/day doses. The objective of the last study was to assess the efficacy of a single daily dose of atomoxetine versus placebo during a 6 week-treatment. Patients were evaluated by parents, investigators, as well as by teachers. The superiority of atomoxetine was demonstrated as compared to the placebo and the effect size of the daily dosing was similar to that reported with multiple doses. Preliminary data on ADHD patients presenting comorbidities showed that atomoxetine alone signi-ficantly reduced the symptom scores of anxiety and depression and similarly to atomoxetine associated with fluoxetine. In ADHD children with the oppositional defiant disorder, oppositional symptoms were reduced in the group receiving atomoxetine 1.8 mg/kg/day. Preliminary results in children with ADHD and chronic tics or Tourette syndrome showed a significant reduction of ADHD

  3. Gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Ho, Chung-Han

    2016-10-30

    To verify the hypothesis that there is different gender ratio of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting among Asian population. The nationwide population-based database containing data on enrollees in the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan during 2000-2007 was used in this study, and we investigated the lifetime gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence in healthcare-seeking ADHD patients (n=228,029). The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of child/adolescent ADHD (age <20 years) ranged from 3.39 to 4.07 and 3.87-4.31, respectively. The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of ADHD in the adult group (age 20-65 years) ranged from 0.24 to 0.76 and 0.35-0.98, respectively. In conclusion, there was substantially increased female-to-male ratio in adults ADHD compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting. Further researches on the management and mechanism are needed. PMID:27525828

  4. Gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Ho, Chung-Han

    2016-10-30

    To verify the hypothesis that there is different gender ratio of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting among Asian population. The nationwide population-based database containing data on enrollees in the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan during 2000-2007 was used in this study, and we investigated the lifetime gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence in healthcare-seeking ADHD patients (n=228,029). The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of child/adolescent ADHD (age <20 years) ranged from 3.39 to 4.07 and 3.87-4.31, respectively. The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of ADHD in the adult group (age 20-65 years) ranged from 0.24 to 0.76 and 0.35-0.98, respectively. In conclusion, there was substantially increased female-to-male ratio in adults ADHD compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting. Further researches on the management and mechanism are needed.

  5. [ADHD and conduct disorder: trends in diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Petermann, Franz; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Since 2010 trends outlined in diagnosis and therapy in the German speaking countries in the area of externalizing disorders (ADHD, conduct disorder) are presented. In particular, publications of children and adolescent psychiatry and clinical psychology have been examined. It turns out that in the German-speaking countries, the concern with conduct disorder (including psychopathy) increased compared with the discussion of the significance of ADHD. This development reflects the important therapeutic challenge of conduct disorders. PMID:23057241

  6. Poverty and the Growth of Emotional and Conduct Problems in Children with Autism With and Without Comorbid ADHD.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Charman, Tony; Sarmadi, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the longitudinal relationship between socio-economic disadvantage (SED) and trajectories of emotional and conduct problems among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; ASD + ADHD) or not (ASD - ADHD). The sample was 209 children with ASD who took part in the UK's Millennium Cohort Study. Trajectories of problems across ages 3, 5 and 7 years were analyzed using growth curve models. The ASD - ADHD group decreased in conduct problems over time but the ASD + ADHD group continued on a high trajectory. Although SED was not a risk factor for ASD + ADHD, it was associated with elevated emotional problems among children with ASD + ADHD. This effect of SED on emotional problems was not attenuated by parenting or peer problems.

  7. A Systematic Review of Global Publication Trends Regarding Long-Term Outcomes of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkins, Paul; Arnold, L. Eugene; Shaw, Monica; Caci, Hervé; Kahle, Jennifer; Woods, Alisa G; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    There is increased global recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a serious medical condition with long-term consequences. Although originally conceived of as a childhood disorder, ADHD is being increasingly recognized in adults. Individual geographic regions may have specific interests and objectives for the study of ADHD. A systematic review of long-term outcomes (LTOs) in ADHD was conducted to evaluate research on ADHD LTOs on a global scale. Studies that were at least 2 years in duration were examined. A total of 351 studies were identified in the final analysis. We identified nine outcomes of interest and classified studies by specific geographical regions, age groups studied and study design by region and over time. Published studies of LTOs in ADHD have increased in all geographical regions over the past three decades, with a peak number of 42 publications in 2008. This rise in publications on ADHD LTOs may reflect a rise in global interest and recognition of consequences and impairment associated with ADHD. Although many world regions have published on ADHD LTOs, the majority of studies have emerged from the US and Canada, followed by Europe. While investigators in the US and Canada were predominantly interested in drug addiction as a LTO, European researchers were more interested in antisocial behavior, and Eastern Asian investigators focused on both of these LTOs as well as self-esteem. Geographical differences in the focus of ADHD LTO studies may reflect regional variations in cultural values. Proportionally fewer prospective longitudinal studies and proportionally more retrospective and cross-sectional studies have been published in more recent decades. Finally, more studies focusing on ADHD in adolescents and adults have been conducted in recent years, and particularly adolescents in Eastern Asia. These changes in basic study design may reflect an increase in the recognition that ADHD is a lifetime chronic disorder. This

  8. A systematic review of global publication trends regarding long-term outcomes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, Paul; Arnold, L Eugene; Shaw, Monica; Caci, Hervé; Kahle, Jennifer; Woods, Alisa G; Young, Susan

    2011-01-01

    There is increased global recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a serious medical condition with long-term consequences. Although originally conceived of as a childhood disorder, ADHD is being increasingly recognized in adults. Individual geographic regions may have specific interests and objectives for the study of ADHD. A systematic review of long-term outcomes (LTOs) in ADHD was conducted to evaluate research on ADHD LTOs on a global scale. Studies that were at least 2 years in duration were examined. A total of 351 studies were identified in the final analysis. We identified nine outcomes of interest and classified studies by specific geographical regions, age groups studied and study design by region and over time. Published studies of LTOs in ADHD have increased in all geographical regions over the past three decades, with a peak number of 42 publications in 2008. This rise in publications on ADHD LTOs may reflect a rise in global interest and recognition of consequences and impairment associated with ADHD. Although many world regions have published on ADHD LTOs, the majority of studies have emerged from the US and Canada, followed by Europe. While investigators in the US and Canada were predominantly interested in drug addiction as a LTO, European researchers were more interested in antisocial behavior, and Eastern Asian investigators focused on both of these LTOs as well as self-esteem. Geographical differences in the focus of ADHD LTO studies may reflect regional variations in cultural values. Proportionally fewer prospective longitudinal studies and proportionally more retrospective and cross-sectional studies have been published in more recent decades. Finally, more studies focusing on ADHD in adolescents and adults have been conducted in recent years, and particularly adolescents in Eastern Asia. These changes in basic study design may reflect an increase in the recognition that ADHD is a lifetime chronic disorder. This

  9. A systematic review of global publication trends regarding long-term outcomes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, Paul; Arnold, L Eugene; Shaw, Monica; Caci, Hervé; Kahle, Jennifer; Woods, Alisa G; Young, Susan

    2011-01-01

    There is increased global recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a serious medical condition with long-term consequences. Although originally conceived of as a childhood disorder, ADHD is being increasingly recognized in adults. Individual geographic regions may have specific interests and objectives for the study of ADHD. A systematic review of long-term outcomes (LTOs) in ADHD was conducted to evaluate research on ADHD LTOs on a global scale. Studies that were at least 2 years in duration were examined. A total of 351 studies were identified in the final analysis. We identified nine outcomes of interest and classified studies by specific geographical regions, age groups studied and study design by region and over time. Published studies of LTOs in ADHD have increased in all geographical regions over the past three decades, with a peak number of 42 publications in 2008. This rise in publications on ADHD LTOs may reflect a rise in global interest and recognition of consequences and impairment associated with ADHD. Although many world regions have published on ADHD LTOs, the majority of studies have emerged from the US and Canada, followed by Europe. While investigators in the US and Canada were predominantly interested in drug addiction as a LTO, European researchers were more interested in antisocial behavior, and Eastern Asian investigators focused on both of these LTOs as well as self-esteem. Geographical differences in the focus of ADHD LTO studies may reflect regional variations in cultural values. Proportionally fewer prospective longitudinal studies and proportionally more retrospective and cross-sectional studies have been published in more recent decades. Finally, more studies focusing on ADHD in adolescents and adults have been conducted in recent years, and particularly adolescents in Eastern Asia. These changes in basic study design may reflect an increase in the recognition that ADHD is a lifetime chronic disorder. This

  10. Caudate asymmetry is related to attentional impulsivity and an objective measure of ADHD-like attentional problems in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Dang, Linh C; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Young, Jacob S; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2016-01-01

    Case-control studies comparing ADHD with typically developing individuals suggest that anatomical asymmetry of the caudate nucleus is a marker of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is no consensus on whether the asymmetry favors the right or left caudate nucleus in ADHD, or whether the asymmetry is increased or decreased in ADHD. The current study aimed to clarify this relationship by applying a dimensional approach to assessing ADHD symptoms that, instead of relying on clinical classification, utilizes the natural behavioral continuum of traits related to ADHD. Structural T1-weighted MRI was collected from 71 adults between 18 and 35 years and analyzed for caudate asymmetry. ADHD-like attentional symptoms were assessed with an objective measure of attentional problems, the ADHD score from the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Impulsivity, a core feature in ADHD, was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a self-report measure that assesses attentional, non-planning, and motor features of impulsivity. We found that larger right relative to left caudate volumes correlated with both higher attentional impulsiveness and worse ADHD scores on the TOVA. Higher attentional impulsiveness also correlated with worse ADHD scores, establishing coherence between the objective measure and the self-report measure of attentional problems. These results suggest that a differential passage of information through frontal-striatal networks may produce instability leading to attentional problems. The findings also demonstrate the utility of a dimensional approach to understanding structural correlates of ADHD symptoms.

  11. Individual classification of ADHD children by right prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a go/no-go task as assessed by fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Monden, Yukifumi; Dan, Ippeita; Nagashima, Masako; Dan, Haruka; Uga, Minako; Ikeda, Takahiro; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Gunji, Yuji; Hirano, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Takamichi; Shimoizumi, Hideo; Watanabe, Eiju; Yamagata, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    While a growing body of neurocognitive research has explored the neural substrates associated with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), an objective biomarker for diagnosis has not been established. The advent of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which is a noninvasive and unrestrictive method of functional neuroimaging, raised the possibility of introducing functional neuroimaging diagnosis in young ADHD children. Previously, our fNIRS-based measurements successfully visualized the hypoactivation pattern in the right prefrontal cortex during a go/no-go task in ADHD children compared with typically developing control children at a group level. The current study aimed to explore a method of individual differentiation between ADHD and typically developing control children using multichannel fNIRS, emphasizing how spatial distribution and amplitude of hemodynamic response are associated with inhibition-related right prefrontal dysfunction. Thirty ADHD and thirty typically developing control children underwent a go/no-go task, and their cortical hemodynamics were assessed using fNIRS. We explored specific regions of interest (ROIs) and cut-off amplitudes for cortical activation to distinguish ADHD children from control children. The ROI located on the border of inferior and middle frontal gyri yielded the most accurate discrimination. Furthermore, we adapted well-formed formulae for the constituent channels of the optimized ROI, leading to improved classification accuracy with an area under the curve value of 85% and with 90% sensitivity. Thus, the right prefrontal hypoactivation assessed by fNIRS would serve as a potentially effective biomarker for classifying ADHD children at the individual level. PMID:26266096

  12. Enhanced Physical Activity Improves Selected Outcomes in Children With ADHD: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Song, MinKyoung; Lauseng, Deborah; Lee, Soohee; Nordstrom, Megan; Katch, Victor

    2016-09-01

    This review examines associations between physical activity (PA) and cognitive, behavioral, and physiological outcomes in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We reviewed studies on participants ≤18 years old, published in English between January 1998 and December 2014, in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Reviews. Twenty-six studies were grouped into two categories: those that did and did not account for effects of ADHD medications. The first category showed lower levels of PA and improved cognitive and behavioral outcomes in youth whose ADHD was treated with medications. The second category showed a positive association between PA levels and cognitive and behavioral outcomes in youth whose ADHD was not treated with medications. For both categories of studies, results were inconclusive regarding physiological outcomes. Randomized controlled trials are needed to better clarify the relationship between PA and outcomes in youth with ADHD, and particularly to understand the impact of ADHD medications on that relationship. PMID:27226208

  13. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  14. Verbal fluency in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Georgia; Trott, Kate

    2013-12-01

    It has been increasingly believed that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with lifelong course associated with cognitive difficulties including among others, language production, verbal learning, and verbal fluency. However, research is limited to children and adolescents, and very few researchers have examined the impact of ADHD in adulthood on the cognitive domain. The aim of the present study is to examine the performance of adults, diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, on semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. It is hypothesized that adults with ADHD will perform worse on both tasks than matched controls. Sixty university students (30 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 30 matched controls) of mean age 20.5 participated in the study. They all completed two verbal fluency tasks. The ADHD group had statistically significant lower scores than the non-ADHD group on the phonemic, but not the semantic task. The study provides some evidence that ADHD in childhood has a negative impact on adults' phonemic verbal fluency. This finding could be probably explained by the fact that phonemic fluency is considered more cognitively demanding and impacting more on the frontal lobe functions, known to be impaired in ADHD, than semantic fluency.

  15. Cognitive Load Differentially Impacts Response Control in Girls and Boys with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Karen E; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Rosch, Keri S

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) consistently show impaired response control, including deficits in response inhibition and increased intrasubject variability (ISV) compared to typically-developing (TD) children. However, significantly less research has examined factors that may influence response control in individuals with ADHD, such as task or participant characteristics. The current study extends the literature by examining the impact of increasing cognitive demands on response control in a large sample of 81children with ADHD (40 girls) and 100 TD children (47 girls), ages 8-12 years. Participants completed a simple Go/No-Go (GNG) task with minimal cognitive demands, and a complex GNG task with increased cognitive load. Results showed that increasing cognitive load differentially impacted response control (commission error rate and tau, an ex-Gaussian measure of ISV) for girls, but not boys, with ADHD compared to same-sex TD children. Specifically, a sexually dimorphic pattern emerged such that boys with ADHD demonstrated higher commission error rate and tau on both the simple and complex GNG tasks as compared to TD boys, whereas girls with ADHD did not differ from TD girls on the simple GNG task, but showed higher commission error rate and tau on the complex GNG task. These findings suggest that task complexity influences response control in children with ADHD in a sexually dimorphic manner. The findings have substantive implications for the pathophysiology of ADHD in boys versus girls with ADHD.

  16. Core ADHD Symptom Improvement with Atomoxetine versus Methylphenidate: A Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazell, Philip L.; Kohn, Michael R.; Dickson, Ruth; Walton, Richard J.; Granger, Renee E.; van Wyk, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies comparing atomoxetine and methylphenidate to treat ADHD symptoms have been equivocal. This noninferiority meta-analysis compared core ADHD symptom response between atomoxetine and methylphenidate in children and adolescents. Method: Selection criteria included randomized, controlled design; duration 6 weeks; and…

  17. Is ADHD Diagnosed in Accord with Diagnostic Criteria? Overdiagnosis and Influence of Client Gender on Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruchmuller, Katrin; Margraf, Jurgen; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Unresolved questions exist concerning diagnosis of ADHD. First, some studies suggest a potential overdiagnosis. Second, compared with the male-female ratio in the general population (3:1), many more boys receive ADHD treatment compared with girls (6-9:1). We hypothesized that this occurs because therapists do not adhere to "Diagnostic…

  18. [Adult ADHD versus borderline personality disorder: criteria for differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Witt, O; Brücher, K; Biegel, G; Petermann, F; Schmidt, S

    2014-06-01

    The present study focuses on selected symptom criteria to distinguish between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and borderline personality disorder (BPD). A sample of n = 158 subjects was examined, consisting of BPD patients (n = 37), ADHD patients (n = 58), comorbid BPD/ADHD patients (n = 19), a clinical group of patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of a depressive disorder (DEP; n = 22) and a non-clinical control group (KG; n = 22). Selected symptom criteria were investigated by using the German scales "Skala zur Erfassung der Impulsivität und emotionalen Dysregulation der Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung" (IES-27), "ADHS-Screening für Erwachsene" (ADHS-LE), "Fragebogen zu dissoziativen Symptomen" (FDS) and a scale for the assessment of paranoid and dichotomous thinking (PADI). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that BPD patients differed significantly with respect to self-mutilating behaviour, suicidality, dissociation, paranoia and dichotomy from all other groups. The same effect was found for affect regulation. Furthermore BPD patients differed significantly from ADHD patients by a more severe impulsiveness (IES-27), but not through disturbed impulse control and disinhibition overall. Regarding mean differences between ADHD and BPD patients for attentional control, ADHD patients revealed higher scores which just missed significance. For hyperactivity no significant group differences were found which is assumed to be influenced by symptom overlap like restlessness and aversive tension. The findings suggest that BPD-specific criteria, a stronger affective dysregulation and a higher tendency for autoaggressive impulsive reactions are more selective for differential diagnosis than the core symptoms of adult ADHD. Only attentional control might be a useful criterion for differential diagnosis, which should be examined in future studies.

  19. Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background The behaviour of children with Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder is often described as highly variable, in addition to being hyperactive, impulsive and inattentive. One reason might be that they do not acquire complete and functional sequences of behaviour. The dynamic developmental theory of ADHD proposes that reinforcement and extinction processes are inefficient because of hypofunctioning dopamine systems, resulting in a narrower time window for associating antecedent stimuli and behaviour with its consequences. One effect of this may be that the learning of behavioural sequences is delayed, and that only short behavioural sequences are acquired in ADHD. The present study investigated acquisition of response sequences in the behaviour of children with ADHD. Methods Fifteen boys with ADHD and thirteen boys without, all aged between 6–9 yr, completed a computerized task presented as a game with two squares on the screen. One square was associated with reinforcement. The task required responses by the computer mouse under reinforcement contingencies of variable interval schedules. Reinforcers were cartoon pictures and small trinkets. Measures related to response location (spatial dimension) and to response timing (temporal dimension) were analyzed by autocorrelations of consecutive responses across five lags. Acquired response sequences were defined as predictable responding shown by high explained variance. Results Children with ADHD acquired shorter response sequences than comparison children on the measures related to response location. None of the groups showed any predictability in response timing. Response sequencing on the measure related to the discriminative stimulus was highly related to parent scores on a rating scale for ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The findings suggest that children with ADHD have problems with learning long sequences of behaviour, particularly related to response location. Problems with learning long behavioural

  20. Strategy Selection in ADHD Characteristics Children: A Study in Arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Sella, Francesco; Re, Anna Maria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Cornoldi, Cesare; Lemaire, Patrick

    2012-03-26

    Objective: It has been argued that ADHD characteristics children have difficulties in selecting the best strategy when they accomplish cognitive tasks. The detrimental influence of these poor strategy skills may be crucial for several aspects of academic achievement such as mathematical learning. Method: Fourth- and fifth-grade children with ADHD symptoms and matched controls were asked to select the better of two rounding strategies in a computational estimation task (i.e., finding the best estimate of two-digit addition problems). Results: (a) Both control and ADHD children correctly executed a selected strategy, (b) ADHD children selected the best strategy less often than controls, (c) ADHD took more time to estimate sums of two-digit addition problems and provided poorer estimates, and (d) different factors predicted best strategy selections in each group. Conclusion: These findings have important implications for further understanding the sources of differences in cognitive performance between ADHD and control children. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:22451509

  1. ERP Correlates of Proactive and Reactive Cognitive Control in Treatment-Naïve Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Endestad, Tor; Aasen, Ida Emilia S.; Kropotov, Juri; Knight, Robert Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether treatment naïve adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 33; 19 female) differed from healthy controls (n = 31; 17 female) in behavioral performance, event-related potential (ERP) indices of preparatory attention (CueP3 and late CNV), and reactive response control (Go P3, NoGo N2, and NoGo P3) derived from a visual cued Go/NoGo task. On several critical measures, Cue P3, late CNV, and NoGo N2, there were no significant differences between the groups. This indicated normal preparatory processes and conflict monitoring in ADHD patients. However, the patients had attenuated Go P3 and NoGoP3 amplitudes relative to controls, suggesting reduced allocation of attentional resources to processes involved in response control. The patients also had a higher rate of Go signal omission errors, but no other performance decrements compared with controls. Reduced Go P3 and NoGo P3 amplitudes were associated with poorer task performance, particularly in the ADHD group. Notably, the ERPs were not associated with self-reported mood or anxiety. The results provide electrophysiological evidence for reduced effortful engagement of attentional resources to both Go and NoGo signals when reactive response control is needed. The absence of group differences in ERP components indexing proactive control points to impairments in specific aspects of cognitive processes in an untreated adult ADHD cohort. The associations between ERPs and task performance provided additional support for the altered electrophysiological responses. PMID:27448275

  2. ADHD: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscome, Jennifer; Cunningham, Teddi; Kelley, Heather; Brown, Caitlyn

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of ADHD and to provide evidence-based training interventions for school counselors. An overview of basic information about ADHD will be provided, including diagnosis, presentation, causes, prevalence, and common misconceptions. Evidence-based training…

  3. Contemporary Trends in ADHD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    With many children and adults affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, researchers strive to understand the underpinnings of ADHD and associated factors on both a basic and applied level. The goal of this volume is to explore some of the broad array of research in the field of ADHD. The 12 chapters cover a variety of topics as varied…

  4. Understanding ADHD: Our Personal Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blahy, Tammy Lynn

    2004-01-01

    No good time exists to face the realities of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children across the United States and Canada are accompanied to clinics and schools by frightened, worried parents. In the book, In Understanding ADHD (2001), Ken and Andrea McCluskey bring to life the realities of the everyday journey of coping with…

  5. Adaptations for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrady, Mart

    2005-01-01

    ADHD is a neurobiological-based brain disorder, most often hereditary, affecting nearly one in twenty students. The ADHD brain functions differently because the area between the frontal lobe and rear lobe is having short-circuit problems and is not transmitting necessary information. The technical part of the disorder does not engage us as…

  6. Comparison between the efficacies of Risperidone with Haloperidol in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among preschoolers: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Forough; Tashakori, Ashraf; Abdi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disease with a worldwide pooled prevalence of 5.29%. Objective To compare the efficacy of Risperidone with Haloperidol in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among 3- to 6-year-old children. Methods In a 6-week double-blind clinical trial, the efficacy of Risperidone 0.5–2 mg with a dose of maximum Haloperidol 0.075 mg/kg was assessed in 39 children aged 3–6 years. This study was conducted at the Golestan Psychiatric Clinic (Ahvaz, Iran). Measurement tools included the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48), Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, and Fisher’s exact tests in the SPSS 19. Results During the 6 weeks, the decline in points was seen in Conner’s rating scale and in ADHD-RS score in Risperidone and Haloperidol groups (p<0.001). On the CGAS scale, an increase of performance in both groups for six weeks was statistically significant (p<0.001). In the scales of ADHD-RS and CPRS-48, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two treatment groups; i.e., in terms of reducing the rate during weeks of two, four, and six (p>0.05). Conclusions Haloperidol and Risperidone possibly can be an acceptable treatment choice in the ADHD treatment of 3- to 6-year-old children. Trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015082623766N1. Funding This work was financially supported by grant (ref. no.: U-93130) from the vice chancellor for Research Affairs of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27790334

  7. Substance abuse disorders in the parents of ADHD children, and parents of normal children.

    PubMed

    Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Ahmad; Rostami, Reza; Dehestani, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  8. Executive Functioning in Children with Asperger Syndrome, ADHD-Combined Type, ADHD-Predominately Inattentive Type, and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Butcher, Brianne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychological and behavioral rating measures of executive functions (EF) in children with two subtypes of ADHD, Asperger syndrome (AS), and controls. Relative to the control group, the clinical groups experienced more difficulty in EF. The AS group showed the most difficulty in emotional control,…

  9. Sibling Relationships among Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the quality of sibling relationships among children with ADHD relative to those without ADHD. Additional analyses examined whether externalizing and internalizing problems comorbid with ADHD affected sibling relationships. Method: Participants were 77 children with ADHD and 14 nonproblem control children. Sibling…

  10. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  11. Parental and Professional Beliefs on the Treatment and Management of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryer, Rachel; Kiernan, Michael J.; Tyson, Graham A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined parental and professional beliefs about the efficacy of various treatment strategies for ADHD. Method: Parents of children with and without ADHD and seven medical and nonmedical professional groups (N = 673) completed a questionnaire examining their beliefs about the efficacy of various treatment regimes. Results:…

  12. Project DyAdd: Implicit Learning in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Väre, Jenni; Oksanen-Hennah, Henna; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Pothos, Emmanuel; Cleeremans, Axel

    2014-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, implicit learning was investigated through two paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n?=?36) or with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n?=?22) and in controls (n?=?35). In the serial reaction time (SRT) task, there were no group differences in learning. However, those with ADHD exhibited…

  13. Voices of University Students with ADHD about Test-Taking: Behaviors, Needs, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofiesh, Nicole; Moniz, Erin; Bisagno, Joan

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the test-taking behavior, needs, and strategies of postsecondary students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), focus group comments from 17 university students with ADHD were analyzed. These comments formed the basis for a series of research studies that are in progress regarding test-taking and individuals…

  14. Brain Activation Gradients in Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex Related to Persistence of ADHD in Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Kurt P.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Fan, Jin; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possible role that functional abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia play in the persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Method: Ten male adolescents who were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood were grouped into those who continued to meet full…

  15. ODD and ADHD Symptoms in Ukrainian Children: External Validators and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential external validators for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficient/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Ukrainian community-based sample of 600 children age 10 to 12 years old and evaluate the nature of co-occurring ODD and ADHD symptoms using mother- and teacher-defined groups. Method: In…

  16. Working Memory Deficits in ADHD: The Contribution of Age, Learning/Language Difficulties, and Task Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowerby, Paula; Seal, Simon; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To further define the nature of working memory (WM) impairments in children with combined-type ADHD. Method: A total of 40 Children with ADHD and an age and gender-matched control group (n = 40) completed two measures of visuo-spatial WM and two measures of verbal WM. The effects of age and learning/language difficulties on performance…

  17. Contrasting Deficits on Executive Functions between ADHD and Reading Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzocchi, Gian Marco; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Zuddas, Alessandro; Cavolina, Pina; Geurts, Hilde; Redigolo, Debora; Vio, Claudio; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The object of this study was to analyze the executive functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or reading disability (RD) independent of their non-executive deficits. Methods: Three carefully diagnosed groups of children, aged between 7 and 12 years (35 ADHD, 22 RD and 30 typically developing…

  18. Parental efficacy and child behavior in a community sample of children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Hendricks, Kristy M; Longacre, Meghan R; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Weiss, Julia E; Titus, Linda J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A

    2012-12-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youth have obtained data from the perspective of either children or parents, but not both simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent perspectives on parenting in a large community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. We identified children in grades 4-6 and their parents through surveys administered to a random sample of public schools. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent associations between child and parent characteristics and the presence of ADHD while controlling for covariates and clustering by school. Sufficient data were achieved for 2,509 child/parent dyads. Ten percent of youths (n = 240) had been diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with those without ADHD, those with ADHD were more commonly male (67.9 vs. 48.0 %, p < .001) and age 12 or over (16.3 vs. 10.3 %). After adjusting for covariates and clustering, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD were significantly more likely to report lower self-regulation (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI = 0.53, 0.88) and higher levels of rebelliousness (OR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.52, 2.69). Compared with parents whose children did not have ADHD, parents of children with ADHD rated their overall parental efficacy substantially lower (OR = 0.23, 95 % CI = 0.15, 0.33). However, child assessment of parenting style was similar by ADHD. Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children. Feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes.

  19. Parental Efficacy and Child Behavior in a Community Sample of Children with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Hendricks, Kristy M.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Weiss, Julia E.; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most studies of ADHD youth have obtained data from the perspective of either children or parents, but not both simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent perspectives on parenting in a large community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. Methods We identified children in grades 4-6 and their parents through surveys administered to a random sample of public schools. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent associations between child and parent characteristics and presence of ADHD while controlling for covariates and clustering by school. Results Sufficient data were achieved for 2509 child/parent dyads. Ten percent of youths (n=240) had been diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with those without ADHD, those with ADHD were more commonly male (67.9% vs. 48.0%, P<.001) and age 12 or over (16.3% vs. 10.3%). After adjusting for covariates and clustering, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD were significantly more likely to report lower self-regulation (OR= 0.68, 95% CI=0.53, 0.88) and higher levels of rebelliousness (OR= 2.00, 95% CI=1.52, 2.69). Compared with parents whose children did not have ADHD, parents of children with ADHD rated their overall parental efficacy substantially lower (OR=0.23, 95% CI=0.15, 0.33). However, child assessment of parenting style was similar by ADHD. Conclusions Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children. Feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes. PMID:22886756

  20. Attentional and neurocognitive characteristics of high-risk offspring of parents with schizophrenia compared with DSM-IV attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children

    PubMed Central

    Öner, Özgür; Munir, Kerim

    2011-01-01

    Offspring of individuals with schizophrenia are at increased baseline risk for a range of early mental disorders. Studies investigating the premorbid characteristics of individuals with schizophrenia indicate that they suffer from social, behavioral, attentional and neurocognitive impairments, often resembling attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we compared the executive functioning and general intelligence among three groups: (i) children and adolescents with DSM-IV ADHD (n=41), (ii) “high-risk” (HR) offspring of parents with DSM-IV schizophrenia, and (iii) normal comparison subjects (n=35). Our results indicated that both HR and ADHD groups had lower Verbal IQ scores. ADHD cases had significantly lower percent correct and total errors in Wisconsin Cart Sorting Test when compared with normal comparison subjects. The HR cases also had lower Performance IQ scores as well as worse abstraction–flexibility and comprehension performance. The HR group was further stratified with (HR-A) and without (HR-NA) comorbid ADHD, and HR-A subjects were significantly noted to be more impaired on most tests. The overall worse performance of HR offspring was attributable to significantly lower performance among the HR-A youth. Further, our results suggested that the most profoundly impaired HR subjects were in fact children and adolescents who also met criteria for ADHD. Future studies with broader neuropsychological test batteries are necessary to investigate the differences and similarities between ADHD and the HR-A subgroup. PMID:15949661

  1. Parental ADHD Predicts Child and Parent Outcomes Parental Friendship Coaching Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the impact of parental ADHD symptoms on the peer relationships and parent-child interaction outcomes of children with ADHD among families completing a randomized-controlled trial of Parental Friendship Coaching (PFC) relative to control families. Method Participants were 62 children with ADHD (42 boys; ages 6–10) and their parents. Approximately half of the families received PFC (a 3-month parent training intervention targeting the peer relationships of children with ADHD) and the remainder represented a no-treatment control group. Results Parental inattention predicted equivalent declines in children’s peer acceptance in both treatment and control families. However, treatment amplified differences between parents with high versus low ADHD symptoms for some outcomes: Control families declined in functioning regardless of parents’ symptom levels. However, high parental inattention predicted increased child peer rejection and high parental inattention and impulsivity predicted decreased parental facilitation among treated families (indicating reduced treatment response). Low parental symptoms among treated families were associated with improved functioning in these areas. For other outcomes, treatment attenuated differences between parents with high versus low ADHD symptoms: Among control parents, high parental impulsivity was associated with increasing criticism over time whereas all treated parents evidenced reduced criticism regardless of symptom levels. Follow-up analyses indicated that the parents experiencing poor treatment response are likely those with clinical levels of ADHD symptoms. Conclusions Results underscore the need to consider parental ADHD in parent training treatments for children with ADHD. PMID:22115144

  2. Comorbidity and continuity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adolescence in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cak, H Tuna; Dinc, Gulser Senses; Tuzun, Zeynep; Evinc, S Gulin; Cop, Esra; Cuhadaroglu Cetin, Fusun

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine clinical outcomes, psychiatric comorbidity and neuropsychological characteristics in Turkish adolescents with an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in childhood. A total of 45 children with ADHD diagnosis and 28 children with a psychiatric diagnosis other than ADHD in a 1-year cohort of 7-10-year-olds were reevaluated 6 years later using Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime version and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and Stroop Test TBAG version. This study shows that the clinical outcomes and the comorbidity patterns for ADHD from childhood to adolescence in Turkey are similar to reported rates in the Western countries. In the ADHD group, 75.6 % still has impairing ADHD symptoms and 46.6 % has comorbid psychiatric disorders. The main difference is anxiety disorders being the most common comorbid disorders (37.8 %) in Turkish ADHD youth. These findings stress the high comorbidity associated with ADHD and support the importance of assessment and treatment for ADHD and comorbidities during adolescence. PMID:23893566

  3. The beneficial effect of methylphenidate in ADHD with comorbid separation anxiety.

    PubMed

    Golubchik, Pavel; Golubchik, Lilya; Sever, Jonathan M; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the response of subsyndromal separation anxiety (SSSA) symptoms to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A group of patients with ADHD and SSSA (n=42), aged 8-17 years, received 12 weeks of MPH treatment. The severity of SSSA symptoms was assessed using appropriate scales including the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and the specially designed Child and Adolescent Separation Anxiety Scale (CASAS). The severity of ADHD symptoms was assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale. The severity of ADHD and separation anxiety reduced significantly and significant positive correlations were found between the changes in ADHD Rating Scale and the total CASAS scores (P=0.012), as well as other relevant subscales of Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and CASAS. The MPH-related attenuation in the severity of ADHD was associated with a corresponding improvement in separation anxiety related to school. SSSA symptomatology may be secondary to ADHD and thus the alleviation in ADHD symptoms achieved by MPH treatment results in corresponding relief in separation anxiety.

  4. Clinical Strategies for Integrating Medication Interventions Into Behavioral Treatment for Adolescent ADHD: The Medication Integration Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, Aaron; Bobek, Molly; Tau, Gregory Z.; Levin, Frances R.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among adolescents enrolled in behavioral health services but remains undertreated in this age group. Also the first-line treatment for adolescent ADHD, stimulant medication, is underutilized in routine practice. This article briefly describes three behavioral interventions designed to promote stronger integration of medication interventions into treatment planning for adolescent ADHD: family ADHD psychoeducation, family-based medication decision-making, and behavior therapist leadership in coordinating medication integration. It then introduces the Medication Integration Protocol (MIP), which incorporates all three interventions into a five-task protocol: ADHD Assessment and Medication Consult; ADHD Psychoeducation and Client Acceptance; ADHD Symptoms and Family Relations; ADHD Medication and Family Decision-Making; and Medication Management and Integration Planning. The article concludes by highlighting what behavior therapists should know about best practices for medication integration across diverse settings and populations: integrating medication interventions into primary care, managing medication priorities and polypharmacy issues for adolescents with multiple diagnoses, providing ADHD medications to adolescent substance users, and the compatibility of MIP intervention strategies with everyday practice conditions. PMID:25505817

  5. Effects of hippotherapy on brain function, BDNF level, and physical fitness in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hippotherapy on brain function and levels of blood-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in children with attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). [Methods] The hippotherapy group (HRG) included twenty children with ADHD and the control group (CG) included 19 children. All participants’ physical fitness, fMRI brain scans, and blood BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after 32 weeks of participating in hippotherapy. [Results] After 32 weeks of participating in hippotherapy, the body fat of the HRG was significantly decreased (-1.12 ± 4.20%) and the body fat of the CG was increased (2.38 ± 6.35%) (p=0.049). There was no significant difference of physical fitness in both groups (p>0.05). Although there was a higher decrease in the activated insular area in the HRG (-1.59 ± 0.99) than in the CG (-1.14 ± 1.41), there was no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05) Also, there was a higher increase in the activated cerebellum area in the HRG (1.97 ± 1.45) than in the CG (1.92 ± 1.81). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). BDNF levels showed an increased tendency in the HRG (166.29 ± 277.52pg) compared to the CG (21.13 ± 686.33pg); otherwise, there was not any significant difference in these blood levels between the two groups (p>0.05). It can be assumed that big individual differences in the level of ADHD in the study participants might not cause any significant results, although there might be positive changes in the brain function of children with ADHD. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that hippotherapy training would need to be modified and developed to increase the efficacy of hippotherapy in children with ADHD. PMID:26244130

  6. A Multi-Methodological MR Resting State Network Analysis to Assess the Changes in Brain Physiology of Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    de Celis Alonso, Benito; Hidalgo Tobón, Silvia; Dies Suarez, Pilar; García Flores, Julio; de Celis Carrillo, Benito; Barragán Pérez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to highlight the neurological differences between the MR resting state networks of a group of children with ADHD (pre-treatment) and an age-matched healthy group. Results were obtained using different image analysis techniques. A sample of n = 46 children with ages between 6 and 12 years were included in this study (23 per cohort). Resting state image analysis was performed using ReHo, ALFF and ICA techniques. ReHo and ICA represent connectivity analyses calculated with different mathematical approaches. ALFF represents an indirect measurement of brain activity. The ReHo and ICA analyses suggested differences between the two groups, while the ALFF analysis did not. The ReHo and ALFF analyses presented differences with respect to the results previously reported in the literature. ICA analysis showed that the same resting state networks that appear in healthy volunteers of adult age were obtained for both groups. In contrast, these networks were not identical when comparing the healthy and ADHD groups. These differences affected areas for all the networks except the Right Memory Function network. All techniques employed in this study were used to monitor different cerebral regions which participate in the phenomenological characterization of ADHD patients when compared to healthy controls. Results from our three analyses indicated that the cerebellum and mid-frontal lobe bilaterally for ReHo, the executive function regions in ICA, and the precuneus, cuneus and the clacarine fissure for ALFF, were the “hubs” in which the main inter-group differences were found. These results do not just help to explain the physiology underlying the disorder but open the door to future uses of these methodologies to monitor and evaluate patients with ADHD. PMID:24945408

  7. A multi-methodological MR resting state network analysis to assess the changes in brain physiology of children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Benito de Celis; Hidalgo Tobón, Silvia; Dies Suarez, Pilar; García Flores, Julio; de Celis Carrillo, Benito; Barragán Pérez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to highlight the neurological differences between the MR resting state networks of a group of children with ADHD (pre-treatment) and an age-matched healthy group. Results were obtained using different image analysis techniques. A sample of n = 46 children with ages between 6 and 12 years were included in this study (23 per cohort). Resting state image analysis was performed using ReHo, ALFF and ICA techniques. ReHo and ICA represent connectivity analyses calculated with different mathematical approaches. ALFF represents an indirect measurement of brain activity. The ReHo and ICA analyses suggested differences between the two groups, while the ALFF analysis did not. The ReHo and ALFF analyses presented differences with respect to the results previously reported in the literature. ICA analysis showed that the same resting state networks that appear in healthy volunteers of adult age were obtained for both groups. In contrast, these networks were not identical when comparing the healthy and ADHD groups. These differences affected areas for all the networks except the Right Memory Function network. All techniques employed in this study were used to monitor different cerebral regions which participate in the phenomenological characterization of ADHD patients when compared to healthy controls. Results from our three analyses indicated that the cerebellum and mid-frontal lobe bilaterally for ReHo, the executive function regions in ICA, and the precuneus, cuneus and the clacarine fissure for ALFF, were the "hubs" in which the main inter-group differences were found. These results do not just help to explain the physiology underlying the disorder but open the door to future uses of these methodologies to monitor and evaluate patients with ADHD.

  8. Training Executive, Attention, and Motor Skills: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Preschool Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Marks, David J.; Bedard, Anne-Claude V.; Chacko, Anil; Curchack, Jocelyn T.; Yoon, Carol A.; Healey, Dione M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether cognitive enhancement can be delivered through play to preschoolers with ADHD and whether it would affect severity of ADHD symptoms. Method: Twenty-nine 4- and 5-year-old children and their parents participated in separate group sessions (3-5 children/group). Child groups were introduced games designed to enhance…

  9. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schoolchildren in Athens, Greece. Association of ADHD subtypes with social and academic impairment.

    PubMed

    Skounti, M; Giannoukas, S; Dimitriou, E; Nikolopoulou, S; Linardakis, E; Philalithis, A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and academic impairment in 6- to 11-year-old children residents of Athens, Greece. We screened 603 elementary schoolchildren following grades first to sixth. A two-stage screening process was employed including a standardized ADHD test for teachers and the Teacher Report Form (TRF). Among the 603 children, 36 (6.0%) met the study criteria for ADHD. The estimated prevalence was 8% for boys and 3.8% for girls. The most prevalent subtype of ADHD was the combined type (3.8%), followed by the ADHD inattentive (1.7%) and the ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (0.5%). The ADHD-combined type was strongly associated with clinical impairment in both areas of functioning (academic and social), where the ADHD inattentive subtype was found to be strongly associated with academic problems. The ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was the less prevalent and the less impaired subtype in this study. None of the 36 children had been previously diagnosed as having ADHD or other primary disorder. In conclusion, the prevalence of ADHD among schoolchildren in Athens and the risk factors were found to be comparable to those reported in other countries worldwide. Additionally, impairment in social and academic functioning was strongly associated with the subtypes of the disorder. PMID:21432598

  10. A Neurophysiological Marker of Impaired Preparation in an 11-Year Follow-Up Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doehnert, Mirko; Brandeis, Daniel; Schneider, Gudrun; Drechsler, Renate; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal electrophysiological study investigated the course of multiple impaired cognitive brain functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood by comparing developmental trajectories of individuals with ADHD and typically developing controls. Methods: Subjects with ADHD ("N"…

  11. Abnormal Striatal BOLD Responses to Reward Anticipation and Reward Delivery in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Emi; Bado, Patricia; Tripp, Gail; Mattos, Paulo; Wickens, Jeff R.; Bramati, Ivanei E.; Alsop, Brent; Ferreira, Fernanda Meireles; Lima, Debora; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Altered reward processing has been proposed to contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanism underlying this alteration remains unclear. We hypothesize that the transfer of dopamine release from reward to reward-predicting cues, as normally observed in animal studies, may be deficient in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate striatal responses to reward-predicting cues and reward delivery in a classical conditioning paradigm. Data from 14 high-functioning and stimulant-naïve young adults with elevated lifetime symptoms of ADHD (8 males, 6 females) and 15 well-matched controls (8 males, 7 females) were included in the analyses. During reward anticipation, increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the right ventral and left dorsal striatum were observed in controls, but not in the ADHD group. The opposite pattern was observed in response to reward delivery; the ADHD group demonstrated significantly greater BOLD responses in the ventral striatum bilaterally and the left dorsal striatum relative to controls. In the ADHD group, the number of current hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms was inversely related to ventral striatal responses during reward anticipation and positively associated with responses to reward. The BOLD response patterns observed in the striatum are consistent with impaired predictive dopamine signaling in ADHD, which may explain altered reward-contingent behaviors and symptoms of ADHD. PMID:24586543

  12. Day Reporting Center and Recidivism: Comparing Offender Groups in a Western Pennsylvania County Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, David R.; Harvey, Patrick J.; Schanz, Youngyol Yim

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors report on an investigation comparing the recidivism and other variables of two similar offender populations in a western Pennsylvania county. The two groups were comparable in offense type, size (N = 63 for each) and other variables such as sex, race and age range. One group represented offenders who received a sentence…

  13. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1991 Peer Groups Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan; Cirino, Anna Marie

    Comparative financial information, derived from two national surveys of 503 public two-year colleges, is presented in this report for fiscal year (FY) 1990-91. The report includes statistics for the national sample and six peer groups, space for colleges to compare their institutional statistics with national and peer groups, and tables, bar…

  14. Comorbid Externalising Behaviour in AD/HD: Evidence for a Distinct Pathological Entity in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Sharnel; Crewther, David; Croft, Rodney; Keage, Hannah; Hermens, Daniel; Clark, C. Richard

    2012-01-01

    While the profiling of subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) have been the subject of considerable scrutiny, both psychometrically and psychophysiologically, little attention has been paid to the effect of diagnoses comorbid with AD/HD on such profiles. This is despite the greater than 80% prevalence of comorbidity under the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic definitions. Here we investigate the event related potential (ERP) and psychometric profiles of Controls, AD/HD, and comorbid AD/HD (particularly AD/HD+ODD/CD) groups on six neurocognitive tasks thought to probe the constructs of selective and sustained attention, response inhibition and executive function. Data from 29 parameters extracted from a child group (age range 6 to 12; 52 Controls and 64 AD/HD) and from an adolescent group (age range 13 to 17; 79 Controls and 88 AD/HD) were reduced via a Principal Components Analysis, the 6 significant eigenvectors then used as determinants of cluster membership via a Two-Step Cluster Analysis. Two clusters were found in the analysis of the adolescent age group - a cluster dominated by Control and AD/HD participants without comorbidity, while the second cluster was dominated by AD/HD participants with externalising comorbidity (largely oppositional defiant/conduct disorder ODD/CD). A similar segregation within the child age group was not found. Further analysis of these objectively determined clusters in terms of their clinical diagnoses indicates a significant effect of ODD/CD comorbidity on a concurrent AD/HD diagnosis. We conclude that comorbid externalising behaviour in AD/HD constitutes a distinct pathological entity in adolescence. PMID:22984398

  15. Symptomatic Improvement in Children with ADHD Treated with Long-Term Methylphenidate and Multimodal Psychosocial Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; Hechtman, Lily; Klein, Rachel G.; Weiss, Gabrielle; Fleiss, Karen; Etcovitch, Joy; Cousins, Lorne; Greenfield, Brian; Martin, Diane; Pollack, Simcha

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypotheses that in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (1) symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and overall functioning are significantly improved by methylphenidate combined with intensive multimodal psychosocial treatment compared with methylphenidate alone and with methylphenidate…

  16. Intra-Individual Variability in ADHD, Autism Spectrum Disorders and Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Grasman, Raoul P. P. P.; Verte, Sylvie; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert; van Kammen, Serena M.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The potential for response variability to serve as an endophenotype for attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) rests, in part, upon the development of reliable and valid methods to decompose variability. This study investigated the specificity of intra-individual variability (IIV) in 53 children with ADHD by comparing them with 25…

  17. Insights into the Control of Attentional Set in ADHD Using the Attentional Blink Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Deanna J.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Kent, Lindsey

    2005-01-01

    Background: Previous work on visual selective attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has utilised spatial search paradigms. This study compared ADHD to control children on a temporal search task using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP). In addition, the effects of irrelevant singleton distractors on search performance…

  18. Positive Illusions of Social Competence in Girls with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    We compared social self-competence ratings in 9-12 year old girls with (n = 42) versus without (n = 40) ADHD, relative to ratings of the girls' social competence made by mothers, teachers, and blind raters during a social laboratory task. Relative to scores from mothers, teachers, and the lab-task, girls with ADHD over-estimated their competence…

  19. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD and ODD in a Pediatric Population in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michanie, Claudio; Kunst, Gabriel; Margulies, Daniel S.; Yakhkind, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of DSM III-R symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in an outpatient pediatric population; to compare oppositional behavior and grade retention rates; and to establish local means and standard deviations (SD) for the ADHD rating scale. Method: 300…

  20. Shared and Nonshared Symptoms in Youth-Onset Psychosis and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Canan; White, Tonya; Bingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We compared ratings of behavior and attention problems between youth-onset psychosis and ADHD, two disorders in which attentional impairments play a key role, and examined the effect of psychostimulant use on age of onset in psychosis. Method: Parent and teacher ratings of behavioral problems and ADHD symptoms were collected using the…

  1. Test-Taking Skills in College Students with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence; Gathje, Rebecca A.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Gordon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    College students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often request and receive extended time to complete high-stakes exams and classroom tests. This study examined the performances and behaviors of college students on computerized simulations of high-stakes exams. Thirty-five college students with ADHD were compared to 185 typical…

  2. Reading Comprehension in Children with ADHD: Cognitive Underpinnings of the Centrality Deficit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Amanda C.; Keenan, Janice M.; Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    We examined reading comprehension in children with ADHD by assessing their ability to build a coherent mental representation that allows them to recall central and peripheral information. We compared children with ADHD (mean age 9.78) to word reading-matched controls (mean age 9.89) on their ability to retell a passage. We found that even though…

  3. Atomoxetine Alone or Combined with Fluoxetine for Treating ADHD with Comorbid Depressive or Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Duesenberg, David; Emslie, Graham J.; Quintana, Humberto; Sarkis, Elias H.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Gao, Haitao; Michelson, David; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Symptoms of depression and anxiety are commonly comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors assessed the safety and effectiveness of atomoxetine monotherapy compared with combined atomoxetine/fluoxetine therapy in a population of children and adolescents with ADHD and concurrent symptoms of depression or…

  4. Functional Impairments in Children with ADHD: Unique Effects of Age and Comorbid Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booster, Genery D.; DuPaul, George J.; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Power, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD and comorbid disorders display poorer overall functioning compared with children with ADHD alone, though little research has examined the differential impact of externalizing versus internalizing comorbidities. Method: This study examined the impact of internalizing and externalizing comorbidities on the academic and…

  5. Parenting Stress in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Ana; Tárraga, Raul; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla; Pastor, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 121 children from 5 to 9 years old with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), comorbid ASD+ADHD, and typical development in different domains related to child and parent characteristics using the Parenting Stress…

  6. ADHD and the Role of Medication: Knowledge and Perceptions of Qualified and Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Gazala; Thomson, A. H.; Boyter, A. C.; McLarty, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is thought to affect 3-5% of school-aged children. A sound knowledge of both the disorder and its treatment would appear to be useful for school teachers. This study compared the knowledge and attitudes of Scottish qualified and student teachers towards ADHD and its pharmacological treatment. Data…

  7. Effects of memory strategy training on performance and event-related brain potentials of children with ADHD in an episodic memory task.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Lisa M; Hurks, Petra P; Schleepen, Tamara M J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for memory problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accumulating. Attempting to counter such problems, in the present study children with ADHD aged 8-12 years underwent a six-week metacognitive memory strategy training (MST) or one of two other active trainings, either a metacognitive attention-perceptual-motor training (APM) or placebo training consisting of playing board games (PLA). Effects of the training on episodic memory and underlying brain processes were investigated by comparing performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) on pre- and post-training sessions in an old/new recognition task between the three training groups. Potential far transfer effects of the memory strategy training were investigated by measuring performance on neuropsychological attention and memory-span tasks and parent-rated ADHD symptoms. The metacognitive memory strategy training led to significantly improved memory performance and enhanced amplitude of left parietal P600 activity associated with the process of memory recollection when compared to PLA, but APM training evoked similar improvements. Memory performance gains were significantly correlated with the memory-related ERP effects. Preliminary far transfer effects of MST training were found on attention and working memory performance and on parent-rated ADHD symptoms, although these results need replication with larger and better IQ-matched groups.

  8. Effects of memory strategy training on performance and event-related brain potentials of children with ADHD in an episodic memory task.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Lisa M; Hurks, Petra P; Schleepen, Tamara M J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for memory problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accumulating. Attempting to counter such problems, in the present study children with ADHD aged 8-12 years underwent a six-week metacognitive memory strategy training (MST) or one of two other active trainings, either a metacognitive attention-perceptual-motor training (APM) or placebo training consisting of playing board games (PLA). Effects of the training on episodic memory and underlying brain processes were investigated by comparing performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) on pre- and post-training sessions in an old/new recognition task between the three training groups. Potential far transfer effects of the memory strategy training were investigated by measuring performance on neuropsychological attention and memory-span tasks and parent-rated ADHD symptoms. The metacognitive memory strategy training led to significantly improved memory performance and enhanced amplitude of left parietal P600 activity associated with the process of memory recollection when compared to PLA, but APM training evoked similar improvements. Memory performance gains were significantly correlated with the memory-related ERP effects. Preliminary far transfer effects of MST training were found on attention and working memory performance and on parent-rated ADHD symptoms, although these results need replication with larger and better IQ-matched groups. PMID:26251965

  9. The Impact of Financial Reward Contingencies on Cognitive Function Profiles in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Ivo; Höpcke, Cornelia; Berger, Christoph; Wandschneider, Roland; Herpertz, Sabine C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although it is well established that cognitive performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is affected by reward and that key deficits associated with the disorder may thereby be attenuated or even compensated, this phenomenon in adults with ADHD has thus far not been addressed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the motivating effect of financial reward on task performance in adults with ADHD by focusing on the domains of executive functioning, attention, time perception, and delay aversion. Methods We examined male and female adults aged 18–40 years with ADHD (n = 38) along with a matched control group (n = 40) using six well-established experimental paradigms. Results Impaired performance in the ADHD group was observed for stop-signal omission errors, n-back accuracy, reaction time variability in the continuous performance task, and time reproduction accuracy, and reward normalized time reproduction accuracy. Furthermore, when rewarded, subjects with ADHD exhibited longer reaction times and fewer false positives in the continuous performance task, which suggests the use of strategies to prevent impulsivity errors. Conclusions Taken together, our results support the existence of both cognitive and motivational mechanisms for the disorder, which is in line with current models of ADHD. Furthermore, our data suggest cognitive strategies of “stopping and thinking” as a possible underlying mechanism for task improvement that seems to be mediated by reward, which highlights the importance of the interaction between motivation and cognition in adult ADHD. PMID:23840573

  10. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylphenidate in the treatment of adult ADHD patients with comorbid cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Schubiner, Howard; Saules, Karen K; Arfken, Cynthia L; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Schuster, Charles R; Lockhart, Nancy; Edwards, Ann; Donlin, Judy; Pihlgren, Eric

    2002-08-01

    In this 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylphenidate (MTP) versus placebo in 48 cocaine-dependent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adults, the authors sought to determine whether MTP would be safe, control ADHD symptoms, and affect cocaine use. Efficacy indexes revealed significantly greater ADHD symptom relief in the MTP group. There were no group differences in self-reported cocaine use, urinalysis results, or cocaine craving. Because of the relatively small sample size, the results are preliminary. However, we found that MTP improved subjective reports of ADHD symptoms and did not worsen cocaine use while participants were in treatment.

  11. Hyperactivity in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The role of executive and non-executive functions.

    PubMed

    Hudec, Kristen L; Alderson, R Matt; Patros, Connor H G; Lea, Sarah E; Tarle, Stephanie J; Kasper, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    Motor activity of boys (age 8-12 years) with (n=19) and without (n=18) ADHD was objectively measured with actigraphy across experimental conditions that varied with regard to demands on executive functions. Activity exhibited during two n-back (1-back, 2-back) working memory tasks was compared to activity during a choice-reaction time (CRT) task that placed relatively fewer demands on executive processes and during a simple reaction time (SRT) task that required mostly automatic processing with minimal executive demands. Results indicated that children in the ADHD group exhibited greater activity compared to children in the non-ADHD group. Further, both groups exhibited the greatest activity during conditions with high working memory demands, followed by the reaction time and control task conditions, respectively. The findings indicate that large-magnitude increases in motor activity are predominantly associated with increased demands on working memory, though demands on non-executive processes are sufficient to elicit small to moderate increases in motor activity as well.

  12. THE EPOCH OF ASSEMBLY OF TWO GALAXY GROUPS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Matthew; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2013-10-01

    Nearby galaxy groups of comparable mass to the Local Group show global variations that reflect differences in their evolutionary history. Satellite galaxies in groups have higher levels of gas deficiency as the distance to their host decreases. The well established gas-deficiency profile of the Local Group reflects an epoch of assembly starting at z ∼< 10. We investigate whether this gas-deficiency profile can be used to determine the epoch of assembly for other nearby groups. We choose the M81 group as this has the most complete inventory, both in terms of membership and multi-wavelength observations. We expand our earlier evolutionary model of satellite dwarf galaxies to not only confirm this result for the Local Group but also show that the more gas-rich M81 group is likely to have assembled at a later time (z ∼< 1-3) than the Local Group.

  13. Comparative efficacy of spirituality, cognitive, and emotional support groups for treating eating disorder inpatients.

    PubMed

    Richards, P Scott; Berrett, Michael E; Hardman, Randy K; Eggett, Dennis L

    2006-01-01

    Spiritual interventions are rarely used in contemporary treatment programs and little empirical evidence is available concerning their effectiveness. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a spiritual group intervention for eating disorder inpatients. We compared the effectiveness of a Spirituality group with Cognitive and Emotional Support groups using a randomized, control group design. Participants were 122 women receiving inpatient eating disorder treatment. Patients in the Spirituality group tended to score significantly lower on psychological disturbance and eating disorder symptoms at the conclusion of treatment compared to patients in the other groups, and higher on spiritual well-being. On weekly outcome measures, patients in the Spirituality group improved significantly more quickly during the first four weeks of treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that attending to eating disorder patients' spiritual growth and well-being during inpatient treatment may help reduce depression and anxiety, relationship distress, social role conflict, and eating disorder symptoms.

  14. Outcomes of specific interpersonal problems for binge eating disorder: comparing group psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise; Presniak, Michelle D; Bissada, Hany

    2012-04-01

    We assessed whether an attachment-based treatment, Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP) had a greater impact compared to Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) on Cold/Distant and Intrusive/Needy interpersonal problems. Ninety-five individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) were randomized to GPIP or GCBT and assessed at pre-, post-, and six months post-treatment. Both therapies resulted in a significant decrease in all eight interpersonal problem subscales except the Nonassertive subscale. GPIP resulted in a greater reduction in the Cold/Distant subscale compared to GCBT, but no differences were found for changes in the Intrusive/Needy subscale. GPIP may be most relevant for those with BED who have Cold/Distant interpersonal problems and attachment avoidance.

  15. Exercise: applications to childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wigal, Sharon B; Emmerson, Natasha; Gehricke, Jean-G; Galassetti, Pietro

    2013-05-01

    ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, presenting with pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, or a combination. The leading hypothesis of the underlying physiology of this disorder of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity is based on catecholamine dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy research indicates that psychostimulants, which are catecholamine agonists, show the greatest efficacy for treating the core symptoms of ADHD. Exercise affects the same dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems that stimulant medications target and is a stressor, which elicits measurable physiological changes. The magnitude of these peripheral alterations is posited as a potential biomarker of ADHD. The hypothesis that exercise training alters the underlying physiology present in ADHD and other medical conditions as well as conceptual issues behind its potential clinical utility is reviewed.

  16. ADHD, Methylphenidate, and Childhood Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Plioplys, Sigita

    2016-06-01

    Investigators from the Department of Functional Neurology, Epileptology and Epilepsy Institute (IDEE), and the Lyon's University Hospital examined the clinical determinants of ADHD severity in children with epilepsy (CWE) along with the response to treatment with methylphenidate (MPH). PMID:27617408

  17. ADHD: Is Objective Diagnosis Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lynda G.

    2005-01-01

    Although attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common cognitive disorders, the usual diagnostic procedures pursued by psychiatrists, neurologists, pediatricians, and family practitioners are based largely, if not exclusively, on subjective assessments of perceived behavior. The recommended approaches to ADHD diagnosis are reviewed, first from the perspective of the various expert panels, and then from the research literature upon which those recommendations are based. The authors agree that ADHD is a clinical diagnosis, and that the assessment of subjective reports can be systematic. But they propose that objective data should also contribute to the clinical diagnosis of ADHD; and that new computerized assessment technology can generate objective cognitive data in an efficient and cost-effective way. Computerized tests can also improve the assessment of treatment response over time. PMID:21120096

  18. Maternal Depression History Moderates Parenting Responses to Compliant and Noncompliant Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sharon R.; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Liu, Yihao; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Maternal depression and parenting are robust predictors of developmental outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, methods commonly used to examine parent-child interactions in these families do not account for temporal associations between child and parent behavior that have been theorized to maintain negative child behavior. Moreover, studies examining associations between maternal depression and parenting in families of children with ADHD have not compared mothers who were currently depressed, remitted, and never clinically depressed. This study utilized sequential analysis to examine how maternal reinforcement of compliant and noncompliant child behavior differs as a function of maternal depression history. Within the 82 participating mother-child dyads, 21 mothers were currently depressed, 29 mothers had a lifetime history of depression but were in remission for at least 1 month, and 32 mothers had never been clinically depressed. 24 girls (29.6%) and 57 boys (70.4%) between the ages of 6–12 year old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.0) and were diagnosed with ADHD. Results indicated that all mothers were less likely to respond optimally than non-optimally to child compliant and noncompliant behaviors during observed parent-child interactions; however, currently depressed mothers were least likely to reinforce child compliance and responded most coercively to child noncompliance relative to the other groups. Remitted mothers in this sample were more coercive than never clinically depressed mothers, but were more likely to follow through with commands than never clinically depressed mothers. Implications for behavioral parent training programs aimed at skill development for depressed mothers of children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:25413021

  19. The Acute Effect of Methylphenidate in Brazilian Male Children and Adolescents with ADHD: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szobot, C. M.; Ketzer, C.; Parente, M. A.; Biederman, J.; Rohde, L. A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH) in Brazilian male children and adolescents with ADHD. Method: In a 4-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, fix dose escalating, parallel-group trial, 36 ADHD children and adolescents were allocated to two groups: MPH (n = 19) and placebo (n = 17). Participants were…

  20. Attention-related EEG markers in adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Roland; Perroud, Nader; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Herrmann, François; Prada, Paco; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Deiber, Marie-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    ADHD status affects both bottom-up sensory processing and top-down attentional selection, impairing professional and social functioning. The objective of the study was to investigate the functional mechanisms of attention deficits in adult ADHD by examining the electrophysiological activities associated with bottom-up attentional cueing (temporal and spatial orienting of attention) and top-down control (conflict resolution). Continuous EEG was recorded in 21 adult ADHD patients (40.05±9.5 years) and 20 healthy adults (25.5±4 years) during performance of the Attention Network Test (ANT). We examined the cue and target-related P1, N1 and P3 components as well as the contingent negative variation (CNV) developing between cue and target. Oscillatory responses were analyzed in the alpha (8-13Hz) and beta (14-19Hz) frequency bands. ADHD patients performed similarly to controls but showed reduced P3 amplitude, larger early CNV decrementing over time, reduced preparatory activation in both alpha and beta bands, as well as flattened target-related posterior alpha and beta responses. As compared to controls, the inverted CNV pattern suggested peculiar preparatory processing in ADHD patients. The singular pattern of target-related beta response indicated increased inhibitory processes in the case of easier task resolution and more generally, the lack of association between conflict resolution speed and beta activity supported alternative executive processing in ADHD patients. Overall, the reduced activation of the functional networks devoted to bottom-up and top-down attention suggests that adult ADHD patients engage reduced cortical resources in this composite task, compatible with the cortical hypoarousal model. PMID:27178310

  1. The Effects of a Copy, Cover, Compare Procedure and a Token Economy on the Retention of Basic Multiplication Facts by Two Middle School Students with ADD and ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolich, Barbara; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A Copy, Cover, and Compare procedure was found to produce large improvements in the accuracy of the multiplication facts of two middle school students with attention deficit disorder or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. The addition of a token economy program produced only small improvements in performance. (Author/PB)

  2. Fluid reasoning deficits in children with ADHD: evidence from fMRI.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Juranek, Jenifer

    2012-07-17

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficits in fluid reasoning, which may be related to self-regulation of cognition and behavior, and requires intact attention, working memory, and inhibition skills. No functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have directly examined fluid reasoning in ADHD which is surprising given that studies demonstrate a consistent network of brain regions involved in fluid reasoning that are also implicated in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Twenty-two right-handed, non-medicated children (12 ADHD, 10 controls) ages 8-12 years completed a fluid reasoning task during which fMRI data were collected. The primary comparison of interest was activation during the fluid reasoning compared to the control condition. Behavioral data showed that children with ADHD tended to be less accurate with faster reaction times in the fluid reasoning condition compared to controls, and were significantly less accurate in the control condition. Controls activated more than participants with ADHD in the right intraparietal sulcus and the left lateral cerebellum in the fluid reasoning condition. Results showed hypoactivation in ADHD in regions critical for fluid reasoning. These results add to the literature suggesting a role for parietal and cerebellar regions in cognition and ADHD.

  3. Longitudinal Associations Between Internalizing and Externalizing Comorbidities and Functional Outcomes for Children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Daniel; Lycett, Kate; Hiscock, Harriet; Care, Esther; Sciberras, Emma

    2015-10-01

    This study examined functional outcomes for children with ADHD by comorbidity status. Children with ADHD (5-13 years) were recruited from 21 pediatric practices and followed up 12 months later (n = 199). Parent and teacher-reported baseline and 12 month surveys measured peer problems, daily functioning, quality of life (QoL), parent mental health, and family QoL. The Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children IV assessed mental health comorbidities at baseline. Linear regression models were conducted, adjusting for socio-demographics, ADHD severity, and baseline functioning (where possible). In adjusted analyses, children with ADHD and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing comorbidities had poorer QoL, greater peer problems, and poorer family QoL, compared to children with ADHD alone. The parents of children with ADHD and internalizing and externalizing comorbidities alone, also reported poorer family QoL, compared to children with ADHD alone. Children with ADHD and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing comorbidities appear particularly vulnerable to poorer functioning.

  4. Childhood ADHD and Risk for Substance Dependence in Adulthood: A Longitudinal, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sharon; Katusic, Slavica K.; Colligan, Robert C.; Weaver, Amy L.; Killian, Jill M.; Voigt, Robert G.; Barbaresi, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to be at significantly greater risk for the development of substance use disorders (SUD) compared to peers. Impulsivity, which could lead to higher levels of drug use, is a known symptom of ADHD and likely accounts, in part, for this relationship. Other factors, such as a biologically increased susceptibility to substance dependence (addiction), may also play a role. Objective This report further examines the relationships between childhood ADHD, adolescent- onset SUD, and substance abuse and substance dependence in adulthood. Method Individuals with childhood ADHD and non-ADHD controls from the same population-based birth cohort were invited to participate in a prospective outcome study. Participants completed a structured neuropsychiatric interview with modules for SUD and a psychosocial questionnaire. Information on adolescent SUD was obtained retrospectively, in a previous study, from medical and school records. Associations were summarized using odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs estimated from logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender. Results A total of 232 ADHD cases and 335 non-ADHD controls participated (mean age, 27.0 and 28.6 years, respectively). ADHD cases were more likely than controls to have a SUD diagnosed in adolescence and were more likely to have alcohol (adjusted OR 14.38, 95% CI 1.49–138.88) and drug (adjusted OR 3.48, 95% CI 1.38–8.79) dependence in adulthood. The subgroup of participating ADHD cases who did not have SUD during adolescence were no more likely than controls to develop new onset alcohol dependence as adults, although they were significantly more likely to develop new onset drug dependence. Conclusions Our study found preliminary evidence that adults with childhood ADHD are more susceptible than peers to developing drug dependence, a disorder associated with neurological changes in the brain. The relationship between ADHD and

  5. Motor Learning Relies on Integrated Sensory Inputs in ADHD, but Over-Selectively on Proprioception in Autism Spectrum Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Izawa, Jun; Pekny, Sarah E; Marko, Mollie K; Haswell, Courtney C; Shadmehr, Reza; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2012-01-01

    those in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Consistent with our previous observations, we found that in ASD the motor memory showed greater than normal generalization in proprioceptive coordinates compared with both TD children and children with ADHD; children with ASD also showed slower rates of adaptation compared with both control groups. Children with ADHD did not show this excessive generalization to the proprioceptive target, but did show excessive variability in the speed of movements with an increase in the exponential distribution of responses (τ) as compared with both TD children and children with ASD. The results suggest that slower rate of adaptation and anomalous bias towards proprioceptive feedback during motor learning is characteristic of autism; whereas increased variability in execution is characteristic of ADHD. PMID:22359275

  6. Group Assessment at First Year and Final Degree Level: A Comparative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plastow, N.; Spiliotopoulou, G.; Prior, S.

    2010-01-01

    Group projects are an established but debated pedagogical technique in higher education. The purpose of this study was to assess the appropriateness of combining individual and group marks in assessment. A mixed method design involving correlational and comparative elements was used. The sample included one cohort of students who completed a group…

  7. The Comparability of Focus Group and Survey Results: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focus group findings were compared with survey findings for three studies in which both methods were used. Studies conducted on voluntary sterilization in Guatemala, Honduras, and Zaire with over 2,000 subjects confirm that focus groups yield information similar to that obtained from surveys and are useful in program planning. (SLD)

  8. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…

  9. Characterization and comparative genomic analysis of bacteriophages infecting members of the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hoon; Shin, Hakdong; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2014-05-01

    The Bacillus cereus group phages infecting B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis (Bt) have been studied at the molecular level and, recently, at the genomic level to control the pathogens B. cereus and B. anthracis and to prevent phage contamination of the natural insect pesticide Bt. A comparative phylogenetic analysis has revealed three different major phage groups with different morphologies (Myoviridae for group I, Siphoviridae for group II, and Tectiviridae for group III), genome size (group I > group II > group III), and lifestyle (virulent for group I and temperate for group II and III). A subsequent phage genome comparison using a dot plot analysis showed that phages in each group are highly homologous, substantiating the grouping of B. cereus phages. Endolysin is a host lysis protein that contains two conserved domains: a cell-wall-binding domain (CBD) and an enzymatic activity domain (EAD). In B. cereus sensu lato phage group I, four different endolysin groups have been detected, according to combinations of two types of CBD and four types of EAD. Group I phages have two copies of tail lysins and one copy of endolysin, but the functions of the tail lysins are still unknown. In the B. cereus sensu lato phage group II, the B. anthracis phages have been studied and applied for typing and rapid detection of pathogenic host strains. In the B. cereus sensu lato phage group III, the B. thuringiensis phages Bam35 and GIL01 have been studied to understand phage entry and lytic switch regulation mechanisms. In this review, we suggest that further study of the B. cereus group phages would be useful for various phage applications, such as biocontrol, typing, and rapid detection of the pathogens B. cereus and B. anthracis and for the prevention of phage contamination of the natural insect pesticide Bt.

  10. Maternal and Child Attributions in ADHD versus Non-ADHD Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, Brent R.; Gimpel, Gretchen A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study explores child and maternal attributions in ADHD and non-ADHD populations. Participants included children with ADHD (N = 26) and without ADHD (N = 24) and their mothers. Method: Children completed the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised (CASQ-R; Kaslow & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) and mothers completed the Written…

  11. Do ADHD and executive dysfunctions, measured by the hebrew version of Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF), completely overlap?

    PubMed

    Linder, Neta; Kroyzer, Naama; Maeir, Adina; Wertman-Elad, Raya; Pollak, Yehuda

    2010-01-01

    The centrality of executive function deficits (EFD) in attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well accepted albeit EFD is not synonymous with ADHD. The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which ADHD and EF overlap and to validate the Hebrew version of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF). Parents of 178 children with and without ADHD completed the BRIEF and the ADHD-Rating Scale. Significant differences were found between groups on each scale even after controlling for the other scale. Internal consistency analysis supported the reliability of the Hebrew version of the BRIEF. We conclude that ADHD and Executive Dysfunctions do not completely overlap. PMID:20521184

  12. Comparative Genomics of the Bacterial Genus Streptococcus Illuminates Evolutionary Implications of Species Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-Yang; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Hong-Wei; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Streptococcus within the phylum Firmicutes are among the most diverse and significant zoonotic pathogens. This genus has gone through considerable taxonomic revision due to increasing improvements of chemotaxonomic approaches, DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It is proposed to place the majority of streptococci into “species groups”. However, the evolutionary implications of species groups are not clear presently. We use comparative genomic approaches to yield a better understanding of the evolution of Streptococcus through genome dynamics, population structure, phylogenies and virulence factor distribution of species groups. Genome dynamics analyses indicate that the pan-genome size increases with the addition of newly sequenced strains, while the core genome size decreases with sequential addition at the genus level and species group level. Population structure analysis reveals two distinct lineages, one including Pyogenic, Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups, and the other including Mitis, Anginosus and Unknown groups. Phylogenetic dendrograms show that species within the same species group cluster together, and infer two main clades in accordance with population structure analysis. Distribution of streptococcal virulence factors has no obvious patterns among the species groups; however, the evolution of some common virulence factors is congruous with the evolution of species groups, according to phylogenetic inference. We suggest that the proposed streptococcal species groups are reasonable from the viewpoints of comparative genomics; evolution of the genus is congruent with the individual evolutionary trajectories of different species groups. PMID:24977706

  13. Comorbidity and correlates of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in 6-8-year-old children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mulraney, Melissa; Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Hazell, Philip; Nicholson, Jan M; Anderson, Vicki; Efron, Daryl; Silk, Timothy J; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the nature and impact of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) including its co-occurrence with other comorbidities and its independent influence on daily functioning. Children with ADHD (6-8 years) were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools, using a 2-stage screening (parent and teacher Conners 3 ADHD index) and case-confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV; [DISC-IV]) procedure. Proxy DMDD diagnosis was confirmed via items from the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and major depressive disorder modules of the DISC-IV. Outcome domains included comorbid mental health disorders, academic functioning, social functioning, child and family quality of life, parent mental health, and parenting behaviors. Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to compare children with comorbid ADHD and DMDD and children with ADHD without DMDD. Thirty-nine out of 179 children (21.8 %) with ADHD had comorbid DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD had a high prevalence of ODD (89.7 %) and any anxiety disorder (41.0 %). Children with ADHD and DMDD had poorer self-control and elevated bullying behaviors than children with ADHD without DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD were similar to children with ADHD in the other domains measured when taking into account other comorbidities including ODD. One in five children with ADHD in their second year of formal schooling met criteria for DMDD. There was a very high diagnostic overlap with ODD; however, the use of a proxy DMDD diagnosis containing items from the ODD module of the DISC-IV may have artificially inflated the comorbidity rates. DMDD added to the burden of ADHD particularly in the area of social functioning. PMID:26122202

  14. Comparing Outcomes for Youth Served in Treatment Foster Care and Treatment Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John; Armstrong, Mary; Dollard, Norin

    2011-01-01

    This study compared youth in the Florida Medicaid system prior to entry into treatment foster care or treatment group care, and compared outcomes in the 6 months after treatment. Florida Medicaid data from FY2003/04 through 2006/2007 along with Department of Juvenile Justice, Department of Law Enforcement, and involuntary examination data were…

  15. Hemispheric Coherence in ASD with and without Comorbid ADHD and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Saunders, A; Kirk, I J; Waldie, K E

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that altered brain connectivity may be a defining feature of disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), anxiety, and ADHD. This study investigated whether resting state functional connectivity, measured by 128-channel EEG oscillation coherence, differs between developmental disorders. Analyses were conducted separately on groups with and without comorbid conditions. Analyses revealed increased coherence across central electrodes over the primary motor cortex and decreased coherence in the frontal lobe networks in those with ASD compared to neurotypical controls. There was increased coherence in occipital lobe networks in the ADHD group compared to other groups. Symptoms of generalised anxiety were positively correlated with both frontal-occipital intrahemispheric (alpha only) coherence and occipital interhemispheric coherence (alpha, approaching theta band). The patterns of coherence in the ASD pure group were different when comorbid conditions were included in the analyses, suggesting that aberrant coherence in the frontal and central areas of the brain is specifically associated with ASD. Our findings support the idea that comorbid conditions are additive, rather than being symptoms of the same disorder. PMID:27127785

  16. Hemispheric Coherence in ASD with and without Comorbid ADHD and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, A.; Kirk, I. J.; Waldie, K. E.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that altered brain connectivity may be a defining feature of disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), anxiety, and ADHD. This study investigated whether resting state functional connectivity, measured by 128-channel EEG oscillation coherence, differs between developmental disorders. Analyses were conducted separately on groups with and without comorbid conditions. Analyses revealed increased coherence across central electrodes over the primary motor cortex and decreased coherence in the frontal lobe networks in those with ASD compared to neurotypical controls. There was increased coherence in occipital lobe networks in the ADHD group compared to other groups. Symptoms of generalised anxiety were positively correlated with both frontal-occipital intrahemispheric (alpha only) coherence and occipital interhemispheric coherence (alpha, approaching theta band). The patterns of coherence in the ASD pure group were different when comorbid conditions were included in the analyses, suggesting that aberrant coherence in the frontal and central areas of the brain is specifically associated with ASD. Our findings support the idea that comorbid conditions are additive, rather than being symptoms of the same disorder. PMID:27127785

  17. Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as an animal model for ADHD: a short overview.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo; Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Ponce-Lopez, Teresa; Tellez, Ruth; Gallegos-Cari, Andrea; Castillo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Diverse studies indicate that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with alterations in encoding processes, including working or short-term memory. Some ADHD dysfunctional domains are reflected in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Because ADHD, drugs and animal models are eliciting a growing interest, hence the aim of this work is to present a brief overview with a focus on the SHR as an animal model for ADHD and memory deficits. Thus, this paper reviews the concept of SHR as a model system for ADHD, comparing SHR, Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats with a focus on the hypertension level and working, short-term memory and attention in different behavioral tasks, such as open field, five choice serial reaction time, water maze, passive avoidance, and autoshaping. In addition, drug treatments (d-amphetamine and methylphenidate) are evaluated.

  18. Characterizing heterogeneity in children with and without ADHD based on reward system connectivity.

    PubMed

    Costa Dias, Taciana G; Iyer, Swathi P; Carpenter, Samuel D; Cary, Robert P; Wilson, Vanessa B; Mitchell, Suzanne H; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2015-02-01

    One potential obstacle limiting our ability to clarify ADHD etiology is the heterogeneity within the disorder, as well as in typical samples. In this study, we utilized a community detection approach on 106 children with and without ADHD (aged 7-12 years), in order to identify potential subgroups of participants based on the connectivity of the reward system. Children with ADHD were compared to typically developing children within each identified community, aiming to find the community-specific ADHD characteristics. Furthermore, to assess how the organization in subgroups relates to behavior, we evaluated delay-discounting gradient and impulsivity-related temperament traits within each community. We found that discrete subgroups were identified that characterized distinct connectivity profiles in the reward system. Importantly, which connections were atypical in ADHD relative to the control children were specific to the community membership. Our findings showed that children with ADHD and typically developing children could be classified into distinct subgroups according to brain functional connectivity. Results also suggested that the differentiation in "functional" subgroups is related to specific behavioral characteristics, in this case impulsivity. Thus, combining neuroimaging data and community detection might be a valuable approach to elucidate heterogeneity in ADHD etiology and examine ADHD neurobiology.

  19. ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160571.html ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids Study found ... percentage of black children show the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than white kids, they are less likely ...

  20. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  1. Executive Function in Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle; Nikolas, Molly; Nigg, Joel T.

    2007-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine the specificity of executive function weakness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during adolescence. Results suggest that executive function weakness in ADHD is specifically associated with symptoms of inattention-disorganization.

  2. Equivalency for Father and Mother Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2010-01-01

    The study used multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) procedures to examine the measurement and construct equivalencies for father and mother ratings of ADHD symptoms, recoded as binary scores. Fathers (N = 387) and mothers (N = 411) rated their primary school-aged children on the…

  3. [Family-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder].

    PubMed

    Vuori, Miika; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Nissinen, Heidi; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial family-based interventions--family therapy, cognitive-behavioral parent training and family-based treatment protocols--are empirically supported treatments for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Well-researched interventions such as remote and group-based parent training programs relate to improvements in parenting quality, positive parenting, and the child's decreased ADHD and conduct behavioral problems, whereas individual family-based treatments are sometimes required, depending on symptom severity. Specific family-based treatment protocols are tailored for older children and adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems. Considering the above, empirically supported programs are used more in Finland, compared to licensed Anglo-American treatment protocols. PMID:26548103

  4. [Family-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder].

    PubMed

    Vuori, Miika; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Nissinen, Heidi; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial family-based interventions--family therapy, cognitive-behavioral parent training and family-based treatment protocols--are empirically supported treatments for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Well-researched interventions such as remote and group-based parent training programs relate to improvements in parenting quality, positive parenting, and the child's decreased ADHD and conduct behavioral problems, whereas individual family-based treatments are sometimes required, depending on symptom severity. Specific family-based treatment protocols are tailored for older children and adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems. Considering the above, empirically supported programs are used more in Finland, compared to licensed Anglo-American treatment protocols.

  5. Post-error adjustments and ADHD symptoms in adults: The effect of laterality and state regulation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh M H; Börger, Norbert A; Geuze, Reint H; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) do not adjust their responses after committing errors. Post-error response adjustments are taken to reflect, among others, error monitoring that is essential for learning, flexible behavioural adaptation, and achieving future goals. Many behavioural studies have suggested that atypical lateral brain functions and difficulties in allocating effort to protect performance against stressors (i.e., state regulation) are key factors in ADHD. Whether these factors contribute to the absence of post-error response adjustments in ADHD is unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate the contribution of the left and right hemispheres and the deficiency in effort allocation to deviant post-error processing in adults with high ADHD symptoms. From a pool of 87 university students, two groups were formed: a group with higher (n=30) and a group with lower (n=26) scores on the ADHD index subscale of the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales. The groups performed a lateralized lexical decision task with a fast and slower stimulus presentation rate. Post-error slowing and post-error response accuracy to stimuli presented in the left and right visual field were measured in each stimulus presentation rate. Results indicated that subjects with the lower ADHD scores slowed down and improved their response accuracy after errors, especially when stimuli were presented in the right visual field at the slower rate. In contrast, subjects with the higher ADHD scores showed no post-error adjustments. Results suggest that during lexical decision performance, impaired error processing in adults with ADHD is associated with affected ability of the left hemisphere to compensate for errors, especially when extra effort allocation is needed to meet task demands.

  6. Post-error adjustments and ADHD symptoms in adults: The effect of laterality and state regulation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh M H; Börger, Norbert A; Geuze, Reint H; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) do not adjust their responses after committing errors. Post-error response adjustments are taken to reflect, among others, error monitoring that is essential for learning, flexible behavioural adaptation, and achieving future goals. Many behavioural studies have suggested that atypical lateral brain functions and difficulties in allocating effort to protect performance against stressors (i.e., state regulation) are key factors in ADHD. Whether these factors contribute to the absence of post-error response adjustments in ADHD is unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate the contribution of the left and right hemispheres and the deficiency in effort allocation to deviant post-error processing in adults with high ADHD symptoms. From a pool of 87 university students, two groups were formed: a group with higher (n=30) and a group with lower (n=26) scores on the ADHD index subscale of the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales. The groups performed a lateralized lexical decision task with a fast and slower stimulus presentation rate. Post-error slowing and post-error response accuracy to stimuli presented in the left and right visual field were measured in each stimulus presentation rate. Results indicated that subjects with the lower ADHD scores slowed down and improved their response accuracy after errors, especially when stimuli were presented in the right visual field at the slower rate. In contrast, subjects with the higher ADHD scores showed no post-error adjustments. Results suggest that during lexical decision performance, impaired error processing in adults with ADHD is associated with affected ability of the left hemisphere to compensate for errors, especially when extra effort allocation is needed to meet task demands. PMID:27429094

  7. A Comparative Perspective on Intermarriage: Explaining Differences Among National-Origin Groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    KALMIJN, MATTHIJS; VAN TUBERGEN, FRANK

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the validity of group-level theories of ethnic intermarriage despite the fact that such theories are often invoked in explaining why certain ethnic groups are “closed,” whereas others are relatively “open.” We develop a comparative perspective by analyzing the marriage choices of 94 national-origin groups in the United States, using pooled data from the Current Population Surveys, 1994–2006, and multilevel models in which individual and contextual determinants of intermarriage are included simultaneously. Our analyses show large differences in endogamy across groups. After taking compositional effects into account, we find that both structural and cultural group-level factors have significant effects on endogamy. Cultural explanations (which focus on the role of norms and preferences) play a more important role than structural explanations (which focus on meeting and mating opportunities). Our results reinforce the common but untested interpretation of endogamy in terms of group boundaries. PMID:20608106

  8. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2008-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…

  9. The Energetic Brain: Understanding and Managing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Harrison, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    ADHD affects millions of people-some 3 to 5% of the general population. Written by a neuroscientist who has studied ADHD, a clinician who has diagnosed and treated it for 30 years, and a special educator who sees it daily, "The Energetic Brain" provides the latest information from neuroscience on how the ADHD brain works and shows how to harness…

  10. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  11. ADHD--Building Academic Success. Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    This policy brief discusses students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their school performance. Reasons are presented to explain why children with ADHD fail. The three main characteristics of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity) and their interference with academic performance are discussed. The brief…

  12. Functional Genomics of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Risk Alleles on Dopamine Transporter Binding in ADHD and Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Madras, Bertha K.; Bonab, Ali A.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Batchelder, Holly; Clarke, Allison; Fischman, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the striatum in individuals with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), attending to the 3′-untranslated region of the gene (3′-UTR) and intron8 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms of the DAT (SLC6A3) gene. Methods Subjects consisted of 68 psychotropic (including stimulant)-naïve and smoking-naïve volunteers between 18 and 55 years of age (ADHD n = 34; control subjects n = 34). Striatal DAT binding was measured with positron emission tomography with 11C altropane. Genotyping of the two DAT (SLC6A3) 3′-UTR and intron8 VNTRs used standard protocols. Results The gene frequencies of each of the gene polymorphisms assessed did not differ between the ADHD and control groups. The ADHD status (t = 2.99; p < .004) and 3′-UTR of SLC6A3 9 repeat carrier status (t = 2.74; p < .008) were independently and additively associated with increased DAT binding in the caudate. The ADHD status was associated with increased striatal (caudate) DAT binding regardless of 3′-UTR genotype, and 3′-UTR genotype was associated with increased striatal (caudate) DAT binding regardless of ADHD status. In contrast, there were no significant associations between polymorphisms of DAT intron8 or the 3′-UTR-intron8 haplotype with DAT binding. Conclusions The 3′-UTR but not intron8 VNTR genotypes were associated with increased DAT binding in both ADHD patients and healthy control subjects. Both ADHD status and the 3′-UTR polymorphism status had an additive effect on DAT binding. Our findings suggest that an ADHD risk polymorphism (3′-UTR) of SLC6A3 has functional consequences on central nervous system DAT binding in humans. PMID:23273726

  13. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan J; Adamou, Marios; Bolea, Blanca; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Müller, Ulrich; Pitts, Mark; Thome, Johannes; Asherson, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD.This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  14. Impact of executive functions on school and peer functions in youths with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Huey-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2014-05-01

    Youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to have social dysfunction at school. The authors explored the role of key executive functions (EF, i.e., spatial working memory and spatial planning) on school and peer functions in 511 youths with persistent ADHD according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and 124 non-ADHD controls without any EF deficits. All the participants were assessed by a semi-structured psychiatric interview to confirm their previous and current diagnosis of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders and by the Spatial Working Memory (SWM) and Stocking of Cambridge (SOC) tasks. The participants and their parents reported the participants' school functions and peer relationships. There were three ADHD subgroups: (1) ADHD with deficits in both SWM and SOC tasks (n=121); (2) ADHD with deficit in either SWM or SOC task (n=185); (3) ADHD without deficits in SWM or SOC task (n=205). All the three ADHD groups, regardless of EF deficits, had lower school grade, poorer attitude toward school work, poorer school interactions, more behavioral problems at school, and more severe problems in peer relationships than non-ADHD controls. Multivariate analyses revealed positive associations between deficit in the SWM task and school and peer dysfunctions, and between deficits in the SOC task and impaired peer interactions. Older age and psychiatric comorbidity also contributed to increased risk of school and peer dysfunctions. Our findings suggest that deficits in EF, such as spatial working memory and planning, might be associated with school and peer dysfunctions.

  15. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy Compared to the Usual Opioid Dependence Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Saeed; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Noroozi, Alireza; Habibi, Mojtaba; Bowen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group therapy (MBGT) compared to the usual opioid dependence treatment (TAU).Thirty outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opioid dependence from Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS) were randomly assigned into experimental (Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy) and control groups (the Usual Treatment).The experimental group undertook eight weeks of intervention, but the control group received the usual treatment according to the INCAS program. Methods: The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Addiction Sevier Index (ASI) were administered at pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment periods. Thirteen patients from the experimental group and 15 from the control group completed post-test assessments. Results: The results of MANCOVA revealed an increase in mean scores in observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging, non-reacting, and decrease in mean scores of alcohol and opium in MBGT patient group. Conclusion: The effectiveness of MBGT, compared to the usual treatment, was discussed in this paper as a selective protocol in the health care setting for substance use disorders. PMID:26877751

  16. Fatty acids in ADHD: plasma profiles in a placebo-controlled study of Omega 3/6 fatty acids in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mats; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Ostlund, Sven; Fransson, Gunnar; Areskoug, Björn; Hjalmarsson, Kerstin; Landgren, Magnus; Kadesjö, Björn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess baseline levels and changes in plasma fatty acid profiles in children and adolescents with ADHD, in a placebo-controlled study with Omega 3/6 supplementation, and to compare with treatment response. Seventy-five children and adolescents aged 8-18 years with DSM-IV ADHD were randomized to 3 months of Omega 3/6 (Equazen eye q) or placebo, followed by 3 months of open phase Omega 3/6 for all. n-3, n-6, n-6/n-3 ratio, EPA and DHA in plasma were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Subjects with more than 25 % reduction in ADHD symptoms were classified as responders. At baseline, no significant differences in mean fatty acid levels were seen across active/placebo groups or responder/non-responder groups. The 0-3 month changes in all parameters were significantly greater in the active group (p < 0.01). Compared to non-responders, the 6-month responders had significantly greater n-3 increase at 3 months and decrease in n-6/n-3 ratio at 3 and 6 months (p < 0.05). Omega 3/6 supplementation had a clear impact on fatty acid composition of plasma phosphatidyl choline in active versus placebo group, and the fatty acid changes appear to be associated with treatment response. The most pronounced and long-lasting changes for treatment responders compared to non-responders were in the n-6/n-3 ratio.

  17. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8–12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Method Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8–12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Results Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. Conclusions These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD. PMID:25610784

  18. Hemodynamic response of children with attention-deficit and hyperactive disorder (ADHD) to emotional facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Nakato, Emi; Kanazawa, So; Shimamura, Keiichi; Sakuta, Yuiko; Sakuta, Ryoichi; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulty recognizing facial expressions. They identify angry expressions less accurately than typically developing (TD) children, yet little is known about their atypical neural basis for the recognition of facial expressions. Here, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to examine the distinctive cerebral hemodynamics of ADHD and TD children while they viewed happy and angry expressions. We measured the hemodynamic responses of 13 ADHD boys and 13 TD boys to happy and angry expressions at their bilateral temporal areas, which are sensitive to face processing. The ADHD children showed an increased concentration of oxy-Hb for happy faces but not for angry faces, while TD children showed increased oxy-Hb for both faces. Moreover, the individual peak latency of hemodynamic response in the right temporal area showed significantly greater variance in the ADHD group than in the TD group. Such atypical brain activity observed in ADHD boys may relate to their preserved ability to recognize a happy expression and their difficulty recognizing an angry expression. We firstly demonstrated that NIRS can be used to detect atypical hemodynamic response to facial expressions in ADHD children.

  19. Working memory network alterations and associated symptoms in adults with ADHD and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ariel; Biederman, Joseph; Valera, Eve; Lomedico, Alexandra; Aleardi, Megan; Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Bipolar Disorder (BPD) co-occur frequently and represent a particularly morbid clinical form of both disorders, however underlying neural circuitry contributing to the comorbidity remain understudied. Our aim was to investigate functional brain circuitry during working memory in a group of participants who meet criteria for both disorders (ADHD+BPD), and to explore the relationship of symptoms of each disorder to brain function. We used fMRI to image brain activity in 18 male adults with both ADHD and BPD, and 18 healthy control participants matched one-to-one on age, sex, and handedness, while they performed a sequential letter n-back task. We investigated differences in activation between these groups, and also correlations of brain activity during the task to symptoms of ADHD and BPD independently. We found significant hypoactivity in the subjects with ADHD+BPD vs. controls across frontal and parietal regions, and further, found that BPD and ADHD symptoms related to activity in anatomically distinct regions that were respectively characterized by activation and suppression during task. We conclude that comorbid ADHD+BPD is associated with alterations across anterior and posterior nodes of the working memory network, and symptoms of each disorder are related to anatomically and functionally distinct brain regions. PMID:22272986

  20. The reinforcing effects of nicotine and stimulant medication in the everyday lives of adult smokers with ADHD: A preliminary examination.

    PubMed

    Gehricke, Jean-G; Whalen, Carol K; Jamner, Larry D; Wigal, Tim L; Steinhoff, Kenneth

    2006-02-01

    Whereas the smoking prevalence rates in the general population are declining, rates among people diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continue to be elevated. Previous research has shown that nicotine may improve attention and mood, suggesting that nicotine may help ameliorate the attentional and emotional problems associated with ADHD. The present study examined the effects of nicotine with and without stimulant medication on ADHD symptoms, moods, and arousal in the everyday lives of smokers with ADHD. A total of 10 smokers with ADHD who were being treated with stimulant medication were asked to abstain from smoking while participating in the study. Participants underwent four conditions in randomized order: (a) Nicotine patch+stimulant medication, (b) nicotine patch only, (c) placebo patch+stimulant medication, and (d) placebo patch only. Each condition continued for 2 days, during which self-reports of ADHD symptoms and moods were obtained using electronic diaries. Lightweight ambulatory monitors recorded cardiovascular activity at each diary entry. Smoking abstinence was verified by expired carbon monoxide and salivary cotinine analysis. Results showed that nicotine patches and stimulant medication alone and in combination reduced difficulty concentrating and core ADHD symptoms compared with placebo patch only. Borderline improvement in impatience and self-control was seen with nicotine patch administration primarily on day 1. Nicotine patches also tended to elevate systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with placebo patch during day 2. The findings suggest that smokers with ADHD experience nicotine-related reductions in ADHD symptoms during their everyday lives.

  1. The role of sustained attention and display medium in reading comprehension among adolescents with ADHD and without it.

    PubMed

    Stern, Pnina; Shalev, Lilach

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties in reading comprehension are common in children and adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The current study aimed at investigating the relation between sustained attention and reading comprehension among adolescents with and without ADHD. Another goal was to examine the impact of two manipulations of the text on the efficiency of reading comprehension: Spacing (standard- vs. double-spacing) and Type of presentation (computer screen vs. hard copy). Reading comprehension of two groups of adolescents (participants with ADHD and normal controls) was assessed and compared in four different conditions (standard printed, spaced printed, standard on computer screen, spaced on computer screen). In addition, participants completed a visual sustained attention task. Significant differences in reading comprehension and in sustained attention were obtained between the two groups. Also, a significant correlation was obtained between sustained attention and reading comprehension. Moreover, a significant interaction was revealed between presentation-type, spacing and level of sustained attention on reading comprehension. Implications for reading intervention and the importance of early assessment of attention functioning are discussed.

  2. Executive dysfunctions among boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): performance-based test and parents report.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Ma'ayan; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Difficulty in executive functions (EF) is a core symptom of ADHD. Yet, the EF assessments are still in controversy. It is still unclear whether the everyday implementation of EF can be assessed under laboratory conditions. Therefore, the purposes of the present study are: (a) to examine EF among boys with ADHD both in everyday behavior (as reported by parents) and in a performance-based test. (b) To examine correlations between the two tests. Both the Behavior Assessment of Dysexecutive Functions for Children (BADS-C) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) were independently applied to 25 boys aged 8-11 years with ADHD and 25 age-matched typical boys. Results of the two assessments were compared between the two groups to indicate differences in EF. Correlations between the two assessments for all participants were evaluated. Overall, significant differences in EF were found between the two groups on both assessments. Significant correlations were found between BADS-C and BRIEF, specifically in metacognition but not in behavioral regulation. Findings indicate that poor EF manifests itself in everyday behavior. These difficulties are found in metacognitive and behavioral regulation components. Nevertheless, applying a valid ecological assessment of behavior regulation merits future research. PMID:22230238

  3. Executive dysfunctions among boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): performance-based test and parents report.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Ma'ayan; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Difficulty in executive functions (EF) is a core symptom of ADHD. Yet, the EF assessments are still in controversy. It is still unclear whether the everyday implementation of EF can be assessed under laboratory conditions. Therefore, the purposes of the present study are: (a) to examine EF among boys with ADHD both in everyday behavior (as reported by parents) and in a performance-based test. (b) To examine correlations between the two tests. Both the Behavior Assessment of Dysexecutive Functions for Children (BADS-C) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) were independently applied to 25 boys aged 8-11 years with ADHD and 25 age-matched typical boys. Results of the two assessments were compared between the two groups to indicate differences in EF. Correlations between the two assessments for all participants were evaluated. Overall, significant differences in EF were found between the two groups on both assessments. Significant correlations were found between BADS-C and BRIEF, specifically in metacognition but not in behavioral regulation. Findings indicate that poor EF manifests itself in everyday behavior. These difficulties are found in metacognitive and behavioral regulation components. Nevertheless, applying a valid ecological assessment of behavior regulation merits future research.

  4. A Randomised Controlled Trial of a Play-Based Intervention to Improve the Social Play Skills of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Lincoln, Michelle; Chen, Yu-Wei

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for effective interventions to address the social difficulties of children with ADHD. This randomised controlled trial examined the effectiveness of a play-based intervention for improving the social play skills of children with ADHD in peer-to-peer interactions. Children with ADHD (5 to 11 years) were randomised to an intervention-first (n = 15) or waitlist control-first group (n = 14). Participants allocated to the control-first group received the intervention after a 10-week wait period. Children invited a typically-developing playmate and parents of children with ADHD participated. The intervention involved: six clinic play-sessions, weekly home-modules and a one-month home follow up. The Test of Playfulness (ToP) was scored by a blinded rater. Parent reported treatment adherence was used to assess treatment fidelity. Between group statistics were used to compare the change of the intervention-first (10-week intervention period) and control-first (10-week wait period) groups. Once all children had received the intervention, repeated measures ANOVA, post hoc Least Significance Difference tests and Cohen’s-d were used to measure effect. Changes in ToP social items were analysed using Friedman’s ANOVA. Linear regression analyses were used to identify variables that predicted change. The control-first group did not change during the wait period. The change in the intervention-first group was significantly greater than the change in the control-first group (during the wait period). When the data from the two groups were combined, the mean ToP scores of the children with ADHD (n = 29) improved significantly following the intervention, with a large effect from pre to post intervention and from pre intervention to follow up. Children maintained treatment gains at follow up. All ToP social items improved significantly following the intervention. The findings support the use of play involving parent and peer mediated components to enhance the social

  5. ADHD Symptoms in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Wood, Nicky; Gringras, Paul; Chadwick, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the nature and correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are different in subjects with mild intellectual disability (ID) compared to subjects with average ability. Method: From a general population sample of 2,726 12- to 15-year-olds, a stratified subsample was selected to enrich for…

  6. Family Interactions in Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Gail; Schaughency, Elizabeth A.; Langlands, Robyn; Mouat, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    We used global ratings to compare the family (parent[s]-child) interactions of 51 clinic-referred children with ADHD and 32 non problem children. Children and parent(s) were videotaped while engaging in problem solving and game playing activities. Independent coders, blind to children's diagnostic status, rated the interactions using measures…

  7. Effects of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Treatment for ADHD on Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Kollins, Scott H.; Glatt, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To complete an exploratory uncontrolled study of the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on growth of children treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) from 281 children ages 6 to 13 years from longitudinal assessments up to 15 months were compared to norms…

  8. Speed of Language Comprehension Is Impaired in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassenberg, Renske; Hendriksen, Jos G. M.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; Feron, Frans J. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.; Jolles, Jelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD have an increased risk of poor academic performance. It is important to identify cognitive processes that may be related to this academic failure. In Western schooling systems, especially language processing skills may be of relevance. The present study, therefore, compares the ability to comprehend complex sentences…

  9. Young Children with ADHD: Early Identification and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Kern, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often begin early in life. In fact, many young children enter school with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that put them at a significant disadvantage compared with their typically-developing peers. Over the past several decades, researchers, psychologists and educators have devoted…

  10. Description and Demonstration of CBT for ADHD in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprich, Susan E.; Knouse, Laura E.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Burbridge, Jennifer; Safren, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    ADHD in adulthood is a valid, prevalent, distressing, and interfering condition. Although medications help treat this disorder, there are often residual symptoms after medication treatment, and, for some patients, they are contraindicated. Compared to other disorders, such as mood and anxiety disorders, there are few resources available for…

  11. The Efficacy of Computerized Cognitive Training in Adults With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adi; Malik, Elad; Pollak, Yehuda; Bonne, Omer; Maeir, Adina

    2014-04-22

    Objective: This is a randomized control trial examining the efficiency of computerized cognitive training (CCT) for adults with ADHD, comparing two training conditions with graded levels of executive cognitive demands. Method: Adults with ADHD (n = 60) were randomized into study (n = 34) and control (n = 26) groups. Training was conducted with the computerized AttenFocus program. Control group received a simple, non-hierarchical version with less executive demands. Results: Significant positive changes in symptoms ratings, ecological measures of executive functions, and occupational performance were found in both groups. No significant changes were found in variables of neurocognitive performance battery and quality of life. No significant time by group interaction effects were found. Conclusion: No benefits of the intervention were found relative to the control. Lack of interaction effects may be due to insufficient power, non-specific cognitive training or placebo effects. Results demonstrate some positive findings for general CCT, yet do not support the inclusion of specific higher level executive training. PMID:24756172

  12. Sex differences and the interaction of age and sleep issues in neuropsychological testing performance across the lifespan in an ADD/ADHD sample from the years 1989 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Barbara C; Garges, Danielle M; Yoon, Sun Young Rosalia; Maguire, Katie; Zipay, Danielle; Gambino, Maria; Shapiro, Colin M

    2014-04-01

    Chart review of population (9 to 80 years) neuropsychological test battery for ADHD diagnosis, questionnaires with multiple responders were evaluated in outpatient setting from 1989-2009. The focus was gender differences across age, diagnostic group (ADHD-Inattentive/ADHD plus), neuropsychological test performance, and reported sleep symptoms over the lifespan. Individuals were assigned to ADHD-I group or ADHD plus group (based upon secondary diagnosis of sleep, behavioral, emotional disturbance); ADHD not primary was excluded (brain insult, psychosis). Among these were 1,828 children (ages 9 to 14), adolescents (ages 15 to 17), and adults (ages 18 and above); 446 children (312 diagnosed ADHD-I), 218 adolescents (163 diagnosed ADHD-I), and 1,163 adults (877 ADHD-I). Sleep was problematic regardless of age, ADHD subtype, and gender. The type and number of sleep problems and fatigue were age dependent. ADHD subtype, gender, fatigue, age, and sleep (sleep onset, unrefreshing sleep, sleep maintenance) were significant variables affecting neuropsychological test performance (sequencing, cognitive flexibility, slow- and fast-paced input, divided attention, whole brain functioning). Findings suggest that ADHD involves numerous factors and symptoms beyond attention, such as sleep which interacts differently dependent upon age.

  13. Social Functioning in Children with ADHD Treated with Long-Term Methylphenidate and Multimodal Psychosocial Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; Hechtman, Lily; Klein, Rachel G.; Gallagher, Richard; Fleiss, Karen; Etcovitch, Joy; Cousins, Lorne; Greenfield, Brian; Martin, Diane; Pollack, Simcha

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test that methylphenidate combined with intensive multimodal psychosocial intervention, which includes social skills training, significantly enhances social functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with methylphenidate alone and methylphenidate plus nonspecific psychosocial treatment…

  14. Comparing Two Cooperative Small Group Formats Used with Physical Therapy and Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Eon, Marcel; Proctor, Peggy; Reeder, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study compared "Structured Controversy" (a semi-formal debate like small group activity) with a traditional open discussion format for medical and physical therapy students. We found that those students who had participated in Structured Controversy changed their personal opinion on the topic more than those who were in the Open Discussion…

  15. Comparative Efficacy of Group and Individual Feedback in Gross Anatomy for Promoting Medical Student Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Christopher L.; Gregory, Jeremy K.; Lachman, Nirusha; Chen, Laura P.; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Professionalism is a core competency of medical training that requires students to develop the skills of providing and receiving feedback. Our study evaluated the effectiveness of delivering feedback in a group setting compared with an individual setting. The first-year class of Mayo medical students (n = 49) enrolled in gross anatomy (in…

  16. The Adequacy of Different Robust Statistical Tests in Comparing Two Independent Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pero-Cebollero, Maribel; Guardia-Olmos, Joan

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we evaluated various robust statistical methods for comparing two independent groups. Two scenarios for simulation were generated: one of equality and another of population mean differences. In each of the scenarios, 33 experimental conditions were used as a function of sample size, standard deviation and asymmetry. For each…

  17. Learning through Discussions: Comparing the Benefits of Small-Group and Large-Class Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin; Wilson, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on teaching and learning heralds the benefits of discussion for student learner outcomes, especially its ability to improve students' critical thinking skills. Yet, few studies compare the effects of different types of face-to-face discussions on learners. Using student surveys, we analyze the benefits of small-group and large-class…

  18. Comparing Brief and Extended Wait-Time during Small Group Instruction for Children with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt; Crozier, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    This preliminary study compared brief (1 s) and extended (4 s) wait-time on response opportunities, academic responses, accuracy, and disruptive behavior of two children with challenging behavior during small group instruction. Brief wait-time increased children's response opportunities, academic responses, and accuracy in comparison to extended…

  19. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1994 Peer Groups Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan; Meeker, Bradley

    Comparative financial information derived from a national sample of 427 two-year colleges is presented in this report for fiscal year 1993-94, including data for the national sample and 6 groups of peer institutions. The first section provides introductory information on the annual study, reviewing the objectives of the study and potential uses of…

  20. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1995 Peer Groups Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, Bradley

    Comparative financial information derived from a national sample of 405 two-year colleges is presented in this report for fiscal year 1994-95, including data for the national sample and for 6groups of peer institutions. The first section provides introductory information on the annual study, discussing the study sample and the use of study…

  1. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1993 Peer Group Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan; Meeker, Bradley

    Comparative financial information derived from a national sample of 516 two-year colleges is presented in this report for fiscal year 1992-93, including statistics for the national sample and for six peer groups. The report's nine sections focus on: (1) introductory information about the study's background, objectives, and sample; the National…

  2. Drinking to Distraction: Does Alcohol Increase Attentional Bias in Adults with ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Walter; Fillmore, Mark T.; Milich, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that social drinkers continue to show attentional bias towards alcohol-related stimuli even after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol. In contrast, little is known about how alcohol acutely affects attentional bias in groups at risk to develop alcohol-related problems, such as adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such individuals may show increased attentional bias following alcohol relative to nonclinical controls. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining acute alcohol effects on attentional bias in 20 social drinkers with ADHD and 20 social drinkers with no history of ADHD. Participants performed a visual-probe task after receiving the following doses of alcohol: 0.64 g/kg, 0.32 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Those in the ADHD group showed increased attentional bias under active alcohol doses, whereas attentional bias was similar across doses in the control group. Attentional bias predicted ad libitum alcohol consumption during a taste-rating session. This relation was observed only in the ADHD group. These findings indicate that an acute alcohol dose increases attentional bias in adults with ADHD. Further, attentional bias appears to be a predictor of ad libitum consumption in this group. PMID:22121850

  3. Drinking to distraction: does alcohol increase attentional bias in adults with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Walter; Fillmore, Mark T; Milich, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Previous research has shown that social drinkers continue to show attentional bias toward alcohol-related stimuli even after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol. In contrast, little is known about how alcohol acutely affects attentional bias in groups at risk to develop alcohol-related problems, such as adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such individuals may show increased attentional bias following alcohol relative to nonclinical controls. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining acute alcohol effects on attentional bias in 20 social drinkers with ADHD and 20 social drinkers with no history of ADHD. Participants performed a visual-probe task after receiving the following doses of alcohol: 0.64 g/kg, 0.32 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Those in the ADHD group showed increased attentional bias under active alcohol doses, whereas attentional bias was similar across doses in the control group. Attentional bias predicted ad libitum alcohol consumption during a taste-rating session. This relation was observed only in the ADHD group. These findings indicate that an acute alcohol dose increases attentional bias in adults with ADHD. Further, attentional bias appears to be a predictor of ad libitum consumption in this group.

  4. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-02-24

    Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567364

  5. Intra-individual variability in ADHD, autism spectrum disorders and Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Hilde M; Grasman, Raoul P P P; Verté, Sylvie; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert; van Kammen, Serena M; Sergeant, Joseph A

    2008-11-01

    The potential for response variability to serve as an endophenotype for attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) rests, in part, upon the development of reliable and valid methods to decompose variability. This study investigated the specificity of intra-individual variability (IIV) in 53 children with ADHD by comparing them with 25 children with high functioning autism (HFA), 32 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), who also were comorbid for ADHD (ASD+ADHD), 21 children with Tourette's syndrome (TS), and 85 typically developing controls (TD). In order to decompose the variability of the reaction times, we applied three distinct techniques: ex-Gaussian modeling, intra-individual variability analysis, and spectral analysis. Our data revealed that children with HFA and children with ASD+ADHD exhibited substantial IIV compared with ADHD and TD children. We argue that: (1) all three methods lead to a single consistent conclusion; (2) careful documentation of the analytic steps used in spectral analysis is mandatory for comparison between studies; (3) the presence of comorbidities may constitute an important factor in the observed response variability in previous studies of ADHD.

  6. Assessment of the QT interval in the electroencephalography (EEG) of children with syncope, epilepsy, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Jha, Om P; Khurana, Divya S; Carvalho, Karen S; Melvin, Joseph J; Legido, Agustin; O'Riordan, Anna C; Valencia, Ignacio

    2010-03-01

    The interpretation of QT interval is often neglected during electroencephalography (EEG) reading. We compared the incidence of prolonged QT interval, as seen in the electrocardiography (ECG) recording lead of the EEG, in children presenting with seizure, syncope, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Abnormal QT was defined as >460 ms. The incidence of prolonged QT in the seizure, syncope, and ADHD groups was 1/50 (2%), 7/50 (14%), and 2/50 (4%), respectively (P = .036, chi-square). The mean +/- SD of QT were 405 +/- 34, 424 +/- 39, and 414 +/- 36, respectively (P = .035, analysis of variance [ANOVA], syncope group, compared with seizure group). The incidence of prolonged QT as measured in the EEG was unexpectedly high in children presenting with seizure, syncope, or ADHD. These data support the concept that QT evaluation should be emphasized during routine EEG reading, as it may aid in identifying cases of undiagnosed cardiac conduction abnormalities. Prospective studies comparing EEG-ECG tracings with 12-lead ECG are warranted.

  7. Extended visual glances away from the roadway are associated with ADHD- and texting-related driving performance deficits in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kingery, Kathleen M.; Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A.; Antonini, Tanya N.; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research study was to determine whether ADHD- and texting-related driving impairments are mediated by extended visual glances away from the roadway. Sixty-one adolescents (ADHD = 28, non-ADHD = 33; 62% male; 11% minority) aged 16–17 with a valid driver’s license were videotaped while engaging in a driving simulation that included a No Distraction, Hands-Free Phone Conversation, and Texting condition. Two indicators of visual inattention were coded: 1) percentage of time with eyes diverted from the roadway; and 2) number of extended (greater than 2 seconds) visual glances away from the roadway. Adolescents with ADHD displayed significantly more visual inattention to the roadway on both visual inattention measures. Increased lane position variability among adolescents with ADHD compared to those without ADHD during the Hands-Free Phone Conversation and Texting conditions was mediated by an increased number of extended glances away from the roadway. Similarly, texting resulted in decreased visual attention to the roadway. Finally, increased lane position variability during texting was also mediated by the number of extended glances away from the roadway. Both ADHD and texting impair visual attention to the roadway and the consequence of this visual inattention is increased lane position variability. Visual inattention is implicated as a possible mechanism for ADHD- and texting-related deficits and suggests that driving interventions designed to address ADHD- or texting-related deficits in adolescents need to focus on decreasing extended glances away from the roadway. PMID:25416444

  8. Extended Visual Glances Away from the Roadway are Associated with ADHD- and Texting-Related Driving Performance Deficits in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kingery, Kathleen M; Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A; Antonini, Tanya N; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the research study was to determine whether ADHD- and texting-related driving impairments are mediated by extended visual glances away from the roadway. Sixty-one adolescents (ADHD =28, non-ADHD =33; 62% male; 11% minority) aged 16-17 with a valid driver's license were videotaped while engaging in a driving simulation that included a No Distraction, Hands-Free Phone Conversation, and Texting condition. Two indicators of visual inattention were coded: 1) percentage of time with eyes diverted from the roadway; and 2) number of extended (greater than 2 s) visual glances away from the roadway. Adolescents with ADHD displayed significantly more visual inattention to the roadway on both visual inattention measures. Increased lane position variability among adolescents with ADHD compared to those without ADHD during the Hands-Free Phone Conversation and Texting conditions was mediated by an increased number of extended glances away from the roadway. Similarly, texting resulted in decreased visual attention to the roadway. Finally, increased lane position variability during texting was also mediated by the number of extended glances away from the roadway. Both ADHD and texting impair visual attention to the roadway and the consequence of this visual inattention is increased lane position variability. Visual inattention is implicated as a possible mechanism for ADHD- and texting-related deficits and suggests that driving interventions designed to address ADHD- or texting-related deficits in adolescents need to focus on decreasing extended glances away from the roadway. PMID:25416444

  9. Comparative historical biogeography of three groups of Nearctic freshwater fishes across central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, R; Domínguez-Domínguez, O; Doadrio, I; Cuevas-García, E; Pérez-Ponce de León, G

    2015-03-01

    Biogeographic patterns of the three main Nearctic groups of continental fishes inhabiting river drainages in central Mexico (livebearing goodeids, southern Mexican notropins and species of Algansea, the last two representing independent lineages of cyprinids) were obtained and compared by following two approaches: an estimate of divergence times and using a well-defined biogeographic method. Three concordant biogeographic events were identified among the three groups, showing some evidence of a partially congruent evolutionary history. The analysed groups show at least three independent colonization events into central Mexico: two western routes, followed by the Goodeinae and members of Algansea, and an early Plateau route followed by southern notropins. The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of each of the three freshwater fish groups diversified in central Mexico in the Late Miocene. The lack of a strong congruence in their biogeographic patterns, and the differences in species richness among the three clades might be evidence for distinct patterns of diversification. PMID:25644334

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Multiple deficits in ADHD: executive dysfunction, delay aversion, reaction time variability, and emotional deficits

    PubMed Central

    Sjöwall, Douglas; Roth, Linda; Lindqvist, Sofia; Thorell, Lisa B

    2013-01-01

    Background The notion that ADHD constitutes a heterogeneous disorder is well accepted. However, this study contributes with new important knowledge by examining independent effects of a large range of neuropsychological deficits. In addition, the study investigated whether deficits in emotional functioning constitute a dissociable component of ADHD. Method The study included children with ADHD (n = 102; 7–13 years) and a control sample individually matched with regard to age and gender. The administered tasks were designed to tap into three different neuropsychological domains: executive functions (i.e., working memory, inhibition, and shifting), delay aversion, and reaction time variability. Parent ratings of emotion regulation and a test of emotion recognition were also included. Results Children with ADHD differed significantly from controls on all measures, except for delay aversion and recognition of disgust. No main effects of gender or interaction effects of gender and group were found. More importantly, executive functioning, reaction time variability, and emotional functioning all contributed independently to distinguishing between children with ADHD and controls. Conclusions The current study supports the view of ADHD as a heterogeneous disorder related to multiple neuropsychological deficits. In addition, emotional functioning appears to be an area of importance for ADHD that needs to be incorporated into future theoretical models. PMID:23061803

  12. Folate metabolism gene 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with ADHD in myelomeningocele patients.

    PubMed

    Spellicy, Catherine J; Northrup, Hope; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Dennis, Maureen; Morrison, Alanna C; Martinez, Carla A; Au, Kit Sing

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation between the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and behaviors related to attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in individuals with myelomeningocele. The rationale for the study was twofold: folate metabolizing genes, (e.g. MTHFR), are important not only in the etiology of neural tube defects but are also critical to cognitive function; and individuals with myelomeningocele have an elevated incidence of ADHD. Here, we tested 478 individuals with myelomeningocele for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder behavior using the Swanson Nolan Achenbach Pelham-IV ADHD rating scale. Myelomeningocele participants in this group for whom DNAs were available were genotyped for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFR gene. The SNPs were evaluated for an association with manifestation of the ADHD phenotype in children with myelomeningocele. The data show that 28.7% of myelomeningocele participants exhibit rating scale elevations consistent with ADHD; of these 70.1% had scores consistent with the predominantly inattentive subtype. In addition, we also show a positive association between the SNP rs4846049 in the 3'-untranslated region of the MTHFR gene and the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder phenotype in myelomeningocele participants. These results lend further support to the finding that behavior related to ADHD is more prevalent in patients with myelomeningocele than in the general population. These data also indicate the potential importance of the MTHFR gene in the etiology of the ADHD phenotype. PMID:23227261

  13. The Impact of Hypnotic Suggestions on Reaction Times in Continuous Performance Test in Adults with ADHD and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Virta, Maarit; Hiltunen, Seppo; Mattsson, Markus; Kallio, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Attention is one of the key factors in both hypnotic processes and patients with ADHD. In addition, the brain areas associated with hypnosis and ADHD overlap in many respects. However, the use of hypnosis in ADHD patients has still received only minor attention in research. The main purpose of the present work was to investigate whether hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions influence the performance of adult ADHD (n = 27) and control participants (n = 31) in the continuous performance test (CPT). The hypnotic susceptibility of the participants was measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) and the attentional task was a three minute long auditory version of the CPT. The CPT task was administered four times: before hypnosis (CPT1), after a hypnotic induction (CPT2), after suggestions about speed and accuracy (CPT3), and after the termination of hypnosis (CPT4). The susceptibility of the groups measured by HGSHS:A did not differ. There was a statistically significant decrease in reaction times in both ADHD and control groups between CPT2 and CPT3. The differences between CPT1 and CPT2, even though non-significant, were different in the two groups: in the ADHD group reaction times decreased whereas in the control group they increased. Both groups made very few errors in the short CPT. This study indicates that hypnotic suggestions have an effect on reaction times in the sustained attention task both in adult ADHD patients and control subjects. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25962151

  14. Comparative neuropsychology of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: implications for a novel executive overload model of OCD.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Dar, Reuven; Hermesh, Haggai; Schweiger, Avraham

    2012-09-01

    Research implicates frontostriatal pathophysiology in both attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Nevertheless, ADHD is characterized with frontostriatal hypoactivity and OCD with hyperactivity. Furthermore, both disorders seem to lie on opposite ends of a clinical impulsive-compulsive continuum. While never having directly been compared, and despite these differences, OCD and ADHD appear to share similar neuropsychological impairments especially in executive functions. This study aimed at comparing adults with OCD and adults with ADHD on neuropsychological measures and behavioural impulsivity and OC measures. Thirty OCD, 30 ADHD, and 30 matched healthy control (HC) participants were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and completed several questionnaires. The groups were compared on all neuropsychological and clinical measures and correlations between neuropsychological and clinical symptoms were computed. The ADHD and OCD groups performed more poorly than HC on all neuropsychological domains and most domain subtests. The ADHD group reported significantly higher impulsivity than the OCD group. OCD patients did not differ from HC on behavioural impulsivity. A unique dissociation was found between impulsivity and response inhibition where both clinical groups showed similar response inhibition deficit, but differed significantly on impulsivity. Moreover, a negative association between OC symptoms and response inhibition and a bias in self-perception of impulsivity was found only in the OCD group. We propose an executive overload model of OCD that views neuropsychological impairments in OCD as an epiphenomenon, according to which continuous attempts to control automatic processes are associated with obsessive thoughts overflow that causes an overload on the executive system.

  15. Japanese Version of Home Form of the ADHD-RS: An Evaluation of Its Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tani, Iori; Okada, Ryo; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Nakajima, Shunji; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2010-01-01

    Using the Japanese version of home form of the ADHD-RS, this survey attempted to compare the scores between the US and Japan and examined the correlates of ADHD-RS. We collected responses from parents or rearers of 5977 children (3119 males and 2858 females) in nursery, elementary, and lower-secondary schools. A confirmed factor analysis of…

  16. Working Memory and Response Inhibition as One Integral Phenotype of Adult ADHD? A Behavioral and Imaging Correlational Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schecklmann, Martin; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Plichta, Michael M.; Dresler, Thomas; Heine, Monika; Boreatti-Hummer, Andrea; Romanos, Marcel; Jacob, Christian; Pauli, Paul; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is an open question whether working memory (WM) and response inhibition (RI) constitute one integral phenotype in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The authors investigated 45 adult ADHD patients and 41 controls comparable for age, gender, intelligence, and education during a letter n-back and a stop-signal…

  17. Comorbidity/Overlapping between ADHD and PTSD in Relation to IQ among Children of Traumatized/Non-Traumatized Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daud, Atia; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study explores the comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and PTSD in relation to IQ among refugee children of traumatized parents (TP) and non-traumatized parents (NTP). Method: The study compares 80 refugee children, 40 with TP with 40 with NTP. ADHD and PTSD are assessed using DICA. Children's cognitive functions are measured by…

  18. Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

  19. Implications of Extending the ADHD Age-of-Onset Criterion to Age 12: Results from a Prospectively Studied Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Kollins, Scott H.; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether including children with onset of symptoms between ages 7 and 12 years in the ADHD diagnostic category would: (a) increase the prevalence of the disorder at age 12, and (b) change the clinical and cognitive features, impairment profile, and risk factors for ADHD compared with findings in the literature based on the…

  20. Head Start Children with a Putative Diagnosis of ADHD: A Four-Year Follow-Up of Special Education Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redden, Sandra Cluett; Forness, Steven R.; Ramey, Craig T.; Ramey, Sharon L.; Brezausek, Carl M.; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    A study compared 422 Head Start children with a putative diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with typical Head Start children from kindergarten through third grade. Children with putative ADHD who had received medications were significantly more likely to be found eligible for special education than non-medicated children.…